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Sample records for lehigh valley pennsylvania

  1. 75 FR 29975 - Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 272; Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1679] Expansion of Foreign-Trade Zone 272; Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the Board) adopts the...

  2. 75 FR 15679 - Foreign-Trade Zone 272-Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania Application for Subzone Grundfos Pumps...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Valley, Pennsylvania Application for Subzone Grundfos Pumps Manufacturing Corporation (Multi-Stage Centrifugal Pumps); Allentown, PA An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones Board (the...-purpose subzone status for the multi-stage centrifugal pump manufacturing facility of Grundfos Pumps...

  3. Impacts of Climate Change at Watershed Scale: Creating an Ecological Basis for "Smart Growth" and Economic Development in the Post-industrial Lehigh Valley of Eastern PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, B.; Felzer, B.; Pazzaglia, F.; Sahagian, D.

    2009-05-01

    As modeling of global climate change matures and regional projections regarding regional variability become viable, the scales of climate impact analysis and regional decision-making begin to converge. This convergence provides a critical new challenge for both the climate modeling and policy communities- "How can projected climate change insights at watershed scale most effectively inform decisions regarding land use, zoning, and growth management?" This issue is particularly critical in regions that were formerly heavily industrialized and developed, and that are now finding new avenues for economic growth in the wake of massive clear-cutting, mining, and heavy industry of the 19th and 20th centuries. The Lehigh Valley is a watershed defining a single ecosystem that contains 800,000 people, 321 square miles of croplands and 95 square miles of urban areas, with the remainder of the watershed at various successional stages after massive forest clear-cutting of the last two centuries. Many of the industries that fueled the industrial revolution were based in the Lehigh Valley, and their development came at an environmental cost that was not then recognized, but that left a legacy of mine-scarred lands, acid mine drained streams, soil and water contamination, and a derelict industrial infrastructure that state and local governments have only recently begun to address. Before these institutions can plan for redevelopment of brownfields, regional planning for housing and commercial development, and preservation of forested and agricultural lands, it is first necessary to understand the impacts of climate change on watershed hydrology, productivity, and other ecosystems functions, and to provide this information to decision-makers responsible for environmentally sustainable development and regional planning. "Smart Growth" has become a catch phrase for regional development that is sensitive to social, economic, political, and historical goals, as well as ecological

  4. Building community while complying with the Affordable Care Act in the Lehigh Valley of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, A Lanethea; Coyle, Bonnie S; Deegan, Michele Moser

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires nonprofit hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments (CHNA) every 3 years. Best practices for CHNAs are still emerging and, along with growing economic pressures, contribute to uncertainty about the short- and long-term costs hospitals will face as a result of the ACA. This article describes a community-based partnership coordinated by a nonprofit hospital and a consortium of academic institutions as a model for conducting a CHNA. Similar partnerships offer key advantages in complying with the ACA: local academic institutions are existing stakeholders in the community--they possess research expertise and have a vested interested in shaping implementation strategies to improve health; the process of collaborating itself helps to generate community resources, conceive of community health as a shared and iterative enterprise, and mobilize community partners in supporting long-term health priorities. No CHNA is ever perfect, but there are compelling reasons for nonprofit hospitals to seek community-based partnerships, not only because such partnerships comply with the law but, more importantly, because they hold great promise for linking the CHNA process and results to the health realities of local communities, ultimately bolstering community engagement while creating shared health priorities.

  5. A Case Study on Collaboration: Sharing the Responsibility of Economic Development in Juniata Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shakoor A.; Clark, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the need and importance of the community college's role in economic development, this article takes a closer look at how collaboration in the Juniata Valley of Pennsylvania between Industrial Development Corporations (IDCs) of Mifflin and Juniata counties, career and technical centers, and other agencies is…

  6. Variable Transport of Fluorescent Tracers to Springs of Mantled Karst in the Great Valley of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, T. M.; Brookhart, A.; Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.; Feeney, T. P.

    2006-05-01

    Karst springs of south-central Pennsylvania support productive wild fisheries, trout hatcheries, and water supplies, and typically exhibit characteristics of diffuse flow systems. Dye traces are not documented for the region, resulting in uncertainty in both groundwater flow and in potential for runoff contamination. Surface drainages in this part of the Great Valley include the Yellow Breeches and Conodoguinet creeks, each flowing east and north to the Susquehanna. Big Spring, the focus of this study, flows at an average of 868 l/s and northward across the Great Valley to the Conodoguinet. Temperature is relatively constant at 10-11 degrees C, with turbidity typically valley from the Yellow Breeches watershed, but rather was weakly detected one month later 9.5 km to the east at springs of Huntsdale state fish hatchery. Neither dye was detected in springs bracketing Big Spring to the west and east, including a second contributing east spring that serves as water supply. Major springs are fed by separate, regional flow systems along strike, and may receive rapid, regional transport of surface runoff from sinkholes where the colluvial mantle thins. Background fluorescence of spring and well waters is also being analyzed, with particular focus on organic acids from forested source waters and human or animal waste from valley sources.

  7. A model of late quaternary landscape development in the Delaware Valley, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, J.C.; Evenson, E.B.; Sevon, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the Delaware Valley of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania the late Quaternary history of colluviation, fluvial adjustment, and soil formation is based on the ages of pre-Wisconsinan soils and glacial deposits which are indicated by feld relationships and inferred from mid-latitude climate changes indicated by marine oxygen-isotope records. The area is divided into four terranes characterized by sandstone, gneiss, slate and carbonate rocks. Since the last pre-Wisconsinan glaciation (> 130 ka, inferred to be late Illinoian), each terrane responded differently to chemical and mechanical weathering. During the Sangamon interglacial stage (??? 130-75 ka) in situ weathering is inferred to have occurred at rates greater than transportation of material which resulted in the formation of deep, highly weathered soil and saprolite, and dissolution of carbonate rocks. Cold climatic conditions during the Wisconsinan, on the other hand, induced erosion of the landscape at rates faster than soil development. Upland erosion during the Wisconsinan removed pre-Wisconsinan soil and glacial sediment and bedrock to produce muddy to blocky colluvium, gre??zes lite??es, and alluvial fans on footslopes. Fluvial gravel and overlying colluvium in the Delaware Valley, both buried by late Wisconsinan outwash, are inferred to represent episodes of early and middle Wisconsinan (??? 75-25 ka) upland erosion and river aggradiation followed by river degradation and colluvium deposition. Early-middle Wisconsinan colluvium is more voluminous than later colluvium despite colder, possibly permafrost conditions during the late Wisconsinan ??? 25-10 ka). Extensive colluviation during the early and middle Wisconsinan resulted from a longer (50 kyr), generally cold interval of erosion with a greater availability of easily eroded pre-Wisconsinan surficial materials on uplands than during the late Wisconsinan. After recession of late Wisconsinan ice from its terminal position, soil formation and

  8. Hydrogeology and water quality of the West Valley Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, L.A.; Sloto, R.A.; Reif, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The West Valley Creek Basin drains 20.9 square miles in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of southeastern Pennsylvania and is partly underlain by carbonate rocks that are highly productive aquifers. The basin is undergoing rapid urbanization that includes changes in land use and increases in demand for public water supply and wastewater disposal. Ground water is the sole source of supply in the basin. West Valley Creek flows southwest in a 1.5-mile-wide valley that is underlain by folded and faulted carbonate rocks and trends east-northeast, parallel to regional geologic structures. The valley is flanked by hills underlain by quartzite and gneiss to the north and by phyllite and schist to the south. Surface water and ground water flow from the hills toward the center of the valley. Ground water in the valley flows west-southwest parallel to the course of the stream. Seepage investigations identified losing reaches in the headwaters area where streams are underlain by carbonate rocks and gaining reaches downstream. Tributaries contribute about 75 percent of streamflow. The ground-water and surface-water divides do not coincide in the carbonate valley. The ground-water divide is about 0.5 miles west of the surface-water divide at the eastern edge of the carbonate valley. Underflow to the east is about 1.1 inches per year. Quarry dewatering operations at the western edge of the valley may act partly as an artificial basin boundary, preventing underflow to the west. Water budgets for 1990, a year of normal precipitation (45.8 inches), and 1991, a year of sub-normal precipitation (41.5 inches), were calculated. Streamflow was 14.61 inches in 1990 and 12.08 inches in 1991. Evapotranspiration was estimated to range from 50 to 60 percent of precipitation. Base flow was about 62 percent of streamflow in both years. Exportation by sewer systems was about 3 inches from the basin and, at times, equaled base flow during the dry autumn of 1991. Recharge was estimated to be 18

  9. An inventory of suspended sediment stations and type of data analysis for Pennsylvania streams, 1947-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Arthur N.; Commings, Allen B.

    1972-01-01

    Data concerning suspended sediment concentrations and loads, frequency of occurrence of suspended sediment concentrations, and long-term trends of annual suspended sediment loads are important tools for today's environmental manager. These data are required background for those concerned with establishing and enforcing erosion and sedimentation control regulations and sediment concentration or turbidity standards for water-quality criteria, or those concerned with designing for adequate long-term water storage in reservoirs (sediment load), for efficient municipal and industrial plant operation (sediment concentration frequency), etc.This is a compilation of the location, period of record, sampling frequency and type of data synthesis for suspended sediment carried by Pennsylvania streams. Figures 1 and 2 show the approximate locations of sediment sampling stations in Pennsylvania. All of the sediment data listed were collected by the U. S. Geological Survey mainly in cooperation with the following Federal, State, and local agencies.Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources     Bureau of Engineering and Construction     Soil and Water Conservation CommissionPennsylvania Department of TransportationCity of PhiladelphiaBrandywine Valley AssociationDelaware Geological SurveyConestoga Valley AssociationLehigh County Soil and Water Conservation DistrictCorps of Engineers, U. S. Army

  10. Operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2, Docket No. 50-412, Beaver County, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The final environmental impact statement (EPA No. 850438F) assesses the effects of operating a pressurized water reactor in Pennsylvania on the south bank of the Ohio River, which would serve as the final heat sink for the cooling system. Operation of Unit 2 would add 836 MW of capacity and increase system reliability. The plant would employ 465 at an $18 million payroll. Facilities for the plant would take up 56 acres of agricultural land. The operation result in both water and noise pollution. There is only a small probability of impacts due to potential radiation exposure. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 and Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulations require the impact statement

  11. Fire Regimes of Remnant Pitch Pine Communities in the Ridge and Valley Region of Central Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Marschall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fire-adapted ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. are converting to fire-intolerant vegetation communities due to fire suppression in the 20th century. Prescribed fire and other vegetation management activities that increase resilience and resistance to global changes are increasingly being implemented, particularly on public lands. For many fire-dependent communities, there is little quantitative data describing historical fire regime attributes such as frequency, severity, and seasonality, or how these varied through time. Where available, fire-scarred live and remnant trees, including stumps and snags, offer valuable insights into historical fire regimes through tree-ring and fire-scar analyses. In this study, we dated fire scars from 66 trees at two sites in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania, and described fire frequency, severity, and seasonality from the mid-17th century to 2013. Fires were historically frequent, of low to moderate severity, occurred mostly during the dormant season, and were influenced by aspect and topography. The current extended fire-free interval is unprecedented in the previous 250–300 years at both sites.

  12. Development of an Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Bioengineering Program at Lehigh University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Lori; Russo, M. Jean; Ou-Yang, H. Daniel; El-Aasser, Mohamed; Jagota, Anand; Tatic-Lucic, Svetlana; Ochs, John

    2011-01-01

    The undergraduate Bioengineering Program at Lehigh University was established as part of the university's Bioscience and Biotechnology Initiative with support from the National Science Foundation through a grant from its Division of Engineering Education and Centers (EEC). The objective here is to describe the program development and…

  13. Hydrogeology of, and simulation of ground-water flow in a mantled carbonate-rock system, Cumberland Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study in a highly productive and complex regolith-mantled carbonate valley in the northeastern part of the Cumberland Valley, Pa., as part of its Appalachian Valleys and Piedmont Regional Aquifer-system Analysis program. The study was designed to quantify the hydrogeologic characteristics and understand the ground-water flow system of a highly productive and complex thickly mantled carbonate valley. The Cumberland Valley is characterized by complexly folded and faulted carbonate bedrock in the valley bottom, by shale and graywacke to the north, and by red-sedimentary and diabase rocks in the east-southeast. Near the southern valley hillslope, the carbonate rock is overlain by wedge-shaped deposit of regolith, up to 450 feet thick, that is composed of residual material, alluvium, and colluvium. Locally, saturated regolith is greater than 200 feet thick. Seepage-run data indicate that stream reaches, near valley walls, are losing water from the stream, through the regolith, to the ground-water system. Results of hydrograph-separation analyses indicate that base flow in stream basins dominated by regolith-mantled carbonate rock, carbonate rock, and carbonate rock and shale are 81.6, 93.0, and 67.7 percent of total streamflow, respectively. The relative high percentage for the regolith-mantled carbonate-rock basin indicates that the regolith stores precipitation and slowly, steadily releases this water to the carbonate-rock aquifer and to streams as base flow. Anomalies in water-table gradients and configuration are a result of topography and differences in the character and distribution of overburden material, permeability, rock type, and geologic structure. Most ground-water flow is local, and ground water discharges to nearby springs and streams. Regional flow is northeastward to the Susquehanna River. Average-annual water budgets were calculated for the period of record from two continuous streamflow-gaging stations. Average

  14. Lehigh River Basin, Trexler Lake, Jordan Creek, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    changes and associated effects occasioned by the project which have significant impact upon the environment. As these impacts can best he analyzed in...should effectively control rough fish populations, which would otherwise overpopulate the lake. Considerati on 1 .711 b given to the introduction of... impacts discussed in Section 3, only the following involvei adverse effects which cannot be mitigated or avoided with the project as now formulated. (1

  15. Pennsylvania's Rural Homeless Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Rural Pennsylvania, Harrisburg.

    The Center for Rural Pennsylvania analyzed data from the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare concerning rural homelessness for fiscal years 1997 through 1999. Findings indicate that rural Pennsylvania has a homeless population and it is growing. In 1999, more than 21,700 clients received homeless assistance in rural areas, 44 percent of whom…

  16. Groundwater quality and simulation of sources of water to wells in the Marsh Creek valley at the U.S. Geological Survey Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory, Tioga County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.; Breen, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a November 2010 snapshot of groundwater quality and an analysis of the sources of water to wells at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Northern Appalachian Research Laboratory (NARL) near Wellsboro, Pennsylvania. The laboratory, which conducts fisheries research, currently (2011) withdraws 1,000 gallons per minute of high-quality groundwater from three wells completed in the glacial sand and gravel aquifer beneath the Marsh Creek valley; a fourth well that taps the same aquifer provides the potable supply for the facility. The study was conducted to document the source areas and quality of the water supply for this Department of Interior facility, which is surrounded by the ongoing development of natural gas from the Marcellus Shale. Groundwater samples were collected from the four wells used by the NARL and from two nearby domestic-supply wells. The domestic-supply wells withdraw groundwater from bedrock of the Catskill Formation. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radiochemicals, dissolved gases, and stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in water and carbon in dissolved carbonate to document groundwater quality. Organic constituents (other than hydrocarbon gases) associated with hydraulic fracturing and other human activities were not analyzed as part of this assessment. Results show low concentrations of all constituents. Only radon, which ranged from 980 to 1,310 picocuries per liter, was somewhat elevated. These findings are consistent with the pristine nature of the aquifer in the Marsh Creek valley, which is the reason the laboratory was sited at this location. The sources of water and areas contributing recharge to wells were identified by the use of a previously documented MODFLOW groundwater-flow model for the following conditions: (1) withdrawals of 1,000 to 3,000 gallons per minute from the NARL wells, (2) average or dry hydrologic conditions, and (3) withdrawals of 1,000 gallons per minute from a new

  17. 77 FR 34297 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley Nonattainment Area... Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) nonattainment area (hereafter referred to as ``the... designations process. The Pittsburgh Area is comprised of the counties of Beaver, Butler, Washington, and...

  18. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  19. Pennsylvania's partnering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Pennsylvania is committed to finding a site for a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal facility through an innovative voluntary process. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. (CNSI) developed the Community Partnering Plan with extensive public participation. The Community Partnering Plan outlines a voluntary process that empowers municipalities to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of hosting the facility. DEP and CNSI began developing the Community Partnering Plan in July 1995. Before then, CNSI was using a screening process prescribed by state law and regulations to find a location for the facility. So far, approximately 78 percent of the Commonwealth has been identified as disqualified as a site for the LLRW disposal facility. The siting effort will now focus on identifying volunteer host municipalities in the remaining 22 percent of the state. This combination of technical screening and voluntary consideration makes Pennsylvania's process unique. A volunteered site will have to meet the same tough requirements for protecting people and the environment as a site chosen through the screening process. Protection of public health and safety continues to be the foundation of the state's siting efforts. The Community Partnering Plan offers a window of opportunity. If Pennsylvania does not find volunteer municipalities with suitable sites by the end of 1997, it probably will return to a technical screening process

  20. Pennsylvania's Forests, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Doug Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Paul Roth; Rachel Riemann; James A. Westfall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Pennsylvania's forests reports a stable base of 16.7 million acres of forest land. Northern hardwoods and mixed-oak forest-type groups account for 54 and 32 percent of the forest land, respectively. The State's forest land averages about 61 dry tons of wood per acre and almost 6,500 board feet (International ¼-inch...

  1. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil ... from person to person. Anyone can get Valley Fever. But it's most common among older adults, especially ...

  2. Timber management opportunities in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster

    1960-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters serves the people in managing state forest lands and in helping private owners manage their forest lands. To produce more timber from Pennsylvania forests, the Department applies many different forestry practices. But the more effort it spends in one direction, the less it can spend in others. So the Department must...

  3. Human Development across the Lifespan. A Pilot Intergenerational Project in Three Pennsylvania School Districts. Final Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher R.; Balavage, Valerie

    An evaluation determined the impact on participants of pilot intergenerational programs in the Central Greene, Quaker Valley, and Titusville school districts in western Pennsylvania. It examined how participation in project activities changed students' attitudes about older adults and aging. A four-part questionnaire consisted of the following:…

  4. 77 FR 62147 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pittsburgh-Beaver Valley Nonattainment Area... (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is making two determinations regarding the Pittsburgh- Beaver... 12.7 Collocated Armstrong 42-005-0001 Kittaning......... 11.0 13.2 12.1 12.1 Incomplete \\2\\ Beaver 42...

  5. Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss Headache Valley fever Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  6. Risk factors for first-time homelessness in low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Erika R; Kass, Philip H; Drake, Christiana M; Nichols, Sara B

    2007-01-01

    Determinants of first-time homelessness were evaluated in Sacramento, California and Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania. First-time homeless women had more cumulative risks for homelessness than low-income never-homeless women, even with the putative advantage of higher levels of education. Solutions to homelessness should address more than one dimension of risk.

  7. Reporting on Radon: The Role of Local Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, James F.; And Others

    Noting that past local media coverage of environmental topics, including those dealing with radiation topics, has often been superficial, a study assessed press coverage of the radon problem in the Lehigh Valley region of Pennsylvania during the first nine months of 1985. The study explored whether local media coverage of radon--a colorless,…

  8. 75 FR 21371 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12121 and 12122] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00031 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  9. Allegheny County Pennsylvania Senate District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania Senate district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  10. Curriculum Preparation for Adulthood: A Course for High School Seniors. Pennsylvania Cooperative Extension Studies 66, November 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiker, Nancy R.

    Resulting from a survey of two past graduating classes (1967 and 1972) and teacher involvement, this curriculum guide for seniors in the Pequea Valley School District (a rurally conservative area comprised mainly of an Amish and Mennonite population in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania) constitutes the home economics component of a joint effort on…

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Pennsylvania single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. Pennsylvania Industrial Arts Safety Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoudt, John Y., Ed.; And Others

    Safety education information is provided in this guide designed for Pennsylvania industrial arts teachers. Twelve sections and section topics include the following: introduction (policy statement on safety); responsibility (school board and superintendent, principal and/or department head, the teacher); emergency action (primary concerns,…

  13. Local Tax Reform in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    This report reviews local tax reform and describes an approach to simulating the effects of proposed tax reform on local school districts in Pennsylvania. The microcomputer spreadsheet simulation led to the development of a model able to meet the feasibility criteria established for such a simulation model. The model was designed to input…

  14. Evaluation of Methane Sources in Groundwater in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters—indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbon gases in the Dimock Township suggest that gases present in local water wells are most consistent with Middle and Upper Devonian gases sampled in the annular spaces of local gas wells, as opposed to Marcellus Production gas. Combined, these findings suggest that the methane concentrations in Susquehanna County water wells can be explained without the migration of Marcellus shale gas through fractures, an observation that has important implications for understanding the nature of risks associated with shale-gas extraction. PMID:23560830

  15. Drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    from Chester and Montgomery Counties because those counties have well-construction regulations that identify wells that failed during drought. The locations of drought-affected wells in Chester and Montgomery Counties indicated the most highly sensitive settings are uplands and slopes in aquifers with high WTD index and uplands in aquifers with moderate WTD index. The least sensitive settings are in aquifers with low WTD index, in valleys, or on slopes. A map was developed showing the relative drought sensitivity (low, moderate, and high) of aquifers in southeastern Pennsylvania. Study results were limited by the inability to obtain much information about the location of drought-affected wells, with the exception of Montgomery and Chester Counties. Also, the construction characteristics (particularly depth) of drought-affected wells generally were not available. Well depth could be used to distinguish between problems caused by shallow well depth (generally less than 100 ft) and those caused by deficiency of the aquifer to supply water. With the exception of owner-derived information from a public survey on drought-affected wells (35 wells), depth data were not obtained. Data from the 35 drought-affected wells indicated most were drilled (not dug) and were completed to depths greater than 100 feet. This finding indicates that the affects of recent droughts in southeastern Pennsylvania were not restricted to shallow dug wells, but also affected deeper drilled wells.

  16. 76 FR 58327 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR), dated 09/ 12...

  17. 76 FR 30749 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00038

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12594 and 12595] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 05/18/2011. Incident...

  18. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13307 and 13308] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident...

  19. 77 FR 65044 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13346 and 13347] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident...

  20. 76 FR 44646 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12697 and 12698] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  1. 78 FR 4967 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13463 and 13464] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of Pennsylvania (FEMA...

  2. 78 FR 52600 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00063

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13722 and 13723] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00063 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Severe...

  3. 76 FR 58328 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12820 and 12821] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4025-DR), dated 09/ 12...

  4. 78 FR 45282 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00058

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13669 and 13670] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 07/16/2013. Incident: Severe...

  5. 76 FR 5647 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12449 and 12450] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident...

  6. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13777 and 13778] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/24/2013. Incident: Storms...

  7. 78 FR 62000 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-10

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13790 and 13791] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  8. 75 FR 71486 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12389 and 12390] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 11/15/2010. Incident: Severe...

  9. 78 FR 47814 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00059

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13676 and 13677] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00059 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of PENNSYLVANIA dated 07/29/2013. Incident: Severe...

  10. 75 FR 2165 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12002 and 12003] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident...

  11. 76 FR 56861 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12807 and 12808] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  12. 76 FR 64419 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00045

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12879 and 12880] Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  13. The forest-land owners of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Donald F. Dennis

    1980-01-01

    Seventy-eight percent of Pennsylvania's 15.9 million acres of commercial forest land is in the hands of 490,100 private owners. Landowner information is, therefore, an essential component in obtaining a thorough understanding of Pennsylvania's forest resources. Eighty-six percent of these owners are individuals. A large majority, 63 percent of these owners,...

  14. Pennsylvania's experience in mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    A policy statement issued in 1972 by the Assistant Secretary for Health and Scientific Affairs of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare recommended that community chest x-ray surveys should not be used as a screening procedure for the detection of cardiopulmonary disorders and that when chest x-ray screening programs are justified for selected population groups, the full size photograph, rather than the miniature film, is preferred. A survey conducted in 1974--75 revealed that chest x rays were required for prisoners, prison employees, school employees, food handlers, and students who wished to participate in sports. Meetings were held with medical associations in the hope of stopping the local mass-screening operations. Of 27 groups in Pennsylvania involved in tuberculosis screening, 12 groups refused or were unwilling to phase out their photofluorographic procedures. The problem will be resolved by regulation

  15. Pennsylvania safe routes to school program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    In October 2007, the Center for Nutrition and Activity promotion at Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital (Center) began working under contract with the Pennsylvania Deaprtment of Transportation )PennDOT) to develop, coordinate, and administer the n...

  16. 78 FR 13002 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... finance the costs of review of the applications. Further, Pennsylvania proposes to increase the permit..., and coal mining activity facilities will be deposited in the Surface Mining Conservation and...

  17. Water resources of the Pittsburgh area, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noecker, Max; Greenman, D.W.; Beamer, N.H.

    1954-01-01

    Pennsylvania. On the average about 63 mgd was pumped from the ground, not including 1.5 mgd pumped for air conditioning. Most of the present-day wells in the "Triangle area" of Pittsburgh have large yields and many operate continuously throughout the summer. The result has been a marked seasonal decline in water levels in some parts of the Triangle area, especially near the center of pumping. It appears that the maximum rate of summertime use has been reached in this localized area. Water from wells near rivers often has chemical characteristics similar to those of water from the adjacent stream because the well water is supplied largely by river infiltration. The ground water in the Pittsburgh area is generally more highly mineralized than surface water, harder, and contains higher concentrations of iron and manganese, all the result of solution of aquifer minerals by the water during its passage through the ground. Nevertheless, ground water commonly is less corrosive than surface water, contains little or no suspended sediment, and is free of pathogenic bacteria. Both sediment and bacteria are present in considerable quantities in the river water of this area. Water from wells supplied largely by river infiltration may have a temperature variation throughout a year of as much as 30 to 35 F and a variation in hardness of as much as 130 ppm. Certain types of chemicals having objectionable tastes and odors are not always removed by the natural infiltration of the river water to wells but pathogenic bacteria and sediment are. There is only a small range throughout a year in the temperature and chemical quality of water in individual wells farther from the rivers. Such water is generally harder and contains more dissolved solids than water supplied by river infiltration. There is no immediate likelihood of a shortage of water in the area. Present withdrawals of surface water are spread throughout the major river valleys so that the water returned to the stream after use is

  18. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology, University of... of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains in..., University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, 3260 South...

  19. Results of 2008-2009 Pennsylvania wood destroying insect survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sven-Erik. Spichiger

    2011-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (DOA) participates in a variety of insect surveys each year to detect new and potentially invasive species affecting plants in Pennsylvania. Surveys are carried out by seasonal survey crews, permanent DOA staff, and cooperating agencies.

  20. Pennsylvania Department of Transportation's Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportations (PennDOT) Local Technical Assistance Program : (LTAP) was awarded to the Pennsylvania State Association of Township Supervisors (PSATS), with the : contract start date of December 1, 2005. PSATS led t...

  1. U. S. Geological Survey programs in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is involved in mapping and studying land, mineral, biological, and water resources and determining the risk from earthquakes and other natural hazards, which are of importance to the citizens of Pennsylvania. This Fact Sheet describes how the USGS is addressing some of the major environmental issues in Pennsylvania, which include availability of mineral resources; contamination of the environment by hazardous wastes; effects of coal mining, oil and gas production, and agriculture on the environment; nutrient input to streams and estuaries; and adequacy of good-quality water supplies. Information on acquiring the thousands of map, book, and aerial photographic products of the USGS also is given.

  2. Enriching the Curriculum with Pennsylvania German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    The German classroom should prepare students for the linguistic diversity of the target culture, including regional varieties and German spoken outside of the D-A-CH region. Because textbooks do not often include materials on regional varieties, this article presents a model to incorporate Pennsylvania German (PG) into the curriculum. The model…

  3. 77 FR 58975 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ] ACTION: Proposed rule... Citizens Coal Council and the Environmental Integrity Project. We are also notifying the public of the date...

  4. Tip Saves Energy, Money for Pennsylvania Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wastewater treatment plant in Berks County, Pennsylvania is saving nearly $45,000 a year and reducing hundreds of metric tons of greenhouse gases since employing an energy conservation tip offered by the Water Protection Division in EPA’s R3 and PADEP.

  5. Approaching K-12 Online Education in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadell, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how K-12 schools are addressing the need to accommodate online learners in Pennsylvania. It is built upon a review of literature focusing on educational legislation, the personalization of online learning and online learning solutions. The study posed 21 questions utilizing a mixed methods approach to…

  6. Haemoragisk Rift Valley Fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Thybo, Søren

    2007-01-01

    A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described.......A case of fatal hemorrhagic Rift Valley fever during an epidemic in Kenya's North Eastern Province in January 2007 is described....

  7. Evaluation and assessment of reflooding models in RELAP5/Mod2.5 and RELAP5/Mod3 codes using Lehigh University and PSI-Neptun bundle experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sencar, M.; Aksan, N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    An extensive analysis and assessment work on reflooding models of RELAP5/Mod2.5 and, RELAP5/Mod3/v5m5 and RELAP/Mod3/v7j have been performed. Experimental data from LehighUniversityv. and PSI-NEPTUN bundle reflooding experiments have been used for the assessment, since both of these tests cover a broad range of initial conditions. Within the range of these initial conditions, it was tried to identify their separate impacts on the calculated results. A total of six Lehigh University reflooding bundle tests and two PSI-NEPTUN tests with bounding initial conditions are selected for the analysis. Detailed nodalisation studies both for hydraulic and conduction heat transfer were done. On the basis of the results obtained from these cases, a base nodalisation scheme was established. All the other analysis work was performed by using this base nodalisation. RELAP5/Mod2.5 results do not change with renodalisation but RELAP5/Mod3 results are more sensitive to renodalisation. The results of RELAP5/Mod2.5 versions show very large deviations from the used experimental data. These results indicate that some of the phenomenology of the events occurring during the reflooding could not be identified. In the paper, detailed discussions on the main reasons of the deviations from the experimental data will be presented. Since, the results and findings of this study are meant to be a developmental aid, some recommendations have been drawn and some of these have already been implemented at PSI with promising results.

  8. Ground-water-quality data in Pennsylvania: A compilation of computerized [electronic] databases, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Chichester, Douglas C.

    2006-01-01

    This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP), provides a compilation of ground-water-quality data for a 25-year period (January 1, 1979, through August 11, 2004) based on water samples from wells. The data are from eight source agencies唯orough of Carroll Valley, Chester County Health Department, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection-Ambient and Fixed Station Network, Montgomery County Health Department, Pennsylvania Drinking Water Information System, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The ground-water-quality data from the different source agencies varied in type and number of analyses; however, the analyses are represented by 12 major analyte groups:biological (bacteria and viruses), fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, major ions, minor ions (including trace elements), nutrients (dominantly nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen), pesticides, radiochemicals (dominantly radon or radium), volatile organic compounds, wastewater compounds, and water characteristics (dominantly field pH, field specific conductance, and hardness).A summary map shows the areal distribution of wells with ground-water-quality data statewide and by major watersheds and source agency. Maps of 35 watersheds within Pennsylvania are used to display the areal distribution of water-quality information. Additional maps emphasize the areal distribution with respect to 13 major geolithologic units in Pennsylvania and concentration ranges of nitrate (as nitrogen). Summary data tables by source agency provide information on the number of wells and samples collected for each of the 35 watersheds and analyte groups. The number of wells sampled for ground-water-quality data varies considerably across Pennsylvania. Of the 8,012 wells sampled, the greatest concentration of wells are in the southeast (Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware

  9. Perceptions of Emergency Department Crowding in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pines, Jesse M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The state of emergency department (ED crowding in Pennsylvania has not previously been reported.Methods: We assessed perceptions of ED crowding by surveying medical directors/chairs from Pennsylvania EDs in the spring of 2008.Results: A total of 106 completed the questionnaire (68% response rate. A total of 83% (86/104 agreed that ED crowding was a problem; 26% (27/105 reported that at least half of admitted patients boarded for more than 4 hours. Ninety-eight percent (102/104 agreed that patient satisfaction suffers during crowding and 79% (84/106 stated that quality suffers. Sixty-five percent (68/105 reported that crowding had worsened during the past 2 years. Several hospital interventions were used to alleviate crowding: expediting discharges, 81% (86/106; prioritizing ED patients for inpatient beds, 79% (84/ 106; and ambulance diversion, 55% (57/105. Almost all respondents who had improved ED operations reported that it had reduced crowding.Conclusion: ED crowding is a common problem in Pennsylvania and is worsening in the majority of hospitals, despite the implementation of a variety of interventions. [West J EmergMed. 2013;14(1:1–10.

  10. 78 FR 28779 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All... sources in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. Because FEMA has or [[Page 28780

  11. 76 FR 28072 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park... in the possession of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology... remains was made by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology professional staff...

  12. Meltwater channel scars and the extent of Mid-Pleistocene glaciation in central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Ben

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution digital topographic data permit morphological analyses of glacial processes in detail that was previously infeasible. High-level glaciofluvial erosional scars in central Pennsylvania, identified and delimited using LiDAR data, define the approximate ice depth during a pre-Wisconsin advance, > 770,000 BP, on a landscape unaffected by Wisconsin glaciation. Distinctive scars on the prows of anticlinal ridges at 175-350 m above the valley floor locate the levels of subice meltwater channels. A two-component planar GIS model of the ice surface is derived using these features and intersected with a digital model of contemporary topography to create a glacial limit map. The map is compared to published maps, demonstrating the limits of conventional sediment-based mapping. Additional distinctive meltwater features that were cut during deglaciation are modeled in a similar fashion.

  13. 76 FR 68803 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA...

  14. 76 FR 70527 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00042

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12820 and 12821] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4025-DR...

  15. 76 FR 70528 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 4. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR...

  16. 76 FR 66110 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA...

  17. 76 FR 61130 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12822 and 12823] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA...

  18. Pennsylvania's Public School Students: Caught in the Tide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leann R.

    State and national data were used to examine whether Pennsylvania students are part of a national trend of decreasing higher achievers' scores and declining higher order skills. Data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports and the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) were examined. Analysis indicated that…

  19. An Analysis of Teacher Selection Tools in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Tracy L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teacher screening and selection tools currently being utilized by public school districts in Pennsylvania and to compare these tools to the research on qualities of effective teachers. The researcher developed four research questions that guided her study. The Pennsylvania Association of School Personnel…

  20. 78 FR 5475 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... Pennsylvania resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 26 to November 8, 2012, is of... Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Bedford, Bucks... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and...

  1. 76 FR 61728 - Pennsylvania; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Commonwealth of Pennsylvania resulting from Hurricane Irene during the period of August 26-30, 2011, is of... Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Chester... Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  2. Relationship between Prevailing Redox Conditions, Water Type, Topographic Location and Methane Concentrations in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, L. J.; McHugh, T. E.; Connor, J. A.; Richardson, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Historical occurrence of methane in residential water wells in parts of the Appalachian basin (Pennsylvania, New York, West Virginia) has long been recognized as a natural phenomenon. The recent increase in shale gas extraction activities in these areas has highlighted the need to distinguish between baseline methane concentrations and those that may results from gas extraction activities. For the first time, this study shows that natural dissolved methane in Northeastern Pennsylvania exhibits a relationship with prevailing redox conditions of groundwater, though this relationship is not entirely as predicted. Specifically, methane concentrations in 806 pre-drill samples from residential water wells in Susquehanna County, NE Pennsylvania, were found to be highest in samples with low SO4 concentrations but low Fe(II) concentrations. This is opposite from what would be expected if high methane concentrations were associated with a reduction of insoluble Fe(III)-minerals resulting in the release of soluble Fe(II) (and therefore, an increase in measurable dissolved iron). The water type (i.e., Na-rich vs. Ca-rich), and topographic location (i.e., valley vs. upland) was also evaluated for each of the prevailing redox states to identify associations and potential driving factors. Based on this information, this talk identifies a combination of easily identifiable natural environmental "risk" factors (i.e., advanced redox state, Na-rich water type, and valley setting) that are highly predictive of naturally elevated methane concentrations in water wells. These findings highlight simple and meaningful relationships that may be used to infer whether methane in residential water sources is natural or associated with stray gas migration.

  3. Technology evaluation: leukemia therapy, University of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, R M

    1999-06-01

    The University of Pennsylvania is developing an antisense oligonucleotide (AS ON) as a potential treatmentfor myelogenous leukemia. The 24-mer phosphorothioate (PS) ON targets the c-myb gene (codons 2 to 9), a regulator of transcription. In a pilot study, patient bone marrow was purged with the PS ON before being returned to the patient. In January 1997, it was reported that out of six evaluable patients, four demonstrated marked hematological remission with normalized white blood cell counts. A second phase I trial was initiated, in which myelogenous leukemia patients were treated with systemic infusions of the PS ON at doses of 0.3 to 2.0 mg/kg/dayfor 7 days. By January 1997, 18 patients had been treated, 12 showed stable disease and one patient in blast crisis experienced a transient reversal to the chronic phase of the disease. No dose-related toxicity was noted and c-myb mRNA and protein levels were halved. Preclinical studies in leukemic mice showed that the myb AS PS ON increased survival times 2- to 4-fold and reduced leukemic proliferation in the brain [229790]. The ON was originally developed and patented at Temple University and was being jointly developed by Lynx Therapeutics, however, this collaboration was terminated in 1996 [264351]. New phase I studies are starting in 1999, with INX-3001 (University of Pennsylvania c-myb AS PS) supported by the NIH and Inex Pharmaceuticals Corporation.

  4. Effect of Clouds on Sulfate Production and Aerosol Optical Depths in Western Pennsylvania During August 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, W. I.; Chapman, E. G.; Fast, J. D.

    2005-12-01

    A new comprehensive model is being applied to better understand the effect of clouds on sulfate aerosol production and the resultant change in aerosol optical depths (AODs) over western Pennsylvania during August 2004. The modeled period corresponds with a series of measurements made by the Department of Energy's G-1 aircraft and a suite of ground observations taken during the International Consortium of Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation Project (ICARTT). The model setup employs three two-way interacting grids with grid point spacings of 18, 6, and 2 km. The 2 km grid encompasses western Pennsylvania and portions of states to the south and west, including several coal-fired power plants along the Ohio River valley and southern Pennsylvania border. The 18 km grid encompasses a large portion of eastern North America. The purpose of this larger domain is to provide realistic chemical and aerosol boundary conditions to the interior grid and to allow transport from the interior grid to the surrounding region to study the local interactions of emissions from Pittsburgh and nearby power plants with clouds, and their impact on aerosol formation and transformation processes downwind of Pennsylvania. In addition to direct radiative feedbacks coupled to the MOSAIC sectional aerosol module in WRF-Chem, testing is currently underway on cloud-aerosol modules that have been implemented. They allow investigation of the aerosol indirect effect over multiple spatial scales, and consist of a nucleation routine for cloud droplets in the Lin et al. microphysics scheme, a process for performing aerosol phase transitions between interstitial and cloud phases, an aqueous chemistry scheme, and wet aerosol scavenging. Because of the frequency of clouds, the ICARTT campaign is a favorable candidate for testing new cloud-aerosol modules, particularly the aqueous-phase oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The model will be evaluated using measurements of lidar-based AODs as a

  5. Surficial geology and geomorphology of Potter County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, C.S.

    1956-01-01

    Potter County is located in the Appalachian Plateaus of north-central Pennsylvania and contains the headwaters of the Genesee River, the Allegheny River, and the Susquehanna River. Drift of Wisconsin age covers the northeastern part of the county. This study includes a detailed survev of the surficial deposits of the Genesee quadrangle in north-central Potter County and a reconnaissance of the remainder of the county; a soil survey and a botanical survey were carried on concurrently. The region is a deeply dissected plateau having extensive areas of steeply sloping land separated by narrow ridges and valleys; there is very little level land. Near the junction of the three watersheds the uplands rise to altitudes of more than 2,500 feet. The maximum relief in the Susquehanna drainage is more than 1,500 feet; in the Genesee and Allegheny drainage it. is about 800 feet. Valley walls are steep (15° to 30°), and the uplands have gentle slopes (0.5° to 10°). The drainage pattern is trellised. The climate is continental. Temperatures range from about -30° F. to more than 100° F. The average annual precipitation ranges approximately from 34 to 42 inches. Floods may occur at any season of the year. The large volumes of water from rain or melting snow carried by small streams come from springs. There is little precise data on frost in the ground, but it is probable that the ground seldom freezes in forested areas. The soils of Potter County have relatively immature profiles with poorly developed horizons that commonly have many characteristics inherited from their parent materials. At the great soil group level, the zonal soils are divided into Podzol soils and Brown Podzolic soils. Many soils have a high silt content in the upper part of the profile, apparently derived (at least partly) from a mantle of eolian silt. Mos~ of Potter County is covered by second-growth forests consisting of 40- to 60-year-old hardwood stands. The present forests growing on slopes and

  6. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  7. Breathing Valley Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    Dr. Duc Vugia, chief of the Infectious Diseases Branch in the California Department of Public Health, discusses Valley Fever.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/5/2014.

  8. Allegheny County Pennsylvania U.S. Legislative Congressional District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the U.S. Legislative Congressional district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania...

  9. Allegheny County Pennsylvania House of Representatives District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania House of Representatives district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western...

  10. Leaders' Perspectives on Rural Tourism: Case Studies in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Luloff, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Data from nearly 50 community leaders in 4 nonmetropolitan Pennsylvania counties show that both positive and negative impacts from tourism development were expected; local support was essential. Some feared that tourism was a threat to the rural atmosphere. (SK)

  11. Data Reports for Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page includes the data reports for sampling rounds collected in Northeastern Pennsylvania conducted as part of EPA's Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydrualic Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources

  12. Estimating the size of the hardwood sawmill industry in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul M. Smith; William G. Luppold; Sudipta Dasmohapatra

    2003-01-01

    The size of the hardwood sawmill industry in Pennsylvania in 1999 is estimated at 1.311 BBF by 556 mills. Study results show an 11 percent higher estimate of the volume of hardwood lumber produced and a 60 percent greater number of Pennsylvania sawmills in 1999 as compared to the 1.186 BBF of hardwood lumber by 339 sawmills estimated by the USDC Census Bureau for the...

  13. Rift Valley fever vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both human...

  14. Chemical quality of surface water in the Allegheny River basin, Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Edward F.

    1967-01-01

    The Allegheny River is the principal source of water to many industries and to communities in the upper Ohio River Valley. The river and its many tributaries pass through 19 counties in northwestern and western Pennsylvania. The population in these counties exceeds 3 million. A major user of the Allegheny River is the city of Pittsburgh, which has a population greater than The Allegheny River is as basic to the economy of the upper Ohio River Valley in western Pennsylvania as are the rich deposits of bituminous coal, gas, and oil that underlie the drainage basin. During the past 5 years many streams that flow into the Allegheny have been low flowing because of droughts affecting much of the eastern United States. Consequently, the concentration of solutes in some streams has been unusually high because of wastes from coal mines and oil wells. These and other water-quality problems in the Allegheny River drainage basin are affecting the economic future of some areas in western Pennsylvania. Because of environmental factors such as climate, geology, and land and water uses, surface-water quality varies considerably throughout the river basin. The natural quality of headwater streams, for example, is affected by saltwater wastes from petroleum production. One of the streams most affected is Kinzua Creek, which had 2,900 parts per million chloride in a sample taken at Westline on September 2, 1959. However, after such streams as the Conewango, Brokenstraw, Tionesta, Oil, and French Creeks merge with the Allegheny River, the dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations are reduced by dilution. Central segments of the main river receive water from the Clarion River, Redbank, Mahoning, and Crooked Creeks after they have crossed the coal fields of west-central Pennsylvania. At times, therefore, these streams carry coal-mine wastes that are acidic. The Kiskiminetas River, which crosses these coal fields, discharged sulfuric acid into the Allegheny at a rate of 299 tons a

  15. The California Valley grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Schoenherr, Allan A.

    1990-01-01

    Grasslands are distributed throughout California from Oregon to Baja California Norte and from the coast to the desert (Brown 1982) (Figure 1). This review will focus on the dominant formation in cismontane California, a community referred to as Valley Grassland (Munz 1959). Today, Valley Grassland is dominated by non-native annual grasses in genera such as Avena (wild oat), Bromus (brome grass), and Hordeum (barley), and is often referred to as the California annual grassland. On localized sites, native perennial bunchgrasses such as Stipa pultra (purple needle grass) may dominate and such sites are interpreted to be remnants of the pristine valley grassland. In northwestern California a floristically distinct formation of the Valley Grassland, known as Coast Prairie (Munz 1959) or Northern Coastal Grassland (Holland and Keil 1989) is recognized. The dominant grasses include many native perennial bunchgrasses in genera such as Agrostis, Calamagrostis, Danthonia, Deschampsia, Festuca, Koeleria and Poa (Heady et al. 1977). Non-native annuals do not dominate, but on some sites non-native perennials like Anthoxanthum odoratum may colonize the native grassland (Foin and Hektner 1986). Elevationally, California's grasslands extend from sea level to at leas 1500 m. The upper boundary is vague because montane grassland formations are commonly referred to as meadows; a community which Munz (1959) does not recognize. Holland and Keil (1989) describe the montane meadow as an azonal community; that is, a community restricted not so much to a particular climatic zone but rather controlled by substrate characteristics. They consider poor soil-drainage an over-riding factor in the development of montane meadows and, in contrast to grasslands, meadows often remain green through the summer drought. Floristically, meadows are composed of graminoids; Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and rhizomatous grasses such as Agropyron (wheat grass). Some bunchgrasses, such as Muhlenbergia rigens, are

  16. Making ITS/CVO happen : Pennsylvania's ITS/CVO business plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This business plan will be used to coordinate the deployment of CVO technologies in Pennsylvania. It provides a 'roadmap' for Pennsylvania's ITS/CVO program by defining broad goals and objectives, as well as specific projects, milestones, responsibil...

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  18. Evaluating Bicycle, Pedestrian, Transit and Economic Data Collection Needs and Measures of Effectiveness in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-06

    The purpose of this research project was to evaluate the current data collection procedures for bicycle and pedestrian projects utilized by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and Pennsylvania's Metropolitan Planning Organizations...

  19. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    University of Pennsylvania ajakirjas "The Pennsylvania Gazette" ilmunud artiklist "From Estonian Exile to Executive Office", autor Susan Frith - järjekordsest võimalusest tutvustada Eestit ja eestlasi USA ülikoolide kaudu

  20. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ..., Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity, Tsudis Chocolate Company (Chocolate Confectionery Bars), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania On December 4, 2012, Tsudis Chocolate Company, submitted a notification of proposed export production activity to the Foreign- Trade Zones (FTZ) Board for its facility...

  1. Data compilation and assessment for water resources in Pennsylvania state forest and park lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PaDCNR), available electronic data were compiled for Pennsylvania state lands (state forests and parks) to allow PaDCNR to initially determine if data exist to make an objective evaluation of water resources for specific basins. The data compiled included water-quantity and water-quality data and sample locations for benthic macroinvertebrates within state-owned lands (including a 100-meter buffer around each land parcel) in Pennsylvania. In addition, internet links or contacts for geographic information system coverages pertinent to water-resources studies also were compiled. Water-quantity and water-quality data primarily available through January 2007 were compiled and summarized for site types that included streams, lakes, ground-water wells, springs, and precipitation. Data were categorized relative to 35 watershed boundaries defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for resource-management purposes. The primary sources of continuous water-quantity data for Pennsylvania state lands were the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS). The USGS has streamflow data for 93 surface-water sites located in state lands; 38 of these sites have continuous-recording data available. As of January 2007, 22 of these 38 streamflow-gaging stations were active; the majority of active gaging stations have over 40 years of continuous record. The USGS database also contains continuous ground-water elevation data for 32 wells in Pennsylvania state lands, 18 of which were active as of January 2007. Sixty-eight active precipitation stations (primarily from the NWS network) are located in state lands. The four sources of available water-quality data for Pennsylvania state lands were the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), and

  2. The 1991 Pennsylvania Senate race and national health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blendon, R J; Szalay, U S; Altman, D E; Chervinsky, G

    1992-01-01

    Voter interest in reform of the American health care system played a central role in the November 5 come-from-behind reelection victory of Democratic Senator Harris Wofford of Pennsylvania over Republican candidate Richard Thornburgh. In a post-election poll of 1,000 Pennsylvania voters, over 50 percent identified "national health insurance" as one of two issues that mattered most in deciding how to vote. And 21 percent of voters said the issue was the "single most important factor" in their voting decision. The results of the Pennsylvania Senate race suggest that universal health care has arrived as a mainstream political issue and that political candidates who fail to address the issue do so at their peril.

  3. Local Property Tax Limitations vs. School District Employee Pension Costs in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.; Shrom, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    In Pennsylvania as in many other states, employee pension costs are a significant source of financial pressure for school districts (Zeehandelaar and Northern 2013, Pennsylvania Public Employees' Retirement Commission 2013). In order to gain greater insight into the nature of Pennsylvania school districts' financial burden related to pension…

  4. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Gulick, V.C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains

  5. Dark Valley in Newton Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-418, 11 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution image shows part of a dark-floored valley system in northern Newton Crater. The valley might have been originally formed by liquid water; the dark material is probably sand that has blown into the valley in more recent times. The picture was acquired earlier this week on July 6, 2003, and is located near 39.2oS, 157.9oW. The picture covers an area 2.3 km (1.4 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  6. 27 CFR 9.41 - Lancaster Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lancaster Valley. 9.41... Lancaster Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lancaster Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Lancaster Valley...

  7. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 11, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Henry; Horn, Marilee A.

    1997-01-01

    direct runoff or enters streams as base flow (discharge from one or more aquifers). The distribution of average annual runoff (fig. 2) is similar to the distribution of precipitation; that is, runoff is generally greatest where precipitation is greatest. Runoff rates range from more than 50 inches per year in parts of western North Carolina to less than 12 inches in parts of North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. Parts of the seven following physiographic provinces are in Segment 11: the Coastal Plain, the Piedmont, the Blue Ridge, the New England, the Valley and Ridge, the Appalachian Plateaus, and the Central Lowland. The provinces generally trend northeastward (fig. 3). The northeastern terminus of the Blue Ridge Province is in south-central Pennsylvania, and the southwestern part of the New England Province, the Reading Prong, ends in east-central Pennsylvania. The topography, lithology, and water-bearing characteristics of the rocks that underlie the Blue Ridge Province and the Reading Prong are similar. Accordingly, for purposes of this study, the hydrology of the Reading Prong is discussed with that of the Blue Ridge Province. The Coastal Plain Province is a lowland that borders the Atlantic Ocean. The Coastal Plain is as much as 140 miles wide in North Carolina but narrows northeastward to New Jersey where it terminates in Segment 11 at the south shore of Raritan Bay. Although it is generally a flat, seaward-sloping lowland, this province has areas of moderately steep local relief, and its surface locally reaches altitudes of 350 feet in the southwestern part of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. The Coastal Plain mostly is underlain by semiconsolidated to unconsolidated sediments that consist of silt, clay, and sand, with some gravel and lignite. Some consolidated beds of limestone and sandstone are present. The Coastal Plain sediments range in age from Jurassic to Holocene and dip gently toward the ocean. The boundary between the Coastal Plain and the

  8. 76 FR 30703 - Delegation of Authority to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania To Implement and Enforce Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...Pennsylvania has requested that EPA delegate to Pennsylvania the authority to implement and enforce twelve additional National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for area sources, and EPA has responded by sending Pennsylvania a letter approving this delegation, pursuant to previously approved delegation mechanisms. To inform regulated facilities and the public of EPA's delegation to Pennsylvania of the authority to implement and enforce these twelve additional NESHAP for area sources, EPA is making available a copy of EPA's letter to Pennsylvania through this notice.

  9. 78 FR 7848 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13463 and 13464] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  10. 76 FR 63700 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12807 and 12808] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  11. 75 FR 44994 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12121 and 12122] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of...

  12. 78 FR 73580 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 13790 and 13791] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  13. 76 FR 66110 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00045

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12879 and 12880] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  14. 76 FR 72994 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00045

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12879 and 12880] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the State of...

  15. 76 FR 59179 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Disaster Declaration 12807 and 12808] Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the...

  16. Occupational Stressors and Job Satisfaction of Pennsylvania School District Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Kevin T.

    2017-01-01

    Today's superintendents face increasingly non-routine and complex problems that are educational, managerial, and political in nature. This study investigated occupational stressors and job satisfaction of school superintendents in Pennsylvania. This was accomplished through self-report of superintendents and through the perspective of school board…

  17. Pennsylvania Principals' Perceptions of Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrom, Sean E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Pennsylvania principals' perceptions and understanding of the physical and psychosocial impact of childhood obesity, whether they believe schools should be addressing the issue, who they feel should be leading efforts within schools, what actions they believe are taking place to address the issue within…

  18. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Pennsylvania. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  19. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield Univ., PA.

    During February-March 1991, 1,518 randomly selected Pennsylvania adults with listed telephone numbers were surveyed on political, educational, and health issues. With regard to education, respondents: (1) strongly favored limiting class size to 15 students in grades K-3, and funding public education through the state income tax (not local taxes);…

  20. Managing Medical Education at the University of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Fredric D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The approach used by the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine for developing management systems that promote change and encourage innovation is described. The major elements of this scheme are: centralization of administrative functions, communication networks, consensus among constituencies, teaching performance in promotion process, and…

  1. The University of Pennsylvania's Partnership with University City High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaLond Wyant, Alison

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examined the form and function of the partnership between the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) and its neighboring public high school, University City High School (UCHS), throughout fiscal year 2012, as well as key stakeholders' perceptions of the partnership during that time period. Penn's status as an internationally renowned,…

  2. International students' image of rural Pennsylvania as a travel destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po-Ju Chen; Deborah L. Kerstetter

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the image international students at Penn State have of rural travel destinations in the state of Pennsylvania. In addition, this study investigated whether destination image differed depending upon travel behavior and socio-demographic variables. Four distinct image dimensions, "tourism infrastructure," "...

  3. Pennsylvania hardwood timber bridges : field performance after 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Wacker; Carlito Calil

    2004-01-01

    Several hardwood demonstration timber bridges were built by the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation in the early nineteen nineties. These bridge superstructures are of the recently developed stress-laminated deck design-type using Red Oak lumber laminations that were pressure-treated with creosote preservatives. This paper will describe the data acquisition...

  4. Sustainability of corn stover harvest strategies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Adler; Benjamin M. Rau; Gregory W. Roth

    2015-01-01

    Pennsylvania farmers have a long history of harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover after grain harvest for animal bedding and feed or as a component of mushroom compost, or as silage for dairy cattle feed. With the shallow soils and rolling topography, soil erosion and carbon losses have been minimized through extensive use of cover crops, no-till, and...

  5. Pennsylvania Village to Get Safe, Reliable Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Pennsylvania village whose unfiltered, contaminated water source made it the top violator of federal and state drinking water laws will be connected to a public water system in 2015 with $2.2 million from EPA’s Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

  6. Act 195 and Collective Negotiations in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Elwood A.

    Pennsylvania's Act 195, the Public Employee Relations Act, went into effect in October 1970. The Act, a piece of model legislation in the area of collective negotiations, provides for the right of employees to organize and to be represented by an exclusive bargaining agent; provides for mediation, fact-finding, and arbitration services; and takes…

  7. Pennsylvania's Preparing for a Changing World Instrument: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, James R.; Shannon, Gregory A.

    The validities of the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) Preparing for a Changing World Instruments at grades 5, 8, and 11 were investigated. The study was carried out in a suburban school district where many students had experienced a great deal of change in their lives. At each grade level approximately 60 students who had…

  8. Educational Quality Assessment in Pennsylvania. A Decade of Progress. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiverling, Richard F.

    This pamphlet surveys the last ten years of a Pennsylvania assessment program called Educational Quality Assessment (EQA). The assessment, mandated by state law, measures student achievement in ten goal areas. Pamphlet topics cover legislation and history, administration of the program, the EQA inventory, and the school report. (Author/LD)

  9. The Demand for Higher Education: Pennsylvania's Nonresident Tuition Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhsh, Abbas; Culp, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores the estimation of tuition elasticity of resident and nonresident demand for higher education in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. Finds that nonresident demand is price elastic, thus explaining the 40 percent decline in nonresident enrollment between 1991 and 1996 after average nonresident tuition increased nearly 20…

  10. Phytophthora stricta isolated from Rhododendron maximum in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a survey in October 2013, in the Michaux State Forest in Pennsylvania , necrotic Rhododendron maximum leaves were noticed on mature plants alongside a stream. Symptoms were nondescript necrotic lesions at the tips of mature leaves. Colonies resembling a Phytophthora sp. were observed from c...

  11. 77 FR 69489 - Pennsylvania; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... Pennsylvania resulting from Hurricane Sandy beginning on October 26, 2012, and continuing, are of sufficient... adversely affected by this declared emergency: Emergency protective measures (Category B), limited to direct... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households In...

  12. 76 FR 61372 - Pennsylvania; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... resulting from Hurricane Irene beginning on August 26, 2011, and continuing, are of sufficient severity and... following areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have been designated as adversely affected by this..., Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in Presidentially Declared Disaster Areas; 97.049...

  13. Utilization of Advisory Councils in Pennsylvania Secondary Agricultural Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Daniel D.; Masser, Douglas T.; Falk, Jeremy M.; Sankey Rice, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Advisory councils are a vital component of the program-planning process in career and technical education programs, providing an important link from the community to the program. The purpose of this research study was to describe how Pennsylvania agricultural educators used and perceived agricultural education advisory councils. The results…

  14. The Drentsche Aa valley system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, W. de.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis is composed of five papers concerned with Late Quaternary geology and geomorphology of the Aa valley system. The correlation and chronostratigraphic position of the layers have been established by radiocarbon dating. (Auth.)

  15. The natural channel of Brandywine Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolman, M.G.

    1955-01-01

    This study of the channel of Brandy wine Creek, Pennsylvania, consists of three parts. The first is an analysis of the changes which take place in the width, depth, velocity, slope of the water surface, suspended load, and roughness factor with changing discharge below the bankfull stage at each of several widely separated cross sections of the channel. Expressed as functions of the discharge, it is found that the variables behave systematically. In every section studied, as the discharge increases, the velocity increases to about the 0.6 power, depth to the 0.4, and load to the 2.0 power of the discharge. The roughness decreases to the 0.2 power of the discharge. The relative magnitudes and the direction of these variations are similar to those which have been observed in other rivers in the United States, primarily in the West. Some modifications of the hypotheses applicable to the western rivers are probably required because on Brandywine Creek the difference between the materials on the bed and in the banks is considerably greater than it is on most of the western rivers studied. In the second part of the paper the progressive changes of the same variables in the downstream direction with increasing discharge at a given frequency are described. Despite the disorderly appearance of the stream, it is found that the variables display a progressive, orderly change in the downstream direction when traced from the headwater tributaries through the trunk stream of Brandywine Creek. At a given frequency of flow, width increases with discharge to about the 0.5 power. Depth increases downstream somewhat less rapidly, while the slope and roughness both decrease in the downstream direction. Despite a decrease in the size of the material on the bed, both the mean velocity and the mean bed velocity increase downstream. The rates of change of these variables are in close accord with the changes observed on rivers flowing in alluvium and in stable irrigation canals. These

  16. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Beaver Valley Power Station, Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report on the application filed by Duquesne Light Company, as applicant and agent for the owners, for a license to operate the Beaver Valley Power Station Unit 2 (Docket No. 50-412) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located in Shippingport Borough, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, on the south bank of the Ohio River. Subject to the favorable resolution of the items discussed in this report, the staff concludes that the facility can be operated by the applicant without endangering the health and safety of the public

  17. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J Elliott

    Full Text Available Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study

  18. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  19. An Examination of Pennsylvania's Classroom Diagnostic Testing as a Predictive Model of Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsanka, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study was to investigate the relationship between Pennsylvania's Classroom Diagnostic Tools (CDT) interim assessments and the state-mandated Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) and to create linear regression equations that could be used as models to predict student performance on the…

  20. Historic Structure Assessment for Building 839, Carlisle Barracks: Carlisle, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to ry Tom Vitanza, Mark Slater, and Caitlin Clinton-Selin October 2017 Approved for public...2017 Historic Structure Assessment for Building 839, Carlisle Barracks Carlisle, Pennsylvania Tom Vitanza, Mark Slater, and Caitlin Clinton-Selin...Historic Preservation Training Center (HPTC) Tom Vitanza, Senior Historical Architect Mark Slater, Project Historical Architect Caitlin Clinton-Selin

  1. Workers' compensation in Pennsylvania: the effects of delayed contested cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S E

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the effects of delayed workers' compensation cases in the Pennsylvania system. Forty-five claimants of a workers' compensation support group responded to interviews. Delay periods averaged two years with a 68.4% drop in income. Results indicate that claimants endured financial and emotional stress, exhausted personal assets, relied on assistance from relatives, and received public assistance. Implications for social work practice include educating workers about benefits, counseling claimants with delayed claims, and advocating for administrative reforms.

  2. HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE FOR PENNSYLVANIA DAIRY FARM MANAGERS

    OpenAIRE

    Gripp, Sharon I.; Ford, Stephen A.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of more than 1200 Pennsylvania dairy farm managers showed that almost 20% of those managers do not have health insurance. Of those farm managers with health insurance, 67% had insurance acquired through the farm business. Farm characteristics and demographic information were used to determine indicators of health insurance coverage. Age, education, net farm income, off-farm income, milk marketing cooperative membership, and intensity of hired labor use all had significant effects on ...

  3. Butt log quality of trees in Pennsylvania oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Dale; Robert L. Brisbin; Robert L. Brisbin

    1985-01-01

    Describes the distribution of sawtimber trees by diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) and grade for eight hardwood species in upland oak stands of Pennsylvania. The proportion of trees by d.b.h. and grade revealed differences between species. The quality of northern red oak, white oak, and yellow-poplar appeared inherently better than that of red maple, chestnut oak, and...

  4. Teacher quality and teacher salaries: the case of Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Tin-chun Lin

    2009-01-01

    Both teacher quality and teacher salaries are endogenously correlated in the teacher labor market. Therefore, due to endogeneity, we develop three econometric simultaneous-equation models to examine the link between teacher quality and teacher salaries. A total of 500 school districts in the state of Pennsylvania during the school years 1999-2000 to 2001-2002 are selected for a case study. Results reveal a positive and significant relationship between these two.

  5. Broadband availability in metropolitan and non-metropolitan Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence E. Wood

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years having a broadband connection has become essential for many Internet activities. As broadband increases in importance, it becomes imperative to assess how its use and availability may vary, especially in relation to issues such as geographic location. For rural areas in particular, the availability of broadband service is especially important. This research assesses broadband service availability in rural areas of Pennsylvania, USA. In particular, it examines the extent to which Digital Subscriber Line (DSL and broadband cable modem services are being deployed throughout rural Pennsylvania. It compares this deployment with the availability of such services in the state’s urban and metropolitan areas. The results of this research suggest that there is a “digital divide” in terms of broadband availability between rural and urban areas of Pennsylvania. However, this “divide” is perhaps not as wide as might be expected. Thus, as broadband is becoming increasingly available in rural areas of the U.S. and throughout much of the rest of the world, this research concludes that while research must remain vigilant in terms of assessing advanced telecommunications availability in rural areas, future research should also be sure to focus on how such technologies can be used to promote economic and social concerns, including in relation to building online networks and diminishing social and professional isolation in rural areas.

  6. Pennsylvania State Core Competencies for Education on Opioids and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Michael A; Levine, Rachel L

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop core competencies for education on opioids and addiction to be used in all Pennsylvania medical schools. The Pennsylvania Physician General created a task force that was responsible for the creation of the core competencies. A literature review was completed, and a survey of graduating medical students was conducted. The task force then developed, reviewed, and approved the core competencies. The competencies were grouped into nine domains: understanding core aspects of addiction; patient screening for substance use disorder; proper referral for specialty evaluation and treatment of substance use disorder; proper patient assessment when treating pain; proper use of multimodal treatment options when treating acute pain; proper use of opioids for the treatment of acute pain (after consideration of alternatives); the role of opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain; patient risk assessment related to the use of opioids to treat chronic noncancer pain, including the assessment for substance use disorder or increased risk for aberrant drug-related behavior; and the process for patient education, initiation of treatment, careful patient monitoring, and discontinuation of therapy when using opioids to treat chronic noncancer pain. Specific competencies were developed for each domain. These competencies will be incorporated into the educational process at all Pennsylvania medical schools. It is hoped that these curriculum changes will improve student knowledge and attitudes in these areas, thus improving patient outcomes. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Geochemical dispersion of uranium near prospects in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.; Schmiermund, R.L.; Mahar, D.L.

    1977-06-01

    The geochemical dispersion of U was investigated near sedimentary uranium prospects in eastern and north-central Pennsylvania. Near Jim Thorpe, known uranium occurrences in the Catskill Fm. are limited to the base of the Duncannon member. At Penn Haven Junction, roll-type U deposits with appreciable Pb and Se are localized adjacent to an oxidized tongue of channel-filling conglomeratic sandstone. The channel and encircling U occurrences furnish a large target for geochemical exploration. Selective extractions show that the organic, Fe-oxide, sand and silt fractions of stream sediments are the major hosts for U in stream sediments. Fe-oxides have a greater affinity for U than organic matter but are less abundant. The U content of organic matter is about 10 5 times the U content of stream water. Stream sediments furnish a representative sample of the average content of U, Zn, Cu, and major elements in soils of a drainage basin in north-central Pennsylvania, so a semiquantitative appraisal of weathering uranium occurrences can be made from stream sediments in climates and topography like Pennsylvania. The flux of uranium leaving the basin in solution is about equal to that leaving as sediment. Uranium is considerably less mobile than Ca and Na. A new method of extracting uranium from water samples, using a liquid ion exchanger (Amberlite LA-1), shows promise for simple field application

  8. Summary of groundwater-recharge estimates for Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart O. Reese,; Risser, Dennis W.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is water that infiltrates through the subsurface to the zone of saturation beneath the water table. Because recharge is a difficult parameter to quantify, it is typically estimated from measurements of other parameters like streamflow and precipitation. This report provides a general overview of processes affecting recharge in Pennsylvania and presents estimates of recharge rates from studies at various scales.The most common method for estimating recharge in Pennsylvania has been to estimate base flow from measurements of streamflow and assume that base flow (expressed in inches over the basin) approximates recharge. Statewide estimates of mean annual groundwater recharge were developed by relating base flow to basin characteristics of HUC10 watersheds (a fifth-level classification that uses 10 digits to define unique hydrologic units) using a regression equation. The regression analysis indicated that mean annual precipitation, average daily maximum temperature, percent of sand in soil, percent of carbonate rock in the watershed, and average stream-channel slope were significant factors in the explaining the variability of groundwater recharge across the Commonwealth.Several maps are included in this report to illustrate the principal factors affecting recharge and provide additional information about the spatial distribution of recharge in Pennsylvania. The maps portray the patterns of precipitation, temperature, prevailing winds across Pennsylvania’s varied physiography; illustrate the error associated with recharge estimates; and show the spatial variability of recharge as a percent of precipitation. National, statewide, regional, and local values of recharge, based on numerous studies, are compiled to allow comparison of estimates from various sources. Together these plates provide a synopsis of groundwater-recharge estimations and factors in Pennsylvania.Areas that receive the most recharge are typically those that get the most

  9. Water resources of the Lake Erie shore region in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, John William; Van Tuyl, Donald W.; White, Walter F.

    1952-01-01

    An abundant supply of water is available to the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. Lake i£rie furnishes an almost inexhaustible supply of water of satisfactory chemical quality. Small quantities of water are available from small streams in the area and from the ground. A satisfactory water supply is one of the factors that affect the economic growth of a region. Cities and towns must have adequate amounts of pure water for human consumption. Industries must have suitable water ih sufficient quantities for all purposes. In order to assure. success and economy, the development of water resources should be based on adequate knowledge of the quantity and quality of the water. As a nation, we can not afford to run the risk of dissipating our resources, especially in times of national emergency, by building projects that are not founded on sound engineering and adequate water-resources information. The purpose of this report is to summarize and interpret all available water-resources information for the Lake Erie Shore region in Pennsylvania. The report will be useful for initial guidance in the location or expansion of water facilities for defense and nondefense industries and the municipalities upon which they are dependent. It will also be useful in evaluating the adequacy of the Geological Survey's part of the basic research necessary to plan the orderly development of the water resources of the Lake Erie Shore region. Most of the data contained inthis report have been obtained'by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Forests and Waters, the Pennsylvania Department of Internal Affairs, and the Pennsylvania State Planning Board, Department of Commerce. The Pennsylv~nia Department of Health furnished information on water pollution. The report was prepared in the Water Resources Division of the U. S. Geological Survey b:y John W. Mangan (Surface Water). Donald W. VanTuyl (Ground Water). and Walter F. White, Jr. (Quality of

  10. Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis) Risk and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valley fever, but it is not contagious between animals and people. Valley fever in dogs is similar to valley ... Via Growth on Fomites. An Epidemic Involving Six Persons. Am Rev Respir Dis. ... aspects of coccidioidomycosis in animals and humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 ...

  11. New Energy Landscapes of Pennsylvania: Forests to Farms to Fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah A.

    This dissertation adds to the literature on energy needed by industry, government, and citizens for decision-making. The pursuit to access or create new energy resources spawns new landscapes of energy in the early 21st century. The combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies---popularly called "fracking"---enables entry into previously inaccessible natural gas reserves such as the Marcellus shale much of which lies beneath Pennsylvania. Although this unconventional method offers a promising source of domestic energy and job growth, the potential for negative impacts raises concerns and questions. The questions include: What is the controversy about fracking in Pennsylvania? What are the impacts of fracking? What costs is Pennsylvania paying as it shifts to shale gas extraction? Are there activities taking place or material signs that point to the emerging new landscapes? Are the individuals and organizations that resist shale gas extraction---the so-called "Green Forces"---and others who live within the region of development more or less attuned to these costs? A mixed methods approach consists of landscape and stakeholder analyses including visual examination of GIS-generated maps, satellite images, and photos taken in the field specifically from four counties: Washington, Warren, McKean, and Bradford. Research captures stakeholders' voices across the public, government, and private sectors at different scales. A stakeholder matrix facilitates data organization and analysis. Data include 114 individual statements from an EPA Public Meeting, texts from 40 online-newspaper articles or blogs, and face-to-face interviews or focus group participation of 36 individuals. Further data come from a public health conference, industry convention, and public protest. The new energy landscape covers spaces in Pennsylvania where oil and gas development previously had not been present. It obscures as well as exposes the legacy of past energy

  12. 75 FR 11228 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company....C. 9305 to the following company: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company (NAIC 41424... renewal as long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  13. How Pennsylvania School Libraries Pay Off: Investments in Student Achievement and Academic Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Schwarz, Bill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Pennsylvania school library programs on student learning--specifically, the infrastructure (staffing, budgets, collections, technology, and access hours) that contributes most to student achievement, the costs and benefits associated with them, and the gap between current Pennsylvania school…

  14. Is Opportunity Knocking or Slipping Away? Racial Diversity and Segregation in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotok, Stephen; Reed, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Pennsylvania has struggled to integrate its public schools, especially with much of the racial diversity concentrated in urban regions. Starting in the 1960s, the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission (PHRC) was the state's enforcing body to combat school desegregation, but since the early 1980s, when it comes to education, the…

  15. Educational Equity, Adequacy, and Equal Opportunity in the Commonwealth: An Evaluation of Pennsylvania's School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce; Levin, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Pennsylvania has historically operated one of the nation's least equitable state school finance systems, and within that system exist some of the nation's most fiscally disadvantaged public school districts. The persistent inequalities of Pennsylvania's school finance system are not entirely a result of simple lack of effort, as policies intended…

  16. 75 FR 41855 - Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1750-000] Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Stream Energy Pennsylvania, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  17. 76 FR 29180 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From... Pennsylvania. This revision pertains to the control of nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emissions from Portland cement... oxidation of chemically-bound nitrogen in the fuel and by thermal fixation of nitrogen in the combustion air...

  18. 76 FR 34021 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Glass... Pennsylvania. This revision pertains to the control of nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emissions from glass melting... protection, Air pollution control, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  19. 76 FR 45705 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act AGENCY... Commonwealth's Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act (hereafter referred to as the Diesel-Powered Motor..., Pennsylvania submitted a SIP revision to incorporate its Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act. Act 124, as...

  20. Pennsylvania's Public School Students: What Do They Know? What Do They Think?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Leann R.

    The data gathered from the Pennsylvania Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) inventory from 1978 to 1981 were analyzed. The results of the analysis were used to determine whether nationwide trends in levels of achievement, opinions, and attitudes of public school students are reflected in Pennsylvania. The status of currently emphasized skills and…

  1. What Some Pennsylvania School Districts Are Doing to Raise Their EQA Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth R., Comp.; Kim, Joyce S., Comp.

    This paper surveys some of the teaching methods, learning activities, and programs either proposed or already used by some Pennsylvania schools to improve their students' performance on the Educational Quality Assessment. The assessment, mandated by Pennsylvania statute, measures student achievement in ten goal areas, such as self-esteem, verbal…

  2. Rules and Regulations for Implementing the Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg. Office for Aid to Nonpublic Education.

    The Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act was passed into law in June 1968. It authorizes the Superintendent of Public Instruction of that State to enter into contracts to purchase secular educational service from nonpublic schools in Pennsylvania. This guide contains (1) the law, (2) definitions of terms, (3) a statement…

  3. 77 FR 33560 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption-- Laurel Hill Development Corporation Southwest... 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire a 0.66-mile line of railroad owned by Laurel Hill Development Corporation... rail line. Most recently, in Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption--Laurel...

  4. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  5. 40 CFR 81.23 - Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.23 Section 81.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.23 Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the territorial...

  6. Effectiveness of electric deer fences to protect planted seedlings in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.W. George; T.W. Bowersox; L.H. McCormick

    1991-01-01

    Electric fences are used in Pennsylvania following a timber harvest to reduce deer browse on natural regeneration. In 1984, five-strand electric deer fences were constructed around two central Pennsylvania clearcuts. Northern red oak, white ash, white pine, and yellow-poplar seedlings were planted inside each fenced clearcut area in 1984 and 1985. One-half of the 1280...

  7. Annual inventory report for Pennsylvania's forests: results from the first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Daniel A. Devlin; Tonya W. Lister; Stephen L. Sterner; James A. Westfall

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program implemented a new system for inventory and monitoring Pennsylvania?s forest resources. The most salient benefit of the new inventory process will be a nearly threefold improvement in timeliness. This report summarizes the results of the first 2 years of annual inventory measurements...

  8. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  9. 78 FR 28780 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ...-2013-0002; Internal Agency Docket No. FEMA-B-1147] Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Beaver... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Beaver County, Pennsylvania (All... Beaver County, Pennsylvania. Because FEMA has or will be issuing a Revised Preliminary Flood Insurance...

  10. Digital Citizenship Instruction in Pennsylvania Public Schools: School Leaders Expressed Beliefs and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppo, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate digital citizenship in Pennsylvania public schools based on the responses of school leaders including superintendents, curriculum coordinators, and technology coordinators. This study examined the relationship between Pennsylvania school leader's beliefs and the implementation of digital citizenship…

  11. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2167-000] Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  12. 78 FR 19301 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...-PPWOCRADN0] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains, in... Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian tribes stated...

  13. Collaboration in Pennsylvania: Rapidly Spreading Improved Chronic Care for Patients to Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Patricia L.; Baron, Richard J.; Scheirer, Jorge J.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Derrickson, John; Yunghans, Suzanne; Gabbay, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Pennsylvania's Improving Performance in Practice (IPIP) program is administered by the Pennsylvania (PA) chapters of the American Academy of Family Physicians, American College of Physicians, and American Academy of Pediatrics. The project has provided coaching, monthly measurement, and patient registry support for 155 primary-care…

  14. 78 FR 31592 - T-Mobile Usa, Inc., Core Fault Isolation Team, Engineering Division, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-82,371] T-Mobile Usa, Inc., Core Fault Isolation Team, Engineering Division, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania; Notice of Affirmative Determination...., Core Fault Isolation Team, Engineering Division, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania (subject firm). The...

  15. Water quality investigation of Francis Slocum Lake, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James L.

    1978-01-01

    This report summarizes water-quality data collected in the Francis Slocum Lake drainage basin, Pennsylvania, during an assessment from October 1976 to September 1977. Data were collected for nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, and fecal coliform and fecal streptococcal bacteria.Results of the restricted sampling indicate that nutrient recycling within the lake is sufficient to support the periodic luxurient growth of algae and aquatic weeds. Inflows are not contributing high concentrations of nutrients to the ecosystem. Sampling for enteric bacteria indicate the sanitary quality is sufficiently high for water-contact recreation.

  16. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker,; Greg McCarty,; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient cropping systems. In southeastern Pennsylvania, cover crops can be successfully established following corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvest and are strongly promoted for use in this niche. They are also planted following corn grain, soybean (Glycine max L.), and vegetable harvest. In Pennsylvania, the use of winter cover crops for agricultural conservation has been supported through a combination of outreach, regulation, and incentives. On-farm implementation is thought to be increasing, but the actual extent of cover crops is not well quantified. Satellite imagery can be used to map green winter cover crop vegetation on agricultural fields and, when integrated with additional remote sensing data products, can be used to evaluate wintertime vegetative groundcover following specific summer crops. This study used Landsat and SPOT (System Probatoire d’ Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery, in combination with the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer, to evaluate the extent and amount of green wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields in four Pennsylvania counties (Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, and York) from 2010 to 2013. In December of 2010, a windshield survey was conducted to collect baseline data on winter cover crop implementation, with particular focus on identifying corn harvested for silage (expected earlier harvest date and lower levels of crop residue), versus for grain (expected later harvest date and higher levels of crop residue). Satellite spectral indices were successfully used to detect both the amount of green vegetative groundcover and the amount of crop residue on the surveyed fields. Analysis of wintertime satellite imagery

  17. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2017-12-29

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, which have the potential for natural gas development, underlie Pike County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, conducted a study that expanded on a previous more limited 2012 study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Pike County prior to possible extensive shale-gas development. Seventy-nine water wells ranging in depths from 80 to 610 feet were sampled during June through September 2015 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality in the various bedrock geologic units throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low values in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. All groundwater samples collected in 2015 were analyzed for bacteria, dissolved and total major ions, nutrients, selected dissolved and total inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane. Additionally, samples from 20 wells distributed throughout the county were analyzed for selected man-made volatile organic compounds, and samples from 13 wells where waters had detectable gross alpha activity were analyzed for radium-226 on the basis of relatively elevated gross alpha-particle activity.Results of the 2015 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards for constituents and properties included in analyses, but groundwater samples from some wells had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, manganese, pH, bacteria, sodium, chloride, sulfate

  18. 75 FR 6635 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority, Subzone 33E...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ..., Pennsylvania, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority, Subzone 33E--DNP IMS America Corporation (Thermal Transfer Ribbon Printer Rolls), Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania An application has been submitted to the Foreign... Pennsylvania, grantee of FTZ 33, requesting an expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority approved...

  19. One Valley at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    teaching, outreach, and research in the science and art of joint special operations. JSOU provides education to the men and women of Special Operations... leftover guerrillas. One valley at a time, stability can spread. This persistent spreading of influence into for- mally controlled Taliban areas, one...world. To carry out some of these transactions, Al Qaeda operates in Malaysia, China , the Philippines, and Germany. 10 JSOU Report 06-6 History of the

  20. Genetic heritage of the Old Order Mennonites of southeastern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffenberger, E G

    2003-08-15

    The Old Order Mennonites of southeastern Pennsylvania are a religious isolate with origins in 16th-century Switzerland. The Swiss Mennonites immigrated to Pennsylvania over a 50-year period in the early 18th century. The history of this population in the United States provides insight into the increased incidence of several genetic diseases, most notably maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), and congenital nephrotic syndrome. A comparison between the Old Order Mennonites and the Old Order Amish demonstrates the unique genetic heritage of each group despite a common religious and geographic history. Unexpectedly, several diseases in both groups demonstrate allelic and/or locus heterogeneity. The population genetics of the 1312T --> A BCKDHA gene mutation, which causes classical MSUD, are presented in detail. The incidence of MSUD in the Old Order Mennonites is estimated to be 1/358 births, yielding a corrected carrier frequency of 7.96% and a mutation allele frequency of 4.15%. Analysis of the population demonstrates that repeated cycles of sampling effects, population bottlenecks, and subsequent genetic drift were important in shaping the current allele frequencies. A linkage disequilibrium analysis of 1312T --> A mutation haplotypes is provided and discussed in the context of the known genealogical history of the population. Finally, data from microsatellite marker genotyping within the Old Order Mennonite population are provided that show a significant but modest decrease in genetic diversity and elevated levels of background linkage disequilibrium. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  2. Hydrogeologic setting and simulation of pesticide fate and transport in the unsaturated zone of a regolith-mantled, carbonate-rock terrain near Newville, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippe, D.J.; Hall, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Physical and chemical data were collected from May 1991 through April 1993 at a 4.5 hectare field site in Cumberland County, Pa., about 5 kilometers southeast of Newville. These data were used to define the hydrogeologic setting of a field site representative of the intensively farmed carbonate valleys of southeastern and south-central Pennsylvania. The environmental processing of commonly used pesticides (herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides) in the unsaturated zone was simulated with a process- oriented digital model to evaluate the environmental fate and transport of pesticides to ground water. Site data and modelling results provide a basis for a discussion of water-quality implications of agricultural best-management practices. The carbonate valleys of Pennsylvania comprise regolith-mantled carbonate-rock terrains that consist of broad undulating upland areas dissected by mostly dry valleys and widely spaced spring-fed creeks. The upland areas are farmed and exhibit possess a doline karst topography with many closed depressions, sinkholes, and bedrock outcrops. Unsaturated materials at the field site consist of an almost continuous soil cover composed of fine-grained residuum underlain by an intermediate vadose zone composed of karstified limestone. Soils are absent on scattered bedrock outcrops and are more than 12 meters thick in other areas of the site. The soil profile stores appreciable quantities of water with a volumetric average of about 36 percent water at field capacity. Organic carbon content of soil materials is about 1.7 percent in the Ap-horizon and from 0.1 to 0.3 percent throughout the full thickness of the B- and C-horizons. Atrazine, metolachlor, simazine, and the atrazine soil metabolites deethylatrazine and deisopropylatrazine were detected at concentrations above 0.05 mg/L in just the upper 0.6 meters of soil materials. However, detectable concentrations of atrazine, simazine, and atrazine soil metabolites were measured in water

  3. Small martian valleys: Pristine and degraded morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, V.R.; Partridge, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The equatorial heavily cratered uplands of Mars are dissected by two classes of small valleys that are intimately associated in compound networks. Pristine valleys with steep valley walls preferentially occupy downstream portions of compound basins. Degraded valleys with eroded walls are laterally more extensive and have higher drainage densities than pristine valleys. Morphometric and crater-counting studies indicate that relatively dense drainage networks were emplaced on Mars during the heavy bombardment about 4.0 b.y. ago. Over a period of approximately 10 8 years, these networks were degraded and subsequently invaded by headwardly extending pristine valleys. The pristine valleys locally reactivated the compound networks, probably through sapping processes dependent upon high water tables. Fluvial activity in the heavily cratered uplands generally ceased approximately 3.8--3.9 b.y. ago, coincident with the rapid decline in cratering rates. The relict compound valleys on Mars are morphometrically distinct from most terrestrial drainage systems. The differences might be caused by a Martian valley formation episode characterized by hyperaridity, by inadequate time for network growth, by very permeable rock types, or by a combination of factors

  4. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1.Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model (USGS, 30m) by finding the local average elevation, subtracting the actual elevation from the average, and selecting areas where the actual elevation was below the average. The landscape was sampled at seven scales (circles of 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 16, and 22 km radius) to take into account the diversity of valley shapes and sizes. Areas selected in at least four scales were designated as valleys.

  5. Radwaste challenge at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Duquesne Light Company met the problem of accumulating low-level radioactive waste at its Beaver Valley nuclear plant with an aggressive program to reduce the quantity of contaminated material and demonstrate that the plant was improving its radiological protection. There was also an economic incentive to reduce low-level wastes. The imaginative campaign involved workers in the reduction effort through training and the adoption of practical approaches to reducing the amount of material exposed to radiation that include sorting trash by radiation level and a compacting system. 4 figures

  6. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  7. Erosion in the juniata river drainage basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevon, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Previously calculated erosion rates througouth the Appalachians range from 1.2 to 203 m Myr-1. Calculation of erosion rates has been accomplished by: (1) evaluation of riverine solute and sediment load in either large or small drainage basins; (2) estimation from the volume of derived sediments; and (3) methods involving either 10Be or fission-track dating. Values of specific conductance and suspended sediment collected at the Juniata River gauging station at Newport, Pennsylvania are used, with corrections, along with a bedload estimate to determine the total amount eroded from the 8687 km2 drainage basin during the water years 1965-1986. The amount eroded is used to calculate a present erosion rate of 27 m Myr-1. ?? 1989.

  8. Violence in Rural, Suburban, and Urban Schools in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Kalen; McDonald, Catherine C; D'Alonzo, Bernadette A; Tam, Vicky; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-01-01

    School violence is a public health issue with direct and collateral consequences that has academic and social impacts for youth. School violence is often considered a uniquely urban problem, yet more research is needed to understand how violence in rural and suburban schools may be similar or different from urban counterparts. Using school violence data from a state with urban, suburban, and rural counties, we explored the landscape of school violence in Pennsylvania (PA) through mapping, descriptive statistics, and factor analysis. Results show school violence is not solely an urban problem. Schools in all county types and across grade levels deal with violence to varying degrees, and the majority of schools across county types experience low levels of violence. Types of violence experienced by PA schools loaded onto three factors, suggesting that targeted interventions may be better suited to addressing school violence.

  9. Temperature of ground water at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1979- 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulachok, Gary N.

    1986-01-01

    Anthropogenic heat production has undoubtedly caused increased ground-water temperatures in many parts of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, as shown by temperatures of 98 samples and logs of 40 wells measured during 1979-81. Most sample temperatures were higher than 12.6 degrees Celsius (the local mean annual air temperature), and many logs depict cooling trends with depth (anomalous gradients). Heating of surface and shallow-subsurface materials has likely caused the elevated temperatures and anomalous gradients. Solar radiation on widespread concrete and asphalt surfaces, fossil-fuel combustion, and radiant losses from buried pipelines containing steam and process chemicals are believed to be the chief sources of heat. Some heat from these and other sources is transferred to deeper zones, mainly by conduction. Temperatures in densely urbanized areas are commonly highest directly beneath the land surface and decrease progressively with depth. Temperatures in sparsely urbanized areas generally follow the natural geothermal gradient and increase downward at about that same rate.

  10. Geophysical Investigations at the Hanna's Town Cemetery, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ashley D.

    Hanna's Town (36WM203), an 18th century site located in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania, was a major frontier settlement that was attacked and destroyed by a force of British and Native Americans in 1782. The town never fully recovered, and by the early 1800s, no buildings remained from the settlement. The land was repurposed for agricultural use until it was purchased by the Westmoreland County Historical Society, who reconstructed the town for tourism and educational purposes. In addition to the town, the site also contains a cemetery that currently has five headstones. There are several stone fragments in storage that are no longer associated with burials, providing evidence that the cemetery may contain unmarked graves. Geophysical investigations using ground penetrating radar, magnetometry, and electrical resistance were performed to examine the presence of additional grave shafts in and adjacent to the present-day cemetery.

  11. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  12. Pennsylvania state information handbook formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and state levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains: a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations

  13. Restructuring and the retail residential market for power in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleit, Andrew N.; Shcherbakova, Anastasia V.; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    In January 2010 electricity retail residential rate caps expired in a large part of Pennsylvania, allowing consumers to shop for electricity in the retail market. In this paper we employ customer-level data from the relevant territory to analyze what residential customer and community characteristics impacted the decision of whether or not to switch to an alternative electricity provider, and when to make the switch. Results show that customers with higher usage levels (especially around the time of the program's introduction), electric heating, and those living in more urban and more educated communities with lower unemployment rates and higher median household incomes were both more likely to switch, and more likely to do so faster. Lower switching rates and a slower switching response was observed from customers with more variable month to month usage (perhaps this made them unsure of future benefits from switching), those on alternative residential electricity rates (time-of-day and thermal storage programs), and those new to the relevant area (perhaps due to lack of information about the residential choice program). Critics of retail electricity competition have suggested that it disadvantages poor and elderly ratepayers. Our results do not support this contention. Customers living in communities with higher poverty rates were actually more likely to switch (and do so faster) than middle-income consumers. Communities with higher shares of senior population were not found to have lower switching rates from younger communities. - Highlights: ► We analyze introduction of retail competition in Pennsylvania's electricity sector. ► We evaluate what characteristics influence consumers to switch electric providers. ► Higher usage and electric heat influence customers to switch and to do so faster. ► More variable usage and being new to service area deter switching. ► High poverty rates induce switching; older communities no less likely to switch.

  14. Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.

    2018-05-01

    We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.

  15. Sustainable agricultural development in inland valleys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The inland valley in Africa are common landscapes that have favorable conditions for agricultural production. Compared to the surrounding uplands they are characterized by a relatively high and secure water availability and high soil fertility levels. Inland valleys thus have a high agricultural

  16. Rift Valley fever outbreak, southern Mauritania, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow, Abdourahmane; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Ba, Hampathé; Diallo, Diawo; Faye, Oumar; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Boushab, Mohamed; Barry, Yahya; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2014-02-01

    After a period of heavy rainfall, an outbreak of Rift Valley fever occurred in southern Mauritania during September-November 2012. A total of 41 human cases were confirmed, including 13 deaths, and 12 Rift Valley fever virus strains were isolated. Moudjeria and Temchecket Departments were the most affected areas.

  17. 27 CFR 9.154 - Chiles Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... viticultural area are four 1:24,000 Scale U.S.G.S. topography maps. They are titled: (1) St. Helena, CA 1960... Valley viticultural area, using landmarks and points of reference found on appropriate U.S.G.S. maps..., with a county road known locally as Chiles and Pope Valley Road; (5) Then in a southwesterly direction...

  18. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Cherie J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. 76 FR 6559 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ..., RFP, RACM, RFP contingency measures, and transportation conformity requirements-- as defined by the... Available Control Measures, and Transportation Conformity Budgets for the Pennsylvania Portion of the... in New Jersey, Maryland, and Delaware. EPA is simultaneously approving transportation conformity...

  20. Baseline groundwater quality from 34 wells in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Wayne County, Pennsylvania, is underlain by the Marcellus Shale, which currently (2014) is being developed elsewhere in Pennsylvania for natural gas. All residents of largely rural Wayne County rely on groundwater for water supply, primarily from bedrock aquifers (shales and sandstones). This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for Wayne County prior to development of the natural gas resource in the Marcellus Shale. Selected wells completed in the Devonian-age Catskill Formation, undifferentiated; the Poplar Gap and Packerton Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided; and the Long Run and Walcksville Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided, were sampled.

  1. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Pennsylvania based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Pennsylvania census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  2. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania

  3. 77 FR 60339 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Control, P.O. Box 8468, 400 Market Street, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). EPA has reviewed the...

  4. CMS: LiDAR-derived Tree Canopy Cover for Pennsylvania, USA, 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimated high-resolution (1-m) tree canopy cover for the state of Pennsylvania, USA, in 2008. The data were derived from 2006-2008...

  5. 75 FR 43563 - Dow Jones & Company, Sharon Pennsylvania Print Plant a Subsidiary of News Corporation, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... News Corporation, West Middlesex, Pennsylvania; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated June 21, 2010, a petitioner requested administrative... facts not previously considered; or (3) If in the opinion of the Certifying Officer, a mis...

  6. 77 FR 3386 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program AGENCY: Environmental... vehicles (LEV II). The Clean Air Act (CAA) contains specific authority allowing any state to adopt new... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...

  7. The Pennsylvania quality initiative : a synthesis of customer satisfaction and additional research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-29

    Customer satisfaction is at the heart of the Pennsylvania Quality Initiative (PQI), which was created in 1994 to build a more effective partnership among all the stakeholders involved in the process of designing, building, operating, and maintaining ...

  8. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Building Conditions and Student Academic Achievement in Pennsylvania's High School

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Sean

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school building conditions and student academic achievement in Pennsylvania's high schools. Research questions analyzed by step-wise multiple regression were: (a) Is there a relationship between overall school building conditions and student academic achievement in Pennsylvania's high schools when socio-economic status (SES) is held constant?; (b) Is there a relationship between the cosmetic conditions of school facilities and student academic ...

  10. Emergency preparedness and response in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania - the Three Mile Island incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, O.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergency response mechanism and legal basis in effect in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania at the time of the Three Mile Island incident. It reviews the sequence of events as they directly affected the Pennsylvania Emergency Management Agency and examines the method used by the Agency to discharge its responsibilities. Finally, the paper lists some of the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island experience. (author)

  11. Photosensitive Epilepsy In Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem S M

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A random population of 618 people with epilepsy hailing from different parts of Kashmir valley was screened for photosensitivity both clinically and on a standard protocol of intermittent photic stimulation (IPS provoked EEG recordings. Six (0.9% patients with a mean age of 15+6.57 years were found to be photosensitive; five had generalized and one had absence seizures. The baseline EEG in all patients showed generalized epileptiform discharges. On IPS, similar EEG findings were obtained with a narrow range of stimulus frequency i.e. 7-12 cycles/sec. There appears to be a low prevalence of photo-sensitivity in our epileptic population, possibly related to genetic factors.

  12. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb. Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP. Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM, urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28�tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution

  13. Nuclear Security Education Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenlue, Kenan; Jovanovic, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The availability of trained and qualified nuclear and radiation security experts worldwide has decreased as those with hands-on experience have retired while the demand for these experts and skills have increased. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has responded to the continued loss of technical and policy expertise amongst personnel and students in the security field by initiating the establishment of a Nuclear Security Education Initiative, in partnership with Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Texas A and M (TAMU), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This collaborative, multi-year initiative forms the basis of specific education programs designed to educate the next generation of personnel who plan on careers in the nonproliferation and security fields with both domestic and international focus. The three universities worked collaboratively to develop five core courses consistent with the GTRI mission, policies, and practices. These courses are the following: Global Nuclear Security Policies, Detectors and Source Technologies, Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements Nuclear Security Laboratory, Threat Analysis and Assessment, and Design and Analysis of Security Systems for Nuclear and Radiological Facilities. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Nuclear Engineering Program is a leader in undergraduate and graduate-level nuclear engineering education in the USA. The PSU offers undergraduate and graduate programs in nuclear engineering. The PSU undergraduate program in nuclear engineering is the largest nuclear engineering programs in the USA. The PSU Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) facilities are being used for most of the nuclear security education program activities. Laboratory space and equipment was made available for this purpose. The RSEC facilities include the Penn State Breazeale

  14. Nuclear Security Education Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenlue, Kenan [The Pennsylvania State University, Radiation Science and Engineering Center, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The availability of trained and qualified nuclear and radiation security experts worldwide has decreased as those with hands-on experience have retired while the demand for these experts and skills have increased. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has responded to the continued loss of technical and policy expertise amongst personnel and students in the security field by initiating the establishment of a Nuclear Security Education Initiative, in partnership with Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Texas A and M (TAMU), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This collaborative, multi-year initiative forms the basis of specific education programs designed to educate the next generation of personnel who plan on careers in the nonproliferation and security fields with both domestic and international focus. The three universities worked collaboratively to develop five core courses consistent with the GTRI mission, policies, and practices. These courses are the following: Global Nuclear Security Policies, Detectors and Source Technologies, Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements Nuclear Security Laboratory, Threat Analysis and Assessment, and Design and Analysis of Security Systems for Nuclear and Radiological Facilities. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Nuclear Engineering Program is a leader in undergraduate and graduate-level nuclear engineering education in the USA. The PSU offers undergraduate and graduate programs in nuclear engineering. The PSU undergraduate program in nuclear engineering is the largest nuclear engineering programs in the USA. The PSU Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) facilities are being used for most of the nuclear security education program activities. Laboratory space and equipment was made available for this purpose. The RSEC facilities include the Penn State Breazeale

  15. 76 FR 22746 - Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. Conecuh Valley Railway, LLC (CVR), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Conecuh Valley Railroad Co., Inc. (COEH), and to operate...

  16. Valley-filtered edge states and quantum valley Hall effect in gated bilayer graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Long; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2017-05-10

    Electron edge states in gated bilayer graphene in the quantum valley Hall (QVH) effect regime can carry both charge and valley currents. We show that an interlayer potential splits the zero-energy level and opens a bulk gap, yielding counter-propagating edge modes with different valleys. A rich variety of valley current states can be obtained by tuning the applied boundary potential and lead to the QVH effect, as well as to the unbalanced QVH effect. A method to individually manipulate the edge states by the boundary potentials is proposed.

  17. Minimal geometry for valley filtering in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Mahmoud M.; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility to effect valley splitting of an electronic current in graphene represents the essential component in the new field of valleytronics in such two-dimensional materials. Based on a symmetry analysis of the scattering matrix, we show that if the spatial distribution of multiple potential scatterers breaks mirror symmetry about the axis of incoming electrons, then a splitting of the current between two valleys is observed. This leads to the appearance of the valley Hall effect. We illustrate the effect of mirror-symmetry breaking in a minimal system of two symmetric impurities, demonstrating the splitting between valleys via the differential cross sections and nonvanishing skew parameter. We further discuss the role that these effects may play in transport experiments.

  18. VALMET-A valley air pollution model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1983-09-01

    Following a thorough analysis of meteorological data obtained from deep valleys of western Colorado, a modular air-pollution model has been developed to simulate the transport and diffusion of pollutants released from an elevated point source in a well-defined mountain valley during the nighttime and morning transition periods. This initial version of the model, named VALMET, operates on a valley cross section at an arbitrary distance down-valley from a continuous point source. The model has been constructed to include parameterizations of the major physical processes that act to disperse pollution during these time periods. The model has not been fully evaluated. Further testing, evaluations, and development of the model are needed. Priorities for further development and testing are provided.

  19. Meie ingel Silicon Valleys / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2008-01-01

    Ettevõtluse Arendamise Sihtasutuse esinduse töölepanekust USAs Silicon Valleys räägib esinduse juht Andrus Viirg. Vt. ka: Eestlasi leidub San Franciscos omajagu; Muljetavaldav karjäär; USAga ammune tuttav

  20. Meie mees Silicon Valleys / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 5. dets. lk. 4. Peaminister Andrus Ansip avas Eesti Ettevõtluse Sihtasutuse esinduse Silicon Valley pealinnas San Joses. Vt. samas: Ränioru kliima on tehnoloogiasõbralik; Andrus Viirg

  1. Silicon Valley Smart Corridor : draft evaluation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-05

    This document outlines the strategy for evaluating the integrated freeway, arterial, and incident management system known as the Silicon Valley Smart Corridor (SVSC). Centered in San Jose, California, the SVSC is one of approximately 65 deployments o...

  2. Burrowing Owl - Palo Verde Valley [ds197

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These burrowing owl observations were collected during the spring and early summer of 1976 in the Palo Verde Valley, eastern Riverside County, California. This is an...

  3. Hydrothermal system of Long Valley caldera, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorey, M.L.; Lewis, R.E.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic setting of the hydrothermal system are described. The geochemical and thermal characteristics of the system are presented. A mathematical model of the Long Valley caldera is analyzed. (MHR)

  4. Hydraulic fracturing and infant health: New evidence from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Meckel, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    The development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is considered the biggest change to the global energy production system in the last half-century. However, several communities have banned fracking because of unresolved concerns about the impact of this process on human health. To evaluate the potential health impacts of fracking, we analyzed records of more than 1.1 million births in Pennsylvania from 2004 to 2013, comparing infants born to mothers living at different distances from active fracking sites and those born both before and after fracking was initiated at each site. We adjusted for fixed maternal determinants of infant health by comparing siblings who were and were not exposed to fracking sites in utero. We found evidence for negative health effects of in utero exposure to fracking sites within 3 km of a mother's residence, with the largest health impacts seen for in utero exposure within 1 km of fracking sites. Negative health impacts include a greater incidence of low-birth weight babies as well as significant declines in average birth weight and in several other measures of infant health. There is little evidence for health effects at distances beyond 3 km, suggesting that health impacts of fracking are highly local. Informal estimates suggest that about 29,000 of the nearly 4 million annual U.S. births occur within 1 km of an active fracking site and that these births therefore may be at higher risk of poor birth outcomes.

  5. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Sheila M; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J

    2013-03-26

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl(-)) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl(-) concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl(-) concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases.

  6. Lessons from Benjamin Franklin's civic leadership: the Pennsylvania Hospital story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I

    1988-01-01

    John Gardner has recently suggested that in a pluralistic society like ours there are many competing groups, each with its own purpose. This leads to fragmentation and conflict as various social systems and institutions interact and collide. We have seen this in health care where competition has eroded traditional provider-insurer-purchaser alliances and, for example, the access problem has grown rapidly. Leaders in such an environment, Gardner (1988) argues, must become involve with building more "mutually workable arrangements with systems external to their own... Leaders unwilling to do so are not serving the long-germ interest of their own constituents... Under the circumstances, all our leader must spend part of their time building community, dealing with polarization, and creating loyalty to the larger venture." Methods for building community in turbulent times are offered by our first health care social entrepreneur, Benjamin Franklin. The following case study presents Franklin's leadership style and the three-phase process of seeking the civic unity that created Franklin's leadership style and the three-phase process of seeking the civic unity that created Pennsylvania Hospital, the nation;s first community hospital. The discussion concludes with a consideration of Franklin's civic leadership in light of five leadership roles suggested by Gardner.

  7. Health Needs Assessment of Plain Populations in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirk; Yost, Berwood; Abbott, Christina; Thompson, Scottie; Dlugi, Emily; Adams, Zachary; Schulman, Meryl; Strauss, Nicole

    2017-02-01

    We performed a health needs assessment for three Plain communities in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania from a random sample of households. Compared with the general population of adults, Plain respondents were more likely to be married, to have children, and they had large families; they were more likely to drink well water, to eat fruit and vegetables, to drink raw milk, and to live on a farm. Plain respondents had better physical and mental health and were less likely to have been diagnosed with various medical conditions compared with the general population of adults in Lancaster County but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have been diagnosed compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Plain respondents usually have a regular doctor and often receive preventive care but Old Order Mennonite respondents were more likely to have a regular doctor, to receive preventive care, to have had their children vaccinated, and to receive routine dental care compared with Old Order Amish respondents. Despite their relative geographic and genetic isolation, and despite the small, relative differences noted, the health of Plain communities in Lancaster County is similar to that of other adults in the County.

  8. Interview with Pennsylvania PUC chairman Susan M. Shanaman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utroska, D.

    1981-01-01

    Chairman Shanaman notes that Pennsylvania law justifies the Public Utility Commission (PUC) refusal to charge ratepayers for the cost of Three Mile Island units 1 and 2, neither of which are providing service, because ratepayers are already paying the costs of replacement power. The PUC chairman points to other service territories around the country where rates are kept below national averages because the average income level is low. The Metropolitan Edison Company is seeking Federal relief as well as legislative permission to put TMI-1 back into the rate base in fairness to ratepayers, but the PUC does not see bankruptcy for the utility as an appropriate way to force Federal assistance. The Administration needs to understand the local impact of Federal policies, especially those which are incompatible with state situations. Appropriate involvement includes nuclear waste research and underwriting some of the cleanup costs of onsite accidents that are too large for a single utility to handle. Chairman Shanaman feels that ratepayers should contribute to the insurance premium for future accidents, but not retroactively to support TMI-2. Nuclear power plant construction in the US will not progress until the issues of TMI-2 are resolved

  9. Human factors in GIScience laboratory at the Pennsylvania State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippel, Alexander

    2009-05-01

    The human factors in GIScience Laboratory (Human Factors Lab) of The Pennsylvania State University's Department of Geography is located in University Park, PA (USA). University Park and bordering State College, PA are found in the heart of PA between the cities of New York City, NY, Philadelphia, PA, and Pittsburgh, PA. The laboratory is directed by Dr. Alexander Klippel and is part of the GeoVISTA Center. The Human Factors Lab contributes to Penn State Geography's strong tradition as a leader in research on map perception, spatial cognition, and behavior in spatial environments. This report focuses upon basic research topics in spatial cognition, including: (1) perceptual and cognitive factors in map symbolization and design, (2) the creation of cognitively ergonomic route directions for next generation location based services (LBS), (3) You-Are-Here maps and the creation of a sense of place through map-like representations, (4) the conceptualization and representation of dynamic phenomena (i.e., geographic movement pattern), and (5) the relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic conceptualization.

  10. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  11. Radiochemistry Education and Research Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenlue, Kenan

    2009-01-01

    A new Radiochemistry Education and Research Program was started at the Pennsylvania University, Radiation Science and Engineering Center. The program was initially supported by the Department of Energy, Radiochemistry Education Award Program (REAP). Using REAP funding as leverage we obtained support from the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Department of Homeland Security, Domestic Nuclear Detection Office, various internal funding from PSU and other entities. The PSU radiochemistry program primarily addresses radiochemistry education and secondarily nuclear and radiochemistry research. The education program consists of bolstering our existing radiochemistry and related courses; Nuclear and Radiochemistry, Radiation Detection and Measurement, Radiological Safety and developing new courses, e.g., Laboratory Experiments in Applied Nuclear and Radiochemistry, and Nuclear Methods in Science. A new laboratory has been created with state of the art equipment for the Laboratory Experiments in Applied Nuclear and Radiochemistry course. We also plan to revitalize the nuclear and radiochemistry research programs. We established a state-of-the-art Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory and a gamma ray spectroscopy laboratory that has 10 stations including state-of-the-art nuclear spectroscopy hardware and software. In addition, we embarked on an expansion plan that included building a new neutron beam hall and neutron beam ports with a cold neutron source. One of the reasons to have a cold neutron source is for the development of a prompt gamma activation analysis facility. A detailed description of PSU radiochemistry education and research program will be given and the future plans will be discussed.

  12. A Heat Vulnerability Index and Adaptation Solutions for Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.; Abrahams, L.; Bradford, K.; Hegglin, M.

    2015-12-01

    With increasing evidence of global warming, many cities have focused attention on response plans to address their populations' vulnerabilities. Despite expected increased frequency and intensity of heat waves, the health impacts of such events in urban areas can be minimized with careful policy and economic investments. We focus on Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and ask two questions. First, what are the top factors contributing to heat vulnerability and how do these characteristics manifest geospatially throughout Pittsburgh? Second, assuming the City wishes to deploy additional cooling centers, what placement will optimally address the vulnerability of the at risk populations? We use national census data, ArcGIS geospatial modeling, and statistical analysis to determine a range of heat vulnerability indices and optimal cooling center placement. We find that while different studies use different data and statistical calculations, all methods tested locate additional cooling centers at the confluence of the three rivers (Downtown), the northeast side of Pittsburgh (Shadyside/ Highland Park), and the southeast side of Pittsburgh (Squirrel Hill). This suggests that for Pittsburgh, a researcher could apply the same factor analysis procedure to compare datasets for different locations and times; factor analyses for heat vulnerability are more robust than previously thought.

  13. Guia para Padres Educacion Especial para Ninos en Pre-Escolar en Pennsylvania. (A Parent Guide to Special Education for Preschool Children in Pennsylvania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent Education Network, York, PA.

    This guide, in Spanish, is intended to help Pennsylvania parents of preschool children with special needs to understand their rights and assist in the design of an appropriate early intervention preschool educational program. An overview of special education laws focuses on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part B. The main sections…

  14. Strawberry Growing in the Pajaro Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Regional History Project, UCSC Library; Shikuma, Hiroshi; Jarrell, Randall

    1986-01-01

    Mr. Shikuma is a prominent Nisei strawberry grower in the Pajaro Valley. In this volume he describes family life in the Japanese-American community in the Pajaro Valley during the first decades of the twentieth century. He conveys the texture of everyday family life, recalling details of housing, food preparation, education, religion, and his childhood responsibilities in a farming family. The second part of the volume describes the growth and development of strawberries as an import...

  15. 77 FR 33237 - Saline Valley Warm Springs Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Death Valley National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... visitor access, asset management, water resources, biological and cultural resources, human health and... desert valley located in the northwest portion of Death Valley National Park. Despite the variety of... passage of the California Desert Protection Act in 1994. Under NPS management, efforts have been made to...

  16. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  17. Evaluation of acidity estimation methods for mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Daeryong; Park, Byungtae; Mendinsky, Justin J; Paksuchon, Benjaphon; Suhataikul, Ratda; Dempsey, Brian A; Cho, Yunchul

    2015-01-01

    Eighteen sites impacted by abandoned mine drainage (AMD) in Pennsylvania were sampled and measured for pH, acidity, alkalinity, metal ions, and sulfate. This study compared the accuracy of four acidity calculation methods with measured hot peroxide acidity and identified the most accurate calculation method for each site as a function of pH and sulfate concentration. Method E1 was the sum of proton and acidity based on total metal concentrations; method E2 added alkalinity; method E3 also accounted for aluminum speciation and temperature effects; and method E4 accounted for sulfate speciation. To evaluate errors between measured and predicted acidity, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), the coefficient of determination (R (2)), and the root mean square error to standard deviation ratio (RSR) methods were applied. The error evaluation results show that E1, E2, E3, and E4 sites were most accurate at 0, 9, 4, and 5 of the sites, respectively. Sites where E2 was most accurate had pH greater than 4.0 and less than 400 mg/L of sulfate. Sites where E3 was most accurate had pH greater than 4.0 and sulfate greater than 400 mg/L with two exceptions. Sites where E4 was most accurate had pH less than 4.0 and more than 400 mg/L sulfate with one exception. The results indicate that acidity in AMD-affected streams can be accurately predicted by using pH, alkalinity, sulfate, Fe(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) concentrations in one or more of the identified equations, and that the appropriate equation for prediction can be selected based on pH and sulfate concentration.

  18. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  19. Christmas Valley Renewable Energy Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mar, Robert [Oregon Department of Energy, Salem, OR (United States)

    2017-05-22

    In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. In partnership with the Oregon Military Department, the Department of Energy used the award to assess and evaluate renewable resources in a 2,622-acre location in Lake County, central Oregon, leading to future development of up to 200 MW of solar electricity. The Oregon Military Department (Military) acquired a large parcel of land located in south central Oregon. The land was previously owned by the US Air Force and developed for an Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Transmitter Facility, located about 10 miles east of the town of Christmas Valley. The Military is investigating a number of uses for the site, including Research and Development (R&D) laboratory, emergency response, military operations, developing renewable energy and related educational programs. One of the key potential uses would be for a large scale solar photovoltaic power plant. This is an attractive use because the site has excellent solar exposure; an existing strong electrical interconnection to the power grid; and a secure location at a moderate cost per acre. The project objectives include: 1. Site evaluation 2. Research and Development (R&D) facility analysis 3. Utility interconnection studies and agreements 4. Additional on-site renewable energy resources analysis 5. Community education, outreach and mitigation 6. Renewable energy and emergency readiness training program for veterans

  20. The Right to Strike for Pennsylvania's Public Employees--Its Scope, Limits and Ramifications for the Public Employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Kurt H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the impact of private labor rulings on Pennsylvania's public employee laws, public sector strikes and their implications, and Pennsylvania's public employee laws and the right to strike. Available from Duquesne Law Review, 901 Rockwell Hall, 600 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15219; sc $3.50. (Author/IRT)

  1. Seed storage and testing at Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Penn Nursery and Wood Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Kozar

    2008-01-01

    Planting tree seeds at the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Penn Nursery, Spring Mills, Pennsylvania occurs in spring and fall. Seeds acquired for these plantings come from 3 sources. The first source is our own orchards, which were developed to provide “improved” seeds. Improved seeds are produced from scion material collected from trees...

  2. Perceptions of Pennsylvania School Librarians Regarding Their Role in Providing Copyright Advice to Students, Teacher, and Administrators in Their School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of Pennsylvania school librarians about the role they play in providing copyright guidance to the students, teachers, and administrators in their school during the 2011-2012 school year. Using two electronic mailing lists for Pennsylvania school librarians, the researcher posted an email asking…

  3. A Cost Analysis of Day Care Centers in Pennsylvania. Center for Human Service Development Report No. 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-Wei; Wise, Karl

    The purpose of this study is to provide day care center management and government funding agencies with empirical estimates of the costs of day care centers in Pennsylvania. Based on cost data obtained from the Department of Public Welfare and survey information from the Pennsylvania Day Care Study Project, average and marginal costs of day care…

  4. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35116] R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and Operation Exemption--In Clearfield County, PA.... 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc. (RJCP) to construct and operate 10.8...

  5. 77 FR 43071 - Public Power, LLC of Pennsylvania; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Public Power, LLC of Pennsylvania's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2252-000] Public Power, LLC of Pennsylvania; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  6. Pennsylvania's Asthma School Project and descriptive pilot investigation: a focus on environmental health tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, James N; White, Mark V; Marchetto, David J

    2007-10-01

    The authors reviewed asthma prevalence rates from all 501 Pennsylvania public school districts for 1997-1998 through 2002-2003. School nurses collect and report these data to the Pennsylvania Department of Health annually, and the data are aggregated by school district, county, and specified school year. The department initiated a descriptive pilot investigation in 2004 as part of the larger Asthma School Project, targeting all students with asthma in the two districts that had the highest and second highest asthma rates in Pennsylvania. The authors conclude that reporting of asthma by school nurses was a reliable data source, since most participating students had documentation of asthma diagnosis or asthma medication. The department also conducted environmental evaluations at the schools and investigated the occurrences of asthma exacerbations in participating students, but no unusual patterns or links to the schools were identified. The authors encourage other state health departments to consider designing and testing similar approaches to tracking asthma in students.

  7. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Schuylkill River basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    IntroductionIn 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a long-term water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroinvertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preferences and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthic-macroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions. Using these data, Reif evaluated the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Schuylkill River Basin. These streams include Pigeon Creek (site 10), Stony Run (site 6), French Creek (sites 12-16), Pickering Creek (sites 1-5), Little Valley Creek (site 49), and Valley Creek (site 50). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  8. Non-Fluvial Controls of Erosion, Sediment Transport and Fluvial Morphology in a mid-Atlantic Piedmont Watershed, White Clay Creek, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.; Affinito, R. A.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Stotts, S.; Henry, T.; Krauthauser, M.; O'Neal, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Quantifying contemporary sediment budgets is essential for restoration and ecosystem management of mid-Atlantic watersheds, but relevant processes and controls are poorly understood. In the 153 km2 White Clay Creek watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania, longitudinal profiles reflect migration of knickpoints though bedrock over Quaternary timescales. In bank exposures along stream valleys, saprolite, bedrock, and matrix-supported cobbly and bouldery diamicton (likely colluvial) commonly underlie finer-grained clay, silt, sand, and gravel deposits of valley floor depositional environments. Overbank sedimentation rates were quantified by measuring the thickness of sediment deposited over the roots of floodplain trees. The sampled trees range in age from 25-270 years with median sediment accumulation rates of approximately 2 mm/yr (range 0-10 mm/yr). Rates of bank retreat (measured from historical aerial imagery or root-exposure dendrochronology) vary from 6-36 cm/yr, with median rates of 10 cm/yr. While bank erosion rates are subject to a variety of controls, including channel curvature, the density of riparian trees, and freeze-thaw processes, the strongest influence appears to be the grain size and thickness of bouldery diamicton exposed along the toes of retreating banks. Cobbles and boulders supplied by eroding diamicton also mantle the bed of the channel, such that 33- 80% of the bed material remains immobile at bankfull stage. A conceptual model of fluvial processes and sediment budgets for these channels must account for the watershed's history of changing climate, tectonics, and land use, requiring mapping of bedrock, colluvium, former mill dam sediments, and other non-alluvial deposits and controls. Efforts to apply hydraulic geometry principles (requiring a precise adjustment to contemporary hydraulic and sediment regime) or to treat these channels as traditional "threshold" rivers are unlikely to be successful.

  9. Advertising/public relations campaign to combat the negative economic impact caused by the nuclear mishap at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the Department of Commerce, conducted a media advertising campaign to offset the negative implications and effects of the Three Mile Island incident. The emphasis of the campaign has been directed toward a friendly, all-clear image for Pennsylvania. The travel industry of the entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the chief beneficiary of the proposed project

  10. Advertising/public relations campaign to combat the negative economic impact caused by the nuclear mishap at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the Department of Commerce, conducted a media advertising campaign to offset the negative implications and effects of the Three Mile Island incident. The emphasis of the campaign has been directed toward a friendly, all-clear image for Pennsylvania. The travel industry of the entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the chief beneficiary of the proposed project.

  11. Radar research at The Pennsylvania State University Radar and Communications Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    The Radar and Communications Laboratory (RCL) at The Pennsylvania State University is at the forefront of radar technology and is engaged in cutting edge research in all aspects of radar, including modeling and simulation studies of novel radar paradigms, design and development of new types of radar architectures, and extensive field measurements in realistic scenarios. This paper summarizes the research at The Pennsylvania State University's Radar and Communications Laboratory and relevant collaborative research with several groups over the past 15 years in the field of radar and related technologies, including communications, radio frequency identification (RFID), and spectrum sensing.

  12. Baseline groundwater quality from 20 domestic wells in Sullivan County, Pennsylvania, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 domestic wells during August and September 2012 and analyzed for 47 constituents and properties, including nutrients, major ions, metals and trace elements, radioactivity, and dissolved gases, including methane and radon-222. This study, done in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for central and southern Sullivan County prior to drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale.

  13. Graphene Nanobubbles as Valley Filters and Beam Splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Brandbyge, Mads

    2016-01-01

    The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices is the ab......The energy band structure of graphene has two inequivalent valleys at the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone. The possibility to manipulate this valley degree of freedom defines the field of valleytronics, the valley analogue of spintronics. A key requirement for valleytronic devices...... is the ability to break the valley degeneracy by filtering and spatially splitting valleys to generate valley polarized currents. Here, we suggest a way to obtain valley polarization using strain-induced inhomogeneous pseudomagnetic fields (PMFs) that act oppositely on the two valleys. Notably, the suggested...... to be addressed individually. In this way, graphene nanobubbles can be exploited in both valley filtering and valley splitting devices, and our simulations reveal that a number of different functionalities are possible depending on the deformation field....

  14. Subsurface Salts in Antarctic Dry Valley Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, P.; Bishop, J. L.; Gibson, E. K.; Koeberl, C.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of water-soluble ions, major and minor elements, and other parameters were examined to determine the extent and effects of chemical weathering on cold desert soils. Patterns at the study sites support theories of multiple salt forming processes, including marine aerosols and chemical weathering of mafic minerals. Periodic solar-mediated ionization of atmospheric nitrogen might also produce high nitrate concentrations found in older sediments. Chemical weathering, however, was the major contributor of salts in Antarctic Dry Valleys. The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent a unique analog for Mars, as they are extremely cold and dry desert environments. Similarities in the climate, surface geology, and chemical properties of the Dry Valleys to that of Mars imply the possible presence of these soil formation mechanisms on Mars, other planets and icy satellites.

  15. The lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the proceedings of a workshop on the Lakes of the Jordan Rift Valley that was held in conjunction with the CRP on The Use of Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations. The paper presents a review of the geological, hydrogeological and physical limnological setting of the lakes in the Jordan Rift Valley, Lake Hula, Lake Kinneret and the Dead Sea. This is complemented by a description of the isotope hydrology of the system that includes the use of a wide range of isotopes: oxygen-18, deuterium, tritium, carbon-14, carbon-13, chlorine isotopes, boron-11 and helium-3/4. Environmental isotope aspects of the salt balances of the lakes, their palaeolimnology and biogeochemical tracers are also presented. The scope of application of isotopic tracers is very broad and provides a clear insight into many aspects of the physical, chemical and biological limnology of the Rift Valley Lakes. (author)

  16. A new Proposal to Mexico Valley Zonification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Estrella, H. C.; Yussim, S.; Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of the Michoacan earthquake (19th September, 1985, Mw 8.1) in Mexico City caused a significant change in the political, social and scientific history, as it was considered the worst seismic disaster ever lived in Mexico. Since then, numerous efforts have been made to understand and determine the parameters that caused the special features registered. One of these efforts had began on 1960 with the work by Marsal and Masari, who published the Mexico Valley seismological and geotechnical zonification (1969), based on gravimetric and shallow borehole data. In this work, we present a revision of the studies that proposed the zonification, a description of the valley geology, and basing on it we propose a new zonification for Mexico Valley.

  17. Geologic summary of the Owens Valley drilling project, Owens and Rose Valleys, Inyo County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaer, D.W.

    1981-07-01

    The Owens Valley Drilling Project consists of eight drill holes located in southwest Inyo County, California, having an aggregate depth of 19,205 feet (5853 m). Project holes penetrated the Coso Formation of upper Pliocene or early Pleistocene age and the Owens Lake sand and lakebed units of the same age. The project objective was to improve the reliability of uranium-potential-resource estimates assigned to the Coso Formation in the Owens Valley region. Uranium-potential-resource estimates for this area in $100 per pound U 3 O 8 forward-cost-category material have been estimatd to be 16,954 tons (15,384 metric tons). This estimate is based partly on project drilling results. Within the Owens Valley project area, the Coso Formation was encountered only in the Rose Valley region, and for this reason Rose Valley is considered to be the only portion of the project area favorable for economically sized uranium deposits. The sequence of sediments contained in the Owens Valley basin is considered to be largely equivalent but lithologically dissimilar to the Coso Formation of Haiwee Ridge and Rose Valley. The most important factor in the concentration of significant amounts of uranium in the rock units investigated appears to be the availability of reducing agents. Significant amounts of reductants (pyrite) were found in the Coso Formation. No organic debris was noted. Many small, disconnected uranium occurrences, 100 to 500 ppM U 3 O 8 , were encountered in several of the holes

  18. Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Coachella Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Coachella study area is approximately 820 square miles (2,124 square kilometers) and includes the Coachella Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Coachella Valley has an arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The runoff from the surrounding mountains drains to rivers that flow east and south out of the study area to the Salton Sea. Land use in the study area is approximately 67 percent (%) natural, 21% agricultural, and 12% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban areas are the cities of Indio and Palm Springs (2010 populations of 76,000 and 44,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Coachella Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Coachella Valley are completed to depths between 490 and 900 feet (149 to 274 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 260 to 510 feet (79 to 155 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to

  19. Distributed usability evaluation of the Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Tanuka; Robinson, Anthony C; Gruver, Adrienne; MacEachren, Alan M; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2008-07-11

    The Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas (PA-CA) is an interactive online atlas to help policy-makers, program managers, and epidemiologists with tasks related to cancer prevention and control. The PA-CA includes maps, graphs, tables, that are dynamically linked to support data exploration and decision-making with spatio-temporal cancer data. Our Atlas development process follows a user-centered design approach. To assess the usability of the initial versions of the PA-CA, we developed and applied a novel strategy for soliciting user feedback through multiple distributed focus groups and surveys. Our process of acquiring user feedback leverages an online web application (e-Delphi). In this paper we describe the PA-CA, detail how we have adapted e-Delphi web application to support usability and utility evaluation of the PA-CA, and present the results of our evaluation. We report results from four sets of users. Each group provided structured individual and group assessments of the PA-CA as well as input on the kinds of users and applications for which it is best suited. Overall reactions to the PA-CA are quite positive. Participants did, however, provide a range of useful suggestions. Key suggestions focused on improving interaction functions, enhancing methods of temporal analysis, addressing data issues, and providing additional data displays and help functions. These suggestions were incorporated in each design and implementation iteration for the PA-CA and used to inform a set of web-atlas design principles. For the Atlas, we find that a design that utilizes linked map, graph, and table views is understandable to and perceived to be useful by the target audience of cancer prevention and control professionals. However, it is clear that considerable variation in experience using maps and graphics exists and for those with less experience, integrated tutorials and help features are needed. In relation to our usability assessment strategy, we find that our distributed, web

  20. Distributed usability evaluation of the Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachren Alan M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas (PA-CA is an interactive online atlas to help policy-makers, program managers, and epidemiologists with tasks related to cancer prevention and control. The PA-CA includes maps, graphs, tables, that are dynamically linked to support data exploration and decision-making with spatio-temporal cancer data. Our Atlas development process follows a user-centered design approach. To assess the usability of the initial versions of the PA-CA, we developed and applied a novel strategy for soliciting user feedback through multiple distributed focus groups and surveys. Our process of acquiring user feedback leverages an online web application (e-Delphi. In this paper we describe the PA-CA, detail how we have adapted e-Delphi web application to support usability and utility evaluation of the PA-CA, and present the results of our evaluation. Results We report results from four sets of users. Each group provided structured individual and group assessments of the PA-CA as well as input on the kinds of users and applications for which it is best suited. Overall reactions to the PA-CA are quite positive. Participants did, however, provide a range of useful suggestions. Key suggestions focused on improving interaction functions, enhancing methods of temporal analysis, addressing data issues, and providing additional data displays and help functions. These suggestions were incorporated in each design and implementation iteration for the PA-CA and used to inform a set of web-atlas design principles. Conclusion For the Atlas, we find that a design that utilizes linked map, graph, and table views is understandable to and perceived to be useful by the target audience of cancer prevention and control professionals. However, it is clear that considerable variation in experience using maps and graphics exists and for those with less experience, integrated tutorials and help features are needed. In relation to our usability

  1. Genome analysis of Rift Valley fever virus, Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Zeller, Hervé; Grandadam, Marc; Caro, Valérie; Pettinelli, François; Bouloy, Michèle; Cardinale, Eric; Albina, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    As further confirmation of a first human case of Rift Valley fever in 2007 in Comoros, we isolated Rift Valley fever virus in suspected human cases. These viruses are genetically closely linked to the 2006-2007 isolates from Kenya.

  2. Solar energy innovation and Silicon Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2015-03-01

    The growth of the U. S. and global solar energy industry depends on a strong relationship between science and engineering innovation, manufacturing, and cycles of policy design and advancement. The mixture of the academic and industrial engine of innovation that is Silicon Valley, and the strong suite of environmental policies for which California is a leader work together to both drive the solar energy industry, and keep Silicon Valley competitive as China, Europe and other area of solar energy strength continue to build their clean energy sectors.

  3. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Coachella Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ICF Kaiser

    1999-05-20

    Southern California's Coachella Valley became a Clean Cities region in 1996. Since then, they've made great strides. SunLine Transit, the regional public transit provider, was the first transit provider to replace its entire fleet with compressed natural gas buses. They've also built the foundation for a nationally recognized model in the clean air movement, by partnering with Southern California Gas Company to install a refueling station and developing a curriculum for AFV maintenance with the College of the Desert. Today the valley is home to more than 275 AFVs and 15 refueling stations.

  4. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania's Experience 1979-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Balmert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014.Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49 from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates.Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35-44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton.The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35-44.

  5. Day Reporting Center and Recidivism: Comparing Offender Groups in a Western Pennsylvania County Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, David R.; Harvey, Patrick J.; Schanz, Youngyol Yim

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors report on an investigation comparing the recidivism and other variables of two similar offender populations in a western Pennsylvania county. The two groups were comparable in offense type, size (N = 63 for each) and other variables such as sex, race and age range. One group represented offenders who received a sentence…

  6. 76 FR 56874 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... and milepost 17.98 at Elm, a distance of 4.98 miles. SEPTA owns all of the real estate and track... provided by Consolidated Rail Corporation (Conrail) since the real estate and track were transferred from..., Inc.--Trackage Rights Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company, Pennsylvania Northeastern Railroad...

  7. Interim Recommendations To Promote Minority Permanence at the University of Pennsylvania. Working Draft for Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain-Cade McCoullum, Valarie

    A review of the programs and policies to support the retention and nurturing of minority faculty members and students at the University of Pennsylvania leads to a number of recommendations to expand minority group representation in student and faculty ranks. These include (1) establishing departmental incentives for minority faculty recruitment,…

  8. Performance Measurement and Accommodation: Students with Visual Impairments on Pennsylvania's Alternate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the use of accommodations and the performance of students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities on the Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA)yCoan alternate performance-based assessment. Methods: Differences in test scores on the most basic level (level A) of the PASA of 286…

  9. Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Nuclear Reactor. Thirtieth annual progress report, July 1, 1984-June 30, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.H.; Totenbier, R.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is the thirtieth annual progress report of the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Nuclear Reactor and covers such topics as: personnel; reactor facility; cobalt-60 facility; education and training; Radionuclear Application Laboratory; Low Level Radiation Monitoring Laboratory; and facility research utilization

  10. 75 FR 34964 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ..., (4) air fresheners, (5) adhesives, (6) bait station insecticides, and (7) fragrances. 6. Establishes... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Amendment to Consumer Products and... under the Clean Air Act (CAA). DATES: Written comments must be received on or before July 21, 2010...

  11. Using External Collaborations To Advance Distributed Learning at the University of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleey, Michael; Comegno, Marsha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses distributed-learning technology and distance learning in higher education and describes initiatives at the University of Pennsylvania to collaborate with businesses and choose outsourcing for some functions. Reasons for outsourcing include a decentralized institutional structure, high initial costs, uncertainty about which techniques…

  12. Math Science Partnership of Southwest Pennsylvania: Measuring Progress toward Goals. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, John F.; Williams, Valerie L.; Olmsted, Stuart S.; Yuan, Kun; Spindler, Eleanor; Slaughter, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Allegheny Intermediate Unit received a grant under the National Science Foundation's Math and Science Partnership program to establish the Math Science Partnership of Southwest Pennsylvania (MSP). The MSP brings together regional K-12 school districts, institutions of higher education, and intermediate units with the goals of…

  13. A review and validation of the IMPLAN model for Pennsylvania's solid hardwood product industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss

    1993-01-01

    The IMPLAN model for Pennsylvania was reviewed with respect to the industries processing the state's solid hardwood resources. Several sectors were found to be under represented in the standard sources of industrial activity. Further problems were attributed to the lack of distinction between hardwoods and softwoods in the national model. A further set of changes...

  14. Quantifying life cycle environmental benefits from the reuse of industrial materials in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Chertow, Marian R

    2009-04-01

    Local reuse of waste materials from industrial processes has many potential environmental benefits, but these have been difficult to aggregate and measure across industries on a broad geographic scale. Nonhazardous industrial waste is a high volume flow principally constituted of wastewater with some solid materials. The state of Pennsylvania produced some 20 million metric tons of these residual wastes in 2004. An innovative reporting requirement for industrial generators implemented and compiled by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection has resulted in a rich database collected since 1992 of residual waste generation, detailing the fate of more than 100 materials. By combining these records with life cycle inventory (LCI) data, the current and potential environmental benefits of residual waste use have been assessed. Results for Pennsylvania indicate a savings in 2004 of 13 PJ of primary energy, 0.9 million metric tons of CO2eq, 4300 tons of SO2eq, and 4200 tons of NOx emissions from reuse of residual wastes. While these energy savings constitute less than 1% of total industrial primary energy use in the state, it is a greater quantity of energy than that generated by the state's renewable energy sector. The framework and constraints surrounding reuse of residualwaste in Pennsylvania are discussed.

  15. The transmission characteristics of A/Chicken/Pennsylvania/83 influenza virus, an experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, van der J.A.; Koch, G.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Boven, van R.M.

    2003-01-01

    High-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) viruses emerged from low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses in Pennsylvania (1983-84), Mexico (1994-95), and Italy (1999-2000). Here we focus on the question of why the HPAI virus supersedes the LPAI virus, once it has appeared during the epidemic.

  16. Measurement of forest condition and response along the Pennsylvania atmospheric deposition gradent

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.D. David; J.M. Skelly; J.A. Lynch; L.H. McCormick; B.L. Nash; M. Simini; E.A. Cameron; J.R. McClenahen; R.P. Long

    1991-01-01

    Research in the oak-hickory forest of northcentral Pennsylvania is being conducted to detect anomalies in forest condition that may be due to atmospheric deposition, with the intent that such anomalies will be further studied to determine the role, if any, of atmospheric deposition. This paper presents the status of research along a 160-km gradient of sulfate/nitrate...

  17. Beyond Boomer Meets NextGen: Examining Mentoring Practices among Pennsylvania Academic Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyer, Linda; Yelinek, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    A survey to assess mentoring experiences and attitudes towards work of Pennsylvania academic librarians was conducted in September 2006 with questions concerning mentoring experiences, work experiences, and attitudes towards work. Results of the survey are analyzed for differences among those librarians responding, especially generational…

  18. Developing an Ethical Framework in Decision Making of Rural Elementary School Principals in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozien, Wafa Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe individual Pennsylvania rural elementary principals' experiences of ethical decision-making in a complex era. Ethical dilemma, in this case, is the term used to depict an incident which calls for a decision to be made when moral values or ethical principles were in conflict. Also, to learn how…

  19. 76 FR 67640 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Attainment Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Quality Control, P.O. Box 8468, 400 Market Street, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... chemical precursors are sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), ammonia (NH 3 ), and volatile... regarding NH 3 emission inventories and the efficacy of ammonia control technologies as noted earlier in...

  20. 77 FR 74115 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; The 2002 Base Year...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Protection, Bureau of Air Quality Control, P.O. Box 8468, 400 Market Street, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105... ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3 ), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ). EPA has reviewed the... , coarse particles (PM 10 ), nitrogen oxides (NO X ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH 3...

  1. The Relationship between Marcellus Shale Gas Development in Pennsylvania and Local Perceptions of Risk and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafft, Kai A.; Borlu, Yetkin; Glenna, Leland

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in gas and oil drilling technology have led to dramatic boomtown development in many rural areas that have endured extended periods of economic decline. In Pennsylvania's Marcellus gas fields, the recent development of unconventional shale gas resources has not been without controversy. It has been variously framed as a major…

  2. 76 FR 19741 - Draft Environmental Assessment; Giant Miscanthus in Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... BCAP activity to significantly impact the environment, or (2) Additional environmental analyses in the... Miscanthus in Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Farm...: We will consider comments that we receive by May 7, 2011. The Farm Service Agency (FSA) will consider...

  3. 77 FR 27081 - II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics-Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, Pennsylvania; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ..., Infrared Optics--Saxonburg Division, Saxonburg, Pennsylvania; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of II-VI, Incorporated, Infrared Optics--Saxonburg...). The workers were engaged in employment related to the production of infrared and CO 2 laser optics...

  4. 76 FR 76490 - PPL Susquehanna, LLC and Allegheny Electric Cooperative, Inc.-Acquisition Exemption-Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... that it intends to grant an easement to NSRR, a Class III rail carrier, to provide common carrier... acquisition of an active rail line. PPLS seeks the exemption for its purchase, from the Pennsylvania..., filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire a rail operating easement over the Line. The Board held...

  5. Regional Changes in the Timber Resources of and Lumber Production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and explain how the combined changes in this resource and in lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production affect harvesting levels and harvesting activity influences long-term...

  6. Pennsylvania SBIRT Medical and Residency Training: Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating an Evidenced-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Janice L.; Melczak, Michael; Johnjulio, William; Campopiano, Melinda; Gordon, Adam J.; Costlow, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Medical residents do not receive adequate training in screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for alcohol and other drug use disorders. The federally funded Pennsylvania SBIRT Medical and Residency Training program (SMaRT) is an evidence-based curriculum with goals of training residents in SBIRT knowledge and skills and…

  7. 78 FR 64935 - Borough of Ellwood City, Pennsylvania; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... City's wastewater treatment plant in Lawrence County, Pennsylvania. Applicant Contact: August E. Maas... sections 385.2001 through 385.2005 of the Commission's regulations.\\1\\ All comments contesting Commission staff's preliminary determination that the facility meets the qualifying criteria must set forth their...

  8. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  9. 76 FR 52283 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Glass... revisions pertain to the control of nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emissions from glass melting furnaces. EPA is..., Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: August 8...

  10. 76 FR 42558 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from... revisions pertain to the control of nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from Portland cement kilns. EPA is..., Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: June 27, 2011...

  11. Variations in productivity and performance in grade lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia-1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert P. Dempsey; Gilbert P. Dempsey

    1987-01-01

    Sawmill effectiveness is crucial to the growth and development of wood industries among locales, states, regions, and countries. Productivity ratios, structural factors, and other indicators of economic performance were used to measure the relative productive efficiency of the grade hardwood lumber industries in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Despite...

  12. 78 FR 66419 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    .... Debbie Noone, P.E., Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, 55 Keystone Industrial Park, Dunmore... Species Act [16 U.S.C. 1531-1544 and Section 1536], Marine Mammal Protection Act [16 U.S.C. 1361], Fish... Species. (Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Number 20.205, Highway Planning and Construction...

  13. 76 FR 45741 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act AGENCY... the Commonwealth's Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act (Act 124 of 2008, or simply Act 124) into... allowable time that heavy-duty, commercial highway diesel vehicles of over 10,000 pounds gross vehicle...

  14. Abundance of Armillaria within old-growth eastern hemlock stands in South-Central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Fromm; Donald D. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—In early summer 2002, 329 soil-sampling pits were dug within an old-growth, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carrière) stand in south-central Pennsylvania recently infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). For comparison, 199 similar pits were dug in an adjacent hardwood stand. Rhizomorphs of...

  15. An Investigation of the Difference Between Pennsylvania Vocational School and Comprehensive High School Assessment Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blust, Ross S.; Hertzog, James F.

    In 1982 vocational schools participated in Pennsylvania's state assessment program, the Educational Quality Assessment (EQA). When EQA data were tabulated, the vocational school scores were low in comparison to the comprehensive high school scores. An analysis of the vocational school and comprehensive high school scores using state assessment…

  16. Competing values: a case study of Pennsylvania's elk herd as a tourism attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A. Walsh; Leonard K. Long

    2002-01-01

    This paper qualitatively investigates the Pennsylvania Game Commission's (POC) "Elk Trap and Transfer Project" as a tourism development initiative. Beginning in 1998, a three-year trap and transfer project was initiated by the POC to relocate 33 elk from Elk County to Clinton County. The ecological goals of this project included re-establishing an elk...

  17. Optimization of dairy heifer management decisions based on production conditions of Pennsylvania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, M.C.M.; Galligan, D.T.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2000-01-01

    We used a dynamic programming model to determine optimum rearing decisions of dairy replacements. Heifers were described in the model by age, season, body weight, pregnancy state, and prepubertal growth rate. Prices and parameters were chosen to represent the dairy population of Pennsylvania. We

  18. Pennsylvania Teachers' Perceptions and Use of Social Media Communication Technologies as a Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, Brett C.

    2017-01-01

    A number of states and organizations have begun to add cross-content technology elements to their educational standards, providing teachers opportunities to use social media communication (SMC) technology in teaching and learning. Specifically, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the PA Core Standards, which are adapted from the national Common…

  19. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  20. 77 FR 2128 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35584] Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Acquisition Exemption-- Laurel Hill Development Corporation Southwest... 49 CFR 1150.41 to acquire a number of rail lines now owned by Laurel Hill Development Corporation...

  1. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and E. coli from Pennsylvania dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli isolates from Pennsylvania dairy herds. Manure composite samples were collected from 76 farms: on each farm one sample...

  2. Fire history reflects human history in the Pine Creek Gorge of north-central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Richard P. Guyette; Joseph M. Marschall; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2015-01-01

    Fire history studies are important tools for understanding past fire regimes and the roles humans played in those regimes. Beginning in 2010, we conducted a fire history study in the Pine Creek Gorge area of north-central Pennsylvania to ascertain the number of fires and fire-free intervals, their variability through time, and the role of human influences. We collected...

  3. Insects affecting establishment of northern red oak seedlings in central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Galford; L.R. Auchmoody; H.C. Smith; R.S. Walters

    1991-01-01

    Studies to evaluate the impact of insects on the establishment of advance oak regeneration in Pennsylvania were initiated in 1989. The populations and species of insects feeding on germinating acorns and new seedlings, their activity periods, and the damage caused by these insects were studied in relation to overstory-density (40, 60, and 100 percent relative density)...

  4. Proceedings of the Symposium on Minimum Competency Testing (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 24-25, 1979).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mid-Atlantic Teacher Corps Network, Philadelphia, PA.

    The conference's keynote address is presented by Bernard C. Watson. Papers include: Vantage from the State Department of Education, by Robert G. Scanlon (Pennsylvania); Minimum Competency: As the Public Sees the Question, by Jacqueline Grennan Wexler; Minimum Competency Testing (MCT): A Tripartite Response from the Profession, by W. James Popham;…

  5. A Feasibility Study for Consolidating and/or Coordinating Technical Procedures in Beaver County Pennsylvania Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, James W.

    In 1977 the Public Library Commission, in conjunction with the State Library of Pennsylvania, received a Library Services and Construction Act, Title III Grant to conduct a feasibility study of technical service operations in various types of libraries within Beaver County. Its objectives were to: (1) analyze existing library materials purchasing…

  6. Effect of experience, expectation and resource availability on perceptions of crowding among trout anglers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig A. Miller

    1995-01-01

    Crowding research has suggested expectancy theory as one explanation to perceptions of crowding expressed by participants in outdoor recreation activities. Expectancy theory states that an individual enters into an activity with a preconceived set of expectations for the outcome of the experience. In this study, anglers fishing on the opening day of Pennsylvania's...

  7. Links to Learning and Sustainability: Year Three Report of the Pennsylvania High School Coaching Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Diane; Reumann-Moore, Rebecca; Hugh, Roseann; Christman, Jolley Bruce; Riffer, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Research for Action's third and final report completes a three-year evaluation study of the Pennsylvania High School Coaching Initiative (PAHSCI). This report presents lessons from the PAHSCI model of school-based instructional coaching and mentoring as a vehicle for job-embedded professional learning. Reporting from an analysis using qualitative…

  8. Business Law for Business Education Departments in Pennsylvania's Public Schools. Bulletin 280.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Natalie P.

    This guide is designed to aid high school teachers of business law in Pennsylvania to structure their courses. Specifically, it is intended to help teachers identify and place correct emphasis upon those areas of business law which will most nearly meet the students' needs when they reach adulthood, to help teachers to inculcate in the students…

  9. Influence of markets and forest composition on lumber production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and how the combined changes in inventory volume, forest composition, and lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production reflect changes in harvesting activity. In turn, harvesting...

  10. 76 FR 32321 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Revision to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Protection, Bureau of Air Quality Control, P.O. Box 8468, 400 Market Street, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17105..., Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill, Snyder, Somerset, Sullivan, Susquehanna, Tioga, Union, Venango... McKean, Mifflin, Monroe, 1, Chapter 175. Montour, Northumberland, Perry, Pike, Potter, Schuylkill, Snyder...

  11. 77 FR 13015 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...: Section 930.10, the definition of ``Handle''; Section 930.50, ``Marketing Policy'' and Section 930.58... from definition of handle. 2. Amendment 2 would revise the ``marketing policy'' provisions in section... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon...

  12. Fostering Open Space and Recreation Plan Development: A Case Study of Findlay Township, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Christopher J.

    1996-01-01

    A plan adopted in 1992 by Findlay Township in rural Pennsylvania protects undeveloped land from urbanization and expanded and improved the township's park and recreational system. Improvements included a fitness trail, a pavilion, a handicap-accessible jungle gym, tennis and volleyball courts, restrooms, and flower beds and trees. (LP)

  13. 78 FR 27953 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 147 Under Alternative Site Framework Reading, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... terminate authority for Sites 20-22 if no foreign-status merchandise is admitted for a bona fide customs... Zone 147 Under Alternative Site Framework Reading, Pennsylvania Pursuant to its authority under the... application to the Board (FTZ Docket B-79-2012, docketed 11-1-2012) for authority to reorganize under the ASF...

  14. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater samples ( = 163) were collected across Kashmir Valley in 2010 to assess the hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater in shallow and deep aquifers and its suitability for domestic, agriculture, horticulture, and livestock purposes. The groundwater is generally alkaline in nature. The electrical conductivity (EC) ...

  15. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyles, B.; Mihevc, T.

    1994-09-01

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  16. Magnetic Valley: A Knowledge Transfer Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Humbled

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge transfer project called "Magnetic Valley" that was launched in 2009 is presented below. This project is funded by the Belgian government to investigate and develop products and services that will improve the socio-economic development in the area around the "Centre de Physique du Globe de l'IRM".

  17. Rift Valley fever, Mayotte, 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissoko, Daouda; Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D'Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-04-01

    After the 2006-2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte.

  18. Hydrogeochemical assessment of groundwater in Kashmir Valley ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater samples (n = 163) were collected across Kashmir Valley in 2010 to assess the hydrogeo- chemistry of the groundwater in shallow and deep aquifers and its suitability for domestic, agriculture, horticulture, and livestock purposes. The groundwater is generally alkaline in nature. The electrical conductivity (EC) ...

  19. 27 CFR 9.46 - Livermore Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Clayton, CA (1953; Photorevised 1980; Minor Revision 1994); (2) Diablo, Calif. (1953; Photorevised 1980... Livermore Valley viticultural area's boundary is defined as follows: (1) The beginning point is on the Clayton map at the peak of Mount Diablo (VABM 3849) where the Mount Diablo Base Line and Mount Diablo...

  20. Groundwater links between Kenyan Rift Valley lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Becht, Robert; Mwango, Fred; Muno, Fred Amstrong

    2006-01-01

    The series of lakes in the bottom of the Kenyan Rift valley are fed by rivers and springs. Based on the water balance, the relative positions determining the regional groundwater flow systems and the analysis of natural isotopes it can be shown that groundwater flows from lake Naivasha to lake Magadi, Elementeita, Nakuru and Bogoria.

  1. Preceramic occupations in the orinoco river valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barse, W P

    1990-12-07

    Two sites in the Orinoco Valley containing preceramic from excavated contexts are described. Radiocarbon dating and stylistic comparisons indicate that the northern tropical lowlands were inhabited at the onset of the Holocene, suggesting a time depth of 9000 years before the present for tropical forest-savanna adaptations in northern South America.

  2. Reemergence of Rift Valley fever, Mauritania, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Hampathé; Ba, Yamar; Freire, Caio C M; Faye, Oumar; Ndiaye, Oumar; Elgady, Isselmou O; Zanotto, Paolo M A; Diallo, Mawlouth; Sall, Amadou A

    2014-02-01

    A Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in humans and animals occurred in Mauritania in 2010. Thirty cases of RVF in humans and 3 deaths were identified. RVFV isolates were recovered from humans, camels, sheep, goats, and Culex antennatus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of isolates indicated a virus origin from western Africa.

  3. Unexpected Rift Valley fever outbreak, northern Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mamy, Ahmed B O; Baba, Mohamed Ould; Barry, Yahya; Isselmou, Katia; Dia, Mamadou L; El Kory, Mohamed O B; Diop, Mariam; Lo, Modou Moustapha; Thiongane, Yaya; Bengoumi, Mohammed; Puech, Lilian; Plee, Ludovic; Claes, Filip; de La Rocque, Stephane; Doumbia, Baba

    2011-10-01

    During September-October 2010, an unprecedented outbreak of Rift Valley fever was reported in the northern Sahelian region of Mauritania after exceptionally heavy rainfall. Camels probably played a central role in the local amplification of the virus. We describe the main clinical signs (hemorrhagic fever, icterus, and nervous symptoms) observed during the outbreak.

  4. Rift Valley fever: A neglected zoonotic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930, subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health, as well as national economies. ...

  5. Geomorphological hazards in Swat valley, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, A.

    1999-01-01

    This study attempts to describe, interpret and analyze, in depth, the varied geomorphological hazards and their impacts prevailing in the swat valley locate in the northern hilly and mountainous regions of Pakistan. The hills and mountains re zones of high geomorphological activity with rapid rates of weathering, active tectonic activities, abundant precipitation, rapid runoff and heavy sediment transport. Due to the varied topography, lithology, steep slope, erodible soil, heavy winter snowfall and intensive rainfall in the spring and summer seasons, several kinds of geomorphological hazards, such as geomorphic gravitational hazards, Fluvial hazards, Glacial hazards, Geo tectonic hazards, are occurring frequently in swat valley. Amongst them, geomorphic gravitational hazards, such as rock fall rock slide, debris slide mud flow avalanches, are major hazards in mountains and hills while fluvial hazards and sedimentation are mainly confined to the alluvial plain and lowlands of the valley. The Getechtonic hazards, on the other hand, have wide spread distribution in the valley the magnitude and occurrence of each king of hazard is thus, varied according to intensity of process and physical geographic environment. This paper discusses the type distribution and damage due to the various geomorphological hazards and their reduction treatments. The study would to be of particular importance and interest to both natural and social scientists, as well as planner, environmentalists and decision-makers for successful developmental interventions in the region. (author)

  6. Rift Valley Fever, Mayotte, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giry, Claude; Gabrie, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Pettinelli, François; Collet, Louis; D’Ortenzio, Eric; Renault, Philippe; Pierre, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    After the 2006–2007 epidemic wave of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in East Africa and its circulation in the Comoros, laboratory case-finding of RVF was conducted in Mayotte from September 2007 through May 2008. Ten recent human RVF cases were detected, which confirms the indigenous transmission of RFV virus in Mayotte. PMID:19331733

  7. Business plan Hatchery Facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a hatchery, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of the

  8. Babesiosis in Lower Hudson Valley, New York

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-05-12

    This podcast discusses a study about an increase in babesiosis in the Lower Hudson Valley of New York state. Dr. Julie Joseph, Assistant Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College, shares details of this study.  Created: 5/12/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/23/2011.

  9. Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Adam Szybinski

    2006-01-01

    The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault, are range-bounding and display numerous characteristics typical of strike-slip fault systems. These characteristics, when combined with geophysical data from Shore (2005), indicate the presence of a pull-apart basin, formed within the releasing bend of the Pumpernickel Valley – Edna Mountain fault system. A substantial body of evidence exists, in the form of available geothermal, geological and geophysical information, to suggest that the property and the pull-apart basin host a structurally controlled, extensive geothermal field. The most evident manifestations of the geothermal activity in the valley are two areas with hot springs, seepages, and wet ground/vegetation anomalies near the Pumpernickel Valley fault, which indicate that the fault focuses the fluid up-flow. There has not been any geothermal production from the Pumpernickel Valley area, but it was the focus of a limited exploration effort by Magma Power Company. In 1974, the company drilled one exploration/temperature gradient borehole east of the Pumpernickel Valley fault and recorded a thermal gradient of 160oC/km. The 1982 temperature data from five unrelated mineral exploration holes to the north of the Magma well indicated geothermal gradients in a range from 66 to 249oC/km for wells west of the fault, and ~283oC/km in a well next to the fault. In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1

  10. Poultry Slaughter facility Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a slaughterhouse, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Zambezi Valley, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers comes from other parts of

  11. Evaluation of the streamgage network for estimating streamflow statistics at ungaged sites in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Stuckey, Marla H.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2017-05-10

    The current (2015) streamgage network in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York was evaluated in order to design a network that would meet the hydrologic needs of many partners and serve a variety of purposes and interests, including estimation of streamflow statistics at ungaged sites. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The study area includes the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York. For this study, 229 streamgages were identified as reference streamgages that could be used to represent ungaged watersheds. Criteria for a reference streamgage are a minimum of 10 years of continuous record, minimally altered streamflow, and a drainage area less than 1,500 square miles. Some of the reference streamgages have been discontinued but provide historical hydrologic information valuable in the determination of streamflow characteristics of ungaged watersheds. Watersheds in the study area not adequately represented by a reference streamgage were identified by examining a range of basin characteristics, the extent of geographic coverage, and the strength of estimated streamflow correlations between gaged and ungaged sites.Basin characteristics were determined for the reference streamgage watersheds and the 1,662 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC12) subwatersheds in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin using a geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis and nationally available GIS datasets. Basin characteristics selected for this study include drainage area, mean basin elevation, mean basin slope, percentage of urbanized area, percentage of forested area, percentage of carbonate bedrock, mean annual precipitation, and soil thickness. A GIS spatial analysis was used to identify HUC12 subwatersheds outside the range of basin

  12. Structural, Nursing, and Physician Characteristics and 30-Day Mortality for Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Ramaswamy, Tara S; Brown, Sydney E S; He, Xu; Gutsche, Jacob T; Fleisher, Lee A; Neuman, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac surgery ICU characteristics and clinician staffing patterns have not been well characterized. We sought to describe Pennsylvania cardiac ICUs and to determine whether ICU characteristics are associated with mortality in the 30 days after cardiac surgery. From 2012 to 2013, we conducted a survey of cardiac surgery ICUs in Pennsylvania to assess ICU structure, care practices, and clinician staffing patterns. ICU data were linked to an administrative database of cardiac surgery patient discharges. We used logistic regression to measure the association between ICU variables and death in 30 days. Cardiac surgery ICUs in Pennsylvania. Patients having coronary artery bypass grafting and/or cardiac valve repair or replacement from 2009 to 2011. None. Of the 57 cardiac surgical ICUs in Pennsylvania, 43 (75.4%) responded to the facility survey. Rounds included respiratory therapists in 26 of 43 (60.5%) and pharmacists in 23 of 43 (53.5%). Eleven of 41 (26.8%) reported that at least 2/3 of their nurses had a bachelor's degree in nursing. Advanced practice providers were present in most of the ICUs (37/43; 86.0%) but residents (8/42; 18.6%) and fellows (7/43; 16.3%) were not. Daytime intensivists were present in 21 of 43 (48.8%) responding ICUs; eight of 43 (18.6%) had nighttime intensivists. Among 29,449 patients, there was no relationship between mortality and nurse ICU experience, presence of any intensivist, or absence of residents after risk adjustment. To exclude patients who may have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement, we conducted a subgroup analysis of patients undergoing only coronary artery bypass grafting, and results were similar. Pennsylvania cardiac surgery ICUs have variable structures, care practices, and clinician staffing, although none of these are statistically significantly associated with mortality in the 30 days following surgery after adjustment.

  13. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  14. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao

    2011-09-28

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  15. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao

    2011-01-01

    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  16. Safety Evaluation Report related to the renewal of the operating license for the research reactor at Pennsylvania State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Pennsylvania State University for a renewal of Operating License R-2 to continue to operate the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Reactor (PSBR) has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is located on the campus in University Park, Pennsylvania. On the basis of its technical review, the staff concludes that the reactor facility can continue to be operated by the university without endangering the health and safety of the public or the environment

  17. Valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer WS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Nuh

    Monolayer semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have a pair of valleys that, by time-reversal symmetry, are energetically degenerate. Lifting the valley degeneracy in these materials is of great interest because it would allow for valley specific band engineering and offer additional control in valleytronic applications. In this talk, I will show that circularly polarized light, which breaks time-reversal symmetry, can be used to lift the valley degeneracy by means of the optical Stark effect. We demonstrate that this effect is capable of raising the exciton level in monolayer TMD WS2 by as much as 18 meV in a controllable valley-selective manner. The resulting energy shift is extremely large, comparable to the shift that would be obtained using a very high magnetic field (approximately 100 Tesla). These results offer a novel way to control valley degree of freedom, and may provide a means to realize new valley-selective Floquet topological state of matter.

  18. Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Antelope Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Antelope study area is approximately 1,600 square miles (4,144 square kilometers) and includes the Antelope Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Antelope Valley has an arid climate and is part of the Mojave Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff from the surrounding mountains draining towards dry lakebeds in the lower parts of the valley. Land use in the study area is approximately 68 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland and grassland), 24% agricultural, and 8% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban areas are the cities of Palmdale and Lancaster (2010 populations of 152,000 and 156,000, respectively). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in Antelope Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in Antelope Valley are completed to depths between 360 and 700 feet (110 to 213 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 180 to 350 feet (55 to 107 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the surrounding mountains, and by direct infiltration of irrigation and sewer and septic

  19. Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Owens Valley is one of the study areas being evaluated. The Owens study area is approximately 1,030 square miles (2,668 square kilometers) and includes the Owens Valley groundwater basin (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). Owens Valley has a semiarid to arid climate, with average annual rainfall of about 6 inches (15 centimeters). The study area has internal drainage, with runoff primarily from the Sierra Nevada draining east to the Owens River, which flows south to Owens Lake dry lakebed at the southern end of the valley. Beginning in the early 1900s, the City of Los Angeles began diverting the flow of the Owens River to the Los Angeles Aqueduct, resulting in the evaporation of Owens Lake and the formation of the current Owens Lake dry lakebed. Land use in the study area is approximately 94 percent (%) natural, 5% agricultural, and 1% urban. The primary natural land cover is shrubland. The largest urban area is the city of Bishop (2010 population of 4,000). Groundwater in this basin is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay derived from surrounding mountains. Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily runoff from the Sierra Nevada, and by direct infiltration of irrigation. The primary sources of discharge are pumping wells, evapotranspiration, and underflow to the Owens Lake dry lakebed. The primary aquifers in Owens Valley are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database

  20. Microscopic Identification of Prokaryotes in Modern and Ancient Halite, Saline Valley and Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.

    2009-06-01

    Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.

  1. Groundwater quality for 75 domestic wells in Lycoming County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2017-03-06

    values of -50.59 ‰ and a hydrogen isotopic ratio delta values of -209.7 ‰.The six well-water samples with the highest methane concentrations also had among the highest pH values (8.25 to 9.15) and elevated concentrations of sodium, lithium, boron, fluoride, arsenic, and bromide. Relatively elevated concentrations of some other constituents, such as barium, strontium, and chloride, commonly were present in, but not limited to, those well-water samples with elevated methane.Three of the six groundwater samples with the highest methane concentrations had chloride/bromide ratios that indicate mixing with a small amount of brine (0.02 percent or less) similar in composition to those reported at undetermined depth below the freshwater aquifer and for gas and oil well brines in Pennsylvania. The sample with the highest methane concentration and most other samples with low methane concentrations (less than about 1 mg/L) have chloride/bromide ratios that indicate predominantly anthropogenic sources of chloride, such as road-deicing salt, septic systems, and (or) animal waste. Brines that are naturally present may originate from deeper parts of the aquifer system, while anthropogenic sources are more likely to affect shallow groundwater because they occur on or near the land-surface.The spatial distribution of groundwater compositions generally indicate that (1) uplands along the western border of Lycoming County usually have dilute, slightly acidic oxygenated, calcium-bicarbonate type waters; (2) intermediate altitudes or areas of carbonate bedrock usually have water of near neutral pH, with highest amounts of hardness (calcium and magnesium); (3) stream valleys, low elevations where groundwater may be discharging, and deep wells in uplands usually have water with pH values greater than 8 and highest arsenic, sodium, lithium, bromide concentrations. Geochemical modeling indicated that for samples with elevated pH, sodium, lithium, bromide, and alkalinity, the water chemistry

  2. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  3. Retrospective Case Study in Southwestern Pennsylvania, Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Facturing on Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the retrospective case study for southwestern Pennsylvania, which was conducted in Amwell, Cross Creek, Hopewell, and Mount Pleasant Townships in Washington County, locations that have witnessed unconventional gas production from the Devonian-age Marcellus S...

  4. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater-quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective.In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Water-quality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinking water standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county.Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  5. Valley Topological Phases in Bilayer Sonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiuyang; Qiu, Chunyin; Deng, Weiyin; Huang, Xueqin; Li, Feng; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Shuqi; Liu, Zhengyou

    2018-03-01

    Recently, the topological physics in artificial crystals for classical waves has become an emerging research area. In this Letter, we propose a unique bilayer design of sonic crystals that are constructed by two layers of coupled hexagonal array of triangular scatterers. Assisted by the additional layer degree of freedom, a rich topological phase diagram is achieved by simply rotating scatterers in both layers. Under a unified theoretical framework, two kinds of valley-projected topological acoustic insulators are distinguished analytically, i.e., the layer-mixed and layer-polarized topological valley Hall phases, respectively. The theory is evidently confirmed by our numerical and experimental observations of the nontrivial edge states that propagate along the interfaces separating different topological phases. Various applications such as sound communications in integrated devices can be anticipated by the intriguing acoustic edge states enriched by the layer information.

  6. Valley Fever: Earth Observations for Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Advances in satellite Earth observation systems, numerical weather prediction, and dust storm modeling yield new tools for public health warnings, advisories and epidemiology of illnesses associated with airborne desert dust. Valley Fever, endemic from California through the US/Mexico border region into Central and South America, is triggered by inhalation of soil-dwelling fungal spores. The path from fungal growth to airborne threat depends on environmental conditions observable from satellite. And space-based sensors provide initial conditions for dust storm forecasts and baselines for the epidemiology of Valley Fever and other dust-borne aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. A new Pan-American Center for the World Meteorological Organization Sand and Dust Storm Warning Advisory and Assessment System creates an opportunity to advance Earth science applications in public health.

  7. Eco-Hydrological Modelling of Stream Valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole

    Predicting the effects of hydrological alterations on terrestrial stream valley ecosystems requires multidisciplinary approaches involving both engineers and ecologists. Groundwater discharge in stream valleys and other lowland areas support a number of species rich ecosystems, and their protection...... is prioritised worldwide. Protection requires improved knowledge on the functioning of these ecosystems and especially the linkages between vegetation, groundwater discharge and water level conditions are crucial for management applications. Groundwater abstraction affects catchment hydrology and thereby also...... groundwater discharge. Numerical hydrological modelling has been widely used for evaluation of sustainable groundwater resources and effects of abstraction, however, the importance of local scale heterogeneity becomes increasingly important in the assessment of local damage to these groundwater dependent...

  8. Historic Settlement in the Upper Tombigbee Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-28

    SETTLEMENT IN THE UPPER TOMBIGBEE VALLEY ITT By LJU i8 James F. Doster LA- and David C. Weaver dhA dout hc onaproe 82 07 16 063 frPublic relgoise cmd *We...10 1/2 yds plain wht. Bobnut I ps. Black crape $2.50 2.50 2 2/- 2.63 18 doz. buttons 29 1/2, (ea) 5.31 24 yds Bobnut Lace 2 8¢ 1.92 5 pr. Ladies kid

  9. Can Springs Cut Valleys Into Bedrock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M. P.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2004-12-01

    Valleys formed from groundwater sapping are thought to have a characteristic form including steep walls, flat floors, and amphitheatre-like heads. Observations of these features on Earth and Mars have led to the morphologic-based interpretation that groundwater sapping is an important valley forming process. This interpretation has significant implications for Mars in particular because it has been used to constrain Martian hydrology and the associated prospects for life. However, a mechanistic understanding of sapping erosion has only been demonstrated for granular mediums (i.e. sand). Many of the "sapping" valleys on Earth and (likely) Mars have been carved into bedrock, and the extension of previous work to bedrock erosion is unclear. To our knowledge, a process-based understanding of seepage erosion in bedrock does not exist, even though it is thought to be a first order geomorphic process on Earth and Mars. In order to address this knowledge gap, we are currently investigating Box Canyon, Idaho. Box Canyon, developed in the Snake River Plain, has many of the morphologic features often associated with sapping valleys. In addition, it was carved into basaltic bedrock and has a large spring emanating from its amphitheatre-like head, making it an ideal candidate for a sapping origin. There is currently no overland flow contribution to the canyon; however, based on mapping bedrock scours, a paleo-flood from an unknown upslope source did enter the canyon (and perhaps carved it). We present some first order hydraulic measurements, sediment transport calculations, and field observations to try and constrain the types of flows needed to carve Box Canyon. These flows could conceivably be derived from expansion of the current spring. Direct observation at the head of the canyon has not yet indicated how sapping could be responsible for the erosion of the headwall. We are using various dating techniques to constrain the timing and rate of headwall migration to constrain

  10. A comparison of stage of presentation for pancreatic and colorectal cancer in Pennsylvania 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbole, Mark; Gusani, Niraj; Howard, Alicia; Leonard, Tim; Lewis, Peter; Muscat, Josh

    2009-08-01

    The goal of this study was to examine how rurality, socioeconomic status (SES) and access to medical care are related to the stage at presentation of patients with colorectal (CRC) and pancreatic cancer (PC) in Pennsylvania. Incident CRC and PC cases were identified from the Pennsylvania Department of Health. Demographic, SES, and access variables were collected at the county level. Increased urbanization, younger age, and male gender were shown to be significantly related to later stage at diagnosis for PC. Age and education level were significant predictors of the rate of PC, while age, education level, insurance status, rurality, and the ratio of oncologists to primary care physicians were significant predictors of the rate of CRC. Based on county-level data, urban residence, younger age, and male gender were shown to be predictors of later stage at diagnosis for PC. These findings should help guide further research into factors that may be important predictors of later stage of diagnosis.

  11. Examining relationships between receiving mental health services in the Pennsylvania prison system and time served.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metraux, Stephen

    2008-07-01

    This study examined a cohort of 7,046 men who were released from the Pennsylvania State prison system between 1999 and 2002 to Philadelphia County to assess the relationships between receipt of mental health services in prison and prison exit. Administrative data on prison stays for 7,046 men released from Pennsylvania prisons to Philadelphia locations were analyzed. Of the 7,046 men, 8.7% received ongoing or intensive mental health services and 25.9% received mental health services while incarcerated. Multivariate analyses indicate that use of mental health services was positively associated with increased odds of serving the full prison sentence (as opposed to receiving parole), although the relationship between mental health services received and length of prison episode was inconclusive. Dynamics related to prison release warrant further attention in efforts to reduce the prevalence of mental illness in prisons and to facilitate community reentry for persons so diagnosed.

  12. Learning disabilities and performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Joseph A; Shibley, Ivan A; Wiley, David A

    2006-06-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act mandates all students in schools receiving Title I funds show proficiency in reading by 2014. This stricture applies to students with diagnosed learning disabilities as well as to students without learning disabilities. Multiple regression analyses on data for seniors attending a Grade 9-12 predominately white, comprehensive vocational-technical school indicated that, when absenteeism, socioeconomic status, and sex were held constant, the 26 students with diagnosed learning disabilities scored 246.7 points lower on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Reading subtest (n = 107) and 214.4 points lower on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics subtest (n = 106) than students not so diagnosed, and the 27 students diagnosed with learning disabilities scored 126.3 points lower on the Writing subtest (n= 114) than students not so diagnosed.

  13. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L.

  14. Pennsylvania Public Libraries and the Great Flood of 1936: Dark Clouds and Silver Linings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette A. Lear

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Great Flood of 1936 damaged thousands of buildings, ruined millions of dollars’ worth of infrastructure and personal property, and left thousands of citizens homeless in Pennsylvania. Among affected institutions were 14 public libraries that lost books and records and/or sustained structural damage during the flood. This article recounts the experiences of the four libraries with the largest claims: the Cambria Library (Johnstown, the Annie Halenbake Ross Library (Lock Haven, Milton Public Library, and the James V. Brown Library (Williamsport. Lessons learned, unexpected opportunities to reshape collections and services, and advancement of professional knowledge about conservation of water-soaked materials are discussed. In addition, the article provides details about the Pennsylvania Library Association’s successful pursuit of state rehabilitation funds for affected libraries. Although the Great Flood of 1936 was an experience that no one would wish to repeat, it represents some silver linings in terms of public library history.

  15. The hidden Heuchera: How science Twitter uncovered a globally imperiled species in Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Schuette

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Heuchera is recognized as one of the most diverse endemic radiations of Saxifragaceae in North America, yet species delimitation and geographic distribution within the group remain controversial. Many species remain difficult to identify, including Heuchera alba, a narrow Appalachian endemic and globally imperiled (G2 taxon recorded only from West Virginia and Virginia that occurs in sympatry with H. pubescens and H. americana. A recent survey of the cliffside flora of the Shikellamy Bluffs, PA recorded dozens of Heuchera individuals that, through the use of social media, were positively identified as H. alba. Aided by examination of historical herbarium records, subsequent searches of similar habitats in Pennsylvania led to the discovery of seven more populations and established a significant range expansion for this rare species. The uncovering of H. alba in Pennsylvania is an exciting conservation outcome and an example of what can happen when botanists embrace a combination of modern and classical approaches to discovery and collaboration.

  16. 78 FR 28626 - Te Connectivity, Industrial Division, Middletown, Pennsylvania; Te Connectivity, Corporate Shared...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,557; TA-W-81,557A; TA-W-81,557B; TA-W-81,557C; ;TA-W-81,557D..., Corporate Shared Services Group 100 & 200 Amp Drive, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania; Te Connectivity Corporate Shared Services Group, 3700 Reidsville Road, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Te Connectivity, Corporate...

  17. Institutionalizing the Pennsylvania System: Organizational Exceptionalism, Administrative Support, and Eastern State Penitentiary, 1829-1875

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Ashley T.

    2013-01-01

    I examine the puzzling case of Eastern State Penitentiary and its long-term retention of a unique mode of confinement between 1829 and 1875. Most prisons built in the nineteenth century followed the "Auburn System" of congregate confinement in which inmates worked daily in factory-like settings and retreated at night to solitary confinement. By contrast, Eastern State Penitentiary (f. 1829, Philadelphia) followed the "Pennsylvania System" of separate confinement in which each inmate was confi...

  18. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  19. Pennsylvania's proposed continuous emission monitoring system data telemetry requirements for municipal, hospital and infectious waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazzaro, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources which has established minimum plan approval, criteria which require certain affected sources to provide the Department with access to continuous emission monitoring (CEM) data via telephone line computer link or other approved means of transfer. The Department has specified formats for logging of CEM data to computer media, a general data telemetry access protocol, floppy disk reporting formats and hardcopy reporting formats

  20. Mapping Pediatric Tetanus Cases in Central Pennsylvania and Analyzing Hospital Costs Associated with Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Bilaal; Beck, Michael; Kumar, Parvathi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Pennsylvania is home to Amish and Mennonite communities with an estimated combined population of over 90,000 people. Under-immunization is common with vaccine preventable diseases, including tetanus, periodically presenting among children from these communities. Nearly 20% of nationally reported pediatric tetanus cases in the past 10 years were treated at our institution, the tertiary care center which serves these unique populations. We characterize demographics and costs...

  1. Hydraulic modeling of mussel habitat at a bridge-replacement site, Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Wagner, Chad R.; Rogers, Megan E.; Zimmerman, Gregory F.

    2010-01-01

    The Allegheny River in Pennsylvania supports a large and diverse freshwater-mussel community, including two federally listed endangered species, Pleurobema clava(Clubshell) and Epioblasma torulosa rangiana (Northern Riffleshell). It is recognized that river hydraulics and morphology play important roles in mussel distribution. To assess the hydraulic influences of bridge replacement on mussel habitat, metrics such as depth, velocity, and their derivatives (shear stress, Froude number) were collected or computed.

  2. Swatara Creek basin of southeastern Pennsylvania--An evaluation of its hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Wilbur Tennant; Schneider, William J.; Crooks, James W.

    1967-01-01

    Local concentrations of population in the Swatara Creek basin of Pennsylvania find it necessary to store, transport, and treat water because local supplies are either deficient or have been contaminated by disposal of wastes in upstream areas. Water in the basin is available for the deficient areas and for dilution of the coal-mine drainage in the northern parts and the sewage wastes in the southern parts.

  3. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  4. Valley-orbit hybrid states in Si quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, John; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.

    2013-03-01

    The conduction band for electrons in layered Si nanostructures oriented along (001) has two low-lying valleys. Most theoretical treatments assume that these valleys are decoupled from the long-wavelength physics of electron confinement. In this work, we show that even a minimal amount of disorder (a single atomic step at the quantum well interface) is sufficient to mix valley states and electron orbitals, causing a significant distortion of the long-wavelength electron envelope. For physically realistic electric fields and dot sizes, this valley-orbit coupling impacts all electronic states in Si quantum dots, implying that one must always consider valley-orbit hybrid states, rather than distinct valley and orbital degrees of freedom. We discuss the ramifications of our results on silicon quantum dot qubits. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-08-1-0482) and NSF (DMR-0805045).

  5. Valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in strain engineered graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhi Ping; Yao, Jian-ming

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically predict the existence of tunneling valley Hall effect and Nernst effect in the normal/strain/normal graphene junctions, where a strained graphene is sandwiched by two normal graphene electrodes. By applying an electric bias a pure transverse valley Hall current with longitudinal charge current is generated. If the system is driven by a temperature bias, a valley Nernst effect is observed, where a pure transverse valley current without charge current propagates. Furthermore, the transverse valley current can be modulated by the Fermi energy and crystallographic orientation. When the magnetic field is further considered, we obtain a fully valley-polarized current. It is expected these features may be helpful in the design of the controllable valleytronic devices.

  6. Foliar response of black cherry (Prunus serotina) clones to ambient ozone exposure in central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J C; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Zhang, J W; Savage, J E

    1999-06-01

    During late summer of 1996 and 1997 we examined ozone-induced foliar injury in a plantation of 111 black cherry trees (ramets) comprising 15 clones originating from wild ortets growing in the Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania, and the Monongahela National Forest, West Virginia. The experimental plantation was a clonal seed orchard in Centre County, Pennsylvania, started in 1971 using ortet buds grafted onto seedling rootstocks of mixed origin. Clones differed significantly in severity of foliar injury symptoms (F=31.83, p50% leaf area affected than other clones during both years. In contrast, clone R-14, which is from the same area in northcentral Pennsylvania as R-12, exhibited significantly less injury (LAAclonal injury was significantly correlated between both years of assessment (r=0.92, p<0.001). Within tree crowns, foliage in lower and inner crown positions was significantly more injured than foliage in upper and exterior crown positions. There was no evidence of geographically based population differences in sensitivity to foliar O(3) injury. On the contrary, results demonstrate that wild genotypes of proximal geographic origin may differ greatly in sensitivity.

  7. Freshwater mussel salvage and relocation at the Pond Eddy Bridge, Delaware River, New York and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2018-03-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, freshwater mussels were salvaged and relocated from the anticipated zone of impact for the Pond Eddy Bridge construction project in New York and Pennsylvania. Five 25-meter (m) by 25-m cells along the Pennsylvania bank of the Delaware River were sampled in three generally straight-line passes by four surveyors wearing snorkel gear for a total of 180 survey minutes per cell. All mussels encountered were collected and identified to species. A subset of individuals was marked with shellfish tags, weighed, and measured prior to relocation upstream from the zone of impact. A total of 3,434 mussels, including 3,393 Elliptio complanata (eastern elliptio mussels), 39 Anodonta implicata (alewife floaters), 1 Strophitus undulatus (creeper), and 1 Pyganodon cataracta (eastern floater), were salvaged and relocated. All non-eastern elliptio species were georeferenced using a high-resolution global positioning system unit; a subset of tagged eastern elliptio was placed in transects between georeferenced points. These mussels will be monitored to assess the effects of translocation on mortality and body condition at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years.

  8. Field Survey of Health Perception and Complaints of Pennsylvania Residents in the Marcellus Shale Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouné Saberi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale region residents have reported medical symptoms they believe are related to nearby Unconventional Natural Gas Development (UNGD. Associations between medical symptoms and UNGD have been minimally explored. The objective of this descriptive study is to explore whether shale region Pennsylvania residents perceive UNGD as a health concern and whether they attribute health symptoms to UNGD exposures. A questionnaire was administered to adult volunteers with medical complaints in a primary-care medical office in a county where UNGD was present. Participants were asked whether they were concerned about health effects from UNGD, and whether they attributed current symptoms to UNGD or to some other environmental exposure. There were 72 respondents; 22% perceived UNGD as a health concern and 13% attributed medical symptoms to UNGD exposures. Overall, 42% attributed one or more of their medical symptoms to environmental causes, of which UNGD was the most frequent. A medical record review conducted on six participants who attributed their medical symptoms to UNGD revealed that only one of these records documented both the symptoms in question and the attribution to UNGD. The results of this pilot study suggest that there is substantial concern about adverse health effects of UNGD among Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale residents, and that these concerns may not be adequately represented in medical records. Further efforts to determine the relationship between UNGD and health are recommended in order to address community concerns.

  9. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Rush Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Price, Don; Waddell, K.M.

    1969-01-01

    This report is the third in a series by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data for Rush Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resources development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understanding of the valley's water supply.

  10. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Skull Valley, Tooele County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, James W.; Waddell, K.M.

    1968-01-01

    This report is the second in a series by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, which describes the water resources of the western basins of Utah. Its purpose is to present available hydrologic data on Skull Valley, to provide an evaluation of the potential water-resource development of the valley, and to identify needed studies that would help provide an understandingof the valley's water supply.

  11. OBSERVED AIR POLLUTION SPECIFICS OF THE VALLEY-BASED TOWNS

    OpenAIRE

    ZOLTÁN UTASI; ILONA PAJTÓK-TARI; JÁNOS MIKA; CSABA PATKÓS; ANTAL TÓTH

    2012-01-01

    Observed air pollution specifics of the valley-based towns. There are 21 valley-based towns in the 100 most populated ones of Hungary. This topographical feature may be advantageous due to mezoscale circulation between the valley or basin, containing these settlements and the surrounding hills. On the other hand, the hills form a mechanical obstacle that may limit the vertical mixing of pollution. Final result of these counteracting features are analysed by comparing air pollution characteris...

  12. Climatology of atmospheric PM10 concentration in the Po Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro, Bigi; Ghermandi, Grazia

    2014-01-01

    The limits to atmospheric pollutant concentration set by the European Commission provide a challenging target for the municipalities in the Po Valley, because of the characteristic climatic conditions and high population density of this region. In order to assess climatology and trends in the concentration of atmospheric particles in the Po Valley, a dataset of PM10 data from 41 sites across the Po Valley have been analysed, including both traffic and backgr...

  13. Analysis of ozone in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabdub, Donald; DeHaan, Laurel L.; Seinfeld, John H.

    The dynamics of ozone in the San Joaquin Valley of central California are studied by systematic diagnostic runs of the three-dimensional SARMAP Air Quality Model. Air quality in the San Joaquin Valley is the result of a complex combination of local and transported emissions. Simulations show that relatively brisk winds at points of inflow to the Valley produce a strong dependence of ozone in the Valley on upwind conditions. Furthermore, NO x influx from boundaries and local emissions has significantly greater impact on ozone production than ROG influx and emissions.

  14. Disorder-dependent valley properties in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Kha

    2017-07-19

    We investigate the effect of disorder on exciton valley polarization and valley coherence in monolayer WSe2. By analyzing the polarization properties of photoluminescence, the valley coherence (VC) and valley polarization (VP) are quantified across the inhomogeneously broadened exciton resonance. We find that disorder plays a critical role in the exciton VC, while affecting VP less. For different monolayer samples with disorder characterized by their Stokes shift (SS), VC decreases in samples with higher SS while VP does not follow a simple trend. These two methods consistently demonstrate that VC as defined by the degree of linearly polarized photoluminescence is more sensitive to disorder, motivating further theoretical studies.

  15. Water resources data, Pennsylvania, water year 2003; volume 1. Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlin, R.R.; Schaffstall, W.P.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Pennsylvania consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; contents and elevations of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 79 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 8 partialrecord stations, 19 special-study and miscellaneous streamflow sites; (2) elevation and contents records for 13 lakes and reservoirs, and water-quality records for 6 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 37 gaging stations and 12 ungaged streamsites; (4) water-quality records for 67 special-study stations; (5) water-level records for 49 network observation wells; and (6) water-quality analyses of ground water from 10 ground-water wells. Site locations are shown in figures 6-13. Additional water data collected at various sites not involved in the systematic datacollection program are also presented. These data together with the data in Volumes 2 and 3, represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State, local, and Federal agencies in Pennsylvania. *Pennsylvania, *Hydrologic data, *Ground water, *Surface water, *Water quality, Gaging stations, Streamflow, Flow rates, Lakes, Reservoirs, Chemical analysis, Sediments, Water temperature, Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Pennsylvania consist of records of discharge and water quality of streams; contents and elevations of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, Volume 1 contains (1) discharge records for 79 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations, 8 partialrecord stations, 19 special-study and miscellaneous streamflow sites; (2) elevation and contents records for 13 lakes and reservoirs, and water-quality records for 6 lakes and reservoirs; (3) water-quality records for 37 gaging stations and 12 ungaged streamsites; (4) water

  16. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    KAUST Repository

    Haddon, E. K.

    2016-01-10

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from approximate to 1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.31.1 m (2 sigma). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between approximate to 0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.80.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is approximate to 6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7-11 m and net average of 4.41.5 m, corresponding to a geologic M-w approximate to 7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.12.0 m, 12.8 +/- 1.5 m, and 16.6 +/- 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between approximate to 0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1 sigma) over the late Quaternary.

  17. Environmental Assessment for the Saline Valley Radar Facility Project Saline Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    positions. In 1999, a Marine Corps jet aircraft crashed in the Saline Valley area. Because of the lack of radar data, the search area initially...Sauromalus obesus), zebra-tailed lizards (Callisaurus draconoides), desert iguanas Section 3.0 – Description of Proposed Action FINAL December

  18. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Big Elk and Octoraro Creek basins, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    IntroductionIn 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a long-term water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroin-vertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preference and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the water-quality network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthic-macroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions. Using these data, Reif evaluates the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Big Elk and Octoraro Creek Basins. These streams include East Branch Big Elk Creek (site 31), West Branch Big Elk Creek (site 32), East Branch Octoraro Creek (site 33) and Valley Creek (site 34). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  19. Assessment of stream quality using biological indices at selected sites in the Brandywine Creek basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1981-97

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2002-01-01

    In 1970, the Chester County Water Resources Authority (Pennsylvania) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a longterm water-quality network with the goal of assessing the quality of streams in the county and understanding stream changes in response to urbanization using benthic-macroinvertebrate data. This database represents one of the longest continuous water-quality data sets in the country. Benthic macroinvertebrates are aquatic insects, such as mayflies, caddisflies, riffle beetles, and midges, and other invertebrates that live on the stream bottom. Benthic macroinvertebrates are useful in evaluating stream quality because their habitat preferences and low motility cause them to be affected directly by substances that enter the aquatic system. By evaluating the diversity and community structure of benthic-macroinvertebrate populations, a determination of stream quality can be made.Between 1981 and 1997, the water-quality network consisted of 43 sites in 5 major basins in Chester County—Delaware, Schuylkill, Brandywine, Big Elk and Octoraro, and Red and White Clay. Benthicmacroinvertebrate, water-chemistry, and habitat data were collected each year in October or November during base-flow conditions. Using these data, Reif evaluated the overall water-quality condition of Chester County streams. This Fact Sheet summarizes the key findings from Reif for streams in the Brandywine Creek Basin. These streams include West Branch Brandywine Creek (sites 37 and 38), Buck Run (site 46), Doe Run (site 45), East Branch Brandywine Creek (sites 48, 42, 36, and 39), Indian Run (site 47), West Valley Creek (site 44), and Main Stem Brandywine Creek (site 40). This summary includes an analysis of stream conditions based on benthic-macroinvertebrate samples and an analysis of trends in stream conditions for the 17-year study period.

  20. 78 FR 59840 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...] Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District... of plan. * * * * * (c) * * * (428) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...) * * * (i) * * * (B) Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District. (1) Rule 431.1, ``Sulfur Content of...

  1. 78 FR 45114 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District AGENCY... the Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District (AVAQMD) portion of the California State... for the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). The Antelope Valley Air Pollution...

  2. [The Great Rift Valley. Parasitological results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozais, J P

    1985-01-01

    East Africa is separated from the continent by the Great Rift Valley which was created at the end of the secondary era limiting then the East Africa under-continent with peculiar fauna and flora features. A several million years long isolation, during the tertiary era, seems to explain that a certain number of protozoan and helminthic diseases present peculiar clinical, epidemiological, therapeutical and parasitological features. The occurrence of those peculiar strains tends to indicate that in this region, for example, the resistance of P. falciparum to amino-4-quinolines is a regional feature which should not largely expand to the rest of the African continent.

  3. Neuroimaging Features of San Luis Valley Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T. Whitehead

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Hispanic female with a history of double-outlet right ventricle and developmental delay in the setting of recombinant chromosome 8 syndrome was referred for neurologic imaging. Brain MR revealed multiple abnormalities primarily affecting midline structures, including commissural dysgenesis, vermian and brainstem hypoplasia/dysplasia, an interhypothalamic adhesion, and an epidermoid between the frontal lobes that enlarged over time. Spine MR demonstrated hypoplastic C1 and C2 posterior elements, scoliosis, and a borderline low conus medullaris position. Presented herein is the first illustration of neuroimaging findings from a patient with San Luis Valley syndrome.

  4. The uncanny valley in games and animation

    CERN Document Server

    Tinwell, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Advances in technology have enabled animators and video game designers to design increasingly realistic, human-like characters in animation and games. Although it was intended that this increased realism would allow viewers to appreciate the emotional state of characters, research has shown that audiences often have a negative reaction as the human likeness of a character increases. This phenomenon, known as the Uncanny Valley, has become a benchmark for measuring if a character is believably realistic and authentically human like. This book is an essential guide on how to overcome the Uncanny

  5. Home destruction examination: Grass Valley Fire, Lake Arrowhead, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack D. Cohen; Richard D. Stratton

    2008-01-01

    The Grass Valley Fire started October 22, 2007 at approximately 0508, one-mile west of Lake Arrowhead in the San Bernardino Mountains. Fuel and weather conditions were extreme due to drought, dry Santa Ana winds, and chaparral and conifer vegetation on steep terrain. The fire proceeded south through the Grass Valley drainage one-mile before impacting an area of dense...

  6. Prevalence of Rift Valley Fever among ruminants, Mayotte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Pédarrieu, Aurélie; Guis, Hélène; Defernez, Cédric; Bouloy, Michèle; Favre, Jacques; Girard, Sébastien; Cardinale, Eric; Albina, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Rift Valley fever threatens human and animal health. After a human case was confirmed in Comoros in 2007, 4 serosurveys among ruminants in Mayotte suggested that Rift Valley fever virus had been circulating at low levels since 2004, although no clinical cases occurred in animals. Entomologic and ecologic studies will help determine outbreak potential.

  7. Rift Valley fever potential mosquito vectors and their infection status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonotic disease. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has been isolated from more than 40 species of mosquitoes from eight genera. This study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential mosquito vectors and their RVFV infection status in Ngorongoro ...

  8. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  9. Some Environmental Issues of Inland Valleys: A Case Study | Asiam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that inland valleys can be real environmental liability because produce from such valleys can be polluted and hence can be a source of social conflict particularly when they fringe mineral concessions as the adverse impacts could be unfortunately attributed to mining activity and similar land uses.

  10. Influence of Valley Floor Landforms on Stream Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley V. Gregory; Gary A. Lamberti; Kelly M. S. Moore

    1989-01-01

    A hierarchical perspective of relationships between valley floor landforms, riparian plant communities, and aquatic ecosystems has been developed, based on studies of two fifth-order basins in the Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Retention of dissolved nitrogen and leaves were approximately 2-3 times greater in unconstrained reaches than in constrained reaches. Both valley...

  11. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of viticultural...

  12. Adapting to Climate Change in Peru's Mantaro Valley | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Instituto Geofísico del Perú (Peruvian Geophysics Institute), in the Ministry of Environment, has assessed the vulnerability of rural and urban settlements in the valley. Through several multidisciplinary studies, the Institute identified the level of risk that extreme weather events pose to the valley's population and public ...

  13. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock, Mozambique, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Peter; Mubemba, Benjamin; Nhambirre, Ofélia; Neves, Luis; Coetzer, J.A.W.; Venter, Estelle H.

    2016-01-01

    In early 2014, abortions and death of ruminants were reported on farms in Maputo and Gaza Provinces, Mozambique. Serologic analysis and quantitative and conventional reverse transcription PCR confirmed the presence of Rift Valley fever virus. The viruses belonged to lineage C, which is prevalent among Rift Valley fever viruses in southern Africa. PMID:27869589

  14. 78 FR 9686 - Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Valley Electric Association, Inc.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 1, 2013, Valley Electric Association, Inc. filed a notice of material changes in certain of the...

  15. Groundwater recharge on east side soils of the Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    After four years of drought, groundwater levels in the Salinas Valley are at historically low levels which threaten to adversely affect farming in the Salinas Valley. Given the prospect of a strong El Niño this coming winter, it seems prudent to plan to capture as much of the rainfall as possible to...

  16. Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya | Wakhisi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophageal cancer in north rift valley of western Kenya. ... Our finding also contrast with an earlier reported study that indicated that Rift Valley is a low prevalence area for this type of cancer. The mean age ... This may lead to identification of molecular biomarkers to be used in future for the early detection of this neoplasm.

  17. Salts in the dry valleys of Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Presley, B. J.; Hatfield, J.

    1984-01-01

    The Dry Valleys of Antarctica are examples of polar deserts which are rare geological features on the Earth. Such deserts typically have high salinities associated with their closed-basin waters and on many surficial materials throughout them. In order to examine the possible sources for the salts observed in association with the soils in the Dry Valleys. The chloride and bromide concentrations of the water leachates from 58 soils and core samples were measured. The Cl/Br ratio for seawater is 289 and ratios measured for most of the 58 soils studied (greater than 85% of the soils studied) was larger than the seawater ratio (ratios typically were greater than 1000 and ranged up to 50,000). The enrichment in Cl relative to Br is strong evidence that the alts present within the soils were derived from seawater during ordinary evaporation processes, and not from the deposition of Cl and Br from aerosols or from rock weathering as has often been suggested.

  18. Investigating the uncanny valley for prosthetic hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Ellen; O'Kane, Sophie; Carefoot, Olivia; Kyberd, Peter; Gowen, Emma

    2018-02-01

    In 1970, Mori hypothesised the existence of an 'uncanny valley', whereby stimuli falling short of being fully human are found to be creepy or eerie. To investigate how eerie people find different prosthetic hands and whether perceptions of eeriness can be accounted for by categorical ambiguity. Students participated in computerised experiments during which photographic images of hands were presented. We compared photographs of prosthetic hands pre-selected as more (H+) or less human-like (H-), as well as mechanical and real hands. Participants rated the hands for eeriness and human-likeness, as well as performing a speeded classification (human/non-human) and location judgment (control) task. The H- prosthetic hands were rated as more eerie than the H+ prosthetic, mechanical and real hands, and this was unaffected by hand orientation. Participants were significantly slower to categorise the H+ prosthetic hands compared to the H- prosthetic and real hands, which was not due to generally slower responses to the H+ prosthetic hands (control task). People find prosthetic hands to be eerie, most consistently for less human-like prosthetic hands. This effect is not driven by ambiguity about whether to categorise the prosthetic hand as human or artificial. Clinical relevance More obviously artificial, less-realistic, prosthetic hands consistently generate a sense of eeriness, while more realistic prosthetic hands avoid the uncanny valley, at least on initial viewing. Thus, greater realism in prosthetic design may not always incur a cost, although the role of movement and cutaneous input requires further investigation.

  19. West Valley waste removal system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janicek, G.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study addresses the specific task of removing high-level wastes from underground tanks at Western New York Nuclear Center and delivering them to an onsite waste solidification plant. It begins with a review of the design and construction features of the waste storage tanks pertinent to the waste removal task with particular emphasis on the unique and complex tank internals which severely complicate the task of removal. It follows with a review of tank cleaning techniques used and under study at both Hanford and Savannah River and previous studies proposing the use of these techniques at West Valley. It concludes from these reviews that existing techniques are not directly transferable to West Valley and that a new approach is required utilizing selected feature and attributes from existing methodology. The study also concludes, from an investigation of the constraints imposed by the processing facility, that waste removal will be intermittent, requiring batch transfer over the anticipated 3 years of processing operations. Based on these reviews and conclusions, the study proposes that the acid waste be processed first and that one of the 15,000-gallon acid tanks then be used for batch feeding the neutralized waste. The proposed system would employ commercially available pumping equipment to transfer the wastes from the batch tank to processing via existing process piping. A commercially available mixed-flow pump and eight turbine pumps would homogenize the neutralized waste in conjunction with eight custom-fabricated sluicers for periodic transfer to the batch tank

  20. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters. Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about 31

  1. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAKOOR AHMAD MIR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mir SA, Mishra AK, Reshi ZA, Sharma MP. 2014. Four newly recorded species of Dryopteridaceae from Kashmir valley, India. Biodiversitas 15: 6-11. Habitat diversity, elevation, cloud cover, rainfall, seasonal and temperature variations have created many ideal sites for the luxuriant growth of pteridophytes in the Kashmir valley, yet all the regions of the valley have not been surveyed. In Kashmir valley the family Dryopteridaceae is represented by 31 species. During the recent extensive field surveys of Shopian district four more species viz., Dryopteris caroli-hopei Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris blanfordii subsp. nigrosquamosa (Ching Fraser-Jenkins, Dryopteris pulvinulifera (Bedd. Kuntze and Polystichum Nepalense (Spreng C. Chr. have been recorded for the first time from the valley. The taxonomic description, synonyms, distribution and photographs of each species are given in this article.

  2. Spatial-temporal analysis of prostate cancer incidence from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed among males, and the incidence in Pennsylvania, USA is considerably higher than nationally. Knowledge of regional differences and time trends in prostate cancer incidence may contribute to a better understanding of aetiologic factors and racial disparities in outcomes, and to improvements in preventive intervention and screening efforts. We used Pennsylvania Cancer Registry data on reported prostate cancer diagnoses between 2000 and 2011 to study the regional distribution and temporal trends of prostate cancer incidence in both Pennsylvania White males and Philadelphia metropolitan area Black males. For White males, we generated and mapped county-specific age-adjusted incidence and standardised incidence ratios by period cohort, and identified spatial autocorrelation and local clusters. In addition, we fitted Bayesian hierarchical generalised linear Poisson models to describe the temporal and aging effects separately in Whites state-wide and metropolitan Philadelphia blacks. Incidences of prostate cancer among white males declined from 2000-2002 to 2009-2011 with an increasing trend to some extent in the period 2006-2008 and significant variation across geographic regions, but less variation exists for metropolitan Philadelphia including majority of Black patients. No significant aging effect was detected for White and Black men, and the peak age group for prostate cancer risk varied by race. Future research should seek to identify potential social and environmental risk factors associated with geographical/racial disparities in prostate cancer. As such, there is a need for more effective surveillance so as to detect, reduce and control the cancer burden associated with prostate cancer.

  3. A new cultural adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; Doty, Richard L; Santos, Clayson Alan dos; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, a test of olfactory function that is widely used by otolaryngologists, geriatricians, and neurologists, has been translated into more than a dozen languages. In some instances, cultural and socioeconomic factors have necessitated changes in the odorant items or the response alternatives to make the test scores congruent with North American norms. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of Brazilian subjects on a new Portuguese language version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test with their performance on an earlier Portuguese language version of the test, as well as to assess the influences of gender, age, ethnicity, and economic status on the test scores. Based on pilot data, several response alternatives of the earlier Portuguese language version of the test were altered in an effort to improve test performance. Forty-nine healthy Brazilian volunteers, who represented several economic classes, were tested. The test scores of the study cohort who received the newer version of the test were compared with those of a group of 25 subjects who received the earlier version of the test. The mean score for the new version [35 (2.1)] was significantly (p = 0.002) higher than that for the earlier version [32.5 (3.5)]. Although no apparent influence of socioeconomic status was observed, the female participants outperformed the male participants in the current subject cohort. The changes made in the new cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were effective in increasing the average test scores of the participants. Overall, the female subjects outperformed the male subjects on the test.

  4. Haemophilus influenzae Type b disease among Amish children in Pennsylvania: reasons for persistent disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, A M; Lurie, P; Gidley, M; Schmink, S; Lingappa, J; Fischer, M; Rosenstein, N E

    2001-10-01

    To identify reservoirs of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) pharyngeal carriage and assess barriers to vaccination among 2 Amish communities in Pennsylvania. We investigated recent cases, performed community surveys for Hib vaccination coverage and pharyngeal carriage, and administered a questionnaire assessing vaccination knowledge and attitudes to 298 members of 2 Amish communities (A and B) in Pennsylvania and, as a comparison group, 136 non-Amish family members who participated in state immunization clinics. From December 1999 to February 2000, 8 cases of invasive Hib disease occurred among children who were 5 years of age or younger in Pennsylvania. Six of the case-patients were from Amish communities. None of the children had been vaccinated. Among children who were 5 years of age or younger, Hib vaccine coverage was low in the 2 Amish communities: A (9 [28%] of 32) and B (3 [7%] of 41) compared with the non-Amish group (19 [95%] of 20). Hib carriage prevalence was higher in both Amish communities than in the non-Amish group (A: 3%; B: 8%; non-Amish: 0%). More households in community B had 1 or more Hib carriers than in community A (8 [28%] of 29 vs 3 [9%] of 32). Among Amish parents who did not vaccinate their children, only 25% (13 of 51) identified either religious or philosophical objections as a factor; 51% (26 of 51) reported that vaccinating was not a priority compared with other activities of daily life. Seventy-three percent (36 of 49) would vaccinate their children if vaccination were offered locally. Undervaccinated communities in the United States still exist and allow circulation of Hib strains, resulting in disease among susceptible children. Identification of undervaccinated populations, such as the Amish, and targeted education and vaccination campaigns are essential to achieving elimination of Hib disease.

  5. Natural Gas Occurrence in Groundwater near Oil and Gas Drilling Sites Environmental Concerns in Northeast Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.; Liang, X.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques have been extensively used to extract unconventional natural gas in the northeast of the United States. Over the past few years, the presence of contaminants in shallow groundwater near drilling sites has created higher awareness of drinking water quality. One key question has been recently raised about the origin and pathways of the contaminants, especially natural gas found in groundwater in neighboring areas of gas drilling sites in northeast Pennsylvania. Methane (CH4), which is the main component of natural gas, is not currently classified as a health hazard when dissolved in drinking water. Yet, it is a threat for explosion and fire hazards. In the Bradford, Susquehanna, Tioga, and Wyoming counties located in northeast Pennsylvania, dissolved methane concentration was measured to be 19.2 mg/l. Maximum concentration was recorded up to 64 mg/l when a warning level of concentration of natural gas in groundwater is only 10 mg/l. Recent studies have been investigating the origin of natural gas found in water wells in these counties based on the isotopic composition of methane, ethane and dissolved inorganic carbon. While Breen et al. (2007) and Osborn et al. (2010 and 2011) claim that the isotopic analysis of methane confirms the thermogenic origin of methane in groundwater in Susquehanna and Wyoming counties, Molofsky et al. (2011) claim that the natural gas origin in the groundwater is not related to fracking activities in the Marcellus Shale but to a geologic origin instead. To better understand the origin of dissolved methane, an integral computer model will be implemented. The model will analyze the potential migration of natural gas to shallow groundwater by using available data. Potential scenarios will include outgassing from wells casing and preferential flow through deep fractures. Currently, the lack of a proper model prevents the prediction and explanation of several of the existing questions

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

  7. The Successful Presidency as a Shared Responsibility. Abstract of Remarks and Survey Data for Distribution to Pennsylvania Community College Presidents and Trustees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Lawrence S.

    In early 1983, a survey was conducted among the presidents and board chairpersons of the 14 public community colleges in Pennsylvania, asking respondents to rate the level of importance of 20 presidential roles based on their institution's needs during the 1982-83 academic year. During a joint annual meeting of Pennsylvania community college…

  8. Water resources of Parowan Valley, Iron County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Thomas M.

    2017-08-29

    Parowan Valley, in Iron County, Utah, covers about 160 square miles west of the Red Cliffs and includes the towns of Parowan, Paragonah, and Summit. The valley is a structural depression formed by northwest-trending faults and is, essentially, a closed surface-water basin although a small part of the valley at the southwestern end drains into the adjacent Cedar Valley. Groundwater occurs in and has been developed mainly from the unconsolidated basin-fill aquifer. Long-term downward trends in groundwater levels have been documented by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) since the mid-1950s. The water resources of Parowan Valley were assessed during 2012 to 2014 with an emphasis on refining the understanding of the groundwater and surface-water systems and updating the groundwater budget.Surface-water discharge of five perennial mountain streams that enter Parowan Valley was measured from 2013 to 2014. The total annual surface-water discharge of the five streams during 2013 to 2014 was about 18,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) compared to the average annual streamflow of about 22,000 acre-ft from USGS streamgages operated on the three largest of these streams from the 1940s to the 1980s. The largest stream, Parowan Creek, contributes more than 50 percent of the annual surface-water discharge to the valley, with smaller amounts contributed by Red, Summit, Little, and Cottonwood Creeks.Average annual recharge to the Parowan Valley groundwater system was estimated to be about 25,000 acre-ft from 1994 to 2013. Nearly all recharge occurs as direct infiltration of snowmelt and rainfall on the Markagunt Plateau east of the valley. Smaller amounts of recharge occur as infiltration of streamflow and unconsumed irrigation water near the east side of the valley on alluvial fans associated with mountain streams at the foot of the Red Cliffs. Subsurface flow from the mountain block to the east of the valley is a significant source of groundwater recharge to the basin-fill aquifer

  9. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Pennsylvania, there are 3 methods by which rights in water may be acquired: riparian ownership, prescription, and condemnation. These are discussed.

  10. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  11. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infections in Pennsylvania black bears, Ursus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, N; Humphreys, J G; Dubey, J P

    1993-10-01

    Serum samples from 665 hunter-killed black bears killed in 1989 to 1992 throughout Pennsylvania (USA) were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the agglutination test in dilutions of 1:25, 1:50, and 1:500. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies were found in 535 of 665 (80%) bears. Considering the highest dilutions at which antibodies were detected, prevalences were 10% at 1:25, 37% at 1:50 and 33% at 1:500. No significant difference in antibody prevalence was found between males (79%) and females (80%), but a significant difference was found between juvenile (65%) and adult (83%) bears.

  12. Dissolved methane in groundwater, Upper Delaware River Basin, Pennsylvania and New York, 2007-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of natural gas development from the Marcellus and Utica Shales has raised concerns about freshwater aquifers being vulnerable to contamination. Well owners are asking questions about subsurface methane, such as, “Does my well water have methane and is it safe to drink the water?” and “Is my well system at risk of an explosion hazard associated with a combustible gas like methane in groundwater?” This newfound awareness of methane contamination of water wells by stray gas migration is based upon studies such as Molofsky and others (2011) who document the widespread natural occurrence of methane in drinking-water wells in Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. In the same county, Osborn and others (2011) identified elevated methane concentrations in selected drinking-water wells in the vicinity of Marcellus Shale gas-development activities, although pre-development groundwater samples were not available for comparison. A compilation of dissolved methane concentrations in groundwater for New York State was published by Kappel and Nystrom (2012). Recent work documenting the occurrence and distribution of methane in groundwater was completed in southern Sullivan County, Pennsylvania (Sloto, 2013). Additional work is ongoing with respect to monitoring for stray gases in groundwater (Jackson and others, 2013). These studies and their results indicate the importance of collecting baseline or pre-development data. While such data are being collected in some areas, published data on methane in groundwater are sparse in the Upper Delaware River Basin of Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. To manage drinking-water resources in areas of gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the Upper Delaware River Basin, the natural occurrence of methane in the tri-state aquifers needs to be documented. The purpose of this report is to present data on dissolved methane concentrations in the groundwater in the Upper Delaware River Basin. The scope is restricted to

  13. Alumina Extraction from a Pennsylvania Diaspore Clay by an Ammonium Sulfate Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J. W.; Sun, Shou-Chuan

    A method is proposed for the extraction of alumina from the minerals diaspore, kaolinite and boehmite, the major alumina usinerais in Pennsylvania diaspore clay. The conditions required for optimum alumina extraction and minimum ammonium sulfate loss as determined for the alumina minerals are applied to a naturally occurring diaspore clay. The proposed flowsheet thus obtained is examined in its parts and such variables as particle size, ammonium sulfate to alumina mole ratio, roasting temperature, roasting time, heating rate, leaching cohditions, and purification methods are discussed.

  14. Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

  15. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. Pennsylvania. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the state of Pennsylvania

  16. WORKING ON THE RAILROAD: WORKERS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD’S PENSION PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Cheape

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1900 the Pennsylvania Railroad Company implemented a pioneering pension plan that became a model for American business in the twentieth century. Although scholars have described the two-stage creation as management’s effort to achieve corporate efficiency and control over its labor force, this paper demonstrates a more complicated, untidy evolution. Employees played a vital, active role in the quarter-century development of the pension scheme, repeatedly shaping the process and its results directly and indirectly, consciously and unconsciously. Furthermore, the plan’s evolution was a messy, often decentralized, and incremental process considerably at oddsw ith the firm’s reputation for systematic, analytical management.

  17. Surface slip during large Owens Valley earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, E.K.; Amos, C.B.; Zielke, O.; Jayko, Angela S.; Burgmann, R.

    2016-01-01

    The 1872 Owens Valley earthquake is the third largest known historical earthquake in California. Relatively sparse field data and a complex rupture trace, however, inhibited attempts to fully resolve the slip distribution and reconcile the total moment release. We present a new, comprehensive record of surface slip based on lidar and field investigation, documenting 162 new measurements of laterally and vertically displaced landforms for 1872 and prehistoric Owens Valley earthquakes. Our lidar analysis uses a newly developed analytical tool to measure fault slip based on cross-correlation of sublinear topographic features and to produce a uniquely shaped probability density function (PDF) for each measurement. Stacking PDFs along strike to form cumulative offset probability distribution plots (COPDs) highlights common values corresponding to single and multiple-event displacements. Lateral offsets for 1872 vary systematically from ∼1.0 to 6.0 m and average 3.3 ± 1.1 m (2σ). Vertical offsets are predominantly east-down between ∼0.1 and 2.4 m, with a mean of 0.8 ± 0.5 m. The average lateral-to-vertical ratio compiled at specific sites is ∼6:1. Summing displacements across subparallel, overlapping rupture traces implies a maximum of 7–11 m and net average of 4.4 ± 1.5 m, corresponding to a geologic Mw ∼7.5 for the 1872 event. We attribute progressively higher-offset lateral COPD peaks at 7.1 ± 2.0 m, 12.8 ± 1.5 m, and 16.6 ± 1.4 m to three earlier large surface ruptures. Evaluating cumulative displacements in context with previously dated landforms in Owens Valley suggests relatively modest rates of fault slip, averaging between ∼0.6 and 1.6 mm/yr (1σ) over the late Quaternary.

  18. The carbon stable isotope biogeochemistry of streams, Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, W.B.; Leslie, D.L.; Harmon, R.S.; Neumann, K.; Welch, K.A.; Bisson, K.M.; McKnight, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► δ 13 C-DIC reported from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, streams. ► Stream water δ 13 C PDB values range −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, largely inorganic in character. ► Atmospheric exchange is the dominant control on δ 13 C-DIC. - Abstract: The McMurdo Dry Valleys region of Antarctica is the largest ice-free region on the continent. This study reports the first C stable isotope measurements for dissolved inorganic C present in ephemeral streams in four dry valleys that flow for four to twelve weeks during the austral summer. One of these valleys, Taylor Valley, has been the focus of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological Research (MCM-LTER) program since 1993. Within Taylor Valley, numerous ephemeral streams deliver water to three perennially ice-covered, closed-basin lakes: Lake Fryxell, Lake Hoare, and Lake Bonney. The Onyx River in the Wright Valley, the longest river in Antarctica, flows for 40 km from the Wright Lower Glacier and Lake Brownworth at the foot of the glacier to Lake Vanda. Streamflow in the McMurdo Dry Valley streams is produced primarily from glacial melt, as there is no overland flow. However, hyporheic zone exchange can be a major hydrogeochemical process in these streams. Depending on landscape position, these streams vary in gradient, channel substrate, biomass abundance, and hyporheic zone extent. This study sampled streams from Taylor, Wright, Garwood, and Miers Valleys and conducted diurnal sampling of two streams of different character in Taylor Valley. In addition, transect sampling was undertaken of the Onyx River in Wright Valley. The δ 13 C PDB values from these streams span a range of greater than 14‰, from −9.4‰ to +5.1‰, with the majority of samples falling between −3‰ and +2‰, suggesting that the C stable isotope composition of dissolved C in McMurdo Dry Valley streams is largely inorganic in character. Because there are no vascular plants on this landscape and no groundwater input to these

  19. Streamflow and water-quality data for Meadow Run Basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, December 1987-November 1988. Open file report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Witt, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected throughout the Meadow Run basin, Fayette County, Pennsylvania, from December 7, 1987 through November 15, 1988, to determine the prevailing quality of surface water over a range of hydrologic conditions. The data will assist the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources during its review of coal-mine permit applications. A water-quality station near the mouth of Meadow Run provided continuous-record of stream stage, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature. Monthly water-quality samples collected at the station were analyzed for total and dissolved metals, nutrients, major cations and anions, and suspended-sediment concentrations

  20. Hydrogeological reconnaissance study: Dyfi Valley, Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendining, S.J.

    1981-10-01

    This report describes work carried out for the Department of the Environment as part of its research programme into radioactive waste management. It presents an account of a hydrogeological reconnaissance study in the Dyfi Valley area of Central Wales. Initially the purposes of such a study are given and the assumptions used in deriving parameters such as flow volume, path length and transit time in areas of massive fractured rocks are described. Using these assumptions with geological, topographic and hydrometeorological data the potential ranges in properties such as bulk hydraulic conductivity, path lengths, hydraulic gradients and volumes of groundwater flow have been determined. These ranges have been used to estimate solute transport model parameters. The limitations and usefulness of the reconnaissance study in planning research and siting exploratory boreholes in the Dyfi area are discussed. (author)

  1. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W C; Weingartl, H M; Drolet, B S; Davé, K; Harpster, M H; Johnson, P A; Faburay, B; Ruder, M G; Richt, J A; McVey, D S

    2013-01-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is concern that this virus could spread because of global warming, increased animal trade or through bioterrorism. This paper discusses the current and developing approaches to diagnosis of RVF. Diagnostic assays are available for RVF, but availability can be limited and there is a need for global harmonization. Continued improvement of standard serological and viral genome amplification approaches, including new embedded/syndromic testing, biosensor, emerging virus detection and characterization technologies is needed.

  2. Rift Valley Fever, Sudan, 2007 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradaib, Imadeldin E.; Erickson, Bobbie R.; Elageb, Rehab M.; Khristova, Marina L.; Carroll, Serena A.; Elkhidir, Isam M.; Karsany, Mubarak E.; Karrar, AbdelRahim E.; Elbashir, Mustafa I.

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate whether Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) diversity in Sudan resulted from multiple introductions or from acquired changes over time from 1 introduction event, we generated complete genome sequences from RVFV strains detected during the 2007 and 2010 outbreaks. Phylogenetic analyses of small, medium, and large RNA segment sequences indicated several genetic RVFV variants were circulating in Sudan, which all grouped into Kenya-1 or Kenya-2 sublineages from the 2006–2008 eastern Africa epizootic. Bayesian analysis of sequence differences estimated that diversity among the 2007 and 2010 Sudan RVFV variants shared a most recent common ancestor circa 1996. The data suggest multiple introductions of RVFV into Sudan as part of sweeping epizootics from eastern Africa. The sequences indicate recent movement of RVFV and support the need for surveillance to recognize when and where RVFV circulates between epidemics, which can make data from prediction tools easier to interpret and preventive measures easier to direct toward high-risk areas. PMID:23347790

  3. Functional ecology of an Antarctic Dry Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuki; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pointing, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys are the largest ice-free region in Antarctica and are critically at risk from climate change. The terrestrial landscape is dominated by oligotrophic mineral soils and extensive exposed rocky surfaces where biota are largely restricted to microbial communities, although their ability to perform the majority of geobiological processes has remained largely uncharacterized. Here, we identified functional traits that drive microbial survival and community assembly, using a metagenomic approach with GeoChip-based functional gene arrays to establish metabolic capabilities in communities inhabiting soil and rock surface niches in McKelvey Valley. Major pathways in primary metabolism were identified, indicating significant plasticity in autotrophic, heterotrophic, and diazotrophic strategies supporting microbial communities. This represents a major advance beyond biodiversity surveys in that we have now identified how putative functional ecology drives microbial community assembly. Significant differences were apparent between open soil, hypolithic, chasmoendolithic, and cryptoendolithic communities. A suite of previously unappreciated Antarctic microbial stress response pathways, thermal, osmotic, and nutrient limitation responses were identified and related to environmental stressors, offering tangible clues to the mechanisms behind the enduring success of microorganisms in this seemingly inhospitable terrain. Rocky substrates exposed to larger fluctuations in environmental stress supported greater functional diversity in stress-response pathways than soils. Soils comprised a unique reservoir of genes involved in transformation of organic hydrocarbons and lignin-like degradative pathways. This has major implications for the evolutionary origin of the organisms, turnover of recalcitrant substrates in Antarctic soils, and predicting future responses to anthropogenic pollution. PMID:23671121

  4. Direct measurement of exciton valley coherence in monolayer WSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Kai

    2016-02-29

    In crystals, energy band extrema in momentum space can be identified by a valley index. The internal quantum degree of freedom associated with valley pseudospin indices can act as a useful information carrier, analogous to electronic charge or spin. Interest in valleytronics has been revived in recent years following the discovery of atomically thin materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides. However, the valley coherence time—a crucial quantity for valley pseudospin manipulation—is difficult to directly probe. In this work, we use two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy to resonantly generate and detect valley coherence of excitons (Coulomb-bound electron–hole pairs) in monolayer WSe2 (refs ,). The imposed valley coherence persists for approximately one hundred femtoseconds. We propose that the electron–hole exchange interaction provides an important decoherence mechanism in addition to exciton population recombination. This work provides critical insight into the requirements and strategies for optical manipulation of the valley pseudospin for future valleytronics applications.

  5. Origin and evolution of valleys on Martian volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulick, V.C.; Baker, V.R. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-08-30

    Morphological analyses of six Martian volcanoes, Ceraunius Tholus, Hecates Tholus, Alba Patera, Hadriaca Patera, Apollinaris Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera, indicate that fluvial processes were the dominant influence in the initiation and subsequent development of many dissecting valleys. Lava processes and possibly volcanic density flows were also important as valley-forming processes. Fluvial valleys are especially well developed on Alba Patera, Ceraunius Tholus, and Hecates Tholus. These valleys are inset into the surrounding landscape. They formed in regions of subdued lava flow morphology, contain tributaries, and tend to widen slightly in the downstream direction. Lava channels on Alba Patera are located on the crest of lava flows and have a discontinuous, irregular surface morphology, and distributary patterns. These channels sometimes narrow toward their termini. Possible volcanic density flow channels are located on the northern flank of Ceraunius Tholus. Valleys dissecting Apollinaris Patera, Hadriaca Patera, and Tyrrhena Patera appear to have a complex evolution, probably a mixed fluvial and lava origin. They are inset into a subdued (possibly mantled) surface, lack tributaries, and either have fairly constant widths or widen slightly downvalley. Valleys surrounding the caldera of Apollinaris appear to have formed by fluvial and possibly by volcanic density flow processes, while those on the Apollinaris fan structure may have a mixed lava and fluvial origin. Valleys on Tyrrhena have broad flat floors and theater heads, which have been extensively enlarged, probably by sapping.

  6. OBSERVED AIR POLLUTION SPECIFICS OF THE VALLEY-BASED TOWNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZOLTÁN UTASI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Observed air pollution specifics of the valley-based towns. There are 21 valley-based towns in the 100 most populated ones of Hungary. This topographical feature may be advantageous due to mezoscale circulation between the valley or basin, containing these settlements and the surrounding hills. On the other hand, the hills form a mechanical obstacle that may limit the vertical mixing of pollution. Final result of these counteracting features are analysed by comparing air pollution characteristics of these settlements with those in two control groups, also counting 21-21 non-valley towns of the country. Each group represents slightly over 1 million inhabitants. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2, sulphur-dioxide (SO2 concentrations and the total particulate matter below 10 µm (PM10 are considered. Annual mean, maxima and median values are analysed in 2007. For NO2 the valley-based towns are slightly cleaner, whereas for SO2 the situation is the opposite. The PM10 values do not indicate much difference between valley based and fully plain settlements. For explanation of these results, selected settlement and communal statistics are also compared. The paper is terminated by a sub-collection of similar valley-based towns in Central Europe.

  7. Geothermal hydrology of Warner Valley, Oregon: a reconnaissance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sammel, E.A.; Craig, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Warner Valley and its southern extension, Coleman Valley, are two of several high-desert valleys in the Basin and Range province of south-central Oregon that contain thermal waters. At least 20 thermal springs, defined as having temperatures of 20/sup 0/C or more, issue from Tertiary basaltic flows and tuffs in and near the valleys. Many shallow wells also produce thermal waters. The highest measured temperature is 127/sup 0/C, reported from a well known as Crump geyser, at a depth of 200 meters. The hottest spring, located near Crump geyser, has a surface temperature of 78/sup 0/C. The occurrence of these thermal waters is closely related to faults and fault intersections in the graben and horst structure of the valleys. Chemical analyses show that the thermal waters are of two types: sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate waters. Chemical indicators show that the geothermal system is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. Conductive heat flow in areas of the valley unaffected by hydrothermal convection is probably about 75 milliwatts per square meter. The normal thermal gradient in valley-fill dpeosits in these areas may be about 40/sup 0/C per kilometer. Geothermometers and mixing models indicate that temperatures of equilibration are at least 170/sup 0/C for the thermal components of the hotter waters. The size and location of geothermal reservoirs are unknown.

  8. Statistical Characterization of the Flow Structure in the Rhine Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Philippe; Debas, Alain M.; Haeberli, Christian; Flamant, Pierre H.

    The flow structure at the intersection between the Rhine and the Seez valleys nearthe Swiss city of Bad Ragaz has been documented by means of wind and pressuremeasurements collected from 9 September to 10 November 1999 during the MesoscaleAlpine Programme (MAP) experiment. To understand better the dynamics of theageostrophic winds that develop in this part of the Rhine valley, some key questionsare answered in this paper including the following: (i) How does air blow at theintersection of the Rhine and Seez valleys? and (ii) what are the dynamical processes(mechanical or thermal) driving the flow circulations in the valleys?Statistical analysis of the wind and pressure patterns at synoptic scale and at the scaleof the valley shows that five main flow patterns, SE/S, NW/W, NW/N, NW/S, SE/N(wind direction in the Seez valley/wind direction in the Rhine valley) prevail. The SE/S regime is the flow splitting situation. It is mainly driven by a strong pressure gradient across the Alps leading to foehn, even though some nocturnal cases are generated bylocal thermal gradients. The NW/W and NW/N regimes are mechanically forced bythe synoptic pressure gradient (as the flow splitting case). The difference between thetwo regimes is due to the synoptic flow direction [westerly (northerly) synoptic flowfor the NW/W (NW/N) regime], showing that the Rhine valley (particularly from BadRagaz to Lake Constance) is less efficient in channelling the flow than the Seez valley.The NW/S (occurring mainly during nighttime) and SE/N (occurring mainly duringdaytime) regimes are mainly katabatic flows. However, the SE/N regime is also partlyforced at the synoptic scale during the foehn case that occurred between 18 October and 20 October 1999, with a complex layered vertical structure.

  9. A 1-D morphodynamic model of postglacial valley incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Jon F.; Church, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Chilliwack River is typical of many Cordilleran valley river systems that have undergone dramatic Holocene degradation of valley fills that built up over the course of Pleistocene glaciation. Downstream controls on base level, mainly blockage of valleys by glaciers, led to aggradation of significant glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine valley fills and fan deposits, subsequently incised by fluvial action. Models of such large-scale, long-term degradation present a number of important challenges since the evolution of model parameters, such as the rate of bedload transport and grain size characteristics, are governed by the nature of the deposit. Sediment sampling in the Chilliwack Valley reveals a complex sequence of very coarse to fine textural modes. We present a 1-D numerical morphodynamic model for the river-floodplain system tailored to conditions in the valley. The model is adapted to dynamically adjust channel width to optimize sediment transporting capacity and to integrate relict valley fill material as the channel incises through valley deposits. Sensitivity to model parameters is studied using four principal criteria: profile concavity, rate of downstream grain size fining, bed surface sand content, and the timescale to equilibrium. Model results indicate that rates of abrasion and coarsening of the grain size distributions exert the strongest controls on all of the interrelated model performance criteria. While there are a number of difficulties in satisfying all model criteria simultaneously, results indicate that 1-D models of valley bottom sedimentary systems can provide a suitable framework for integrating results from sediment budget studies and chronologies of sediment evacuation established from dating.

  10. Landowner attitudes toward natural gas and wind farm development in northern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    The US has undergone a recent boom in the development of onshore wind farm and natural gas energy projects and contentious debates over the construction of these projects are common in communities across the US. A survey of landowners in a region of Northern Pennsylvania (N=1028) undergoing simultaneous development of both wind and natural gas development shows that landowners are generally much more polarized and negative towards gas development than wind farm development, and that attitudes toward natural gas development is highly dependent on environmental attitudes and industry leasing, development, or employment experience. Landowner proximity to the development explains a small amount of the variation in attitudes towards wind energy. Recommendations for energy policy and future research are discussed. - Highlight: ► A Pennsylvania survey reveals attitudes toward natural gas and wind development. ► Gas drilling attitudes became more negative; wind farm attitudes more positive. ► Environmental concern and industry experience influence attitudes toward energy. ► Proximity to wind is weakly related to attitudes; proximity to gas is not related.

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This document establishes elements of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, disposal site. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will use this plan in support of license issuance for the long-term surveillance of the Canonsburg site. The Canonsburg (CAN) site is located within the borough of Canonsburg, Washington County, in southwestern Pennsylvania. The Canonsburg site covers approximately 30 acres (74 hectares). The disposal cell contains approximately 226,000 tons (241,000 tons) of residual radioactive material (RRM). Area C is southeast of the Canonsburg site, between Strabane Avenue and Chartiers Creek. Contaminated soils were removed from Area C during the remedial action, and the area was restored with uncontaminated fill material.After this cleanup, residual quantities of thorium-230 were detected at several Area C locations. The remedial action plan did not consider the ingrowth of radium-226 from thorium-230 as part of the Area C cleanup, and only two locations contained sufficient thorium-230 concentrations to result in radium-226 concentrations slightly above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards

  12. Results of the radiological survey at the former Heppenstall Company site, 4620 Hatfield Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, W.D.; Crutcher, J.W.; Quillen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a program to determine the radiological conditions at sites that were used to process radioactive materials under contract with the department's predecessor agencies. During 1955 the former Heppenstall Company site in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was used by an Atomic Energy Commission contractor to process approximately 100,000 lbs of normal uranium metal. Because of insufficient records to document cleanup procedures and to verify the radiological condition of this site, DOE requested a survey. The radiological survey discussed in this report for the site of the former Heppenstall Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was conducted by members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in July of 1989. The survey included a surface gamma scan of the warehouse, collection of indoor soil and dust samples and one outdoor sample, and measurement of direct and transferable alpha and beta-gamma activity. Results of this radiological assessment indicate no detection of radiation levels or radionuclide concentrations above DOE guidelines. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A.

    2003-01-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture

  14. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A

    2003-09-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture.

  15. Description and Evaluation of the 2009–2010 Pennsylvania Influenza Sentinel School Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Chandra K.; Ostroff, Stephen; Waller, Kirsten

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We described and evaluated the 2009–2010 Pennsylvania Influenza Sentinel School Monitoring System, a voluntary sentinel network of schools that report data on school absenteeism and visits to the school nurse for influenza-like illness (ILI). Methods. Participating schools provided daily absenteeism and ILI data on a weekly basis through an online survey. We used participation and weekly response rates to determine acceptability, timeliness, and simplicity. We assessed representativeness by comparing participating schools with nonparticipating schools. We compared monitoring system data with statewide reports of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Results. Of the 3244 Pennsylvania public schools, 367 (11%) enrolled in the system. On average, 79% of enrolled schools completed the survey each week. Although the peak week of elevated absenteeism coincided with the peak of statewide laboratory-confirmed influenza cases, the correlation between absenteeism and state data was nonsignificant (correlation coefficient = 0.10; P = .56). Trends in ILI correlated significantly with state data (correlation coefficient = 0.67; P school-based sentinel system is a simple, acceptable, reliable device for tracking absenteeism and ILI in schools. Further analyses are necessary to determine the comparative value of this system and other influenza surveillance systems. PMID:21566024

  16. White-tailed deer age ratios as herd management and predator impact measures in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Fleegle, Jeannine T.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2011-01-01

    A review of the Pennsylvania Game Commission's (PGC) deer management program and public concern about predator impacts on deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations compelled the PGC to investigate the role of age ratios in developing management recommendations. Age ratios, such as proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest, may provide an index to population productivity and predator impacts. We estimated proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest from hunter-killed deer, population trends using the Pennsylvania (USA) sex–age–kill model, and reproduction from road-killed females. Using these estimates and a simulation model, we concluded that no single age-ratio value would serve as a reliable measure of population status. Wildlife Management Unit-specific trends in proportion of juveniles in the antlerless harvest and population trends provided the most relevant management information. We also provide an example decision chart to guide management actions in response to declining age ratios in the harvest. Although predator management activities and juvenile survival studies are often desired by the public, our decision-chart example indicated a number of deer management options exist before investing resources in predator management activities and juvenile survival studies.

  17. Is there an Appalachian disparity in dental caries in Pennsylvania schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Deborah E; Kim, Sunghee; Manz, Michael; Weyant, Robert J

    2015-02-01

    To determine whether there is an Appalachian disparity in caries prevalence or extent in children living in Pennsylvania. We conducted a cross-sectional clinical assessment of caries in a sample representing 1st, 3rd, 9th, and 11th grade students across Pennsylvania. We used logistic regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression controlling for age to examine the association of residence in an Appalachian county with caries prevalence and extent in the primary and permanent dentitions. Compared with children living outside Appalachia, more children living in Appalachia had a dft >0 (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.07-1.76) and more had a DMFT >0 (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06-1.64). In addition, compared with children living outside Appalachia, children living in Appalachia had a greater primary but not permanent caries extent (IRR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.01-1.19). We found Appalachian disparities in caries prevalence in both the primary and permanent dentitions and an Appalachian disparity in caries extent in the primary dentition. None of the disparities was moderated by age. This suggests that the search for the mechanism or mechanisms for the Appalachian disparities should focus on differential exposures to risk factors occurring prior to and at the start of elementary school. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Point-of-Care Testing in Community Pharmacies: Keys to Success From Pennsylvania Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steltenpohl, Emily A; Barry, Brandon K; Coley, Kim C; McGivney, Melissa S; Olenak, Julie L; Berenbrok, Lucas A

    2017-01-01

    Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA)-waived tests allow for quick, accurate, and noninvasive laboratory testing. Community pharmacists utilize CLIA-waived tests to provide clinical services such as point-of-care (POC) testing to help manage chronic disease and acute illness. To identify key themes in the successful delivery of POC testing services by community pharmacists in Pennsylvania. An initial search identified 51 Pennsylvania pharmacies with a CLIA waiver. Of these, five independent pharmacies met inclusion criteria, three of which completed interviews. The remaining 38 chain pharmacies were represented by three interviews. In total, five key themes were identified as essential to POC testing services: (1) utilize state resources and professional connections to navigate federal and state regulations, (2) establish relationships with physician partners (3) offer tests that are meaningful to patients and their physicians, (4) evaluate financial impact, workflow adaptations, and marketing approaches when implementing POC testing services, and (5) focus on individualized attention and convenience of community pharmacy-based POC testing to improve patient satisfaction. Successful POC testing services in community pharmacy practice rely on utilizing resources, partnering with known physicians, selecting meaningful tests for patients, and analyzing finances, workflow, and marketing to provide individualized attention and convenient care.

  19. Power Plant Bromide Discharges and Downstream Drinking Water Systems in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2017-10-17

    Coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have been implicated in increasing bromide levels and subsequent increases in disinfection byproducts at downstream drinking water plants. Bromide was not included as a regulated constituent in the recent steam electric effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) since the U.S. EPA analysis suggested few drinking water facilities would be affected by bromide discharges from power plants. The present analysis uses a watershed approach to identify Pennsylvania drinking water intakes downstream of wet FGD discharges and to assess the potential for bromide discharge effects. Twenty-two (22) public drinking water systems serving 2.5 million people were identified as being downstream of at least one wet FGD discharge. During mean August conditions (generally low-flow, minimal dilution) in receiving rivers, the median predicted bromide concentrations contributed by wet FGD at Pennsylvania intake locations ranged from 5.2 to 62 μg/L for the Base scenario (including only natural bromide in coal) and from 16 to 190 μg/L for the Bromide Addition scenario (natural plus added bromide for mercury control); ranges depend on bromide loads and receiving stream dilution capacity.

  20. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  1. Groundwater availability of the Central Valley Aquifer, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunt, Claudia C.

    2009-01-01

    California's Central Valley covers about 20,000 square miles and is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. More than 250 different crops are grown in the Central Valley with an estimated value of $17 billion per year. This irrigated agriculture relies heavily on surface-water diversions and groundwater pumpage. Approximately one-sixth of the Nation's irrigated land is in the Central Valley, and about one-fifth of the Nation's groundwater demand is supplied from its aquifers. The Central Valley also is rapidly becoming an important area for California's expanding urban population. Since 1980, the population of the Central Valley has nearly doubled from 2 million to 3.8 million people. The Census Bureau projects that the Central Valley's population will increase to 6 million people by 2020. This surge in population has increased the competition for water resources within the Central Valley and statewide, which likely will be exacerbated by anticipated reductions in deliveries of Colorado River water to southern California. In response to this competition for water, a number of water-related issues have gained prominence: conservation of agricultural land, conjunctive use, artificial recharge, hydrologic implications of land-use change, and effects of climate variability. To provide information to stakeholders addressing these issues, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program made a detailed assessment of groundwater availability of the Central Valley aquifer system, that includes: (1) the present status of groundwater resources; (2) how these resources have changed over time; and (3) tools to assess system responses to stresses from future human uses and climate variability and change. This effort builds on previous investigations, such as the USGS Central Valley Regional Aquifer System and Analysis (CV-RASA) project and several other groundwater studies in the Valley completed by Federal, State and local agencies at differing scales. The

  2. VALMET: a valley air pollution model. Final report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiteman, C.D.; Allwine, K.J.

    1985-04-01

    An air quality model is described for predicting air pollution concentrations in deep mountain valleys arising from nocturnal down-valley transport and diffusion of an elevated pollutant plume, and the fumigation of the plume on the valley floor and sidewalls after sunrise. Included is a technical description of the model, a discussion of the model's applications, the required model inputs, sample calculations and model outputs, and a full listing of the FORTRAN computer program. 55 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Action Research Monographs. Complete Set. Pennsylvania Action Research Network, 1998-99. A Section 353 Project of the Pennsylvania Department of Education, Bureau of Adult Basic and Literacy Education. A Learning from Practice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.

    This publication consists of the complete set of 23 monographs developed by the Pennsylvania Action Research Network to supplement the 67 monographs produced over the past 3 years. The specific audience are literacy, General Educational Development (GED), and English-as-a Second Language (ESL) practitioners. The titles are: "Use of…

  4. Demonstration of using quieter pavement in Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Death Valley National Park provided an environment that allowed a demonstration of : quieter pavement use. Sound measurements near the tire-pavement interface, near the : road, and in areas of frequent human use were conducted and analyses performed ...

  5. Bird Use of Imperial Valley Crops [ds427

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Agriculture crops in the Imperial Valley of California provide valuable habitat for many resident and migratory birds and are a very important component of the...

  6. Spin-valley splitting of electron beam in graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We study spatial separation of the four degenerate spin-valley components of an electron beam in a EuO-induced and top-gated ferromagnetic/pristine/strained graphene structure. We show that, in a full resonant tunneling regime for all beam components, the formation of standing waves can lead sudden phase jumps ∼−π and giant lateral Goos-Hänchen shifts as large as the transverse beam width, while the interplay of the spin and valley imaginary wave vectors in the modulated regions can lead differences of resonant angles for the four spin-valley flavors, manifesting a spin-valley beam splitting effect. The splitting effect is found to be controllable by the gating and strain.

  7. Chinook Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds125

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer depicts areas designated for Chinook Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the Central Valley Spring-run Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  8. Steelhead Critical Habitat, Central Valley - NOAA [ds123

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This layer depicts areas designated for Steelhead Critical Habitat as well as habitat type and quality in the California Central Valley Evolutionary Significant Unit...

  9. San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Center, located at the University of California-Davis, researchers will investigate the properties of particles that...

  10. Factors influencing immunisation coverage in Mathare Valley, Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : Cross section destrictive study. Setting: Mathare valley slums in Central district of Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Seven hundred and twelve children aged 12-23 months. Results: Access to immunisation services was excellent at 95.6%. However ...

  11. West Valley Reprocessing Plant. Safety analysis report, supplement 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Supplement No. 21 contains responses to USNRC questions on quality assurance contained in USNRC letter to NFS dated January 22, 1976, revised pages for the safety analysis report, and Appendix IX ''Quality Assurance Manual--West Valley Construction Projects.''

  12. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    income of USD1/person/day) between urbanised Klang Valley and rural East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: A semi-structured interview was conducted with caregivers to determine demographics, access to medicines, knowledge, ...

  13. Gravity and magnetic data of Midway Valley, southwest Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sikora, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Detailed gravity and ground magnetic data collected along five traverses across Midway Valley on the eastern flank of Yucca Mountain in southwest Nevada are described. These data were collected as part of an effort to evaluate faulting in the vicinity of proposed surface facilities for a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Geophysical data show that Midway Valley is bounded by large gravity and magnetic anomalies associated with the Bow Ridge and Paintbrush Canyon faults, on the west side of Exile Hill and on the west flank of Fran Ridge, respectively. In addition, Midway Valley itself is characterized by a number of small-amplitude anomalies that probably reflect small-scale faulting beneath Midway Valley

  14. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    income of. USD1/person/day) between ... medicines for their children such as financial, transportation, physical and attitudinal. Conclusion: Access to medicines for ..... some caregivers felt that public transportation in the Klang Valley was not ...

  15. Sociocultural and economic dimensions of Rift Valley fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muga, Geoffrey Otieno; Onyango-Ouma, Washington; Sang, Rosemary; Affognon, Hippolyte

    2015-04-01

    Health researchers have advocated for a cross-disciplinary approach to the study and prevention of infectious zoonotic diseases, such as Rift Valley Fever. It is believed that this approach can help bring out the social determinants and effects of the zoonotic diseases for the design of appropriate interventions and public health policy. A comprehensive literature review using a systematic search strategy was undertaken to explore the sociocultural and economic factors that influence the transmission and spread of Rift Valley Fever. Although the findings reveal a paucity of social research on Rift Valley Fever, they suggest that livestock sacrificial rituals, food preparation and consumption practices, gender roles, and inadequate resource base for public institutions are the key factors that influence the transmission. It is concluded that there is need for cross-disciplinary studies to increase the understanding of Rift Valley Fever and facilitate appropriate and timely response and mitigation measures. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Rock glacier inventory, Printse Valley, Valais, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Printse Valley is a 16-km-long north-orientated basin. The south-part (summits at 300 m asl) is glacierized. The intermediate sector, more continental, is very...

  17. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Springs map. (22) Proceed 4.8 miles north-northwest along Mark West Springs Road, which becomes Porter Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek...

  18. Vernal Pool Complexes - Central Valley, 1989-1998 [ds36

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This Arc/Info coverage is a polygon layer of vernal pool complexes greater than 40 acres in size for 29 counties throughout the greater Central Valley, and some...

  19. NPP Tropical Forest: Magdalena Valley, Colombia, 1970-1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Biomass, litterfall, and nutrient content of above-ground vegetation and soil for a tropical seasonal evergreen forest at Magdalena Valley, Columbia,...

  20. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  1. The Public Mind: Views of Pennsylvania Citizens. Smoking, Abortion, Education, Term Limits, Welfare Reform, Health Insurance, Riverboat Gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield Univ., PA. Rural Services Inst.

    This report presents the annual survey of public opinion in Pennsylvania. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1,744 people whose telephone numbers were randomly selected from all listed telephone numbers. Results of the survey indicate that: (1) Pennsylvanians strongly favor mandatory birth control counseling for welfare mothers, but opinion is…

  2. The 2008-2009 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Handbook for Assessment Coordinators: Writing, Reading and Mathematics, Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This handbook describes the responsibilities of district and school assessment coordinators in the administration of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA). This updated guidebook contains the following sections: (1) General Assessment Guidelines for All Assessments; (2) Writing Specific Guidelines; (3) Reading and Mathematics…

  3. After 25 years, what does the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study tell us about oak/hickory forests under stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; James A. Westfall; Patrick H. Brose; Shawn L. Lehman; Randall S. Morin; Todd E. Ristau; Alejandro A. Royo; Susan L. Stout

    2017-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study was initiated in 1989 because of concerns about a long history of stress on oak/hickory (Quercus/Carya) forests from herbivory and other factors. The study, which addresses the need for landscape-level information about regeneration quality and abundance, comprises a suite of regeneration indicator measurements...

  4. Technical Skill Attainment and Post-Program Outcomes: An Analysis of Pennsylvania Secondary Career and Technical Education Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staklis, Sandra; Klein, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE) has required all students concentrating in career and technical education (CTE) programs to complete a standardized technical skill assessment at or near the end of their program. Results of technical skill assessments are used for a number of purposes, including recognizing…

  5. Retrospective Case Study in Northeastern Pennsylvania, Study of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing On Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the retrospective case study for northeastern Pennsylvania, which was conducted in Bradford and Susquehanna Counties where some of the most intensive unconventional gas production from the Devonian-age Marcellus Shale has occurred. Gas production from the M...

  6. Evaluation of 1975-76 Vocational and Basic Education Programs in the Eight Pennsylvania State Correctional Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James P.; Boyle, Rebecca

    In an effort to better achieve the educational program objectives of developing specific salable skills, and developing skills leading to the General Education Development completion, 321 male and 23 female offenders enrolled in adult basic education, general education development, and vocational courses in Pennsylvania's eight State institutions…

  7. Sex Discrimination in High School Sports. A Report and Recommendations from Public Hearings on Interscholastic Athletics for Girls in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Commission for Women, Harrisburg.

    The Pennsylvania Commission for Women held hearings on equal opportunity for girls in athletics in November 1978. Participants included coaches, parents, students, organization and state officials. Testimony was presented on inequities between girls' and boys' athletic programs, coaching and officiating salaries, and attitudes toward female and…

  8. Twenty-ninth annual progress report of the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Nuclear Reactor, July 1, 1983-June 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.H.; Totenbier, R.E.

    1984-07-01

    The twenty-ninth annual progress report of the operation of the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Reactor is submitted in accordance with the requirements of Contract DE-AC02-76ER03409 with the United States Department of Energy. This report also provides the University administration with a summary of the operation of the facility for the past year

  9. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  10. 77 FR 33303 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ...: the definition of ``Handle''; and regulations concerning ``Marketing Policy'' and ``Grower Diversion... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 930 AGENCY...

  11. Sexting, Risk Behavior, and Mental Health in Adolescents: An Examination of 2015 Pennsylvania Youth Risk Behavior Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Anne S.; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Patterson, Freda; Dai, Ting; Brown, Deanna

    2018-01-01

    Background: Sexting, the sharing of sexually suggestive photos, may be a gateway behavior to early sexual activity and increase the likelihood of social ostracism. Methods: Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 6021) data from 2015 among Pennsylvania 9th-12th grade students were used to examine associations between consensual and nonconsensual sexting…

  12. Seismicity related to geothermal development in Dixie Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryall, A.S.; Vetter, U.R.

    1982-07-08

    A ten-station seismic network was operated in and around the Dixie Valley area from January 1980 to November 1981; three of these stations are still in operation. Data from the Dixie Valley network were analyzed through 30 Jun 1981, and results of analysis were compared with analysis of somewhat larger events for the period 1970-1979. The seismic cycle in the Western Great Basic, the geologic structural setting, and the instrumentation are also described.

  13. Proximity to citrus influences Pierce's disease in Temecula Valley vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Perring, Thomas M.; Farrar, Charles A.; Blua, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Pierce's disease has caused extensive losses to grapes in the Temecula Valley. The primary vector of Pierce's disease in the region is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), which has been found in large numbers in citrus trees. We examined the role of citrus in the Temecula Valley Pierce's disease epidemic and found that citrus groves have influenced the incidence and severity of Pierce's disease in grapes. Because GWSS inhabit citrus in large numbers, California grape growers should take ad...

  14. Topological Valley Transport at Bilayer Graphene Domain Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    resistances are lower than that expected from the semiconductor bandgap in ideal bilayer graphene , presumably owing to impurities and defects in our devices...LETTER doi:10.1038/nature14364 Topological valley transport at bilayer graphene domain walls Long Ju1*, Zhiwen Shi1*, Nityan Nair1, Yinchuan Lv1...Electron valley, a degree of freedom that is analogous to spin, can lead to novel topological phases in bilayer graphene . A tunable bandgap can be

  15. Inca expansion and parasitism in the Lluta Valley: preliminary data

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro Calogero; Vinton Sheila Dorsey; Reinhard Karl J

    2003-01-01

    Assessing the impact of cultural change on parasitism has been a central goal in archaeoparasitology. The influence of civilization and the development of empires on parasitism has not been evaluated. Presented here is a preliminary analysis of the change in human parasitism associated with the Inca conquest of the Lluta Valley in Northern Chile. Changes in parasite prevalence are described. It can be seen that the change in life imposed on the inhabitants of the Lluta Valley by the Incas cau...

  16. Hydrothermal system in Southern Grass Valley, Pershing County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, A.H.; Sorey, M.L.; Olmsted, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Southern Grass Valley is a fairly typical extensional basin in the Basin and Range province. Leach Hot Springs, in the southern part of the valley, represents the discharge end of an active hydrothermal flow system with an estimated deep aquifer temperature of 163 to 176/sup 0/C. Results of geologic, hydrologic, geophysical and geochemical investigations are discussed in an attempt to construct an internally consistent model of the system.

  17. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  18. Effects of Cache Valley Particulate Matter on Human Lung Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Watterson, Todd L.

    2012-01-01

    During wintertime temperature inversion episodes the concentrations of particulate air pollution, also defined as particulate matter (PM), in Utah’s Cache Valley have often been highest in the nation, with concentrations surpassing more populated and industrial areas. This has attracted much local and national attention to the area and its pollution. The Cache Valley has recently been declared to be in non-attainment of provisions of Federal law bringing to bear Federal regulatory attention a...

  19. Reconstruction of the MSRs in-situ at Beaver Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarden, A.; Tam, C.W.; Deahna, S.T.; McFeaters, C.V.

    1992-01-01

    The Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) have been problem components at Beaver Valley 1 pressurized water reactor since the plant started up 16 years ago, many of the problems encountered being widespread in the nuclear industry. In 1991, Duquesne Light rebuilt the Beaver Valley 1 MSRs and in 1992 did the same at unit 2. The reconstruction projects have proved cost effective with short payback times and significant improvements in station performance. (Author)

  20. Vitrification process equipment design for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.; Drosjack, W.P.

    1988-10-01

    The vitrification process and equipment design is nearing completion for the West Valley Project. This report provides the basis and current status for the design of the major vessels and equipment within the West Valley Vitrification Plant. A review of the function and key design features of the equipment is also provided. The major subsystems described include the feed preparation and delivery systems, the melter, the canister handling systems, and the process off-gas system. 11 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  2. Quaternary glaciation of the Tashkurgan Valley, Southeast Pamir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Lewis A.; Chen, Jie; Hedrick, Kathyrn A.; Caffee, Marc W.; Robinson, Alexander C.; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Yuan, Zhaode; Li, Wenqiao; Imrecke, Daniel B.; Liu, Jinfeng

    2012-07-01

    The Quaternary glacial history of Tashkurgan valley, in the transition between the Pamir and Karakoram, in Xinjiang Province, China was examined using remote sensing, field mapping, geomorphic analysis of landforms and sediments, and 10Be terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide dating. Moraines were assigned to four glacial stages: 1) the Dabudaer glacial stage that dates to the penultimate glacial cycle and/or earlier, and may represent one or more glaciations; 2) the Tashkurgan glacial stage that dates to early last glacial, most likely Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 4; 3) the Hangdi glacial stage that dates to MIS 2, possibly early MIS 2; and 4) the Kuzigun glacial stage that dates to the MIS 2, possibly the global Last Glacial Maximum, and is younger than the Hangdi glacial stage. Younger moraines and rock glaciers are present at the heads of tributary valleys; but these were inaccessible because they are located close to politically sensitive borders with Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Glaciers during the Dabudaer glacial stage advanced into the central part of the Tashkurgan valley. During the Tashkurgan glacial stages, glaciers advanced several kilometers beyond the mouths of the tributary valleys into the Tashkurgan valley. Glaciers during the Hangdi and Kuzigun glacial stages advanced just beyond the mouths of the tributary valleys. Glaciation in this part of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen is likely strongly controlled by northern hemisphere climate oscillations, although a monsoonal influence on glaciation cannot be ruled out entirely.

  3. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  4. Ventilation potential during the emissions survey in Toluca Valley, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Angulo, A.; Peralta, O.; Jurado, O. E.; Ortinez, A.; Grutter de la Mora, M.; Rivera, C.; Gutierrez, W.; Gonzalez, E.

    2017-12-01

    During the late-spring early-summer measurements of emissions and pollutants were carried out during a survey campaign at four different locations within the Toluca Valley. The current emissions inventory typically estimates the generation of pollutants based on pre-estimated values representing an entire sector function of their activities. However, those factors are not always based direct measurements. The emissions from the Toluca Valley are rather large and they could affect the air quality of Mexico City Valley. The air masses interchange between those two valleys is not very well understood; however, based on the measurements obtained during the 3 months campaign we looked carefully at the daily variability of the wind finding a clear signal for mountain-valley breeze. The ventilation coefficient is estimated and the correlations with the concentrations at the 4 locations and in a far away station in Mexico City are addressed in this work. Finally, we discuss the implication of the ventilation capacity in air quality for the system of Valleys that include Mexico City.

  5. Valley-selective optical Stark effect probed by Kerr rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMountain, Trevor; Bergeron, Hadallia; Balla, Itamar; Stanev, Teodor K.; Hersam, Mark C.; Stern, Nathaniel P.

    2018-01-01

    The ability to monitor and control distinct states is at the heart of emerging quantum technologies. The valley pseudospin in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers is a promising degree of freedom for such control, with the optical Stark effect allowing for valley-selective manipulation of energy levels in WS2 and WSe2 using ultrafast optical pulses. Despite these advances, understanding of valley-sensitive optical Stark shifts in TMDCs has been limited by reflectance-based detection methods where the signal is small and prone to background effects. More sensitive polarization-based spectroscopy is required to better probe ultrafast Stark shifts for all-optical manipulation of valley energy levels. Here, we show time-resolved Kerr rotation to be a more sensitive probe of the valley-selective optical Stark effect in monolayer TMDCs. Compared to the established time-resolved reflectance methods, Kerr rotation is less sensitive to background effects. Kerr rotation provides a fivefold improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the Stark effect optical signal and a more precise estimate of the energy shift. This increased sensitivity allows for observation of an optical Stark shift in monolayer MoS2 that exhibits both valley and energy selectivity, demonstrating the promise of this method for investigating this effect in other layered materials and heterostructures.

  6. Assessment of Wastewater in Duhok Valley, Kurdistan Region/Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmaldin E. Hassan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the waste water in Duhok valley in Duhok governorate, during 25km, seven sites were selected in Duhok valley, to represent their water quality. Monthly samples were collected from the Duhok valley for the period from, April to September, 2015. The qualitative study of Duhok valley water tested, as considered one of the main sources of water pollution for Musol Lake. The physical and chemical test for water samples are taken from different locations in Duhok valley. To know the degree of pollution, and the impact of self-purification processes to improve water quality before arriving to the Mosul Lake, and the indicated results of the study a lack of dissolved oxygen in the water (DO. And high organic load values, (BOD and most of the bad qualities during water passage within the city of Duhok, while meat a significant improvement in the quality of water downstream before arriving at the dam Lake, is attributed to the effect of operations of self- purification ability of water. In spite of salinity problems and toxicity, the quality of water is suitable for irrigation crops on both sides of the valley .The all samples were tested for conductivity, TDS, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity, sulfate, BOD, and phosphate, according to the standard methods.

  7. Quantifying methane emissions from natural gas production in north-eastern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. R. Barkley

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas infrastructure releases methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated emission rate associated with the production and transportation of natural gas is uncertain, hindering our understanding of its greenhouse footprint. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional emission rates from natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania. An inventory of CH4 emissions was compiled for major sources in Pennsylvania. This inventory served as input emission data for the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry enabled (WRF-Chem, and atmospheric CH4 mole fraction fields were generated at 3 km resolution. Simulated atmospheric CH4 enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations obtained from a 3-week flight campaign in May 2015. Modelled enhancements from sources not associated with upstream natural gas processes were assumed constant and known and therefore removed from the optimization procedure, creating a set of observed enhancements from natural gas only. Simulated emission rates from unconventional production were then adjusted to minimize the mismatch between aircraft observations and model-simulated mole fractions for 10 flights. To evaluate the method, an aircraft mass balance calculation was performed for four flights where conditions permitted its use. Using the model optimization approach, the weighted mean emission rate from unconventional natural gas production and gathering facilities in north-eastern Pennsylvania approach is found to be 0.36 % of total gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.27 and 0.45 % of production. Similarly, the mean emission estimates using the aircraft mass balance approach are calculated to be 0.40 % of regional natural gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.08 and 0.72 % of production. These emission rates as a percent of production are

  8. Long-term disease and economic outcomes of prior authorization criteria for Hepatitis C treatment in Pennsylvania Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Mina; Chhatwal, Jagpreet; Donohue, Julie M; Roberts, Mark S; James, A Everette; Dunn, Michael A; Gellad, Walid F

    2017-09-01

    Several highly effective but costly therapies for hepatitis C virus (HCV) are available. As a consequence of their high price, 36 state Medicaid programs limited treatment coverage to patients with more advanced HCV stages. States have only limited information available to predict the long-term impact of these decisions. We adapted a validated hepatitis C microsimulation model to the Pennsylvania Medicaid population to estimate the existing HCV prevalence in Pennsylvania Medicaid and estimate the impact of various HCV drug coverage policies on disease outcomes and costs. Outcome measures included rates of advanced-stage HCV outcomes and treatment and disease costs in both Medicaid and Medicare. We estimated that 46,700 individuals in Pennsylvania Medicaid were infected with HCV in 2015, 33% of whom were still undiagnosed. By expanding treatment to include mild fibrosis stage (Metavir F2), Pennsylvania Medicaid will spend an additional $273 million on medications in the next decade with no substantial reduction in the incidence of liver cancer or liver-related death. Medicaid patients who are not eligible for treatment under restricted policies would get treatment once they transition to the Medicare program, which would incur 10% reduction in HCV-related costs due to early treatment in Medicaid. Further expanding treatment to patients with early fibrosis stages (F0 or F1) would cost Medicaid an additional $693 million during the next decade but would reduce the number of individuals in need of treatment in Medicare by 46% and decrease Medicare treatment costs by 23%. In some scenarios, outcomes could worsen with eligibility expansion if there is inadequate capacity to treat all patients. Expansion of HCV treatment coverage to less severe stages of liver disease may not substantially improve liver related outcomes for patients in Pennsylvania Medicaid in scenarios in which coverage through Medicare is widely available. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Higgs portal valleys, stability and inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC,C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); CERN, Theory Division,1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Tamarit, Carlos [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-30

    The measured values of the Higgs and top quark masses imply that the Standard Model potential is very likely to be unstable at large Higgs values. This is particularly problematic during inflation, which sources large perturbations of the Higgs. The instability could be cured by a threshold effect induced by a scalar with a large vacuum expectation value and directly connected to the Standard Model through a Higgs portal coupling. However, we find that in a minimal model in which the scalar generates inflation, this mechanism does not stabilize the potential because the mass required for inflation is beyond the instability scale. This conclusion does not change if the Higgs has a direct weak coupling to the scalar curvature. On the other hand, if the potential is absolutely stable, successful inflation in agreement with current CMB data can occur along a valley of the potential with a Mexican hat profile. We revisit the stability conditions, independently of inflation, and clarify that the threshold effect cannot work if the Higgs portal coupling is too small. We also show that inflation in a false Higgs vacuum appearing radiatively for a tuned ratio of the Higgs and top masses leads to an amplitude of primordial gravitational waves that is far too high, ruling out this possibility.

  10. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references

  11. Tennessee Valley Region: a year 2000 profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the potential radiological implications of nuclear facilities in the combined watersheds of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers, an area covering portions of 7 states of varied topography. The regional population in 1970 was about 4.6 million and is expected to increase to about 7 million by the year 2000. A 1973 projection estimated the installed electric generating capacity of the region to increase from a 1970 value of 45,000 megawatts to a total of 222,000 megawatts by the year 2000. In that year, about 144,000 megawatts were projected to be nuclear plants. The profile of the Tennessee Valley Region in the year 2000, as drawn from this report, contains the essential data for calculation of the radiological dose from operation of nuclear facilities in that year. Those calculations are reported in the companion document, DOE/ET-0064/2. Specifically, Volume I establishes the parameters describing where the people live, what they eat, the activities in which they engage, and the environmental surroundings that enable an evaluation of the potential radiation dose to the population. Airborne radionuclides from nuclear facilities in this zone may enter the study area and be deposited on the ground, on growing food, and on water surfaces. Consideration was not given to waterborne radionuclides external to the study region. 17 references. (MCW)

  12. Higgs portal valleys, stability and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ballesteros, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The measured values of the Higgs and top quark masses imply that the Standard Model potential is very likely to be unstable at large Higgs values. This is particularly problematic during inflation, which sources large perturbations of the Higgs. The instability could be cured by a threshold effect induced by a scalar with a large vacuum expectation value and directly connected to the Standard Model through a Higgs portal coupling. However, we find that in a minimal model in which the scalar generates inflation, this mechanism does not stabilize the potential because the mass required for inflation is beyond the instability scale. This conclusion does not change if the Higgs has a direct weak coupling to the scalar curvature. On the other hand, if the potential is absolutely stable, successful inflation in agreement with current CMB data can occur along a valley of the potential with a Mexican hat profile. We revisit the stability conditions, independently of inflation, and clarify that the threshold effect ca...

  13. Flowers of Çoruh Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Çakmakçı

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.

  14. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  15. Trend Analyses of Users of a Syringe Exchange Program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laurie A; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ye, Du; Benitez, José; Mazzella, Silvana; Krafty, Robert

    2016-12-01

    This study examines trends of injection drug users' (IDUs) use of a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, syringe exchange program (SEP) from 1999 to 2014, including changes in demographics, drug use, substance abuse treatment, geographic indicators, and SEP use. Prevention Point Philadelphia's SEP registration data were analyzed using linear regression, Pearson's Chi square, and t-tests. Over time new SEP registrants have become younger, more racially diverse, and geographically more concentrated in specific areas of the city, corresponding to urban demographic shifts. The number of new registrants per year has decreased, however syringes exchanged have increased. Gentrification, cultural norms, and changes in risk perception are believed to have contributed to the changes in SEP registration. Demographic changes indicate outreach strategies for IDUs may need adjusting to address unique barriers for younger, more racially diverse users. Implications for SEPs are discussed, including policy and continued ability to address current public health threats.

  16. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  17. Effects of spray-irrigated municipal wastewater on a small watershed in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    Spray irrigation is a method for disposing of secondary treated municipal wastewater by spraying it on the land surface (fig. 1). The sprayed wastewater either evaporates into the air, soaks into the soil, or percolates through the soil and recharges the ground water. Land application of wastewater has advantages over conventional means of disposal by direct discharge to streams because the wastewater recharges the ground-water system and increases base flow in streams. Additional benefits are derived from the "natural" treatment of the wastewater that takes place in the soil when plants and other biota remove some nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from the wastewater (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 2003). The removal of nutrients is one advantage spray irrigation has to conventional disposal methods like instream discharge.

  18. Concentrations of selected pharmaceuticals and antibiotics in south-central Pennsylvania waters, March through September 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Connie A.; Crawford, J. Kent; Otto, Kim L.; Manning, Rhonda L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents environmental and quality-control data from analyses of 15 pharmaceutical and 31 antibiotic compounds in water samples from streams and wells in south-central Pennsylvania. The analyses are part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) to define concentrations of selected emerging contaminants in streams and well water in Pennsylvania. Sampling was conducted at 11 stream sites and at 6 wells in 9 counties of south-central Pennsylvania. Five of the streams received municipal wastewater and 6 of the streams received runoff from agricultural areas dominated by animal-feeding operations. For all 11 streams, samples were collected at locations upstream and downstream of the municipal effluents or animal-feeding operations. All six wells were in agricultural settings. A total of 120 environmental samples and 21 quality-control samples were analyzed for the study. Samples were collected at each site in March/April, May, July, and September 2006 to obtain information on changes in concentration that could be related to seasonal use of compounds.For streams, 13 pharmaceuticals and 11 antibiotics were detected at least 1 time. Detections included analytical results that were estimated or above the minimum reporting limits. Seventy-eight percent of all detections were analyzed in samples collected downstream from municipal-wastewater effluents. For streams receiving wastewater effluents, the pharmaceuticals caffeine and para-xanthine (a degradation product of caffeine) had the greatest concentrations, 4.75 μg/L (micrograms per liter) and 0.853 μg/L, respectively. Other pharmaceuticals and their respective maximum concentrations were carbamazepine (0.516 μg/L) and ibuprofen (0.277 μg/L). For streams receiving wastewater effluents, the antibiotic azithromycin had the greatest concentration (1.65 μg/L), followed by sulfamethoxazole (1.34 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.329

  19. Oviposition Activity Patterns of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, Jennifer E; Wallace, John R

    2016-06-01

    Culex pipiens and Cx. restuans are the main vectors of West Nile virus and the primary target species of surveillance and control programs in Pennsylvania. Performing adult control, specifically ultra-low volume (ULV) applications, at night during peak oviposition activity time(s) is necessary to control these species. In July and August of 2009, collections were made at 15-min intervals starting at sunset and continuing until 3 h after sunset to establish a more accurate timeline of Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans oviposition flight activity. The highest numbers of Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans were collected during the 15-30, 30-45, and 45-60 min postsunset time intervals (P < 0.05). Oviposition activity began to decrease after 60 min postsunset. These observations have identified a smaller oviposition activity period for Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans than noted from other studies, thus potentially improving the timing of ULV operations to control these 2 vector species.

  20. The history of dermatology at the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E. Reid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little written about the history of women in dermatology. In this paper, we summarize the information obtained from archival records from the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, one of the first medical schools for women, where several of the early prominent women in dermatology obtained their medical degrees and practiced. Among others, graduates include Rose Hirschler, MD, and Margaret Gray Wood, MD. The school and its graduates made important contributions to dermatology and to the advancement of women in the field. The history of women in dermatology is not well documented, and this historical research provides background in the biographies of pioneering women in an effort to preserve and honor their important work.