WorldWideScience

Sample records for leguminous plant genus

  1. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with leguminous and non-leguminous plants

    OpenAIRE

    Franche, Claudine; Lindstrom, K.; Elmerich, C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen is generally considered one of the major limiting nutrients in plant growth. The biological process responsible for reduction of molecular nitrogen into ammonia is referred to as nitrogen fixation. A wide diversity of nitrogen-fixing bacterial species belonging to most phyla of the Bacteria domain have the capacity to colonize the rhizosphere and to interact with plants. Leguminous and actinorhizal plants can obtain their nitrogen by association with rhizobia or Frankia via different...

  2. Hydrogen Reactions of Nodulated Leguminous Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Karel R.; Engelke, Jean A.; Russell, Sterling A.; Evans, Harold J.

    1977-01-01

    The ATP-dependent evolution of H2 catalyzed by nitrogenase and the hydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of H2 have been implicated as factors influencing the efficiency of energy utilization in the N2 fixation process. The effects of rhizobial strain and plant age on the H2-evolving and H2-utilizing activity of leguminous root nodules are described in this manuscript. Two classes of legume-Rhizobium combinations were observed in studies with soybeans (Glycine max L. Merr.) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.). One group evolved H2 in air; the other group did not exhibit net evolution of H2. The latter group metabolized H2 formed within the nodule through the action of a hydrogenase. The capacity to oxidize H2 was strongly linked to the strain of Rhizobium used to inoculate cowpeas and soybeans. Although the magnitude of H2 evolution in air changed during vegetative growth of a given symbiont, the ratio of H2 evolved in air to total nitrogenase activity was not appreciably altered during this period. No consistent difference in nitrogenase activity as measured by the C2H2 reduction assay was observed between symbionts with an active hydrogenase and those that apparently lack the enzyme and evolve H2. The effects of the two reactions of H2 on total N2 fixation and yield must now be established. PMID:16660157

  3. Stimulation treatments of large-seed leguminous plants Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Istvan; Borbely, Ferenc; Nagy, Janos; Dezsi, Zoltan

    1983-01-01

    The effect of low dose X-ray irradiation on the sprouting and initial growth of some leguminous plants was studied. After having the seeds of peas, beans, lupines and horse beans irradiated, the sprouting rate, the amount of sprouting plants, the length of the roots, the sprouts and the sprouting plants, the electrolyte conductivity and the water uptake were determined. The height and the amount of the plants were measured after a period of 6 weeks. According to the sprout-length values, an increased variation in the plant features can be observed as a result of irradiation treatment: both stimulation and inhibition of plant growth occured, depending on the variety of the leguminosae. The indices of sprouting and initial growth agree well with each other. (V.N.)

  4. Accumulation and function of trigonelline in non-leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shin

    2014-06-01

    As part of our studies of the occurrence, biosynthesis, function and human use of trigonelline, we looked at trigonelline-accumulating plant species and at the distribution of trigonelline in different organs of trigonelline-accumulating non-leguminous plants. There are many trigonelline-synthesizing plant species, but apart from legume seeds only a few species accumulate high concentrations of trigonelline. We have found only three species that accumulate high levels of trigonelline: Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine), Coffea arabica (coffee) and Mirabilisjalapa (four o'clock flower). Trigonelline was found in all parts of Murraya paniculata seedlings at 4-13 micromol/g fresh weight; more than 70% was distributed in the leaves. In the coffee plant, trigonelline was found in all organs, and the concentrations in the upper stems, including tips (48 micromol/g FW) and seeds (26 micromol/g FW), were higher than in other organs. In Mirabilis jalapa plants, trigonelline was found in leaves, stems, flowers, roots and seeds; the concentration varied from 0.3 to 13 micromol/g FW and was generally higher in young tissues than in mature tissues, except for seeds. Exogenously supplied nicotinamide increases the trigonelline content. The in planta role of trigonelline and the possible use oftrigonelline-accumulating plants in herbal medicine are discussed.

  5. Molecular characterisation and infectivity of a "Legumovirus" (genus Begomovirus: family Geminiviridae) infecting the leguminous weed Rhynchosia minima in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Qazi, Javaria; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W

    2009-11-01

    The legume yellow mosaic viruses (LYMVs) that cause extensive losses to grain legumes across southern Asia are an evolutionarily unusual group of begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus; family Geminiviridae) with bipartite genomes. All previously identified LYMVs were isolated from leguminous crop species. Here we have identified a virus related to the LYMVs in a common weed, the legume Rhynchosia minima originating from Pakistan. Analysis of the sequence of the virus shows it to be a typical bipartite begomovirus. Sequence comparisons to all other begomovirus sequences available in the databases show the virus from R. minima to be distinct, with the highest level of sequence identity (69.5%) to an isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus. This indicates that the virus identified here is a new species in the genus Begomovirus for which we propose the name Rhynchosia yellow mosaic virus (RhYMV). By Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation we show that, in common with the other LYMVs, the clones of RhYMV are not infectious to the experimental host Nicotiana benthamiana. In soybean, the results of inoculation depended upon the variety. In soybean var. Ig6 the symptoms were mild and plants recovered from infection. However, in var. FS-85, symptoms were severe and progressed to necrosis, indicative of a hypersensitive response. These results indicate that there is resistance to RhYMV in the soybean germplasm. The significance of these results is discussed.

  6. Ferric Leghemoglobin in Plant-Attached Leguminous Nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kk.; Shearman, L. L.; Erickson, B. K.; Klucas, R. V.

    1995-01-01

    Leghemoglobin (Lb) is essential for nitrogen fixation by intact leguminous nodules. To determine whether ferric Lb (Lb3+) was detectable in nodules under normal or stressed conditions, we monitored the status of Lb in intact nodules attached to sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots exposed to various conditions. The effects of N2 and O2 streams and elevated nicotinate levels on root-attached nodules were tested to determine whether the spectrophotometric technique was showing the predicted responses of Lb. The soybean and sweet clover nodules' Lb spectra indicated predominantly ferrous Lb and LbO2 in young (34 d) plants. As the nodule aged beyond 45 d, it was possible to induce Lb3+ with a 100% O2 stream (15 min). At 65 d without inducement, the nodule Lb status indicated the presence of some Lb3+ along with ferrous Lb and oxyferrous Lb. Nicotinate and fluoride were used as ligands to identify Lb3+. Computer-calculated difference spectra were used to demonstrate the changes in Lb spectra under different conditions. Some conditions that increased absorbance in the 626 nm region (indicating Lb3+ accumulation) were root-fed ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, plant exposure to darkness, and nodule water immersion. PMID:12228593

  7. [Immunity of a leguminous plant infected by nodular bacteria Rhizobium spp. F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyan'ko, A K; Ischenko, A A

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies of the immune system of leguminous plants infected with nodular bacteria (rhizobia) are summarized. The possibility of blocking the invasion of rhizobia into plant organs not affected by the primary infection is discussed. The concept of local and systemic resistance of the leguminous plant to rhizobial infection is introduced. The Nod factors of rhizobia are considered, as well as the plant receptors that interact with these factors upon the formation of symbiosis of the plant and bacteria. The role of bacterial surface exopolysaccharides in the suppression of the protective system of the plants is discussed. The innate immunity of leguminous plant cells is assumed to affect the formation and functioning of the symbiosis of the plant and the bacteria.

  8. Comparison of radiocesium concentration changes in leguminous and non-leguminous herbaceous plants observed after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Shigeo; Tagami, Keiko

    2018-06-01

    Transfer of radiocesium from soil to crops is an important pathway for human intake. In the period from one to two years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, food monitoring results showed that radiocesium concentrations in soybean (a legume) were higher than those in other annual agricultural crops; in these crops, root uptake is the major pathway of radiocesium from soil to plant. However, it was not clear whether or not leguminous and non-leguminous herbaceous plants have different Cs uptake abilities from the same soil because crop sample collection fields were different. In this study, therefore, we compared the concentrations of 137 Cs in seven herbaceous plant species including two leguminous plants (Trifolium pratense L. and Vicia sativa L.) collected in 2012-2016 from the same sampling field in Chiba, Japan that had been affected by the FDNPP accident fallout. Among these species, Petasites japonicus (Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim. showed the highest 137 Cs concentration in 2012-2016. The correlation factor between all concentration data for 137 Cs and those for 40 K in these seven plants was R = 0.54 (p plants did not differ significantly, but 137 Cs data in the Poaceae family plants were significantly lower than those in T. pratense (p plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ecological Considerations in the Selection of Leguminous Plants as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to select leguminous cover crops for the Accra plains ecology in Ghana, based on the ability to withstand drought, produce enough biomass and fix nitrogen. In a randomised complete block design, Crotalaria ochroleuca, Stylosanthes ha-mata, Stylosanthes guianensis, ...

  10. [Analysis of Symbiotic Genes of Leguminous Plants Nodule Bacteria Grown in the Southern Urals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baymiev, An Kh; Ivanova, E S; Gumenko, R S; Chubukova, O V; Baymiev, Al Kh

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial strains isolated from the nodules, tissues, and root surface of wild legumes growing in the Southern Urals related to the tribes Galegeae, Hedysareae, Genisteae, Trifolieae, and Loteae were examined for the presence in their genomes of symbiotic (sym) genes. It was found that the sym-genes are present in microorganisms isolated only from the nodules of the analyzed plants (sym+ -strains). Phylogenetic analysis of sym+ -strains on the basis of a comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that sym+ -strains belong to five families of nodule bacteria: Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium, and Phyllobacterium. A study the phylogeny of the sym-genes showed that the nodule bacteria of leguminous plants of the Southern Urals at the genus level are mainly characterized by a parallel evolution of symbiotic genes and the 16S rRNA gene. Thus, cases of horizontal transfer of sym genes, which sometimes leads to the formation of certain types of atypical rhizobial strains ofleguminous plants, are detected in nodule bacteria populations.

  11. Reproductive Indicators of Leguminous Plants as a Characteristic of the Ecological State of Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaletdinov, R. I.; Okulova, S. M.; Gavrilova, E. A.; Zakhvatova, A. A.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the results of many years of research on the reproductive performance of six species of leguminous plants (FabaceaeLind., 1836) under conditions of urbanization of habitat (Kazan). The range of variability of the main reproductive indices in six species is illustrated: the potential productivity, the actual productivity of the six main types of leguminous plants. The features of variability of seed death at different stages of development are shown depending on habitat conditions. It is established that the main regularities of changes in reproductive parameters depending on habitat conditions are manifested both in native species and in the introduced species Caraganaarborescens Lam., 1785. Based on the results of the study we made conclusion about the advisability of monitoring the reproductive parameters of leguminous plants for indicating the state of the environment in a large city.

  12. The active role of leguminous plant components in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gętek, Monika; Czech, Natalia; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata; Grochowska-Niedworok, Elżbieta; Kokot, Teresa; Nowakowska-Zajdel, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes appears to be one of the most frequent noncommunicable diseases in the world. A permanent growth in the incidence of diabetes can be observed and according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) the year 2030 will mark the increase in the number of diabetics to 439 mln worldwide. Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of all diabetes incidence. Nutrition model modification not only features the basic element in type 2 diabetes treatment but also constitutes the fundamental factor influencing a morbidity rate decrease. Leguminous plants are a key factor in the diabetic diet; plants such as pulses or soybeans are nutritious products valued highly in nutrition. These legumes are high in the content of wholesome protein and contain large amounts of soluble alimentary fiber fractions, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, and bioactive substances with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity. They are distinguished by the high amount of bioactive compounds that may interfere with the metabolism of glucose. The most significant bioactive compounds displaying antidiabetic activity in leguminous plants are as follows: genistein and daidzein, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. In vitro research using leguminous plant extracts has confirmed their antidiabetic properties. Leguminous plants should be employed in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of functional food.

  13. The Active Role of Leguminous Plant Components in Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gętek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes appears to be one of the most frequent noncommunicable diseases in the world. A permanent growth in the incidence of diabetes can be observed and according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF the year 2030 will mark the increase in the number of diabetics to 439 mln worldwide. Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of all diabetes incidence. Nutrition model modification not only features the basic element in type 2 diabetes treatment but also constitutes the fundamental factor influencing a morbidity rate decrease. Leguminous plants are a key factor in the diabetic diet; plants such as pulses or soybeans are nutritious products valued highly in nutrition. These legumes are high in the content of wholesome protein and contain large amounts of soluble alimentary fiber fractions, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and minerals, and bioactive substances with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity. They are distinguished by the high amount of bioactive compounds that may interfere with the metabolism of glucose. The most significant bioactive compounds displaying antidiabetic activity in leguminous plants are as follows: genistein and daidzein, alpha-amylase inhibitors, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. In vitro research using leguminous plant extracts has confirmed their antidiabetic properties. Leguminous plants should be employed in the promotion of healthy lifestyles in terms of functional food.

  14. Influence of leguminous and non-leguminous woody plants on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: associations; biomass; canopy; competition; digitaria eriantha; eragrostis lehmanniana; grass biomass; grasses; herbaceous layer; mixed bushveld; nutrients; panicum maximum; preference; schmidtia pappophoroides; soil enrichment; subhabitats; tree competitiveness; tree density; trees; woody plants

  15. Potential values of some non-leguminous browse plants as dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... plants as dry season feed for ruminants in Nigeria. D. O. Ogunbosoye* and O. J. Babayemi ... Inadequate feed supply is a major constraint to ruminant production during the dry season in the tropics. ... nutritional composition of some non leguminous multi- purpose trees by their chemical composition and in ...

  16. Ecological effects of matching between mycorrhizal fungus and leguminous plants in solid wastes of mine area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi Yin-li; Wu Fu-yong; Quan Wen-zhi [China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

    2006-05-15

    The matching relations between two kinds of AM fungus and three kinds of leguminous plants including white clover, alfaifa and acacia was studied based on two special kinds of solid waste (coal gangue and fly ash) in mine area. G. mosseae fungi were screened out as superiority fungi taken the biomass, phosphorus adsorption efficiency, the infection rate and the mycorrhizal dependency of host plant as the criterion. The results show that: the two optimal combinations of AM fungi and leguminous plant were formed, one was G. mosseae and alfalfa in fly ash and the mixture of coal gangue and fly ash, the other was G. geosporum and acacia in the mixture of coal gangue and sand; the growth and absorbing ability to phosphorus of plants were improved; and the dependences between mycorrhizal fungus and plants and the infectivity of mycorrhizal were better. The good ecological effects was obtained. 18 refs., 7 tabs.

  17. Interactions of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and soil factors in two leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Fan, Miaochun; Wang, Entao; Chen, Weimin; Wei, Gehong

    2017-12-01

    Although the rhizomicrobiome has been extensively studied, little is known about the interactions between soil properties and the assemblage of plant growth-promoting microbes in the rhizosphere. Herein, we analysed the composition and structure of rhizomicrobiomes associated with soybean and alfalfa plants growing in different soil types using deep Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing. Soil pH, P and K significantly affected the composition of the soybean rhizomicrobiome, whereas soil pH and N had a significant effect on the alfalfa rhizomicrobiome. Plant biomass was influenced by plant species, the composition of the rhizomicrobiome, soil pH, N, P and plant growth stage. The beta diversity of the rhizomicrobiome was the second most influential factor on plant growth (biomass). Rhizomicrobes associated with plant biomass were identified and divided into four groups: (1) positively associated with soybean biomass; (2) negatively associated with soybean biomass; (3) positively associated with alfalfa biomass; and (4) negatively associated with alfalfa biomass. Genera assemblages among the four groups differentially responded to soil properties; Group 1 and Group 2 were significantly correlated with soil pH and P, whereas Group 3 and Group 4 were significantly correlated with soil N, K and C. The influence of soil properties on the relative abundance of plant biomass-associated rhizomicrobes differed between soybean and alfalfa. The results suggest the rhizomicrobiome has a pronounced influence on plant growth, and the rhizomicrobiome assemblage and plant growth-associated microbes are differentially structured by soil properties and leguminous plant species.

  18. Mixed planting with a leguminous plant outperforms bacteria in promoting growth of a metal remediating plant through histidine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adediran, Gbotemi A; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Heal, Kate V; Harvie, Barbra A

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) in improving metal phytoremediation is still limited by stunted plant growth under high soil metal concentrations. Meanwhile, mixed planting with leguminous plants is known to improve yield in nutrient deficient soils but the use of a metal tolerant legume to enhance metal tolerance of a phytoremediator has not been explored. We compared the use of Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Rhizobium leguminosarum, and the metal tolerant leguminous plant Vicia sativa to promote the growth of Brassica juncea in soil contaminated with 400 mg Zn kg(-1), and used synchrotron based microfocus X-ray absorption spectroscopy to probe Zn speciation in plant roots. B. juncea grew better when planted with V. sativa than when inoculated with PGPB. By combining PGPB with mixed planting, B. juncea recovered full growth while also achieving soil remediation efficiency of >75%, the maximum ever demonstrated for B. juncea. μXANES analysis of V. sativa suggested possible root exudation of the Zn chelates histidine and cysteine were responsible for reducing Zn toxicity. We propose the exploration of a legume-assisted-phytoremediation system as a more effective alternative to PGPB for Zn bioremediation.

  19. Leguminous plants: inventors of root nodules to accommodate symbiotic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzaki, Takuya; Yoro, Emiko; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Legumes and a few other plant species can establish a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, which enables them to survive in a nitrogen-deficient environment. During the course of nodulation, infection with rhizobia induces the dedifferentiation of host cells to form primordia of a symbiotic organ, the nodule, which prepares plants to accommodate rhizobia in host cells. While these nodulation processes are known to be genetically controlled by both plants and rhizobia, recent advances in studies on two model legumes, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, have provided great insight into the underlying plant-side molecular mechanism. In this chapter, we review such knowledge, with particular emphasis on two key processes of nodulation, nodule development and rhizobial invasion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Decomposition and nutrient release of leguminous plants in coffee agroforestry systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Matos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Leguminous plants used as green manure are an important nutrient source for coffee plantations, especially for soils with low nutrient levels. Field experiments were conducted in the Zona da Mata of Minas Gerais State, Brazil to evaluate the decomposition and nutrient release rates of four leguminous species used as green manures (Arachis pintoi, Calopogonium mucunoides, Stizolobium aterrimum and Stylosanthes guianensis in a coffee agroforestry system under two different climate conditions. The initial N contents in plant residues varied from 25.7 to 37.0 g kg-1 and P from 2.4 to 3.0 g kg-1. The lignin/N, lignin/polyphenol and (lignin+polyphenol/N ratios were low in all residues studied. Mass loss rates were highest in the first 15 days, when 25 % of the residues were decomposed. From 15 to 30 days, the decomposition rate decreased on both farms. On the farm in Pedra Dourada (PD, the decomposition constant k increased in the order C. mucunoides < S. aterrimum < S. guianensis < A. pintoi. On the farm in Araponga (ARA, there was no difference in the decomposition rate among leguminous plants. The N release rates varied from 0.0036 to 0.0096 d-1. Around 32 % of the total N content in the plant material was released in the first 15 days. In ARA, the N concentration in the S. aterrimum residues was always significantly higher than in the other residues. At the end of 360 days, the N released was 78 % in ARA and 89 % in PD of the initial content. Phosphorus was the most rapidly released nutrient (k values from 0.0165 to 0.0394 d-1. Residue decomposition and nutrient release did not correlate with initial residue chemistry and biochemistry, but differences in climatic conditions between the two study sites modified the decomposition rate constants.

  1. Transformation of leguminous plants to study symbiotic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iantcheva, Anelia; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Ratet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Legume plants are important in agriculture because they represent an important source of protein for human and animal consumption. This high protein content results from their capacity to use atmospheric nitrogen for their nutrition as a consequence of their symbiotic interaction with rhizobia. Understanding this interaction at the molecular level is a prerequisite for its better use in agriculture and for the long term objective of its transfer to other crops. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is a tool of choice for studying this interaction and for unraveling the function of the different genes discovered through classical genetic approaches. However, legume plants are often recalcitrant to regeneration and transformation. This paper describes the technology developments (regeneration, transformation, insertion mutagenesis) related to Agrobacterium transformations that were established in the legume plants, as well as different examples of the technology developments or gene discoveries resulting from these studies.

  2. Increase of multi-metal tolerance of three leguminous plants by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Jun; Zhang, Xu-Hong; Wong, Ming-Hung; Ye, Zhi-Hong; Lou, Lai-Qing; Wang, You-Shan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2007-12-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae on the growth and metal uptake of three leguminous plants (Sesbania rostrata, Sesbania cannabina, Medicago sativa) grown in multi-metal contaminated soil. AMF colonization increased the growth of the legumes, indicating that AMF colonization increased the plant's resistance to heavy metals. It also significantly stimulated the formation of root nodules and increased the N and P uptake of all of the tested leguminous plants, which might be one of the tolerance mechanisms conferred by AMF. Compared with the control, colonization by G. mosseae decreased the concentration of metals, such as Cu, in the shoots of the three legumes, indicating that the decreased heavy metals uptake and growth dilution were induced by AMF treatment, thereby reducing the heavy metal toxicity to the plants. The root/shoot ratios of Cu in the three legumes and Zn in M. sativa were significantly increased (P<0.05) with AMF colonization, indicating that heavy metals were immobilized by the mycorrhiza and the heavy metal translocations to the shoot were decreased.

  3. Identification of duplicated and stress-inducible Aox2b gene co-expressed with Aox1 in species of the Medicago genus reveals a regulation linked to gene rearrangement in leguminous genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, João Henrique Frota; Oliveira, Georgia Mesquita; Saraiva, Kátia Daniella da Cruz; Torquato, José Pedro Pires; Maia, Ivan G; de Melo, Dirce Fernandes; Costa, José Hélio

    2013-12-15

    In flowering plants, alternative oxidase (Aox) is encoded by 3-5 genes distributed in 2 subfamilies (Aox1 and Aox2). In several species only Aox1 is reported as a stress-responsive gene, but in the leguminous Vigna unguiculata Aox2b is also induced by stress. In this work we investigated the Aox genes from two leguminous species of the Medicago genus (Medicago sativa and Medicago truncatula) which present one Aox1, one Aox2a and an Aox2b duplication (named here Aox2b1 and Aox2b2). Expression analyses by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in M. sativa revealed that Aox1, Aox2b1 and Aox2b2 transcripts increased during seed germination. Similar analyses in leaves and roots under different treatments (SA, PEG, H2O2 and cysteine) revealed that these genes are also induced by stress, but with peculiar spatio-temporal differences. Aox1 and Aox2b1 showed basal levels of expression under control conditions and were induced by stress in leaves and roots. Aox2b2 presented a dual behavior, i.e., it was expressed only under stress conditions in leaves, and showed basal expression levels in roots that were induced by stress. Moreover, Aox2a was expressed at higher levels in leaves and during seed germination than in roots and appeared to be not responsive to stress. The Aox expression profiles obtained from a M. truncatula microarray dataset also revealed a stress-induced co-expression of Aox1, Aox2b1 and Aox2b2 in leaves and roots. These results reinforce the stress-inducible co-expression of Aox1/Aox2b in some leguminous plants. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that this regulation is linked to Aox1/Aox2b proximity in the genome as a result of the gene rearrangement that occurred in some leguminous plants during evolution. The differential expression of Aox2b1/2b2 suggests that a second gene has been originated by recent gene duplication with neofunctionalization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. [Growth responses of six leguminous plants adaptable in Northern Shaanxi to petroleum contaminated soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bao-Qin; Zhang, Yong-Tao; Cao, Qiao-Ling; Kang, Zhen-Yan; Li, Shu-Yuan

    2014-03-01

    To select appropriate native species in Northern Shaanxi for phytoremediation, the growth index of six kinds of leguminous plants planted in petroleum contaminated soils were investigated through pot culture. Petroleum concentrations were set at 0, 5 000, 10 000, 20 000, 40 000 mg x kg(-1) respectively with three replicates. Using different levels of seed germination rate, germination time, individual height, wilting rate, dry weight and chlorophyll content in leaves of tested plants as the ecological indicator. The results showed that tested plants have significantly different responses to petroleum pollution. Compared with those planted in clean soils, seed germination rate and individual height were promoted when petroleum concentration was lower than 5000 mg x kg(-1), but inhibition occurred when petroleum concentrations were higher than 10000 mg x kg(-1). Strong endurance of Medicago sativa was observed to petroleum polluted soil, especially at lower petroleum concentration. Leaf wilting of Robinia pseudoacacia was unobserved even when petroleum concentration was 40 000 mg x kg(-1), thus displaying the potential of remediating petroleum contaminated soils. The petroleum concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with seed germination rate, individual height and dry weight, but positively correlated with chlorophyll content in leaves.

  5. Allelopathy in a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica: protoplast co-culture bioassay and rotenone effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Mori, Daisuke; Minagawa, Reiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    To investigate allelopathic activity of a leguminous mangrove plant, Derris indica, the 'Protoplasts Co-culture Method' for bioassay of allelopathy was developed using suspension culture. A suspension culture was induced from immature seed and sub-cultured in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzyladenine (BA). The protoplasts were isolated using the separate wells method with 2% each of Cellulase RS, Driselase 20 and Macerozyme R10 in 0.4 M mannitol solution. Protoplast cultures of D. indica revealed that high concentrations of cytokinins, BA and thidiazuron, were effective for cell divisions. The co-cultures of D. indica protoplasts with recipient lettuce protoplasts using 96 multi-well culture plates were performed in MS basal medium containing 0.4 M mannitol solution and 1 μM 2,4-D and 0.1 μM BA. The protoplast density of D. indica used in co-culturing varied from 6 x 10(3) - 10(5) / mL. Very strong inhibitory allelopathic effects of D. indica protoplasts on lettuce protoplast growth were found. A similar strong inhibitory allelopathic activity of dried young leaves on lettuce seedling growth was also observed by using the sandwich method. Rotenone, which is a component of Derris root, dissolved in DMSO, was highly inhibitory on the growth of lettuce protoplasts in culture and this could be one of the causes of the strong allelopathic activity of D. indica.

  6. Changes to soil organic N dynamics with leguminous woody plant encroachment into grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The encroachment of nitrogen-fixing trees and shrubs into grasslands and savannas occurs worldwide. In the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas, previous studies have shown that woody encroachment by leguminous Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite) trees increases soil and microbial biomass nitrogen ...

  7. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals.

  8. [Stereochemistry, syntheses and biological activity of lupine alkaloids--from studies on the leguminous plants growing mainly in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Shigeru

    2007-10-01

    Lupine alkaloids have been studied from the viewpoints of biosynthesis, biotechnology, chemotaxonomy, and biological activity, on the basis of the chemical investigation of the leguminous plants of the 28 species belonging to the 9 genera, which mainly grow in Japan. The results obtained have been comprehensively reviewed by authors. This review describes the stereochemistry of lupine alkaloids and focuses on the conformational flexibility of nitrogen-fused systems such as quinolizidine and indolizidine, syntheses of new unusual types of alkaloids from known lupine alkaloids, and pharmacological activity of lupine alkaloids, especially kappa-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive effects of matrine-type lupine alkaloids.

  9. Plant growth promotion in cereal and leguminous agricultural important plants: from microorganism capacities to crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Montaño, F; Alías-Villegas, C; Bellogín, R A; del Cerro, P; Espuny, M R; Jiménez-Guerrero, I; López-Baena, F J; Ollero, F J; Cubo, T

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria which actively colonize plant roots, exerting beneficial effects on plant development. The PGPR may (i) promote the plant growth either by using their own metabolism (solubilizing phosphates, producing hormones or fixing nitrogen) or directly affecting the plant metabolism (increasing the uptake of water and minerals), enhancing root development, increasing the enzymatic activity of the plant or "helping" other beneficial microorganisms to enhance their action on the plants; (ii) or may promote the plant growth by suppressing plant pathogens. These abilities are of great agriculture importance in terms of improving soil fertility and crop yield, thus reducing the negative impact of chemical fertilizers on the environment. The progress in the last decade in using PGPR in a variety of plants (maize, rice, wheat, soybean and bean) along with their mechanism of action are summarized and discussed here. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Computational investigation of small RNAs in the establishment of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza in leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Danfeng; Meng, Xianwen; Wang, Yue; Wang, Jingjing; Zhao, Yuhua; Chen, Ming

    2018-01-03

    Many small RNAs have been confirmed to play important roles in the development of root nodules and arbuscular mycorrhiza. In this study, we carried out the identification of certain small RNAs in leguminous plants (Medicago truncatula, soybean, peanut and common bean), such as miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs, as well as the computational investigation of their regulations. Thirty miRNAs were predicted to be involved in establishing root nodules and mycorrhiza, and 12 of them were novel in common bean and peanut. The generation of tRFs in M. truncatula was not associated with tRNA gene frequencies and codon usage. Six tRFs exhibited different expressions in mycorrhiza and root nodules. Moreover, srRNA 5.8S in M. truncatula was generated from the regions with relatively low conservation at the rRNA 3' terminal. The protein-protein interactions between the proteins encoded by the target genes of miRNAs, tRFs and srRNAs were computed. The regulation of these three types of sRNAs in the symbiosis between leguminous plants and microorganisms is not a single regulation of certain signaling or metabolic pathways but a global regulation for the plants to own growth or specific events in symbiosis.

  11. Modulation of quorum sensing controlled behaviour of bacteria by growing seedling, seed and seedling extracts of leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Qaseem; Zahin, Maryam; Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-06-01

    Effect of growing seedling, seeds and seedlings extracts from seven leguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo, Cajanus cajan, Lentil culinaris, Cicer arietinum and Trigonella foenum graecum) were screened for their ability to influence quorum sensing controlled pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum indicator strains (CV12472 and CVO26). Germinating seedling and seedling extracts of only P. sativum (pea) showed inhibition of violacein production. Interestingly, the T. foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extracts enhances the pigment production. Quorum sensing regulated swarming motility in Pseudomonas aerugionsa PAO1 was reduced by pea seedling extract while enhanced by the fenugreek seed extracts. These findings suggest that plant metabolites of some legumes interact actively with bacterial quorum sensing and could modulate its associated functions.

  12. Phylogeny of the plant genus Pachypodium (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan O. Burge

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The genus Pachypodium contains 21 species of succulent, generally spinescent shrubs and trees found in southern Africa and Madagascar. Pachypodium has diversified mostly into arid and semi-arid habitats of Madagascar, and has been cited as an example of a plant group that links the highly diverse arid-adapted floras of Africa and Madagascar. However, a lack of knowledge about phylogenetic relationships within the genus has prevented testing of this and other hypotheses about the group.Methodology/Principal Findings. We use DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and chloroplast trnL-F region for all 21 Pachypodium species to reconstruct evolutionary relationships within the genus. We compare phylogenetic results to previous taxonomic classifications and geography. Results support three infrageneric taxa from the most recent classification of Pachypodium, and suggest that a group of African species (P. namaquanum, P. succulentum and P. bispinosum may deserve taxonomic recognition as an infrageneric taxon. However, our results do not resolve relationships among major African and Malagasy lineages of the genus.Conclusions/Significance. We present the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Pachypodium. Our work has revealed five distinct lineages, most of which correspond to groups recognized in past taxonomic classifications. Our work also suggests that there is a complex biogeographic relationship between Pachypodium of Africa and Madagascar.

  13. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IN Abdullahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11061 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  14. Potential of Epicoccum purpurascens Strain 5615 AUMC as a Biocontrol Agent of Pythium irregulare Root Rot in Three Leguminous Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutb, Mostafa; Ali, Esam H

    2010-12-01

    Epicoccum purpurascens stain 5615 AUMC was investigated for its biocontrol activity against root rot disease caused by Pythium irregulare. E. purpurascens greenhouse pathogenicity tests using three leguminous plants indicated that the fungus was nonpathogenic under the test conditions. The germination rate of the three species of legume seeds treated with a E. purpurascens homogenate increased significantly compared with the seeds infested with P. irregulare. No root rot symptoms were observed on seeds treated with E. purpurascens, and seedlings appeared more vigorous when compared with the non-treated control. A significant increase in seedling growth parameters (seedling length and fresh and dry weights) was observed in seedlings treated with E. purpurascens compared to pathogen-treated seedlings. Pre-treating the seeds with the bioagent fungus was more efficient for protecting seeds against the root rot disease caused by P. irregulare than waiting for disease dispersal before intervention. To determine whether E. purpurascens produced known anti-fungal compounds, an acetone extract of the fungus was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The extract revealed a high percentage of the cinnamic acid derivative (trimethylsiloxy) cinnamic acid methyl ester. The E. purpurascens isolate grew more rapidly than the P. irregulare pathogen in a dual culture on potato dextrose agar nutrient medium, although the two fungi grew similarly when cultured separately. This result may indicate antagonism via antibiosis or competition.

  15. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  16. [Nod factors, chemical signal exchange between bacteria and leguminous plants in nitrogen fixing symbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promé, J C

    1999-05-01

    The early steps of the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between plant legumes and soil bacteria (rhizobium) are mediated by an exchange of chemical signals between the two partners. Upon gene activation by plant root secretions (flavonoids), bacteria synthesize lipochitooligomers (called Nod Factors, NFs) that induce root hair deformations, cortical cell divisions, allow bacterial entry and produce nodule organogenesis at nano to picomole concentrations. Substitutions occurring on the lipochitooligosaccharide core are essential for recognition and activity. Biosynthesis of these molecules is now fully dissected, by looking at the structural changes in NFs induced by gene mutation or gene transfers. From the biodiversity studies of NFs, it appears that their structures belong with the phylogenetic evolution of plants, rather than that of bacteria, suggesting a coevolution of symbiotic bacteria with their plant receptors. Some preliminary and indirect observations indicate that similar molecules seem to exist in non-legumes plants, in batrachians and fishes beeing possibly involved in their embryogenesis, but they are probably at at a so low concentration that all attempts to detect them directly fail up to now.

  17. Potential values of some non-leguminous browse plants as dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-03

    May 3, 2010 ... The content of neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and lignin ranged from 40.49 - 69.31, 28.39 - 52.62 ... foliage leaves have beneficial effects at low concentration. (Hess et al., 2003; Babayemi et .... gave an indication of high level of cell wall contents of the plant species. Table 2 shows ...

  18. Nodulation of leguminous plants as affected by root secretions and red light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lie, T.A.

    1964-01-01

    Nodulation of bean plants, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in water culture was poor during hot sunny weather in the greenhouse. It did not improve when indoleacetic acid, kinetin, gibberellic acid, purines and pyrimidines, yeast and soil extract were added. Nodulation was enhanced by adding used

  19. Evidence for linkages between ecoenzyme activity and soil organic matter chemistry following encroachment of leguminous woody plant into grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, Timothy; Stott, Diane; Boutton, Thomas; Creamer, Courtney; Olk, Dan

    2010-05-01

    The encroachment of woody plants into grasslands is a worldwide phenomenon. In the Rio Grande Plains of southern Texas, subtropical thorn woodlands dominated by the N-fixing tree Prosopis glandulosa have largely replaced native grasslands as a result of fire suppression and extensive cattle grazing. This land cover change has resulted in the increase of belowground stocks of C, N, and P, changes to the amount and chemical nature of soil-stabilized plant biopolymers, and the composition and activity of soil microbes. Given that extracellular enzymes produced by plants and microbes are the principal means by which complex compounds are degraded and that the production of such enzymes is triggered or suppressed by changes in substrate and nutrient availability we sought to relate how these fundamental changes in this ecosystem are reflected in the activity of soil stabilized ecoenzymes and soil organic matter (SOM) chemistry in this system. We investigated a chronosequence of woody encroachment (14-86 yrs) into a C4-dominant grassland. We related the potential activities of five extracellular enzymes (arylamidase, acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase (NAGase, polyphenoloxidase (PPO)) and a general marker for hydrolytic activity, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to the molecular composition and concentration of total hydrolysable amino acids and amino sugars, sugars, as well as CuO extractable lignin and substituted fatty acid to. When normalized to dry weight soil all chemical components increase in concentration with cluster age and all clusters have greater concentrations than background grasslands. All enzymes activities exhibit higher potential activity in woody clusters than grasslands but only NAGase and FDA increase with cluster age when normalized to dry weight of soil. Conversely, when normalized to SOC only lignin phenols, hydroxyl proline, and glucose from cellulose are positively correlated with cluster age indicating a selective accrual with

  20. Linkages between land Cover, enzymes, and soil organic matter chemistry following encroachment of leguminous woody plant into grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Stott, D. E.; Boutton, T. W.; Creamer, C. A.; Olk, D.

    2009-12-01

    only weak trends with age when normalized to carbon content. Although, PPO was nearly invariant across the chronosequence, lignin content rose dramatically, normalized both to soil mass and to organic carbon content, indicating oxidase activity was not matched to input and lignin was selectively accruing in the below ground carbon pools. We propose that the dramatic increase in available N in the leguminous system suppressed microbial oxidase production allowing lignin to selectively accrue while microbial activity for the other plant biopolymers has nearly kept pace with input-consistent with recent findings in other temperate deciduous systems. These results have important implications for the modeling of woodland-grassland conversion and the dynamics of biogeochemical cycles in this globally significant land cover change.

  1. Peak levels of endogenous cytokinins after decapitation in leaves of leguminous plants: increase of protein and chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozsar, B.I.

    1980-01-01

    The side-effects of endogenous cytokinins were examined in leguminous plants (beans, alfalfa). Two weeks after decapitation the cytokinin-content of the leaves increased approx. 8-fold. Parallel to this, the total N-content increased by 30%, the protein N-content by 70%, the chlorophyll-content by 40% and the photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation by 100%. Thus, in addition to the mitotic activity, the protein-synthesis and photosynthetic CO 2 fixation are also enhanced by endogenous cytokinins. (L.E.)

  2. Heat-shock responses in two leguminous plants: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, C; Cardemil, L

    2001-08-01

    Relative growth rates, basal and acclimated thermotolerance, membrane damage, fluorescence emission, and relative levels of free and conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 were compared after 2 h of treatment at different temperatures between Prosopis chilensis and Glycine max (soybean), cv. McCall, to evaluate if the thermotolerance of these two plants was related to levels of accumulation of heat shock proteins. Seedlings of P. chilensis germinated at 25 degrees C and at 35 degrees C and grown at temperatures above germination temperature showed higher relative growth than soybean seedlings treated under the same conditions. The lethal temperature of both species was 50 degrees C after germination at 25 degrees C. However, they were able to grow at 50 degrees C after germination at 35 degrees C. Membrane damage determinations in leaves showed that P. chilensis has an LT(50) 6 degrees C higher than that of soybean. There were no differences in the quantum yield of photosynthesis (F(v)/F(m)), between both plants when the temperatures were raised. P. chilensis showed higher relative levels of free ubiquitin, conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 than soybean seedlings when the temperatures were raised. Time-course studies of accumulation of these proteins performed at 40 degrees C showed that the relative accumulation rates of ubiquitin, conjugated ubiquitin and HSP70 were higher in P. chilensis than in soybean. In both plants, free ubiquitin decreased during the first 5 min and increased after 30 min of heat shock, conjugated ubiquitin increased after 30 min and HSP70 began to increase dramatically after 20 min of heat shock. From these data it is concluded that P. chilensis is more tolerant to acute heat stress than soybean.

  3. Restoration of eroded soil in the Sonoran Desert with native leguminous trees using plant growth-promoting microorganisms and limited amounts of compost and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; Salazar, Bernardo G; Moreno, Manuel; Lopez, Blanca R; Linderman, Robert G

    2012-07-15

    Restoration of highly eroded desert land was attempted in the southern Sonoran Desert that had lost its natural capacity for self-revegetation. In six field experiments, the fields were planted with three native leguminous trees: mesquite amargo Prosopis articulata, and yellow and blue palo verde Parkinsonia microphylla and Parkinsonia florida. Restoration included inoculation with two of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB; Azospirillum brasilense and Bacillus pumilus), native arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and small quantities of compost. Irrigation was applied, when necessary, to reach a rainy year (300 mm) of the area. The plots were maintained for 61 months. Survival of the trees was marginally affected by all supplements after 30 months, in the range of 60-90%. This variation depended on the plant species, where all young trees were established after 3 months. Plant density was a crucial variable and, in general, low plant density enhanced survival. High planting density was detrimental. Survival significantly declined in trees 61 months after planting. No general response of the trees to plant growth-promoting microorganisms and compost was found. Mesquite amargo and yellow palo verde responded well (height, number of branches, and diameter of the main stem) to inoculation with PGPB, AM fungi, and compost supplementation after three months of application. Fewer positive effects were recorded after 30 months. Blue palo verde did not respond to most treatments and had the lowest survival. Specific plant growth parameters were affected to varying degrees to inoculations or amendments, primarily depending on the tree species. Some combinations of tree/inoculant/amendment resulted in small negative effects or no response when measured after extended periods of time. Using native leguminous trees, this study demonstrated that restoration of severely eroded desert lands was possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antifungal proteins and peptides of leguminous and non-leguminous origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T B

    2004-07-01

    Antifungal proteins and peptides, as their names imply, serve a protective function against fungal invasion. They are produced by a multitude of organisms including leguminous flowering plants, non-leguminous flowering plants, gymnosperms, fungi, bacteria, insects and mammals. The intent of the present review is to focus on the structural and functional characteristics of leguminous, as well as non-leguminous, antifungal proteins and peptides. A spectacular diversity of amino acid sequences has been reported. Some of the antifungal proteins and peptides are classified, based on their structures and/or functions, into groups including chitinases, glucanases, thaumatin-like proteins, thionins, and cyclophilin-like proteins. Some of the well-known proteins such as lectins, ribosome inactivating proteins, ribonucleases, deoxyribonucleases, peroxidases, and protease inhibitors exhibit antifungal activity. Different antifungal proteins may demonstrate different fungal specificities. The mechanisms of antifungal action of only some antifungal proteins including thaumatin-like proteins and chitinases have been elucidated.

  5. Measurement of symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in leguminous host-plants grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils amended with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbard, J P; Jones, K C

    2001-01-01

    Rates of nitrogen fixation by Rhizobium in symbiosis with leguminous host-plants including white clover, broad bean and peas have been established in soils that have been amended experimentally with heavy metal-contaminated sewage sludges. Results from 15N-dilution experiments for the measurement of N2 fixation have shown that adverse heavy metal effects are apparent on symbiotic N2 fixation rates for white clover grown in inter-specific competition with ryegrass under mixed sward conditions, compared to white clover grown in pure sward. Further experiments on broad bean and pea indicated a significant, but minor-inhibitory metal-related effect on the rate of N2 fixation compared to untreated soils and soils amended with a relatively uncontaminated sludge. The implications of the results with respect to sludge utilisation in agriculture are discussed.

  6. Occurrence of leguminous trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, J.H.; Arkcoll, D.B.A.; Turnbull, J.W.; Magalhaes, L.M.S.; Fernandes, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Five papers from the symposium are presented. Kirkbride, J.H. Jr.; Legumes of the cerrado. pp 23-46 (Refs. 55) A review is given. Some 548 legume species in 59 genera are listed that have been reported from cerrado vegetation. Felker, P.; Legume trees in semi-arid and arid areas. pp 47-59 (Refs. 41) A review is given of worldwide research activities. Arkcoll, D.B.; A comparison of some fast growing species suitable for woodlots in the wet tropics. pp 61-68 (Refs. 9) Studies are described near Manaus on intensive silviculture (for fuelwood production) of Eucalyptus deglupta, Cedrelinga catanaeformis (catenaeformis), Jacaranda copaia, and Inga edulis. Turnbull, J.W.; Six phyllodinous Acacia species for planting in the humid tropical lowlands. pp 69-73 (Refs. 14) Distribution, ecology, growth, and utilization are described for A. auriculiformis, A. mangium, A. aulacocarpa, A. crassicarpa, A. cincinnata, and A. polystachya. Magalhaes, L.M.S., Fernandes, N.P.; Experimental stands of leguminous trees in the Manaus region. pp 75-79 (Refs. 8) Performance up to age 20 yr of Cedrelinga catenaeformis, Dalbergia nigra, Dinizia excelsa, Dipteryx odorata, Dipteryx sp., Diplotropis sp., Eperua bijuga, Pithecellobium racemosum, Vouacapoua pallidior, and Hymenaea sp. is described.

  7. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant | Zhang | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bergenia, a genus belonging to Saxifragaceae family, is one of the most important medicinal plants, has high application values for human. Currently, wild Bergenia is becoming lacking, due to destruction of ecological environment and excessive excavation; furthermore, the study on it is not deep enough, many related ...

  8. Post harvest fertility status of some cotton based leguminous and non-leguminous intercropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Khaliq, A.

    2003-01-01

    Residual effect of different leguminous and non-leguminous intercropping systems on cotton planted in two planting patterns was studied at Agronomic Research Area, Univ. of Agriculture, Faisalabad under irrigated conditions of Central Punjab. Soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depths before planting and after harvesting of each crop, each year to evaluate the impact of leguminous and non-leguminous crops included in this study. Experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D.) with split arrangement and four replications. Patterns were randomized in main plots and intercrops in sub plots. Plot size was 4.8 m x 7 m. All the intercrops produced substantially smaller yields when grown in association with cotton in either planting pattern compared to their sole crop yields. Residual nitrogen was improved in leguminous intercropping systems as compared to cotton alone as well non-legume intercropping systems. Similarly organic matter was also improved in all intercropping treatments, and maximum increase was recorded due to cowpeas. Phosphorus was depleted in all intercropping systems during both years under study as well as in relation to cotton alone. The same trend (depletion) was also observed in case of residual soil Potassium.(author)

  9. Distribution of isoflavonoids in non-leguminous taxa - an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackova, Zuzana; Koblovska, Radka; Lapcik, Oldrich

    2006-05-01

    Common emphasis of the fact that isoflavonoids are characteristic metabolites of leguminous plants sometimes leads to overlooking that the presence of isoflavonoids has been reported in several dozen other families. The spectrum of isoflavonoid producing taxa includes the representatives of four classes of multicellular plants, namely the Bryopsida, the Pinopsida, the Magnoliopsida and the Liliopsida. A review, recently published by Reynaud et al. [Reynaud, J., Guilet D., Terreux R., Lussignol M., Walchshofer N., 2005. Isoflavonoids in non-leguminous families: an update. Nat. Prod. Rep. 22, 504-515], provided listing of 164 isoflavonoids altogether reported in 31 non-leguminous angiosperm families. In this contribution we complement the abovementioned inventory bringing the references on further 17 isoflavonoid producing families and on additional 49 isoflavonoids reported to occur in non-leguminous plants.

  10. Effect of fermentation time on antioxidative activities of Ganoderma lucidum broth using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yung Liang; Ho, Chi Tang; Chiang, Been Huang; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2011-06-15

    Oxidative damage plays an important role in the pathology of human diseases. Ganoderma lucidum, a medicinal fungus, has been used for thousands of years in traditional Oriental medicine. It is reported to have antioxidant functions such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of fermentation time on the antioxidative activities of G. lucidum broth filtrate using leguminous plants as part of the liquid fermentation medium. Inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein (LDL), DPPH radical-scavenging activity, total phenolic compounds, isoflavones and protocatechuic acid were measured to evaluate the antioxidant activity of G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Our results showed that black soybean and Astragalus membranaceus improved the antioxidant activity of the G. lucidum fermentation broth filtrate. Protocatechuic acid was identified by LC-MS as the antioxidant compounds whose relative potency of inhibiting LDL oxidation to Trolox is 1.55. Protocatechuic acid showed positive correlation with the antioxidant activity of the fermentation broth filtrate while isoflavones did not contribute to antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Phytochemicals and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaohong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review focus on the phytochemical progress and biological studies of plants from the genus Balanophora (Balanophoraceae over the past few decades, in which most plants growth in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia and Oceania, and nearly 20 species ranged in southwest China. These dioeciously parasitic plants are normally growing on the roots of the evergreen broadleaf trees, especially in the family of Leguminosae, Ericaceae, Urticaceae, and Fagaceae. The plants are mainly used for clearing away heat and toxic, neutralizing the effect of alcoholic drinks, and as a tonic for the treatment of hemorrhoids, stomachache and hemoptysis. And it has been used widely throughtout local area by Chinese people. Cinnamic acid derivative tannins, possessing a phenylacrylic acid derivative (e. g. caffeoyl, coumaroyl, feruloyl or cinnamoyl, which connected to the C(1 position of a glucosyl unit by O-glycosidic bond, are the characteristic components in genus Balanophora. In addition, several galloyl, caffeoyl and hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters of dihydrochalcone glucosides are found in B. tobiracola, B. harlandii, and B. papuana. Other compounds like phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids and sterols are also existed. And their biological activities, such as radical scavenging activities, HIV inhibiting effects, and hypoglycemic effects are highlighted in the review.

  12. Micropropagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth-a multipurpose leguminous tree and assessment of genetic fidelity of micropropagated plants using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Pooja; Kachhwaha, Sumita; Kothari, S L

    2012-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for in vitro propagation of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth (a multipurpose leguminous tree) from field grown nodal segments (axillary bud). Shoot bud induction occurred from nodal explants of 15-years-old tree on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 4.4 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and multiplication was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM phenylacetic acid (PAA) i.e. up to 7 shoot buds in the period of 5-6 weeks. Addition of adenine sulphate (AdS) to this medium further enhanced the number of shoot buds up to 10. Proliferating shoot cultures were established by repeatedly subculturing primary culture on fresh medium (MS + 4.4 μM BA + 0.73 μM PAA) after every 25 days. In vitro rooting was achieved on MS medium supplemented with 2.46 μM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) + 41.63 μM activated charcoal (AC). The micropropagated shoots with well developed roots were acclimatized in green house in pots containing sand, soil and manure (1:1:1). Genetic stability of micropropagated clones was evaluated using Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. The amplification products were monomorphic in micropropagated plants and similar to those of mother plant. No polymorphism was detected revealing the genetic uniformity of micropropagated plants. This is the first report of an efficient protocol for regeneration of P. dulce through organogenesis, which can be used for further genetic transformation and pharmaceutical purposes.

  13. Enzymatic and chemical oxidation of polygalactomannans from the seeds of a few species of leguminous plants and characterization of the oxidized products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Luca; Boccia, Antonella Caterina; Mendichi, Raniero; Galante, Yves M

    2015-03-20

    Plant polysaccharides are used in a growing number of applications, in their native or in chemically and/or biochemically modified forms. In the present work, we compare TEMPO-mediated oxidation with laccase of polygalactomannans (PGM) from different species of plant leguminous to chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO. We have investigated the gums from: locust bean (Ceratonia siliqua), tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), sesbania (Sesbania bispinosa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Upon laccase/TEMPO oxidation, PGM viscosity and concentration of reducing groups increased up to five-fold and structured, elastic, stable gels were formed, which could be degraded by hydrolysis with β-mannanase. Conversely, chemical oxidation with NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO caused a rapid, intermediate transition of the gum solutions to compact gels, that immediately reverted to liquid, with a lower viscosity than at the start and an increased concentration of reducing groups, similar to the reaction with laccase. We interpret the above as due to, in the case of laccase, oxidation of primary hydroxyl groups to aldehydes, able to form stable hemiacetalic bonds with free hydroxyl groups. While upon chemical oxidation, primary OH's are only transiently oxidized to aldehydes, followed by rapid oxidation of all carbonyl groups to carboxylates. In either cases, TEMPO appeared to cause a limited splitting of glycosidic bonds of PGM. Native and oxidized PGM were further characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by rheology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Commercially important properties of plants of the genus Plantago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The centuries-old experience of folk medicine, nutritional traditions, and the results of numerous research studies show that plants of the genus Plantago can be used for medicinal, cosmetic, dietetic, and ritual purposes. In the phytochemical composition of Plantago, there is an abundance of biologically active substances (among others, glycosides, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and vitamins exhibiting beneficial effects and, simultaneously, there is a low content of compounds that may exert a toxic effect. Scientific research has confirmed that Plantago plants have antioxidative, apoptosis-inhibiting, protective, healing-enhancing, spasmolytic, anthelmintic, and antimicrobial properties; they inhibit the development of some tumours, reduce the level of lipids in blood and inhibit tissue glycation. In phytotherapy, leaves, stems, and/or seeds of different plantain species are used. Plantago leaves and seeds are also used to manufacture creams, lotions, and face masks. Different parts of these plants (fresh plant material, extracts, or isolated substances are also used in human and animal nutrition. Plantain leaves can be eaten like lettuce or added to salads, fried in pastry, used to prepare a tea, juice, or wine. Its seeds are added to cakes, bread, breakfast cereals, ice cream, and drinks, or they are cooked like groats. Animals fed with plantain can live longer and are healthier, while meat derived from such animals is tastier and healthier to humans. Plantago seeds are readily eaten by cage birds. Plantain pollen, produced in large amounts (up to 20,000 pollen grains per 1 stamen of P. lancolata, can cause allergies in sensitive people. Due to a long flowering period of plants of the genus Plantago, the effect of the allergenic factor persists for many weeks. In Poland days with the maximum concentration of airborne plantain pollen most often occur in July.

  15. [Signaling Systems of Rhizobia (Rhizobiaceae) and Leguminous Plants (Fabaceae) upon the Formation of a Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyan'ko, A K

    2015-01-01

    Data from the literature and our own data on the participation and interrelation of bacterial signaling Nod-factors and components of the calcium, NADPH-oxidase, and NO-synthase signaling systems of a plant at the preinfection and infectious stages of the formation of a legume-rhizobium symbiosis are summarized in this review. The physiological role of Nod-factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium (Ca2+), NADPH-oxidase, nitric oxide (NO), and their cross influence on the processes determining the formation of symbiotic structures on the roots of the host plant is discussed.

  16. [Carbohydrate-binding sequences of the lectin genes in leguminous plants from the Galegeae and Hedysareae tribes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukova, O V; Baĭmiev, An Kh; Mudarisova, A F; Baĭmiev, Al Kh; Muldashev, A A

    2014-05-01

    The carbohydrate-binding sequences (CBS) of the lectin genes from legume plants of the genera Astragalus Lam., Oxytropis DC., and Hedysarum L. were determined. Computer-assisted analysis of nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequences of the lectin gene fragments examined revealed a high homology level between their CBS. At the same time, the CBS of Astragalus and Oxytropis were considerably different from the lectin gene CBS in the earlier examined representatives of the tribe Galegeae, Caragana frutex and C. arborescens. This fact probably points to the differences in the carbohydrate-binding specificity of the proteins examined, which can eventually affect their functional activity.

  17. Optimization and production of curdlan gum using Bacillus cereus pr3 isolated from rhizosphere of leguminous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, S; Rajeswari, K; Divya, P; Ferlin, M; Rajeshwari, C T; Vanavil, B

    2018-03-21

    Curdlan gum is a neutral water-insoluble bacterial exopolysaccharide composed primarily of linear β-(1,3) glycosidic linkages. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the applications of curdlan and its derivatives. Curdlan is found to inhibit tumors and its sulfated derivative possess anti- HIV activity. Curdlan is biodegradable, non-toxic towards human, environment and edible which makes it suitable as drug-delivery vehicles for sustained drug release. The increasing demand for the growing applications of curdlan requires an efficient high yield fermentation production process so as to satisfy the industrial needs. In this perspective, the present work is aimed to screen and isolate an efficient curdlan gum producing bacteria from rhizosphere of ground nut plant using aniline-blue agar. High yielding isolate was selected based on curdlan yield and identified as Bacillus cereus using GC-FAME analysis. B. cereus PR3 curdlan gum was characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM and XRD. Fermentation time for curdlan production using B. cereus PR3 was optimized. Media constituents like carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources were screened using Plackett- Burman design. Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that Starch, NH 4 NO 3 , K 2 HPO 4 , Na 2 SO 4 , KH 2 SO 4 and CaCl 2 were significant media constituents and these concentrations were optimized for enhancement of curdlan production up to 20.88 g/L.

  18. Purification and characterization of a thiol amylase over produced by a non-cereal non-leguminous plant, Tinospora cordifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Ghosh, Anil K; Sengupta, Subhabrata

    2010-12-10

    A 43kDa α-amylase was purified from Tinospora cordifolia by glycogen precipitation, ammonium sulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography, and HPGPLC. The enzyme was optimally active in pH 6.0 at 60°C and had specific activity of 546.2U/mg of protein. Activity was stable in the pH range of 4-7 and at temperatures up to 60°C. PCMB, iodoacetic acid, iodoacetamide, DTNB, and heavy metal ions Hg(2+)>Ag(+)>Cd(2+) inhibited enzyme activity while Ca(2+) improved both activity and thermostability. The enzyme was a thiol amylase (3 SH group/mole) and DTNB inhibition of activity was released by cysteine. N-terminal sequence of the enzyme had poor similarity (12-24%) with those of plant and microbial amylases. The enzyme was equally active on soluble starch and amylopectin and released maltose as the major end product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury-resistant rhizobial bacteria isolated from nodules of leguminous plants growing in high Hg-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Quiñones, Miguel A; Fajardo, Susana; López, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-10-01

    A survey of symbiotic bacteria from legumes grown in high mercury-contaminated soils (Almadén, Spain) was performed to produce a collection of rhizobia which could be well adapted to the environmental conditions of this region and be used for restoration practices. Nineteen Hg-tolerant rhizobia were isolated from nodules of 11 legume species (of the genera Medicago, Trifolium, Vicia, Lupinus, Phaseolus, and Retama) and characterized. Based on their growth on Hg-supplemented media, the isolates were classified into three susceptibility groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the effective concentrations that produce 50% mortality identified the patterns of mercury tolerance and showed that 15 isolates were tolerant. The dynamics of cell growth during incubation with mercury showed that five isolates were unaffected by exposure to Hg concentrations under the MICs. Genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene assigned ten strains to Rhizobium leguminosarum, six to Ensifer medicae, two to Bradyrhizobium canariense, and one to Rhizobium radiobacter. Inoculation of host plants and analysis of the nodC genes revealed that most of them were symbiotically effective. Finally, three isolates were selected for bioremediation processes with restoration purposes on the basis of their levels of Hg tolerance, their response to high concentrations of this heavy metal, and their genetic affiliation and nodulation capacity.

  20. Nice to meet you: genetic, epigenetic and metabolic controls of plant perception of beneficial associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria in non-leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, T L G; Ballesteros, H G F; Thiebaut, F; Ferreira, P C G; Hemerly, A S

    2016-04-01

    A wide range of rhizosphere diazotrophic bacteria are able to establish beneficial associations with plants, being able to associate to root surfaces or even endophytically colonize plant tissues. In common, both associative and endophytic types of colonization can result in beneficial outcomes to the plant leading to plant growth promotion, as well as increase in tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. An intriguing question in such associations is how plant cell surface perceives signals from other living organisms, thus sorting pathogens from beneficial ones, to transduce this information and activate proper responses that will finally culminate in plant adaptations to optimize their growth rates. This review focuses on the recent advances in the understanding of genetic and epigenetic controls of plant-bacteria signaling and recognition during beneficial associations with associative and endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Finally, we propose that "soil-rhizosphere-rhizoplane-endophytes-plant" could be considered as a single coordinated unit with dynamic components that integrate the plant with the environment to generate adaptive responses in plants to improve growth. The homeostasis of the whole system should recruit different levels of regulation, and recognition between the parties in a given environment might be one of the crucial factors coordinating these adaptive plant responses.

  1. Taxonomic studies of nodulated leguminous weeds from the flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Taxonomic studies of nodulated leguminous weeds from the flora of North Western part (Dera Ismail Khan) of Pakistan. Sarfaraz Khan Marwat*, Mir Ajab Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Farooq Ahmad and Abdul Nazir. Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, Pakistan.

  2. Taxonomic studies of nodulated leguminous weeds from the flora of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxonomic studies of nodulated leguminous weeds from the flora of North Western part (Dera Ismail Khan) of Pakistan. ... Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names, followed by synonyms (if any), description of the plant, flowering and fruiting period, type, local and general distribution.

  3. ECONOMIC VALUE OF SOME LEGUMINOUS PLANT SPECIES OF THE COLLECTIONS FROM THE BOTANICAL GARDEN (INSTITUTE OF THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru TELEUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the evaluation of the growth and development rates, the seed productivity, the green mass yield, the biochemical composition and the content of amino acids, phosphorous and calcium, the nutritive and energy value of the forage, as well as the biomethane productivity of local ecotypes of the leguminous species maintained in monoculture, in the collection of the Botanical Garden (Institute of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (BG ASM: Astragalus ponticus, Coronilla varia, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago falcata, Onobrychis arenaria and Trifolium repens are presented in this article. Control variants – the traditional forage crops: Medicago sativa and Onobrychis viciifolia. The local ecotypes of the studied leguminous species were characterized by different growth and development rates. Coronilla varia and Lotus corniculatus, in the 2nd-3rd years, could be harvested, for the first time, 5 days earlier than Medicago sativa, but Medicago falcata and Onobrychis viciifolia – 18 days later. The green mass yield varied from 0.83 kg/m2 to 4.08 kg/m2. The studied ecotypes reached amounts of 0.60-0.89 nutritive units/kg and metabolizable energy 8.05-9.90 MJ/kg of dry matter, the content of digestible protein, of 106.28-225.09 g/nutritive unit, met the zootechnical standards; seed production: 19.12-83.00 g/m2; the biomethane yield ranged from 692 to 3197 m3/ha. Higher yield of natural forage, dry matter and biomethane was produced by Onobrychis arenaria and Coronilla varia.

  4. Leguminosas e seus efeitos sobre propriedades físicas do solo e produtividade do mamoeiro 'Tainung 1' Leguminous plants and their effects on soil physical properties and productivity of papaya 'Tainung 1'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Borges de Carvalho

    2004-08-01

    cohesive yellow Latosol and the productivity of papaya. The treatments were: 1. manual weeding with hoe in total area; 2. harrowing in the interrows and herbicide in the rows; 3. manual weeding with hoe in total area + subsoiling ; 4. subsoiling + jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis in the rows; 5. subsoiling + Crotalaria juncea in the rows; 6. subsoiling + cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in the rows; 7. subsoiling + liming + gipsum and jack bean in the rows; 8. subsoiling + spontaneous vegetation in the rows, cutting when necessary. The statistical design was randomized blocks with three replications. Experimental plots contained 36 plants, of which 16 useful, in spacing 3 x 2 m. The treatments with subsoiling was performed in the experimental area in a crossed way before the planting. Leguminous plants were sowed in May/June and mowed in September/October. The weed control in rows was mechanical (T1 and T3 and chemical with glyphosate at dosages of 1% (v/v in the other treatments. The treatments with management of leguminous plants in the papaya interrows provided the greatest benefits in the soil physical properties. Treatments with leguminous plants and spontaneous vegetation produced significantly higher fruit yields , expressed in total fruit weight (ton per hectare and showed the highest number of fruit per hectare.

  5. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Traditional Uses of Plants from the Genus Trachelospermum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zefeng; He, Xirui; Zhao, Yuhui; Sun, Ying; Chen, Xufei; Cun, Ye; Huang, Linhong; Bai, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2017-08-24

    This paper is intended to review advances in the botanical, phytochemical, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of the genus Trachelospermum . Until now, 138 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from these plants, particularly from T. asiaticum and T. jasminoides . Among these compounds, lignans, triterpenoids, and flavonoids are the major bioactive constituents. Studies have shown that plants from the genus Trachelospermum exhibit an extensive range of pharmacological properties both in vivo and in vitro, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral and antibacterial activities. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) culture, drugs that include T. jasminoides stems have been used to cure rheumatism, gonarthritis, backache and pharyngitis, although there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxicity of these plants. Further attention should be paid to gathering information about their toxicology data, quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the active compounds from genus Trachelospermum .

  6. Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Traditional Uses of Plants from the Genus Trachelospermum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zefeng Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to review advances in the botanical, phytochemical, traditional uses and pharmacological studies of the genus Trachelospermum. Until now, 138 chemical constituents have been isolated and characterized from these plants, particularly from T. asiaticum and T. jasminoides. Among these compounds, lignans, triterpenoids, and flavonoids are the major bioactive constituents. Studies have shown that plants from the genus Trachelospermum exhibit an extensive range of pharmacological properties both in vivo and in vitro, including anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitumor, antiviral and antibacterial activities. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM culture, drugs that include T. jasminoides stems have been used to cure rheumatism, gonarthritis, backache and pharyngitis, although there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxicity of these plants. Further attention should be paid to gathering information about their toxicology data, quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the active compounds from genus Trachelospermum.

  7. Mitochondrial substitution rates are extraordinarily elevated and variable in a genus of flowering plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Yangrae; Mower, Jeffrey P.; Qiu, Yin-Long; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2004-01-01

    Plant mitochondrial (mt) genomes have long been known to evolve slowly in sequence. Here we show remarkable departure from this pattern of conservative evolution in a genus of flowering plants. Substitution rates at synonymous sites vary substantially among lineages within Plantago. At the extreme, rates in Plantago exceed those in exceptionally slow plant lineages by ≈4,000-fold. The fastest Plantago lineages set a new benchmark for rapid evolution in a DNA genome, exceeding even the fastest...

  8. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P.; Moreira, Inês N.; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R.; Sales, Joana R.; Louro Martins, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra. PMID:26247945

  9. Effect of Heavy Metals in Plants of the Genus Brassica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Miguel P; Moreira, Inês N; Leitão, Inês; Pinto, Filipa R; Sales, Joana R; Martins, Luisa Louro

    2015-08-04

    Several species from the Brassica genus are very important agricultural crops in different parts of the world and are also known to be heavy metal accumulators. There have been a large number of studies regarding the tolerance, uptake and defense mechanism in several of these species, notably Brassica juncea and B. napus, against the stress induced by heavy metals. Numerous studies have also been published about the capacity of these species to be used for phytoremediation purposes but with mixed results. This review will focus on the latest developments in the study of the uptake capacity, oxidative damage and biochemical and physiological tolerance and defense mechanisms to heavy metal toxicity on six economically important species: B. juncea, B. napus, B. oleracea, B. carinata, B. rapa and B. nigra.

  10. Traditional Uses, Chemical Constituents and Biological Activities of Plants from the Genus Sanguisorba L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zefeng; He, Xirui; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaoyang; Huang, Linhong; Fang, Jia Cheng; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Meimei; Bai, Yajun; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Plants from the genus Sanguisorba have been treated as medicinal ingredients for over 2000 years. This paper reviews advances in the botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the genus. To date, more than 120 chemical constituents have been isolated and identified from these plants, especially from S. officinalis and S. minor. Among these compounds, triterpenoids, phenols and flavonoids are the primary biologically active constituents. Triterpenoids can be used as quality control markers to determine the quality of medicinal materials and their preparations. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that plants from the genus Sanguisorba exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties, including hemostatic, antibacterial, antitumor, neuroprotective and hypoglycemic activities. In Chinese medical practice, many drugs (e.g., tablets and powders) that contain S. officinalis roots have been used to treat leukopenia, hemorrhaging and burns. However, there is still a multitude of Sanguisorba species that have garnered little or no attention. Indeed, there are few reports concerning the clinical use and toxic effects of these plants. Further attention should be focused on the study of these species in order to gather information on their respective toxicology data, any relevant quality-control measures, and the clinical value of the crude extracts, active compounds, and bioactive metabolites from Genus Sanguisorba.

  11. Plants belonging to the genus Thymus as antibacterial agents: from farm to pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Marchese, Anna; Izadi, Morteza; Curti, Valeria; Daglia, Maria; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel

    2015-04-15

    In traditional medicine, plants have been used since ancient times for the prevention and/or protection against infectious diseases. In recent years, the use of herbal medicines and food supplements containing botanical ingredients, as alternative therapy for infectious diseases, has been intensified due to their high content of antimicrobial agents such as polyphenols, i.e. flavonoids, tannins, and alkaloids. Plants from the genus Thymus are important medicinal herbs, which are known to contain antimicrobial agents, and are rich in different active substances such as thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene and terpinene. In this review, we summarise the available literature data about the in vitro antibacterial effects of the main plants belonging to the genus Thymus. We also provide information about cultivation, chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from these plants, and their use for medicinal purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adaptive radiation with regard to nutrient sequestration strategies in the carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovič, Andrej

    2012-02-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes have evolved a great diversity of pitcher morphologies. Selective pressures for maximizing nutrient uptake have driven speciation and diversification of the genus in a process known as adaptive radiation. This leads to the evolution of pitchers adapted to specific and often bizarre source of nutrients, which are not strictly animal-derived. One example is Nepenthes ampullaria with unusual growth pattern and pitcher morphology what enables the plant to capture a leaf litter from the canopy above. We showed that the plant benefits from nitrogen uptake by increased rate of photosynthesis and growth what may provide competitive advantage over others co-habiting plants. A possible impact of such specialization toward hybridization, an important mechanism in speciation, is discussed.

  13. Diospyros, an under-utilized, multi-purpose plant genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Patel, Seema; Khan, Ajmal; Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Bawazeer, Saud; Ahmad, Khalid; Muhammad, Naveed; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2017-07-01

    The genus Diospyros from family Ebenaceae has versatile uses including edible fruits, valuable timber, and ornamental uses. The plant parts of numerous species have been in use as remedies in various folk healing practices, which include therapy for hemorrhage, incontinence, insomnia, hiccough, diarrhea etc. Phytochemical constituents such as terpenoids, ursanes, lupanes, polyphenols, tannins, hydrocarbons, and lipids, benzopyrones, naphthoquinones, oleananes, and taraxeranes have been isolated from different species of this genus. The biological activities of these plants such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, anti-diabetic, antibacterial, anthelmintic, antihypertensive, cosmeceutical, enzyme-inhibitory etc. have been validated by means of an in vitro, in vivo, and clinical tests. As a rich reserve of pharmacologically important components, this genus can accelerate the pace of drug discovery. Accordingly, the aim of the present review is to survey and summarize the recent literature pertaining to the medicinal and pharmacological uses of Diospyros, and to select experimental evidence on the pharmacological properties of this genus. In addition, the review also aims at identifying areas that need development to make use of this genus, especially its fruit and phytochemicals as means for economic development and for drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Diaporthe: a genus of endophytic, saprobic and plant pathogenic fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, R.R.; Glienke, C.; Videira, S.I.R.; Lombard, L.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Diaporthe (Phomopsis) species have often been reported as plant pathogens, non-pathogenic endophytes or saprobes, commonly isolated from a wide range of hosts. The primary aim of the present study was to resolve the taxonomy and phylogeny of a large collection of Diaporthe species occurring on

  15. Evaluating the nodulation status of leguminous species from the Amazonian forest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Faria, Sergio M; Diedhiou, Abdala G; de Lima, Haroldo C; Ribeiro, Robson D; Galiana, Antoine; Castilho, Alexandre F; Henriques, João C

    2010-06-01

    Numerous leguminous species are used or have potential uses for timber production, pharmacological products, or land reclamation. Through N(2)-fixation, many leguminous trees contribute to the N-balance of tropical wetlands and rainforests. Therefore, studies of the N(2)-fixation ability of leguminous species appear to be crucial for the better use and conservation of these resources. The global nodulation inventory in the Leguminosae family is constantly being enriched with new records, suggesting the existence of undiscovered nodulated species, especially in tropical natural ecosystems and other hot spots of biodiversity. In this respect, the nodulation of leguminous species from the Amazonian forest of Porto Trombetas (Brazil) was surveyed. Overall, 199 leguminous species from flooded and non-flooded areas, were examined for their nodulation status by combining field observations, seedling inoculations, and screening of N(2)-fixing bacterial strains from the collected nodules. The results revealed a tendency for a higher relative frequency of nodulation in the species from the flooded areas (74%) compared with those from the non-flooded areas (67%). Nodulation was observed in the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae, with 25, 88, and 84% of the examined species in each subfamily, respectively. Of the 137 nodulated leguminous species, 32 including three Caesalpinoideae, 19 Mimosoideae, and 10 Papilionoideae are new records. One new nodulated genus (Cymbosema) was found in the Papilionoideae. Twelve non-nodulating leguminous species were also observed for the first time. The results are discussed based on the systematics of the Leguminosae family and the influence of available nutrients to the legume-bacteria symbiosis.

  16. Cytotoxic activities of 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide and ergosterol peroxide from the fermentation mycelia of ganoderma lucidum cultivated in the medium containing leguminous plants on Hep 3B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Kuo; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chiang, Been-Huang; Lo, Jir-Mehng; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2009-07-08

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of the ethanolic extract of mycelia from Ganoderma lucidum (EMG) cultivated in a medium containing leguminous plants Glycine max (L.) Merr. and Astragalus membranaceus on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (Hep 3B) and to isolate the active components from EMG. The results indicated that EMG induced cytotoxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and the cells treated with EMG for 24, 48, and 72 h had IC(50) values of 156.8, 89.9, and 70.1 microg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, EMG was fractionated into seven fractions (F1-F7). We found that F5 and F6 had higher growth inhibitory effects on Hep 3B cells than the other fractions, and F6 possessed enough amounts (about 2.1 g) to carry out a more detailed study. F6 caused a sub-G1 peak rise and DNA fragmentation in Hep 3B cells and was further separated by high-performance liquid chromatography to obtain two active compounds, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide [9(11)-DHEP] (compound 1) and ergosterol peroxide (EP) (compound 2). The IC(50) values of 9(11)-DHEP and EP based on the cell viability of Hep 3B were 16.7 and 19.4 microg/mL, respectively.

  17. Carnivorous syndrome in Asian pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, Andrej; Masarovicová, Elena; Hudák, Ján

    2007-09-01

    Pitcher plants Nepenthes alata and N. mirabilis are carnivorous species with leaves composed of a photosynthetic part (lamina) and a pitcher trap. This characteristic permitted direct physiological and anatomical comparison between these two distinct parts of the leaves to determine those features involved in the 'carnivorous syndrome', which include low net photosynthetic assimilation rate (A(N)) and low photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). Photosynthetic rate (A(N)) and respiration rate (R(d)) were measured gasometrically, chlorophyll concentration was determined spectrophotometrically and nitrogen concentration was determined using a CHN elemental analyser in lamina and trap separately. Anatomy of N. alata was observed using light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. A(N), foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentration were also compared with values for other carnivorous plant species (genera Sarracenia, Drosera) that combine both autotrophic and carnivorous functions into the same physical organ. It was found that the A(N) in Nepenthes lamina was low and PNUE was only slightly higher or similar in comparison with other carnivorous plants. It was not observed that the pitcher had a higher R(d) than the lamina, but A(N) in the pitcher was significantly lower than in the lamina. Nepenthes possesses a cluster of characters that could result in reduced photosynthesis in the pitcher and be responsible for carnivorous function of the leaf: replacement of chlorophyll-containing cells with digestive glands, low chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration, compact mesophyll with a small portion of intercellular spaces, absence of palisade parenchyma and low stomatal density. Low photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen efficiency, chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration of Nepenthes pitchers was found, together with a set of features that characterized the carnivorous syndrome. Dual use of leaves for photosynthesis and nutrient gain can decrease photosynthetic

  18. Interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento com leguminosas arbóreas Interference of light availability on response to fertilization of enrichment plantings with leguminous trees

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    Marco Aurélio de Carvalho Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência da disponibilidade de luz na resposta à adubação de plantios de enriquecimento da capoeira com leguminosas arbóreas. As espécies Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala e Stryphnodendron microstachyum foram plantadas em capoeira, sob três tratamentos de fertilização: adubação orgânica, adubação orgânica acrescida de mineral e ausência de adubação. A disponibilidade de luz condicionou a resposta de P. platycephala e H. courbaril à fertilização. A aleatorização não foi suficiente para garantir condições semelhantes de luz nos plantios de enriquecimento. A variação na quantidade de luz incidente no sub‑bosque compromete a correta avaliação dos tratamentos de fertilização.The objective of this work was to evaluate the interference of light availability on response to fertilization of enrichment plantings of secondary growth forest with leguminous trees. The species Hymenaea courbaril, Stryphnodendron guianense, Parkia platycephala, and Stryphnodendron microstachyum were planted in a secondary growth forest under three fertilization treatments: organic fertilization, organic fertilization plus mineral fertilization, and absence of fertilization. Light availability modulated the response of P. platycephala and H. courbaril to fertilization treatments. Randomization was not sufficient to ensure similar light conditions in the enrichment plantings. Variation in the amount of incident light compromises the sound evaluation of fertilization treatments.

  19. The Effect of Grazing by the Slug Arion Vulgaris, Arion Rufus and Deroceras Reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Stylommatophora on Leguminous Plants and other Small-Area Crops

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    Kozłowski Jan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herbivorous slugs do significant damage to many species of crop plants. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the rate and extent of damage caused to 16 plant species by Arion vulgaris, Arion rufus, and Deroceras reticulatum. It was found, that levels of damage caused to young plants of Brassica napus, Sorghum bicolor, Vicia faba, and Sinapis alba by the slugs A. vulgaris, A. rufus, and D. reticulatum were similar, while levels of damage caused to the other studied plants by particular slug species differed significantly. Based on the results of the damage by the investigated slug species, plants were categorised as heavily or lightly damaged.

  20. Plants from The Genus Daphne: A Review of its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Biological and Pharmacological Activity

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    Sovrlić Miroslav M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants have an important role in maintaining people’s health and improving the quality of human life. They are an important component of people’s diet, but they are also used in other spheres of human life as a therapeutic resources, ingredients of cosmetic products, paints and others. The Daphne genus belongs to family Thymeleaceae which includes 44 families with approximately 500 herbal species. The plant species of the genus Daphne are used in the traditional medicine in China and tropical part of Africa for the treatment of various conditions. Previous studies showed significant biological potential of these species as a source of pharmacologically active compounds. This indicates that this genus possess a broad spectrum of biological activity including antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, anti-ulcerogenic, abortive, hypocholesterolemic and hemostatic effects. Additionally, Daphne plants are the source of valuable bioactive phytochemicals such as coumarins, flavonoids, lignans, steroids and different classes of terpenes. Different parts of the Daphne plants contain specific bioactive metabolites and can represent a source of new, natural, pharmacologically active compounds, which may potentially be used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries.

  1. Medicinal plants from the genus Acalypha (Euphorbiaceae)--a review of their ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seebaluck, R; Gurib-Fakim, A; Mahomoodally, F

    2015-01-15

    Acalypha is the fourth largest genus of the Euphorbiaceae family with approximately 450-570 species. Several Acalypha species are used as medicinal plants in Africa and in the Mascarene Islands. Almost every part of the plant including the leaves, stem and roots are used as traditional remedies to treat and manage a panoply of ailments. However, there is no updated compilation of traditionally important medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus. The present review therefore, endeavors to provide for the first time an updated compilation of documented ethnopharmacological information in relation to the ethnomedicinal, ethnoveterinary, zoopharmacognosy, phytochemistry and biological activities of medicinal plants from the Acalypha genus which can subsequently open new perspectives for further pharmacological research. A literature search was performed on Acalypha species using ethnobotanical text books and scientific databases such as Pubmed, Scopus, EBSCO, Google Scholar and other web sources such as records from PROTA, PROSEA, and Botanical Dermatology Database. The Plant List, International Plant Name index and Kew Botanical Garden Plant name databases were used to validate scientific names. Plants from Acalypha genus are traditionally used in the treatment and/or management of diverse ailments such as diabetes, jaundice, hypertension, fever, liver inflammation, schistosomiasis, dysentery, respiratory problems including bronchitis, asthma and pheumonia as well as skin conditions such as scabies, eczema and mycoses. Approximately 124 species were listed in ethnobotanical studies with some botanical description and others mentioned from different web sources. However, only 40 species have been included in the present review due to the unavailability of ethnopharmacological data on the remaining species. Among the 40 cited species, 30 were traditionally used for the treatment and/or management of approximately 70 human diseases or health conditions. Two species

  2. Medicinal plants of genus Curculigo: traditional uses and a phytochemical and ethnopharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yan; Dong, Xin; He, Yongjing; Yuan, Tingting; Han, Ting; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2013-06-03

    In the genus Curculigo, Curculigo orchioides Gaertn, Curculigo capitulata (Lour) O. Ktze and Curculigo pilosa (Schumach. & Thonn.) Engl are often used in traditional medicine. Curculigo orchioides is used for the treatment of impotence, limb limpness, arthritis of the lumbar and knee joints, and watery diarrhea in traditional Chinese medicine, and also used as a potent immunomodulator and aphrodisiac in the Ayurvedic medical system. Curculigo capitulata is used for the treatment of consumptive cough, kidney asthenia, impotence and spermatorrhea, hemorrhoids, asthma, jaundice, diarrhea, colic and gonorrhea in traditional Chinese and India medicine, and to treat urinary tract infection, acute renal pelvis and nephritis, nephritis-edema, cystitis, nephrolithiasis, hypertension and rheumatic arthritis in traditional Dai medicine. Curculigo pilosa are applied to treat gastrointestinal and heart diseases in Africa. This review aims to exhibit up-to-date and comprehensive information about traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of medicinal plants in the genus Curculigo, and has an insight into the opportunities for the future research and development of Curculigo plant. A bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing the information available on Curculigo plant from worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Yahoo). Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local and foreign books on ethnobotany and ethnomedicines. Curculigo orchioides, Curculigo capitulata and Curculigo pilosa have been used as traditional medicine to treat kinds of diseases such as impotence, limb limpness, gastrointestinal and heart diseases, etc. Phytochemical investigation of eight species of the genus Curculigo has resulted in identification of more than 110 compounds. The content of curculigoside is used as an indicator to evaluate the quality of rhizome of Curculigo orchioides. The medicinal

  3. How detrimental are seed galls to their hosts? Plant performance, germination, developmental instability and tolerance to herbivory in Inga laurina, a leguminous tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J C; de Araujo, N A V; Venâncio, H; Andrade, J F; Alves-Silva, E; Almeida, W R; Carmo-Oliveira, R

    2016-11-01

    Gall inducers use these structures as shelters and sources of nutrition. Consequently, they cause multiple physiological changes in host plants. We studied the impact caused by seed coat galls of a braconid wasp on the performance of fruits, seeds and seedlings of tree Inga laurina. We tested whether these seed galls are 'nutrient sinks' with respect to the fruit/seed of host plant, and so constrain the reproductive ability and reduce seedling longevity. We measured the influence of such galls on the secondary compounds, fruit and seed parameters, seed viability and germination and seedling performance. Inga laurina has indehiscent legumes with polyembryonic seeds surrounded by a fleshy sarcotesta rich in sugars. The galls formed inside the seed coat and galled tissues presented higher phenol concentrations, around 7-fold that of ungalled tissues. Galls caused a significant reduction in parameters such as fruit and seed size, seed weight and the number of embryos. Fluctuating asymmetry (a stress indicator) was 31% higher in leaves of galled seed plants in comparison to ungalled seed plants. However, the negative effects on fruit and seed parameters were not sufficient to reduce seed germination (except the synchronization index) or seedling performance (except leaf area and chlorophyll content). We attributed these results to the ability of I. laurina to tolerate gall attack on seeds without a marked influence on seedling performance. Moreover, because of the intensity of seed galling on host plant, we suggest that polyembryony may play a role in I. laurina reproduction increasing tolerance to seed damage. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Comparative Genome Analysis Reveals Divergent Genome Size Evolution in a Carnivorous Plant Genus

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    Giang T. H. Vu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-value paradox remains incompletely resolved after >40 yr and is exemplified by 2,350-fold variation in genome sizes of flowering plants. The carnivorous Lentibulariaceae genus , displaying a 25-fold range of genome sizes, is a promising subject to study mechanisms and consequences of evolutionary genome size variation. Applying genomic, phylogenetic, and cytogenetic approaches, we uncovered bidirectional genome size evolution within the genus . The Steyerm. genome (86 Mbp has probably shrunk by retroelement silencing and deletion-biased double-strand break (DSB repair, from an ancestral size of 400 to 800 Mbp to become one of the smallest among flowering plants. The Stapf genome has expanded by whole-genome duplication (WGD and retrotransposition to 1550 Mbp. became allotetraploid after the split from the clade ∼29 Ma. A. St.-Hil. (179 Mbp, a close relative of , proved to be a recent (autotetraploid. Our analyses suggest a common ancestor of the genus a with an intermediate 1C value (400–800 Mbp and subsequent rapid genome size evolution in opposite directions. Many abundant repeats of the larger genome are absent in the smaller, casting doubt on their functionality for the organism, while recurrent WGD seems to safeguard against the loss of essential elements in the face of genome shrinkage. We cannot identify any consistent differences in habitat or life strategy that correlate with genome size changes, raising the possibility that these changes may be selectively neutral.

  5. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment.

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    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Heyduk, Karolina; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron O; Glenn, Travis C; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by incomplete lineage sorting. Here, we applied a target enrichment approach using multiple accessions to assess the relationships of Sarracenia species. This resulted in 199 nuclear genes from 75 accessions covering the putative 8-11 species and 8 subspecies/varieties. In addition, we recovered 42kb of plastome sequence from each accession to estimate a cpDNA-derived phylogeny. Unsurprisingly, the cpDNA had few parsimony-informative sites (0.5%) and provided little information on species relationships. In contrast, use of the targeted nuclear loci in concatenation and coalescent frameworks elucidated many relationships within Sarracenia even with high heterogeneity among gene trees. Results were largely consistent for both concatenation and coalescent approaches. The only major disagreement was with the placement of the purpurea complex. Moreover, results suggest an Appalachian massif biogeographic origin of the genus. Overall, this study highlights the utility of target enrichment using multiple accessions to resolve relationships in recently radiated taxa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Horizontal transfer of a subtilisin gene from plants into an ancestor of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos Jaramillo, Vinicio Danilo; Vargas, Walter Alberto; Sukno, Serenella Ana; Thon, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    The genus Colletotrichum contains a large number of phytopathogenic fungi that produce enormous economic losses around the world. The effect of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has not been studied yet in these organisms. Inter-Kingdom HGT into fungal genomes has been reported in the past but knowledge about the HGT between plants and fungi is particularly limited. We describe a gene in the genome of several species of the genus Colletotrichum with a strong resemblance to subtilisins typically found in plant genomes. Subtilisins are an important group of serine proteases, widely distributed in all of the kingdoms of life. Our hypothesis is that the gene was acquired by Colletotrichum spp. through (HGT) from plants to a Colletotrichum ancestor. We provide evidence to support this hypothesis in the form of phylogenetic analyses as well as a characterization of the similarity of the subtilisin at the primary, secondary and tertiary structural levels. The remarkable level of structural conservation of Colletotrichum plant-like subtilisin (CPLS) with plant subtilisins and the differences with the rest of Colletotrichum subtilisins suggests the possibility of molecular mimicry. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that the HGT event would have occurred approximately 150-155 million years ago, after the divergence of the Colletotrichum lineage from other fungi. Gene expression analysis shows that the gene is modulated during the infection of maize by C. graminicola suggesting that it has a role in plant disease. Furthermore, the upregulation of the CPLS coincides with the downregulation of several plant genes encoding subtilisins. Based on the known roles of subtilisins in plant pathogenic fungi and the gene expression pattern that we observed, we postulate that the CPLSs have an important role in plant infection.

  7. Comparative Methods of Application of Wild Plant Parts on Growth and in the Control of Root Rot Fungi of Leguminous Crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, N.; Dawae, S.

    2016-01-01

    Present research work was carried out for the management of root rot fungi with wild plant part capsules and pellets formulation in soil. When application of pellets and capsules was carried out with Prosopis juliflora stem, leaves and flowers showed significant reduction in disease incidence and enhancement in growth and physiological parameters. Colonization of Fusarium spp., Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani was completely suppressed when P. juliflora leaves pellets incorporated in soil. Physiological parameters such as chlorophyll a and b and protein were significantly increased when leaves pellets incorporated in soil at the rate of 1 percent w/w so P. juliflora leaves pellets were most effective in the control of root rot fungi and enhanced the growth of crop plants. (author)

  8. A Comprehensive Review on the Medicinal Plants from the Genus Asphodelus

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    Maryam Malmir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in healthcare, and their use by different cultures has been extensively documented. Asphodelus L. (Asphodelaceae is a genus of 18 species and of a total of 27 species, sub-species and varieties, distributed along the Mediterranean basin, and has been traditionally used for treating several diseases particularly associated with inflammatory and infectious skin disorders. The present study aimed to provide a general review of the available literature on ethnomedical, phytochemical, and biological data related to the genus Asphodelus as a potential source of new compounds with biological activity. Considering phytochemical studies, 1,8-dihydroxyanthracene derivatives, flavonoids, phenolic acids and triterpenoids were the main classes of compounds identified in roots, leaf and seeds which were correlated with their biological activities as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents.

  9. Antitumor Activity of Isosteroidal Alkaloids from the Plants in the Genus Veratrum and Fritillaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yuanhong; Du, Qingdan; Liu, Simei; Staadler, Maksorvor; Wang, Shu; Wang, Dongdong

    2018-01-01

    Isosteroidal alkaloids are a category of promising bioactive compounds which mostly exist in plants of genus Veratrum and Fritillaria. The pharmacological activities of isosteroidal alkaloids include antihypertensive, antitussive, anti-inflammatory, antithrombosis, among others. Recently, some studies show that this kind of alkaloids exhibited significant antitumor activity. To the best of our knowledge, there is no review focusing on their antitumor activity and mechanism of their antitumor activity. To fill the gap, in this review, we summarized antitumor effects of the isosteroidal alkaloids from genus Veratrum and Fritillaria on different tumors and the mechanisms of their antitumor activity. In conclusion, this kind of alkaloids has extensive antitumor activity, and there are several main mechanisms of their antitumor activity, including the Hedgehog signaling pathway, caspase-3 dependent apoptosis, cell cycle, and autophagy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Centromere and telomere sequence alterations reflect the rapid genome evolution within the carnivorous plant genus Genlisea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Trung D; Cao, Hieu X; Jovtchev, Gabriele; Neumann, Pavel; Novák, Petr; Fojtová, Miloslava; Vu, Giang T H; Macas, Jiří; Fajkus, Jiří; Schubert, Ingo; Fuchs, Joerg

    2015-12-01

    Linear chromosomes of eukaryotic organisms invariably possess centromeres and telomeres to ensure proper chromosome segregation during nuclear divisions and to protect the chromosome ends from deterioration and fusion, respectively. While centromeric sequences may differ between species, with arrays of tandemly repeated sequences and retrotransposons being the most abundant sequence types in plant centromeres, telomeric sequences are usually highly conserved among plants and other organisms. The genome size of the carnivorous genus Genlisea (Lentibulariaceae) is highly variable. Here we study evolutionary sequence plasticity of these chromosomal domains at an intrageneric level. We show that Genlisea nigrocaulis (1C = 86 Mbp; 2n = 40) and G. hispidula (1C = 1550 Mbp; 2n = 40) differ as to their DNA composition at centromeres and telomeres. G. nigrocaulis and its close relative G. pygmaea revealed mainly 161 bp tandem repeats, while G. hispidula and its close relative G. subglabra displayed a combination of four retroelements at centromeric positions. G. nigrocaulis and G. pygmaea chromosome ends are characterized by the Arabidopsis-type telomeric repeats (TTTAGGG); G. hispidula and G. subglabra instead revealed two intermingled sequence variants (TTCAGG and TTTCAGG). These differences in centromeric and, surprisingly, also in telomeric DNA sequences, uncovered between groups with on average a > 9-fold genome size difference, emphasize the fast genome evolution within this genus. Such intrageneric evolutionary alteration of telomeric repeats with cytosine in the guanine-rich strand, not yet known for plants, might impact the epigenetic telomere chromatin modification. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Burkholderia, a Genus Rich in Plant-Associated Nitrogen Fixers with Wide Environmental and Geographic Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-De Los Santos, Paulina; Bustillos-Cristales, Rocío; Caballero-Mellado, Jesús

    2001-01-01

    The genus Burkholderia comprises 19 species, including Burkholderia vietnamiensis which is the only known N2-fixing species of this bacterial genus. The first isolates of B. vietnamiensis were recovered from the rhizosphere of rice plants grown in a phytotron, but its existence in natural environments and its geographic distribution were not reported. In the present study, most N2-fixing isolates recovered from the environment of field-grown maize and coffee plants cultivated in widely separated regions of Mexico were phenotypically identified as B. cepacia using the API 20NE system. Nevertheless, a number of these isolates recovered from inside of maize roots, as well as from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of maize and coffee plants, showed similar or identical features to those of B. vietnamiensis TVV75T. These features include nitrogenase activity with 10 different carbon sources, identical or very similar nifHDK hybridization patterns, very similar protein electrophoregrams, identical amplified 16S rDNA restriction (ARDRA) profiles, and levels of DNA-DNA reassociation higher than 70% with total DNA from strain TVV75T. Although the ability to fix N2 is not reported to be a common feature among the known species of the genus Burkholderia, the results obtained show that many diazotrophic Burkholderia isolates analyzed showed phenotypic and genotypic features different from those of the known N2-fixing species B. vietnamiensis as well as from those of B. kururiensis, a bacterium identified in the present study as a diazotrophic species. DNA-DNA reassociation assays confirmed the existence of N2-fixing Burkholderia species different from B. vietnamiensis. In addition, this study shows the wide geographic distribution and substantial capability of N2-fixing Burkholderia spp. for colonizing diverse host plants in distantly separated environments. PMID:11375196

  12. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, I E

    2015-10-01

    Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and

  14. A review of chemistry and biological activities of the genus Aerva--a desert plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Payal; Chawla, Amit; Vasudeva, Neeru; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    There are approximately 28 species of Aerva genus, but only a few species are medicinal of which A. persica, A. lanata and A. javanica are of great value. A number of flavonol glycosides (e.g., aervanone, kaempferol-3-galactoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside) have been reported from Aerva persica as major phytoconstituents and the minor constituents are β-cyanins (glycine betaine and trigonelline), sterols and carbohydrates. This plant is used as medicinal herb in several traditional systems of medicine all over the world, like diuretic, demulcent, purgative, emetic and tinder. Aerva plants are used to cure ulcer, lithiasis, dropsical affections, eye affection, toothache, headache, in disorders of abdomen and inflammation of internal organs. Roots and flowers are reported to possess hypoglycemic, antioxidant, anthelmintic, analgesic, antimalarial, antivenin activities and medicinal properties against rheumatism and kidney troubles.

  15. Development and Characterization of Transcription Factor Gene-Derived Microsatellite (TFGM) Markers in Medicago truncatula and Their Transferability in Leguminous and Non-Leguminous Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenxian; Jia, Xitao; Liu, Zhimin; Zhang, Zhengshe; Wang, Yanrong; Liu, Zhipeng; Xie, Wengang

    2015-05-15

    Transcription factors (TFs) are critical adaptor molecules that regulate many plant processes by controlling gene expression. The recent increase in the availability of TF data has made TFs a valuable resource for genic functional microsatellite marker development. In the present study, we developed TF gene-derived microsatellite (TFGM) markers for Medicago truncatula and assessed their cross-species transferability. A total of 203 SSRs were identified from 1467 M. truncatula TF coding sequences, 87.68% of which were trinucleotide repeats, followed by mono- (4.93%) and hexanucleotide repeats (1.48%). Further, 142 TFGM markers showed a high level of transferability to the leguminous (55.63%-85.21%) and non-leguminous (28.17%-50.00%) species. Polymorphisms of 27 TFGM markers were evaluated in 44 alfalfa accessions. The allele number per marker ranged from two to eight with an average of 4.41, and the PIC values ranged from 0.08 to 0.84 with an average of 0.60. Considering the high polymorphism, these TFGM markers developed in our study will be valuable for genetic relationship assessments, marker-assisted selection and comparative genomic studies in leguminous and non-leguminous species.

  16. Trace element structure of the most widespread plants of genus PulmonariaFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kruglov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was a comparative research of trace element structure of various organs of three Pulmonaria species. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the most widespread plants of genus Pulmonaria such as Pulmonaria officinalis L., Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. and Pulmonaria mollis Wulf. ex Hornem., which were collected in ending of flowering and were used as the research objects. The amount of trace elements (B, K, P, V, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Si, Zn, Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Cr, I, Ni, Se, Sr, and Ti was determined by means of mass spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. Results: The data clustering has shown that floral shoots and rosellate leaves possess essentially various trace element status. At the same time, the trace elements′ status of organs of researched plants poorly depends on a taxonomic position of the plant. Thereupon, it is obvious that pharmacological activity is defined by organs of plants from which medicines were made, but not by a species of the used plant. Conclusions: The significant distinction in pharmacological activity of preparations depends on the trace elements′ status of used medicinal vegetative raw materials.

  17. PCR amplification of ribosomal DNA for species identification in the plant pathogen genus Phytophthora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristaino, J B; Madritch, M; Trout, C L; Parra, G

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a PCR procedure to amplify DNA for quick identification of the economically important species from each of the six taxonomic groups in the plant pathogen genus Phytophthora. This procedure involves amplification of the 5.8S ribosomal DNA gene and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) with the ITS primers ITS 5 and ITS 4. Restriction digests of the amplified DNA products were conducted with the restriction enzymes RsaI, MspI, and HaeIII. Restriction fragment patterns were similar after digestions with RsaI for the following species: P. capsici and P. citricola; P. infestans, P. cactorum, and P. mirabilis; P. fragariae, P. cinnamomi, and P. megasperma from peach; P. palmivora, P. citrophthora, P. erythroseptica, and P. cryptogea; and P. megasperma from raspberry and P. sojae. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from P. citricola and separated P. cactorum from P. infestans and P. mirabilis. Restriction digests with HaeIII separated P. citrophthora from P. cryptogea, P. cinnamomi from P. fragariae and P. megasperma on peach, P. palmivora from P. citrophthora, and P. megasperma on raspberry from P. sojae. P. infestans and P. mirabilis digests were identical and P. cryptogea and P. erythroseptica digests were identical with all restriction enzymes tested. A unique DNA sequence from the ITS region I in P. capsici was used to develop a primer called PCAP. The PCAP primer was used in PCRs with ITS 1 and amplified only isolates of P. capsici, P. citricola, and P. citrophthora and not 13 other species in the genus. Restriction digests with MspI separated P. capsici from the other two species. PCR was superior to traditional isolation methods for detection of P. capsici in infected bell pepper tissue in field samples. The techniques described will provide a powerful tool for identification of the major species in the genus Phytophthora.

  18. Plants of the Genus Zingiber as a Source of Bioactive Phytochemicals: From Tradition to Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Sharifi-Rad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the genus Zingiber (Family Zingiberaceae are widely used throughout the world as food and medicinal plants. They represent very popular herbal remedies in various traditional healing systems; in particular, rhizome of Zingiber spp. plants has a long history of ethnobotanical uses because of a plethora of curative properties. Antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oil has been extensively confirmed in vitro and attributed to its chemical components, mainly consisting of monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as α-zingiberene, ar-curcumene, β-bisabolene and β-sesquiphellandrene. In addition, gingerols have been identified as the major active components in the fresh rhizome, whereas shogaols, dehydrated gingerol derivatives, are the predominant pungent constituents in dried rhizome. Zingiber spp. may thus represent a promising and innovative source of natural alternatives to chemical food preservatives. This approach would meet the increasing concern of consumers aware of the potential health risks associated with the conventional antimicrobial agents in food. This narrative review aims at providing a literature overview on Zingiber spp. plants, their cultivation, traditional uses, phytochemical constituents and biological activities.

  19. The phyllophagous of woody plants of genus Ulmus in protective plantings of arid zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitskaya, M. N.; Gribust, I. R.; Nefed'eva, E. E.; Filimonova, O. S.; Golovanova, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Creating of long-lasting, normally developing plantings on the urbanized territories in the arid zones is difficult. The main tree species are elm (Fam. Ulmaceae - more than 70% of tree composition). They have a high drought and salt tolerance, rapid growth. They are widely used in the creation of artificial forest plantings in steppes and deserts. The main part of the plantations was created in the 50-60 years of 20th century. Today the aging of plants is observing. Trees of this age lose their physiological and decorative potential as well as resistance to pests under intensive anthropogenic impact. At the forest pathology research about 90 % of the plants of elm species of plantings of various types and categories were identified to be in poor condition. Leaf-eating pests play an active role in the deterioration of their sanitary state. Xanthogaleruca luteola (Müller, 1766), Cladius ulmi (Linnaeus, 1758), and Aproceros leucopoda (Takeuchi, 1939) have a special harmfulness as well as the regularity of the local centers among the mass phyllophagous of plants of the family. The last two species were discovered in artificial plantations for the first time. The destructive effect of those pests on certain types of elm plants is uneven.

  20. Emaravirus: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Mühlbach, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan) and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV), Fig mosaic virus (FMV), rose rosette virus (RRV), raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses. PMID:23170170

  1. Emaravirus: A Novel Genus of Multipartite, Negative Strand RNA Plant Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Peter Mühlbach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L., fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV, Fig mosaic virus (FMV, rose rosette virus (RRV, raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV, pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses.

  2. Potential N2O emissions from leguminous tree plantation soils in the humid tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Seiko; Ishizuka, Shigehiro; Ohta, Seiichi; Ansori, Saifuddin; Tokuchi, Naoko; Tanaka, Nagaharu; Hardjono, Arisman

    2008-06-01

    We compared nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions over 1 year from soils of plantations growing acacia, which is a leguminous plant capable of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in root nodules, and secondary forests in Sumatra, Indonesia. N2O emissions from acacia plantation soils fluctuated seasonally, from high in the wetter season to low in the drier season, whereas N2O emissions from secondary forest soils were low throughout the year. Water-filled-pore-space data showed that denitrification contributed substantially to N2O emissions from soils at acacia sites. The average annual N2O flux in acacia plantations was 2.56 kg N ha-1 a-1, which was eight times higher than that from secondary forest soils (0.33 kg N ha-1 a-1). In secondary forests, NH4+ was the dominant form of inorganic nitrogen. However, in acacia plantations, the NH4+: NO3- ratio was relatively lower than that in secondary forests. These results suggest that secondary forests were nitrogen limited, but acacia plantations were less nitrogen limited. Leguminous tree plantations may increase nitrogen cycling, resulting in greater N2O emissions from the soil. However, on a global warming potential basis, N2O emissions from acacia plantation soils accounted for less than 10% of the carbon uptake by plants. Nevertheless, because of the spread of leguminous tree plantations in Asia, the importance of N2O emissions from leguminous tree stands will increase in the coming decades.

  3. [Study on the theraputic effect of plants of Camellia genus on osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ling; Feng, Bao-Min; Shi, Li-Ying; Wu, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Hai-Bo; Miao, Yan-Bo; Wang, Yong-Qi

    2008-10-01

    To observe anti-osteoporotic effect of Plants of Camelia genus induced by retinoic acid in rats, in adqulis crude drug dosage, and to compare activities of them. Extracts of Camellia japonica and Camellia oleifera were given to rats with osteoporosis induced by retinoic acid, some indexes of rats were measured and compared with those of modle group, control group and positive control group, including weight/length (G/L), bone density, earth and calcium content of bone, morphology change and serum calcium, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. We also compared effective intensity between different groups in adqulis crude drug dosage. Ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica 0.51 g/kg could markedly enhance weight/length (G/L), bone density of femur, serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase level, with the decreasing of anti-tartaric acid tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase level. Meanwhile, they were accompanied by a significant increase of morphologic observed sclerotomal cell and by a significant decrease of osteoclast. Moreover, it was observed greatly that bone trabecula transformateed to normal morphous. The results of this study indicated that effects of ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica on anti-osteoporosis with retinoic acid were the strongest. Ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica , ethanol extracts of leaves from Camellia Oleifera, and aqueous extracts of leaves from Camellia Oleifera were stronger than positive control drug. The other extracts didnt show obvious anti-osteoporotic effects. Eventually the strength order of each group on anti-osteoporosis was as following: ethanol extracts of seed from Camellia japonica > ethanol extracts of leaves from Camellia Oleifera > aqueous extracts of leaves from Camellia Oleifera > aqueous extracts of seed from Camellia Oleifera > positive control drug > aqueous extracts of seed from Camellia Japonica. Plants of Camellia genus have different degree anti

  4. Predation and aggressiveness in host plant protection: a generalization using ants from the genus Azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, Alain; Grangier, Julien; Leroy, Céline; Orivel, Jerôme

    2009-01-01

    In studying the ant genus Azteca, a Neotropical group of arboreal species, we aimed to determine the extent to which the ants use predation and/or aggressiveness to protect their host plants from defoliating insects. We compared a territorially dominant, carton-nester, Azteca chartifex, and three plant-ant species. Azteca alfari and Azteca ovaticeps are associated with the myrmecophyte Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) and their colonies shelter in its hollow branches; whereas Azteca bequaerti is associated with Tococa guianensis (Melastomataceae) and its colonies shelter in leaf pouches situated at the base of the laminas. Whereas A. bequaerti workers react to the vibrations transmitted by the lamina when an alien insect lands on a leaf making it unnecessary for them to patrol their plant, the workers of the three other species rather discover prey by contact. The workers of all four species use a predatory behaviour involving spread-eagling alien insects after recruiting nestmates at short range, and, in some cases, at long range. Because A. alfari and A. ovaticeps discard part of the insects they kill, we deduced that the workers’ predatory behaviour and territorial aggressiveness combine in the biotic defence of their host tree.

  5. Chemical constituents and biological research on plants in the genus Curcuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen; Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Wenwen; Wu, Chuanhong; Guo, Shuhui; Gao, Hongwei; Tao, Hongxun; Lu, Jinjian; Wang, Yitao; Chen, Xiuping

    2017-05-03

    Curcuma, a valuable genus in the family Zingiberaceae, includes approximately 110 species. These plants are native to Southeast Asia and are extensively cultivated in India, China, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Peru, Australia, and the West Indies. The plants have long been used in folk medicine to treat stomach ailments, stimulate digestion, and protect the digestive organs, including the intestines, stomach, and liver. In recent years, substantial progress has been achieved in investigations regarding the chemical and pharmacological properties, as well as in clinical trials of certain Curcuma species. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge on the chemistry and briefly discusses the biological activities of Curcuma species. A total of 720 compounds, including 102 diphenylalkanoids, 19 phenylpropene derivatives, 529 terpenoids, 15 flavonoids, 7 steroids, 3 alkaloids, and 44 compounds of other types isolated or identified from 32 species, have been phytochemically investigated. The biological activities of plant extracts and pure compounds are classified into 15 groups in detail, with emphasis on anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities.

  6. Selection of chemical markers for the quality control of medicinal plants of the genus Cecropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mondragón, Andrés; Ortíz, Orlando O; Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Vlietinck, Arnold; Apers, Sandra; Pieters, Luc; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2017-12-01

    Several Cecropia (Cecropiaceae) species are traditionally used in Latin America for the treatment of a variety of diseases including diabetes, arterial hypertension, asthma, bronchitis, anxiety, and inflammation. At present, a number of commercial products based on these plants have been introduced into the market with very little information on methods for guaranteeing their quality and safety. This work proposes potential chemical markers for the quality control of the raw materials of Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol., Cecropia peltata L., Cecropia glaziovii Snethl., Cecropia pachystachya Trécul, and Cecropia hololeuca Miq. The Herbal Chemical Marker Ranking System (Herb MaRS) developed by the National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM) at the University of Western Sydney was used for selecting chemical markers for the quality control of selected medicinal species of Cecropia. This review covers the period from 1982 to 2016. Chlorogenic acid, flavonoidal glycosides (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin, and rutin), catechin, epicatechin, procyanidins (B2, B5, and C1), steroids (β-sitosterol), and triterpenoids (α-amyrin, pomolic, tormentic and ursolic acids) were selected as chemical markers for the quality control of the leaves. It is necessary to establish comprehensive standards for guaranteeing quality, safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The selection of adequate chemical markers for quality control purposes requires a good knowledge about the chemical composition of medicinal plants and their associated biological properties. To the best of our knowledge this review article is the first to address the identification and quantitative determination of the chemical markers for the genus Cecropia.

  7. Host-plant species conservatism and ecology of a parasitoid fig wasp genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J McLeish

    Full Text Available Parasitoid diversity in terrestrial ecosystems is enormous. However, ecological processes underpinning their evolutionary diversification in association with other trophic groups are still unclear. Specialisation and interdependencies among chalcid wasps that reproduce on Ficus presents an opportunity to investigate the ecology of a multi-trophic system that includes parasitoids. Here we estimate the host-plant species specificity of a parasitoid fig wasp genus that attacks the galls of non-pollinating pteromalid and pollinating agaonid fig wasps. We discuss the interactions between parasitoids and the Ficus species present in a forest patch of Uganda in context with populations in Southern Africa. Haplotype networks are inferred to examine intraspecific mitochondrial DNA divergences and phylogenetic approaches used to infer putative species relationships. Taxonomic appraisal and putative species delimitation by molecular and morphological techniques are compared. Results demonstrate that a parasitoid fig wasp population is able to reproduce on at least four Ficus species present in a patch. This suggests that parasitoid fig wasps have relatively broad host-Ficus species ranges compared to fig wasps that oviposit internally. Parasitoid fig wasps did not recruit on all available host plants present in the forest census area and suggests an important ecological consequence in mitigating fitness trade-offs between pollinator and Ficus reproduction. The extent to which parasitoid fig wasps exert influence on the pollination mutualism must consider the fitness consequences imposed by the ability to interact with phenotypes of multiple Ficus and fig wasps species, but not equally across space and time.

  8. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 4. Taxonomic diversity and species names for the genus Fragaria L.

    OpenAIRE

    В. М. Меженський

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Reviewing a history of formation and current state of the national nomenclature and streamlining the Ukrainian scientific species names for the genus Fragaria L. Results. Controversial attitudes towards the use of names «sunytsi» (= garden strawberry) and «polunytsi» (= hill strawberry) are inherently present in the Ukrainian nomenclature of the genus Fragaria L. The Ukrainian scientific names of species of this group of plants should be brought into line with the generic name “Sunyt...

  9. Phytotelmatrichis, a new genus of Acrotrichinae (Coleoptera: Ptiliidae) associated with the phytotelmata of Zingiberales plants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Michael; Chaboo, Caroline S

    2015-12-01

    Phytotelmatrichis, gen. n. a new genus of Ptiliidae: Acrotrichinae with two species Phytotelmatrichis peruviensis sp. n. and Phytotelmatrichis osopaddington sp. n. is described and illustrated. The new species were found during a survey of insects in the aquatic environments that form in the hollows (phytotelmata) in the leaves and floral bracts of Zingiberales plants. The new taxa were found in the the Zingiberales genera Calathea (Marantaceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), and Alpinia and Renealmia (Zingiberaceae) in southern Peru. Sampling of other habitats in the same areas over five years and using a range of different techniques did not yield more specimens of this new genus. This suggests that the new species are restricted to phytotelmata.

  10. Identification of crude drugs from Chinese medicinal plants of the genus Bupleurum using ribosomal DNA ITS sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hui; Huo, Ke-ke; Chao, Zhi; Pan, Sheng-li

    2009-01-01

    To determine the variation of rDNA ITS sequences in medicinal plants of the genus Bupleurum and identify corresponding DNA molecular markers associated with medicinally important members, ITS regions were amplified, sequenced, and analyzed by DNAssist version 2.2. We found that the homologous alignment of ITS sequences between members of the genus Bupleurum and associated out-groups was lower than 75%, while within-group alignment was greater than 87%. The conclusion can be drawn that ITS sequences can be used as reliable molecular markers for the identification of Radix Bupleuri.

  11. Variability in the insect and plant adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the fungal genus metarhizium suggest plant adaptation as an evolutionary force.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wyrebek

    Full Text Available Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2 or to insect association (Mad1 overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%, Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%, and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4% were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%. Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1α, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 5' EF-1α than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.

  12. Variability in the insect and plant adhesins, Mad1 and Mad2, within the fungal genus metarhizium suggest plant adaptation as an evolutionary force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrebek, Michael; Bidochka, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium are associated with certain plant types and genome analyses suggested a bifunctional lifestyle; as an insect pathogen and as a plant symbiont. Here we wanted to explore whether there was more variation in genes devoted to plant association (Mad2) or to insect association (Mad1) overall in the genus Metarhizium. Greater divergence within the genus Metarhizium in one of these genes may provide evidence for whether host insect or plant is a driving force in adaptation and evolution in the genus Metarhizium. We compared differences in variation in the insect adhesin gene, Mad1, which enables attachment to insect cuticle, and the plant adhesin gene, Mad2, which enables attachment to plants. Overall variation for the Mad1 promoter region (7.1%), Mad1 open reading frame (6.7%), and Mad2 open reading frame (7.4%) were similar, while it was higher in the Mad2 promoter region (9.9%). Analysis of the transcriptional elements within the Mad2 promoter region revealed variable STRE, PDS, degenerative TATA box, and TATA box-like regions, while this level of variation was not found for Mad1. Sequences were also phylogenetically compared to EF-1α, which is used for species identification, in 14 isolates representing 7 different species in the genus Metarhizium. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the Mad2 phylogeny is more congruent with 5' EF-1α than Mad1. This would suggest that Mad2 has diverged among Metarhizium lineages, contributing to clade- and species-specific variation, while it appears that Mad1 has been largely conserved. While other abiotic and biotic factors cannot be excluded in contributing to divergence, these results suggest that plant relationships, rather than insect host, have been a major driving factor in the divergence of the genus Metarhizium.

  13. Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioactivity of flours of seeds of leguminous crops Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris and Glycine max used as botanical insecticides against Sitophilus oryzae Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on sorghum grains.

  14. Medicinal plants of the genus Anthocleista--A review of their ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Gabriel O; Nisar-ur-Rehman; Onyeneke, Chukwu E; Rauf, Khalid

    2015-12-04

    The genus Anthocleista of the Gentianaceae family contains 14 species of trees and shrub-like plants distributed in tropical Africa, in Madagascar and on the Comoros. Traditionally, they are commonly used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, malaria, typhoid fever, obesity, diarrhea, dysentery, hyperprolactinemia, abdominal pain, ulcer, jaundice, asthma, hemorrhoids, hernia, cancer, wounds, chest pains, inflammations, rheumatism, STDs, infertility and skin diseases. They serve as an anthelmintic, laxative, diuretic and contraceptive. This review aims to provide for the first time a repository of ethnopharmacological information while critically evaluating the relation between the traditional medicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Anthocleista species so as to unveil opportunities for future research. A search for relevant information on Anthocleista species was performed on scientific databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, Web of Science, Scopus, PubChem and other web sources such as The Plant List, Kew Botanical Garden and PROTA) and books, PhD and MSc dissertations for un-published resources. Out of the 14 species of Anthocleista, 6 have been reported in literature to be widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The six species include: A. djalonensis, A. vogelii, A. nobilis, A. grandiflora, A. schweinfurthii, and A. liebrechtsiana. The chemical compounds isolated from Anthocleista species fall into the class of phytochemicals such as secoiridoids, nor-secoiridoids, xanthones, phytosterols, triterpenes, alkaloids, and others of which majority of the compounds were isolated from A. djalonensis and A. vogelii. The in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies on the crude extracts, fractions and few isolated compounds of Anthocleista species showed antidiabetic, antiplasmodial, antimicrobial, hypotensive, spasmogenic, anti-obesity, antiulcerogenic, analgesic, anti

  15. Phenotypic variability of plant leaves of Acer genus, introduced into steppe zone of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zaitseva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying of the patterns of ecological adaptation of wood species of Acer L. genus during their introduction into steppe zone of Ukraine. Hydrothermal conditions of the growing season in steppe zone of Ukraine are particularly unfavorable for tree and shrubbery plantings, comprising both native and introduced species. In the course of plants’ introduction, adaptive changes occur; such changes represent the spectrum of phenotypic implementation of the definite genotype under the influence of new environmental conditions. Stress environment of the region of introduction leads to occurrence of a great variety of phenotypic forms, as the different variants of genotype implementation. Studying of phenotypic variability gives an opportunity to determine the capacity to adaptation of introduced species and ways of adaptive reactions in new conditions of living. Therefore, objective of the work consists in studying of the processes of differentiation of morphological characters in species of Acer genus introduced in the regions of steppe zone with varying intensity of hydrothermal factors. Studies were carried out in the central and south-eastern steppe regions, as well as in the south of steppe zone in the coastal and continental areas. Subjects of research were 9 species of maples, differing by their botanic and geographic origin and by the degree of drought resistance in the steppe zone of Ukraine. Patterns of variability of morphostructural characters of leaves were determined by the indicator of specific weight of leaves which was calculated as a ratio of weight of dry laminas to their area (mg/cm2. Following the results of study, it was found that adaptation of maples to xerothermic factors of the environment is connected with changing of the ratio of groups of character variation and their contribution into total sample. Direct relationship is established between the probability density of expression (phenotypic

  16. Isolation and biochemical characterization of a novel leguminous defense peptide with antifungal and antiproliferative potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoyun; Rao, Pingfan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2009-02-01

    Leguminous plants have formed a popular subject of research owing to the abundance of proteins and peptides with important biological activities that they produce. The antifungal proteins and peptides have been purified from a number of leguminous species. However, research continues to discover novel antifungal plant-produced peptides and proteins are being needed, specially those novel ones with both antifungal activity and other significant bioactivities. The objective of this study was to isolate a novel peptide from Phaseolus limensis. A 6.8 kDa peptide designated Limyin, with both antifungal and antiproliferative activity, was isolated from the large lima bean (P. limensis) legumes. The isolation procedure consisted of extraction, precipitation, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion chromatography on SP-Toyopearl, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. Its N-terminal sequence was determined to be KTCENLATYYRGPCF, showing high homology to defensin and defensin precursors from plants. It potently suppressed mycelial growth in Alternaria alternata, Fusarium solani, and Botrytis cinerea. Its antifungal activity was stable up to 80 degrees C. It showed antiproliferative activity towards tumor cells including human liver hepatoma cells Bel-7402 and neuroblastoma cells SHSY5Y. However, it had no effect on bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella. The present findings make a significant addition of the research on leguminous plants.

  17. Positive Selection Driving Cytoplasmic Genome Evolution of the Medicinally Important Ginseng Plant Genus Panax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Panax L. (the ginseng genus is a shade-demanding group within the family Araliaceae and all of its species are of crucial significance in traditional Chinese medicine. Phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses demonstrated that two rounds of whole genome duplications accompanying with geographic and ecological isolations promoted the diversification of Panax species. However, contributions of the cytoplasmic genomes to the adaptive evolution of Panax species remained largely uninvestigated. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes of 11 accessions belonging to seven Panax species. Our results show that heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution rate is abundant in both of the two cytoplasmic genomes, with the mitochondrial genome possessing more variants at the total level but the chloroplast showing higher sequence polymorphisms at the genic regions. Genome-wide scanning of positive selection identified five and 12 genes from the chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes, respectively. Functional analyses further revealed that these selected genes play important roles in plant development, cellular metabolism and adaptation. We therefore conclude that positive selection might be one of the potential evolutionary forces that shaped nucleotide variation pattern of these Panax species. In particular, the mitochondrial genes evolved under stronger selective pressure compared to the chloroplast genes.

  18. Plants of the Melaleuca Genus as Antimicrobial Agents: From Farm to Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Salehi, Bahare; Varoni, Elena Maria; Sharopov, Farukh; Yousaf, Zubaida; Ayatollahi, Seyed Abdulmajid; Kobarfard, Farzad; Sharifi-Rad, Mehdi; Afdjei, Mohammad Hossain; Sharifi-Rad, Majid; Iriti, Marcello

    2017-10-01

    Plants belonging to Melaleuca genus (Myrtaceae family) are native to Oceania, where they have been used for ages by Aborigine people in Australian traditional medicine, mainly because of their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. Although, M. linariifolia, M. dissitiflora, and other species of Melaleuca can also be used, the tea tree oil, an essential oil obtained from M. alternifolia shows the longest history of medicinal uses. Tea tree oil contains for the 80-90% several monoterpenes (terpinen-4-ol, α-terpinene, 1,8-cineol, p-cymene, α-terpineol, α-pinene, terpinolene, limonene, and sabinene). Sesquiterpenes and aromatic compounds further compose this oil. The essential oil of Melaleuca spp. has been reported to possess effective antibacterial and antifungal properties in vitro. In particular, data show that 1,8-cineol, terpinen-4-ol and methyl eugenol play the key role in mediating this oil's antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A food plant specialist in Sparganothini? A new genus and species from Costa Rica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparganocosma docsturnerorum Brown, new genus and new species, is described and illustrated from Area de Conservación (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. The new genus shares a long, crescent- or ribbon-shaped signum in the corpus bursae of the female genitalia with Aesiocopa Zeller, 1877, Amorbia Cle...

  20. Mimosine, the Allelochemical from the Leguminous Tree Leucaena leucocephala, Selectively Enhances Cell Proliferation in Dinoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Patrick K. K.; Wong, Francis T. W.; Wong, Joseph T. Y.

    2002-01-01

    Mimosine, the allelochemical from the leguminous tree Leucaena leucocephala, is toxic to most terrestrial animals and plants. We report here that while mimosine inhibits major phytoplankton groups, it enhances cell proliferation in dinoflagellates. On addition to coastal seawater samples, mimosine is able to confer a growth advantage to dinoflagellates. The use of mimosine will promote the isolation and culture of this group of phytoplankton. PMID:12324368

  1. Medicinal plants of the genus Macleaya (Macleaya cordata, Macleaya microcarpa): A review of their phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Liu, Yan-Chun; Huang, Jia-Lu; Liu, Xiu-Bin; Qing, Zhi-Xing; Zeng, Jian-Guo; Liu, Zhao-Ying

    2018-01-01

    In the genus Macleaya, Macleaya cordata and Macleaya microcarpa have been recognized as traditional herbs that are primarily distributed in China, North America, and Europe and have a long history of medicinal usage. These herbs have been long valued and studied for detumescence, detoxification, and insecticidal effect. This review aims to provide comprehensive information on botanical, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological studies on plants in the genus Macleaya. Plants from the genus of Macleaya provide a source of bioactive compounds, primarily alkaloids, with remarkable diversity and complex architectures, thereby having attracted attention from researchers. To date, 291 constituents have been identified and/or isolated from this group. These purified compounds and/or crude extract possess antitumor, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, and antibacterial activities in addition to certain potential toxicities. Macleaya species hold potential for medicinal applications. However, despite the pharmacological studies on these plants, the mechanisms underlying the biological activities of active ingredients derived from Macleaya have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Additionally, there is a need for research focusing on in vivo medical effects of Macleaya compounds and, eventually, for clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Phytochemistry and bioactivity of aromatic and medicinal plants from the genusAgastache(Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska, Sylwia; Matkowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Agastache is a small genus of Lamiaceae , comprising 22 species of perennial aromatic medicinal herbs. In this article, we review recent advances in phytochemical, pharmacological, biotechnological and molecular research on Agastache . The phytochemical profile of all Agastache species studied to date is generally similar, consisted of two main metabolic classes-phenylpropanoids and terpenoids. In the relatively variable essential oils, most populations of different Agastache species contain over 50 % of a phenylallyl compound-estragole. Also, other volatile compounds (methyleugenol, pulegone, menthone, isomenthone and spathulenol) were reported in various proportions. Major non-volatile metabolites belong to phenolic compounds, such as caffeic acid derivatives, especially rosmarinic acid as well as several flavones and flavone glycosides like acacetin, tilianin, agastachoside, and a rare dimeric malonyl flavone (agastachin). Two unique lignans-agastenol and agastinol-were also isolated. Terpenoids include triterpenoids of oleanane-type (maslinic acid, oleanolic acid and β-amyrin), ursane-type (ursolic acid, corosolic acid and α-amyrin), and typical plant sterols, as well as abietane-type oxidized diterpenes (e.g., agastaquinone, agastol, and others). The bioactivity of various extracts or individual compounds in vitro and in vivo include antimicrobial, antiviral and anti-mutagenic activity, cytotoxic activity to cancer cell lines, and anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, antioxidant as well as biocidal activity to several foodstuff pests. Biotechnological and molecular studies have focused on in vitro propagation and enhancing the biosynthesis of bioactive metabolites in cell or organ cultures, as well as on the expression of genes involved in phenolic biosynthesis.

  3. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of plant genus Caralluma R. Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, Muhammad; Jan, Saleem; Mussarat, Sakina; Tariq, Akash; Begum, Shaheen; Afroz, Anila; Shinwari, Zabta Khan

    2014-10-01

    Caralluma is a xerophytic genus used as traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes, inflammation, leprosy, obesity and rheumatism. Objectives of this review are to establish a relationship between traditional uses and scientific studies by critically evaluating the available fragmented literature on ethnobotany, pharmacology, phytochemistry and toxicology of genus Caralluma. Ethnomedical uses of Caralluma have been recorded from various countries such as China, India, Iran and Pakistan for six major classes of diseases including diabetes and gastrointestinal disorders. This review indicated the efficacy of genus Caralluma in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. These bioactivity might be due to the presence of certain classes of compounds in genus Caralluma including pregnane glycosides, flavonoid glycosides and flavones. Traditional uses and scientific evaluation of Caralluma indicates that it is one of the most widely used genus in some parts of the world. Further studies on the structural activity relationship of some of the isolated compound may improve their biological potency as well as scientific exploitation of traditional uses of the genus. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. The genus Bipolaris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manamgoda, D.S.; Rossman, A.Y.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Madrid, H.; Chukeatirote, E.; Hyde, K.D.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on

  5. Species variation of Aegilops genus and heavy metal content in plant habitat soil at southern Adriatic localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrijević Miodrag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aegilops genus is a wild relative to the bread wheat, having chromosomes homologous to wheat chromosomes. That genus could be the source of many usefull abiotic stress tolerance genes. Facing a global climate changes, as well as, environmental erosion, it is important to create a desirable genetic variability that could correspond to environmental challenges. Heavy metals in soil could cause soil pollution, could lead to different phenotypic changes in plants, and could enter food chain. Assessment of Aegilops sp. population variation, as well as, heavy metal content in their habitat was the main goal in this research. Aegilops population composition was examined and samples were taken from 55 localities of South Adriatic coastal and littoral areas. Topsoil samples from all the localities were taken and heavy metal content, namely Cr, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cd and Cu, was analyzed,. Manganese content was measured, as well. Value of pH was established.

  6. Nothofagus, key genus of plant geography, in time and space, living and fossil, ecology and phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    Data are given on the taxonomy and ecology of the genus. Some New Caledonian species grow in or descend to the lowland. Details are provided on the distribution within New Guinea. For dominance of Nothofagus, and Fagaceae in general, it is suggested that possibly symbionts may contribute to this.

  7. Gene family expansions and contractions are associated with host range in plant pathogens of the genus Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Amby, Daniel Buchvaldt; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Vannacci, Giovanni; Le Floch, Gaétan; Harrison, Richard J; Holub, Eric; Sukno, Serenella A; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy; Thon, Michael R

    2016-08-05

    Many species belonging to the genus Colletotrichum cause anthracnose disease on a wide range of plant species. In addition to their economic impact, the genus Colletotrichum is a useful model for the study of the evolution of host specificity, speciation and reproductive behaviors. Genome projects of Colletotrichum species have already opened a new era for studying the evolution of pathogenesis in fungi. We sequenced and annotated the genomes of four strains in the Colletotrichum acutatum species complex (CAsc), a clade of broad host range pathogens within the genus. The four CAsc proteomes and secretomes along with those representing an additional 13 species (six Colletotrichum spp. and seven other Sordariomycetes) were classified into protein families using a variety of tools. Hierarchical clustering of gene family and functional domain assignments, and phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage specific losses of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) and proteases encoding genes in Colletotrichum species that have narrow host range as well as duplications of these families in the CAsc. We also found a lineage specific expansion of necrosis and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like protein (NLPs) families within the CAsc. This study illustrates the plasticity of Colletotrichum genomes, and shows that major changes in host range are associated with relatively recent changes in gene content.

  8. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 4. Taxonomic diversity and species names for the genus Fragaria L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Reviewing a history of formation and current state of the national nomenclature and streamlining the Ukrainian scientific species names for the genus Fragaria L. Results. Controversial attitudes towards the use of names «sunytsi» (= garden strawberry and «polunytsi» (= hill strawberry are inherently present in the Ukrainian nomenclature of the genus Fragaria L. The Ukrainian scientific names of species of this group of plants should be brought into line with the generic name “Sunytsi” in plural. Nothogeneric name x Fragophora Mezhenskyj (= Dasiphora Rafin. x Fragaria L. is proposed. Conclusions. In a professional environment it is necessary to use only scientific names of species of the genus Fragaria – Sunytsi (= garden strawberry that is used in plural in Ukrainian. Concerning garden strawberry, in every day life and popular literature the usage of a derivative sunytsia (in Ukrainian in singular as well as polunytsia, polunytsi (in Ukrainian may be permissible.

  9. Methods for acquisition, storage, and evaluation of leguminous tree germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Simple methods for establishing, maintaining, and planting of a small scale tree legume (Prosopis) germplasm collection by one or two people are described. Suggestions are included for: developing an understanding of the worldwide distribution of genus; becoming acquainted with basic and applied scientists working on the taxa; devising seed cleaning, fumigation, cataloging, and storage techniques; requesting seed from international seed collections; collecting seed from native populations; and for field designs for planting the germplasm collection.

  10. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEGUMINOUS TREES AGAINSTSCLEROTIUM ROLFSII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Nighat; Shoaib, Amna; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis. Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica . 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%). This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii .

  11. Scanning electron microscopy in characterizing seeds of some leguminous trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Chatterjee, Amiyanghshu; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    SEM has greatly increased our knowledge of the microstructure of seeds. Mature seed coats are rather thick walled and stable in a vacuum: this allows quick preparation for SEM examination, without the need of complicated dehydration techniques. The low level of technical expenditure required, in combination with the high structural diversity exhibited and the intuitive ability to understand the "three dimensional", often aesthetically appealing micro-structures visualized, has turned seed-coat studies into a favorite tool of many taxonomists. We used dry mature seeds of 26 species of 4 Leguminous genera, Acacia, Albizia, Cassia and Dalbergia to standardize a procedure for identifying the seeds through SEM on the seed surface and seed sections. We cut transverse and longitudinal sections of the seeds and observed the sections from different regions of seeds: midseed, near the hilum and two distal ends. Light microscopy showed the color, texture, pleurograms, fissures and hilum at lower magnification. The anatomical study with SEM on the seed sections revealed the size, shape, and number of tiers and cellular organization of the epidermis, hypodermis, endosperm and internal structural details. We found the ornamentation pattern of the seeds including undulations, reticulations and rugae that were species specific. Species of Dalbergia (assamica, latifolia and sissoo), Albizia (odoratissima and procera), Acaia (arabica and catechu) and Cassia (glauca, siamia and spectabilis) are difficult to distinguish externally, but SEM studies provided enough characteristic features to distinguish from the other. This technique could be valuable in identifying seeds of important plant species for conservation and trading.

  12. Development and characterization of genic SSR markers in Medicago truncatula and their transferability in leguminous and non-leguminous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarika; Prasad, Manoj

    2009-09-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived simple sequence repeat (eSSR) markers are important resources for gene discovery and comparative mapping aimed at crop improvement. In this study, we developed eSSR markers for Medicago truncatula and assessed their cross-species transferability. We detected 36,847 non-redundant sequences ("unigenes") from 198,642 M. truncatula EST sequences. Mining of microsatellites from the 36,847 unigene sequences (representing approximately 25.8 Mb) revealed 14,637 eSSRs in 11,750 SSR-containing ESTs, and primer pairs were successfully designed for 4,636 (39.5%). Of the 14 637 eSSRs, 82.6% were mononucleotide repeats and the rest (in descending order of abundance) were tri-, di-, penta-, and tetranucleotide repeats. When less stringent SSR detection criteria were used, the frequency of dinucleotide repeat motifs increased more than twofold, and the frequencies of di- (11%) and trinucleotide motifs (10.6%) were almost equal. This demonstrates that the eSSR frequency and distribution were related to the choice of search criteria. Forty-one randomly selected primer pairs were validated, and their transferability in three leguminous and three non-leguminous species was assessed. The markers showed a high level of transferability in the leguminous (53%-71%) and non-leguminous (33%-44%) species. The validation studies thus demonstrate the utility of the Medicago eSSRs in assessing genomic relationships in both leguminous and non-leguminous species.

  13. Combined effect of soil amendment with oil cakes and seed priming in the control of root rot fungi of leguminous and non-leguminous crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Tariq, M.

    2016-01-01

    Organic amendments of soil help in proper aeration, rising of temperature and water holding capacity which results in better uptake of nutrients with root system gets extensive establishment. In this study, effects of soil amendment with oil seed cakes including mustard (Brassica campestris L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), almond (Prunus amygdalus L.) and black seed (Nigella sativa L.) cakes at the rate of 0.1 and 1% w/w and priming of seeds with Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) leaves extracts and microbial antagonists (Trichoderma harzianum and Rhizobium melilotii) was observed on the growth of plants and in the suppression of root infecting fungi. The results obtained showed that combined effect of bio-priming of seeds with T. harzianum spore suspension and amendment of soil with mustard cake at the rate of 1% was found to be most effective for the growth of leguminous and non-leguminous crop plants (peanut, chickpea, okra and sunflower) and for the reduction of root infecting fungi like Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium spp followed by R. meliloti primed seeds in combination with cotton, almond and black seed cakes amendment respectively as compared to control (non treated seeds and soil). (author)

  14. Diversity of rhizobia associated with leguminous trees growing in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun Won; Song, Jaekyeong; Doty, Sharon L; Lee, Don Koo

    2013-03-01

    This study was carried out to examine the diversity of 34 isolates collected from 11 species of leguminous trees growing in South Korea. Phylogenetic relationships between these 34 isolates and reference strains of the Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium and Ensifer/Sinorhizobium were analysed by using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Twenty-one isolates were related to Mesorhizobium, four isolates to Rhizobium, and nine isolates to Bradyrhizobium. But none of isolates were related to Sinorhizobium/Ensifer and Azorhizobium. Robinia pseudoacacia and Amorpha fruticosa were nodulated by various genotypes of rhizobia out of them, most of the isolates belonged to the genus Mesorhizobium. The isolates from Lespedeza bicolar belonged to diverse genera of Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium, and Bradyrhizobium. The isolates from Maackia amurensis and Lespedeza maximowiezii var. tomentella were phylogenetically related to the genera of Bradyrhizobium. PCR-based RAPD method and phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA results revealed a high phylogenetic diversity of rhizobial strains nodulating leguminous trees in South Korea. Also, the relationships between host and bacterial phylogenies showed that only Robinia pseudoacacia, and Wisteria floribunda have significantly unique branch length than expected by chance based on phylogenetic tree. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Medicinal plants of the genus Betula--traditional uses and a phytochemical-pharmacological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Kumar Singh Rawat, Ajay

    2015-01-15

    Trees and shrubs of the genus Betula (Betulaceae) inhabit various ecosystems in temperate and boreal climate zones of the northern hemisphere. The healing properties of Betula bark and bark extracts have been known for a long time in traditional medicine in different parts of the world. Several species of Betula have traditionally been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases including arthritis. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological and toxicological research of Betula species in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. All the available information on various species belonging to the genus Betula was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, Google Scholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Although over a hundred Betula species are found distributed globally, about 7 different species of Betula have been documented for their traditional uses. Phytochemical research on Betula species has led to the isolation of triterpenoids, diarylheptanoids, phenylbutanoids, lignans, phenolics and flavonoids. Crude extracts, fractions and phytochemical constituents isolated from Betula showed a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities like immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, antidiabetic, dermatological, gastroprotective and hepatoprotective. Antiarthritic and anticancer are the two major areas of research conducted on these species. The anti-carcinogenic effects of Betula bark, betulin as well as betulinic acid have been extensively studied. Several species belonging to the genus Betula are widely used in traditional medicine. Betula platyphylla and Betula pendula have specifically been found to be potentially useful in the treatment of

  16. Propiedades antivirales de plantas del género Phyllanthus Antiviral properties of plants of the genus Phyllanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel L Álvarez Rodríguez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El género Phyllanthus (familia Euphorbiaceae agrupa más de 500 especies de plantas, distribuidas entre 11 subgéneros. Las infusiones de estas especies han sido usadas durante miles de años en la medicina folklórica de muchos países para el tratamiento de enfermedades de posible causa viral. Numerosos grupos de investigación se han propuesto encontrar las razones científicas para el uso milenario de estas plantas, y han desentrañado los fundamentos de la actividad de estas infusiones. El presente trabajo recoge la mayor parte de la evidencia científica disponible en la literatura sobre la actividad inhibidora de los extractos de plantas de este género sobre la multiplicación in vivo o in vitro de virus que se trasmiten fundamentalmente por vía sexual, como el virus de la hepatitis B, el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana y los virus del herpes simpleThe genus Phyllanthus (family Euphorbiaceae groups more than 500 species of plants distributed in 11 subgenera. The infusions from these species have been used for thousands of years in folk medicine of many countries to treat diseases of possible viral cause. Several research groups have proposed themselves to find the scientific reasons for the millenary use of these plants, and have got to the bottom of the foundations of the activity of these infusions. This paper presents most of the scientific evidence available in literature on the inhibitory activity of the extracts from plants of this genus on the in vivo or in vitro multiplication of mainly sexually transmitted viruses, as hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and herpes simplex virus

  17. Variety of plant pathogens of ornamental shrubs of the genus Rosa L.

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    Marchenko Alla Borisovna

    2015-12-01

    In the Ukraine’s forest-steppe environment, over the years of research, the most common disease among different representatives of the genus Rosa L. is Diplocarpon rosae FA Wolf, about 52.7%. Diseases caused by Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae Woron account for 28.3%: Coniothyrium wernsdorffiae Laubert―19.2%; Botrytis cinerea Pers.―16.9%; Phragmidium mucronatum (Pers. Schltdl., Phragmidium tuberculatum Müll. Hal., Nectria cinnabarina (Tode Fr.―from 7.2 to 6.7%. Pathogens Alternaria alternata (Fr. Keissl., Alternaria tenuissima (Kunze Wiltshire, Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl., Fusarium solani (Mart. Sacc., Phytophthora cactorum J. Schröt., Verticillium dahliae Kleb., Verticillium albo-atrum Reinke Berthold are less common―5%.

  18. DNA barcoding of Rhododendron (Ericaceae), the largest Chinese plant genus in biodiversity hotspots of the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Jun; Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Li, De-Zhu; Gao, Lian-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains encompass two global biodiversity hotspots with high levels of biodiversity and endemism. This area is one of the diversification centres of the genus Rhododendron, which is recognized as one of the most taxonomically challenging plant taxa due to recent adaptive radiations and rampant hybridization. In this study, four DNA barcodes were evaluated on 531 samples representing 173 species of seven sections of four subgenera in Rhododendron, with a high sampling density from the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains employing three analytical methods. The varied approaches (nj, pwg and blast) had different species identification powers with blast performing best. With the pwg analysis, the discrimination rates for single barcodes varied from 12.21% to 25.19% with ITS Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Phytoprotective effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species against arsenic toxicity in tropical leguminous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Rangel Wesley; Schneider, Jerusa; de Souza, Costa Enio Tarso; Sousa, Soares Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca; Guimarães, Guilherme Luiz Roberto; de Souza, Moreira Fatima Maria

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) improve the tolerance of hosting plants to arsenic (As) in contaminated soils. This work assessed the phytoprotective effect of Glomus etunicatum, Acaulospora morrowiae, Gigaspora gigantea, and Acaulospora sp. on four leguminous species (Acacia mangium, Crotalaria juncea, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, and Stizolobium aterrimum) in an As-contaminated soil from a gold mining area. AMF root colonization, biomass production, As and P accumulation, as well as arsenic translocation index (TI) from roots to shoots were measured. The AMF phytoprotective effect was assessed by the P/As ratio and the activity of plant antioxidant enzymes. The AMF colonization ranged from 24 to 28%. In general, all leguminous species had low As TI when inoculated with AMF species. Inoculation of C. juncea with Acaulospora sp. improved significantly As accumulation in roots, and decreased the activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), highlighting its phytoprotective effect and the potential use of this symbiosis for phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. However, S. aterrimum has also shown a potential for phytoremediation irrespectively of AMF inoculation. APX was a good indicator of the phytoprotective effect against As contamination in C. juncea and A. mangium. In general P/As ratio in shoots was the best indicator of the phytoprotective effect of all AMF species in all plant species.

  20. Ecofunctional Traits and Biomass Production in Leguminous Tree Species under Fertilization Treatments during Forest Restoration in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto K. Jaquetti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the correct species and fertilization treatments is a determining factor in the success of forest restoration. Methods: A field study was conducted in a degraded area near the Balbina hydroelectric dam in Amazonas State (AM, Brazil, to evaluate two hypotheses: (i leguminous tree species exhibit differences in growth, leaf nutrient content, and photosynthetic nutrient use efficiencies; and (ii differences in these characteristics depend on the fertilization treatments to which the species have been subjected. Dipteryx odorata, Inga edulis and Schizolobium amazonicum were subjected to the following treatments: (T1 unfertilized control; (T2 post-planting chemical fertilization; (T3 post-planting organic fertilization and (T4 combined chemical and organic post-planting fertilization. Results: In general, I. edulis had the highest absolute growth rate of biomass under all of the fertilization treatments. I. edulis and S. amazonicum showed the highest growth rates under the T4 treatment. D. odorata showed the greatest responses under the T2 and T4 treatments. Native leguminous trees with higher photosynthetic performance and better nutrient use efficiency exhibited greater growth and biomass production. Conclusion: The results suggest that an adequate balance between leguminous species selection and fertilization will aid in the success of forest restoration in Amazonia.

  1. Molecular phylogenetics and the evolution of host plant associations in the nematode genus Fergusobia (Tylenchida: Fergusobiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusobia nematodes (Tylenchida: Fergusobiinae) and Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) are mutualists that develop together in galls formed in meristematic tissues of many species of the plant family Myrtaceae in Australasia. Evolutionary relationships of Fergusobia species were inferred f...

  2. Infrared spectroscopy of pollen identifies plant species and genus as well as environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is imperative to have reliable and timely methodologies for analysis and monitoring of seed plants in order to determine climate-related plant processes. Moreover, impact of environment on plant fitness is predominantly based on studies of female functions, while the contribution of male gametophytes is mostly ignored due to missing data on pollen quality. We explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of plants. METHODOLOGY: The study was based on measurement of pollen samples by two Fourier transform infrared techniques: single reflectance attenuated total reflectance and transmission measurement of sample pellets. The experimental set, with a total of 813 samples, included five pollination seasons and 300 different plant species belonging to all principal spermatophyte clades (conifers, monocotyledons, eudicots, and magnoliids. RESULTS: The spectroscopic-based methodology enables detection of phylogenetic variations, including the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. Furthermore, the methodology enables measurement of phenotypic plasticity by the detection of inter-annual variations within the populations. The spectral differences related to environment and taxonomy are interpreted biochemically, specifically variations of pollen lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sporopollenins. The study shows large variations of absolute content of nutrients for congenital species pollinating in the same environmental conditions. Moreover, clear correlation between carbohydrate-to-protein ratio and pollination strategy has been detected. Infrared spectral database with respect to biochemical variation among the range of species, climate and biogeography will significantly improve comprehension of plant-environment interactions, including impact of global climate change on plant communities.

  3. Microbial community biogeographic patterns in the rhizosphere of two Brazilian semi-arid leguminous trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lançoni, Milena Duarte; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2013-07-01

    Arid environments are regular and well distributed over all continents and display drought characteristics whether full-time or seasonal. This study aims to characterize how the microbial communities of the rhizosphere of two leguminous trees from the Brazilian semi-arid biome the Caatinga are geographically and seasonally shaped, as well as the factors driving this variation. With that purpose, the soil rhizosphere from two leguminous trees (Mimosa tenuiflora and Piptadenia stipulacea (Benth.) Ducke) were sampled in two different seasons: rainy and drought at five different sites. Assessment of bacterial and archaeal communities occurred by T-RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA and archaeal amoA genes. By these means, it was observed that the seasons (wet and dry periods) are the factors that most influence the composition of the microbial community from both analyzed plants, except for the results obtained from the CCA applied to Archaeas. Furthermore, soil physical-chemical factors also had a significant influence on the community and indicated a geographical pattern of the bacterial community. It was not possible to observe significant modifications in the composition in relation to the plant species. We have seen that soil characteristics and rainfall were the factors that most influenced the microbial composition. Also, the bacterial community had a significant correlation with soil characteristics that indicates that these rhizosphere communities might be selected by environmental characteristics. Furthermore, the data suggest that climate plays a key role in structuring the microbial community of this biome.

  4. Isoflavonoids in non-leguminous taxa: a rarity or a rule?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapcík, Oldrich

    2007-01-01

    Isoflavonoids are characteristic metabolites in legumes and an overwhelming number of reports concerning them come from the Leguminosae. Nevertheless, the spectrum of isoflavonoid producing taxa includes the representatives of four classes of multicellular plants, namely the Bryopsida, the Pinopsida, the Magnoliopsida and the Liliopsida. At least 59 non-leguminous families have been reported to produce isoflavones sensu lato; coumestans have been reported in 3 families, coumaronochromones in 3, pterocarpans in 9 and rotenoids in 8 families. Prenylated isoflavones have been found in 15 non-leguminous families and isoflavone dimers, heterodimers or oligomers in three families. More than two hundred different isoflavonoid aglycones have been reported in non-legumes altogether. The number of individual structures is even greater if the variety of glycosides are considered. Enzymology and genetics of isoflavonoid biosynthesis have been studied almost exclusively in legumes, with the exception of a few model plants (i.e. Beta vulgaris, Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana tabacum and Zea mays). The key step at the very beginning of the isoflavonoid metabolic pathway is the oxidation of flavanone connected with the migration of aryl moiety from C2 to C3 mediated by a CYP450 enzyme isoflavone synthase (IFS), which has been identified and cloned in multiple legumes and in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, Chenopodiaceae). No information is available about the enzyme(s) responsible for the biosynthesis of isoflavonoid core in other taxa. Experimental data demonstrates the capability of numerous enzymes of non-legume origin to metabolize isoflavones as alternative substrates to other phenolics.

  5. Does nitrogen affect the interaction between a native hemiparasite and its native or introduced leguminous hosts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirocco, Robert M; Facelli, José M; Watling, Jennifer R

    2017-01-01

    Associations between plants and nitrogen (N)-fixing rhizobia intensify with decreasing N supply and come at a carbon cost to the host. However, what additional impact parasitic plants have on their leguminous hosts' carbon budget in terms of effects on host physiology and growth is unknown. Under glasshouse conditions, Ulex europaeus and Acacia paradoxa either uninfected or infected with the hemiparasite Cassytha pubescens were supplied (high nitrogen (HN)) or not (low nitrogen (LN)) with extra N. The photosynthetic performance and growth of the association were measured. Cassytha pubescens significantly reduced the maximum electron transport rates and total biomass of U. europaeus but not those of A. paradoxa, regardless of N. Infection significantly decreased the root biomass of A. paradoxa only at LN, while the significant negative effect of infection on roots of U. europaeus was less severe at LN. Infection had a significant negative impact on host nodule biomass. Ulex europaeus supported significantly greater parasite biomass (also per unit host biomass) than A. paradoxa, regardless of N. We concluded that rhizobia do not influence the effect of a native parasite on overall growth of leguminous hosts. Our results suggest that C. pubescens will have a strong impact on U. europaeus but not A. paradoxa, regardless of N in the field. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. The Alternaria genomes database: a comprehensive resource for a fungal genus comprised of saprophytes, plant pathogens, and allergenic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ha X; Pryor, Barry; Peever, Tobin; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2015-03-25

    Alternaria is considered one of the most common saprophytic fungal genera on the planet. It is comprised of many species that exhibit a necrotrophic phytopathogenic lifestyle. Several species are clinically associated with allergic respiratory disorders although rarely found to cause invasive infections in humans. Finally, Alternaria spp. are among the most well known producers of diverse fungal secondary metabolites, especially toxins. We have recently sequenced and annotated the genomes of 25 Alternaria spp. including but not limited to many necrotrophic plant pathogens such as A. brassicicola (a pathogen of Brassicaceous crops like cabbage and canola) and A. solani (a major pathogen of Solanaceous plants like potato and tomato), and several saprophytes that cause allergy in human such as A. alternata isolates. These genomes were annotated and compared. Multiple genetic differences were found in the context of plant and human pathogenicity, notably the pro-inflammatory potential of A. alternata. The Alternaria genomes database was built to provide a public platform to access the whole genome sequences, genome annotations, and comparative genomics data of these species. Genome annotation and comparison were performed using a pipeline that integrated multiple computational and comparative genomics tools. Alternaria genome sequences together with their annotation and comparison data were ported to Ensembl database schemas using a self-developed tool (EnsImport). Collectively, data are currently hosted using a customized installation of the Ensembl genome browser platform. Recent efforts in fungal genome sequencing have facilitated the studies of the molecular basis of fungal pathogenicity as a whole system. The Alternaria genomes database provides a comprehensive resource of genomics and comparative data of an important saprophytic and plant/human pathogenic fungal genus. The database will be updated regularly with new genomes when they become available. The

  7. Effects of plant antimicrobial phenolic compounds on virulence of the genus Pectobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Janak Raj; Burdman, Saul; Lipsky, Alexander; Yedidia, Iris

    2015-01-01

    Pectobacterium spp. are among the most devastating necrotrophs, attacking more than 50% of angiosperm plant orders. Their virulence strategy is based mainly on the secretion of exoenzymes that degrade the cell walls of their hosts, providing nutrients to the bacteria, but conversely, exposing the bacteria to plant defense compounds. In the present study, we screened plant-derived antimicrobial compounds, mainly phenolic acids and polyphenols, for their ability to affect virulence determinants including motility, biofilm formation and extracellular enzyme activities of different Pectobacteria: Pectobacterium carotovorum, P. brasiliensis, P. atrosepticum and P. aroidearum. In addition, virulence assays were performed on three different plant hosts following exposure of the bacteria to selected phenolic compounds. These experiments showed that cinnamic, coumaric, syringic and salicylic acids and catechol can considerably reduce disease severity, ranging from 20 to 100%. The reduced disease severity was not only the result of reduced bacterial growth, but also of a direct effect of the compounds on important bacterial virulence determinants, including pectolytic and proteolytic exoenzyme activities, that were reduced by 50-100%. This is the first report revealing a direct effect of phenolic compounds on virulence factors in a wide range of Pectobacterium strains. Copyright © 2015 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Phytostabilization of arsenic in soils with plants of the genus Atriplex established in situ in the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Yasna Tapia; Diaz, O; Acuña, E; Casanova, M; Salazar, O; Masaguer, A

    2016-04-01

    In the ChiuChiu village (Atacama Desert, Chile), there is a high concentration of arsenic (As) in the soil due to natural causes related to the presence of volcanoes and geothermal activity. To compare the levels of As and the growth parameters among plants of the same genus, three species of plants were established in situ: Atriplex atacamensis (native of Chile), Atriplex halimus, and Atriplex nummularia. These soils have an As concentration of 131.2 ± 10.4 mg kg(-1), a pH of 8.6 ± 0.1, and an electrical conductivity of 7.06 ± 2.37 dS m(-1). Cuttings of Atriplex were transplanted and maintained for 5 months with periodic irrigation and without the addition of fertilizers. The sequential extraction of As indicated that the metalloid in these soils has a high bioavailability (38 %), which is attributed to the alkaline pH, low organic matter and Fe oxide content, and sandy texture. At day 90 of the assay, the As concentrations in the leaves of A. halimus (4.53 ± 1.14 mg kg(-1)) and A. nummularia (3.85 ± 0.64 mg kg(-1)) were significantly higher than that in A. atacamensis (2.46 ± 1.82 mg kg(-1)). However, the three species accumulated higher levels of As in their roots, indicating a phytostabilization capacity. At the end of the assay, A. halimus and A. nummularia generated 30 % more biomass than A. atacamensis without significant differences in the As levels in the leaves. Despite the difficult conditions in these soils, the establishment of plants of the genus Atriplex is a recommended strategy to generate a vegetative cover that prevents the metalloid from spreading in this arid area through the soil or by wind.

  9. Chemotaxonomy of aromatic plants of the genus Origanum via vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, M; Schulz, H; Krüger, H; Quilitzsch, R

    2005-03-01

    Fourier transformed-Raman (FT-Raman) and attenuated total reflection-infrared (ATR-IR) spectra of essential oils obtained from marjoram and oregano plants by hydrodistillation are presented. It is shown that the main components of the essential oils can be ascertained through both of these complementary techniques, using spectral information from the pure terpenoids. Spectroscopic analysis is based on the characteristic key bands of the individual volatile substances and therefore, in principle, these techniques allow us to discriminate between different essential oil profiles from individual oil plants of the same species (chemotypes). The combination of vibrational spectroscopy and hierarchical cluster analysis provides a fast, easy and reliable method for chemotaxonomy characterisation. The spectroscopic data presented here correlate very well with those found by gas chromatography (GC) analysis.

  10. 6 Rotation of Maize with some Leguminous Food

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Of the various management practices, which can increase the productivity of crops, fertilizer application normally gives the highest returns (Chowdhury & Chetty, 1979). For maize production, NARP/CSIR (1998). Rotation of Maize with some Leguminous Food Crops for. Sustainable Production on the Vertisols of the Accra ...

  11. Antifungal potential of leaf extracts of leguminous trees against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii ...

  12. Bacterial diversity and composition in the fluid of pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Chaffron, Samuel; Salcher, Michaela M; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2015-07-01

    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  13. Rhizobia symbiosis of seven leguminous species growing along Xindian riverbank of Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tai Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume-rhizobia symbioses of seven leguminous species growing along Xindian riverbank of Northern Taiwan were investigated in this study. These legumes form either determinate or indeterminate types of root nodules. The determinate nodules of Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmodium. triflorum, D. heterophyllum, Sesbania cannabina and the indeterminate nodules of Mimosa pudica harbored bacteroids of morphological uniformity (length of 1-3 μm, while the indeterminate nodules of Crotalaria zanzibarica and Trifolium repens contained bacteroids of highly pleomorphism (size varying from 1 to 5 μm. The enclosed bacteria were isolated from respective nodules, and twenty slow-growing and nine fast-growing rhizobial isolates were recovered. The slow-growing isolates were classified to the genus Bradyrhizobium based on the 16S rRNA sequences, whereas the fast-growing rhizobia comprise four genera, Neorhizobium, Rhizobium, Cupriavidus and Paraburkholderia. Results of stable isotope analyses revealed that the seven leguminous species had similar and consistently negative δ15N values in leaves (mean of -1.2 ‰, whereas the values were positive (varying from 3.7 to 7.3 ‰ in the nodules. These values were significantly higher in the indeterminate nodules than those in the determinate ones. In addition, variations in the values of leaf δ13C (varying from -29 to -34‰ among the seven legumes were measured, indicating their photosynthetic water use efficiencies were different. This is the first field survey to report the rhizobial diversity and the nutrient relationships of sympatric legume in Taiwan.

  14. Effect of leguminous lectins on the growth of Rhizobium tropici CIAT899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, Mayron Alves; Cunha, Cláudio Oliveira; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Bastos, Rafaela Mesquita; Mercante, Fábio Martins; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; dos Santos, Ricardo Pires; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2013-05-17

    Rhizobium tropici is a Gram-negative bacterium that induces nodules and fixed atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) and some other leguminous species. Lectins are proteins that specifically bind to carbohydrates and, consequently, modulate different biological functions. In this study, the d-glucose/ d-mannose-binding lectins (from seeds of Dioclea megacarpa, D. rostrata and D. violacea) and D-galactose-binding lectins (from seeds of Bauhinia variegata, Erythina velutina and Vatairea macrocarpa) were purified using chromatographic techniques and evaluated for their effect on the growth of R. tropici CIAT899. All lectins were assayed with a satisfactory degree of purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis, and stimulated bacterial growth; in particular, the Dioclea rostrata lectin was the most active among all tested proteins. As confirmed in the present study, both d-galactose- and d-glucose/d-mannose-binding lectins purified from the seeds of leguminous plants may be powerful biotechnological tools to stimulate the growth of R. tropici CIAT99, thus improving symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and common bean and, hence, the production of this field crop.

  15. Hijacking of leguminous nodulation signaling by the rhizobial type III secretion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shin; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei; Saeki, Kazuhiko

    2013-10-15

    Root-nodule symbiosis between leguminous plants and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) involves molecular communication between the two partners. Key components for the establishment of symbiosis are rhizobium-derived lipochitooligosaccharides (Nod factors; NFs) and their leguminous receptors (NFRs) that initiate nodule development and bacterial entry. Here we demonstrate that the soybean microsymbiont Bradyrhizobium elkanii uses the type III secretion system (T3SS), which is known for its delivery of virulence factors by pathogenic bacteria, to promote symbiosis. Intriguingly, wild-type B. elkanii, but not the T3SS-deficient mutant, was able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean nfr mutant En1282. Furthermore, even the NF-deficient B. elkanii mutant induced nodules unless T3SS genes were mutated. Transcriptional analysis revealed that expression of the soybean nodulation-specific genes ENOD40 and NIN was increased in the roots of En1282 inoculated with B. elkanii but not with its T3SS mutant, suggesting that T3SS activates host nodulation signaling by bypassing NF recognition. Root-hair curling and infection threads were not observed in the roots of En1282 inoculated with B. elkanii, indicating that T3SS is involved in crack entry or intercellular infection. These findings suggest that B. elkanii has adopted a pathogenic system for activating host symbiosis signaling to promote its infection.

  16. Effect of Leguminous Lectins on the Growth of Rhizobium tropici CIAT899

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayron Alves de Vasconcelos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobium tropici is a Gram-negative bacterium that induces nodules and fixed atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean and some other leguminous species. Lectins are proteins that specifically bind to carbohydrates and, consequently, modulate different biological functions. In this study, the d-glucose/ d-mannose-binding lectins (from seeds of Dioclea megacarpa, D. rostrata and D. violacea and D-galactose-binding lectins (from seeds of Bauhinia variegata, Erythina velutina and Vatairea macrocarpa were purified using chromatographic techniques and evaluated for their effect on the growth of R. tropici CIAT899. All lectins were assayed with a satisfactory degree of purity according to SDS-PAGE analysis, and stimulated bacterial growth; in particular, the Dioclea rostrata lectin was the most active among all tested proteins. As confirmed in the present study, both d-galactose- and d-glucose/d-mannose-binding lectins purified from the seeds of leguminous plants may be powerful biotechnological tools to stimulate the growth of R. tropici CIAT99, thus improving symbiotic interaction between rhizobia and common bean and, hence, the production of this field crop.

  17. Biogenesis of protein bodies during legumin accumulation in developing olive (Olea europaea L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Zienkiewicz, Agnieszka; Zienkiewicz, Krzysztof; Alché, Juan D; Rodríguez-García, Maria I

    2016-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about seed development and differentiation regarding reserves synthesis and accumulation come from monocot (cereals) plants. Studies in dicotyledonous seeds differentiation are limited to a few species and in oleaginous species are even scarcer despite their agronomic and economic importance. We examined the changes accompanying the differentiation of olive endosperm and cotyledon with a focus on protein bodies (PBs) biogenesis during legumin protein synthesis and accumulation, with the aim of getting insights and a better understanding of the PBs' formation process. Cotyledon and endosperm undergo differentiation during seed development, where an asynchronous time-course of protein synthesis, accumulation, and differential PB formation patterns was found in both tissues. At the end of seed maturation, a broad population of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, was distinguishable in terms of number per cell and morphometric and cytochemical features. Olive seed development is a tissue-dependent process characterized by differential rates of legumin accumulation and PB formation in the main tissues integrating seed. One of the main features of the impressive differentiation process is the specific formation of a broad group of PBs, particularly in cotyledon cells, which might depend on selective accumulation and packaging of proteins and specific polypeptides into PBs. The nature and availability of the major components detected in the PBs of olive seed are key parameters in order to consider the potential use of this material as a suitable source of carbon and nitrogen for animal or even human use.

  18. Alternative cultivation systems for energy crops. Exploitation of phosphor and nitrogen in the cultivation of mixed fruits with leguminous plants under the conditions of drought stress; Alternative Anbausysteme fuer Energiepflanzen. Phosphor- und Stickstoffausnutzung im Mischfruchtanbau mit Leguminosen unter Trockenstressbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Stefanie; Eichler-Loebermann, Bettina [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Professur Pflanzenbau

    2013-10-01

    Alternative cropping systems with an efficient utilization of resources are particularly interesting for energy cropping. The P- and N- uptake of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) of maize and sorghum (here called ''energy crops'') intercropped with legumes (substitutive, 50:50) under drought conditions were investigated in a eight week pot experiment. Yield, P- and N- uptake of all species and mixtures were significantly lower under drought conditions than when well watered. The yield and the P-uptake of the mixtures was lower than of the sole cropped energy crops when well watered, but comparable under water deficit with exception of the sorghum mixtures, which reached a lower yield than sole sorghum. Despite the lower N-fertilization the N-uptake of the mixtures was comparable to the sole cropped maize or sorghum when well watered, but under drought N uptake of the mixtures was decreased in comparison to sole cropping. Under drought conditions the N-uptake of maize and sorghum plants in mixtures was not decreased, while the N-uptake of the legumes decreased in comparison to the well watered treatment. This may be an evidence for the benefit of the non-legumes in the investigated intercropping system under drought conditions. (orig.)

  19. Functional characterization of a class III acid endochitinase from the traps of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus, Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottloff, Sandy; Stieber, Regina; Maischak, Heiko; Turini, Florian G; Heubl, Günther; Mithöfer, Axel

    2011-08-01

    Carnivory in plants is an adaptation strategy to nutrient-poor environments and soils. Carnivorous plants obtain some additional mineral nutrients by trapping and digesting prey; the genus Nepenthes is helped by its specialized pitcher traps. To make the nutrients available, the caught prey needs to be digested, a process that requires the concerted activity of several hydrolytic enzymes. To identify and investigate the various enzymes involved in this process, fluid from Nepenthes traps has been analysed in detail. In this study, a novel type of Nepenthes endochitinase was identified in the digestion fluid of closed pitchers. The encoding endochitinase genes have been cloned from eight different Nepenthes species. Among these, the deduced amino acid sequence similarity was at least 94.9%. The corresponding cDNA from N. rafflesiana was heterologously expressed, and the purified protein, NrChit1, was biochemically characterized. The enzyme, classified as a class III acid endochitinase belonging to family 18 of the glycoside hydrolases, is secreted into the pitcher fluid very probably due to the presence of an N-terminal signal peptide. Transcriptome analyses using real-time PCR indicated that the presence of prey in the pitcher up-regulates the endochitinase gene not only in the glands, which are responsible for enzyme secretion, but at an even higher level, in the glands' surrounding tissue. These results suggest that in the pitchers' tissues, the endochitinase as well as other proteins from the pitcher fluid might fulfil a different, primary function as pathogenesis-related proteins. © 2011 The Author(s).

  20. The genus Bipolaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manamgoda, D S; Rossman, A Y; Castlebury, L A; Crous, P W; Madrid, H; Chukeatirote, E; Hyde, K D

    2014-09-01

    The genus Bipolaris includes important plant pathogens with worldwide distribution. Species recognition in the genus has been uncertain due to the lack of molecular data from ex-type cultures as well as overlapping morphological characteristics. In this study, we revise the genus Bipolaris based on DNA sequence data derived from living cultures of fresh isolates, available ex-type cultures from worldwide collections and observation of type and additional specimens. Combined analyses of ITS, GPDH and TEF gene sequences were used to reconstruct the molecular phylogeny of the genus Bipolaris for species with living cultures. The GPDH gene is determined to be the best single marker for species of Bipolaris. Generic boundaries between Bipolaris and Curvularia are revised and presented in an updated combined ITS and GPDH phylogenetic tree. We accept 47 species in the genus Bipolaris and clarify the taxonomy, host associations, geographic distributions and species' synonymies. Modern descriptions and illustrations are provided for 38 species in the genus with notes provided for the other taxa when recent descriptions are available. Bipolaris cynodontis, B. oryzae, B. victoriae, B. yamadae and B. zeicola are epi- or neotypified and a lectotype is designated for B. stenospila. Excluded and doubtful species are listed with notes on taxonomy and phylogeny. Seven new combinations are introduced in the genus Curvularia to accomodate the species of Bipolaris transferred based on the phylogenetic analysis. A taxonomic key is provided for the morphological identification of species within the genus.

  1. Analysis of genetic variability in endemic medicinal plants of genus Chlorophytum from the Indian subcontinent using amplified fragment length polymorphism marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Swapnil Mahadeo; Chandanshive, Vishal Vinayak; Tamboli, Asif Shabodin; Adsul, Avinash Asraji; Yadav, Shrirang Ramchandra; Govindwar, Sanjay Prabhu

    2015-12-01

    The genus Chlorophytum consists of medicinally important species like Chlorophytum borivilianum, C. tuberosum and C. attenuatum. Uncontrolled harvest of this plant from wild habitat due to its high commercial value made the species of this genus be listed in the Red Data Book of Indian plants as an endangered species. In India, approximately nineteen species of Chlorophytum are found; out of these, only C. borivilianum is cultivated commercially. The objective of this study was to measure genetic diversity, population structure and phylogenetic relationship among the species using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP). Fifteen pairs of primer (out of 64 primer pairs screened) were used to analyse the genetic diversity in eighteen species of genus Chlorophytum. Cluster analysis, estimation of the gene flow among the species and of the phylogeographic distribution of this genus were carried out using an AFLP data matrix. A high level of genetic diversity was observed on the basis of the percentage of polymorphic bands (99.91%), Shannon's information index (0.3592) and Nei's gene diversity (0.2085) at species level. Cluster analysis of UPGMA dendrogram, principal component analysis and Bayesian method analysis resolved these species in three different clusters, which was supported by morphological information. The Mantel test (r=0.4432) revealed a significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances. The collected data have an important implication in the identification, authentication, and conservation of the species of the genus Chlorophytum. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. New Ravenelia species on leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    REZENDE, DENISE V.; DIANESE, JOSÉ C.

    2001-01-01

    Four new Ravenelia species were described on native leguminous hosts from the Brazilian Cerrado, as follows: Ravenelia cerradensis sp. nov., R. chapadensis sp. nov., R. mineirosensis sp. nov. and R. emaensis sp. nov. on Chamaecrista clausenii var. cyclophylla, Chamaecriista conferta var. virgata, Anadenanthera colubrina var. colubrina, and on Anadenanthera sp., respectively. Quatro espécies novas de Ravenelia foram descritas em leguminosas do Cerrado brasileiro, a saber: Ravenelia cerraden...

  3. An updated list of the plants associated with plant-parasitic Aphelenchoides (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) and its implications for plant-parasitism within this genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monge, Alcides; Flores, Lorena; Salazar, Luis; Hockland, Sue; Bert, Wim

    2015-09-08

    Few Aphelenchoides spp. are facultative plant-parasites (foliar and bulb nematodes); three of them are well known in agricultural systems, namely Aphelenchoides besseyi, A. fragariae and A. ritzemabosi. Ten other plant-parasitic species, A. arachidis, A. bicaudatus, A. blastophthorus, A. dalianensis, A. ensete, A. nechaleos, A. paranechaleos, A. saprophilus, A. sphaerocephalus and A. subtenuis, have been reported from a limited number of plant species. We compiled a new database of the associated plants for these thirteen species, a comprehensive list that includes 1104 reports from 126 botanical families. A. besseyi, A. fragariae and A. ritzemabosi represent 94% of the reports, circa 83% and 16% of the total reports correspond to flowering plants and ferns, respectively, with three records on conifers and two from other botanical groups also listed. Most plant-parasitic Aphelenchoides show a remarkably broad diversity of associated plants. Most species appear to have no specific plant hosts (i.e. are generalists). The broad host ranges of these species and absence of more intimate interactions with the associated plants highlights the primitive mode of parasitism in Aphelenchoides species, making them potentially interesting in the study of the evolution of plant parasitism. Even though the compiled list of associated plants is long, it probably only represents a fraction of the potential range. The complete compilation has been uploaded to http://nematodes.myspecies.info/.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase and Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities of β-Carboline and Quinoline Alkaloids Derivatives from the Plants of Genus Peganum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was reported that the main chemical constituents in plants of genus Peganum were a serial of β-carboline and quinoline alkaloids. These alkaloids were quantitatively assessed for selective inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE by in vitro Ellman method. The results indicated that harmane was the most potent selective AChE inhibitor with an IC50 of 7.11 ± 2.00 μM and AChE selectivity index (SI, IC50 of BChE/IC50 of AChE of 10.82. Vasicine was the most potent BChE inhibitor with feature of dual AChE/BChE inhibitory activity, with an IC50 versus AChE/BChE of 13.68 ± 1.25/2.60 ± 1.47 μM and AChE SI of 0.19. By analyzing and comparing the IC50 and SI of those chemicals, it was indicated that the β-carboline alkaloids displayed more potent AChE inhibition but less BChE inhibition than quinoline alkaloids. The substituent at the C7 position of the β-carboline alkaloids and C3 and C9 positions of quinoline alkaloids played a critical role in AChE or BChE inhibition. The potent inhibition suggested that those alkaloids may be used as candidates for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. The analysis of the quantitative structure-activity relationship of those compounds investigated might provide guidance for the design and synthesis of AChE and BChE inhibitors.

  5. An In Vitro Attempt for Controlling Severe Phytopathogens and Human Pathogens Using Essential Oils from Mediterranean Plants of Genus Schinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Hazem Salaheldin; Ghanney, Nadia; Mang, Stefania Mirela; Ferchichi, Ali; Camele, Ippolito

    2016-03-01

    Growing concerns about food safety and environmental protection enhanced the need for new and safe plant disease control strategies. The chemical composition of the three essential oils (EOs) extracted from leaves and fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius and leaves of Schinus molle, growing in Tunisia, was studied by GC and GC-MS. In all, 12 compounds were identified. The oils were mainly composed of terpene compounds. α-Pinene, α-phellandrene, and D-limonene were the major constituents. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial effectiveness of three EOs derived from plants of genus Schinus and extracted from leaves and fruits of S. terebinthifolius and leaves of S. molle. Both antifungal and antibacterial activities of the EOs were examined. The antifungal activity of the studied EOs was investigated against Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea in comparison with the systemic fungicide azoxystrobin used at 0.8 μL mL(-1). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against three strains of Gram-positive (G+ve) bacteria (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus mojavensis and Clavibacter michiganensis) and four strains of Gram-negative (G-ve) bacteria (Escherichia coli, Xanthomonas campestris, Pseudomonas savastanoi, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola) compared with the synthetic antibiotic tetracycline at a concentration of 1600 μg mL(-1). The minimum inhibitory concentration of the studied EOs has been evaluated against the above microorganisms using the 96-well microplate method. Tested microorganisms exhibited different levels of sensitivity to each tested EO. All investigated EOs reduced the fungal mycelial growth when used at low concentrations from 250 to 1000 ppm and from 2000 to 8000 ppm against C. acutatum and B. cinerea, respectively. Higher concentrations of the same EOs exhibited a fungicidal effect against both mitosporic fungi. The EO extracted from leaves of S. terebinthifolius significantly inhibited the growth

  6. Larvicidal activity of leguminous seeds and grains against Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Young-Su; Baek, Bong-Rae; Yang, Young-Cheol; Kim, Moo-Key; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2002-09-01

    Larvicidal activity of methanol extracts of 26 leguminous seeds and 20 grains against early 4th-stage larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens pallens was examined. At 200 ppm of the extracts from Cassia obtusifolia, Cassia tora, and Vicia tetrasperma, more than 90% mortality was obtained in larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens. Extract of C. tora gave 86.7 and 100% mortality in the larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 40 ppm but 59.2 and 78.3% mortality against larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens at 20 ppm, respectively. At 40 ppm, extract of C. obtusifolia caused 51.4 and 68.5% mortality of the 4th-stage larvae of Ae. aegypti and Cx. pipiens pallens, respectively. Larvicidal activity of extract of C obtusifolia was significantly reduced when used at 20 ppm. Further studies of these plants as possible agents for mosquito control are warranted.

  7. Estoque de serapilheira e fertilidade do solo em pastagem degradada de Brachiaria decumbens após implantação de leguminosas arbustivas e arbóreas forrageiras Soil litter stock and fertility after planting leguminous shrubs and forage trees on degraded signal grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Barbosa Silva

    2013-04-01

    secondary effects on soil fertility, such as acidification or nutrient movement from deeper to the surface soil layers. This study evaluated the soil litter stock and fertility of degraded Brachiaria decumbens pastures after planting leguminous shrubs and forage trees. For this purpose, we sampled (March 2010 degraded Brachiaria decumbens pasture planted in July 2008 in an intercropping experiment with sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala, mororó (Bauhinia cheilantha and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium, as well as N-fertilized and unfertilized brachiaria. Soil and litter was sampled (layers 0-10, 10-20 and 20-40 cm in three transects, at alternating points covered by grasses and by legumes, totaling seven composite samples per plot to determine soil pH, P, K , Ca, Mg, and Al and calculate sum of bases, effective cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. Litter was visually separated in legumes, grasses and unidentified material to quantify dry matter, organic matter, N, P, C, acid-detergent fiber, and lignin. The use of legumes increased the levels of total N in litter and reduced the C: N ratios, especially of gliricidia and sabiá, although the lignin levels in the latter were high. There was a significant effect of legume soil cover, with no differences between them, on pH and K (layer 0-10 cm and on pH, K and Al (layer 10-20 cm.

  8. Development of rapid and highly sensitive detection of Bean common mosaic necrosis virus in leguminous crops using loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siwon; Kim, Heejung; Lee, Jin-Young; Rho, Jae-Young

    2017-11-01

    Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) is a plant pathogenic virus that can infect leguminous crops such as kidney beans, sunn hemp, red beans, and mung beans. BCMNV has not been reported in Korea and is classified as a quarantine plant virus. Currently, the standard diagnostic method for diagnosis of BCMNV is reverse transcription (RT)-nested PCR system. However a more rapid monitoring system is needed to enable the testing of more samples. The use of highly efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for its detection has not yet been reported, and development of LAMP for detecting BCMNV in this study. In addition, confirmation of LAMP amplification can be achieved using restriction enzyme Mse I (T/TAA). The developed technique could be used for more rapid, specific and sensitive monitoring of BCMNV in leguminous crops than conventional nested RT-PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic evidence from mitochondrial, nuclear, and endosymbiont markers for the evolution of host plant associated species in the aphid genus Hyalopterus (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, Jeffrey D; Roderick, George K; Mills, Nicholas J

    2007-06-01

    Over the past several decades biologists' fascination with plant-herbivore interactions has generated intensive research into the implications of these interactions for insect diversification. The study of closely related phytophagous insect species or populations from an evolutionary perspective can help illuminate ecological and selective forces that drive these interactions. Here we present such an analysis for aphids in the genus Hyalopterus (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a cosmopolitan group that feeds on plants in the genus Prunus (Rosaceae). Hyalopterus currently contains two recognized species associated with different Prunus species, although the taxonomy and evolutionary history of the group is poorly understood. Using mitochondrial COI sequences, 16S rDNA sequences from the aphid endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola, and nine microsatellite loci we investigated population structure in Hyalopterus from the most commonly used Prunus host species throughout the Mediterranean as well as in California, where the species H. pruni is an invasive pest. We found three deeply divergent lineages structured in large part by specific associations with plum, almond, and peach trees. There was no evidence that geographic or temporal barriers could explain the overall diversity in the genus. Levels of genetic differentiation are consistent with that typically attributed to aphid species and indicate divergence times older than the domestication of Prunus for agriculture. Interestingly, in addition to their typical hosts, aphids from each of the three lineages were frequently found on apricot trees. Apricot also appears to act as a resource mediated hybrid zone for plum and almond associated lineages. Together, results suggest that host plants have played a role in maintaining host-associated differentiation in Hyalopterus for as long as several million years, despite worldwide movement of host plants and the potential for ongoing hybridization.

  10. [Definition of saponins in new sorts of pea and haricot flour their influence on foaming property of leguminous cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemova, E N; Sychev, S N; Tsareva, N I

    2008-01-01

    Foam-forming properties of the leguminous cultures are directly associated with their chemical composition and first of all with the present of proteins and saponins. Basic results and parametrs of chromatographic analysis of the leguminous cultures are provided.

  11. Phylogeny and host-plant relationships of the Australian Myrtaceae leafmining moth genus Pectinivalva (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae), with new subgenera and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Robert J.B.; van Nieukerken, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The phylogeny of the mainly Australian nepticulid genus Pectinivalva Scoble, 1983 is investigated on the basis of morphology, and a division into three monophyletic subgenera is proposed on the basis of these results. These subgenera (Pectinivalva, Casanovula Hoare, subgen. n. and Menurella Hoare, subgen. n. ) are described and diagnosed, the described species of Pectinivalva are assigned to them, and representative new species are described in each: Pectinivalva (Pectinivalva) mystaconota Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Casanovula) brevipalpa Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Casanovula) minotaurus Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Menurella) scotodes Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Menurella) acmenae Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Menurella) xenadelpha Van Nieukerken & Hoare, sp. n., Pectinivalva (Menurella) quintiniae Hoare & Van Nieukerken, sp. n., and Pectinivalva (Menurella) tribulatrix Van Nieukerken & Hoare, sp. n. Pectinivalva (Menurella) quintiniae (from Quintinia verdonii, Paracryphiaceae) is the first known member of the genus with a host-plant not belonging to Myrtaceae. Pectinivalva (Menurella) xenadelpha from Mt Gunung Lumut, Kalimantan, Borneo, is the first pectinivalvine reported from outside Australia. Keys to the subgenera of Nepticulidae known from Australia, based on adults, male and female genitalia, and larvae, are presented. Host-plant relationships of Pectinivalva are discussed with relation to the phylogeny, and a list of known host-plants of Pectinivalva, including hosts of undescribed species, is presented. DNA barcodes are provided for most of the new and several unnamed species. PMID:23794827

  12. Prospects of using leguminous species in phytoremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaranda Masu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Selecting the plant species to grow on aged petroleum hydrocarbons polluted soils is an important factor for a successful phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a green technology that can become a promising solution for decontaminating polluted soils and ecological restoration of the landscape. Our comparative studies evaluate the effect of oil hydrocarbon pollution with high initial concentration on the growth leguminous plant species: Vicia sativa and Glycine max. The experimental block contains control variants, polluted soil unfertilized / fertilized with municipal sludge anaerobically stabilized in absence/presence of modified volcanic tuff amendment. After period of time the experiment’s soil in which plant species had grown well was sampled and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons removal. Both species showed promising efficiency in the phytoremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon highly polluted soils but a reduced growth of the surveyed plants was noticed. The efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons diminution is increased in the case of the addition of fertilizer 16.6 % for Vicia sativa and 30 % for Glycine max vs. the initial quantity. In the case of the phytoremediation of polluted soils treated with fertilizer and volcanic tuff, the efficiency of the petroleum hydrocarbons reduction was 72.9 % for Vicia sativa and 53.7 % for Glycine max.

  13. Productivity assessment of three leguminous species under high-density plantations on degraded soil sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, V.L.; Behl, H.M. [National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow (India). Biomass Biology Div.

    2004-11-01

    Performance of three leguminous species, (Acacia farnesiana, A. nilotica subspecies cupressiformis and Cassia siamea), was investigated at three planting densities (10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 plants ha{sup -1}) on a highly alkaline soil site (pH 8.6-10.5) in order to identify promising species and suitable plant spacing for optimum biomass harvest per unit area under shorter rotation harvests (3 year). The study revealed the differential behaviour of various species with respect to plant growth, survival and stand productivity in different population densities. Performance of A. farnesiana and C. siamea in terms of plant height, stem diameter and plant establishment was marginally affected by population density. Stand basal area (2.4-6.4 m{sup 2} ha{sup -1}) and biomass (4.45-13.5 t ha{sup -1}) in A. farnesiana increased markedly with increasing population density. Similar gains in biomass were observed in C. siamea when planted at higher densities. Individual tree biomass also was not affected by increasing plant densities, suggesting that these two species respond well to high-density plantation. A. nilotica subspecies cupressiformis, on the other hand, showed a negative response when planted in high density. Its biomass and basal area decreased beyond 20,000 plants ha{sup -1} planting density, suggesting that planting density of 20,000 plants ha{sup -1} and above were supra-optimal. Plants spaced at 10,000 plants ha{sup -1} showed faster growth rate and higher productivity as compared to the same at 20,000 and 30,000 planting density. Competition for space also effected individual tree growth in higher densities. The concept of high-density plantation is not applicable in A. nilotica subspecies cupressiformis. However, this species has significantly greater potential since it has relatively high biomass production even at a low population density of 10,000 plants ha{sup -1}. The study is useful in identifying productive species and optimum plantation density per

  14. A new and distinct species in the genus Caulimovirus exists as an endogenous plant pararetroviral sequence in its host, Dahlia variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Druffel, Keri; Pappu, Hanu

    2008-07-05

    Viruses in certain genera in family Caulimoviridae were shown to integrate their genomic sequences into their host genomes and exist as endogenous pararetroviral sequences (EPRV). However, members of the genus Caulimovirus remained to be the exception and are known to exist only as episomal elements in the infected cell. We present evidence that the DNA genome of a new and distinct Caulimovirus species, associated with dahlia mosaic, is integrated into its host genome, dahlia (Dahlia variabilis). Using cloned viral genes as probes, Southern blot hybridization of total plant DNA from dahlia seedlings showed the presence of viral DNA in the host DNA. Fluorescent in situ hybridization using labeled DNA probes from the D10 genome localized the viral sequences in dahlia chromosomes. The natural integration of a Caulimovirus genome into its host and its existence as an EPRV suggests the co-evolution of this plant-virus pathosystem.

  15. ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL IN THE GROWTH OF LEGUMINOUS TREES ON COALMINE WASTE ENRICHED SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantau Camargo Gomes Stoffel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation in the growth, colonization and absorption of P and trace elements of leguminous trees on coal mine wastes. Independent assays for Mimosa scabrella Benth. (common name bracatinga, Mimosa bimucronata (DC. Kuntze (maricá and Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth. Brenan (angico-vermelho were carried out in a greenhouse on an entirely casualized experimental delineation composed of six treatments. Five coal mine autochthonous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal isolates were tested, including Acaulospora colombiana, Acaulospora morrowiae, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and Rhizophagus irregulars, aside from a control treatment, with four replications each. Results show that arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization was greater than 60% for Mimosa species, and up to 26% for Parapiptadenia. Overall, the fungal inoculation promoted better plant growth, with increments of up to 1430%. Phosphorous absorption was favored, especially when inoculation was done with A. colombiana, R. irregularis and A. morrowiae. Even though there was a conclusive reduction in the levels of trace elements in the plant´s shoots, the inoculation with those species of fungi promoted significant increments in the accumulated levels of As, Cu, Zn and Cr for all plant species tested. Therefore, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi play important roles in these poor, degraded and often contaminated environments.

  16. Productivity and Utilization of Leguminous Tree Indigofera zollingeriana on Dry Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Herdiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera is well known as tarum plant, has about 700 species, including Indigofera zollingeriana. These plants are leguminous species that have high nutrient content and production as well as tolerant to abiotic stresses. This plant originated in tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, and North and South America, then spread to arid zone of Africa and Asia. In early 1900, it was brought by Europeans colonial to Indonesia. Indigofera can grow well at altitudes between 0-2200 m above sea level, with rainfall between 600-3000 mm/year. It can be used as a fodder crop because it has high nutrient content and production. It can be harvested at the age of eight months with an average production of 2,595 kg of fresh biomass/tree, with a total production of fresh approximately 52 tons/ha. Indigofera zollingeriana has crude protein content of 27.60%; neutral detergent fiber (NDF 43.56%; acid detergent fiber (ADF 35.24%; calcium (Ca 1.16%; phosphorous (P 0.26%; in vitro-dry matter digestibility (IVDMD 67.50%; organic matter digestibility (IVOMD 60.32%; 0.08% tannins and 0.41% saponin. Additionally I. zollingeriana is often used as green manure, cover crop in plantation areas, fabric dyeing and therapeutic herbs.

  17. [Intake of leguminous in the Department of Santander, Colombia, 2000-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Gloria E; Soto, Adriana; Herrán, Oscar F

    2005-03-01

    With the objective of describing the participation and quantity (g) in the intake of leguminous in two geographical areas (metropolitan and rural), three surveys were re-analyzed, in them 571 subjects (148 scholars and 443 mothers) described their intake by the 24-hour dietary recall method. For the above mentioned, descriptive measures and confidence intervals were calculated with a reliability of 95% (IC 95%), the comparison of the intake among groups was carried out by t test and analysis of variance. 36.4% of the subjects consumes leguminous dry; differences were observed in the consumption of leguminous for geographical area; leguminous dry (p = 0.03) and green (p = 0.04). Of the group of leguminous, the dry ones represent the best resource to cover the energy necessities and nutritious; the biggest contribution to the daily recommendation is for folic acid, magnesium, thiamine, protein, phosphorus, iron and zinc. The contribution of the leguminous ones to the recommendations of nutrients was different for geographical area (p leguminous dry, especially to the daily recommendations of folic acid and proteins are aspects to consider in their promotion.

  18. An evolutionary perspective on drug discovery in the plant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Madeleine

    herbivory and physical stresses or to attract pollinators. Consequently, specializedmetabolites, as well as plants used in traditional medicine, are not randomly distributed across phylogenetictrees. Evolutionary approaches to plant-based drug discovery suggest that this informationcan be used to guide...

  19. EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC H2S ON THIOL COMPOSITION OF CROP PLANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BUWALDA, F; DE KOK, LJ; Stulen, I.

    Exposure of crop plants to H2S resulted in an increase in thiol level and a change in the composition of the thiol pool. Non-leguminous species accumulated cysteine and glutathione in the light, whereas in the dark, substantial amounts of gamma-glutamyl-cysteine were also detected. In leguminous

  20. A new genus and twenty new species of Australian jumping plant-lice (Psylloidea: Triozidae) from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary S; Fagan-Jeffries, Erinn P; Austin, Andy D

    2016-02-05

    The Triozidae is a diverse, cosmopolitan family of jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) from an exceptionally diverse range of plant families, but with few described Australian species. As a direct outcome of the Australian Biological Resources Study Bush Blitz species discovery program, many new Psylloidea from novel host plants in remote localities have been revealed. In this study a new genus Myotrioza Taylor gen. nov. and 20 new species are described from southern and central Australia which also establishes the first host plant records from Eremophila and Myoporum (Scrophulariaceae: Myoporeae). New species, delineated using a combination of morphological and mitochondrial COI sequence data, are: Myotrioza clementsiana sp. nov., M. darwinensis sp. nov., M. desertorum sp. nov., M. eremi sp. nov., M. eremophili sp. nov., M. flindersiana sp.nov., M. gawlerensis sp. nov., M. insularis sp. nov., M. interioris sp. nov., M. interstantis sp. nov., M. longifoliae sp. nov., M. markmitchelli sp. nov., M. myopori sp. nov., M. oppositifoliae sp. nov., M. pantonii sp. nov., M. platycarpi sp. nov., M. remota sp. nov., M. scopariae sp. nov., M. serrulatae sp. nov., and M. telowiensis sp. nov. Genetic divergence data, host associations, biogeographic data, diagnoses and a key to species are presented. Myotrioza appears to be particularly diverse in ephemeral southern Australia, especially in inland Western Australia and South Australia, matching regions of high diversity of the host genera; some species are likely to be short range endemics.

  1. Comparative growth behaviour and leaf nutrient status of native trees planted on mine spoil with and without nutrient amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Singh, J.S. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    The effect of nutrient amendment on growth of nine indigenous tree species planted on coal mine spoil was studied. Greater growth in fertilized plots was accompanied by greater foliar N and P concentrations in all species. The response to fertilization varied among species and was greater in non-leguminous than in leguminous species. Furthermore, leguminous species exhibited higher growth rates compared to non-leguminous species. Acacia catechu, Dalbergia sissoo, Gmelina arborea and Azadirachta indica fitted the elastic similarity model of tree growth; whereas Pongamia pinnata and Phyllanthus emblica followed the constant stress model. Tectona grandis was the only species which fitted the geometric similarity model.

  2. Barcoding the major Mediterranean leguminous crops by combining universal chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madesis, P; Ganopoulos, I; Ralli, P; Tsaftaris, A

    2012-08-16

    The ability to discriminate all species is the ultimate target in barcoding. The Mediterranean basin is a center of origin for legumes and thus they have played a key role in feeding the Mediterranean population. It is also a region with important protected designation of origin and protected geographical indication legumes that provide income in rural areas. We evaluated the use of two chloroplast regions, trnL and rpoC1, and a nuclear internal transcriber region, ITS2, for their efficiency to barcode the main Mediterranean leguminous crops. Twenty-five legume species were studied. Plant material of pasture and legumes was obtained from the Greek GenBank and the Fodder Crops and Pastures Institute (National Agricultural Research Foundation). DNA was extracted with the Qiagen DNeasy plant mini-kit and PCR amplification was performed using the Kapa Taq DNA polymerase using primers amplifying the chloroplast trnL and rpoC1 regions or the nuclear region ITS2. PCR products were sequenced and the sequences were aligned using CLUSTAL W. Species identification based on the sequence similarity approach was performed using the GenBank database. In order to evaluate intraspecific and interspecific divergence in legumes we used Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis 5 and for pairwise Kimura 2-parameter distance calculations for all 3 DNA regions (2 chloroplast regions, trnL and rpoC1, and the nuclear region ITS2). Four tree-based methods (neighbor joining and maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference analyses) were used to exhibit the molecular identification results to represent differences as an uprooted dendrogram. Additionally, the sequence character-based method was used with DnaSP and the information from each site was treated as a character to distinguish the species from one another. The DNA regions trnL and ITS2 successfully (100%) discriminated the Mediterranean crop legume species used, while rpoC1 identified only 72% of them. Furthermore

  3. A new delimitation of the Afro-Eurasian plant genus Althenia to include its Australasian relative, Lepilaena (Potamogetonaceae) - Evidence from DNA and morphological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; García-Murillo, Pablo; Muasya, A Muthama

    2016-05-01

    Althenia (Potamogetonaceae) is an aquatic plant genus disjunctly distributed in the southern- (South Africa's Cape Floristic Region: CFR) and northern- (Mediterranean Eurasia) hemispheres. This genus and its Australasian relative, Lepilaena, share similar floral characters yet have been treated as different genera or sections of Althenia sensu lato (s.l.) due to the isolated geographic distribution as well as the differences in sex expression, stamen construction, and stigma morphology. The diagnostic characters, however, need reevaluation over the boundaries between the entities. Here we tested the taxonomic delimitation between the entities, assessed synapomorphies for evolutionary lineages, and inferred biogeographic history in a phylogenetic framework. Our results indicated that Lepilaena was resolved as non-monophyletic in both plastid DNA and nuclear PhyC trees and Althenia was nested within it. As Althenia has nomenclatural priority, we propose a new delimitation to recognize Althenia s.l., which can be diagnosed by the female flowers with 3-segmented perianths and male flowers with perianths. The previously used diagnostic characters are either autapomorphies or synapomorphies for small lineages within Althenia s.l., and evolutionary transitions to sessile female flowers and narrow leaves characterize larger clades. Biogeographic analyses suggested a Miocene origin of Althenia s.l. in Australasia and indicated at least one inter- and one intra-specific inter-continental dispersal events among Australasia, Mediterranean Eurasia, and CFR need to be hypothesized to explain the current distribution patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L; Jordan, David L

    2010-09-01

    Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pruriens and Crotalaria spectabilis but on Dolichos lablab the population increased more than 2- fold when inoculated with 500 and 1,000 nematodes per plant. There was no root-galling on M. pruriens and C. spectabilis but the gall rating was noted on D. lablab. Greater mortality of juvenile root-knot nematodes occurred when exposed to eluants of roots and leaves of leguminous crops than those of tomato; 48.7% of juveniles died after 72 h exposure to root eluant of C. spectabilis. The leaf eluant of D. lablab was toxic to nematodes but the root eluant was not. Thus, different parts of a botanical contain different active ingredients or different concentrations of the same active ingredient. The numbers of root-knot nematode eggs that hatched in root exudates of M. pruriens and C. spectabilis were significantly lower (20% and 26%) than in distilled water, tomato and P. vulgaris root exudates (83%, 72% and 89%) respectively. Tomato lacks nematotoxic compounds found in M. pruriens and C. spectabilis. Three months after inoculating plants with 1,000 root-knot nematode juveniles the populations in pots with M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa had been reduced by approximately 79%, 85% and 86% respectively; compared with an increase of 262% nematodes in pots with Phaseolus vulgaris. There was significant reduction of 90% nematodes in fallow pots with no growing plant. The results from this study demonstrate that some leguminous species contain compounds that either kill root

  5. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m 2 (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  6. Functional congruence of rhizosphere microbial communities associated to leguminous tree from Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; Kavamura, Vanessa Nessner; Mendes, Rodrigo; Melo, Itamar Soares

    2015-02-01

    Semiarid environments are characterized by the uneven spread of rain throughout the year. This leads to the establishment of a biota that can go through long periods without rain. In order to understand the dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities across these contrasting seasons in Caatinga, we used the Ion Torrent platform to sequence the metagenome of the rhizosphere of a native leguminous plant (Mimosa tenuiflora). The annotation indicated that most abundant groups detected were the Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, and the dominant functional groups were carbohydrate and protein metabolisms, and that in the wet season, the communities carried carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms.The major differences observed between seasons were higher abundance of genes related to carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms in the rainy season, indicating that the populations present might be better adapted to a higher abundance of organic matter. Besides, no clear separation of samples was detected based on their taxonomic composition whereas the functional composition indicates that samples from the rain season are more related. Altogether, our results indicate that there is al arge functional stability in these communities mostly due to the selection of features that aid the biota to endure the dry season and blossom during rain.

  7. Growth of a leguminous tree (Centrolobium tomentosum Guill. ex Benth.) inoculated with Rhizobium and mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M S; Gonçalves, L M; Lemos-Filho, J P; Rocha, D; Vale, M T; Scotti, M R

    1997-01-01

    Leguminous trees are being suggested for revegetation programs due to their ability to develop associations with rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi. The growth of a native species of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Centrolobium tomentosum, was evaluated in a native forest soil and in a Eucalyptus forest soil under different treatments of inoculation. C. tomentosum produced more biomass under nursery conditions after inoculation with Rhizobium BHICB-Ab1 associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM). This treatment improved shoot and root growth and nodule weight under forest soil condition, while in eucalyptus soil only shoot biomass and nodule weight were significantly modified. In another experiment, using forest soil, height and stem diameter were also increased by dual inoculation procedures. The height and diameter growth promoting effect was observed when BHICB-Ab1 was used as inoculant associated with AM, but not with BHICB-Ab1 alone. In contrast, plants inoculated with BHICB-Ab3 alone were similar in height and diameter growth, to those which were inoculated with BHICB-Ab3 associated with AM. These results suggest that benefits of dual inoculation depend on triparty symbiosis and especially on the choice of Rhizobium strain.

  8. LEGUMINOUS COVER CROPS FOR BANANA PLANTATIONS IN SEMI-ARID REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATEUS AUGUSTO LIMA QUARESMA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperatures and low rainfall characterize the Brazilian semiarid regions. This regional climate demands the adoption of practices that increase the efficiency and sustainability of local farming. This study aimed to assess the ability of two perennial herbaceous leguminous species, calopo and tropical kudzu, to provide permanent soil cover in banana plantations in Jequitinhonha Valley, northeast Minas Gerais state, Brazil. To this end, we evaluated the differences of calopo and tropical kudzu in soil cover capacity and the amount of senescent phytomass deposited on the soil surface, nutrient content in senescent phytomass, as well as their effects on temperature and soil moisture, compared with bare soil in two experimental sites. The results showed that, compared with tropical kudzu, calopo had a higher soil cover capacity and was more effective at increasing organic material and nutrients in the soil owing to the relatively higher amount of senescent phytomass deposited on the soil surface. However, both calopo and tropical kudzu reduced soil temperature and increase soil moisture compared with bare soil. Overall, we concluded that these species can deposit high levels of senescence in the soil, providing several benefits to the cultivation system of banana plants in the semiarid regions.

  9. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  10. Tomato chocolàte virus: a new plant virus infecting tomato and a proposed member of the genus Torradovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from Guatemala showing necrotic spots on the bases of the leaves and chocolate-brown patches on the fruits. Structural and molecular analysis showed the virus to be clearly related to but distinct from the recently described Tomato torrado virus (ToTV)

  11. Mimosine, a Toxin Present in Leguminous Trees (Leucaena spp.), Induces a Mimosine-Degrading Enzyme Activity in Some Rhizobium Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarjo, Muchdar; Hemscheidt, Thomas K.; Borthakur, Dulal

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-seven Rhizobium isolates obtained from the nodules of leguminous trees (Leucaena spp.) were selected on the basis of their ability to catabolize mimosine, a toxin found in large quantities in the seeds, foliage, and roots of plants of the genera Leucaena and Mimosa. A new medium containing mimosine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen was used for selection. The enzymes of the mimosine catabolic pathway were inducible and were present in the soluble fraction of the cell extract of induced cells. On the basis of a comparison of the growth rates of Rhizobium strains on general carbon and nitrogen sources versus mimosine, the toxin appears to be converted mostly to biomass and carbon dioxide. Most isolates able to grow on mimosine as a source of carbon and nitrogen are also able to utilize 3-hydroxy-4-pyridone, a toxic intermediate of mimosine degradation in other organisms. PMID:16349454

  12. Dual infection by cassava begomoviruses in two leguminous species (Fabaceae) in Yangambi, Northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monde, G; Walangululu, J; Winter, S; Bragard, C

    2010-11-01

    A study on cassava mosaic begomoviruses was conducted around Yangambi (DR Congo) by sampling 10 different leguminous species with or without symptoms similar to cassava mosaic disease. DNA was isolated to amplify CMBs using primers targeting AC2 and AC4 genes for virus detection by PCR. The results showed a dual infection by ACMV and EACMV in two weed species, Centrosema pubescens and Pueraria javanica, associated with mosaic symptoms. The DNA-A genome component of ACMV and EACMV from the infested weeds was sequenced. Seven ACMV and four EACMV isolates are reported. The major ACMV strains were closely related to ACMV-NGogo, ACMV-IC and ACMV-UGMld, whereas all EACMV strains were closely related to a Uganda variant, the most prevalent virus. This study shows that whiteflies may transmit CMBs to non-cassava plants under high epidemic pressure.

  13. Authentication of medicinal plant botanical identity by amplified fragmented length polymorphism dominant DNA marker: inferences from the Plectranthus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passinho-Soares, Helna; Felix, Durvalina; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Margis, Rogério

    2006-08-01

    In Brazil, Plectranthus species are known as "boldo" and have been used in popular medicine for analgesic and dyspeptic purposes. Plectranthus need to be well identified in order to be used as commercially genuine medicinal plants. Here we describe AFLP DNA patterns able to distinguish among different Pectranthus species. The genetic variability of P. grandis Cramer, P. barbatus Andr. and P. ornatus Codd was analyzed with two sets of AFLP primers allowing detection of 241 loci. A total of 22 monomorphic loci were identified in P. barbatus, 15 in P. grandis and 30 in P. ornatus. Among these, 5 loci were informative and species-specific to P. barbatus, 3 to P. grandis and 2 loci were unique to P. ornatus. The AFLP pattern analyzed by different clustering methods assembled individuals according to their species. So far, AFLP represents a genuine and strong method to certify medicinal plant materials.

  14. A rapid and efficient method for isolating high quality DNA from leaves of carnivorous plants from the Drosera genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteau, Flore; Nisse, Estelle; Hehn, Alain; Miguel, Sissi; Hannewald, Paul; Bourgaud, Frédéric

    2012-07-01

    Drosera rotundifolia, Drosera capensis, and Drosera regia are carnivorous plants of the sundew family, characterized by the presence of stalked and sticky glands on the upper leaf surface, to attract, trap, and digest insects. These plants contain exceptionally high amounts of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and other secondary metabolites that interfere with DNA isolation and subsequent enzymatic reactions such as PCR amplification. We present here a protocol for quick isolation of Drosera DNA with high yield and a high level of purity, by combining a borate extraction buffer with a commercial DNA extraction kit, and a proteinase K treatment during extraction. The yield of genomic DNA is from 13.36 μg/g of fresh weight to 35.29 μg/g depending of the species of Drosera, with a A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ ratio of 1.43-1.92. Moreover, the procedure is quick and can be completed in 2.5 h.

  15. In situ enzyme activity in the dissolved and particulate fraction of the fluid from four pitcher plant species of the genus Nepenthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Salcher, Michaela M; Ushio, Masayuki; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2011-01-01

    The genus Nepenthes, a carnivorous plant, has a pitcher to trap insects and digest them in the contained fluid to gain nutrient. A distinctive character of the pitcher fluid is the digestive enzyme activity that may be derived from plants and dwelling microbes. However, little is known about in situ digestive enzymes in the fluid. Here we examined the pitcher fluid from four species of Nepenthes. High bacterial density was observed within the fluids, ranging from 7×10(6) to 2.2×10(8) cells ml(-1). We measured the activity of three common enzymes in the fluid: acid phosphatases, β-D-glucosidases, and β-D-glucosaminidases. All the tested enzymes detected in the liquid of all the pitcher species showed activity that considerably exceeded that observed in aquatic environments such as freshwater, seawater, and sediment. Our results indicate that high enzyme activity within a pitcher could assist in the rapid decomposition of prey to maximize efficient nutrient use. In addition, we filtered the fluid to distinguish between dissolved enzyme activity and particle-bound activity. As a result, filtration treatment significantly decreased the activity in all enzymes, while pH value and Nepenthes species did not affect the enzyme activity. It suggested that enzymes bound to bacteria and other organic particles also would significantly contribute to the total enzyme activity of the fluid. Since organic particles are themselves usually colonized by attached and highly active bacteria, it is possible that microbe-derived enzymes also play an important role in nutrient recycling within the fluid and affect the metabolism of the Nepenthes pitcher plant.

  16. In situ enzyme activity in the dissolved and particulate fraction of the fluid from four pitcher plant species of the genus Nepenthes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The genus Nepenthes, a carnivorous plant, has a pitcher to trap insects and digest them in the contained fluid to gain nutrient. A distinctive character of the pitcher fluid is the digestive enzyme activity that may be derived from plants and dwelling microbes. However, little is known about in situ digestive enzymes in the fluid. Here we examined the pitcher fluid from four species of Nepenthes. High bacterial density was observed within the fluids, ranging from 7×10(6 to 2.2×10(8 cells ml(-1. We measured the activity of three common enzymes in the fluid: acid phosphatases, β-D-glucosidases, and β-D-glucosaminidases. All the tested enzymes detected in the liquid of all the pitcher species showed activity that considerably exceeded that observed in aquatic environments such as freshwater, seawater, and sediment. Our results indicate that high enzyme activity within a pitcher could assist in the rapid decomposition of prey to maximize efficient nutrient use. In addition, we filtered the fluid to distinguish between dissolved enzyme activity and particle-bound activity. As a result, filtration treatment significantly decreased the activity in all enzymes, while pH value and Nepenthes species did not affect the enzyme activity. It suggested that enzymes bound to bacteria and other organic particles also would significantly contribute to the total enzyme activity of the fluid. Since organic particles are themselves usually colonized by attached and highly active bacteria, it is possible that microbe-derived enzymes also play an important role in nutrient recycling within the fluid and affect the metabolism of the Nepenthes pitcher plant.

  17. Biomass and nutrient accumulation of leguminous green manure species in the Jaguaribe-Apodi region, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Santiago Pereira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability of leguminous green manure to incorporate significant amounts of nutrientes into the soil makes them excellent alternatives for the region agriculture systems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of six leguminous species (Crotalaria juncea, Canavalia ensiformes, Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria spectabilis, Dolichos lab lab and  Mucuna deeringiana as green manure in an area of the Jaguaribe-Apodi agricultural region, CE, Brazil. The experiments were carried out under field conditions in a randomized block design with five replications. Sampling of biomass of shoots was carried out 78 days after sowing on each plot. It was determined the total biomass and nutrients accumulation in the plants that grew in the plots (leguminous and weeds. We concluded that the use of Crotalaria juncea showed up as the most promising treatment in terms of biomass production and nutrient accumulation.Biomassa e acúmulo de nutrients por espécies de leguminosas utilizadas como adubo verde na região do Jaguaribe-Apodi, Ceará, BrasilResumo: A habilidade de espécies de leguminosas utilizadas como adubos verdes em incorporar quantidades significativas de nutrientes no solo fazem destas excelentes alternativas para as regiões agrícolas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de utilização de seis espécies leguminosas (Crotalaria juncea; Canavalia ensiformes - feijão-de-porco; Cajanus cajan - Guandu anão; Crotalaria spectabilis; Dolichos lab lab - Labe-labe; e Mucuna deeringiana - Mucuna anã como adubo verde em uma área no Agropólo Jaguaribe-Apodi, CE, Brasil. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos em condições de campo, em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. Foram amostradas as partes aéreas das plantas aos 78 dias após a semeadura em cada parcela. Foram determinadas a biomassa e o acúmulo totais de nutrientes das plantas que cresceram na parcela (leguminosas e invasoras. Nas condições edafoclimáticas em que o

  18. Host plant secondary metabolite profiling shows a complex, strain-dependent response of maize to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria of the genus Azospirillum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Vincent; Bertrand, Cédric; Bellvert, Floriant; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Bally, René; Comte, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Most Azospirillum plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) benefit plant growth through source effects related to free nitrogen fixation and/or phytohormone production, but little is known about their potential effects on plant physiology. These effects were assessed by comparing the early impacts of three Azospirillum inoculant strains on secondary metabolite profiles of two different maize (Zea mays) cultivars. After 10d of growth in nonsterile soil, maize methanolic extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and secondary metabolites identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Seed inoculation resulted in increased shoot biomass (and also root biomass with one strain) of hybrid PR37Y15 but had no stimulatory effect on hybrid DK315. In parallel, Azospirillum inoculation led to major qualitative and quantitative modifications of the contents of secondary metabolites, especially benzoxazinoids, in the maize plants. These modifications depended on the PGPR strain×plant cultivar combination. Thus, Azospirillum inoculation resulted in early, strain-dependent modifications in the biosynthetic pathways of benzoxazine derivatives in maize in compatible interactions. This is the first study documenting a PGPR effect on plant secondary metabolite profiles, and suggests the establishment of complex interactions between Azospirillum PGPR and maize. © The Authors (2010). Journal compilation © New Phytologist Trust (2010).

  19. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Stemphylium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kresten Jon Kromphardt; Andersen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungal genus Stemphylium (Anamophic Pleospora) is often found on various crops, and especially the common animal feed plant Medicago sativa (alfalfa) is often infected by this plant pathogen. With this in mind it is important to consider what consequences such a contamination can...... via HPLC-UV/VIS-MS analysis as a third method for identification and to investigate the chemical potential of the genus Stemphylium. A total of 253 unique compounds were used for chemotaxonomy and the majority of these were unknown compounds....

  20. Fastest predators in the plant kingdom: functional morphology and biomechanics of suction traps found in the largest genus of carnivorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppinga, Simon; Weisskopf, Carmen; Westermeier, Anna Sophia; Masselter, Tom; Speck, Thomas

    2015-11-24

    Understanding the physics of plant movements, which describe the interplay between plant architecture, movement speed and actuation principles, is essential for the comprehension of important processes like plant morphogenesis. Recent investigations especially on rapid plant movements at the interface of biology, physics and engineering sciences highlight how such fast motions can be achieved without the presence of muscles, nerves and technical hinge analogies. The suction traps (bladders) of carnivorous bladderworts (Utricularia spp., Lentibulariaceae, Lamiales) are considered as some of the most elaborate moving structures in the plant kingdom. A complex interplay of morphological and physiological adaptations allows the traps to pump water out of their body and to store elastic energy in the deformed bladder walls. Mechanical stimulation by prey entails opening of the otherwise watertight trapdoor, followed by trap wall relaxation, sucking in of water and prey, and consecutive trapdoor closure. Suction can also occur spontaneously in non-stimulated traps. We review the current state of knowledge about the suction trap mechanism with a focus on architectonically homogeneous traps of aquatic bladderwort species from section Utricularia (the so-called 'Utricularia vulgaris trap type'). The functional morphology and biomechanics of the traps are described in detail. We discuss open questions and propose promising aspects for future studies on these sophisticated ultra-fast trapping devices. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  1. NEEM: UNUSUALLY VERSATILE PLANT GENUS AZADIRACHTA WITH MANY USEFUL AND SO FAR INSUFFICIENTLY EXPLOITED PROPERTIES FOR AGRICULTURE, MEDICINE, AND INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Langner, S S; Leithold, G; Schmutterer, H

    2014-01-01

    Neem plants (Rutales: Meliaceae) are well known for their multitude of human benefits in various fields. Specifically well investigated are the Indian neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss., the Thai neem A. siamensis Val., the originally Malaysian/Philippinean neem A. excelsa (Jack) and, as a close relative, the Persian lilac, Melia azedarach. The major and most active natural products are azadirachtin, salannin, nimbin and marrangin from Azadirachta species, and azadirachtin analogues like meliantriol from Melia species. Neem fruits, leaves, bark, and roots have specific virtues. They have been traditionally exploited for a considerable part of human history and are documented in Sanskrit texts. Due to human activity in trade and travel both at land and sea, the plant species has been distributed around the globe and is cultivated in many tropical, and subtropical regions. A multitude of natural products of neem have been isolated, chemically characterized or identified, and investigated for their properties in the management of insects, Acarina, Crustacea, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, viruses and soil fertility (for reviews see Kraus, 2002; Schmutterer, 2002A; Rembold, 2002; Koul, 2004; Schmutterer and Huber, 2005; Kleeberg and Strang, 2009; Hummel et al., 2008, 2011, 2012). Neem products are virtually nontoxic, compatible with beneficial insects, pollinators and bees. They are environmentally benign, sustainable, renewable, and of a price affordable for developed countries. In conclusion, neem is a prime example of a natural resource with many beneficial applications in agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. So far, its use is practically free of resistance problems which are frustratingly prevalent in many areas of synthetic insecticide and drug development. Investigating more neem applications will increase future human welfare and health while being of general ecological benefit to the planet.

  2. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GEORGIAN LEGUMINOUS CROPS CULTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhikvishvili, I; Mamniashvili, T; Gogia, N; Enukidze, M; Machavariani, M; Sanikidze, T

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the common in Georgia leguminous crops culture with pronounced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity. The primary evaluation of the antiinflammatory effects of beans was performed on the experimental models of MDCK and Jurkat cells model systems. Extracts of various varieties of legumes (Beans "Kidney", Meadow beans, Beans Shulavera, Batumian beans, Beans "Udelebi", green peas, peas Shulavera, lentils Lens Culinaris, Soy) were added to the intact or incubated under oxidative stress conditions Jurkat and MDCK cells. Cells' vitality was determined by MTT test. On the basis of analysis of the obtained results, we concluded that: - Meadow beans extract (low doses) revealed cytoprotective effect on the intact and incubated under oxidative stress conditions immune (Jurkat) and epithelial (MDCK) cells. High antioxidant, cytoprotective activity of this extract correlates with high polyphenols content in it. - The extract of Shulavera beans did affect the intact Jurkat and MDCK cells, but showed pronounced cytoprotective activity on these cells incubated under the oxidative stress conditions. High antioxidant, cytoprotective activity of this extract correlates with high content of polyphenols in it. - Low dose of lentils Lens Culinaris extracts revealed cytoprotective activity on the incubated under oxidative stress conditions MDCK cells, but was inactive in case of intact MDCK and incubated in different conditions immune Jurkat cells. The selective antioxidant activity of this extract is related with its other constituent components, but not polyphenols. - Despite high polyphenols content and high antioxidant activity in vivo, Batumian beans revealed moderate cytoprotective activity on intact and incubated under oxidative stress conditions Jurkat cells, suppressive activity on the intact MDCK cells and was inactive in relation to the incubated under oxidative stress conditions MDCK cells. Based on these findings, we can identify

  3. Concomitant sensitization to legumin, Fag e 2 and Fag e 5 predicts buckwheat allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiselhart, S; Nagl, C; Dubiela, P

    2018-01-01

    pattern in sera from allergic patients when compared to sensitized individuals. Several IgE-reactive proteins were purified from crude buckwheat extract, namely legumin (Fag e 1 plus its large subunit), Fag e 2 (2S albumin), and newly identified Fag e 5 (vicilin-like) as well as hevein-like antimicrobial...... vicilin-like protein as a new relevant marker allergen, designated Fag e 5. Additionally, another new allergen, Fag e 4, potentially important for cross-reactivity to latex was added to the allergen panel of buckwheat. Further, our data show that the full-length legumin comprising both, large and small...... subunit should be applied for component resolved diagnosis. Our data indicate that concomitant sensitization to legumin, Fag e 2 and Fag e 5 predicts buckwheat allergy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  4. A Genetic and Chemical Perspective on Symbiotic Recruitment of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Nostoc into the Host Plant Blasia pusilla L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Liaimer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Liverwort Blasia pusilla L. recruits soil nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria of genus Nostoc as symbiotic partners. In this work we compared Nostoc community composition inside the plants and in the soil around them from two distant locations in Northern Norway. STRR fingerprinting and 16S rDNA phylogeny reconstruction showed a remarkable local diversity among isolates assigned to several Nostoc clades. An extensive web of negative allelopathic interactions was recorded at an agricultural site, but not at the undisturbed natural site. The cell extracts of the cyanobacteria did not show antimicrobial activities, but four isolates were shown to be cytotoxic to human cells. The secondary metabolite profiles of the isolates were mapped by MALDI-TOF MS, and the most prominent ions were further analysed by Q-TOF for MS/MS aided identification. Symbiotic isolates produced a great variety of small peptide-like substances, most of which lack any record in the databases. Among identified compounds we found microcystin and nodularin variants toxic to eukaryotic cells. Microcystin producing chemotypes were dominating as symbiotic recruits but not in the free-living community. In addition, we were able to identify several novel aeruginosins and banyaside-like compounds, as well as nostocyclopeptides and nosperin.

  5. Effect of guar crispbread with cereal products and leguminous seeds on blood glucose concentrations of diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Barker, H M; Fielden, H; Jenkins, A L

    1980-01-01

    To compare the effect on blood glucose concentrations of guar incorporated into crispbreads with that of unprocessed high-fibre foods groups of four to six diabetics took a total of seven test breakfasts on separate days. By comparison with a breakfast of wholemeal bread and cheese, guar crispbread combined with bread reduced the area under the glucose response curve to 51% (p leguminous seeds may not make such meals more acceptable than meals of guar products, but a combination of leguminous seeds and guar may allow smaller and more acceptable amounts of both to be used. PMID:6253021

  6. A review on pharmacological significance of genus Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra Kr; Singh, Harneet

    2012-11-01

    A number of herbs belonging to the genus Jatropha of Euphorbiaceae family are noted for their medicinal benefits. The genus Jatropha is one of the prospective biodiesel yielding crops. The plants which have been so far explored include J. curcas, J. gossypifolia, J. glandulifera, J. multifida and J. podagrica. Although, the plants of this genus are widely distributed, there is an exiguity of scientific literature proclaiming the medicinal benefits of the plants belonging to genus Jatropha. The present paper is a pragmatic approach to accrue the findings on this very significant genus.

  7. Cytotoxic and mutagenic evaluation of extracts from plant species of the Miconia genus and their influence on doxorubicin-induced mutagenicity: an in vitro analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara Serpeloni, Juliana; Mazzaron Barcelos, Gustavo Rafael; Prates Mori, Mateus; Yanagui, Karina; Vilegas, Wagner; Aparecida Varanda, Eliana; de Syllos Cólus, Ilce Mara

    2011-07-01

    The Miconia genus, a plant widely used for medicine, occurs in tropical America and its extracts and isolated compounds have demonstrated antibiotic, antitumoral, analgesic and antimalarial activities. However, no study concerning its genotoxicity has been conducted and it is necessary to determine its potential mutagenic effects to develop products and chemicals from these extracts. This study assessed the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and the protective effects of methanolic extracts from Miconia species on Chinese hamster lung fibroblast cell cultures (V79). The cytotoxicity was evaluated using a clonogenic assay. Cultures exposed to the extract of Miconia albicans up to a concentration of 30 μg/mL, M. cabucu up to 40 μg/mL, M. albicans up to 40 μg/mL and M. stenostachya up to 60 μg/mL exhibited a cytotoxic effect on the cells. The clonogenic assay used three non-cytotoxic concentrations (5, 10 and 20 μg/mL) to evaluate mutagenicity and antimutagenicity of the extracts. Cultures were treated with these three extract concentrations (mutagenicity test) or the extract associated with doxorubicin (DXR) (antimutagenicity test) in three protocols (pre-, simultaneous and post-treatments). Distilled water and DXR were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. In the micronucleus (MN) test, a significant reduction was observed in MN frequency in cultures treated with DXR and extracts compared to those receiving only DXR; a significant reduction was also observed for the presence of mutagenicity in all treatments. This study confirmed the safe use of Miconia extracts at the concentrations tested and reinforced the therapeutic properties previously described for Miconia species by showing their protective effects on doxorubicin-induced mutagenicity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Quantitative testing of the methodology for genome size estimation in plants using flow cytometry: a case study of the Primulina genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eWang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry (FCM is a commonly used method for estimating genome size in many organisms. The use of flow cytometry in plants is influenced by endogenous fluorescence inhibitors and may cause an inaccurate estimation of genome size; thus, falsifying the relationship between genome size and phenotypic traits/ecological performance. Quantitative optimization of FCM methodology minimizes such errors, yet there are few studies detailing this methodology. We selected the genus Primulina, one of the most representative and diverse genera of the Old World Gesneriaceae, to evaluate the methodology effect on determining genome size. Our results showed that buffer choice significantly affected genome size estimation in six out of the eight species examined and altered the 2C-value (DNA content by as much as 21.4%. The staining duration and propidium iodide (PI concentration slightly affected the 2C-value. Our experiments showed better histogram quality when the samples were stained for 40 minutes at a PI concentration of 100 µg ml-1. The quality of the estimates was not improved by one-day incubation in the dark at 4 °C or by centrifugation. Thus, our study determined an optimum protocol for genome size measurement in Primulina: LB01 buffer supplemented with 100 µg ml-1 PI and stained for 40 minutes. This protocol also demonstrated a high universality in other Gesneriaceae genera. We report the genome size of nine Gesneriaceae species for the first time. The results showed substantial genome size variation both within and among the species, with the 2C-value ranging between 1.62 and 2.71 pg. Our study highlights the necessity of optimizing the FCM methodology prior to obtaining reliable genome size estimates in a given taxon.

  9. Quantitative testing of the methodology for genome size estimation in plants using flow cytometry: a case study of the Primulina genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Juan; Kang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Flow cytometry (FCM) is a commonly used method for estimating genome size in many organisms. The use of FCM in plants is influenced by endogenous fluorescence inhibitors and may cause an inaccurate estimation of genome size; thus, falsifying the relationship between genome size and phenotypic traits/ecological performance. Quantitative optimization of FCM methodology minimizes such errors, yet there are few studies detailing this methodology. We selected the genus Primulina, one of the most representative and diverse genera of the Old World Gesneriaceae, to evaluate the methodology effect on determining genome size. Our results showed that buffer choice significantly affected genome size estimation in six out of the eight species examined and altered the 2C-value (DNA content) by as much as 21.4%. The staining duration and propidium iodide (PI) concentration slightly affected the 2C-value. Our experiments showed better histogram quality when the samples were stained for 40 min at a PI concentration of 100 μg ml(-1). The quality of the estimates was not improved by 1-day incubation in the dark at 4°C or by centrifugation. Thus, our study determined an optimum protocol for genome size measurement in Primulina: LB01 buffer supplemented with 100 μg ml(-1) PI and stained for 40 min. This protocol also demonstrated a high universality in other Gesneriaceae genera. We report the genome size of nine Gesneriaceae species for the first time. The results showed substantial genome size variation both within and among the species, with the 2C-value ranging between 1.62 and 2.71 pg. Our study highlights the necessity of optimizing the FCM methodology prior to obtaining reliable genome size estimates in a given taxon.

  10. The role of leguminous cover crops in sustainable production of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leguminous cover crops have the potential for obtaining high and sustainable crop yields. They have been shown to play an important role in weed suppression, nutrition, growth and yield of oil palm. They also play an important role in soil erosion control and soil moisture conservation in plantations. The development of ...

  11. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans: Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, E.L. van; Broek, L.A.M. van den; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  12. Can leguminous cover crops partially replace nitrogen fertilization in Mississippi delta cotton production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroleum prices impacts cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) N fertilization cost. A 3-year field study was conducted on a Dundee silt loam to assess the interactions of leguminous cover crops [none, Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum L.) or hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth] and N fertilization rate...

  13. A Comprehensive review on the genus Plumbago with focus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The genus Plumbago distributed in warm tropical regions throughout the world is the largest genus in Plumbaginaceae. Medicinal plants are characteristic to the genus Plumbago and are cultivated and utilized worldwide. Plumbago auriculata Lam. is common in South Africa and is often cultivated for its ...

  14. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity and community structure on three co-occurring leguminous canopy tree species in a Neotropical rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew E; Henkel, Terry W; Catherine Aime, M; Fremier, Alex K; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2011-11-01

    • The ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbiosis was historically considered restricted to the temperate zones, but recent studies have shown the importance of this symbiosis across the tropics. We examined ECM fungal diversity, host plant phylogeny and ECM host preferences in a rainforest dominated by the leguminous host plants Dicymbe corymbosa, Dicymbe altsonii and Aldina insignis. • Ectomycorrhizal fungi were identified by internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequencing and host species were verified with chloroplast trnL sequencing. To test whether Dicymbe and Aldina represent independent gains of the ECM symbiosis, we constructed a Fabaceae phylogeny using MatK and trnL. We identified four independent ECM lineages within the Fabaceae. • We detected a diverse community of 118 ECM species dominated by the /clavulina, /russula-lactarius, /boletus, and /tomentella-thelephora lineages. Ectomycorrhizal species in Agaricales, Atheliales and Polyporales may represent previously unrecognized tropical-endemic ECM lineages. Previous studies suggested that ECM fungi did not diversify in the tropics, but the /clavulina lineage appears to have a center of diversity in tropical South America. • Dicymbe and Aldina represent independent gains of the ECM symbiosis in Fabaceae but their fungal symbionts showed no host preferences. Spatial factors are more important than hosts in structuring the ECM fungal community in this ecosystem. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Rhizobium vallis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of three leguminous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, En Tao; Wu, Li Juan; Sui, Xin Hua; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-11-01

    Four bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris, Mimosa pudica and Indigofera spicata plants grown in the Yunnan province of China were identified as a lineage within the genus Rhizobium according to the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, sharing most similarity with Rhizobium lusitanum P1-7(T) (99.1 % sequence similarity) and Rhizobium rhizogenes IAM 13570(T) (99.0 %). These strains also formed a distinctive group from the reference strains for defined species of the genus Rhizobium in a polyphasic approach, including the phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene and housekeeping genes (recA, atpD, glnII), DNA-DNA hybridization, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, phenotypic characterization, SDS-PAGE of whole-cell proteins, and cellular fatty acid profiles. All the data obtained in this study suggested that these strains represent a novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium vallis sp. nov. is proposed. The DNA G+C content (mol%) of this species varied between 60.9 and 61.2 (T(m)). The type strain of R. vallis sp. nov. is CCBAU 65647(T) ( = LMG 25295(T) =HAMBI 3073(T)), which has a DNA G+C content of 60.9 mol% and forms effective nodules on Phaseolus vulgaris.

  16. Two new 'legumoviruses' (genus Begomovirus) naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Kumar, P Lava; Mgbechi-Ezeri, J U; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2010-05-01

    Two new 'legumoviruses' (genus Begomovirus; family Geminiviridae) naturally infecting soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in Nigeria were molecularly characterized. Based on characteristic symptoms in soybean, the two viruses are provisionally designated as Soybean mild mottle virus (SbMMV) and Soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV). SbCBV has a bipartite genome, whereas SbMMV has only a DNA A component. The DNA A component of SbMMV is 2,768 nucleotides (nt) long and the DNA A and DNA B components of SbCBV are 2,708 and 2,647 nt long, respectively. In pairwise comparisons, the DNA A component of SbMMV and SbCBV showed 62% nt sequence identity, indicating that these two viruses are distinct. Whereas the DNA A of SbMMV contains two virion- and four complementary-sense open reading frames, that of SbCBV lacks the virus-sense AV2, a signature gene present in 'Old World' begomoviruses. A pairwise comparison with the corresponding nucleotide sequence of other begomoviruses in the databases indicated that SbCBV had a maximum of 74% identity with cowpea golden mosaic virus and SbMMV had a maximum of 65% identity with mungbean yellow mosaic India virus and kudzu mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA A component of SbCBV and SbMMV together with those of other begomoviruses available in the databases showed clustering of the two viruses within the 'legumovirus' clade of the begomovirus phylogenetic tree. In addition, the DNA A and B components of SbCBV from Centrosema pubescens Benth were found to be identical to those from soybean, indicating that leguminous wild species are a potential alternative host for the virus. Since soybean is an introduced crop, the identification of two distinct begomoviruses naturally infecting soybean in Nigeria suggests the occurrence of 'legumoviruses' in plant species indigenous to Africa and underscores their potential threat to sustainable cultivation of soybean on the African continent.

  17. Genetic diversity, taxonomy and legumins implications of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proteomic evidences can be pivotal to the discovery of new plant proteins and plant relationships, due to the diversity of form it can reveal. Seed storage protein profiles of 20 Fabaceae species: 4 grainlegumes and 16 non-pulses; of 16 genera and 10 tribes were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel ...

  18. Terminal N-acetylgalactosamine-specific leguminous lectin from Wisteria japonica as a probe for human lung squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soga, Keisuke; Teruya, Futaba; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Millettia japonica was recently reclassified into the genus Wisteria japonica based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequences. Because the seed of Wisteria floribunda expresses leguminous lectins with unique N-acetylgalactosamine-binding specificity, we purified lectin from Wisteria japonica seeds using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Glycan microarray analysis demonstrated that unlike Wisteria floribunda and Wisteria brachybotrys lectins, which bind to both terminal N-acetylgalactosamine and galactose residues, Wisteria japonica lectin (WJA) specifically bound to both α- and β-linked terminal N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose residues on oligosaccharides and glycoproteins. Further, frontal affinity chromatography using more than 100 2-aminopyridine-labeled and p-nitrophenyl-derivatized oligosaccharides demonstrated that the ligands with the highest affinity for Wisteria japonica lectin were GalNAcβ1-3GlcNAc and GalNAcβ1-4GlcNAc, with K(a) values of 9.5 × 10(4) and 1.4 × 10(5) M(-1), respectively. In addition, when binding was assessed in a variety of cell lines, Wisteria japonica lectin bound specifically to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells while other Wisteria lectins bound equally to all of the cell lines tested. Wisteria japonica lectin binding to EBC-1 and HEK293 cells was dramatically decreased in the presence of N-acetylgalactosamine, but not galactose, mannose, or N-acetylglucosamine, and was completely abrogated by β-hexosaminidase-digestion of these cells. These results clearly demonstrate that Wisteria japonica lectin binds to terminal N-acetylgalactosamine but not galactose. In addition, histochemical analysis of human squamous cell carcinoma tissue sections demonstrated that Wisteria japonica lectin specifically bound to differentiated cancer tissues but not normal tissue. This novel binding characteristic of Wisteria japonica lectin has the potential to become a powerful tool for clinical applications.

  19. Effects of ovule and seed abortion on brood size and fruit costs in the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook. D. Dietr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Calviño

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For several plant species, brood size results from the abortion of ovules and seeds. However, these processes have rarely been studied together in wild plants. In some of the leguminous species studied, seed abortion has been found to depend on pollen quality and on the position of the ovule or fruit. The direct consequence for the mother plant is that fruit costs increase as the seed:ovule ratio decreases. However, because ovule abortion occurs earlier than does seed abortion, the former can reduce the biomass invested per seed (i.e., fruit costs more efficiently than does the latter. Here, the frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds were analyzed in relation to the type of pollination treatment (open pollination vs. hand cross-pollination and ovule/fruit position within pods of the leguminous shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The influence of ovule and seed abortion on fruit costs was analyzed by comparing the pericarp mass per seed between fruits with different frequencies of aborted ovules and seeds. The rate of ovule abortion was similar between hand cross-pollinated and open-pollinated fruits but was higher than that of seed abortion in one- and two-seeded fruits, as well as in those at stylar positions and in distal fruits. Hand cross-pollination reduced seed abortion but did not increase the seed:ovule ratio. In addition, fruits that aborted ovules were found to be less costly than were those that aborted seeds. From the mother plant perspective, these results indicate that ovule abortion is a more efficient mechanism of reducing fruit costs than is seed abortion, because fertilization opportunities decrease with position, and show that brood size is significantly influenced by the fate of the ovule at the pre-zygotic stage.

  20. Leguminous species sequester more carbon than gramineous species in cultivated grasslands of a semi-arid area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Tian, Fuping; Jia, Pengyan; Zhang, Jingge; Hou, Fujiang; Wu, Gaolin

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of grasslands on abandoned cropland has been proposed as an effective method to mitigate climate change. In this study, five cultivated grasslands (three leguminous species and two gramineous species), one abandoned cropland, and one natural grassland were studied to examine how soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rate and sequestration efficiency change in a semi-arid area in China. Our results showed that leguminous grasslands had greater total biomass (above- and belowground biomass), SOC storage, SOC sequestration rate, and efficiency than gramineous grasslands, abandoned cropland, and natural grassland during the experimental period. The largest soil carbon (C) accumulation in leguminous grassland was mainly attributed to the capacity to incorporate C and the higher biomass production. Leguminous grasslands accumulated more SOC than gramineous grasslands by 0.64 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. The average SOC sequestration efficiency in leguminous grassland (1.00) was about 2 times greater than gramineous grassland (0.34). The results indicate that cultivated leguminous grassland sequestered more SOC with higher SOC sequestration efficiency than cultivated gramineous grassland in arid and semi-arid areas. Our results provide a reference for ecological management in arid and semi-arid areas.

  1. Lead tolerance and phytoremediation potential of Brazilian leguminous tree species at the seedling stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro de Souza, Sarah Caroline; Adrián López de Andrade, Sara; Anjos de Souza, Lucas; Schiavinato, Marlene Aparecida

    2012-11-15

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential of three Brazilian leguminous woody species, Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Erythrina speciosa and Schizolobium parahyba, for the revegetation of lead- (Pb-) contaminated areas. The response of seedlings to increasing Pb concentrations (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg kg(-1)) in the soil was studied. In addition to Pb accumulation and translocation, the following parameters were assessed: chlorophyll, nitrate, ammonia, lipid peroxidation (MDA) and free amino acid content; seedling growth; and nitrogenase activity. No differences were observed in the germination of woody species seeds sown in soils with or without Pb addition. M. caesalpiniaefolia did not show visual symptoms of Pb toxicity, while the other two species demonstrated stress symptoms, including reduced shoot biomass yield, leaf area and height. Biochemical analyses of plant tissues revealed markedly different responses to increasing Pb concentrations, such as changes in foliar soluble amino acid composition in S. parahyba; changes in ammonia and nitrate content in E. speciosa, M. caesalpiniaefolia and S. parahyba; and changes in MDA content in S. parahyba. The levels of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoid were affected in the species studied. For the Nitrogen-fixing (N(2)-fixing) species E. speciosa, an increase of Pb in the soil affected nodule formation and growth, which led to reduced nitrogenase activity in seedlings. The concentration of Pb in shoots and roots increased with the Pb concentration in soil. However, most of the Pb absorbed accumulated in the roots, and only a small fraction was translocated to aboveground parts. These findings were confirmed by the low bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) values for the three species. The tolerance index (TI) values suggested that M. caesalpiniaefolia, a N(2)-fixing tree, was the species that was most tolerant to high Pb concentrations in soil, while E. speciosa and S

  2. The upper reaches of the largest river in Southern China as an “evolutionary front” of tropical plants: Evidences from Asia-endemic genus Hiptage (Malpighiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, M. X.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity hotspot at the Guizhou–Yunnan–Guangxi borders is a distribution centre of tropical plants in China. It spans the whole upper reaches of Zhujiang River, the largest river in Southern China. In this paper, I aimed to explore the roles of the river in the spread and diversification of tropical plants in this area, using the Asia-endemic genus Hiptage Gaertn. (Malpighiaceae as an example. Two diversity and endemism centres of Hiptage are recognized: Indo-China Peninsula and upper reaches of Zhujiang River (UZJ. The area-adjusted endemism index further indicates UZJ as the most important distribution region of endemic species since UZJ has a very small area (~210,000 km2 but six out of the total seven species are narrow endemics. UZJ is located at the northern edge of distribution ranges of Hiptage, which resulted mainly from the north-west–south-east river systems of UZJ promoting northward spreads of this tropical genus. The highly-fragmented limestone landscapes in this region may promote habitat isolation and tends to be the main driving factor for origins of these endemic species. Hiptage is also distinctive for its highly-specialized pollination system, mirror-image flowers, which probably facilitates species diversification via floral and pollination isolation. Other studies also found UZJ as a major diversification centre of the tropical plant families Gesneriaceae and Begoniaceae. Thereafter, it is concluded that UZJ is an “evolutionary front” of tropical plants in China, which contributes significantly to the origin and maintenance of the unique biodiversity in the area.El hotspot de biodiversidad en las fronteras de las provincias Guizhou-Yunnan- Guangxi es un centro de distribución de plantas tropicales en China. Se extiende por toda la cuenca alta del río Zhujiang, el mayor río del sur de China. En este artículo, se explora el papel del río en la propagación y la diversificación de las plantas tropicales

  3. An ancient satellite DNA has maintained repetitive units of the original structure in most species of the living fossil plant genus Zamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafasso, Donata; Chinali, Gianni

    2014-03-01

    ZpS1 satellite DNA is specific to the genus Zamia and presents repetitive units organized as long arrays and also as very short arrays dispersed in the genome. We have characterized the structure of the ZpS1 repeats in 12 species representative of the whole geographic distribution of the genus. In most species, the clone most common sequences (cMCS) were so similar that a general most common sequence (GMCS) of the ZpS1 repetitive unit in the genus could be obtained. The few partial variations from the GMCS found in cMCS of some species correspond to variable positions present in most other species, as indicated by the clone consensus sequences (cCS). Two species have an additional species-specific variety of ZpS1 satellite. The dispersed repeats were found to contain more mutations than repeats from long arrays. Our results indicate that all or most species of Zamia inherited the ZpS1 satellite from a common ancestor in Miocene and have maintained repetitive units of the original structure till present. The features of ZpS1 satellite in the genus Zamia are poorly compatible with the model of concerted evolution, but they are perfectly consistent with a new model of satellite evolution based on experimental evidences indicating that a specific amplification-substitution repair mechanism maintains the homogeneity and stability of the repeats structure in each satellite DNA originally present in a species as long as the species exists.

  4. Phylogeny and host-plant relationships of the Australian Myrtaceae leafmining moth genus Pectinivalva (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae), with new subgenera and species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoare, R.J.B.; Nieukerken, van E.J.

    2013-01-01

    The phylogeny of the mainly Australian nepticulid genus Pectinivalva Scoble, 1983 is investigated on the basis of morphology, and a division into three monophyletic subgenera is proposed on the basis of these results. These subgenera (Pectinivalva, Casanovula Hoare, subgen. n. and Menurella Hoare,

  5. Bioaktivitas dan Kandungan Genus Callicarpa

    OpenAIRE

    -, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    Callicarpa L is one genus of the family Lamiaceae. Callicarpa consisting of approximately 150 species such as shrubs and trees. Various species of Callicarpa is widely used in traditional medicine and it was potentially as antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial and thrombolytic drugs. Based on various reports results of previous studies have found various types of secondary metabolites from plants Callicarpa such as terpenoids, steroids and flavonoids. Some of these compounds can be deve...

  6. Ana o 2, a major cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) nut allergen of the legumin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Robotham, Jason M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Sathe, Shridhar K; Roux, Kenneth H

    2003-09-01

    We recently cloned and described a vicilin and showed it to be a major cashew allergen. Additional IgE-reactive cashew peptides of the legumin group and 2S albumin families have also been reported. Here, we attempt to clone, express and characterize a second major cashew allergen. A cashew cDNA library was screened with human IgE and rabbit IgG anti-cashew extract antisera, and a reactive nonvicilin clone was sequenced and expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Immunoblotting was used to screen for reactivity with patients' sera, and inhibition of immunoblotting was used to identify the corresponding native peptides in cashew nut extract. The identified allergen was subjected to linear epitope mapping using SPOTs solid-phase synthetic peptide technology. Sequence analysis showed the selected clone, designated Ana o 2, to encode for a member of the legumin family (an 11S globulin) of seed storage proteins. By IgE immunoblotting, 13 of 21 sera (62%) from cashew-allergic patients were reactive. Immunoblot inhibition data showed that the native Ana o 2 constitutes a major band at approximately 33 kD and a minor band at approximately 53 kD. Probing of overlapping synthetic peptides with pooled human cashew-allergic sera identified 22 reactive peptides, 7 of which gave strong signals. Several Ana o 2 epitopes were shown to overlap those of the peanut legumin group allergen, Ara h 3, in position but with little sequence similarity. Greater positional overlap and identity was observed between Ana o 2 and soybean glycinin epitopes. We conclude that this legumin-like protein is a major allergen in cashew nut. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Evaluation of natural 15N abundance method in estimating symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by leguminous grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Yunyin; Cheng Ming; Ma Changlin; Wang Zhidong; Hou Jinqin; Zhang Lihong; Luo Yongyun

    1991-01-01

    Natural 15 N abundance method was used to estimate contribution of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation by leguminous grasses. With the method the expensive 15 N fertilizer did not need to be applied to the soil and the normal ecosystem was not disturbed. Collecting samples of shoots of leguminous grasses and measuring the content of 15 N in them wee all to do for estimating potential of symbiotically fixed N 2 . Isotopic fractionation associated with N 2 fixation by legumes was studied. Values for 7 cultivars of alfalfa were ranged between 1.0000 ∼ 1.0015 (δ 15 N values were -0.05 ∼ 1.47 per mille); and the values for white clover, mung bean and whitepopinac lead tree were 0.0079, 0.9983 and 1.0018 (δ 15 N values: 2.15, 1.74 and -1.81 per mille) respectively. According to the δ 15 N values of grasses tested, the potential of N 2 fixation for 6 cultivars of alfalfa was estimated. Glory and rambler had higher potential of N 2 fixation; Baoding, Aigonquin and Minto had lower potential, and Peru was the lowest.N 2 fixing activity of alfalfa varied with different periods. The peak was found between June and July. Effects of non-N 2 -fixing references and different methods on estimates of %Ndfa of leguminous grasses were also discussed

  8. The complete genome sequence of the first hesperiid-infecting alphabaculovirus isolated from the leguminous pest Urbanus proteus (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ethiane R; Oliveira, Lucas B; Peterson, Lenen; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel R; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel M P

    2018-03-20

    Baculoviruses are insect viruses largely used as expression vectors and biopesticides. These viruses can efficiently infect the larval stage of several agricultural pests worldwide causing a lethal disease. In this work, we found a novel baculovirus isolated from the larval stage of Urbanus proteus (L.), the bean leafroller and characterized its complete genome. This is an important pest of several leguminous plants in Brazil and belongs to the butterfly family Hesperiidae, from where no baculovirus genome sequence has been described. This new virus was shown to have the smallest genome among all alphabaculoviruses sequenced to date, with 105,555 bp and 119 putative ORFs. We found ten unique genes, seven bro, and the 38 baculovirus core genes. UrprNPV was found to be related to the Adoxophyes-infecting baculoviruses AdorNPV and AdhoNPV with high genetic distance and a long branch length. Interestingly, few individual core gene-based phylogenies were found to support the relationship of UrprNPV to both AdorNPV and AdhoNPV. Importantly, the increase in number of completely sequenced baculovirus points to a very exciting way to understand baculovirus and its evolution and could potentially help the use of baculovirus as both biopesticides and expression vectors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genus four superstring measures

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciatori, Sergio L.; Piazza, Francesco Dalla; van Geemen, Bert

    2008-01-01

    A main issue in superstring theory are the superstring measures. D'Hoker and Phong showed that for genus two these reduce to measures on the moduli space of curves which are determined by modular forms of weight eight and the bosonic measure. They also suggested a generalisation to higher genus. We showed that their approach works, with a minor modification, in genus three and we announced a positive result also in genus four. Here we give the modular form in genus four explicitly. Recently S...

  10. Genomic Diversity in the Genus of Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jane Lind Nybo

    Aspergillus is a highly important genus of saprotrophic filamentous fungi. It is a very diverse genus that is inextricably intertwined with human a↵airs on a daily basis, holding species relevant to plant and human pathology, enzyme and bulk chemistry production, food and beverage biotechnology......, and scientific model organisms. The phenotypic diversity in this genus is extraordinary and identifying the genetic basis for this diversity has great potential for academia and industry. When the genomic era began for Aspergillus in 2005 with the genome sequences of A. nidulans, A. oryzae and A. fumigatus...

  11. The Mesozoic megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattemore Gary A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The plant megafossil genus Linguifolium Arber 1917 is chiefly known from the Middle and Upper Triassic of Gondwana. The range of Linguifolium extended beyond Gondwana by the Late Triassic, persisting there through the earliest Jurassic (Hettangian. The parent plants probably grew in a well-watered, canopied environment.

  12. Enhancing the biological nitrogen fixation of leguminous crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legumes have the ability to establish a symbiotic interaction with soil bacteria, collectively termed as rhizobia. These bacteria can enhance growth and development of associated crops by transferring atmospheric nitrogen into a form that is available for plant growth or by improving nutrient uptake through modulation of ...

  13. [Effects of environmental stress on seedlings root growth and nodulation of leguminous shrubs in the dry valley of Minjiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Lan; Zhu, Lin-Hai; Bao, Wei-Kai

    2009-08-01

    A field investigation was made to understand the seedlings root nodulation, biomass accumulation, root length, and fine root percentage of Sophora davidii, Indigofera lenticellata and Campylotropis polyantha along an altitudinal gradient on two contrasting sloped hills (north Zongqu and south Jingzhoushan) in the dry valley of Minjiang River. In the meantime, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the adaptation responses of 2 month-old S. davidii and C. polyantha seedlings root nodulation to different soil moisture regimes (80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% WHC). For the three test shrub species, fewer nodules were observed at lower altitude (1600-1950 m) areas, the nodule number per plant of S. davidii, I. lenticellata, and C. polyantha being 0.1 +/- 0.1, 0.9 +/- 0.5, and 5.7 +/- 1.9, and the non-nodulation plant accounting for 65.1%, 12.3% and 17.6%, respectively. The nodule number of the three species increased with increasing altitude, and correlated positively with root length and fine root percentage. However, there were no significant differences in the plant growth and biomass at different altitudes. When the soil moisture content was lower than 60% WHC, the nodule number and the fresh and dry mass of both S. davidii and C. polyantha decreased markedly, and at 20% WHC, no nodule and only 9.8 +/- 3.6 nodules were observed for S. davidii and C. polyantha, respectively, indicating that in this dry valley, the root nodulation capability of endemic leguminous shrubs was very low. Comparing with S. davidii, C. polyantha had higher root nodulation capability and drought-resistance. Prior to introducing these shrub species in forestation practices, to keep the soil moisture content higher than 40% WHC was recommended for relatively efficient biological nitrogen fixation.

  14. Natural medicine: the genus Angelica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, S D; Nahar, L

    2004-06-01

    More than 60 species of medicinal plants belong to the genus Angelica (Family: Apiaceae). Many of these species have long been used in ancient traditional medicine systems, especially in the far-east. Various herbal preparations containing Angelica species are available over-the-counter, not only in the far-eastern countries, but also in the western countries like USA, UK, Germany, etc. For centuries, many species of this genus, e.g. A. acutiloba, A. archangelica, A. atropupurea, A. dahurica, A. japonica, A. glauca, A. gigas, A. koreana, A. sinensis, A. sylvestris, etc., have been used traditionally as anti-inflammatory, diuretic, expectorant and diaphoretic, and remedy for colds, flu, influenza, hepatitis, arthritis, indigestion, coughs, chronic bronchitis, pleurisy, typhoid, headaches, wind, fever, colic, travel sickness, rheumatism, bacterial and fungal infections and diseases of the urinary organs. Active principles isolated from these plants mainly include various types of coumarins, acetylenic compounds, chalcones, sesquiterpenes and polysaccharides. This review evaluates the importance of the genus Angelica in relation to its traditional medicinal uses, alternative medicinal uses in the modern society and potential for drug development, and summarises results of various scientific studies on Angelica species or Angelica-containing preparations for their bioactivities including, antimicrobial, anticancer, antitumour, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc.

  15. A new long-proboscid genus of Pseudopolycentropodidae (Mecoptera from the Middle Jurassic of China and its plant-host specializations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChungKun Shih

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new genus and species of Mecoptera with siphonate mouthparts, Sinopolycentropus rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n., assigned to the family Pseudopolycentropodidae Handlirsch, 1925. The specimen was collected from late middle Jurassic nonmarine strata of the Jiulongshan Formation in Inner Mongolia, northeastern China. The new material provides additional evidence for an early diversification of pseudopolycentropodids that was ongoing during the middle Jurassic. This diversity also adds to the variety of known pseudopolycentropodids with tubular proboscides that apparently fed on ovulate fluids produced by Mesozoic gymnosperms.

  16. Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physiopathological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza V. Oliva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtained from leguminous seeds, various plant proteins inhibit animal proteinases, including human, and can be considered for the development of compounds with biological activity. Inhibitors from the Bowman-Birk and plant Kunitz-type family have been characterized by proteinase specificity, primary structure and reactive site. Our group mostly studies the genus Bauhinia, mainly the species bauhinioides, rufa, ungulata and variegata. In some species, more than one inhibitor was characterized, exhibiting different properties. Although proteins from this group share high structural similarity, they present differences in proteinase inhibition, explored in studies using diverse biological models.Obtidas de sementes leguminosas, várias proteínas inibem proteinases de origem animal, incluindo humanas, e podem ser consideradas para o desenvolvimento de compostos com atividade biológica. Inibidores da família Bowman-Birk e da família Kunitz vegetal tem sido caracterizados em relação a especificidade para proteinase, estrutura primária e sitio reativo. O nosso grupo majoritariamente vem estudando o gênero Bauhinia, principalmente as espécies bauhinioides, rufa, ungulatae variegata. Em algumas espécies, mais de um inibidor com propriedades diferentes foi caracterizado. Embora tais proteínas apresentem alta similaridade estrutural, diferem quanto à inibição de proteinases, e foram exploradas em estudos utilizando diversos modelos biológicos.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of the cosmopolitan aquatic plant genus Limosella (Scrophulariaceae) with a particular focus on the origin of the Australasian L. curdieana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yu; Tanaka, Norio; Albach, Dirk C; Barfod, Anders S; Oxelman, Bengt; Muasya, A Muthama

    2017-01-01

    Limosella is a small aquatic genus of Scrophulariaceae of twelve species, of which one is distributed in northern circumpolar regions, two in southern circumpolar regions, two in the Americas, one endemic to Australia, and six in tropical or southern Africa or both. The Australasian L. curdieana has always been considered distinct but its close phylogenetic relationships have never been inferred. Here, we investigated the following alternative phylogenetic hypotheses based on comparative leaf morphology and habitat preferences or floral morphology: (1) L. curdieana is sister to the African L. grandiflora; or (2) it is closely related to a group of other African species and the northern circumpolar L. aquatica. We tested these hypotheses in a phylogenetic framework using DNA sequence data from four plastid DNA regions and the nuclear ITS region. These were analyzed using maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference. We obtained moderately resolved, partially conflicting phylogenies, supporting that accessions of L. grandiflora form the sister group to the rest of the genus and that L. curdieana groups with the African taxa, L. africana and L. major, and L. aquatica. Thus, the molecular evidence supports the second hypothesis. A biogeographic analysis suggests an out-of-southern Africa scenario and several dispersal events in the Southern Hemisphere. Past dispersal from southern Africa to Australasia is suggested, yet it cannot be excluded that a route via tropical Africa and temperate Asia has existed.

  18. Genus Pouteria: chemistry and biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia A. M. Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Pouteria belongs to the family Sapotaceae and can be widely found around the World. These plants have been used as building material, as food, because the eatable fruits, as well as remedies in folk medicine. Some biological activities have been reported to species of this genus such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal. However, the real potential of this genus as source of new drugs or phytomedicines remains unknown. Therefore, a review of the so far known chemical composition and biological activities of this genus is presented to stimulate new studies about the species already reported moreover that species have no reference about chemistry or biological activities could be found until now.

  19. Diversity of root nodule bacteria from leguminous crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a total of 353 nodule-associated bacteria were isolated from 220 legume plant samples belonging to Cicer arietinum (85, Glycine max (74, Vigna radiata (21 and Cajanus cajan (40. A total of 224 bacteria were identified as fast-growing Rhizobium spp. on the basis of differential staining (Gram staining and carbol fuchsin staining and biochemical tests. All the isolates were tested for indole acetic acid production (IAA, phosphate solubilization and siderophore production on plate assay. To examine the effect of volatile organic metabolites (VOM and water soluble soil components (WSSC on nodule bacteria, culture conditions were optimized by observing the effects of various parameters such as pH, salt content and temperatures on the growth of bacteria. Selected rhizobia were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA analysis to identify their species. On the basis of RAPD and ARDRA, 10 isolates were identified as Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, Rhizobium GO4, G16, G20, G77, S43, S81, M07, M37, A15 and A55 were observed as the best candidates among the tested bacteria and can be further used as potent bioinoculants.

  20. Yucca: A medicinally significant genus with manifold therapeutic attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The genus Yucca comprising of several species is dominant across the chaparrals, canyons and deserts of American South West and Mexico. This genus has long been a source of sustenance and drugs for the Native Americans. In the wake of revived interest in drug discovery from plant sources, this genus has been investigated and startling nutritive and therapeutic capacities have come forth. Apart from the functional food potential, antioxidant, antiinflammation, antiarthritic, anticancer, antidi...

  1. Can sea trout Salmo trutta compromise successful eradication of Gyrodactylus salaris by hiding from CFT Legumin (rotenone) treatments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, J. G.; Thorstad, E. B.; Baktoft, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 34 anadromous brown trout (sea trout) Salmo trutta were equipped with acoustic transmitters in order to examine whether they performed avoidance behaviour in response to a CFT Legumin (rotenone) treatment in the Norwegian River Vefsna. Migratory behaviour of the S. trutta was monit......In this study, 34 anadromous brown trout (sea trout) Salmo trutta were equipped with acoustic transmitters in order to examine whether they performed avoidance behaviour in response to a CFT Legumin (rotenone) treatment in the Norwegian River Vefsna. Migratory behaviour of the S. trutta...

  2. Differences in anatomical and morphological structure of plants from the genus Neoregelia L.B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae as a result of adaptation to arid environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya V. Nuzhyna

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the anatomical leaf structure of 13 species of the genus Neoregelia has done. Species differ mostly by morphometric and quantitative parameters of their leaves. Also trichomes of N. lilliputiana and N. pendula can be considered as markers of a species. Two possible ways of leaves adaptation to arid conditions on the anatomical level, and depending on the structure of rosettes were found. 1 Thickening of leaf lamina, increasing of percent of water storage parenchyma, increasing of epidermal area, covered by water-absorbing trichomes – in species with small narrow rosettes. 2 Decreasing of percent of water storage parenchyma and decreasing of epidermal area, covered by waterabsorbing trichomes, compensated by the ability to accumulate large amounts of water after the rainfalls – in species with large rosettes.

  3. Therapeutic value of the genus Alpinia, Zingiberaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane P. Victório

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Plants containing bioactive substances have increasingly become the object of research studies, particularly those plants with therapeutic value. Many species of the genus Alpinia provide a variety of medicinal properties, such as, Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. Burtt et Smith and A. purpurata (Vieill K. Schum, which have a significant presence in Brazil. These species have been commercialized in the food and cosmetic industries. However, their greatest importance arises from the medicinal properties of their essential oils containing flavonoids, terpenoids and kavalactones which have been used in folk medicine to treat, for example, arterial hypertension and inflammatory processes. In addition, such species are also used in multidisciplinary studies, including phytochemistry, ethnobotany and biology, indicating the key pharmacological role of this genus in everyday life. Therefore, this work aims to present a bibliographic review of the genus Alpinia and its significance in therapeutic applications.

  4. The Missing Link in Leguminous Pterocarpan Biosynthesis is a Dirigent Domain-Containing Protein with Isoflavanol Dehydratase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Kai; Akashi, Tomoyoshi; Aoki, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    Pterocarpan forms the basic structure of leguminous phytoalexins, and most of the isoflavonoid pathway genes encoding the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis have been identified. However, the last step of pterocarpan biosynthesis is a ring closure reaction, and the enzyme that catalyzes this step, 2'-hydroxyisoflavanol 4,2'-dehydratase or pterocarpan synthase (PTS), remains as an unidentified 'missing link'. This last ring formation is assumed to be the key step in determining the stereochemistry of pterocarpans, which plays a role in their antimicrobial activity. In this study, a cDNA clone encoding PTS from Glycyrrhiza echinata (GePTS1) was identified through functional expression fractionation screening of a cDNA library, which requires no sequence information, and orthologs from soybean (GmPTS1) and Lotus japonicus (LjPTS1) were also identified. These proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, the proteins were found to include amino acid motifs characteristic of dirigent proteins, some of which control stereospecific phenoxy radical coupling in lignan biosynthesis. The stereospecificity of substrates and products was examined using four substrate stereoisomers with hydroxy and methoxy derivatives at C-4'. The results showed that the 4R configuration was essential for the PTS reaction, and (-)- and (+)-pterocarpans were produced depending on the stereochemistry at C-3. In suspension-cultured soybean cells, levels of the GmPTS1 transcript increased temporarily prior to the peak in phytoalexin accumulation, strongly supporting the possible involvement of PTS in pterocarpan biosynthesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of leguminous cover crops on soil biological activity in pots of Citrus unshiu Marcovitch

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    Cristina Abbate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of cover crops on soil properties in citrus orchards. To fill this gap, this work was aimed to determine the effects of leguminous cover crops on the chemical and biological properties of the soil and on the structure of the microbial community in pots of Citrus unshiu (Marcovitch. After amendment with cover crops, an increase in total organic C (TOC, total extractable C (TEC, and total N (TN contents were observed irrespective of the type of soil. Substrate induced respiration (SIR, and potentially mineralisable nitrogen (PMN, tested three times in one year, were higher in soils with leguminous cover crops while no significant differences were observed in protease and deaminase activity. The effect on the chemical and biochemical properties of the soil was more evident in plots containing Trifolium subterraneum. No changes were observed in the microbial communities studied (_-proteobacteria, _-proteobacteria, nitrogen-fixing, and ammonia oxidizers irrespective of the kind of cover crop or type of soil, neither were variations noted during the trial.

  6. Pattern of fecal endogenous nitrogen excretion in rats fed leguminous diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, S M; de Oliveira, A C

    1996-02-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to establish the pattern in relation to time of the rat fecal endogenous nitrogen excretion by continuous feeding of balanced diets containing common peas, cowpeas or common beans as the protein sources (10% protein), labeled with 1.000 atoms % of 15N-excess. Nitrogen of endogenous origin was measured by the isotope dilution method in a 6-day experiment. Fecal excretion of endogenous nitrogen of rats fed the leguminous diets was roughly twice that of rats fed the non-protein diet (88 mg, 42 mg), and the excretion of total fecal nitrogen did not differ among leguminous diets. From the third to the sixth day of the experiment, the endogenous nitrogen excretion, either as a percentage of quantity (mg), attained a statistically non different value (p > 0.05). A common pattern of excretion of fecal endogenous nitrogen as a function of time was expressed by a strong negative (r nitrogen did not show a common pattern as a function of time for all experimental diets.

  7. Minimal genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider genus one equations of degree $n$, namely a (generalised) binary quartic when $n=2$, a ternary cubic when $n=3$, and a pair of quaternary quadrics when $n=4$. A new definition for the minimality of genus one equations of degree $n$ over local fields is introduced. The advantage of this definition is that it does not depend on invariant theory of genus one curves. We prove that this definition coincides with the classical definition of minimality for all $n\\le4$. As a...

  8. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of the Genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Melodinus is an important genus comprising of approximately 53 species of medicinal plants (Apocynaceae). Some species have been used in Chinese folk medicine for the treatment of meningitis in children, rheumatic heart diseases, and diuresis, as well as a decongestive against migraine and sinusitis. This paper is a ...

  9. The genus Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson

    2008-01-01

    The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...

  10. Effect of four plant species on soil 15N-access and herbage yield in temporary agricultural grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Eriksen, J.; Rasmussen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    access to greater amounts of soil 15N compared with a shallow-rooting binary mixture, and if leguminous plants affect herbage yield and soil 15N-access. Methods 15N-enriched ammonium-sulphate was placed at three different soil depths (0.4, 0.8 and 1.2 m) to determine the depth dependent soil 15N...... relatively large amounts of shallow soil 15N. Legumes fixed large amounts of N2, added and spared N for non-leguminous plants, which especially stimulated the growth of perennial ryegrass. Conclusions Our study showed that increased plant diversity in agricultural grasslands can have positive effects...... on the environment (improved N use may lead to reduced N leaching) and agricultural production (increased herbage yield). A complementary effect between legumes and non-leguminous plants and increasing plant diversity had a greater positive impact on herbage yield compared with complementary vertical soil 15N-access....

  11. The genus Baijiania (Cucurbitaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2003-01-01

    The genus Baijiania, originally thought to be indigenous in China and Borneo, appears to be restricted to Borneo. The only species is Baijiania borneensis, with two varieties, the type variety and var. paludicola Duyfjes, var. nov.

  12. Potential values of some non-leguminous browse plants as dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest potential gas production, rate of gas production, metabolizable energy and short chain fatty acid were observed in S. mombin. From the result obtained, it is suggested that some of the browse species could be utilized by ruminants as feed supplement during both wet and dry seasons. S. mombin being high in ...

  13. "Aerogels of enzymatically oxidized galactomannans from leguminous plants: Versatile delivery systems of antimicrobial peptides and enzymes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campia, Paola; Ponzini, Erika; Rossi, Bianca; Farris, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Merlini, Luca; Brasca, Milena; Grandori, Rita; Galante, Yves M

    2017-02-20

    We describe aerogels obtained by laccase/TEMPO-oxidation and lyophilization of galactomannans (GM) from fenugreek, sesbania and guar. Enzymatic oxidation of GM in aqueous solution caused viscosity increase up to fifteen-fold, generating structured, elastic, stable hydrogels, presumably due to establishment of hemiacetalic bonds between newly formed carbonyl groups and free hydroxyl groups. Upon lyophilization, water-insoluble aerogels were obtained, whose mechanical properties and porosity were investigated. Active principles were absorbed into the aerogels from aqueous solutions and, following rinsing, blotting, re-lyophilization, were released in an appropriate medium. The release of the antibiotic polymyxin B was tested against six different Gram-negative bacterial strains, of the antimicrobial peptide nisin against two Gram-positive and of the muraminidase lysozyme against one anaerobic strain. Protease and lipase release in solution from "enzyme loaded" aerogels was monitored by the increase in enzymatic activity. These biomaterials could represent new versatile, biocompatible "delivery systems" of actives for biomedical and industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biological fixation of nitrogen in three tropical feed crops leguminous and its transfer to Brachiaria humidicola in association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Jose Luis; Guenni, Orlando; Espinoza, Yusmary

    1997-01-01

    In Cojedes State drained savannas an experiment was carried out with the purpose of: a) to determine the biological fixation of nitrogen (BFN) in three tropical feed crops leguminous (Centrosema pubescens Cp, Stylosanthes hamata Sh and Pueraria phaseoloides, Pp) cultivated in monoculture and associated with the gramineous Brachiaria humidicola (Bh); b) to evaluate the transfer potential of N fixed to the air to the companion gramineous. To calculate the proportion of N biologically fixed, the technique of isotopic dilution was used with N 1 5. The fertilizer (enriched ammonium sulphate to 10% with N 1 5) was added during the rainy season in two regrowth periods. In each case, the aerial biomass was determined after 90 days of growth, being analyzed the total content of N and N 1 5 in the foliage. In both periods of evaluation, the association Bh / Cp was stabler, with a proportion of the leguminous in the mixture 20-30%. As monoculture, Bh had the biggest production of aerial biomass (972 gm -2 ) among all the treatments for the first period of evaluation (middle rainy season). The total production of dry matter (DM) in association, was modified between 574 (Bh/Cp) and 807 gm -2 (Bh/Sh). The production DM for the second period of evaluation (end rainy season) followed the same tendency, being observed, however, a general decrease in the yields due to the beginning of drought. The content of N in the leguminous was always higher than in Bh. Nevertheless, Bh in association reached an accumulation bigger than N (14 gm -2 ) due to its higher rate of growth. The leguminous alone had a significant proportion of N (47-69%) derivated of the BFN. Cp was the one that showed higher values of BFN (51-69%). Likewise, one observes a high proportion (57-76%) of element starting from the BFN when the leguminous were cultivated in association. In this sense one doesn't observe a clear transfer of N from the leguminous to the gramineous, since the contents of N 1 5 in Bh they were

  15. Analysis and effect of the use of biofertilizers on Trifolium rubens L., a preferential attention species in Castile and Leon, Spain, with the aim of increasing the plants conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Cruz-González

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium rubens L. is a leguminous plant “Preferential Attention”, according to the Catalog of Protected Flora of Castile and Leon (Spain. In this study we aimed to analyze the potential of three bacterial strains of the genus Rhizobium to improve the growth and development of this plant. All three strains produced 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA, but the strain ATCC 14480 produced the most. In addition, all strains produced biofilms and cellulases, although in different quantities. The synthesis of these products has been described as being related to the processes of the adherence of bacteria to the plant root surface and their entrance into the plant, respectively. In addition, in vitro assays and assays conducted under controlled and sterile conditions were performed, showing that the three strains were capable of nodulating T. rubens L. and effectively fixed nitrogen for the plant. These results were corroborated by morphological and histological analysis of nodules. Finally, greenhouse assays determined the effects of the strains under more competitive conditions, and it was concluded that inoculated plants presented greater lengths and weights, both aerial and radicular, and also chlorophyll and nitrogen content compared to the uninoculated controls.

  16. Description of a cryptic new species of the plant bug genus Eccritotarsus (Heteroptera: Miridae: Bryocorinae) from Peru, a new biocontrol agent of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new plant bug Eccritotarsus eichhorniae is described from specimens taken on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Maynas Province, Peru. This new species is extremely similar to Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho), a species described from Santa Catarina, Brazil. These two populations were...

  17. Diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALIEFMAN HAKIM

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hakim A. 2010. The diversity of secondary metabolites from Genus Artocarpus (Moraceae. Nusantara Bioscience 2:146-156. Several species of the Artocarpus genus (Moraceae have been investigated their natural product. The secondary metabolites successfully being isolatad from Artocarpus genus consist of terpenoid, flavonoids, stilbenoid, arylbenzofuran, neolignan, and adduct Diels-Alder. Flavonoid group represent the compound which is the most found from Artocarpus plant. The flavonoids compound which are successfully isolated from Artocarpus plant consist of the varied frameworks like chalcone, flavanone, flavan-3-ol, simple flavone, prenylflavone, oxepinoflavone, pyranoflavone, dihydrobenzoxanthone, furanodihydrobenzoxanthone, pyranodihydrobenzoxanthone, quinonoxanthone, cyclopentenoxanthone, xanthonolide, dihydroxanthone.

  18. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N0.06%) compared to under the pure eucalypt stand (N1% in the mixed stand and C< 0.9 in the pure Eucalyptus stand).

  19. Classification of the medicinal plants of the genus Atractylodes using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection combined with multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Deok; Kim, Unyong; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Eom, Han Young; Kim, Junghyun; Lee, Seul Gi; Choi, Yong Seok; Han, Sang Beom

    2016-04-01

    Analytical methods using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and tandem mass spectrometry detection were developed for the discrimination of the rhizomes of four Atractylodes medicinal plants: A. japonica, A. macrocephala, A. chinensis, and A. lancea. A quantitative study was performed, selecting five bioactive components, including atractylenolide I, II, III, eudesma-4(14),7(11)-dien-8-one and atractylodin, on twenty-six Atractylodes samples of various origins. Sample extraction was optimized to sonication with 80% methanol for 40 min at room temperature. High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was established using a C18 column with a water/acetonitrile gradient system at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 236 nm. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry was applied to certify the reliability of the quantitative results. The developed methods were validated by ensuring specificity, linearity, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery, robustness, and stability. Results showed that cangzhu contained higher amounts of atractylenolide I and atractylodin than baizhu, and especially atractylodin contents showed the greatest variation between baizhu and cangzhu. Multivariate statistical analysis, such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, were also employed for further classification of the Atractylodes plants. The established method was suitable for quality control of the Atractylodes plants. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The genome of the endophytic bacterium H. frisingense GSF30T identifies diverse strategies in the Herbaspirillum genus to interact with plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStraub

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The diazotrophic, bacterial endophyte Herbaspirillum frisingense GSF30T has been identified in biomass grasses grown in temperate climate, including the highly nitrogen-efficient grass Miscanthus. Its genome was annotated and compared with related Herbaspirillum species from diverse habitats, including H. seropedicae, and further well-characterized endophytes. The analysis revealed that Herbaspirillum frisingense lacks a type III secretion system that is present in some related Herbaspirillum grass endophytes. Together with the lack of components of the type II secretion system, the genomic inventory indicates distinct interaction scenarios of endophytic Herbaspirillum strains with plants. Differences in respiration, carbon, nitrogen and cell wall metabolism among Herbaspirillum isolates partially correlate with their different habitats. Herbaspirillum frisingense is closely related to strains isolated from the rhizosphere of phragmites and from well water, but these lack nitrogen fixation and metabolism genes. Within grass endophytes, the high diversity in their genomic inventory suggests that even individual plant species provide distinct, highly diverse metabolic niches for successful endophyte-plant associations.

  1. 15N2 Fixation and H2 Evolution by Six Species of Tropical Leguminous Trees 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kessel, Christopher; Roskoski, Joann P.; Wood, Timothy; Montano, Jorge

    1983-01-01

    The C2H4/15N2 and H2/15N2 ratios for six species of tropical leguminous trees are reported. C2H4/15N2 ratios ranged from 2.4 to 4.7; values for the H2/15N2 ratios were between 0.6 and 1.4. Relative efficiency values, based on C2H2 reduction, 15N incorporation, and H2 evolution during 15N incorporation varied between 0.68 and 0.84 for the six species. Overall, approximately 30% of the electron flow through nitrogenase was used for H2 evolution. PMID:16663109

  2. Leguminous lectins as tools for studying the role of sugar residues in leukocyte recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, N M; Teixeira, E H; Assreuy, A M; Cavada, B S; Flores, C A; Ribeiro, R A

    1999-01-01

    The natural physiological ligands for selectins are oligosaccharides found in glycoprotein or glycolipid molecules in cell membranes. In order to study the role of sugar residues in the in vivo lectin anti-inflammatory effect, we tested three leguminous lectins with different carbohydrate binding affinities in the peritonitis and paw oedema models induced by carrageenin in rats. L. sericeus lectin was more anti-inflammatory than D. virgata lectin, the effects being reversed by their specific binding sugars (N-acetylglucosamine and alpha-methylmannoside, respectively). However, V. macrocarpa, a galactose-specific lectin, was not anti-inflammatory. The proposed anti-inflammatory activity of lectins could be due to a blockage of neutrophil-selectin carbohydrate ligands. Thus, according to the present data, we suggest an important role for N-acetylglucosamine residue as the major ligand for selectins on rat neutrophil membranes. PMID:10704148

  3. The use of nitrogen-15 labeling for the assessment of leguminous protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domene, S M; de Oliveira, A C

    1993-02-01

    This study evaluated the digestibility of leguminous protein labeled with 15N, by using nitrogen balance and quantitation of fecal endogenous nitrogen (FEN), determined by isotopic dilution, in order to correct apparent values. Seeds of common beans, cowpea and common pea labeled with 1.000 atoms% of 15N-excess were used as protein sources in diets for 60 male Wistar rats, during a 6-day assay. The real digestibility values obtained with FEN were 77.6, 84.4, and 86.3% for common beans, cowpea and common pea, respectively. They were higher and statistically different (p < 0.05) than true digestibility values, corrected by non-protein diet. FEN showed a direct, moderate and positive relation with weight of dry matter eaten, initial body weight, weight gain and weight of dry matter of feces, the latter showing the highest correlation, with a coefficient r = 0.8930 at 1% level.

  4. Identification and nomenclature of the genus Penicillium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2014-01-01

    Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens....... Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept...... of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted...

  5. Occurrence of nodulation in unexplored leguminous trees native to the West African tropical rainforest and inoculation response of native species useful in reforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabate, Moussa; Munive, Antonio; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Ba, Amadou; Dreyfus, Bernard; Galiana, Antoine

    2005-04-01

    Despite the abundance and diversity of timber tree legumes in the West African rainforest, their ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules in symbiosis with rhizobia, and their response to rhizobial inoculation, remain poorly documented. In the first part of this study the occurrence of nodulation was determined in 156 leguminous species growing in six natural forest areas in Guinea, mostly mature trees. In the second part, an in situ experiment of rhizobial inoculation was performed on eight selected tree species belonging to three genera: Albizia, Erythrophleum and Millettia. Of the 97 plant species and 14 genera that had never been examined before this study, 31 species and four genera were reported to be nodulated. After 4 months of growing in a nursery and a further 11 months after transplantation of plants to the field, we observed a highly significant (P < 0.001) and positive effect of inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. strains on the growth of the eight tree species tested. The importance of determining the nodulation ability of unexplored local trees and subsequently using this information for inoculation in reforestation programmes was demonstrated. Copyright New Phytologist (2005).

  6. HUMIFIED FRACTION OF ORGANIC MATTER DUE TO PLANT MIXTURE CULTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONY JARBAS FERREIRA CUNHA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the organic matter changes in quantity and quality, particularly of the humic fraction in the surface layer (0–20 cm, of a Typic Plinthustalf soil under different management of plant mixtures used as green manure for mango (Mangifera indica L. crops. The plant mixtures, which were seeded between rows of mango trees, were formed by two groups of leguminous and non-leguminous plants. Prior to sowing, seeds were combined in different proportions and compositions constituting the following treatments: 100% non-leguminous species (NL; 100% leguminous species (L; 75% L and 25% NL; 50% L and 50% NL; 25% L and 75% NL; and 100% spontaneous vegetation, considered a control. The plant mixtures that grew between rows of mango trees caused changes in the chemical composition of the soil organic matter, especially for the treatments 50% L and 50% NL and 25% L and 75% NL, which increased the content of humic substances in the soil organic matter. However, the treatment 25% L and 75% NL was best at minimising loss of total organic carbon from the soil. The humic acids studied have mostly aliphatic characteristics, showing large amounts of carboxylic and nitrogen groups and indicating that most of the organic carbon was formed by humic substances, with fulvic acid dominating among the alkali soluble fractions.

  7. Protein chemotaxonomy of genus Datura. IV. Amino acid sequence of Datura ferredoxins depends not on the species but the section of Datura plants from which it comes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mino, Y

    1995-07-01

    The complete amino acid sequences of [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins from Datura quercifolia (section Stramonium) and D. fastuosa (section Dutra) have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the entire Cm-protein and of the peptides obtained by tryptic digestion and CNBr treatment. The D. quercifolia and D. fastuosa ferredoxins exhibited identical amino acid sequences to D. stramonium (section Stramonium) and D. metal (section Dutra) ferredoxins, respectively. This result suggests that the amino acid sequence of Datura ferredoxins depends on the section but not the species of Datura plants.

  8. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R.

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea. PMID:29444142

  9. Roots of symptom-free leguminous cover crop and living mulch species harbor diverse Fusarium communities that show highly variable aggressiveness on pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šišić, Adnan; Baćanović-Šišić, Jelena; Karlovsky, Petr; Wittwer, Raphaël; Walder, Florian; Campiglia, Enio; Radicetti, Emanuele; Friberg, Hanna; Baresel, Jörg Peter; Finckh, Maria R

    2018-01-01

    Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp. recovered from the roots were assessed in 2013 and 2014. Disease symptoms were very low at all sites. Nevertheless, out of 1480 asymptomatic roots, 670 isolates of 14 Fusarium spp. were recovered. The most frequently isolated species in both years from all hosts were F. oxysporum and F. avenaceum accounting for 69% of total isolation percentage. They were common at the Swiss, Italian and German sites, whereas at the Swedish site F. oxysporum dominated and F. avenaceum occurred only rarely. The agressiveness and effect on pea biomass were tested in greenhouse assays for 72 isolates of six Fusarium species. Isolates of F. avenaceum caused severe root rot symptoms with mean severity index (DI) of 82 and 74% mean biomass reduction compared to the non-inoculated control. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani isolates were higly variable in agressiveness and their impact on pea biomass. DI varied between 15 and 50 and biomass changes relative to the non-inoculated control -40% to +10%. Isolates of F. tricinctum, F. acuminatum and F. equiseti were non to weakly agressive often enhancing pea biomass. This study shows that some of the major pea pathogens are characterized by high ecological plasticity and have the ability to endophytically colonize the hosts studied that thus may serve as inoculum reservoir for susceptible main legume grain crops such as pea.

  10. Increase of the ejaculatory potency by the systemic administration of aqueous crude extracts of cihuapatli (Montanoa genus) plants in spinal male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro-Juárez, Miguel; Franco, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez-Peña, María de Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, evidence on the aphrodisiac activity of Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora and a comparison with the aphrodisiac activity of Montanoa tomentosa is presented. By using the fictive ejaculation model in spinal male rats, electromyographic recordings of the genital motor pattern of ejaculation were obtained in the bulbospongiosus muscles and analyzed after the intravenous injection of aqueous crude extracts of Montanoa tomentosa, Montanoa frutescens, and Montanoa grandiflora. Results showed that the systemic administration of the aqueous crude extracts of Montanoa plants elicits a significant increase in the ejaculatory capacity of spinal male rats with very robust ejaculatory motor patterns that included the expression of tonic penile erections and penile movements and the potent expulsion of urethral contents. In conclusion, Montanoa frutescens and Montanoa grandiflora increase the ejaculatory potency with aphrodisiac activity similar to Montanoa tomentosa.

  11. The cyanobacterial genus Macrospermum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Komárek, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2008), s. 79-86 ISSN 1802-5439 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050704 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : cyanobacteria * taxonomy * pantropical genus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  12. Genus I. Leptospira

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospira comprise a diverse group of bacteria. Some species cause serious infections in animals and humans. These bacteria are aerobes that consume long-chain fatty acids and alcohols as carbon and energy sources. This genus is distinguished from Leptonema or Turneriella by lack of similarity u...

  13. The genus Lagenophora (Compositae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrera, Angel L.

    1966-01-01

    The genus Lagenophora was first described by Cassini under the name Lagenifera (in Bull. Soc. Philomat. 12, 1816, 199) with the following diagnosis: ‘Ce genre, de la tribus des astérées, comprend le calendula magellanicá, Willd. et le bellis stipitata, Labill. Son principal caractère reside dans la

  14. The amphipod genus Acidostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, E.

    1964-01-01

    The genus Acidostoma was established by Lilljeborg (1865, p. 24) to receive Anonyx obesus Sp. Bate (1862, p. 74). Afterwards two further species have been added, viz. A. laticorne G. O. Sars (1879, p. 440) and A. nodiferum Stephensen (1923, p. 40). In the present paper it will be shown that A.

  15. A key to American genus Merobruchus Bridwell (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) with descriptions of species and two new host plant records for the subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfio, Daiara; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare

    2016-02-09

    Merobruchus Bridwell is placed in the group Merobruchus of Acanthoscelidina (Bruchini) being distinguished from all bruchines mainly by the apical projections in the last abdominal ventrite of females and some males. All 25 species of Merobruchus are distributed in the New World, mainly in the Neotropical Region, feeding on seeds of Mimosoideae (Acacieae, Ingeae and Mimoseae). As well as some other bruchine genera, Merobruchus shows considerable morphological variation both in external and in internal (male genitalia) characters. Moreover, some species are very similar to each other in their colour and distribution pattern of pubescence on the dorsal surface, sometimes making species recognition difficult. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to provide a key including coloured illustrations for Merobruchus species to facilitate the process of identification and to avoid misunderstandings. Images of dorsal habitus, male and female pygidium and male genitalia are provided for all species. In addition, M. machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in DZUP: Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul State) is described; M. bicoloripes (Pic) and M. pickeli (Pic) are redescribed; and a new synonymy is proposed: Pseudopachymerus pickeli Pic, 1927 = Pseudopachymerus pickeli var. subnotatus Pic, 1927 syn. nov. Two new host plants are recorded for Bruchinae: Parapiptadenia rigida (Benth.) Brenan (Mimosoideae) and Pterogyne nitens Tul. (Caesalpinioideae).

  16. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sensen; She, Gaimei; Han, Dan; Wang, Weihua; Liu, Zhao; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  17. Stress tolerance, genetic analysis and symbiotic properties of root-nodulating bacteria isolated from Mediterranean leguminous shrubs in Central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; Puertas-Mejía, Miguel Angel; de Felipe, María del Rosario; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    Nine root-nodulating bacterial isolates were obtained from the leguminous shrubs Spartium junceum, Adenocarpus hispanicus, Cytisus purgans, Cytisus laburnuum, Retama sphaerocarpa and Colutea arborescens in areas of Central Spain. A poliphasic approach analyzing phenotypic, symbiotic and genetic properties was used to study their diversity and characterize them in relation to Mediterranean conditions. Stress tolerance assays revealed marked variations in salinity, extreme pH and cadmium tolerance compared with reference strains, with the majority showing salinity, alkalinity and Cd tolerance and three of them growing at acid pH. Variation within the 16S rRNA gene was examined by amplified 16S rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and direct sequencing to show genetic diversity. Phylogeny confirmed the close relationship of four isolates with Bradyrhizobium canariense, three with Phylobacterium myrsinacearum, one with Rhizobium rhizogenes and another with Mesorhizobium huakuii. The cross inoculation tests revealed wide spectra of nodulation. This is the first report of P. myrsinacearum being able to nodulate these leguminous shrubs, and also the first time reported the association between B.canariense, R. rhizogenes and M. huakuii and C. laburnuum, C. purgans and C. arborescens, respectively. These results suggested that native rhizobia could be suitable candidates as biofertilizers and/or inoculants of leguminous shrubs with restoration or revegetation purposes in Mediterranean areas.

  18. Population genetic structure is shaped by historical, geographic, and environmental factors in the leguminous shrub Caragana microphylla on the Inner Mongolia Plateau of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bo; Sun, Guoli; Wang, Xuemin; Lu, Jingwei; Wang, Ian J; Wang, Zan

    2017-11-13

    Understanding how landscape factors, including suites of geographic and environmental variables, and both historical and contemporary ecological and evolutionary processes shape the distribution of genetic diversity is a primary goal of landscape and conservation genetics and may be particularly consequential for species involved in ecological restoration. In this study, we examine the factors that shape the distribution of genetic variation in a leguminous shrub (Caragana microphylla) important for restoration efforts on the Mongolian Plateau in China. This region houses several major bioclimatic gradients, and C. microphylla is an important restoration species because it stabilizes soils and prevents advancing desertification on the Inner Mongolia Plateau caused by ongoing climate change. We assembled an expansive genomic dataset, consisting of 22 microsatellite loci, four cpDNA regions, and 5788 genome-wide SNPs from ten populations of C. microphylla. We then applied ecological niche modelling and linear and non-linear regression techniques to investigate the historical and contemporary forces that explain patterns of genetic diversity and population structure in C. microphylla on the Inner Mongolia Plateau. We found strong evidence that both geographic and environmental heterogeneity contribute to genetic differentiation and that the spatial distribution of genetic diversity in C. microphylla appears to result partly from the presence of a glacial refugium at the southwestern edge of its current range. These results suggest that geographic, environmental, and historical factors have all contributed to spatial genetic variation in this ecologically important species. These results should guide restoration plans to sustain genetic diversity during plant translocations.

  19. Food quantity and quality of cassava affected by leguminous residues and inorganic nitrogen application in a soil of low natural fertility of the humid tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gomes Moura-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the quality and quantity of biofortified cassava root in a humid tropical environment can be modified with the application of a combination of low- and high-quality residues of leguminous tree species. The experiment was designed as a 6 × 2 factorial (a combination of 4 legume species versus 2 levels of nitrogen with 4 replications in a randomized block design and the following treatments: Gliricidia + Acacia, Gliricidia + Leucaena, Gliricidia + Clitoria, Leucaena + Acacia, Leucaena + Clitoria, and a control without legumes. We analyzed the shoot weight, number of roots/plant, root weight, root production, proximate composition, as well as the mineral, carotenoid, and pro-vitamin A contents. Root production increased with the application of high-quality residues. The protein level influenced the carotenoid content. The allelopathic effect of exotic genera — Leucaena and Acacia —, especially when combined, can decrease the mineral content such as potassium and, therefore, reduce the accumulation of starch.

  20. Genus g temperature string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.; Sen, S.

    1989-01-01

    The geometric approach to bosonic temperature string theory for genus g is formulated in the operator approach of Vafa. It is shown that the Hagedorn temperature exists for all genus g and a conjectured genus g expression for superstring theories with temperature is constructed. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of minerals from leguminous sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Kiran; Uppal, Veny; Kaur, Harpreet

    2014-05-01

    Germinated legumes are highly nutritious food especially for their enhanced iron bioavailability primarily because of reduction of phytates and increase in ascorbic acid with an advancement of germination period. Length of germination time followed by different heat treatments affect the nutritive value of leguminous sprouts. To optimize germination time and heat treatments for enhanced availability of iron from leguminous sprouts, three legumes namely, mungbean, chickpea and cowpea were germinated for three time periods followed by cooking of sprouts by two cooking methods ie. pressure cooking and microwaving. Optimized germination time for mungbean was 12, 16 and 20 h; 36, 48 and 60 h for chickpea and 16, 20 and 24 h for cowpea. Germination process increased ascorbic acid significantly in all the three legumes, the values being 8.24 to 8.87 mg/100 g in mungbean, 9.34 to 9.85 mg/100 g in chickpea and 9.12 to 9.68 mg/100 g in cowpea. Soaking and germination significantly reduced the phytin phosphorus in all the three legumes, the percent reduction being 5.3 to 16.1% during soaking and 25.7 to 46.4% during germination. The reduction in phytin phosphorus after pressure cooking was 9.6% in mungbean, 18.4% in chickpea and 6.1% in cowpea. The corresponding values during microwaving were 8.4, 19.7 and 4.5%. Mineral bioavailability as predicted by phytate:iron enhanced significantly with an increase in germination time. Further reduction i.e. 0.9 to 16.3% was observed in three legumes after the two heat treatments. The study concluded that the longer germination periods ie. 20 h for mungbean, 60 h for chickpea and 24 h for cowpea followed by pressure cooking for optimized time were suitable in terms of better iron availability.

  2. The genus Crataegus: chemical and pharmacological perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional drugs have become a subject of world importance, with both medicinal and economical implications. A regular and widespread use of herbs throughout the world has increased serious concerns over their quality, safety and efficacy. Thus, a proper scientific evidence or assessment has become the criteria for acceptance of traditional health claims. Plants of the genus Crataegus, Rosaceae, are widely distributed and have long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as heart (cardiovascular disorders, central nervous system, immune system, eyes, reproductive system, liver, kidney etc. It also exhibits wide range of cytotoxic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and antimicrobial activities. Phytochemicals like oligomeric procyanidins, flavonoids, triterpenes, polysaccharides, catecholamines have been identified in the genus and many of these have been evaluated for biological activities. This review presents comprehensive information on the chemistry and pharmacology of the genus together with the traditional uses of many of its plants. In addition, this review discusses the clinical trials and regulatory status of various Crataegus plants along with the scope for future research in this aspect.

  3. Transfer of eleven species of the genus Burkholderia to the genus Paraburkholderia and proposal of Caballeronia gen. nov. to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed to split the genus Burkholderia into two genera according to phylogenetic clustering: (1) a genus retaining this name and consisting mainly of animal and plant pathogens and (2) the genus Paraburkholderia including so-called environmental bacteria. The latter genus name has been validly published recently. During the period between the effective and valid publications of the genus name Paraburkholderia, 16 novel species of the genus Burkholderiawere described, but only two of them can be classified as members of this genus based on the emended genus description. Analysis of traits and phylogenetic positions of the other 11 species shows that they belong to the genus Paraburkholderia, and we propose to transfer them to this genus. The reclassified species names are proposed as Paraburkholderia dipogonis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia ginsengiterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia humisilvae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia insulsa comb. nov., Paraburkholderia kirstenboschensis comb. nov., Paraburkholderia metalliresistens comb. nov., Paraburkholderia monticola comb. nov., Paraburkholderia panaciterrae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia rhizosphaerae comb. nov., Paraburkholderia solisilvae comb. nov. and Paraburkholderia susongensis comb. nov. The remaining three species are transferred to the new genus Caballeronia gen. nov. proposed to accommodate twelve species of the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia forming a distinctive clade in phylogenetic trees. The new genus members are Caballeronia choica comb. nov., Caballeronia cordobensis comb. nov., Caballeronia glathei comb. nov., Caballeronia grimmiae comb. nov., Caballeronia humi comb. nov., Caballeronia megalochromosomata comb. nov., Caballeronia jiangsuensis comb. nov., Caballeronia sordidicola comb. nov., Caballeronia telluris comb. nov., Caballeronia terrestris comb. nov., Caballeronia udeis comb. nov., and Caballeronia zhejiangensis comb. nov.

  4. Root Exudates of Various Host Plants of Rhizobium leguminosarum Contain Different Sets of Inducers of Rhizobium Nodulation Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaat, Sebastian A. J.; Wijffelman, Carel A.; Mulders, Ine H. M.; van Brussel, Anton A. N.; Lugtenberg, Ben J. J.

    1988-01-01

    Rhizobium promoters involved in the formation of root nodules on leguminous plants are activated by flavonoids in plant root exudate. A series of Rhizobium strains which all contain the inducible Rhizobium leguminosarum nodA promoter fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, and which differ only in

  5. What is the genus?

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu-Pampu, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Exploring several of the evolutionary branches of the mathematical notion of genus, this book traces the idea from its prehistory in problems of integration, through algebraic curves and their associated Riemann surfaces, into algebraic surfaces, and finally into higher dimensions. Its importance in analysis, algebraic geometry, number theory and topology is emphasized through many theorems. Almost every chapter is organized around excerpts from a research paper in which a new perspective was brought on the genus or on one of the objects to which this notion applies. The author was motivated by the belief that a subject may best be understood and communicated by studying its broad lines of development, feeling the way one arrives at the definitions of its fundamental notions, and appreciating the amount of effort spent in order to explore its phenomena.

  6. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1990-10-01

    It is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d=1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behaviour. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. We resolve the apparent paradox. (orig.)

  7. Spiky higher genus strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjorn, J.; Bellini, A.; Johnston, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is clear from both the non-perturbative and perturbative approaches to two-dimensional quantum gravity that a new strong coupling regime is setting in at d = 1, independent of the genus of the worldsheet being considered. It has been suggested that a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) phase transition in the Liouville theory is the cause of this behavior. However, it has recently been pointed out that the XY-model, which displays a KT transition on the plane and the sphere, is always in the strong coupling, disordered phase on a surface of constant negative curvature. A higher genus worldsheet can be represented as a fundamental region on just such a surface, which might seem to suggest that the KT picture predicts a strong coupling region for arbitrary d, contradicting the known results. The authors resolve the apparent paradox

  8. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of the Genus Tacca : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tacca is an important genus comprising of approximately 15 species of the medicinal plants (Taccaceae). The plants are used in traditional medicine to relieve pains of the body and stomach, as an antidote for food poisoning as well as for their analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory activities. Chemical studies have ...

  9. Genus Ranges of Chord Diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jonathan; Jonoska, Nataša; Saito, Masahico

    2015-04-01

    A chord diagram consists of a circle, called the backbone, with line segments, called chords, whose endpoints are attached to distinct points on the circle. The genus of a chord diagram is the genus of the orientable surface obtained by thickening the backbone to an annulus and attaching bands to the inner boundary circle at the ends of each chord. Variations of this construction are considered here, where bands are possibly attached to the outer boundary circle of the annulus. The genus range of a chord diagram is the genus values over all such variations of surfaces thus obtained from a given chord diagram. Genus ranges of chord diagrams for a fixed number of chords are studied. Integer intervals that can be, and those that cannot be, realized as genus ranges are investigated. Computer calculations are presented, and play a key role in discovering and proving the properties of genus ranges.

  10. Role of bioinoculants and organic fertilizers in fodder production and quality of leguminous tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Sharma, Satyawati; Vasudevan, Padma

    2011-01-01

    The comparative effect of dual inoculation of native N fixer (Rhizobium) and AM fungi consortia with different organic fertilizers (vermicompost and farm yard manure) on fodder production and quality of two leguminous tree species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) de. Wit. and Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr.) in silvopastoral system and their impact on the fodder production of un-inoculated Panicum maximum Jacq. under cut and carry system. After three years of plantation maximum tree survival was in L. leucocephala in all the treatments in comparison to S. sesban while fodder production was more in S. sesban for initial two years and in third year it accelerated in L. leucocephala. Dual inoculation with vermicompost significantly improved fodder production, fodder quality and rhizosphere microflora in L. leucocephala but in S. sesban dual inoculation was at par with single inoculation of N fixer, AM fungi and control (without inoculation). The grass production was higher with L. leucocephala for two years while in third year it was more with S. sesban. The association of Rhizobium with AM fungi in L. leucocephala was better than in S. sesban.

  11. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H) genes from Leucaena leucocephala: a pulp yielding leguminous tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Omer, Sumita; Patel, Krunal; Khan, Bashir M

    2013-02-01

    Leucaena leucocephala is a leguminous tree species accounting for one-fourth of raw material supplied to paper and pulp industry in India. Cinnamate 4-Hydroxylase (C4H, EC 1.14.13.11) is the second gene of phenylpropanoid pathway and a member of cytochrome P450 family. There is currently intense interest to alter or modify lignin content of L. leucocephala. Three highly similar C4H alleles of LlC4H1 gene were isolated and characterized. The alleles shared more than 98 % sequence identity at amino acid level to each other. Binding of partial promoter of another C4H gene LlC4H2, to varying amounts of crude nuclear proteins isolated from leaf and stem tissues of L. leucocephala formed two loose and one strong complex, respectively, suggesting that the abundance of proteins that bind with the partial C4H promoter is higher in stem tissue than in leaf tissue. Quantitative Real Time PCR study suggested that among tissues of same age, root tissues had highest level of C4H transcripts. Maximum transcript level was observed in 30 day old root tissue. Among the tissues investigated, C4H activity was highest in 60 day old root tissues. Tissue specific quantitative comparison of lignin from developing seedling stage to 1 year old tree stage indicated that Klason lignin increased in tissues with age.

  12. Bradyrhizobium Populations Occur in Deep Soil under the Leguminous Tree Acacia albida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Nicolas C.; Dreyfus, Bernard L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil cores were drilled under the leguminous tree Acacia albida growing in two different ecoclimatic zones of West Africa: the Sahelian area (100 to 500 mm of annual rainfall) and the Sudano-Guinean area (1,000 to 1,500 mm of annual rainfall). Soil samples were collected at different depths from the surface down to the water table level and analyzed for the presence of rhizobia able to nodulate A. albida. In both areas, population densities of rhizobia were substantially greater near the water table than near the surface. In the Sahelian area, rhizobia were present as deep as 34 m at a concentration of 1.3 × 103/g of soil. In the Sudano-Guinean area, population densities at 0.5 to 4.5 m depth were higher than in the Sahelian area and, at several depths, comparable to that of temperate soils supporting legume crops (104 rhizobia per g of soil). Surface and deep soil isolates from all four sites were found to be slow-growing rhizobia (Bradyrhizobium sp.). The proportion of effective isolates was almost the same within surface and deep soils. PMID:16348745

  13. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi F; Cavalheiro, Mariana G; Viana, Martônio P; Queiroz, Vanessa A; Rocha-Bezerra, Lady C B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M; Morais, Selene M; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC(50) and LC(90) values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL), lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL) and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour) The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD(50) > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight), but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituents from primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti.

  14. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delerue, Florian; Gonzalez, Maya; Michalet, Richard; Pellerin, Sylvain; Augusto, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation) due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development) as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se) and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat).

  15. Weak Evidence of Regeneration Habitat but Strong Evidence of Regeneration Niche for a Leguminous Shrub.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Delerue

    Full Text Available The identification of an ecological niche specific to the regeneration phase has mobilised significant attention. However, the importance of the regeneration niche concept remains unclear. Our main objective was to study the existence of such a regeneration niche for a leguminous shrub, Ulex europaeus. This study was carried out in southwest France in the context of water and nutrient stresses (mainly phosphorus limitation due to the presence of nutrient-poor sandy soils. We analysed the regeneration of the species from the germination of seeds and emergence of new seedlings until the seedlings reached young shrub size. Our design included a P fertilisation treatment. We also investigated microsite characteristics (micro-topography and vegetation development as they can interact with meteorological conditions and determine water availability for seeds and seedlings. We found that P availability controlled seedling growth and the time necessary to reach young shrub size. Water availability appeared to impact the species germination and seedlings survival. We also found that P and water availability depended on the interactions between microsite characteristics and climatic variations. Finally we found evidence that P and water availability are important ecological factors shaping the regeneration niche of the species, but we found weak evidence that any microsite would be appropriate for the regeneration of the species in the long term. Future studies regarding regeneration niches need to distinguish more clearly the ecological factors important for regeneration (the regeneration niche per se and the physical world where the seedlings appear and develop (the regeneration habitat.

  16. Agronomical factors influencing the legumin/vicilin ratio in pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Cécile; Dehon, Lydie; Bourgeois, Audrey; Verhaeghe-Cartrysse, Christine; Blecker, Christophe

    2012-06-01

    Many research studies have investigated the impact of agronomical factors on the protein content of pea (Pisum sativum). This study aimed to establish if a correlation exists between protein content and legumin/vicilin (L/V) ratio in pea seeds and to identify agronomical factors that have an impact on this ratio. The L/V ratio was positively correlated with protein content (r = 0.58, P ≤ 0.01), but no linear regression was applicable (adjusted R(2) = 0.31). Both variety and cultivation year had a highly significant effect on the ratio (P varieties being less sensitive to climatic conditions than others. Cultivation location had a highly significant effect (P pea varieties independently. Varieties with a stable L/V ratio can prove to be useful in the food industry. Other agronomical factors (soil type and seeding density) should be considered for the production of pea seeds with a specific L/V ratio. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Hayata glandulifera (Orchidaceae, New Genus and Species From Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. Averyanov

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available New orchid related to Cheirostylis, Goodyera, Rhomboda and Zeuxine discovered in lowland central part of northern Vietnam is described in rank of separate genus Hayata. Proposed genus differs from Goodyera in 2 separate lateral stigmas; in not hairy hypochile; in massive, knob-like mesochile and in large 2-lobed, dentate epichile. It differs from Cheirostylis in large flowers with completely free sepals (newer forming tube; in peculiar bunches of capitate glands on lateral walls of hypochile and in not swollen succulent rhizome forming normal adventitious roots, not modified into ridges or pillows covered by root hairs. From Rhomboda discovered genus differs in absence of any keels on the lip; in specific papillae bunches inside hypochile and in not winged column. New genus may be also close to Zeuxine, from which it differs in plant habit, large flowers, large dentate lobes of epichile and in specific shape of stelidia and rostellar arms. Described plant not fits well with any genera of subtribe Goodyerinae and certainly desires generic segregation. Besides Vietnamese plant, described genus includes H. tabiyahanensis from Taiwan and H. sherriffii from Bhutan. Standard taxonomical treatment of new genus and key for its species identification is presented in the paper.

  18. Biological advances in Bergenia genus plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... covered by forest and shrub, alpine meadow or the crevice of stone (Lu and Wang, 2003a). APPLICATIONS OF BERGENIA. Medicinal fields. Bergenia is one of the most important folk medicinal herbs, in China, it is often used for treating cough, stop bleeding, increasing immunity and so on (Lu and Wang,.

  19. The Ratio of Leaf to Total Photosynthetic Area Influences Shade Survival and Plastic Response to Light of Green‐stemmed Leguminous Shrub Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    VALLADARES, FERNANDO; HERNÁNDEZ, LIBERTAD G.; DOBARRO, IKER; GARCÍA‐PÉREZ, CRISTINA; SANZ, RUBÉN; PUGNAIRE, FRANCISCO I.

    2003-01-01

    Different plant species and organs within a plant differ in their plastic response to light. These responses influence their performance and survival in relation to the light environment, which may range from full sunlight to deep shade. Plasticity, especially with regard to physiological features, is linked to a greater capacity to exploit high light and is usually low in shade‐tolerant species. Among photosynthetic organs, green stems, which represent a large fraction of the total photosynthetic area of certain species, are hypothesized to be less capable of adjustment to light than leaves, because of biomechanical and hydraulic constraints. The response to light by leaves and stems of six species of leguminous, green‐stemmed shrubs from dry and high‐light environments was studied by growing seedlings in three light environments: deep shade, moderate shade and sun (3, 30 and 100 % of full sunlight, respectively). Survival in deep shade ranged from 2 % in Retama sphaerocarpa to 74 % in Ulex europaeus. Survival was maximal at moderate shade in all species, ranging from 80 to 98 %. The six species differed significantly in their ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, which influenced their light response. Survival in deep shade increased significantly with increasing ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, and decreased with increasing plasticity in net photosynthesis and dark respiration. Responses to light differed between stems and leaves within each species. Mean phenotypic plasticity for the variables leaf or stem specific mass, chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, and carotenoid to chlorophyll ratio of leaves, was inversely related to that of stems. Although mean plasticity of stems increased with the ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area, the mean plasticity of leaves decreased. Shrubs with green stems and a low ratio of leaf to total photosynthetic area are expected to be restricted to well‐lit habitats, at least during the

  20. An updated review on pharmacological activities and phytochemical constituents of evening primrose (genus Oenothera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Munir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Genus Oenothera includes medicinal plants that are distributed throughout the world and are known since ancient times. Popular indications of different species of this genus include treatment of inflammations, diabetes, microbial infections, ulcers, tumors, kidney and liver problems. The plants of this genus are a botanical source for various pharmaceutically active components like sterols, alkaloids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins, biflavonols and tocopherols. This review article is a compilation of chemical composition and biological activities of the various species of the genus Oenothera.

  1. Present possibilities of protein concentrates production from plant sources

    OpenAIRE

    KRISTINOVÁ, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the bachelor thesis was gather information about present possibilities of proteins concentrates production from plant sources. I focused on dried pea (Pisum sativum L.), soybean (Glycine soja) and potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.). The protein concentrates from leguminous plants are produced by three basic processes, i.e. acid leasing (at ~pH 4.5), extracting with aqueous alcohol (60 - 90%), and denaturing the protein with moist heat before extraction with water. Pea protein is p...

  2. GENUS RUELLIA: PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL IMPORTANCE IN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Khurram; Uzair, Muhammad; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzal, Samina; Saadullah, Malik

    2015-01-01

    Ruellia is a genus of flowering plants commonly known as Ruellias or Wild Petunias which belongs to the family Acanthaceae. It contains about 250 genera and 2500 species. Most of these are shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. Only a few species are distributed in temperate regions. They are distributed in Indonesia and Malaysia, Africa, Brazil, Central America and Pakistan. Some of these are used as medicinal plants. Many species of the genus has antinociceptive, antioxidant, analgesic, antispasmolytic, antiulcer, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties. The phytochemicals constituents: glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids are present. The genus has been traditionally claimed to be used for the treatment of flu, asthma, fever, bronchitis, high blood pressure, eczema, and diabetes. The objective of this review article is to summarize all the pharmacological and phytochemical evaluations or investigations to find area of gap and endorse this genus a step towards commercial drug. Hence, further work required is to isolate and characterize the active compounds responsible for these activities in this plant and bring this genus plants to commercial health market to serve community with their potential benefits.

  3. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  4. Chemistry of the Genus Plectranthus

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Batterjee; H. A. Albar; M. Abdel-Mogib

    2002-01-01

    This review presents the phytochemical constituents of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 1999. Only a tetrameric derivative of caffeic acid was isolated from P. japonicus, but a group of long-chain alkylphenols, of possible taxonomic significance in the genus, was also isolated. As a genus of the subfamily Nepetoideae, Plectranthus is free from iridoid glycosides and rich in essential oil (i.e. > 0.5% volatile oil on a dry weight basis). Diterpenoids are the more common secondary metaboli...

  5. Genomes-based phylogeny of the genus Xanthomonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-R Luis M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Xanthomonas comprises several plant pathogenic bacteria affecting a wide range of hosts. Despite the economic, industrial and biological importance of Xanthomonas, the classification and phylogenetic relationships within the genus are still under active debate. Some of the relationships between pathovars and species have not been thoroughly clarified, with old pathovars becoming new species. A change in the genus name has been recently suggested for Xanthomonas albilineans, an early branching species currently located in this genus, but a thorough phylogenomic reconstruction would aid in solving these and other discrepancies in this genus. Results Here we report the results of the genome-wide analysis of DNA sequences from 989 orthologous groups from 17 Xanthomonas spp. genomes available to date, representing all major lineages within the genus. The phylogenetic and computational analyses used in this study have been automated in a Perl package designated Unus, which provides a framework for phylogenomic analyses which can be applied to other datasets at the genomic level. Unus can also be easily incorporated into other phylogenomic pipelines. Conclusions Our phylogeny agrees with previous phylogenetic topologies on the genus, but revealed that the genomes of Xanthomonas citri and Xanthomonas fuscans belong to the same species, and that of Xanthomonas albilineans is basal to the joint clade of Xanthomonas and Xylella fastidiosa. Genome reduction was identified in the species Xanthomonas vasicola in addition to the previously identified reduction in Xanthomonas albilineans. Lateral gene transfer was also observed in two gene clusters.

  6. ERGIC-53 is a functional mannose-selective and calcium-dependent human homologue of leguminous lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itin, C; Roche, A C; Monsigny, M; Hauri, H P

    1996-01-01

    Based on sequence homologies with leguminous lectins, the intermediate compartment marker ERGIC-53 was proposed to be a member of a putative new class of animal lectins associated with the secretory pathway. Independent, a promyelocytic protein, MR60, was purified by mannose-column chromatography, and a cDNA was isolated that matched MR60 peptide sequences. This cDNA was identical to that of ERGIC-53 and homologies with the animal lectin family of the galectins were noticed. Not all peptide sequences of MR60, however, were found in ERGIC-53, raising the possibility that another protein associated with ERGIC-53 may possess the lectin activity. Here, we provide the first direct evidence for a lectin function of ERGIC-53. Overexpressed ERGIC-53 binds to a mannose column in a calcium-dependent manner and also co-stains with mannosylated neoglycoprotein in a morphological binding assay. By using a sequential elution protocol we show that ERGIC-53 has selectivity for mannose and low affinity for glucose and GlcNAc, but no affinity for galactose. To experimentally address the putative homology of ERGIC-53 to leguminous lectins, a highly conserved protein family with an invariant asparagine essential for carbohydrate binding, we substituted the corresponding asparagine in ERGIC-53. This mutation, as well as a mutation affecting a second site in the putative carbohydrate recognition domain, abolished mannose-column binding and co-staining with mannosylated neoglycoprotein. These findings establish ERGIC-53 as a lectin and provide functional evidence for its relationship to leguminous lectins. Based on its monosaccharide specificity, domain organization, and recycling properties, we propose ERGIC-53 to function as a sorting receptor for glyco-proteins in the early secretory pathway. Images PMID:8868475

  7. Review: Fitokimia genus Baccaurea spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Gunawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genus BaccaureaLour. adalah salah satu anggota dari famili Phyllanthaceae, merupakan genus yang cukup besar dengan anggota mencapai 43 spesies. Pada pengobatan tradisional genus Baccaurea telah dimanfaatkan masyarakat untuk mengobati  sembelit, pembengkakan pada mata, radang sendi, abses, sakit perut, memperlancar haid serta buang air kecil. Beberapa anggota genus Baccaureamemiliki potensi sebagai tumbuhan obat karena mengandung metabolit sekunder seperti alkaloid, flavonoid, karotenoid, antosianin, tanin, asam rosmarinik dan fenolik. Kandungan metabolit sekunder tersebut berpotensi sebagai antioksidan, antikanker, antimikroba, antidiabetes, antiinflamasi, antitripanosoma. B. ramiflora, B. lanceolata, B. macrocarpa, B. angulata, B. motleyana, B. brevipes, B. hookeri, B.recemosa, B. sapida, B. polyneura, B.parviflora dan B.dulcis adalah anggota genus Baccaurea yang berpotensi sebagai tumbuhan obat.

  8. Phytochemistry and pharmacognosy of the genus Acronychia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore

    2013-11-01

    The genus Acronychia (Rutaceae) comprise 44 species, most of which are represented by shrubs and small trees, distributed in a wide geographical area of South-Eastern Asia comprising China, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Australia, and the islands of the western Pacific Ocean. Most of the species of the genus Acronychia have been used for centuries as natural remedies in the ethnomedical traditions of indigenous populations as anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-spasmodic, stomachic, anti-pyretic, and anti-haemorragic agent. Moreover fruits and aerial parts are used as food in salads and condiments, while the essential oil obtained from flowers and leaves has been employed in cosmetics production. Phytochemicals isolated from Acronychia spp. include acetophenones, quinoline and acridone alkaloids, flavonoids, cinnamic acids, lignans, coumarins, steroids, and triterpenes. The reported biological activities of the above mentioned natural compounds refer to anti-plasmodial, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this review is to examine in detail from a phytochemical and pharmacologically point of view what is reported in the current literature about the properties of phytopreparations or individual active principles obtained from plants belonging to the Acronychia genus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2016-02-01

    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A protocol for axenic liquid cell cultures of a woody leguminous mangrove, Caesalpinia crista, and their amino acids profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Aya; Ogita, Shinjiro; Tsuchiya, Shinpei; Minagawa, Reiko; Sasamoto, Hamako

    2015-05-01

    Callus induction, maintenance and protoplast cultures were achieved from immature seeds of a woody leguminous mangrove, Caesalpinia crista. Axenic cultures were possible during 1.5 months of pod storage in 0.1% benzalkonium chloride solution. Callus induction was achieved using 1 mL liquid medium in a 10 mL flat-bottomed culture tube. Protoplasts were isolated using Cellulase R10, Hemicellulase, and Driselase 20 in 0.6 M mannitol solution and sub-culturable calluses were obtained in 50 μL liquid medium using a 96-microplate method. The optimal hormonal concentration was 10 μM each of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and benzyladenine in liquid Murashige and Skoog's basal medium for both callus induction and maintenance, and protoplast cultures. Similarities and differences in amino acid profiles and culture conditions are discussed among woody mangrove species and non-mangrove leguminous species. Caesalpinia crista cultures were unique as they secreted a large amount of amino acids, including proline, into the liquid culture medium.

  11. Evaluation of the content and bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium from groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliburska, Joanna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the content and the bioaccessibility of minerals (Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg) in commonly consumed food products, such as cereal groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts purchased from the local market. The contents of Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg in foods were assayed after dry ashing of samples, while the bioaccessibility of these minerals after enzymatic in vitro digestion, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A relatively high content of Fe was found in cashew nuts and green lentils, while cashew nuts and buckwheat groats had the highest concentration of Zn. It was found that the highest amount of macro-elements was generally in nuts, in particular: brazil nuts (Ca and Mg), cashews (Mg) and hazelnuts (Ca and Mg). Concerning the mineral bioaccessibility, the highest values for Fe were obtained in cashew nuts and green lentils (2.8 and 1.7 mg/100 g), for Zn in green lentils (2.1 mg/100 g), for Ca in brazil nuts and shelled pea (32.6 and 29.1 mg/100 g), while for Mg in shelled peas and green lentils (43.4 and 33.9 mg/100 g). Generally, the best sources of bioaccessible minerals seem to be leguminous grains and nuts.

  12. The leguminous lectin of Lonchocarpus araripensis promotes antinociception via mechanisms that include neuronal inhibition of Na(+) currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Renata Morais Ferreira; Pires, Alana Freitas; Dos Santos-Nascimento, Tiago; Cavada, Benildo S; do Nascimento, Kyria Santiago; Cajazeiras, João Batista; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Assreuy, Ana Maria S

    2016-09-01

    Sodium channels are highly expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons during hypernociceptive conditions. Based on the presence of a glycosidic portion in the sodium channel β subunit associated to the antinociceptive effect of leguminous lectins via lectin domain, this study investigated the antinociceptive activity of the lectin isolated from Lonchocarpus araripensis seeds (LAL) in mice behavioral models and in NaV current in the nociceptor of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG). LAL antinociceptive activity and the participation of opioid system, lectin domain and sodium channels were evaluated in Swiss mice models of nociception (formalin, capsaicin, hot plate, tail flick, von Frey) and in primary cultures of Wistar rats neurons of DRG (patch clamp). LAL presented inhibitory effects in the nociception induced by chemical and mechanical, but not by thermal stimuli and reduced total Na(+) current. LAL activity was inhibited by the lectin association with its binding sugar N-acethyl-glucosamine. LAL inhibits peripheral hypernociception by mechanisms that involve the lectin domain, inflammatory mediators and Na(+) channels. The innovative inhibitory action of leguminous lectins on NaV current brings new insights for the investigation of sodium channels role in nociception.

  13. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  14. THE GENUS DERMATOPHILUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris A.

    1964-01-01

    Gordon, M. A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany). The genus Dermatophilus. J. Bacteriol. 88:509–522. 1964.—Seventeen strains of Dermatophilus originating in skin lesions of cattle, sheep, horses, deer, and man were compared as to conditions for growth, colonial characteristics under varying conditions, microscopic morphology, and biochemical reactions. All grew well aerobically at 37 C and were facultatively anaerobic. They were morphologically similar in both gross and microscopic appearance, and most produced motile spores. Stable gray variants often appeared among the orange-yellow “wild-type” colonies. Acid without gas was produced consistently from glucose and fructose, and transitorily from galactose, but was produced from none of eight other carbohydrates except belatedly by some strains from maltose. Almost all strains hydrolyzed casein, most of them digested BCP milk with varying rapidity, and the majority liquefied gelatin, but there was considerable variation in this last property. Differences crossed both host and geographic lines. It is concluded that all isolates can be accommodated in the species D. congolensis Van Saceghem 1915, emend. 1916, 1934, with D. dermatonomus and D. pedis falling into synonymy. Images PMID:14203370

  15. THE GENUS DERMATOPHILUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GORDON, M A

    1964-08-01

    Gordon, M. A. (New York State Department of Health, Albany). The genus Dermatophilus. J. Bacteriol. 88:509-522. 1964.-Seventeen strains of Dermatophilus originating in skin lesions of cattle, sheep, horses, deer, and man were compared as to conditions for growth, colonial characteristics under varying conditions, microscopic morphology, and biochemical reactions. All grew well aerobically at 37 C and were facultatively anaerobic. They were morphologically similar in both gross and microscopic appearance, and most produced motile spores. Stable gray variants often appeared among the orange-yellow "wild-type" colonies. Acid without gas was produced consistently from glucose and fructose, and transitorily from galactose, but was produced from none of eight other carbohydrates except belatedly by some strains from maltose. Almost all strains hydrolyzed casein, most of them digested BCP milk with varying rapidity, and the majority liquefied gelatin, but there was considerable variation in this last property. Differences crossed both host and geographic lines. It is concluded that all isolates can be accommodated in the species D. congolensis Van Saceghem 1915, emend. 1916, 1934, with D. dermatonomus and D. pedis falling into synonymy.

  16. Chemodiversity in the genus Aspergillus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2015-01-01

    to be characterized. The genus Aspergillus is cladistically holophyletic but phenotypically polythetic and very diverse and is associated to quite different sexual states. Following the one fungus one name system, the genus Aspergillus is restricted to a holophyletic clade that include the morphologically different...... biosynthetic family isoextrolites. However, it appears that secondary metabolites from one Aspergillus section have analogous metabolites in other sections (here also called heteroisoextrolites). In this review, we give a genus-wide overview of secondary metabolite production in Aspergillus species. Extrolites...

  17. A molecular phylogeny of selected species of Genus Prunus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... The genus Prunus L. is an important plant for fruit production and it includes plums, apricots, cherries, almonds and peaches that are sources of food for the local people. The family Rosaceae is not yet published in Flora of Pakistan and there is a lot of taxonomic work that is yet to be done for the proper.

  18. Controlling bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Controlling bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) (Genus Comovirus of soybean with spatial arrangement of maize-soybean in southeastern Nigeria. ... plant produced the lowest grain yield.of 0..82 t / ha. Keywords: Spatial arrangement, Bean leaf beetle, Bean pod Mottl virus, Maize, Soybean. Agro-Science Vol. 3 (2) 2006: pp.

  19. Quantitative variation for apomictic reproduction in the genus Boechera (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliyu, O.M.; Schranz, M.E.; Sharbel, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    • Premise of the study: The evolution of asexual seed production (apomixis) from sexual relatives is a great enigma of plant biology. The genus Boechera is ideal for studying apomixis because of its close relation to Arabidopsis and the occurrence of sexual and apomictic species at low ploidy levels

  20. Myotrioza myopori Taylor, a designation of the type species for the genus Myotrioza gen. nov. (Psylloidea: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gary S

    2016-04-04

    Taylor et al. (2016) described twenty new species in one new genus of Australian jumping plant-lice from the plant family Scrophulariaceae but did not nominate a type species, a requirement under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature under Article 13.3 to make the genus name available (ICZN 1999).

  1. The chemistry and pharmacology of Cleome genus: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harpreet; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Arun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Since ancient times, species of Cleome genus are used to cure various ailments in human beings and same is stated in traditional treatises. Each part of the plant has its own significance, therefore, in background of its significance, upto date information in systematic manner is required. The present review embarks on variety of naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from various species of Cleome genus. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds diterpenes, triterpenoids, trinorterpenoids, flavonol glycoside, coumarinolignoids, dipyridodiazepinone, essential oils, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, carboxylic acid derivatives, lactone derivatives, sterols and pharmacological activities of various species of Cleome genus. These plants of Cleome genus are often used as conventional drugs to treat several ailments therefore information on analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anticancer, anti-arthritic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, wound healing and psychopharmacological activity etc were compiled. Literature regarding the compounds isolated and pharmacological studies performed by various researchers in the last 40 years who worked on different species belonging to genus Cleome was summarized in the present review. On the basis of references, this review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cleome species, describing compounds previously reported current trends and future prospects. From a wellbeing point of view, species belonging toCleome genus presents an excellent option for curing variety of ailments in human beings due to its isolated phytocompounds that reveal significant biological activities or for developing a variety of new pharmaceutical products. The observed pharmacological activities and no toxicity profile of extracts obtained from species of Cleome genus support the statement that these extracts might be used in the formation of new formulations that can be

  2. [Qualitative characteristics of selected species of the genus Echinacea Moench].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaverková, S; Hollá, M; Tekel, J; Mistríková, I; Vozár, I

    2001-11-01

    The paper examined the effect of production-technological conditions in relation to the ontogenetic stage of plants in three different species of the genus Echinacea Moench., comparing the species Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea atrorubens, and Echinacea pallida. It also examined the differences in the content of essential oil in different plant organs and evaluated the representation of individual components in the essential oils of the species under study at the stage of the optimal maturity for collection.

  3. The genus Vitex: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    The review includes 161 references on the genus Vitex, and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies, and toxicology of the prominent species of Vitex. Essential oils, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, diterpenoides and ligans constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these, leaves and fruits of V. agnus-castus Linn. (Verbenaceae) has been traditionally used in treatment of women complaints. V. agnus-castus has also been included in herbal remedies, which are in clinical use to regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce premenstrual symptom tension and anxiety, treat some menopausal symptoms as well as to treat hormonally induced acne. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Vitex species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action.

  4. Riemann surfaces of infinite genus

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Joel S; Trubowitz, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    In this book, Riemann surfaces of infinite genus are constructed geometrically by pasting together plane domains and handles. To achieve a meaningful generalization of the classical theory of Riemann surfaces to the case of infinite genus, one must impose restrictions on the asymptotic behavior of the Riemann surface. In the construction carried out here, these restrictions are formulated in terms of the sizes and locations of the handles and in terms of the gluing maps. The approach used in this book has two main attractions. The first is that much of the classical theory of Riemann surfaces, including the Torelli theorem, can be generalized to this class. The second is that solutions of Kadomcev-Petviashvilli equations can be expressed in terms of theta functions associated with Riemann surfaces of infinite genus constructed in the book. Both of these are developed here. The authors also present in detail a number of important examples of Riemann surfaces of infinite genus (hyperelliptic surfaces of infinit...

  5. Genus Tinospora: Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sensen Chi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Tinospora includes 34 species, in which several herbs were used as traditional medicines by indigenous groups throughout the tropical and subtropical parts of Asia, Africa, and Australia. The extensive literature survey revealed Tinospora species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of colds, headaches, pharyngitis, fever, diarrhea, oral ulcer, diabetes, digestive disorder, and rheumatoid arthritis. Indian ethnopharmacological data points to the therapeutic potential of the T. cordifolia for the treatment of diabetic conditions. While Tinospora species are confusing in individual ingredients and their mechanisms of action, the ethnopharmacological history of those plants indicated that they exhibit antidiabetic, antioxidation, antitumor, anti-inflammation, antimicrobial, antiosteoporosis, and immunostimulation activities. While the clinical applications in modern medicine are lacking convincing evidence and support, this review is aimed at summarizing the current knowledge of the traditional uses, phytochemistry, biological activities, and toxicities of the genus Tinospora to reveal its therapeutic potentials and gaps, offering opportunities for future researches.

  6. Water extracts of Brazilian leguminous seeds as rich sources of larvicidal compounds against Aedes aegypti L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi F. Farias

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the toxicity of seed water extracts of 15 leguminous species upon Aedes aegypti larvae. A partial chemical and biochemical characterization of water extracts, as well as the assessment of their acute toxicity in mice, were performed. The extracts of Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Piptadenia moniliformis caused 100% of mortalit y after 1 to 3 h of exposure. They showed LC50 and LC90 values ranging from 0.43 ± 0.01 to 9.06 ± 0.12 mg/mL and from 0.71 ± 0.02 to 13.03 ± 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Among the secondary metabolite constituents, the seed water extracts showed tannins, phenols, flavones, favonols, xanthones, saponins and alkaloids. The extracts also showed high soluble proteins content (0.98 to 7.71 mg/mL, lectin (32 to 256 HU/mL and trypsin inhibitory activity (3.64 = 0.43 to 26.19 = 0.05 gIT/kg of flour The electrophoretic profiles showed a great diversity of protein bands, many of which already described as insecticide proteins. The extracts showed low toxicity to mice (LD50 > 0.15 = 0.01 g/kg body weight, but despite these promising results, further studies are necessary to understand the toxicity of these extracts and their constituentsfrom primary and secondary metabolism upon Ae. aegypti.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a toxicidade dos extratos aquosos de sementes de 15 espécies de leguminosas contra larvas de Aedes aegypti. Foi realizada uma caracterização química e bioquímica parcial dos extratos aquosos e a avaliação da toxicidade aguda em camundongos. Os extratos de Amburana cearensis, Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Dioclea megacarpa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Piptadenia moniliformis causaram 100% de mortalidade depois de 1 a 3 h de exposição e mostraram valores de CL50 e CL90 entre 0,43 = 0,01 e 9,06 ± 0,12 e entre 0,71 = 0,02 e 13,03 = 0,15 mg/mL, respectivamente. Dentre os constituintes do metabolismo secundário, os extratos

  7. Cellular and molecular-genetic mechanisms of symbiosis and associative interaction of microorganisms with plants in rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lioshina L. G.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The review contains the results of research on symbiotic and associative interaction of microorganisms and plants in rhizosphere. A special attention is given to the process of contact association of microorganisms and plants tissues including the concrete molecular structures and dominant role pertaining to protein-carbohydrate interaction. There are common features and distinctions at formation of arbuscular mycorhiza, rhizobia– legume symbiosis and association of non-leguminous plants with Azospirillum

  8. Cellular and molecular-genetic mechanisms of symbiosis and associative interaction of microorganisms with plants in rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Lioshina L. G.

    2009-01-01

    The review contains the results of research on symbiotic and associative interaction of microorganisms and plants in rhizosphere. A special attention is given to the process of contact association of microorganisms and plants tissues including the concrete molecular structures and dominant role pertaining to protein-carbohydrate interaction. There are common features and distinctions at formation of arbuscular mycorhiza, rhizobia– legume symbiosis and association of non-leguminous plants with...

  9. Revision of the genus Phaeanthus (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.B.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2000-01-01

    A revision of the genus Phaeanthus Hook.f. & Thomson (Annonaceae) is presented. The genus comprises 8 species. A key to the fruiting and/or flowering specimens of the genus is included. The genus consists of shrubs to small-sized trees from Malesia and Vietnam. It is characterised by sepals and

  10. Mutated Leguminous Lectin Containing a Heparin-Binding like Motif in a Carbohydrate-Binding Loop Specifically Binds to Heparin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Abo

    Full Text Available We previously introduced random mutations in the sugar-binding loops of a leguminous lectin and screened the resulting mutated lectins for novel specificities using cell surface display. Screening of a mutated peanut agglutinin (PNA, revealed a mutated PNA with a distinct preference for heparin. Glycan microarray analyses using the mutated lectin fused to the Fc region of human immunoglobulin, revealed that a particular sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG, heparin, had the highest binding affinity for mutated PNA among 97 glycans tested, although wild-type PNA showed affinity towards Galβ1-3GalNAc and similar galactosylated glycans. Further analyses of binding specificity using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay demonstrated that the mutated PNA specifically binds to heparin, and weakly to de-2-O-sulfated heparin, but not to other GAG chains including de-6-O-sulfated and de-N-sulfated heparins. The mutated PNA had six amino acid substitutions within the eight amino acid-long sugar-binding loop. In this loop, the heparin-binding like motif comprised three arginine residues at positions 124, 128, and 129, and a histidine at position 125 was present. Substitution of each arginine or histidine residue to alanine reduced heparin-binding ability, indicating that all of these basic amino acid residues contributed to heparin binding. Inhibition assay demonstrated that heparin and dextran sulfate strongly inhibited mutated PNA binding to heparin in dose-dependent manner. The mutated PNA could distinguish between CHO cells and proteoglycan-deficient mutant cells. This is the first report establishing a novel leguminous lectin that preferentially binds to highly sulfated heparin and may provide novel GAG-binding probes to distinguish between heterogeneous GAG repeating units.

  11. Mutated Leguminous Lectin Containing a Heparin-Binding like Motif in a Carbohydrate-Binding Loop Specifically Binds to Heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Hirohito; Soga, Keisuke; Tanaka, Atsuhiro; Tateno, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Jun; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    We previously introduced random mutations in the sugar-binding loops of a leguminous lectin and screened the resulting mutated lectins for novel specificities using cell surface display. Screening of a mutated peanut agglutinin (PNA), revealed a mutated PNA with a distinct preference for heparin. Glycan microarray analyses using the mutated lectin fused to the Fc region of human immunoglobulin, revealed that a particular sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG), heparin, had the highest binding affinity for mutated PNA among 97 glycans tested, although wild-type PNA showed affinity towards Galβ1-3GalNAc and similar galactosylated glycans. Further analyses of binding specificity using an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay demonstrated that the mutated PNA specifically binds to heparin, and weakly to de-2-O-sulfated heparin, but not to other GAG chains including de-6-O-sulfated and de-N-sulfated heparins. The mutated PNA had six amino acid substitutions within the eight amino acid-long sugar-binding loop. In this loop, the heparin-binding like motif comprised three arginine residues at positions 124, 128, and 129, and a histidine at position 125 was present. Substitution of each arginine or histidine residue to alanine reduced heparin-binding ability, indicating that all of these basic amino acid residues contributed to heparin binding. Inhibition assay demonstrated that heparin and dextran sulfate strongly inhibited mutated PNA binding to heparin in dose-dependent manner. The mutated PNA could distinguish between CHO cells and proteoglycan-deficient mutant cells. This is the first report establishing a novel leguminous lectin that preferentially binds to highly sulfated heparin and may provide novel GAG-binding probes to distinguish between heterogeneous GAG repeating units.

  12. A descendent relation in genus 2

    OpenAIRE

    Belorousski, Pasha; Pandharipande, Rahul

    1998-01-01

    A new codimension 2 relation among descendent strata in the moduli space of stable, 3-pointed, genus 2 curves is found. The space of pointed admissible double covers is used in the calculation. The resulting differential equations satisfied by the genus 2 gravitational potentials of varieties in Gromov-Witten theory are described. These are analogous to the WDVV-equations in genus 0 and Getzler's equations in genus 1. As an application, genus 2 descendent invariants of the projective plane ar...

  13. Systematics and biology of the African genus Ferraria (Iridaceae: Irideae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following field and herbarium investigation of the subequatorial African and mainly western southern African Ferraria Burm. ex Mill. (Iridaceae: Iridoideae, a genus of cormous geophytes, we recognize 18 species, eight more than were included in the 1979 account of the genus by M.P. de Vos. One of these, F. ovata, based on Moraea ovata Thunb. (1800, was only discovered to be a species of Ferraria in 2001, and three more are the result of our different view of De Vos’s taxonomy. In tropical Africa, F. glutinosa is recircumscribed to include only mid- to late summer-flowering plants, usually with a single basal leaf and with purple to brown flowers often marked with yellow. A second summer-flowering species, F. candelabrum, includes taller plants with several basal leaves. Spring and early summer-flowering plants lacking foliage leaves and with yellow flowers from central Africa are referred to F. spithamea or F. welwitschii respectively.

  14. AMINOACID COMPOSITION OF SOME SPECIES FROM INULA GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kruglaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of medicinal plants and medicinal plant raw materials are understudied pharmacgostically. These plants include species from Inula genus, which range in Russia amounts to up to 40 species. Rhizomes and roots of the Inula helenium L. are broadly applied in scientific and traditional medicine. They have expectorate, styptic, and anti-inflammatory properties.The purpose of the study was to determine the amino-acid composition of some species from Inula genus (Inula germanica, Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera, Inula orientalis, which grow in different regions if the North Caucasus.Methods. The studies were carried out using AAA 400 amino acid analyzer, highly specialized automatized liquid chromatographer with computer management. Aboveground parts of the plants, gathered in mass blossom phase from wild-growing plants and then dried out were the objects of the study.Results. For the first time the amino acid composition and raw protein of some species from Inula genus was determined (Inula germanica, Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera, Inula orientalis, 16 amino acids were discovered, 7 of which were essential, and raw proteins which substantival composition amounted to 16.19% in Inula germanica, 10.78% in Inula ensifolia, Inula aspera (11.15%, Inula orientalis (13.94%.Conclusion. The results of the studies conducted broaden the data about amino acids and protein composition and quantitative content in the species from Inula genus and can be used to develop methods of analysis of the drugs, obtained from these plants.

  15. The characteristics and diversity of indigenous rhizobia that nodulate selected indigenous multipurpose leguminous trees and shrubs in three soils of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boakye, Emmanuel Yaw

    2013-03-01

    Trees in general and leguminous trees in particular form an integral part of the traditional farming systems in Ghana. Compared to other plants, leguminous trees have the advantage that, they are generally capable of growing better on N-deficient soils due to their ability to convert unavailable atmospheric N 2 into plant utilizable N. However, several factors including the abundance and effectiveness of the specific rhizobial partner, the available N and P in soil, are among the important factors that severely affect how much N 2 can be fixed in these trees. This study was thus conducted to assess the abundance and characteristics of the rhizobia that nodulate 18 selected indigenous tree legumes grown in three representative soils of Ghana and to ascertain important soil nutrient constraints that affect their nodulation, nitrogen fixation and growth. The three soils belonged to the Hatso, Toje and Alajo local series (equivalent to Haplic lixisol, Rhodic lixisol and Calcic vertisol, respectively). The 200 Rhizobium isolates obtained from nodules of these tree legumes were found to be highly diverse and varied in their abilities to nodulate legumes other than the host plants from which they were isolated. The isolates were further characterized culturally, metabolically, phenotypically and for their effectiveness in fixing atmospheric nitrogen. Of the 10 multi-purpose shrubs and tree species belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae examined as much as 70% of them formed nodules in the three soils, whiles only 20% and 10% of the tree legumes that formed nodules belong to Papilionoideae and Caesalpinoideae sub-families respectively. As to the Rhizobium isolates from these shrubs and tree species, those obtained from Pithecelobium spp and Melletia thonningi appeared to be highly specific, nodulating only their respective homologous hosts, while those from Acacia mangium, Albizia lebbek and Acacia auricloformis appeared to be slightly promiscuous, and moderately

  16. [Genetic characterization of wild leguminous nodular bacteria living in the South Urals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭmiev, An Kh; Ivanova, E S; Ptitsyn, K G; Belimov, A A; Safronova, V I; Baĭmiev, Al Kh

    2012-01-01

    Genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia that nodulate 18 species of wild-growing bean plants of South Urals from 8 genera belonging to 4 tribes (Loteae, Genisteae, Galegeaev and Hedysareae) was studied. It was demonstrated that for the wild-growing plants of Galegeae and Hedysareae tribes symbiotic interaction with various strains of nodule bacteria that closely related to bacteria of Mesorhizobium sp. was typical of the plants of Genisteae tribe--to bacteria of Bradyrhizobium sp. In the nodules of Lortus ucrainicus from Loteae tribe we have found a rhizobium that is closely related to the bacteria of Mesorhizobium sp., and at Coronilla varia rhizobia strains obtained by us were close by sequence of a 16S pRNA gene to Rhizobium sp. In the nodules of some kinds of the investigated plants we found also minor species of a rhizobia, which structure is under the great influence of conditions of the host plant growth.

  17. Molecular characterization of a new begomovirus infecting a leguminous weed Rhynchosia minima in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothsna, P; Rawat, Ramaveer; Malathi, V G

    2011-06-01

    A begomovirus associated with yellow mosaic disease in Rhynchosia minima, a common weed was cloned and sequenced. The virus has a bipartite genome, of which DNA-A is 2727 nucleotide length, and DNA-B 2679 nucleotides, and has a typical Old World bipartite begomovirus genome organization. Sequence comparison to all other begomovirus sequences available in the database shows the virus isolated from R. minima to be distinct. Maximum identity of 84% was seen with an isolate of Velvet bean severe mosaic virus-(India: Lucknow:2009) VBSMV-(IN:Luc:09) (GeneBank Accession No. FN543425), while less than 73% identity was observed with any other legumovirus. The molecular data show that the virus identified here is a new species in the genus Begomovirus for which the name Rhynchosia yellow mosaic India virus is proposed.

  18. Effects of CFT Legumine (5% Rotenone) on tadpole survival and metamorphosis of Chiricahua leopard frogs Lithobates chiricahuensis, Northern leopard frogs L. pipiens, and American bullfrogs L. catesbeianus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Guillermo; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Kruse, Carter G.

    2017-01-01

    Amphibians may experience collateral effects if exposed to CFT Legumine (5% rotenone), a piscicide that is used to remove invasive fish. A series of 48-h static toxicity tests assessed the acute effects of CFT Legumine on multi-aged tadpoles of the federally listed Chiricahua leopard frog Lithobates chiricahuensis, the widespread northern leopard frog L. pipiens, and the increasingly invasive American bullfrog L. catesbeianus. At the earliest Gosner stages (GS 21–25), Chiricahua leopard frogs were more sensitive to CFT Legumine (median lethal concentration [LC50] = 0.41–0.58 mg/L) than American bullfrogs (LC50 = 0.63–0.69 mg/L) and northern leopard frogs (LC50 = 0.91 and 1.17 mg/L). As tadpoles developed (i.e., increase in GS), their sensitivity to rotenone decreased. In a separate series of 48-h static nonrenewal toxicity tests, tadpoles (GS 21–25 and GS 31–36) of all three species were exposed to piscicidal concentrations of CFT Legumine (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/L) to assess postexposure effects on metamorphosis. In survivors of all three species at both life stages, the time to tail resorption was nearly doubled in comparison with that of controls. For example, mid-age (GS 31–36) Chiricahua leopard frog tadpoles required 210.7 h to complete tail resorption, whereas controls required 108.5 h. However, because tail resorption is a relatively short period in metamorphosis, the total duration of development (days from posthatch to complete metamorphosis) and the final weight did not differ in either age-group surviving nominal concentrations of 0.5-, 1.0-, and 2.0-mg/L CFT Legumine relative to controls. This research demonstrates that the CFT Legumine concentrations commonly used in field applications to remove unwanted fish could result in considerable mortality of the earliest stages of Lithobates species. In addition to acute lethality, piscicide treatments may result in delayed tail resorption, which places the tadpoles at risk by increasing

  19. Chemistry of the Genus Plectranthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Batterjee

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the phytochemical constituents of the genus Plectranthus reported up to 1999. Only a tetrameric derivative of caffeic acid was isolated from P. japonicus, but a group of long-chain alkylphenols, of possible taxonomic significance in the genus, was also isolated. As a genus of the subfamily Nepetoideae, Plectranthus is free from iridoid glycosides and rich in essential oil (i.e. > 0.5% volatile oil on a dry weight basis. Diterpenoids are the more common secondary metabolites in Plectranthus. The majority of them are highly modified abietanoids. This seems to be similar to the pattern of diterpenoids observed for Salvia, but no clerodane diterpenoids were found in Plectranthus.

  20. Bioactive constituents and medicinal importance of genus Alnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sati, Sushil Chandra; Sati, Nitin; Sati, O P

    2011-07-01

    The genus Alnus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities including traditional importance of some common species. The plants of this genus contain terpenoids, flavonoids, diarylheptanoids, phenols, steroids, and tannins. Diarylheptanoids are the dominant constituents within the genus Alnus, few of them exhibited antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor kappaB activation, nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α production, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, farnesyl protein transferase, cell-mediated low-density lipoprotein oxidation, HIF-1 in AGS cells, and the HIV-1-induced cytopathic effect in MT-4 cells. Some ellagitannines showed hepatoprotective activity even in a dose of 1 mg/kg which is ten-fold smaller compared with the dose of traditional flavonoid-based drugs. The members of genus Alnus are well known for their traditional uses in the treatment of various diseases like cancer, hepatitis, inflammation of uterus, uterine cancer, rheumatism, dysentery, stomachache, diarrhea, fever, etc. The aim of the present review is to summarize the various researches related to the chemistry and pharmacology of genus Alnus.

  1. Chryseobacterium oleae sp. nov., an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium in the rooting induction of olive tree (Olea europaea L.) cuttings and emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium, C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Calasanz, Maria del Carmen; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Spröer, Cathrin; Schumann, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Schmid, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Tindall, Brian J; Camacho, Maria

    2014-07-01

    A novel non-motile, Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated CT348(T), isolated from the ectorhizosphere of an organic olive tree in Spain and characterised as an efficient plant growth promoting bacterium, was investigated to determine its taxonomic status. The isolate grew best in a temperature range of 5-35°C, at pH 5.0-8.0 and with 0-1% (w/v) NaCl. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Chryseobacterium. The DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 38.2mol%. The strain contained a polyamine pattern with sym-homospermidine as the major compound and produced flexirubin-type pigments. MK-6 was the dominant menaquinone and the major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, C17:1ω9c, iso-C17:0 3-OH and iso-C15:0 2-OH. The main polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine and several unidentified lipids and aminolipids. The 16S rRNA gene showed 92.2-97.8% sequence identity with the members of the genus Chyseobacterium. Based on the phenotypic traits and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species, the isolate is shown to represent a novel species, Chyseobacterium oleae, type strain CT348(T) (=DSM 25575 =CCUG 63020). Emended descriptions of the genus Chryseobacterium and C. daecheongense, C. gambrini, C. gleum, C. joostei, C. jejuense, C. luteum, C. shigense, C. taiwanense, C. ureilyticum and C. vrystaatense are also proposed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. The taxonomy of the genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae in Yazd province

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    Sajida Saeed Abadi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Salsola is one of the largest plant genera that has spread worldwide. This genus belongs to the family of Chenopodiceae, which recently joined the family Amaranthaceae. in Iran, there are 41 species often grow in saline and arid country. Identification of Salsola species, for the morphological similarities among species, diverse habitats and strong apparent differences between young and mature plants, difficulted for Botanist In this invistegation with plant samples collectition from different parts of the province, detected from 19 species of Salsola 16 species, which there were one of the main elements of the vegetation ranges and for these samples preapered identification key. Important distinguish of seperated for the species, in these of key were related to 17 qualitative and quantitative traits from vegetative and reproductive structures. Quantitative traits were included such as leaves, perianth with wings, style, stigma, plant height and canopy cover and too quality traits included of growth form, the crack, leaf shape, leaf tip, leaf arrangement, the leaf base shape, type of inflorescence, flowering time, the perianth parts, status of wings of perianth and embryo shape. From among these species were 7 species of annual and 9 perennial species. The genus Salsola with have deep root systems, high osmotic pressure and water use efficiency of different life forms as an important forage crop in the arid lands and for cultivation in saline soils where other crops do not good produce or regions that irrigation carry out only with saline water can be important.

  3. Genomic Resource and Genome Guided Comparison of Twenty Type Strains of the Genus Methylobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasvi Chaudhry

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Methylobacterium are widespread in diverse habitats ranging from soil, water and plant (phyllosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere. In the present study, we in house generated genomic data resource of six type strains along with fourteen database genomes of the Methylobacterium genus to carry out phylogenomic, taxonomic, comparative and ecological studies of this genus. Overall, the genus shows high diversity and genetic variation primarily due to its ability to acquire genetic material from diverse sources through horizontal gene transfer. As majority of species identified in this study are plant associated with their genomes equipped with methylotrophy and photosynthesis related gene along with genes for plant probiotic traits. Most of the species genomes are equipped with genes for adaptation and defense for UV radiation, oxidative stress and desiccation. The genus has an open pan-genome and we predicted the role of gain/loss of prophages and CRISPR elements in diversity and evolution. Our genomic resource with annotation and analysis provides a platform for interspecies genomic comparisons in the genus Methylobacterium, and to unravel their natural genome diversity and to study how natural selection shapes their genome with the adaptive mechanisms which allow them to acquire diverse habitat lifestyles. This type strains genomic data display power of Next Generation Sequencing in rapidly creating resource paving the way for studies on phylogeny and taxonomy as well as for basic and applied research for this important genus.

  4. Additions to the genus Acoridium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ames, Oakes

    1937-01-01

    The genus Acoridium is characterized by an extraordinary history. The original species, A. tenellum, a native of the Philippine Islands, was described at length from a fruiting specimen in 1843 by Nees von Esenbeck and referred to the Philydraceae. This treatment was prompted by the aspect of the

  5. The genus Babylonia (Prosobranchia, Buccinidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.; Gittenberger, E.

    1981-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The members of the Ivory Shell genus Babylonia Schlüter, 1838, belonging to the Buccinidae, are characterized by more or less slender buccinoid shells, mostly ornamented with a beautiful colour-pattern. Some species, e.g. the type species B. spirata, have a conspicuous sutural canal

  6. Improving the lipid nutritive value of poultry meat through the incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte, P I P; Prates, J A M; Crespo, J P; Crespo, D G; Mourão, J L; Alves, S P; Bessa, R J B; Chaveiro-Soares, M A; Ferreira, L M A; Fontes, C M G A

    2008-08-01

    Dehydrated forages are assumed to be good sources of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds (vitamin E homologs and beta-carotene). The effects of including a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in a typical diet for broiler chicken, on performance, meat quality, and fatty acid composition were evaluated. One hundred sixty 1-d-old male commercial broiler chicks (Ross 308) were housed in 20 battery brooders. During the 28-d growth period, the animals were fed ad libitum with a typical maize-soybean high-energy feed having access or not to a dehydrated leguminous-based forage provided in a separate feeder. The results revealed that dehydrated forage intake (which was 11.1% of the total intake) had no impact in broiler performance (P > 0.05). The capacity of ingested forage to modulate broiler meat fatty acid profile and the meat content in total cholesterol, tocopherols, tocotrienols, and beta-carotene was investigated in broiler chicks slaughtered at d 28. Dehydrated forage consumption had no effect on the lipid-soluble antioxidant compounds and cholesterol contents of broiler meat but had a significant effect on meat fatty acid profile. Although forage intake did not affect the linoleic acid and ALA contents in poultry meat, the levels of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic (P = 0.004), docosapentaenoic (P = 0.010), and docosahexaenoic (P = 0.007)] in breast meat were significantly higher in animals consuming leguminous biomass, which suggest a higher conversion of ALA into its derivatives in these birds. Overall, the data confirms that incorporation of a dehydrated leguminous-based forage in the diet for broiler chicks results in more favorable polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 nutritional ratios for animals slaughtered at earlier stages of grow.

  7. The genus Boschniakia in China: An ethnopharmacological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Zhao, Yunshan; Wang, Zhipeng A; Wei, Kunhua; Qiu, Bin; Zhang, Chunhong; Wang-Müller, QiYan; Li, Minhui

    2016-12-24

    As a group of important medicine plants, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. et Schltdl) Fedtsch. and B. himalaica Hook.f.et Thoms, which are the only two species in the genus Boschniakia (Orobanchaceae), have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine for their multiple therapeutic uses related to enhanced renal function, erectile dysfunction, defaecate and hepatoprotective. Additionally, the two species are also used as dietary supplements in wine, cosmetics, and other healthy food. By providing comprehensive information and data of genus Boschniakia on botany, traditional medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicology, this review aims to summary the group of natural compounds from Boschniakia discovered so far. The other aims are to reference research findings of their biological activities and functions in medicine, physiology, and cell biology to highlight the compound candidates which can be used for further drug discovery in several pharmaceutical areas including antioxidation, anticancer, anti-inflammation, anti-senile, and immunology. All of the available information on B. rossica and B. himalaica was collected from the electronic resources (such as PubMed, SciFinder Scholar, CNKI, TPL (www.theplantlist.org), Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, and Web of Science). After a comprehensive analysis of the literatures from available online sources, the results show that both species of genus Boschniakia are valuable and popular herbal medicines with potentials to cure various ailments. The phytochemical studies revealed that the chemical compositions of this genus were mainly iridoid glycosides and phenylpropanoid glycosides. To date, 112 compounds have been isolated from the genus, while their crude extracts and purified compounds have been found to possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-senile, antitumor and anticancer, anti-inflammatory, protecting liver, boost memory, anti-oxidation, anti-lipid peroxidative, and

  8. Himalayan uplift shaped biomes in Miocene temperate Asia: evidence from leguminous Caragana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Li; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Xue, Juan-Juan; Sanderson, Stewart C; Fritsch, Peter W

    2016-11-09

    Caragana, with distinctive variation in leaf and rachis characters, exhibits three centers of geographic distribution, i.e., Central Asia, the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), and East Asia, corresponding to distinct biomes. Because Caragana species are often ecologically dominant components of the vegetation in these regions, it is regarded as a key taxon for the study of floristic evolution in the dry regions of temperate Asia. Based on an expanded data set of taxa and gene regions from those previously generated, we employed molecular clock and biogeographical analyses to infer the evolutionary history of Caragana and link it to floristic patterns, paleovegetation, and paleoclimate. Results indicate that Caragana is of arid origin from the Junggar steppe. Diversification of crown group Caragana, dated to the early Miocene ca. 18 Ma and onwards, can be linked to the Himalayan Motion stage of QTP uplift. Diversification of the major clades in the genus corresponding to taxonomic sections and morphological variation is inferred to have been driven by the uplift, as well as Asian interior aridification and East Asian monsoon formation, in the middle to late Miocene ca. 12~6 Ma. These findings demonstrate a synchronous evolution among floristics, vegetation and climate change in arid Central Asia, cold arid alpine QTP, and mesophytic East Asia.

  9. Environmental impact of almond crop in strong slope with two vegetable covers: bush and leguminous; Impacto en el medio ambiente del cultivo de almendros en fuertes pendientes con dos cubiertas vegetales: Matorral y Leguminosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carceles Rodriguez, B.; Francia Martinez, J. R.; Martinez Raya, A.

    2009-07-01

    Soil erosion is one of the main physical processes of land degradation in Spain. Several studies in the Mediterranean environment have demonstrated the positive effect of vegetation covers on the reduction of water erosion and their indirect improvement of the soil physical and chemical properties, essentially by the incorporation of organic matter. Sol loss and surface runoff patterns over a four-year period were monitors in erosion plots from hill slope with two different cover-crop strips: (1) non-tillage with leguminous (Lens esculenta Moench) and (2) non-tillage with and a mixture of autochthonous thymes (Thymus baeticus Boiss. ex Lacaita, Thymus capitatus (L) Hoffmanns and Link., Thymus vulgaris L.) of 3 m with, in Lanjaron (Granada) on the south flank of the Sierra Nevada of southeast Spain. The erosion plots were located on the hill slope at 35% incline, at 580 m in altitude and with 144 m{sup 2} (24 m x 6 m) in area. the area selected for the experiment is the part of the rainfed orchard given entirely with almond (Prunus amygdalus Basch cv. Desmayo Largueta) trees, the planting gird were 6 x 7 m. (Author) 10 refs.

  10. The development of the princial genus theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmermeyer, Franz

    2002-01-01

    In this article we sketch the development of the principal genus theorem from its conception by Gauss in the case of binary quadratic forms to the cohomological formulation of the principal genus theorem of class field theory by Emmy Noether.

  11. [Effects of NaCl stress on the seedling growth and K(+)- and Na(+) -allocation of four leguminous tree species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hai-Bo; Yin, Yun-Long; Lu, Zhi-Guo; Wei, Xiu-Jun; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2011-05-01

    Taking the pot-cultured seedlings of four leguminous tree species (Albizia julibrissin, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, and Gleditsia sinensis) as test materials, this paper studied their growth indices, critical salt concentration (C50), and K+ and Na+ allocation under different levels of NaCl stress, aimed to understand the difference of test tree species in salt tolerance. NaCl stress inhibited the seedling growth of the tree species. Under NaCl stress, the dry matter accumulation decreased, while the root/shoot ratio increased, especially for A. julibrissin and G. sinensis. Quadratic regression analysis showed that the C50 of A. julibrissin, R. pseudoacacia, S. japonica, and G. sinensis was 3.0 per thousand, 5.0 per thousand, 4.5 per thousand, and 3.9 per thousand, respectively, i.e., the salt tolerance of the four tree species was in the order of R. pseudoacacia > S. japonica > G. sinensis > A. julibrissin. In the root, stem, and leaf of the four tree species seedlings, the Na+ content increased with the increase of NaCl stress, while the K+ content (except in the root of A. julibrissin) decreased after an initial increase, resulting in a larger difference in the K+/Na+ ratio in the organs. Under the same NaCl stress, the allocation of Na+ in different organs of the four tree species seedlings decreased in the order of root>stem>leaf, while that of K+ differed with tree species and NaCl stress, and leaf was the main storage organ for K+. The K+/Na+ ratio in different organs decreased in the sequence of leaf>stem>root. R. pseudoacacia under NaCl stress accumulated more K+ and less Na+ in stem and leaf, and had higher K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and higher dry mass, being assessed to be more salt-tolerant. In contrast, A. julibrissin under high NaCl stress accumulated more Na+ in stem and leaf, and had a lower K+/Na+ ratio in all organs and lower dry mass, being evaluated to be lesser salt-tolerant. The K+ accumulation in seedling stem and leaf and the Na

  12. Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the genus Boerhavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Kapil S; Bhalsing, Sanjivani R

    2016-04-22

    The genus Boerhavia is widely distributed in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world including Mexico, America, Africa, Asia, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands and Australia. The genus Boerhavia is extensively used by local peoples and medicinal practitioners for treatments of hepatitis, urinary disorders, gastro intestinal diseases, inflammations, skin problems, infectious diseases and asthma. Present review focused on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Boerhavia genus to support potential scope for advance ethnopharmacological study. Information on the Boerhavia species was collected from classical books on medicinal plants, pharmacopoeias and scientific databases like PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar, Web of Science and others. Also scientific literatures based on ethnomedicinal surveys, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations, published papers from Elsevier, Taylor and Francis, Springer, ACS as well as Wiley publishers and reports by government bodies and documentations were assessed. A total of 180 compounds from Boerhavia genus were isolated of which B. diffusa alone shared around 131 compounds and for most of which it is currently an exclusive source. In the genus, phenolic glycosides and flavonoids contribute approximately 97 compounds. These includes eupalitin, rotenoids like boeravinones, coccineons, alkaloid i.e. betanin and punarnavine etc., showing vital pharmaceutical activities such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory. Boerhavia is an important genus with wide range of medicinal uses. However, most of the available scientific literatures have lacked relevant doses, duration and positive controls for examining bioefficacy of extracts and its active compounds. In some studies, taxonomic errors were encountered. Moreover, there is need for accurate methods in testing the safety and ethnomedicinal validity of Boerhavia species. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. Symbiotic diversity in the cosmopolitan genus Acacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Leary; Paul W. Singleton; Paul G. Scowcroft; Dulal Borthakur

    2006-01-01

    Acacia is the second largest genus within the Leguminosae, with 1352 species identified. This genus is now known to be polyphyletic and the international scientific community will presumably split Acacia into five new genera. This review examines the diversity of biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis within Acacia as a single genus. Due to its global importance, an...

  14. Revision of the genus Diaphorocera Heyden, 1863 (Coleoptera, Meloidae, Cerocomini)

    OpenAIRE

    Turco, F.; Bologna, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Diaphorocera, a Saharo-Sindian genus belonging to the tribe Cerocomini, is revised and a new synonymy is proposed. A cladistic classification is proposed as well, on a set of adult morphological characters. The available bionomical records, both original and from literature, concerning phenology, elevation, habitat preference, and host plants, are summarised. Adult morphology of all species is described and figured, the catalogue of localities with maps of distribution is reported, and a biog...

  15. Factors associated with Leguminous Green Manure Incorporation and Fusarium wilt suppression in watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  16. Criteria of assessing introduced varieties of the genus Heuchera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. А. Андрух

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and describe the basic criteria for studying and assessing decorative and economic-and-biological characters of the genus Heuchera L. varieties in the context of introduction. Methods. Introduction procedure, analytical approach, morphological analysis and biometric data evaluation. Results. Aided by the comparative morphological analysis of introduced varieties of the genus Heuchera, significant differences in their characters were revealed, including plant height, height and width of the basal rosette of leaves, generative shoot height. There was a significant variation of such parameters as the number of generative shoots within one plant, the number of flowers on a single generative shoot, flowering abundance. Based on investigation findings, 17 groups of varieties were identified for the dominant color of adaxial surface of the leaf blade and 7 groups – for inflorescence color. According to phenological observations, Heuchera varieties groups were determined and the dates of commencement and duration of plants flowering were registered in the context of introduction. The results of these investigations are the necessary basis for the study and evaluation of this culture assortment, they are important in breeding and landscaping. Conclusions. Based on the results of investigations of morphological features of introduced species of the genus Heuchera, traits and parameters for varieties grouping were defined as well as decorative and economic-and-biological traits that should be evaluated.

  17. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-01-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

  18. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-09-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

  19. Review of the Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of the Genus Markhamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mutiat Bolanle; Kaushik, Nutan; Sowemimo, Abimbola Adepeju; Odukoya, Olukemi A

    2016-01-01

    Natural product compounds obtained from medicinal plants have been great contributions in the discovery of numerous clinically useful drugs. Markhamia species have been reportedly used by many cultures in human and veterinary traditional medicines. The five identified species of Markhamia, that is, Markhamia lutea, Markhamia obtusifolia, Markhamia stipulata, Markhamia tomentosa, and Markhamia zanzibarica have been the subject of chemical investigations that have led to the characterization of their secondary metabolites. Plants of the genus with the identified phytoconstituents, including phenylpropanoid glycosides (PhGs), terpenoids, phytosterols, lignans, quinones, and flavonoids, have been claimed to possess antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, analgesic, antiinflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological research studies have reported the validation of the medicinal properties of plants of this genus. The present review analyzes published data from the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of plants of the genus Markhamia.

  20. Review of the Phytochemical and Pharmacological Studies of the Genus Markhamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mutiat Bolanle; Kaushik, Nutan; Sowemimo, Abimbola Adepeju; Odukoya, Olukemi A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural product compounds obtained from medicinal plants have been great contributions in the discovery of numerous clinically useful drugs. Markhamia species have been reportedly used by many cultures in human and veterinary traditional medicines. The five identified species of Markhamia, that is, Markhamia lutea, Markhamia obtusifolia, Markhamia stipulata, Markhamia tomentosa, and Markhamia zanzibarica have been the subject of chemical investigations that have led to the characterization of their secondary metabolites. Plants of the genus with the identified phytoconstituents, including phenylpropanoid glycosides (PhGs), terpenoids, phytosterols, lignans, quinones, and flavonoids, have been claimed to possess antiviral, antifungal, antiprotozoal, analgesic, antiinflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological research studies have reported the validation of the medicinal properties of plants of this genus. The present review analyzes published data from the ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological studies of plants of the genus Markhamia. PMID:27041874

  1. On the concordance genus of topologically slice knots

    OpenAIRE

    Hom, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot K is the minimum Seifert genus of all knots smoothly concordant to K. Concordance genus is bounded below by the 4-ball genus and above by the Seifert genus. We give a lower bound for the concordance genus of K coming from the knot Floer complex of K. As an application, we prove that there are topologically slice knots with 4-ball genus equal to one and arbitrarily large concordance genus.

  2. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot, a salt-tolerant wild leguminous forage crop in salt-affected soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawtar Bennani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant scientists are investigating the potential of previously unexploited legume species where environmental and biological stresses constrain the use of more conventional forage crops or where these species are better suited to the needs of sustainable agriculture. Trifolium isthmocarpum Brot., Moroccan clover, occurs as a weed in different habitats in Morocco. It grows in moderately saline areas, where traditional forage legumes cannot be cultivated; however, it has not been widely studied despite its good palatability. The salt tolerance was studied between natural field conditions and glasshouse. The extensive field studies have recorded the species in many different habitats ranging from healthy agricultural lands to abandoned saline areas. The plants maintained high nodulation capacity (ranging between 60% and 97% and nitrogenase activities (average 2.04 µmol C2H4 plant-1 h-1 in different habitats. Shoot systems of plants collected from salt-affected soils exhibited higher concentrations of Na+ and Cl- than those collected from healthy soils. Greenhouse experiments showed that germination percentage and vigor value of the studied species was not significantly (P > 0.05 affected at 160 mM NaCl, and that 25% of the germination ability was maintained when growing on substrats containing 240 mM NaCl. The growth rate of seedlings was not signicantly affected by 160 mM NaCl but was reduced by 38% under 240 mM NaCl. Leaf succulence and indices of leaf water status did not differ among the salt treatments, whereas relative water content was reduced by only 8% and water content at saturation increased by about 12% at high salt concentrations in the growing medium. This study suggest recommending the cultivation of T. isthmocarpum in salt-affected soils, which are widespread and pose a problem for the farmers of Morocco and other countries in the world’s arid belt.

  3. Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badali, H.; Gueidan, C.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; Bonifaz, A.; van den Ende, A.H.G. Gerrits; de Hoog, G.S.

    2008-01-01

    Cladophialophora is a genus of black yeast-like fungi comprising a number of clinically highly significant species in addition to environmental taxa. The genus has previously been characterized by branched chains of ellipsoidal to fusiform conidia. However, this character was shown to have evolved several times independently in the order Chaetothyriales. On the basis of a multigene phylogeny (nucLSU, nucSSU, RPB1), most of the species of Cladophialophora (including its generic type C. carrionii) belong to a monophyletic group comprising two main clades (carrionii- and bantiana-clades). The genus includes species causing chromoblastomycosis and other skin infections, as well as disseminated and cerebral infections, often in immunocompetent individuals. In the present study, multilocus phylogenetic analyses were combined to a morphological study to characterize phenetically similar Cladophialophora strains. Sequences of the ITS region, partial Translation Elongation Factor 1-α and β-Tubulin genes were analysed for a set of 48 strains. Four novel species were discovered, originating from soft drinks, alkylbenzene-polluted soil, and infected patients. Membership of the both carrionii and bantiana clades might be indicative of potential virulence to humans. PMID:19287540

  4. CYANOBACTERIA OF THE GENUS PROCHLOROTHRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vasilievich Pinevich

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Green cyanobacteria are distinguished from blue-green ones by the possession of a chlorophyll-containing light harvesting antenna. Three genera of green cyanobacteria, namely Acaryochloris, Prochlorococcus and Prochloron, are unicellular and of marine habitat; Prochlorococcus marinus attracts most attention due to its outstanding role in prime productivity. The fourth genus, Prochlorothrix, is represented by filamentous freshwater strains. Unlike the rest of green cyanobacteria, Prochlorothrix is paradoxically rare: it has been isolated from two European locations only. Taking into account fluctuating blooms, morphological resemblance with Planktothrix and Pseudanabaena, and unsuccessful enrichment of Prochlorothrix, the preferred strategy of search for this cyanobacterium is based on PCR with natural DNA and specific primers. This approach already demonstrates a broader distribution of Prochlorothrix: marker genes have been found in at least two additional locations. Despite the growing evidence for naturally occurring Prochlorothrix, there are only a few cultivated strains, and only one of them (PCC 9006 is claimed to be axenic. In multixenic cultures, Prochlorothrix is accompanied by heterotrophic bacteria, indicating a consortium-type association. The genus Prochlorothrix includes two species: P. hollandica and P. scandica based on distinctions in genomic DNA, cell size, temperature optimum, and fatty acid composition of membrane lipids. In this short review, the properties of cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorothrix are described, and the evolutionary scenario of green cyanobacteria, especially taking into account their role in the origin of simple chloroplast is given.

  5. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Sleptsov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey

    2014-12-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri-Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero-Moser-Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.

  6. On genus expansion of superpolynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, Andrei; Morozov, Alexei; Sleptsov, Alexei; Smirnov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots

  7. A new species of the genus Mongolotettix Rehn, 1928 from Hubei, China (Acrididae, Acridoidea, Orthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fang-Qiang; Shi, Jian-Ping; Dang, Yan

    2017-04-04

    The genus Mongolotettix Rehn, 1928 is a small genus of family Adrididae. It has nine species discovered from the Far Eastern Asian countries, including China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, and Russia [Bolívar, 1898; Uvarov, 1914; Caudell, 1921; Chogsomzhav, 1974; Li et Lian, 1994; Wan, Ren et Zhang, 1998; Xie et Li, 2000, Kim et Kim 2005; Dong, et al, 2015; Shi et al, 2016; Storozhenko, 2016; Eades et al, 2017; Zhang et al, 2017]. In the present paper, we describe a new species of the genus from Hubei, China. Type specimens are deposited in the College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong, China.

  8. Dynamics of sugar content in vegetative organs of Syringa Genus representatives introduced into Steppe Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Dolgova

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative and qualitative contents of sugars in phases of growth and development in overground organs of species of Syringa L. genus were determined. It is shown a cryoprotective role of sugars in plants. Conclusions on resistance of plants under conditions of a steppe zone are made.

  9. Magnesium-content of Rhizobium nodules in different plants: the importance of magnesium in nitrogen-fixation of nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Sandor A; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Takács-Hájos, Maria

    2004-12-01

    Rhizobium bacteria induce nodules (tumors) in roots of leguminous crops that fix nitrogen (N2) from the atmosphere. Trials were carried on in sterile perlite where two species of peas were grown hydroponically, and in two different soil types (brown forest soil and meadow silt soil), in a field where different leguminous plants were chosen for test plants: lupin, soybean, broad-bean, lentil and bean inoculated by Rhizobium bacteria. The Mg-content of the nutrient solution was higher than that of the control, but in the soil tests 1% Mg leaf fertilization was applied after bacterial inoculation. Number, weight and Mg-content of nodules were evaluated using an AAS method compared with the thick and thin hair/roots of the given plant. Our results clearly show that the Mg nutrition treatment increased the number of Rhizobium nodules and their Mg-content, resulting in increased N2-fixation and yield.

  10. Gadigaleyrodes froggatti, a new genus and species of whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, John W; Gillespie, Peter

    2013-01-17

    A new monotypic genus of whiteflies (Aleyrodidae), Gadigaleyrodes gen.n., is described and illustrated for G. froggatti sp.n. from New South Wales, Australia. Specimens were collected by W. W. Froggatt in 1899 on Syncarpia glomulifera, and subsequently by P. S. Gillespie on an unknown climbing plant. The genus has unusual morphological features with traits common to both Aleurodicinae and Aleyrodinae. The subfamily placement is discussed, and a key provided to discriminate this taxon from similar whitefly genera in Australia.

  11. The genus Machaerium (Fabaceae): taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amen, Yhiya M; Marzouk, Amani M; Zaghloul, Mona G; Afifi, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Machaerium, in the family Fabaceae, predominantly is a genus of a Neotropical distribution of trees, shrubs, and lianas occurring from southern Mexico to Brazil and northern Argentina and as far as South America. Several Machaerium species are widely used in traditional medicine and are considered to have multiple medicinal properties. This review aims to provide up-to-date and comprehensive information on the taxonomy, phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities of plants in the genus Machaerium.

  12. Sirdavidia, an extraordinary new genus of Annonaceae from Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Niangadouma, Raoul; Sonké, Bonaventure; Sauquet, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    A distinctive new monotypic genus from Gabon is described in the tropical plant family Annonaceae: Sirdavidia, in honor to Sir David Attenborough. Molecular phylogenetic analyses confirm that Sirdavidia, which is very distinct from a morphological standpoint, is not nested in any existing genus of Annonaceae and belongs to tribe Piptostigmateae (subfamily Malmeoideae), which now contains a total of six genera. The genus is characterized by long acuminate leaves, fully reflexed red petals, 16-19 bright yellow, loosely arranged stamens forming a cone, and a single carpel topped by a conspicuous stigma. With just three known collections, a preliminary IUCN conservation status assessment is provided as "endangered" as well as a distribution map. The discovery of Sirdavidia is remarkable at several levels. First, it was collected near the road in one of the botanically best-known regions of Gabon: Monts de Cristal National Park. Second, its sister group is the genus Mwasumbia, also monotypic, endemic to a small area in a forest in Tanzania, some 3000 km away. Finally, the floral morphology is highly suggestive of a buzz pollination syndrome. If confirmed, this would be the first documentation of such a pollination syndrome in Magnoliidae and early-diverging angiosperms in general.

  13. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epicholë.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuchtmann, Adrian; Bacon, Charles W; Schardl, Christopher L; White, James F; Tadych, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Nomenclatural rule changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, adopted at the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011, provide for a single name to be used for each fungal species. The anamorphs of Epichloë species have been classified in genus Neotyphodium, the form genus that also includes most asexual Epichloë descendants. A nomenclatural realignment of this monophyletic group into one genus would enhance a broader understanding of the relationships and common features of these grass endophytes. Based on the principle of priority of publication we propose to classify all members of this clade in the genus Epichloë. We have reexamined classification of several described Epichloë and Neotyphodium species and varieties and propose new combinations and states. In this treatment we have accepted 43 unique taxa in Epichloë, including distinct species, subspecies, and varieties. We exclude from Epichloë the two taxa Neotyphodium starrii, as nomen dubium, and Neotyphodium chilense, as an unrelated taxon.

  15. The Mansonia genus (diptera: culicidae) and mosquitoes growing in Tucurui hydroelectric power plant (Para - Brazil); O genero Mansonia (diptera: culicidae) e a proliferacao de mosquitos na Usina Hidreletrica de Tucurui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radei, Wanderli Pedro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Dams formed for hydroelectric generation normally are invaded by some kinds of aquatic plants. This plants besides the problems in navigation are also responsible for the growing of some mosquitoes. In Tucuri`s dam this plants appeared in so large quantity and make appear mosquitoes and others insects. In this study many captures were making in various places, identifying the mosquitoes and quantifying them from hour to hour. Some considerations were made about the characteristics of this mosquitoes. In conclusion the study shows that the growing of mosquito`s population can cause the appearing of epidemics not knowledge at this places with the population not prepared for them 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Genus-Wide Comparative Genomics of Malassezia Delineates Its Phylogeny, Physiology, and Niche Adaptation on Human Skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Guangxi; Zhao, He; Li, Chenhao; Rajapakse, Menaka Priyadarsani; Wong, Wing Cheong; Xu, Jun; Saunders, Charles W; Reeder, Nancy L; Reilman, Raymond A; Scheynius, Annika; Sun, Sheng; Billmyre, Blake Robert; Li, Wenjun; Averette, Anna Floyd; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Heitman, Joseph; Theelen, Bart; Schröder, Markus S; De Sessions, Paola Florez; Butler, Geraldine; Maurer-Stroh, Sebastian; Boekhout, Teun; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Dawson, Thomas L

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia is a unique lipophilic genus in class Malasseziomycetes in Ustilaginomycotina, (Basidiomycota, fungi) that otherwise consists almost exclusively of plant pathogens. Malassezia are typically isolated from warm-blooded animals, are dominant members of the human skin mycobiome and are

  17. Molecular Approach to the Nyctinastic Movement of the Plant Controlled by a Biological Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosuke Yamamura

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Most leguminous plants close their leaves in the evening, as if to sleep, and open them early in the morning. This circadian rhythm is known to be controlled by the biological clock of such plants. Extensive studies on other nyctinastic plants led to the isolation of a variety of leaf-closing and leaf-opening substances. And, we found that the circadian rhythmic leaf-movement of these plants is controlled by a biological clock that regulates the balance of concentration between leaf-opening and -closing substances.

  18. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of important medicinal plant species in genus Paeonia based on rDNA-ITS, matK, and rbcL DNA barcode sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W J; Ji, Y; Choi, G; Kang, Y M; Yang, S; Moon, B C

    2016-08-05

    This study was performed to identify and analyze the phylogenetic relationship among four herbaceous species of the genus Paeonia, P. lactiflora, P. japonica, P. veitchii, and P. suffruticosa, using DNA barcodes. These four species, which are commonly used in traditional medicine as Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex, are pharmaceutically defined in different ways in the national pharmacopoeias in Korea, Japan, and China. To authenticate the different species used in these medicines, we evaluated rDNA-internal transcribed spacers (ITS), matK and rbcL regions, which provide information capable of effectively distinguishing each species from one another. Seventeen samples were collected from different geographic regions in Korea and China, and DNA barcode regions were amplified using universal primers. Comparative analyses of these DNA barcode sequences revealed species-specific nucleotide sequences capable of discriminating the four Paeonia species. Among the entire sequences of three barcodes, marker nucleotides were identified at three positions in P. lactiflora, eleven in P. japonica, five in P. veitchii, and 25 in P. suffruticosa. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed four distinct clusters showing homogeneous clades with high resolution at the species level. The results demonstrate that the analysis of these three DNA barcode sequences is a reliable method for identifying the four Paeonia species and can be used to authenticate Paeoniae Radix and Moutan Radicis Cortex at the species level. Furthermore, based on the assessment of amplicon sizes, inter/intra-specific distances, marker nucleotides, and phylogenetic analysis, rDNA-ITS was the most suitable DNA barcode for identification of these species.

  19. Contrasting genetic structure between two begomoviruses infecting the same leguminous hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, Roberto Ramos; Xavier, César Augusto Diniz; Pereira, Hermano Monteiro de Barros; Lima, Gaus Silvestre de Andrade; Assunção, Iraíldes Pereira; Mizubuti, Eduardo Seiti Gomide; Duffy, Siobain; Zerbini, Francisco Murilo

    2014-11-01

    Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, ssDNA plant viruses and are among the most damaging pathogens causing epidemics in economically important crops worldwide. Wild/non-cultivated plants play a crucial epidemiological role, acting as begomovirus reservoirs and as 'mixing vessels' where recombination can occur. Previous work suggests a higher degree of genetic variability in begomovirus populations from non-cultivated hosts compared with cultivated hosts. To assess this supposed host effect on the genetic variability of begomovirus populations, cultivated (common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, and lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus) and non-cultivated (Macroptilium lathyroides) legume hosts were sampled from two regions of Brazil. A total of 212 full-length DNA-A genome segments were sequenced from samples collected between 2005 and 2012, and populations of the begomoviruses Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and Macroptilium yellow spot virus (MaYSV) were obtained. We found, for each begomovirus species, similar genetic variation between populations infecting cultivated and non-cultivated hosts, indicating that the presumed genetic variability of the host did not a priori affect viral variability. We observed a higher degree of genetic variation in isolates from MaYSV populations than BGMV populations, which was explained by numerous recombination events in MaYSV. MaYSV and BGMV showed distinct distributions of genetic variation, with the BGMV population (but not MaYSV) being structured by both host and geography. © 2014 The Authors.

  20. The genus Eremophila (Scrophulariaceae): an ethnobotanical, biological and phytochemical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singab, Abdel Nasser; Youssef, Fadia S; Ashour, Mohamed L; Wink, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Eremophila (Scrophulariaceae) is an endemic Australian genus with 214 species, which is commonly known as Fuchsia bush, Emu bush or Poverty bush. Plants of this genus played an important role for the Australian Aborigines who used them widely for medicinal and ceremonial purposes. Many studies have been carried out on many species of this genus and have generated immense data about the chemical composition and corresponding biological activity of extracts and isolated secondary metabolites. Thorough phytochemical investigations of different Eremophila species have resulted in the isolation of more than 200 secondary metabolites of different classes with diterpenes as major constituents. Biological studies and traditional clinical practice demonstrated that Eremophila and its bioactive compounds possess various pharmacological properties. Plants were employed especially as a cardiotonic drug and also as potent anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Further investigations are required to explore other Eremophila species, to evaluate the different biological activities of either their extracts or the isolated compounds and the possible underlying modes of action. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Aminomethylphosphonic acid accumulation in plant species treated with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Krishna N; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O; Nandula, Vijay K

    2008-03-26

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the most frequently detected metabolite of glyphosate in plants. The objective of this study was to determine if there is any correlation of metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in different plant species and their natural level of resistance to glyphosate. Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the glyphosate I 50 values (rate required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) and to quantify AMPA and shikimate concentrations in selected leguminous and nonleguminous species treated with glyphosate at respective I 50 rates. Coffee senna [ Cassia occidentalis (L.) Link] was the most sensitive ( I 50 = 75 g/ha) and hemp sesbania [ Sesbania herbacea (P.Mill.) McVaugh] was the most resistant ( I 50 = 456 g/ha) to glyphosate. Hemp sesbania was 6-fold and Illinois bundleflower [ Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) MacM. ex B.L.Robins. & Fern.] was 4-fold more resistant to glyphosate than coffee senna. Glyphosate was present in all plant species, and its concentration ranged from 0.308 to 38.7 microg/g of tissue. AMPA was present in all leguminous species studied except hemp sesbania. AMPA concentration ranged from 0.119 to 4.77 microg/g of tissue. Shikimate was present in all plant species treated with glyphosate, and levels ranged from 0.053 to 16.5 mg/g of tissue. Non-glyphosate-resistant (non-GR) soybean accumulated much higher shikimate than glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean. Although some leguminous species were found to be more resistant to glyphosate than others, and there was considerable variation between species in the glyphosate to AMPA levels found, metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA did not appear to be a common factor in explaining natural resistance levels.

  2. How rhizobial symbionts invade plants: the Sinorhizobium–Medicago model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kathryn M.; Kobayashi, Hajime; Davies, Bryan W.; Taga, Michiko E.; Walker, Graham C.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing rhizobial bacteria and leguminous plants have evolved complex signal exchange mechanisms that allow a specific bacterial species to induce its host plant to form invasion structures through which the bacteria can enter the plant root. Once the bacteria have been endocytosed within a host-membrane-bound compartment by root cells, the bacteria differentiate into a new form that can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia. Bacterial differentiation and nitrogen fixation are dependent on the microaerobic environment and other support factors provided by the plant. In return, the plant receives nitrogen from the bacteria, which allows it to grow in the absence of an external nitrogen source. Here, we review recent discoveries about the mutual recognition process that allows the model rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti to invade and differentiate inside its host plant alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and the model host plant barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). PMID:17632573

  3. The genus Anogeissus: A review on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deeksha; Baghel, Uttam Singh; Gautam, Anshoo; Baghel, Dheeraj Singh; Yadav, Divya; Malik, Jai; Yadav, Rakesh

    2016-12-24

    The genus Anogeissus (axlewood tree, ghatti tree, button tree and chewing stick tree) belongs to Combretaceae, includes eight species that are distributed in Asia and Africa. Plants are used as an ethnomedicine in Asia and Africa to treat various ailments like diabetes, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, tuberculosis, wound healing, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis), snake and scorpion venom. Based on the traditional knowledge, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities have been at the focus of research. The aim of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, pharmacological research and toxicity of Anogeissus species in order to identify their therapeutic potential and directs future research opportunities. The relevant data was searched by using the keyword "Anogeissus" in "Scopus", "Google Scholar", "Web of Science", "PubMed", and "ScienceDirect" databases. Plant taxonomy was validated by the databases "The Plant List" and A.J. Scott, 1979. This review discusses the current knowledge of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and in vitro as well as in vivo pharmacological evaluations carried out on the extracts and isolated main active constituents of Anogeissus genus. Among eight species, most of the phytochemical and pharmacological studies were performed on four species. About 55 secondary metabolites are isolated from the genus. Stem bark, leaf, seed, fruit, root of the plants are used for the treatment of several health disorders such as diabetes, fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, tuberculosis, wound healing, skin diseases (eczema, psoriasis), snake and scorpion venom. Gum ghatti obtained from Anogeissus latifolia is used after delivery as tonic and in spermatorrhoea. Many phytochemical investigations on this genus confirmed that it is rich in phenolic compounds. Modern pharmacology research has confirmed that the crude extracts or the isolated active compounds of the genus Anogeissus possess

  4. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunin-Barkowski, Petr; Sleptsov, Alexey; Stern, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from the genus five expressions for the respective ansätze. This is inconsistent with the known properties of superstring amplitudes. In the present paper we show that the Grushevsky and OPSMY ansätze do not coincide in genus five. Then, by combining these ansätze, we propose a new ansatz for genus five, which now leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four. We also show that one cannot construct an ansatz from the currently known forms in genus 6 that satisfies all known requirements for superstring measures

  5. Chemical review and studies related to species from the genus Tynanthus (Bignoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Colombi Cansian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Species from the Bignoniaceae Family, including the genus Tynanthus, are very prevalent in the tropical Americas, with specimens found in a large part of the Brazilian territory. These plants are commonly used in traditional medicine for several purposes, and some studies have described their chemical structure, in addition to other reports related to some species from this genus. This review aimed to gather information from published works concerning species of the genus Tynanthus, as well as to detect flaws in research related to these plants, which may have great biological and pharmaceutical importance. Also, this review points out some common chemical characteristics of these species, providing information that may help new researchers to improve their knowledge about these plants.

  6. Life styles of Colletotrichum species and implications for plant biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Dilani D. De; Crous, Pedro W.; Ades, Peter Kevin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Taylor, Paul W. J.

    Colletotrichum is a genus of major plant pathogens causing anthracnose diseases in many plant crops worldwide. The genus comprises a highly diverse group of pathogens that infect a wide range of plant hosts. The life styles of Colletotrichum species can be broadly categorised as necrotrophic,

  7. Taxonomic Studies on the Genus Arnebia Forssk. (Boraginaceae in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ambrish

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Arnebia Forssk. in India is taxonomically studied based on field surveys, collection of live plants, consultation of herbarium and literature. The genus is represented in India by 10 taxa including 8 species and 2 varieties viz., Arnebia bhattacharyyae K. Ambrish & S.K. Srivast., A. benthamii (Wall. ex G. Don I.M. Johnst., A. euchroma ( Royle I.M. Johnst., A. guttata Bunge, A. hispidissima (Sieber ex Lehm. A.DC., A. linearifolia A.DC., A. griffithii Boiss., A. nandadeviensis K. Chandra Sek. & R.S. Rawal , A. euchroma var. grandis (Bornm. Kazmi and A. guttata var. thomsonii (C.B. Clarke Kazmi, distributed in Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in North-West Himalaya to Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Rajasthan in India. Dichotomous keys to all the species in India along with taxonomic description, distribution, illustrations and images of most of the species including type and their economic importance are provided.

  8. Phylogeny of the genus Stephomyia Tavares, 1916 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Maia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stephomyia Tavares, 1916 comprises seven species, all Neotropical: S. clavata (Tavares, 1920; S. epeugeniae Gagné, 1994; S. espiralis Maia, 1993; S. mina Maia, 1993; S. rotundifoliorum Maia, 1993; S. tetralobae Maia, 1993; and S. eugeniae (Felt, 1913. In the present study, a cladistic analysis based upon adult, pupa, larva and gall morphological characters as well as host plant data is carried out in order to discuss the monophyly of the genus and the relationships among the known species. The Stephomyia monophyly was supported by eight synapomorphies: five homoplastic characters and three non-homoplastic characters. Analyzes showed S. clavata with great instability within the genus, probably due to lack of larva, pupa and female data, so S. clavata was deactivated in analyze. The topology found was (S. mina ((S. eugeniae + S. epeugeniae (S. tetralobae (S. rotundifoliorum + S. espiralis.

  9. Chemical constituents and biological activities of the genus Linaria (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriet, Thamere; Mancini, Ines; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Fadila; Benayache, Samir

    2015-01-01

    This is a review on 95 references dealing with the genus Linaria (Scrophularioideae-Antirrhineae tribe), a known genus of the Scrophulariaceae family, which comprises about 200 species mainly distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa. The use of some Linaria species in folk medicine has attracted the attention for chemical and biological studies. This report is aimed to be a comprehensive overview on the isolated or identified known and often new metabolites from the 41 Linaria species so far cited. It is organised presenting first the phytochemical classes of alkaloids, polyphenols including flavonoids, the latter being quite diffused and mostly present as flavones, flavonols and their glycosides, and terpenoids including iridoids and steroids. Second, the results from biological investigation on plant extracts, pure natural products isolated from Linaria species and some synthetic derivatives are reported, with antitumour, anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory and analgesic, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  10. THE MYRMICINE ANT GENUS ALLOMERUS MAYR (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNÁNDEZ FERNANDO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical myrmicine ant genus Allomerus Mayr is revised. The genus isapparently monophyletic based on the antennal club confi guration. I recognize 8 species(4 described as new: Allomerus brevipilosus n. sp. (Brazil, A. decemarticulatusMayr (Brazil, French Guiana, A. dentatus n. sp. (Venezuela, A. maietae n. sp.(Brazil, A. octoarticulatus Mayr (=A. tuberculatus Forel n. syn. = A. octoarticulatusvar. demerarae W. M. Wheeler n. syn. = A. novemarticulatus Wheeler & Mann n.syn. [Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru], A. septemarticulatus Mayrstatus rev. (Brazil, A. undecemarticulatus n. sp. (Venezuela and A. vogeli Kempf(Venezuela, Brazil. Better knowledge of the taxonomy of Allomerus is needed tounderstand the apparently sporadic differences in antennal fl agellomere number andspeciation processes that are probably linked to plant cavity colonization.

  11. 2+1 gravity for genus >1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.E.; Regge, T.

    1991-01-01

    We analysed the algebra of observables for the simple case of a genus 1 initial data surface Σ 2 for 2+1 De Sitter gravity. Here we extend the analysis to higher genus. We construct for genus 2 the group of automorphisms H of the homotopy group π 1 induced by the mapping class group. The group H induces a group D of canonical transformations on the algebra of observables which is related to the braid group for 6 threads. (orig.)

  12. Integrable systems in the infinite genus limit

    OpenAIRE

    Gesztesy, Fritz

    2001-01-01

    We provide an elementary approach to integrable systems associated with hyperelliptic curves of infinite genus. In particular, we explore the extent to which the classical Burchnall-Chaundy theory generalizes in the infinite genus limit, and systematically study the effect of Darboux transformations for the KdV hierarchy on such infinite genus curves. Our approach applies to complex-valued periodic solutions of the KdV hierarchy and naturally identifies the Riemann surface familiar from stand...

  13. Managed livestock grazing is compatible with the maintenance of plant diversity in semidesert grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, R J; Silcock, J L; Firn, J

    2014-04-01

    Even when no baseline data are available, the impacts of 150 years of livestock grazing on natural grasslands can be assessed using a combined approach of grazing manipulation and regional-scale assessment of the flora. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of this method across 18 sites in the semidesert Mitchell grasslands of northeastern Australia. Fifteen-year-old exclosures (ungrazed and macropod grazed) revealed that the dominant perennial grasses in the genus Astrebla do not respond negatively to grazing disturbance typical of commercial pastoralism. Neutral, positive, intermediate, and negative responses to grazing disturbance were recorded amongst plant species with no single life-form group associated with any response type. Only one exotic species, Cenchrus ciliaris, was recorded at low frequency. The strongest negative response was from a native annual grass, Chionachne hubbardiana, an example of a species that is highly sensitive to grazing disturbance. Herbarium records revealed only scant evidence that species with a negative response to grazing have declined through the period of commercial pastoralism. A regional analysis identified 14 from a total of 433 plant species in the regional flora that may be rare and potentially threatened by grazing disturbance. However, a targeted survey precluded grazing as a cause of decline for seven of these based on low palatability and positive responses to grazing and other disturbance. Our findings suggest that livestock grazing of semidesert grasslands with a short evolutionary history of ungulate grazing has altered plant composition, but has not caused declines in the dominant perennial grasses or in species richness as predicted by the preceding literature. The biggest impact of commercial pastoralism is the spread of woody leguminous trees that can transform grassland to thorny shrubland. The conservation of plant biodiversity is largely compatible with commercial pastoralism provided these woody weeds are

  14. Medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Jiao Jiao; Xu, Jian; Feng, Feng; Qu, Wei

    2015-09-15

    The genus Uncaria belongs to the family Rubiaceae, which mainly distributed in tropical regions, such as Southeast Asia, Africa and Southeast America. Their leaves and hooks have long been thought to have healing powers and are already being tested as a treatment for asthma, cancer, cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and rheumatism. The present review aims to provide systematically reorganized information on the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Uncaria to support for further therapeutic potential of this genus. To better understanding this genus, information on the stereo-chemistry and structure-activity relationships in indole alkaloids is also represented. The literature study of this review is based on various databases search (SCIFinder, Science Direct, CNKI, Wiley online library, Spring Link, Web of Science, PubMed, Wanfang Data, Medalink, Google scholar, ACS, Tropicos, Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, The New York Botanical Garden, African Plants Database at Genera Botanical Garden, The Plant List and SEINet) and library search for Biological Abstract and some local books on ethnopharmacology. 19 species of the genus Uncaria are found to be important folk medicines in China, Malaysia, Phillippines, Africa and Southeast America, etc, and have been served for the treatment of asthma, rheumatism, hyperpyrexia, hypertension and headaches, etc. More than 200 compounds have been isolated from Uncaria, including indole alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, etc. As characteristic constituents, indole alkaloids have been considered as main efficacy component for hypertension, epilepsy, depressant, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, pharmacokinetic and metabolism investigation reveal that the indole alkaloids are likely to be absorbed, metabolized and excreted at early time points. Moreover, the specific inhibition of CYP isozymes can regulate their hydroxylation metabolites

  15. [Allelopathic effects of extracts from fibrous roots of Coptis chinensis on two leguminous species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo

    2013-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the allelopathic effects of Coptis chinensis fibrous root extracts (CRE) on the germination and seedling growth of Vicia faba and Pisum sativum in order to alleviate the allelopathic effects and increase land productivity. The seeds of both garden pea (P. sativum) and broad been (V. faba) were germinated in CRE solution of various concentrations, the germination rate, seedling growth and related physiological indexes were measured. The result indicated that there were no significant effects of CRE in low concentrations on seed germination, including both the rate and index, and seed vitality and membrane permeability. With the increment of CRE concentrations, however, the high seed membrane permeability and germination inhibition were observed. For example, the germination rates were reduced by 23.4% (P. sativum) and 9.5% (V. faba), respectively, in CRE solution with 800 mg . L-1. Simultaneously, soluble sugars and the free amino acids in the seeds were lower than those in the control (without CRE) after soaking seeds in CRE solutions. In addition, the seedling growth and nitrate reductase activity were stimulated by CRE at low concentrations in contrast to high concentrations which behaved otherwise and inhibited the nutrient utilization in endosperm. Therefore, the large amount of allelochemicals released from the roots and remains of C. chinensis in soils could inhibit the seed germination and seedling growth of legumes, which may lead to decrease even fail crop yields after growing this medical plant.

  16. IgE-mediated cross-reactivity among leguminous seed proteins in peanut allergic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Cinzia; Magni, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia; Mottini, Maria; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Duranti, Marcello

    2010-12-01

    The immunological cross-reactivity among major protein- and oil-crops, including lupin, lentil, pea, peanut, kidney bean and soybean, has been studied by a combination of in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches: SDS-PAGE separations of legume protein extracts and immuno-blot revelations with 12 peanut-sensitive subjects' sera, Immuno-CAP and Skin Prick tests on the same subjects. The immuno-blotting data showed a wide range of IgE-binding responses both displayed by one subject towards different plant extracts and among subjects. Differences were both quantitative and qualitative. The prevalent responses of most subjects' sera were seen with peanut polypeptides, as expected, as well as with various polypeptides of the other legumes, the most recurrent of which were the basic subunits of the 11S globulins. The distribution of in vivo responses generally paralleled those obtained by in vitro approaches with strong responses elicited by peanut, lentil and pea protein extracts, especially by most sensitive subjects, thus providing a consistent overall set of results. In this work, the comparison of various approaches has allowed us to get an overall broad picture of the immunological cross-reactivities among proteins of widely used different seed species and to hypothesize the role of most conserved specific polypeptides.

  17. Variability of the essential oil from three sorts of Echinacea MOENCH genus during ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaverková, S; Mikulásová, M; Habán, M; Tekel', J; Hollá, M; Otepka, P

    2007-06-01

    Variability of the essential oil from three sorts of Echinacea MOENCH genus during ontogenesis The content and quality of the essential oil in relation to the main ontogenetic stages of plants were studied in three various sorts of Echinacea genus. The comparison included Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea atrorubens, and Echinacea pallida. The differences in the content of the oil in different parts of plants and the abundance of individual oil constituents in oils from the sorts under study at the optimum stage of ripeness for harvest were evaluated as well.

  18. Chemistry and biological activity of steroidal glycosides from the Lilium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafo, John P; Gianfagna, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Plants from the Lilium genus are a rich source of chemical diversity and have been the focus of natural products chemistry research for over twenty years. This manuscript provides a background on the chemistry and nomenclature of steroidal glycosides, as well as a chronological account of the progress between the years of 1989 up to 2014, with respect to their isolation and characterization from the genus. This review highlights the traditional use of lilies, as both food and medicine, and brings attention to the fact that the genus contains 110 accepted species of which the chemistry and biological activity of the steroidal glycosides from the majority have not been investigated to date. Thus, making the genus a relatively untapped resource that contains a potential treasure trove of chemical diversity waiting to be discovered.

  19. Genetics and Genomics of the Genus Amycolatopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Singh, Priya; Lal, Rup

    2016-09-01

    Actinobacteria are gram-positive filamentous bacteria which contains some of the most deadly human pathogens (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. leprae, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Nocardia farcinica), plant pathogens (Streptomyces scabies, Leifsonia xyli) along with organisms that produces antibiotic (Streptomycetes, Amycolatopsis, Salinospora). Interestingly, these bacteria are equipped with an extraordinary capability of producing antibiotics and other metabolites which have medicinal properties. With the advent of inexpensive genome sequencing techniques and their clinical importance, many genomes of Actinobacteria have been successfully sequenced. These days, with the constant increasing number of drug-resistant bacteria, the urgent need for discovering new antibiotics has emerged as a major scientific challenge. And, unfortunately the traditional method of screening bacterial strains for the production of antibiotics has decreased leading to a paradigm shift in the planning and execution of discovery of novel biosynthetic gene clusters via genome mining process. The entire focus has shifted to the evaluation of genetic capacity of organisms for metabolite production and activation of cryptic gene clusters. This has been made possible only due to the availability of genome sequencing and has been augmented by genomic studies and new biotechnological approaches. Through this article, we present the analysis of the genomes of species belonging to the genus Amycolatopsis, sequenced till date with a focus on completely sequenced genomes and their application for further studies.

  20. The Exiguobacterium genus: biodiversity and biogeography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL; Kathariou, Sophia [North Carolina State University; Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2009-01-01

    Abstract. Bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium are low G + C, Gram-positive facultative anaerobes that have been repeatedly isolated from ancient Siberian permafrost. In addition, Exiguobacterium spp. have been isolated from markedly diverse sources, including Greenland Glacial ice, hot springs at Yellowstone National Park, the rhizosphere of plants, and the environment of food processing plants. Strains of this hereto little known bacterium that have been retrieved from such different (and often extreme) environments are worthy of attention as they are likely to be specifically adapted to such environments and to carry variations in the genome which may correspond to psychrophilic and thermophilic adaptations. However, comparative genomic investigations of Exiguobacterium spp. from different sources have been limited. In this study, we employed different molecular approaches for the comparative analysis of 24 isolates from markedly diverse environments including ancient Siberian permafrost and hot springs at Yellowstone National Park. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with I-CeuI (an intron-encoded endonuclease), AscI and NotI were optimized for the determination of genomic fingerprints of nuclease-producing isolates. The application of a DNA macroarray for 82 putative stress-response genes yielded strain-specific hybridization profiles. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence data, PFGE I-CeuI restriction patterns and hybridization profiles suggested that Exiguobacterium strains formed two distinct divisions that generally agreed with temperature ranges for growth. With few exceptions (e.g., Greenland ice isolate GIC31), psychrotrophic and thermophilic isolates belonged to different divisions.

  1. A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology of the genus Peganum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuping; Cheng, Xuemei; Wang, Changhong

    2017-05-05

    The plants of the genus Peganum have a long history as a Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of cough, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, jaundice, colic, lumbago, and many other human ailments. Additionally, the plants can be used as an amulet against evil-eye, dye and so on, which have become increasingly popular in Asia, Iran, Northwest India, and North Africa. The present paper reviewed the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, analytical methods, biological activities, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and drug interaction of the genus Peganum in order to assess the ethnopharmacological use and to explore therapeutic potentials and future opportunities for research. Information on studies of the genus Peganum was gathered via the Internet (using Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, Elsevier, ACS, Pudmed, Web of Science, CNKI and EMBASE) and libraries. Additionally, information was also obtained from some local books, PhD and MS's dissertations. The genus Peganum has played an important role in traditional Chinese medicine. The main bioactive metabolites of the genus include alkaloids, flavonoids, volatile oils, etc. Scientific studies on extracts and formulations revealed a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as cholinesterase and monoamine oxidase inhibitory activities, antitumor, anti-hypertension, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, insecticidal, antiparasidal, anti-leishmaniasis, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. Based on this review, there is some evidence for extracts' pharmacological effects on Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, cancer, diabetes, hypertension. Some indications from ethnomedicine have been confirmed by pharmacological effects, such as the cholinesterase, monoamine oxidase and DNA topoisomerase inhibitory activities, hypoglycemic and vasodilation effects of this genus. The available literature showed that most of the activities of the genus Peganum can be attributed to the active alkaloids. Data regarding

  2. THE GENUS TEIJSMANNIODENDRON KOORDERS (VERBENACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. G. H. KOSTERMANS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The present notes on Teijsmanniodendron are based on a study of the spec- imens from Herbarium Bogoriense and the Herbarium of the Singapore Botanic Garden. 2. The taxonomic value of the principal characters and their variation are discussed. Each of the species recognized is annotated. 3. A delimitation and subdivision of the genus in two sections,  Plurifoliolatae Kosterm.  and 'Unifoliolatae Kosterm  is proposed. 4. A key to the 12 species and 1 variety distinguished, is included. 5. One new species is provisionally described (but not named, and one new variety, Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum var. auriculatum Kosterm, is published. 6. The following new combinations are made: Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum B. Clarke Kosterm,, T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm. T. holophyllum (Bak. Kos- term, T.novoguineense (Kan. & Hatus. Kosterm., T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., T. smilacifolium (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm., and T. subspieatum (Hallier f. Kosterm. 7. The genus Xerocarpa H. 3. Lam (non Spach is rejected; its only species, X. avicenniaefoliola H. J. Lam, is referred to Teijsmanniodendron ahernianum (Merr. Bakh. In addition, the following reductions are made: Teijsmanniodendron mono- phyllum Kurata = T. hollrungii (Warb. Kosterm.; Vitex bankae H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh., V. bogoriensis H. J. Lam = T. ahernianum (Merr. Bakh.; V. koordersii H. J. Lam t= T. pteropodum (Miq. Bakh.; V. tetragona Hallier f. = T. sarawakanum (H. H. W. Pears. Kosterm.; V. venosa H. J. Lam = T. coriaceum (C. B. Clarke Kosterm. Possible identity of T. longifolium (Merr. Merr. and T. bogoriense is suggested: the identity of T. simplicifolium Merr. and T. smilacifolium (H. H-, W. Pears. Kosterm. is indicated as probable. 8. Vitex subspicata Hallier f. and V. holophylla Bak. included by Lam in vitex hollrungii Warb. are reinstated as distinct species of Teijsmanniodendron.

  3. Evolution of the Genus Homo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian; Schwartz, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    Definition of the genus Homo is almost as fraught as the definition of Homo sapiens. We look at the evidence for “early Homo,” finding little morphological basis for extending our genus to any of the 2.5-1.6-myr-old fossil forms assigned to “early Homo” or Homo habilis/rudolfensis. We also point to heterogeneity among “early African Homo erectus,” and the lack of apomorphies linking these fossils to the Asian Homo erectus group, a cohesive regional clade that shows some internal variation, including brain size increase over time. The first truly cosmopolitan Homo species is Homo heidelbergensis, known from Africa, Europe, and China following 600 kyr ago. One species sympatric with it included the >500-kyr-old Sima de los Huesos fossils from Spain, clearly distinct from Homo heidelbergensis and the oldest hominids assignable to the clade additionally containing Homo neanderthalensis. This clade also shows evidence of brain size expansion with time; but although Homo neanderthalensis had a large brain, it left no unequivocal evidence of the symbolic consciousness that makes our species unique. Homo sapiens clearly originated in Africa, where it existed as a physical entity before it began (also in that continent) to show the first stirrings of symbolism. Most likely, the biological underpinnings of symbolic consciousness were exaptively acquired in the radical developmental reorganization that gave rise to the highly characteristic osteological structure of Homo sapiens, but lay fallow for tens of thousands of years before being “discovered” by a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language.

  4. Revision of the African genus Annickia (Annonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, C.P.C.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2007-01-01

    complete revision, including a key to the species, drawings and distribution maps, of the tropical African Annonaceae genus Annickia (= Enantia Oliv., non Falc.) is presented. The exact phylogenetic position of this genus within the family has long been, and in fact still is, unclear. The status of

  5. Typification of the genus Macropsidium Bl. (Myrtaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1971-01-01

    In revising Myrtaceae Blume correctly concluded in 1849 that Psidium rubrum Lour, from Indo-China could not belong to that neotropical genus. He erected a new genus Macropsidium Bl., to accommodate it, adding at the same time the description of a second new species from the Moluccas. It is desirable

  6. A revision of the genus Dillenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1952-01-01

    The present paper is an extension of my revision of the Malaysian species of the genus Dillenia L. (Wormia Rottb. included) inserted in the revision of the Dilleniaceae in the Flora Malesiana ser. I, vol. 4, part 3, pp. 141—174, published in December 1951. A critical revision of the whole genus has

  7. Phenetic relationships in the genus Myotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Findley, James S.

    1970-01-01

    The genus Myotis is of interest to the evolutionist because of its diversity and because of its nearly cosmopolitan distribution. An understanding of the biology of this remarkable genus may provide insight into its success, as well as the success of other expansive groups of mammals. As part of an

  8. The elliptic genus and Hidden symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, A.

    2001-01-01

    We study the elliptic genus (a partition function) in certain interacting, twist quantum field theories. Without twists, these theories have N=2 supersymmetry. The twists provide a regularization, and also partially break the supersymmetry. In spite of the regularization, one can establish a homotopy of the elliptic genus in a coupling parameter. Our construction relies on a priori estimates and other methods from constructive quantum field theory; this mathematical underpinning allows us to justify evaluating the elliptic genus at one endpoint of the homotopy. We obtain a version of Witten's proposed formula for the elliptic genus in terms of classical theta functions. As a consequence, the elliptic genus has a hidden SL(2,Z) symmetry characteristic of conformal theory, even though the underlying theory is not conformal. (orig.)

  9. Evidence for ecological flexibility in the cosmopolitan genus Curtobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bennett Chase

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assigning ecological roles to bacterial taxa remains imperative to understanding how microbial communities will respond to changing environmental conditions. Here we analyze the genus Curtobacterium as it was found to be the most abundant taxon in a leaf litter community in southern California. Traditional characterization of this taxon predominantly associates it as the causal pathogen in the agricultural crops of dry beans. Therefore, we seek to conduct a broad investigation into this genus to ask whether its high abundance in our soil system is in accordance with its role as a plant pathogen or if alternative ecological roles are needed. By collating >24,000 16S rRNA sequences with 120 genomes across the Microbacteriaceae family, we show that Curtobacterium has a global distribution with a predominant presence in soil ecosystems globally. Moreover, this genus harbors a high diversity of genomic potential for the degradation of carbohydrates, specifically with regards to structural polysaccharides. We conclude that Curtobacterium may be responsible for the degradation of organic matter within litter communities.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bifidobacterium genus using glycolysis enzyme sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelyn eBrandt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gastrointestinal tract that promote the establishment of a healthy microbial consortium in the gut of infants. Recent studies have established that the Bifidobacterium genus is a polymorphic phylogenetic clade, which encompasses a diversity of species and subspecies that encode a broad range of proteins implicated in complex and non-digestible carbohydrate uptake and catabolism, ranging from human breast milk oligosaccharides, to plant fibers. Recent genomic studies have created a need to properly place Bifidobacterium species in a phylogenetic tree. Current approaches, based on core-genome analyses come at the cost of intensive sequencing and demanding analytical processes. Here, we propose a typing method based on sequences of glycolysis genes and the proteins they encode, to provide insights into diversity, typing, and phylogeny in this complex and broad genus. We show that glycolysis genes occur broadly in these genomes, to encode the machinery necessary for the biochemical spine of the cell, and provide a robust phylogenetic marker. Furthermore, glycolytic sequences-based trees are congruent with both the classical 16S rRNA phylogeny, and core genome-based strain clustering. Furthermore, these glycolysis markers can also be used to provide insights into the adaptive evolution of this genus, especially with regards to trends towards a high GC content. This streamlined method may open new avenues for phylogenetic studies on a broad scale, given the widespread occurrence of the glycolysis pathway in bacteria, and the diversity of the sequences they encode.

  11. Higher rank BN-theory for curves of genus 4

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, H.; Newstead, P. E.

    2015-01-01

    Higher rank Brill-Noether theory is completely known for curves of genus $\\leq 3$. In this paper, we investigate the theory for curves of genus 4. Some of our results apply to curves of arbitrary genus.

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF GENUS Triticum, SENSU LATO AND SENSU STRICTO, BASED ON SPIKE AND GRAIN MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo P. STOYANOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of the present classifications of species of the genus Triticum associates mainly with several plant morphological factors such as fragility of the spikes spindle, grains threshability, grain sphericity, shape and position of glumes, lemmas and paleas and awns, compactness, etc. Special attention is paid to the factor "cultural/wild" form, the ploidy and the genomic constitution of the species, often supported by molecular data which provides considerable comfort in disclosing phylogenetic features in a particular taxonomic unit. Such taxonomic determination is associated with certain disadvantages. It is not sufficiently focused on the spike morphology related to the reproductive apparatus of the plant, and also the causes of phylogenetic differentiation of certain parameters, such as spike branching, multiple spikelets, as well as the ratios of quantitative properties. The existing classifications do not give a precise answer to the taxonomic position of amphidiploids in the genus Triticum, and also for those obtained from hybrid combinations with genera Aegilops, Secale, Haynaldia, Hordeum, Elymus, Leymus, Elytrigia, Agropyron, as transitional and similar forms. Based on studies of spike and grain morphology of a large number of representatives of the genus Triticum and other interspecific and intergeneric amphidiploid forms, a classification of the genus sensu lato and sensu stricto is composed. Sensu stricto, genus Triticum covers all existing wild and cultivated known wheat forms, together with interspecific artificial synthetic forms. Sensu lato, the genus includes intergeneric hybrids, for which a specific generic epithet was coined - ×Triticum, and also a specific epithet, consistent with the originator of the amphidiploid. Special attention was paid to species and amphidiploids with the genus Aegilops. Classification sensu strictissimo was also formulated where the genus Triticum brings together only diploid species

  13. Prospeção de inibidores de serinoproteinases em folhas de leguminosas arbóreas da floresta Amazônica Prospecting serine proteinase inhibitors in leaves from leguminous trees of the Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ramos Chevreuil

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Os inibidores de proteinases são proteínas extensivamente investigadas nos tecidos de estocagem, mas pouco prospectadas em outros tecidos vegetais. O objetivo deste estudo foi detectar a presença de inibidores de serinoproteinases em extratos foliares de quinze espécies de leguminosas arbóreas da Amazônia. As espécies estudadas foram: Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii, Leucaena leucocephala, Ormosia paraensis, Parkia multijuga, P. pendula, P. platycephala, Swartzia corrugata e S. polyphylla. Folhas foram coletadas, secas a 30ºC durante 48 h, trituradas e submetidas à extração com NaCl (0,15 M, 10% p/v resultando no extrato total. Ensaios foram executados para determinar a concentração de proteínas e detectar a atividade inibitória contra a tripsina e quimotripsina bovina. Os teores de proteínas bruta e solúvel nos extratos foliares variaram de 7,9 a 31,2% e 1,3 a 14,8%, respectivamente. A atividade inibitória sobre a tripsina e quimotripsina foi observada em todos os extratos foliares. Contudo, nos extratos de E. maximum, L. leucocephala, P. pendula, S. corrugata e S. polyphylla a inibição foi maior sobre a tripsina, enquanto o extrato de P. multijuga foi mais efetivo contra a quimotripsina. Nós concluímos que nos extratos foliares de leguminosas arbóreas têm inibidores de serinoproteinases e exibem potencial aplicações biotecnológicas.The proteinase inhibitors are proteins extensively investigated in tissue storage, but few prospected in other plant tissues. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of serine proteinase inhibitors in leaf extracts from fifteen species of leguminous trees of the Amazon forest. The species studied were Caesalpinia echinata, C. ferrea, Cedrelinga cateniformis, Copaifera multijuga, Dinizia excelsa, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, E. maximum, E. schomburgkii

  14. Genus-Wide Assessment of Lignocellulose Utilization in the Extremely Thermophilic Genus Caldicellulosiruptor by Genomic, Pangenomic, and Metagenomic Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Laura L; Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Izquierdo, Javier A; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Loder, Andrew J; Conway, Jonathan M; Elkins, James G; Podar, Mircea; Clum, Alicia; Jones, Piet C; Piatek, Marek J; Weighill, Deborah A; Jacobson, Daniel A; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2018-05-01

    -containing enzymes. IMPORTANCE The genus Caldicellulosiruptor contains the most thermophilic bacteria capable of lignocellulose deconstruction, which are promising candidates for consolidated bioprocessing for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals. The focus here is on the extant capability of this genus for plant biomass degradation and the extent to which this can be inferred from the core and pangenomes, based on analysis of 13 species and metagenomic sequence information from environmental samples. Key to microcrystalline hydrolysis is the content of the glucan degradation locus (GDL), a set of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases (GHs), several of which have GH48 and family 3 carbohydrate binding module domains, that function as primary cellulases. Resolving the relationship between the GDL and lignocellulose degradation will inform efforts to identify more prolific members of the genus and to develop metabolic engineering strategies to improve this characteristic. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic survey of northern peruvian plants: baselines for paleodietary and paleoecological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpak, Paul; White, Christine D; Longstaffe, Fred J; Millaire, Jean-François; Vásquez Sánchez, Víctor F

    2013-01-01

    The development of isotopic baselines for comparison with paleodietary data is crucial, but often overlooked. We review the factors affecting the carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopic compositions of plants, with a special focus on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of twelve different species of cultivated plants (n = 91) and 139 wild plant species collected in northern Peru. The cultivated plants were collected from nineteen local markets. The mean δ(13)C value for maize (grain) was -11.8±0.4 ‰ (n = 27). Leguminous cultigens (beans, Andean lupin) were characterized by significantly lower δ(15)N values and significantly higher %N than non-leguminous cultigens. Wild plants from thirteen sites were collected in the Moche River Valley area between sea level and ∼4,000 meters above sea level (masl). These sites were associated with mean annual precipitation ranging from 0 to 710 mm. Plants growing at low altitude sites receiving low amounts of precipitation were characterized by higher δ(15)N values than plants growing at higher altitudes and receiving higher amounts of precipitation, although this trend dissipated when altitude was >2,000 masl and MAP was >400 mm. For C(3) plants, foliar δ(13)C was positively correlated with altitude and precipitation. This suggests that the influence of altitude may overshadow the influence of water availability on foliar δ(13)C values at this scale.

  16. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic survey of northern peruvian plants: baselines for paleodietary and paleoecological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Szpak

    Full Text Available The development of isotopic baselines for comparison with paleodietary data is crucial, but often overlooked. We review the factors affecting the carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopic compositions of plants, with a special focus on the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of twelve different species of cultivated plants (n = 91 and 139 wild plant species collected in northern Peru. The cultivated plants were collected from nineteen local markets. The mean δ(13C value for maize (grain was -11.8±0.4 ‰ (n = 27. Leguminous cultigens (beans, Andean lupin were characterized by significantly lower δ(15N values and significantly higher %N than non-leguminous cultigens. Wild plants from thirteen sites were collected in the Moche River Valley area between sea level and ∼4,000 meters above sea level (masl. These sites were associated with mean annual precipitation ranging from 0 to 710 mm. Plants growing at low altitude sites receiving low amounts of precipitation were characterized by higher δ(15N values than plants growing at higher altitudes and receiving higher amounts of precipitation, although this trend dissipated when altitude was >2,000 masl and MAP was >400 mm. For C(3 plants, foliar δ(13C was positively correlated with altitude and precipitation. This suggests that the influence of altitude may overshadow the influence of water availability on foliar δ(13C values at this scale.

  17. The genus Polygonatum: A review of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ping; Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Xia; Gao, Qingzhi; Huang, Luqi; Xiao, Peigen; Gao, Wenyuan

    2018-03-25

    The genus Polygonatum (Asparagaceae) comprises 71 species distributed throughout the temperate Northern Hemisphere. The medicinal plants of Polygonatum have been traditionally used as tonics in China, India, Pakistan, Iran and Japan, and have been demonstrated to be highly effective in clinical practice for treating age-related diseases, diabetes, lung diseases, fatigue, feebleness and indigestion. This paper aims to provide the links among traditional uses, chemical constituents, pharmacological effects and toxicity to support their therapeutic potential and uncover opportunities for future research. The relevant information on the genus Polygonatum was gathered from scientific databases (Google Scholar, Web of Science, SciFinder, ScienceDirect, ACS Publications, PubMed, Wiley Online Library, CNKI). Information was also obtained from online databases, books, Ph.D. dissertations and M.Sc. theses. The literature cited in this review dates from 1917 to June 2017. At least 37 species and 1 variety of Polygonatum plants have been used as traditional medicine and functional food. The major chemical constituents of Polygonatum plants are steroidal saponins, triterpenoid saponins, homoisoflavanones, polysaccharides and lectins. A putative biosynthetic pathway of steroidal saponins and triterpenoid saponins has been established based on the compounds isolated from Polygonatum plants. The crude extracts and certain pure compounds from Polygonatum plants have shown a wide range of pharmacological effects such as anti-aging, anti-diabetic, anti-fatigue, and anticancer effects. The rhizomes of Polygonatum plants have a low degree of toxicity after processing. Based on this review, some traditional uses of Polygonatum species have been confirmed by pharmacological studies, such as its anti-osteoporosis, neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, anti-diabetic and anti-fatigue effects. Most of the pharmacological effects of this genus can be attributed to its polysaccharides, saponins

  18. Defining the genus Fusarium in a scientifically robust way that best preserves longstanding use

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this talk I will present the argument of a diverse group of scientists advocating a phylogenetic circumscription of the genus Fusarium, that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This will free scientists from any o...

  19. Meiotic behavior and pollen fertility of five species in the genus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fe

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... genus Epimedium are few and only available in hybrid populations (Sheng et al., ... in hybrids (>76.10%) and meiotic abnormalities occurred .... 619-625. Pagliarini MS (2000). Meiotic behavior of economically important plant species: the relationship between fertility and male sterility. Genet. Mol. Biol.

  20. Breeding biology of the threadstalk milkvetch, Astragalus filipes (Fabaceae), with a review of the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristal M. Watrous; James H. Cane

    2011-01-01

    Astragalus L. (Fabaceae) is an enormous and diverse plant genus with a cosmopolitan distribution, but relatively few breeding biologies are known for its member species. Threadstalk (or basalt) milkvetch, Astragalus filipes Torrey ex. A. Gray, is common and widespread throughout the U.S. Intermountain West, including the Great Basin. It is being studied and ultimately...

  1. A metabolic model for members of the genus Tetrasphaera involved in enhanced biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Rikke; Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2013-01-01

    Members of the genus Tetrasphaera are considered to be putative polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) from wastewater. Although abundant in Danish full-scale wastewater EBPR plants, how similar their ecophysiology is to ‘Candidatus Accumuliba...

  2. Tintelnotia, a new genus in Phaeosphaeriaceae harbouring agents of cornea and nail infections in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, S A; Hofmüller, W; Seibold, M; de Hoog, G S; Harak, H; Tammer, I; van Diepeningen, A D; Behrens-Baumann, W

    2016-01-01

    Phaeosphaeriaceae is a family in the order Pleosporales containing numerous plant pathogens, endophytes, lichenised fungi, and environmental saprobes. A novel genus, Tintelnotia is introduced containing two species, one of which caused an eye infection and several nail infections in humans. All

  3. Cyanomargarita gen. nov. (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria): convergent evolution resulting in a cryptic genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shalygin, S.; Shalygina, R.; Johansen, J. R.; Pietrasiak, N.; Gómez, E. B.; Bohunická, Markéta; Mareš, Jan; Sheil, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2017), s. 762-777 ISSN 0022-3646 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11912S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : 16S rRNA gene * cryptic genus * Cyanomargarita Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  4. Cyanomargarita gen. nov. (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria): convergent evolution resulting in a cryptic genus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shalygin, S.; Shalygina, R.; Johansen, J. R.; Pietrasiak, N.; Gómez, E. B.; Bohunická, M.; Mareš, Jan; Sheil, C.A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2017), s. 762-777 ISSN 0022-3646 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : 16S rRNA gene phylogeny * 16S-23S ITS * cryptic genus * Cyanobacteria * Cyanomargarita Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.608, year: 2016

  5. The genus of Medicago L. and an evolution of its primary introduction in The Pamirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aknazarov, Kh.A.; Salimshoev, L.K.

    2006-01-01

    The article provides results of a long-term stationary investigation of the primary introduction of plants of the medicago L. genus of the Pamirs. It is proven, that some species of Medicago L. are of high flexibility and reach reproduction stage in altitudes up to 3500 ma.s.l

  6. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-11-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  7. One Fungus, One Name: Defining the Genus Fusarium in a Scientifically Robust Way That Preserves Longstanding Use

    OpenAIRE

    Geiser, David M.; Aoki, Takayuki; Bacon, Charles W.; Baker, Scott E.; Bhattacharyya, Madan K.; Brandt, Mary E.; Brown, Daren W.; Burgess, Lester W.; Chulze, Sofia; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Correll, James C.; Covert, Sarah F.; Crous, Pedro W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; De Hoog, G. Sybren

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we advocate recognizing the genus Fusarium as the sole name for a group that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This phylogenetically guided circumscription will free scientists from any obligation to use other genus names, including teleomorphs, for species nested within this clade, and preserve the application of the name Fusarium in the way it has been used for almost a century. Due to rece...

  8. Project Lifescape 3. Genus Ficus.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figs are a fascinating group of plants in many ways. Pollinated by wasps and dispersed by birds and mammals, figs offer evolutionary and ecological insights. Conserved as sacred trees in India and elsewhere in Asia and Africa, figs are also culturally important. Gautam Buddha is said to have received enlightenment while.

  9. Infinite genus surfaces and irrational polygonal billiards

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Ferrán

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the natural invariant surface associated with the billiard game on an irrational polygonal table is homeomorphic to the Loch Ness monster, that is, the only orientable infinite genus topological real surface with exactly one end.

  10. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L. M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R. D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P. W.

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  11. Phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gliocephalotrichum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Serrato-Diaz, L.M.; Cheewangkoon, R.; French-Monar, R.D.; Decock, C.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Species in the genus Gliocephalotrichum (= Leuconectria) (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) are soilborne fungi, associated with post-harvest fruit spoilage of several important tropical fruit crops. Contemporary taxonomic studies of these fungi have relied on morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of the

  12. Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Taiwan based on analysis of leaf morphology and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) molecular markers.

  13. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P

    2014-01-01

    The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae) is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name Uvariastrum pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with Uvariastrum zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and Uvariastrum modestum Dielsare transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels) Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  14. Witten Genus and String Complete Intersections

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qingtao; Han, Fei

    2006-01-01

    In this note, we prove that the Witten genus of nonsingular string complete intersections in product of complex projective spaces vanishes. Our result generalizes a known result of Landweber and Stong (cf. [HBJ]).

  15. The genus Hafnia: from soup to nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, J Michael; Abbott, Sharon L

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hafnia, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consists of gram-negative bacteria that are occasionally implicated in both intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. Despite the fact that the genus currently contains only a single species (H. alvei), more extensive phylogenetic depth (two or more species) is apparent based upon DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Hafnia causes a variety of systemic infections, including septicemia and pneumonia; however, its role as a gastrointestinal pathogen is controversial. Many of the data supporting a role for hafniae as enteric pathogens were incorrectly attributed to this genus rather than to the actual pathogen, Escherichia albertii. There are numerous gaps in our understanding of this genus, including ecologic habitats and population genetics, disease-producing role in animals, phenetic and genetic methods useful in distinguishing genomospecies within the H. alvei complex, and bona fide pathogenicity factors.

  16. Leucosphaera, a new genus of the Pseudeurotiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arx, von J.A.; Mukerji, K.G.; Singh, N.

    1978-01-01

    In the course of a study of herbivore dung collected in the Zoological Garden in Delhi, an ascomycete was observed and isolated which could not be accomodated in any known genus. It is therefore described below.

  17. Mixta gen. nov., a new genus in the Erwiniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Marike; Steenkamp, Emma T; Coetzee, Martin P A; Avontuur, Juanita R; Chan, Wai-Yin; van Zyl, Elritha; Blom, Jochen; Venter, Stephanus N

    2018-02-27

    The Erwiniaceae contain many species of agricultural and clinical importance. Although relationships among most of the genera in this family are relatively well resolved, the phylogenetic placement of several taxa remains ambiguous. In this study, we aimed to address these uncertainties by using a combination of phylogenetic and genomic approaches. Our multilocus sequence analysis and genome-based maximum-likelihood phylogenies revealed that the arsenate-reducing strain IMH and plant-associated strain ATCC 700886, both previously presumptively identified as members of Pantoea, represent novel species of Erwinia. Our data also showed that the taxonomy of Erwinia teleogrylli requires revision as it is clearly excluded from Erwinia and the other genera of the family. Most strikingly, however, five species of Pantoea formed a distinct clade within the Erwiniaceae, where it had a sister group relationship with the Pantoea + Tatumella clade. By making use of gene content comparisons, this new clade is further predicted to encode a range of characters that it shares with or distinguishes it from related genera. We thus propose recognition of this clade as a distinct genus and suggest the name Mixta in reference to the diverse habitats from which its species were obtained, including plants, humans and food products. Accordingly, a description for Mixta gen. nov. is provided to accommodate the four species Mixta calida comb. nov., M. gaviniae comb. nov., M. intestinalis comb. nov. and M. theicola comb. nov., with M. calida as the type species for the genus.

  18. A Brief Chronicle of the Genus Cordyceps Fr., the Oldest Valid Genus in Cordycipitaceae (Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Bhushan; Tanaka, Eiji; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Han, Sang-Kuk; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    The earliest pre-Linnaean fungal genera are briefly discussed here with special emphasis on the nomenclatural connection with the genus Cordyceps Fr. Since its valid publication under the basidiomycetous genus Clavaria Vaill. ex L. (Clavaria militaris L. Sp. Pl. 2:1182, 1753), the genus Cordyceps has undergone nomenclatural changes in the post-Linnaean era, but has stood firmly for approximately 200 years. Synonyms of Cordyceps were collected from different literature sources and analyzed bas...

  19. Kops genus - en værkstedsrapport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Asgerd

    2008-01-01

     Inden for Ømålsområdet optræder ordet kop både i genus femininum, masku­linum og neutrum. På Sjælland, hvor trekønssystemet er under af­vikling, kan ordet desuden være genus commune. Der kan konstateres en vis dialektgeografisk fordeling af de tre (fire) genera, men især på Sjælland er...

  20. Remarks on superstring amplitudes in higher genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvati Manni, Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Very recently, Grushevsky continued D'Hoker and Phong's program of finding the chiral superstring measure from first principles by constructing modular forms satisfying certain factorization constraints. He has proposed an ansatz in genus 4 and conjectured a possible formula for the superstring measure in any genus, subject to the condition that certain modular forms admit holomorphic roots. In this note we want to give some evidence that Grushevsky's approach seems to be very fruitful

  1. The Genus Hafnia: from Soup to Nuts

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, J. Michael; Abbott, Sharon L.

    2006-01-01

    The genus Hafnia, a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consists of gram-negative bacteria that are occasionally implicated in both intestinal and extraintestinal infections in humans. Despite the fact that the genus currently contains only a single species (H. alvei), more extensive phylogenetic depth (two or more species) is apparent based upon DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies. Hafnia causes a variety of systemic infections, including septicemia and pneumonia; howev...

  2. The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pooja

    2017-01-01

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity. PMID:28930281

  3. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012-2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Singh, Pooja

    2017-09-12

    Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012-2017) on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia . Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  4. The Genus Artemisia: a 2012–2017 Literature Review on Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay K. Pandey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants generally have a diverse range of activities because they possess several active constituents that work through several modes of action. The genus Artemisia includes the largest genus of family Asteraceae has several medicinal uses in human and plant diseases aliments. Extensive investigations on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant studies have been conducted for various species of this genus. In this review, we have compiled data of recent literature (2012–2017 on essential oil composition, antimicrobial, insecticidal and antioxidant activities of different species of the genus Artemisia. Regarding the antimicrobial and insecticidal properties we have only described here efficacy of essential oils against plant pathogens and insect pests. The literature revealed that 1, 8-cineole, beta-pinene, thujone, artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene, camphene and germacrene D are the major components in most of the essential oils of this plant species. Oils from different species of genus Artemisia exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens and insecticidal activity against insect pests. However, only few species have been explored for antioxidant activity.

  5. Growth behaviour and bioproduction of indole acetic acid by a Rhizobium sp. isolated from root nodules of a leguminous tree Dalbergia lanceolaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, A C; Basu, P S

    2002-07-01

    The Rhizobium sp. isolated from healthy and mature root nodules of a leguminous tree, Dalbergia lanceolaria Linn. f., preferred mannitol and KNO3 for growth as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. The bacterium produced a high amount (22.3 microg/ml) of indole acetic acid (IAA) from L-tryptophan supplemented basal medium. Growth and IAA production started simultaneously. IAA production was maximum at 20 hr when the bacteria reached the stationary phase of growth. Cultural requirements were optimized for maximum growth and IAA production. The IAA production by the Rhizobium sp. was increased by 270.8% over control when the medium was supplemented with mannitol (1%,w/v), SDS (1 microg/ml), L-asparagine (0.02%,w/v) and biotin (1 microg/ml) in addition to L-tryptophan (2.5 mg/ml). The possible role of IAA production in the symbiosis is discussed.

  6. Evidence for novel tomato seed allergens: IgE-reactive legumin and vicilin proteins identified by multidimensional protein fractionation-mass spectrometry and in silico epitope modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bässler, Olivia Y; Weiss, Julia; Wienkoop, Stefanie; Lehmann, Karola; Scheler, Christian; Dölle, Sabine; Schwarz, Dietmar; Franken, Philipp; George, Eckhard; Worm, Margitta; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2009-03-01

    Tomato fruit and seed allergens were detected by IgE-immunoblotting using sera from 18 adult tomato-sensitized patients selected based on a positive history skin prick test (SPT) and specific Immunglobulin (Ig) E-levels. Isolated tomato seed total protein showed high SPT activity comparable or even higher than tomato fruit protein. For the molecular characterization of tomato seed allergens, a multidimensional protein fractionation strategy and LC-MS/MS was used. Two legumin- and vicilin-proteins were purified and showed strong IgE-reactivity in immunoblots. Individual patient sera exhibited varying IgE-sensitivity against the purified proteins. In silico structural modeling indicates high homology between epitopes of known walnut allergens and the detected IgE-crossreactive tomato proteins.

  7. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Drypetes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansi, Jean Duplex; Wandji, Jean; Sewald, Norbert; Nahar, Lutfun; Martin, Claire; Sarker, Satyajit Dey

    2016-08-22

    Traditional medicinal use of species of the genus Drypetes is widespread in the tropical regions. The aim of this review is to systematically appraise the literature available to date on phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, toxicology and bioactivity (in vitro and in vivo) of crude extracts and purified compounds. Plants of the genus Drypetes (Putranjivaceae) are used in the Subsaharan African and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like dysentery, gonorrhoea, malaria, rheumatism, sinusitis, tumours, as well as for the treatment of wounds, headache, urethral problems, fever in young children, typhoid and several other ailments. Some Drypetes species are used to protect food against pests, as an aphrodisiac, a stimulant/depressant, a rodenticide and a fish poison, against insect bites, to induce conception and for general healing. This review deals with updated information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and biological activities of ethnomedicinally important Drypetes species, in order to provide an input for the future research opportunities. An extensive review of the literature available in various recognized databases e.g., Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, SciFinder, Web of Science, www.theplantlist.org and www.gbif.org, as well as the Herbier National du Cameroun (Yaoundé) and Botanic Gardens of Limbe databases on the uses and bioactivity of various species of the Drypetes was undertaken. The literature provided information on ethnopharmacological uses of the Subsaharan African and Asian species of the genus Drypetes, e.g., Drypetes aubrévillii, D. capillipes, D. chevalieri, D. gerrardii, D. gossweileri, D. ivorensis, D. klainei, D. natalensis, D. pellegrini (all endemic to Africa) and D. roxburghii (Asian species), for the treatment of multiple disorders. From a total of 19 species, more than 140 compounds including diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes (friedelane, oleanane, lupane and hopane-type), flavonoids, lignans

  8. A review of the chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus marrubium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir

    2010-01-01

    The genus Marrubium (Lamiaceae) is comprised of about forty species, distributed in Europe, Asia and Brazil. Some species are traditionally used to treat various diseases, including asthma, pulmonary infections, inflammation and hypotension, as cholagogues and sedative agents, and for pain relief. A literature review on the chemical and biological aspects of these plants indicates antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, analgesic properties, and anti-hypertensive, antidiabetic, antioxidant properties, among others, particularly related to the presence of diterpenes, sterols, phenylpropanoids and flavonoids. This review shows the main chemical and pharmacological aspects of the genus Marrubium, with emphasis on M. vulgare, which grows in Brazil and has been studied by us and other authors.

  9. Evolution, Diversity, and Taxonomy of the Peronosporaceae, with Focus on the Genus Peronospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thines, Marco; Choi, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildews are a notorious group of oomycete plant pathogens, causing high economic losses in various crops and ornamentals. The most species-rich genus of oomycetes is the genus Peronospora. This review provides a wide overview of these pathogens, ranging from macro- and micro-evolutionary patterns, their biodiversity and ecology to short overviews for the currently economically most important pathogens and potential emerging diseases. In this overview, the taxonomy of economically relevant species is also discussed, as the application of the correct names and species concepts is a prerequisite for effective quarantine regulations and phytosanitary measures.

  10. Chemical Components and Pharmacological Activities of Terpene Natural Products from the Genus Paeonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan-Dan; Jiang, Li-Li; Li, Hong-Yi; Yan, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Yan-Long

    2016-10-13

    Paeonia is the single genus of ca. 33 known species in the family Paeoniaceae , found in Asia, Europe and Western North America. Up to now, more than 180 compounds have been isolated from nine species of the genus Paeonia , including terpenes, phenols, flavonoids, essential oil and tannins. Terpenes, the most abundant naturally occurring compounds, which accounted for about 57% and occurred in almost every species, are responsible for the observed in vivo and in vitro biological activities. This paper aims to give a comprehensive overview of the recent phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge of the terpenes from Paeonia plants, and enlighten further drug discovery research.

  11. Dispersal mechanisms in some representatives of the genus Moehringia L. (Caryophyllaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Gabriele; Borghesi, Barbara; Roccotiello, Enrica; Minuto, Luigi

    2008-03-01

    The function of diaspores in Moehringia genus was investigated and field observations pointed out the elaiosome role in seed predation and dispersal by ants. Histochemical stainings underlined the presence of lipid in the strophiole. Our results are congruent with the hypothesis that some representatives of the genus Moehringia adopt myrmecochory, especially those species that prefer rocky habitats. Strophiole dimensions and oil content volume seem to influence seed predation in plants by ants. However, the interaction of further abiotic dispersal agents (wind, water) may increase and make more efficient the dissemination strategies.

  12. Morphological features of leaves in the genus Echinacea Moench under introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentyna O. Menshova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The comparative morphological characteristics of leaves of the genus Echinacea representatives (E. pallida (Nutt. Nutt and E. tennesseensis (Beadle Small introduced in the O.V. Fomin Botanical Garden are given. The established morphological features allow determining the adaptive capacities of species of the genus Echinacea ex situ. Despite of taxonomical belonging, the leaves of basal formation are most developed. Studied features could be applied during the implementation of these plants in pharmaceutical industry. Also these features could be useful during further investigations of adaptive possibilities of Echinacea species in ex situ conditions.

  13. Oligosaccharins — a new class of signalling molecules in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, Anatolii I.

    1993-11-01

    The review deals with oligosaccharins — biologically active oligosaccharides of the following structural types: the (1→6, 1→3)-β-D-glucan fragments of the fungal cell wall; the chitin and chitosan fragments; polygalacturonic acid fragments; the xyloglucan fragments of the plant cell wall; lipooligosaccharides synthesised by bacteria — symbionts of leguminous plants. The isolation, determination of the structure, and total syntheses of these complex compounds as well as the results of the study of their biological role as inductors of the immunity of plants to attack by pathogenic fungi and bacteria and as regulators of the morphogenesis in the development processes in plants and of interaction of the latter with symbiont bacteria are described. The bibliography includes 197 references.

  14. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas in Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr. rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Coromoto Mayz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The research goal includes isolation, characterization and identification of Pseudomonas species existing in the rhizosphere of a legume present (colonizing or survivor in a savanna soil polluted by an oil spill, in order to explain the support of the growth of this leguminous plant through the reduction of the toxicity of spilled oil (hydrocarbonoclastic effects. The site is located at Amana del Tamarindo village entrance, Monagas State, Venezuela (9 ° 38' 52 "N, 63 ° 7' 20" E, 46 masl. An area of 50 m2 was sampled.  In concordance to the descriptions, keys, and comparison with the UOJ Herbarium exsiccatae, the legume collected was identified as Samanea saman (Jacq. Merr., which belongs to the Fabaceae family. The results of the biochemical characterization and the production of pyocyanine and fluorescein pigments allowed identifying 10 isolates as P. fluorescens, 5 as P. putida and 5 as P. aeruginosa. Samanea saman is recommended for re-vegetation of the contaminated area.

  15. Interspecific variation in localization of hypericins and phloroglucinols in the genus Hypericum as revealed by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharíková, Andrea; Kimáková, Katarína; Janfelt, Christian

    2016-01-01

    of secondary metabolites in different plant tissues. This study is focused on localization of major secondary compounds in the leaves of 17 different in vitro cultured Hypericum species classified in 11 sections. Generally, all identified naphtodianthrones, protohypericin, hypericin, protopseudohypericin......Plants of the genus Hypericum are widely known for their therapeutic properties. The most biologically active compounds of this genus are naphtodianthrones and phloroglucinols. Indirect desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging allows visualization and localization...

  16. Evolution of host utilization patterns in the seed beetle genus Mimosestes Bridwell (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Toshihide; Bonet, Arturo; Yoshitake, Hiraku; Romero-Nápoles, Jesús; Jinbo, Utsugi; Ito, Motomi; Shimada, Masakazu

    2010-06-01

    The evolutionary history of diet breadth expansion and intergeneric host shifts in the seed beetle genus Mimosestes were reconstructed to investigate the process of host range expansion in phytophagous insects. The evolutionary correlation between diet breadth and variation in oviposition behavior of Mimosestes was also examined to estimate the process of generalist evolution within the genus. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a molecular phylogeny inferred from three mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA, 12S rRNA, and COI) and one nuclear marker (EF-1alpha) revealed that host utilization patterns were shaped by repeated colonizations to novel or pre-adapted host plants. Neither plant genus and species group level host conservatism nor an evolutionary tendency toward specialization was found in the genus, contrary to the expectations of plant-insect co-evolutionary theory. In addition, statistical analyses revealed that diet breadth was significantly correlated with oviposition behavior, suggesting that behavioral factors such as the oviposition preferences of female seed beetles affect the expansion of diet breadth in generalists. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the genus Litsea: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Song; Wen, Zheng-Qi; Li, Bi-Tao; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Yang, Jing-Hua

    2016-04-02

    The genus Litsea is one of the most diverse genera of evergreen trees or shrubs belong to Lauraceae, and comprises roughly 400 species of tree that are distributed abundantly throughout tropical and subtropical Asia, North and South America. Litsea species have been used globally in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including influenza, stomach aches, diarrhea, diabetes, vomiting, bone pain, inflammation, illness related to the central nervous system and other ailments. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacological research of Litsea species in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. All the available information on Litsea species was actualised by systematically searching the scientific literatures including Chinese, Korean, Japanese, Indian, and South American herbal classics, library catalogs and scientific databases (PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Science, Google Scholar, VIP and Wanfang). The Plant List, International Plant Name index and Scientific Database of China Plant Species were used to validate scientific names. 407 secondary metabolites have been reported from Litsea species. Litsea Species are sources of secondary metabolites with interesting chemical structures (alkaloids, lactones, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, lignans, and essential oils) and significant bioactivities. Crude extracts, fractions and phytochemical constituents isolated from Litsea show a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-HIV, insecticidal, etc. From data collected in this review, the genus Litsea comprises a wide range of therapeutically promising and valuable plants, and has attracted much attention owing to its multiple functions. Many traditional uses of Litsea species have now been validated by

  18. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  19. Cytotoxicity Screening of Plants of Genus Piper in Breast Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNA smears of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cells treated with fraction DE and DF were observed within 7 days. Conclusions: These results indicate that the compounds isolated from P. nigrum, viz, DE and DF, have cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cell lines. These fractions could be promising agent for breast cancer treatment.

  20. Cytotoxicity Screening of Plants of Genus Piper in Breast Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was cooled in an ice bath. The mixture was evaporated and cooled again. In recrystallization step, the cold diethyl ether was added and the mixture was shook for 25 min. Then, the yellow .... ethanol (v/v) and air-dried for 30 min. DNA was loaded onto a 1.5 % agarose .... Hot ethyl acetate and cold hexane:water extracts of P.

  1. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Catherine Ahn

    Full Text Available Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb and MUMmer (ANIm, (iv Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA, (v digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH as well as (vi nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  2. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new “genomic” species and 16 new “genomic” subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different “genomic” species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus. PMID:28282461

  3. Genomic diversity within the haloalkaliphilic genus Thioalkalivibrio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Anne-Catherine; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Overmars, Lex; Richter, Michael; Woyke, Tanja; Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Thioalkalivibrio is a genus of obligate chemolithoautotrophic haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Their habitat are soda lakes which are dual extreme environments with a pH range from 9.5 to 11 and salt concentrations up to saturation. More than 100 strains of this genus have been isolated from various soda lakes all over the world, but only ten species have been effectively described yet. Therefore, the assignment of the remaining strains to either existing or novel species is important and will further elucidate their genomic diversity as well as give a better general understanding of this genus. Recently, the genomes of 76 Thioalkalivibrio strains were sequenced. On these, we applied different methods including (i) 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, (ii) Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA) based on eight housekeeping genes, (iii) Average Nucleotide Identity based on BLAST (ANIb) and MUMmer (ANIm), (iv) Tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), (v) digital DNA:DNA hybridization (dDDH) as well as (vi) nucleotide- and amino acid-based Genome BLAST Distance Phylogeny (GBDP) analyses. We detected a high genomic diversity by revealing 15 new "genomic" species and 16 new "genomic" subspecies in addition to the ten already described species. Phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses showed that the genus is not monophyletic, because four strains were clearly separated from the other Thioalkalivibrio by type strains from other genera. Therefore, it is recommended to classify the latter group as a novel genus. The biogeographic distribution of Thioalkalivibrio suggested that the different "genomic" species can be classified as candidate disjunct or candidate endemic species. This study is a detailed genome-based classification and identification of members within the genus Thioalkalivibrio. However, future phenotypical and chemotaxonomical studies will be needed for a full species description of this genus.

  4. The genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach in Africa and a new genus Rabdosiella Codd (Lamiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Codd

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the genus Isodon (Schrad. ex Benth. Spach and its occurrence in Africa are discussed; an allied genus Rabdosiella Codd is described and the combinations R. calycina (Benth. Codd and R. ternifolia (D.Don Codd (the latter an Indian species are effected.

  5. 7 CFR 340.2 - Groups of organisms which are or contain plant pests and exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plant pest in § 340.1. GROUP Viroids Superkingdom Prokaryotae Kingdom Virus All members of groups containing plant viruses, and all other plant and insect viruses Kingdom Monera Division Bacteria Family... Superkingdom Eukaryotae Kingdom Plantae Subkingdom Thallobionta Division Chlorophyta Genus Cephaleuros Genus...

  6. Intergeneric Classification of Genus Bulbophyllum from Peninsular Malaysia Based on Combined Morphological and RBCL Sequence Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, S.; Dadkhah, K.

    2016-01-01

    Bulbophyllum Thou. is largest genus in Orchidaceae family and a well-known plant of tropical area. The present study provides a comparative morphological study of 38 Bulbophyllum spp. as well as molecular sequence analysis of large subunit of rubisco (rbcL), to infer the intergeneric classification for studied taxa of genus Bulbophyllum. Thirty morphological characters were coded in a data matrix, and used in phenetic analysis. Morphological result was strongly consistent with earlier classification, with exception of B. auratum, B. gracillimum, B. mutabile and B. limbatum status. Furthermore Molecular data analysis of rbcL was congruent with morphological data in some aspects. Species interrelationships specified using combination of rbcL sequence data with morphological data. The results revealed close affiliation in 11 sections of Bulbophyllum from Peninsular Malaysia. Consequently, based on this study generic status of sections Cirrhopetalum and Epicrianthes cannot longer be supported, as they are deeply embedded within the genus Bulbophyllum. (author)

  7. Taxonomy and Chemotaxonomy of the Genus Hypericum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sara L; Robson, Norman K B

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hypericum L. (St. John's Wort, Hypericaceae) includes, at the most recent count, 469 species that are either naturally occurring on, or which have been introduced to, every continent in the world, except Antarctica. These species occur as herbs, shrubs, and infrequently trees, and are found in a variety of habitats in temperate regions and in high mountains in the tropics, avoiding only zones of extreme aridity, temperature and/or salinity. Monographic work on the genus has resulted in the recognition and description of 36 taxonomic sections, delineated by specific combinations of morphological characteristics and biogeographic distribution ranges. Hypericum perforatum L. (Common St. John's wort, section Hypericum), one of the best-known members of the genus, is an important medicinal herb of which extracts are taken for their reported activity against mild to moderate depression. Many other species have been incorporated in traditional medicine systems in countries around the world, or are sold as ornamentals. Several classes of interesting bioactive secondary metabolites, including naphthodianthrones (e.g. hypericin and pseudohypericin), flavonol glycosides (e.g. isoquercitrin and hyperoside), biflavonoids (e.g. amentoflavone), phloroglucinol derivatives (e.g. hyperforin and adhyperforin) and xanthones have been identified from members of the genus. A general overview of the taxonomy of the genus and the distribution of relevant secondary metabolites is presented.

  8. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  9. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...... has been reported for other members of the genus. The nuclear DNA content (2C-value) of all three species was determined. The genome size of G. maloi is 29.44 (± 0.47) pg, for G. scipetarum (chromosome number still unknown) 29.55 (± 1.35) pg, and for G. peloponnesiacum (2n = 2x = 16) 31.93 (± 2.38) pg....... These values are the first genome size measurements for the genus. All three species are mapped and fully illustrated. A key to the European species is also presented....

  10. Revision of monotypic genus Llavea (Cryptogrammoideae: Pteridaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Palacios-Rios

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Llavea Lag. is a genus of Cryptogrammoideae (Pteridaceae, whose only species is distributed from southern United States and Mexico to Guatemala and Costa Rica, although it lives mainly in Mesoamerica, inhabiting preferably calcicolous habitats associated with forests and mountains. The genus is easily recognized by the presence of fertile leaves hemi-dimorphic, with the fertile apical portion with longer and narrower segments than the sterile ones, with strongly revolute margin, and rhizome scales bicolorous, shiny, and black. This paper presents a revision of the genus, nomenclatural issues are resolved, and and palynological morphological diversity are reviewed, as well as its distribution, phenology, ecology, and applications, based on field and herbarium specimens studies. In addition, two names related to Llavea, Allosorus karwinskii Kunze and Ceratodactylis osmundioides J. Sm., were lectotypified.

  11. The genus curve of the Abell clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Gott, J. Richard, III; Postman, Marc

    1994-01-01

    We study the topology of large-scale structure through a genus curve measurement of the recent Abell catalog redshift survey of Postman, Huchra, and Geller (1992). The structure is found to be spongelike near median density and to exhibit isolated superclusters and voids at high and low densities, respectively. The genus curve shows a slight shift toward 'meatball' topology, but remains consistent with the hypothesis of Gaussian random phase initial conditions. The amplitude of the genus curve corresponds to a power-law spectrum with index n = 0.21(sub -0.47 sup +0.43) on scales of 48/h Mpc or to a cold dark matter power spectrum with omega h = 0.36(sub -0.17 sup +0.46).

  12. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of the genus Leonurus: The herb to benefit the mothers and more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Han; Liu, Zhi-Ke; Yang, Da-Song; Zhang, Xing-Jie; Sun, Han-Dong; Xiao, Wei-Lie

    2018-03-01

    Plants belonging to the genus Leonurus, also named motherwort, are traditionally used for anti-gynecological disorder in East Asia, and for sedative in Europe. Chemical investigation of the genus Leonurus not only enriched the natural products library, but also enlarged the pharmacological application of this traditional herb. In this review, we systematically summarized the structures of 259 compounds isolated from the genus Leonurus, featured with 147 labdane diterpenoids. The reported bioactivity studies up to 2017 are presented in the second part, with the main focus on the isolated compounds and also concerning the extracts. In addition to the traditional uterine contraction and sedative activity, recently the cardiovascular protection effect of leonurine has drawn most attention. Other than that, neuroprotection, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-platelet aggregation and many other activities have been assigned to various compounds from the genus Leonurus. Among 70 bioactivity references cited in this review, 57% of them were concentrated on two alkaloids (leonurine and stachydrine), whereas only 20% are about the 147 diterpenoids. Anti-inflammation is the major bioactivity discovered so far for the labdane diterpenoids from the genus Leonurus, whose further therapeutic potential still remains for exploration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Talaromyces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C.M.; Houbraken, J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other...... a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections...

  14. Essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjewala, Deepak; Luthra, Rajesh

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils distilled from Cymbopogon species are of immense commercial value as flavors and fragrances in the perfumery, cosmetics, soaps, and detergents and in pharmaceutical industries. Two major constituents of the essential oil, geraniol and citral, due to their specific rose and lemon like aromas are widely used as flavors, fragrances and cosmetics. Citral is also used for the synthesis of vitamin A and ionones (for example, beta-ionone, methyl ionone). Moreover, Cymbopogon essential oils and constituents possess many useful biological activities including cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. Despite the immense commercial and biological significance of the Cymbopogon essential oils, little is known about their biosynthesis and regulatory mechanisms. So far it is known that essential oils are biosynthesized via the classical acetate-MVA route and existence of a newly discovered MEP pathway in Cymbopogon remains as a topic for investigation. The aim of the present review is to discuss the biosynthesis and regulation of essential oils in the genus Cymbopogon with given emphasis to two elite members, lemongrass (C. flexuosus Nees ex Steud) and palmarosa (C. martinii Roxb.). This article highlights the work done so far towards understanding of essential oil biosynthesis and regulation in the genus Cymbopogon. Also, based on our experiences with Cymbopogon species, we would like to propose C. flexuosus as a model system for the study of essential oil metabolism beyond the much studied plant family Lamiaceae.

  15. The section Atlanticae of the genus Luzula (Juncaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyński, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The section Atlanticae of the genus Luzula (Juncaceae.- Luzula atlantica Braun-Blanq. and Luzula tibestica (Quézel Zarhan ex Romo & Boratyński are the only representatives of the section Atlanticae Kirschner of the genus Luzula. Luzula atlantica is an endemic plant from the High Atlas Mountains and Luzula tibestica is endemic to the Tibesti massif. Both taxa are studied from a nomenclatural, morphological, chorological and biogeographical point of view. These taxa, owing to their low dispersion capacity, have probably diversified in situ.La sección Atlanticae del género Luzula (Juncaceae.- Luzula atlantica Braun-Blanq. y Luzula tibestica (Quézel Zarhan ex Romo & Boratynski son los únicos representantes de la sección Atlanticae Kirschner del género Luzula. Luzula atlantica es un endemismo del Alto Atlas y Luzula tibestica es una planta endémica del macizo de Tibesti. Ambos taxones son estudiados desde el punto de vista morfológico, nomenclatural, corológico y biogeográfico. Estos taxones, por su baja tasa de dispersión, se han diversificado probablemente in situ.

  16. Medicinal chemistry and pharmacology of genus Tripterygium (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Anita M; Ma, Jun; Lipsky, Peter E; Raskin, Ilya

    2007-03-01

    Plants in the genus Tripterygium, such as Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f., have a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the use of Tripterygium extracts and of the main bioactive constituent, the diterpene triepoxide triptolide (1), to treat a variety of autoimmune and inflammation-related conditions. The main mode of action of the Tripterygium extracts and triptolide (1) is the inhibition of expression of proinflammatory genes such as those for interleukin-2 (IL-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). The efficacy and safety of certain types of Tripterygium extracts were confirmed in human clinical trials in the US and abroad. Over 300 compounds have been identified in the genus Tripterygium, and many of these have been evaluated for biological activity. The overall activity of the extract is based on the interaction between its components. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of the extract cannot be fully mimicked by any individual constituent. This review discusses the biochemical composition and biological and pharmacological activities of Tripterygium extracts, and their main bioactive components.

  17. Plant protein-based hydrophobic fine and ultrafine carrier particles in drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekzad, Hedieh; Mirshekari, Hamed; Sahandi Zangabad, Parham; Moosavi Basri, S M; Baniasadi, Fazel; Sharifi Aghdam, Maryam; Karimi, Mahdi; Hamblin, Michael R

    2018-02-01

    For thousands of years, plants and their products have been used as the mainstay of medicinal therapy. In recent years, besides attempts to isolate the active ingredients of medicinal plants, other new applications of plant products, such as their use to prepare drug delivery vehicles, have been discovered. Nanobiotechnology is a branch of pharmacology that can provide new approaches for drug delivery by the preparation of biocompatible carrier nanoparticles (NPs). In this article, we review recent studies with four important plant proteins that have been used as carriers for targeted delivery of drugs and genes. Zein is a water-insoluble protein from maize; Gliadin is a 70% alcohol-soluble protein from wheat and corn; legumin is a casein-like protein from leguminous seeds such as peas; lectins are glycoproteins naturally occurring in many plants that recognize specific carbohydrate residues. NPs formed from these proteins show good biocompatibility, possess the ability to enhance solubility, and provide sustained release of drugs and reduce their toxicity and side effects. The effects of preparation methods on the size and loading capacity of these NPs are also described in this review.

  18. Seed priming with extracts of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L.) plant parts in the control of root rot fungi and growth of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafi, H.; Dawar, S.; Zaki, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming with plant extracts and chemicals has been used as an important growth enhancement tool in crop plants. In this research, an attempt was made to understand the mechanism of various seed priming treatments on greenhouse-grown okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) for the control of root infecting fungi like Rhizoctonia solani (Kn), Fusarium spp. and Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid by plant parts extracts (stem, leaves and seeds) of Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile and Sapindus mukorossi (L) at different time intervals (5, 10, 20, 40 minutes). Results showed significant suppression of root rot fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameters like shoot length, root length, shoot weight and root weight. Seed-priming with A. nilotica and S. mukorossi leaves extract for 10 minutes time interval was found to be effective for the control of root rot fungi and growth of all tested leguminous and non-leguminous plants. (author)

  19. Molecular Phylogeny of the Small Ermine Moth Genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Hubert; Lieshout, Niek; Van Ginkel, Wil E.; Menken, Steph B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their host-plant associations. Here, we reconstruct the phylogeny to provide a solid framework for these studies, and to obtain insight into the history of host-plant use and the biogeography of the genus. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA sequences from an internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) and from the 16S rDNA (16S) and cytochrome oxidase (COII) mitochondrial genes were collected from 20–23 (depending on gene) species and two outgroup taxa to reconstruct the phylogeny of the Palaearctic members of this genus. Sequences were analysed using three different phylogenetic methods (parsimony, likelihood, and Bayesian inference). Conclusions/Significance Roughly the same patterns are retrieved irrespective of the method used, and they are similar among the three genes. Monophyly is well supported for a clade consisting of the Japanese (but not the Dutch) population of Yponomeuta sedellus and Y. yanagawanus, a Y. kanaiellus–polystictus clade, and a Rosaceae-feeding, western Palaearctic clade (Y. cagnagellus–irrorellus clade). Within these clades, relationships are less well supported, and the patterns between the different gene trees are not so similar. The position of the remaining taxa is also variable among the gene trees and rather weakly supported. The phylogenetic information was used to elucidate patterns of biogeography and resource use. In the Palaearctic, the genus most likely originated in the Far East, feeding on Celastraceae, dispersing to the West concomitant with a shift to Rosaceae and further to Salicaceae. The association of Y. cagnagellus with Euonymus europaeus (Celastraceae), however, is a reversal. The only oligophagous species, Y. padellus, belongs

  20. Historical evolution and current status of the taxonomy of genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peix, Alvaro; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-12-01

    The genus Pseudomonas was described in 1894 and is one of the most diverse and ubiquitous bacterial genera whose species have been isolated worldwide in all kinds of environments, from the Antarctica to the Tropics, present in sediments, clinical samples, plant, fungi and diseased animal specimens, water, soil, plant rhizosphere, sea, deserts, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been controversial for years since a lot of bacterial taxa initially included in genus Pseudomonas have been reclassified in other genera or species from a different class of Proteobacteria over the years, as techniques for characterization and classification of microorganisms improved, aiming to set a phylogenetic classification of the species. In this review, the historical evolution of the taxonomy of Pseudomonas is described, and the currently valid criteria and future challenges for taxonomy of the genus and techniques used to achieve the necessary characterization for classifying the species are discussed. Finally, all the validly published Pseudomonas species at present are listed with an overview of their diversity and ecology.

  1. Sinorhizobium arboris sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kostiense sp. nov., isolated from leguminous trees in Sudan and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, G; de Lajudie, P; Eardly, B D; Suomalainen, S; Paulin, L; Zhang, X; Gillis, M; Lindström, K

    1999-10-01

    SDS-PAGE of total bacterial proteins was applied to the classification of 25 Sudanese and five Kenyan strains isolated from the root nodules of Acacia senegal and Prosopis chilensis. Twenty strains were also studied by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and the whole 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from two strains representing the two major clusters. These results, together with the previously reported numerical taxonomy analysis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis studies, DNA-DNA dot-blot hybridization, genomic fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based PCR, DNA base composition analysis, DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and RFLP analysis of the amplified 16S rRNA gene, showed that all 30 strains belong to the genus Sinorhizobium. Two of the strains grouped with Sinorhizobium saheli and seven with Sinorhizobium terangae, while the rest did not cluster with any of the established species. The majority of the strains formed two phenotypically and genotypically distinct groups and we therefore propose that these strains should be classified as two new species, Sinorhizobium arboris sp. nov. and Sinorhizobium kostiense sp. nov.

  2. Phytochemical review of Juncus L. genus (Fam. Juncaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelsamed I. El-Shamy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys the various naturally occurring compounds that have been isolated from different species of Juncus genus. This is the first review published on this topic. The present study furnishes an overview of all naturally isolated compounds, flavonoids, coumarines, terpenes, stilbenes, sterols, phenolic acids, carotenes, phenanthrenes derivatives (monomeric and dimeric and biological activities of these species. These plants have often been used in traditional medicine, and also have therefore been studied for their antitumor, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-algal, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory, significant anti-eczematic and hepatoprotective activity. On the basis of 48 references, this review covers the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Juncus species, describing compounds previously reported.

  3. Some genus 3 curves with many points

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auer, R; Top, J; Fieker, C; Kohel, DR

    2002-01-01

    We explain a naive approach towards the problem of finding genus 3 curves C over any given finite field F-q of odd characteristic, with a number of rational points close to the Hasse-Weil-Serre upper bound q+1+3[2rootq]. The method turns out to be successful at least in characteristic 3.

  4. The genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    A revision of the genus Gymnospermium (Berberidaceae) in the Balkan Peninsula is carried out. Three species are recognised. Gymnospermium maloi is described as a new species from Mt. Picari in Gjirokastra district, southern Albania. It is compared with the closely related G. scipetarum which has...

  5. The genus Malassezia and human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inamadar A

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Sabouraud's Pityrosporum is now recognized as Malassezia. With taxonomic revision of the genus, newer species have been included. The role of this member of the normal human skin flora in different cutaneous and systemic disorders is becoming clearer. The immunological responses it induces in the human body are conflicting and their relevance to clinical features is yet to be explored.

  6. Thermoregulation of the subterranean rodent genus Bathyergus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermoregulation of the largest subterranean rodent, genus Bathyergus, comprising two species, B. suillus and B. janetta,occurring in mesic and semiarid habitats respectively, was investigated and compared with that of other subterranean rodents. Both species display low resting metabolic rates and low body ...

  7. The genus Dacrydium in Malaya (Gymnospermae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laubenfels, de David J.

    1976-01-01

    When Corner described the genus Dacrydium in Malaya in 1939 he recognized four kinds, three species and a marked variety, but he expressed considerable doubt about their distinctiveness because the available specimens showed all degrees of variation of leaves between one species and another. He

  8. Palynology of the Genus Stachytarpheta Vahl. (Verbenaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubukola ADEDEJI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The exine morphology of pollen grains of Stachytarpheta indica (Linn. Vahl, Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl and Stachytarpheta angustifolia (Mill. Vahl is reported. This study was carried out with a light microscope. Pollen grains from fresh anthers were collected and aceolysed. Statistical analysis used to analyse the data collected include cluster analysis, correlation analysis, similarity and distance indices. The pollen grains are spheroidal to oblate to sub-oblate in shape. They are aperturate, both colpate and porate. Tricolpate types occur most frequently, acolpate, monocolpate, bicolpate and tetracolpate types less frequently. The multicolpate and multiporate attributes in all the species indicate that the genus is not primitive in evolutionary history and this species probably, evolved around in the same time. According to the size, the pollen grains of the genus falls into groups permagna (pollen diameter 100-200 ?m and giganta (pollen diameter greater than 200 ?m. S. cayennensis and S. anguistifolia belong to group permagna and S. indica only in the group giganta. This separates S. indica from the other two species. The large pollen grain size in the genus clearly supports the fact that the flowers in the genus are more insect-and-bird pollinated than wind pollinated. The similarity and distance indices of the species showed that S. cayennensis and S. angustifolia are the closest. S. indica is closer to S. angustifolia but farther from S. cayennensis.

  9. On the genus Galidia and its species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, F.A.

    1879-01-01

    In the year 1839 Is. Geoff. St. Hilaire ¹) described and figured three species of his new genus Galidia, viz: elegans, concolor and olivacea, all natives of Madagascar. It seems that Galidia olivacea has not been captured by the travellers who visited Madagascar after Bernier and Goudot: the only

  10. The genus Lolium : taxonomy and genetic resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, B.P.

    1994-01-01

    Several aspects of variation within the genus Lolium, and more in detail within Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) have been highlighted. As the results are extensively discussed in each chapter, the general discussion is focused on two aspects of

  11. NSR superstring measures in genus 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Barkovskiy, P.; Sleptsov, A.; Stern, A.

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are two proposed ansätze for NSR superstring measures: the Grushevsky ansatz and the OPSMY ansatz, which for genera g⩽4g⩽4 are known to coincide. However, neither the Grushevsky nor the OPSMY ansatz leads to a vanishing two-point function in genus four, which can be constructed from

  12. Revision of the African genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Couvreur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Uvariastrum (Annonaceae is restricted to continental Africa and is characterized by sepals with folded margins, few carpels and numerous stamens. The genus is mainly found in the tropical lowland rain forests of Africa, with one species growing in a drier woodland habitat. The species name U. pynaertii De Wild is reduced into synonymy with U. zenkeri Engl. & Diels. Uvaraistrum neglectum Paiva and U. modestum Diels are transferred to the genus Uvaria leading to two new combinations: Uvaria modesta (Diels Couvreur, comb. nov. and Uvaria paivana Couvreur, nom. nov.. Five species are currently recognized in Uvariastrum. The present revision, the first of the genus for over 100 years, provides an overview of previously published information and discussions on morphology, taxonomy and palynology. Preliminary conservation status assessments are provided for each species, as well as diagnostic keys for fruiting and flowering material as well as detailed species descriptions. Furthermore, all species are illustrated by line drawings and all species are mapped.

  13. Phylogenetic position of the spirochetal genus Cristispira

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, B.J.; Pelletier, D.A.; Dewhirst, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the phylogenetic relationship of the genus Cristispira to other spirochetes. Since Cristispira organisms cannot presently be grown in vitro, 16S rRNA genes were amplified directly from bacterial DNA isolated from Cristispira a ...

  14. Thermoregulation of the subterranean rodent genus Bathyergus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    genus Bathyergus, comprising two species, B. suillus and. B. janetta, occurring in mesic and semi·arid habitats ... dunes along the north-western Cape coast, from Port Nolloth to the Orange River (De Graaff 1981). ... from a parallel circuit consisting of a replicate respirometer and gas scrubbers. Animals were deprived of ...

  15. Sarawakodendron, a new genus of Celastraceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Ding

    1967-01-01

    During my trip to Malaysia in 1966, sponsored by the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO), for doing field work on Anacardiaceae, a new tree genus was found in Sarawak belonging to the family Celastraceae which I have revised for the Flora Malesiana series I,

  16. Chemotaxonomy of the genus Nuxia (Buddlejaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of two species of Nuxia (Buddlejaceae) showed that this genus is characterised by the presence of the eight-carbon iridoid glucoside unedoside and/or its derivatives. From N. floribunda was isolated unedoside, nuxioside (6-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-unedoside) and 2''-acetyl-3...

  17. Chloothamnus, a neglected genus of Bambusaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1936-01-01

    Chloothamnus BUSE ap. MIQUEL, Pl. Jungh. 1854, 386 — Oreiostachys GAMBLE ap. KOORDERS, Verh. Kon. Ak. Wet. 16, 1908, 657.. Hab.: Malay Archipelago. 1. C. chilianthus BUSE, l.c., type species of the genus — Schizostachyum chilianthum (BUSE) KURZ, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 39, ii, 1870, 88 — non Melocanna

  18. A new genus of Blacinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1977-01-01

    A new genus, Canalicephalus, of the subfamily Blacinae is described along with 4 new species, C. orientalis from Borneo, C. novus from New Guinea, and C. bakeri and C. mindanao, both from the Philippines. Keys are included to separate these 2 genera and the 4...

  19. Records of the genus Coccygidium Saussure (Hymenoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coccygidium arabica sp. nov., (Hym., Braconidae, Agathidinae) is described from Saudi Arabia. Morphological diagnostic characters of the new species were figured and compared with those of the related species Coccygidium angostura. The genus Coccygidium Saussure is recorded for the first time from Saudi Arabia.

  20. The ITS2 of the genus Bulinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Aslak; Stothard, J. R.; Madsen, Henry

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater snail genus Bulinus has been intensively investigated due to its role as intermediate host for trematode blood flukes that cause the debilitating disease schistosomiasis in man and livestock. Owing to taxonomic ambiguities within Bulinus, attention has often focused upon species...