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Sample records for legume production trials

  1. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  2. Productivity and stability of various grass-legume mixtures with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were established at Cedara under dryland conditions to determine the production, persistence and value of Trifolium repens cv. Ladino, Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland red and Desmodium uncinatum cv. Silverleaf. These legumes were row-planted into Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu); Cynodon nlemfuensis ...

  3. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  4. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  5. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...... to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve...

  6. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few...... studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume...

  7. Highly productive forage legume stands show no positive biodiversity effect on yield and N2-fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Eriksen, Jørgen; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims While N fixation in diversified grasslands including forage legumes and non-legumes has been widely studied, N fixation in swards containing only forage legumes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated N fixation in pure stands and mixtures of three forage legumes....... Methodology N fixation, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) yields were quantified in a field experiment for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) pure stands and mixtures using the isotope dilution method. Results All three forage legume species...... derived most (around 85%) of their N from atmospheric N fixation (%Ndfa). However, no positive effect of species diversity was found in any of the mixtures. Species composition of the forage legume mixtures affected the amount of N from N fixation by affecting DM production and N accumulation...

  8. Production and transcriptional regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Wei, Li; Sun, Zhanmin; Gao, Lihua; Meng, Yu; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2015-05-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA), also known as condensed tannins, contribute to important forage legumes traits including disease resistance and forage quality. PA in forage plants has both positive and negative effects on feed digestibility and animal performance. The analytical methods and their applicability in measuring the contents of PA in forage plants are essential to studies on their nutritional effects. In spite of important breakthroughs in our understanding of the PA biosynthesis, important questions still remain to be answered such as the PA polymerization and transport. Recent advances in the understanding of transcription factor-mediated gene regulation mechanisms in anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic pathway in model plants suggest new approaches for the metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. The present review will attempt to present the state-of-the-art of research in these areas and provide an update on the production and metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. We hope that this will contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which PA production to manipulate the content of PA for beneficial effects in forage plants.

  9. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple use of legumes as green manure in rotation with corn and hay for milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Castro Rincón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry tropical livestock systems go through dramatic decrease in milk production during the dry season. This can be mitigated by including legumes as green manure in forage crops as silage and hay to feed cows. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate 1 the contribution of legumes to milk production in cows supplemented with Canavalia brasiliensis as hay and 2 the effect of the removal of legume (5 levels between 0-100 % on corn production as forage. A direct relationship between the level of legume biomass removal and reduced maize yield (r = 0.85 was observed. When levels of removal of C. brasiliensis were below 50 %, the forage yield of corn was not affected (MS 11,283 kg ha-1 compared to non-removal treatment (12,601 kg MS ha-1(p > 0.05. At the time of corn harvest, the total nitrogen decreased (15-20 %; NO3 varied between 8 and 26 mg/kg, with lower levels contained in the removal of 75 to 100 %; and 15 % organic C increased with the removal of 0, 25 and 50 % legume. Regarding the second experiment, it was found that cows supplemented with hay C. brasiliensis, increased their milk production by 17 % with supplementation of 1.5 % LW/day. The compositional quality of milk did not change due to the treatment of hay supplementation of C. brasiliensis

  12. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    After an introduction on plant science research in Malaysia concerning crop breeding, 22 research reports are presented, 17 of which are analyzed individually and constitute separate INIS references. The remaining 5 were essentially concerned with only future applications of nuclear technology: a paper by V.L. Chopra (India) on mutation breeding for partial disease resistance of wheat; by H.H. Hoppe (Federal Republic of Germany) on mechanisms of resistance against Uromyces in Phaseolus vulgaris; by I.S. Santos (Philippines) on induction evaluation and utilization of beneficial mutations in the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), where gamma rays and fast neutrons will be used as well as other mutagens; by F. Saccardo (Italy) on breeding for disease resistance in peas and other vegetables (short communication only); and by E. Balazs and I. Sziraki (Hungary) on in vitro studies on virus resistance of legumes, including virus-host interaction studies involving gamma irradiation (short communication only). The conclusions and recommendations of the Regional Seminar on Induced Mutations for the Improvement of Grain Legumes in S.E. Asia 1975 (IAEA-203, 1977) were considered and generally endorsed, with some clarification. Conclusions and recommendations are given on p.121-126

  13. Evaluating shade effects on crop productivity in sorghum-legume intercropping systems using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum-legume intercropping has the potential to improve forage productivity, resource use efficiency, and forage quality under irrigation in the Southern High Plains of the United States. Crop production is conversion of solar radiation into biomass and solar radiation is wasted early in the seaso...

  14. Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the Sudan savannah zone Kano state, Nigeria. ... Results of the study indicated that Sorghum almum-Lablab purpureus mixture recorded numerically higher dry matter yield (7806 kg dm/hectare) compared to other mixtures, similarly leaf area for grass (46.4) ...

  15. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  16. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C.; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D.K.; Abaidoo, Robert C.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of

  17. Productivity and residual benefits of grain legumes to sorghum under semi-arid conditions in southwestern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.; Twomlow, S.J.; Wijk, van M.T.; Dimes, J.P.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The productivity and residual benefits of four grain legumes to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grown in rotation were measured under semi-arid conditions over three cropping seasons. Two varieties of each of the grain legumes; cowpea (Vigna unguiculata); groundnut (Arachis hypogaea); pigeon pea (Cajanus

  18. Participatory trials and farmers' social realities: understanding the adoption of legume technologies in a Malawian farmer community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pircher, T.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Kamanga, B.C.G.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results from a study exploring the reasons for low adoption of legume technologies to improve soil fertility by farmers from a community in central Malawi who took part in participatory trials. This study explores the influence of gender roles in agriculture and land ownership

  19. Legumes as Functional Ingredients in Gluten-Free Bakery and Pasta Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschia, Martina; Horstmann, Stefan W; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2017-02-28

    The increasing demand for gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing. Their nutritional profile may also counteract the lack of nutrients commonly highlighted in commercial gluten-free bakery and pasta products, providing valuable sources of protein, dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and complex carbohydrates, which in turn have a positive impact on human health. This review reports the main chemical and functional characteristics of legumes and their functional application in gluten-free products.

  20. Adaptive technology of environmentally - friendly production of legumes in the dry steppe zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Popov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern agronomic technologies must include environmentally- friendly technologies in crop growing. In Kazakhstan, despite its significant potential, environmentallyfriendly farming is underdeveloped with little scientific backing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop and suggest an adaptive technology for cultivation of legumes taking into account existing methodologies for environmentallyfriendly production in the dry steppe zone of Akmola region, Northern Kazakhstan. In order to achieve the objectives, the study focused on determination of a complex impact of combination of agroecological conditions (incl. agro- climatic, content of selected heavy metals such as Cu and Zn in soil, weed pressure, etc., contrasting soil cultivation technology (i.e. traditional vs zero- tillage, nutrient inputs (fertilizers, legume stimulators and pesticides on growth and productivity of selected legume crops (peas and chickpeas. The overall agroecological and growing conditions were suitable for producing economically- important legume crops (i.e. pea and chickpea, despite the temperature fluctiations and soil moisture shortage. Despite the very low content of N and P in the upper soil layer, the Cu and Zn content was within the Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL for Kazakhstan, with a low anticipated negative effect on target legume growth. The least number of weeds was recorded by the variant with application of biological preparation Respecta. The targeted legumes were better developed during the growing season under the traditional technology compared to zero- tillage technology, i.e. germination and seed viability, which might be attributed to better utilisation of soil air and improved soil porosity of the soil layer of 0- 20 cm when using traditional technology. Combinations of mineral fertilizer CaSO4 + 2H2O5 with the innoculation promoter Rizotorfin, and Izagry Phosphorus with Rizotorfin may be recommended to farmers. The application of

  1. Production and chemical composition of grasses and legumes cultivated in pure form, mixed or in consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Cortiana Tambara

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the edible biomass and chemical composition of forages grown on pure form, as a grass mix, and in grass-legume consortia. The following species were tested: white oats (Avena sativa, black oats (Avena strigosa, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, forage peanut (Arachis pintoi, white clover (Trifolium repens, and red clover (Trifolium pratense. The experiment consisted of sixteen treatments arranged in a completely randomized design. The parameters measured were total dry matter (PMST, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, and crude protein (CP. No significant differences in PMST were found among the consortia (p > 0.05. Only the pure cultivated white clover (p > 0.05 was comparable to the consortia in terms of biomass production. The three legumes had the lowest average NDF values (p > 0.05, based on their contributions to the total NDF content of the consortia along the cuts. The ADF content increased for all treatments during the cuts. The results indicate that in pasture, legumes increase protein content, and forage consortia increase both the pasture production and the grazing period. Their chemical composition is adequate for boosting livestock production in pastures.

  2. Evaluation of selected legume cover crops for biomass production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A chaque saison culturale, l'établissement de terrain, le couvert du sol, la production de la biomasse en surface, et le rendement de graines des differentes espèces des plantes ont été suivis de près. Un bio-essai en place a suivi ces études afin de déterminer les effets résiduaires des plantes semées sur la production de ...

  3. Herbaceous Legume Encroachment Reduces Grass Productivity and Density in Arid Rangelands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Wagner

    Full Text Available Worldwide savannas and arid grasslands are mainly used for livestock grazing, providing livelihood to over a billion people. While normally dominated by perennial C4 grasses, these rangelands are increasingly affected by the massive spread of native, mainly woody legumes. The consequences are often a repression of grass cover and productivity, leading to a reduced carrying capacity. While such encroachment by woody plants has been extensively researched, studies on similar processes involving herbaceous species are rare. We studied the impact of a sustained and massive spread of the native herbaceous legume Crotalaria podocarpa in Namibia's escarpment region on the locally dominant fodder grasses Stipagrostis ciliata and Stipagrostis uniplumis. We measured tussock densities, biomass production of individual tussocks and tussock dormancy state of Stipagrostis on ten 10 m x 10 m plots affected and ten similarly-sized plots unaffected by C. podocarpa over eight consecutive years and under different seasonal rainfalls and estimated the potential relative productivity of the land. We found the percentage of active Stipagrostis tussocks and the biomass production of individual tussocks to increase asymptotically with higher seasonal rainfall reaching a maximum around 300 mm while the land's relative productivity under average local rainfall conditions reached only 40% of its potential. Crotalaria podocarpa encroachment had no effect on the proportion of productive grass tussocks, but reduced he productivity of individual Stipagrostis tussocks by a third. This effect of C. podocarpa on grass productivity was immediate and direct and was not compensated for by above-average rainfall. Besides this immediate effect, over time, the density of grass tussocks declined by more than 50% in areas encroached by C. podocarpa further and lastingly reducing the lands carrying capacity. The effects of C. podocarpa on grass productivity hereby resemble those of woody

  4. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes......, red clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil. Overall, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were 1.3 and 1.6kg/day higher, respectively, whereas milk protein and milk fat concentration were 0.5 and 1.4 g/kg lower, respectively, for legume-based diets compared with grass-based diets. When comparing...... individual legume species with grasses, only red clover resulted in a lower milk protein concentration than grasses. Cows fed white clover and birdsfoot trefoil yielded more milk than cows fed red clover and lucerne, probably caused by a higher OM digestibility of white clover and activity of condensed...

  5. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Univ. of Agronomy

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  6. [Baked product development based fermented legumes and cereals for schoolchildren snack].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar; Zambrano, Rosaura

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this work was to develop three foodstuffs based on mixes of wheat and fermented and non-fermented legumes, for the purpose of contributing with a healthy alternative for school snacks. To this aim, refined wheat flour was partially substituted with whole legume flours for the preparation of cakes, brownies and cookies, foodstuffs traditionally consumed by school age children. Cakes were formulated substituting 20% of wheat flour with Phaseolus vulgaris flour, brownies with 30% of Cajanus cajan flour and cookies with 30% of Vigna sinensis flour, using fermented and non-fermented legumes in the three products. When these products were subjected to sensorial evaluation through a test of degree of acceptability and using a hedonic scale of 7 points, values higher than 5 in the attributes taste, color and overall appraisal were found for all the products. In addition, the preference was measured with a group of 90 school children, corroborating the results obtained at laboratory level. Chemical characterization showed protein contents between 12 and 13% for the cake, 10 and 11% for the brownies and 10% for the cookies and protein digestibilities in vitro of 91%, 87% and 93%, respectively. The calorie supply, calculated per portion was of 199 kcal, 246 kcal and 237 kcal, for cakes, brownies and cookies, respectively. It was concluded that it is technically possible to incorporate fermented and non-fermented Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna sinensis and Cajanus cajan, to highly consumed products such as cakes, brownies and cookies with a higher nutritional content and well-accepted by school-age children.

  7. Development of cereal and legume based food products for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satusap, Pruet; Chavasit, Visith; Kriengsinyos, Wantanee; Judprasong, Kunchit

    2014-01-01

    Diets for elderly must contain nutritious foods, fit their physiological limitations, and match with their food culture. Cereals and legumes are suggested food choices regardless of their cultures and beliefs. Ready-to-eat products containing suitable macronutrient patterns from cereals and legumes were developed. Energy distributions from carbohydrate (60 kcal/100 kcal), protein (15 kcal/100 kcal), and fat (25 kcal/100 kcal), protein quality, and percent energy from saturated fatty acid and free sugar were criteria for the formulation. Carbohydrate sources were rice flour, brown rice flour, mung bean starch, which carbohydrate in rice flour was the most digestible on in vitro test. Protein and fat sources were soybean flour, black sesame seed, and rice bran oil. Three products, i.e., flake snack, instant beverage, and instant soup were produced by drying basic ingredients as flakes on a double-roller drum dryer and directly used or dry-mixed with other ingredients. The products (Aw good quality protein, and energy from saturated fat snacks from both carbohydrate sources were significantly more acceptable than the other two products.

  8. Plant growth-promoting actinobacteria: a new strategy for enhancing sustainable production and protection of grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Grain legumes are a cost-effective alternative for the animal protein in improving the diets of the poor in South-East Asia and Africa. Legumes, through symbiotic nitrogen fixation, meet a major part of their own N demand and partially benefit the following crops of the system by enriching soil. In realization of this sustainability advantage and to promote pulse production, United Nations had declared 2016 as the "International Year of pulses". Grain legumes are frequently subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in severe yield losses. Global yields of legumes have been stagnant for the past five decades in spite of adopting various conventional and molecular breeding approaches. Furthermore, the increasing costs and negative effects of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production necessitate the use of biological options of crop production and protection. The use of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria for improving soil and plant health has become one of the attractive strategies for developing sustainable agricultural systems due to their eco-friendliness, low production cost and minimizing consumption of non-renewable resources. This review emphasizes on how the PGP actinobacteria and their metabolites can be used effectively in enhancing the yield and controlling the pests and pathogens of grain legumes.

  9. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes, Data set 1), different legume species and grass family (Data set 2), and different grass and legume species (Data set 3+4). The first three data sets included diets where single species or family were fed as the sole forage, whereas the approach in the last data set differed by taking the proportion of single species in the forage part into account allowing diets consisting of both grasses and legumes to be included. The grass species included were perennial ryegrass, annual ryegrass, orchardgrass, timothy, meadow fescue, tall fescue and festulolium, and the legume species included were white clover, red clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil. Overall, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were 1.3 and 1.6 kg/day higher, respectively, whereas milk protein and milk fat concentration were 0.5 and 1.4 g/kg lower, respectively, for legume-based diets compared with grass-based diets. When comparing individual legume species with grasses, only red clover resulted in a lower milk protein concentration than grasses. Cows fed white clover and birdsfoot trefoil yielded more milk than cows fed red clover and lucerne, probably caused by a higher OM digestibility of white clover and activity of condensed tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species relied on few observations, indicating that knowledge regarding feed intake and milk production potential of different grass species is scarce in the literature. In conclusion

  10. Nitrogen availability from composts for humid region perennial grass and legume-grass forage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D H; Voroney, R P; Warman, P R

    2004-01-01

    Perennial forages may be ideally suited for fertilization with slow N release amendments such as composts, but difficulties in predicting N supply from composts have limited their routine use in forage production. A field study was conducted to compare the yield and protein content of a binary legume-grass forage mixture and a grass monocrop cut twice annually, when fertilized with diverse composts. In all three years from 1998-2000, timothy (Phleum pratense L.)-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and timothy swards were fertilized with ammonium nitrate (AN) at up to 150 and 300 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively. Organic amendments, applied at up to 600 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in the first two years only, included composts derived from crop residue (CSC), dairy manure (DMC), or sewage sludge (SSLC), plus liquid dairy manure (DM). Treatments DM at 150 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and CSC at 600 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) produced cumulative timothy yields matching those obtained for inorganic fertilizer. Apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR) ranged from 0.65% (SSLC) to 15.1% (DMC) for composts, compared with 29.4% (DM) and 36.5% (AN). The legume component (approximately 30%) of the binary mixture acted as an effective "N buffer" maintaining forage yield and protein content consistently higher, and within a narrower range, across all treatments. Integrating compost utilization into livestock systems that use legume-grass mixtures may reduce the risk of large excesses or deficits of N, moderate against potential losses in crop yield and quality, and by accommodating lower application rates of composts, reduce soil P and K accumulation.

  11. Therapeutic lifestyle change diet enriched in legumes reduces oxidative stress in overweight type 2 diabetic patients: a crossover randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmiran, P; Hosseinpour-Niazi, S; Azizi, F

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether a diet rich in legumes are associated with oxidative stress among type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial, 31 type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to receive 2 diets, each for a period of 8 weeks: (1) The legume-free therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) diet and (2) the legume-based TLC diet. Both diets were similar except that 2 servings of red meat were replaced by different types of legumes 3 days per week in the legume-based TLC diet. Oxidative stress biomarkers were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks. Compared to the legume-free TLC diet, the legume-based TLC diet significantly decreased malondialdehyde (-0.22 versus -0.68 μmol/l; P=0.002), oxidized-LDL (-0.9 versus -2.3 mU/l; P=0.05) and increased nitric oxide (0.40 versus 0.96 mM/l; P=0.03) and catalase activity (1.2 versus 2.1 Iu/ml; P=0.05).

  12. Xaraés palisadegrass remains productive after the disappearance of stylo in tropical legume-grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Carvalho Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gradual reduction of legumes in mixed tropical pastures requires periodic oversowing. Exploiting the carrying capacity of grass for an extra year after the disappearance of legumes can be economically advantageous to the farmer. This study aimed to evaluate the productivity of Xaraés palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha pastures in response to its historical association with stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis under two canopy heights to determine whether different grazing management conditions affect the defoliation pattern left by grazing animals. The split-plot experimental design was used, with the historical botanical composition (HBC (24, 34, 45 and 52 % legume composition corresponding to the main plots and the canopy frequency of defoliation determined at heights of 30 and 45 cm for Xaraés palisadegrass corresponding to the subplots with two replicates (500 m2 grazed by Tabapuã cows. Pastures with over 34 % stylo in the botanical composition remained productive for one year after legume disappearance, accumulating more than 8 mg ha−1 of forage per year. Xaraés palisadegrass pastures at a height of 30 cm provided better canopy structure, with 64 % less stem production and 43 % less dead material. The 30-cm pre-grazing canopy height provided a grazing environment conducive to forage intake by animals that resulted in efficient use of the pasture. In response to the improved canopy structure, the cows grazed an average of 60 fewer minutes. A HBC greater than 34 % of legumes in the pastures allows for the postponement of legume oversowing until the next growing season.

  13. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2016-01-01

    with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N...... in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest...... carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground...

  14. Non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change diet reduces inflammatory status in diabetic patients: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour-Niazi, Somayeh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Fallah-Ghohroudi, Arefeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-07-01

    The present randomised cross-over clinical trial investigated the effects of two intervention diets (non-soya legume-based therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) diet v. isoenergetic legume-free TLC diet) on inflammatory biomarkers among type 2 diabetic patients. A group of thirty-one participants (twenty-four women and seven men; weight 74.5 (SD 7.0) kg; age 58.1 (SD 6.0) years) were randomly assigned to one of the two following intervention diets for 8 weeks: legume-free TLC diet or non-soya legume-based TLC diet. The latter diet was the same as the legume-free TLC diet, except that two servings of red meat were replaced with different types of cooked non-soya legumes such as lentils, chickpeas, peas and beans over a period of 3 d per week. The intervention period was followed by a washout period of 4 weeks, after which the groups followed the alternate treatment for 8 weeks. Concentrations of inflammatory markers were measured at baseline and after the intervention periods. Compared with the legume-free TLC diet, the non-soya legume-based TLC diet significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IL-6 and TNF-α in overweight diabetic patients. The replacement of two servings of red meat by non-soya legumes in the isoenergetic TLC diet for a period of 3 d per week reduced the plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers among overweight diabetic patients, independent of weight change.

  15. Exploratory trials on reinforcement of veld with legumes in the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all, 17 legumes were involved, including the genera Coronilla, Desmodium, Glycine, Lespedeza, Lotus, Macroptillium, Medicago, Neotononia, Trifolium and Vigna. Only Coronilla varia (crownvetch) showed a satisfactory degree of persistence. However, crownvetch is slow to establish, is intolerant of waterlogging and has ...

  16. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D K; Abaidoo, Robert C; Giller, Ken E

    2017-11-01

    Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of soil fertility status on intercrop productivity is generally lacking in the Guinea savanna despite the wide variability in soil fertility status in farmers' fields, and the productivity of within-row spatial arrangement of intercrops relative to the distinct-row systems under on-farm conditions has not been studied in the region. We studied effects of maize-legume spatial intercropping patterns and soil fertility status on resource use efficiency, crop productivity and economic profitability under on-farm conditions in the Guinea savanna. Treatments consisted of maize-legume intercropped within-row, 1 row of maize alternated with one row of legume, 2 rows of maize alternated with 2 rows of legume, a sole maize crop and a sole legume crop. These were assessed in the southern Guinea savanna (SGS) and the northern Guinea savanna (NGS) of northern Ghana for two seasons using three fields differing in soil fertility in each agro-ecological zone. Each treatment received 25 kg P and 30 kg K ha -1 at sowing, while maize received 25 kg (intercrop) or 50 kg (sole) N ha -1 at 3 and 6 weeks after sowing. The experiment was conducted in a randomised complete block design with each block of treatments replicated four times per fertility level at each site. Better soil conditions and rainfall in the SGS resulted in 48, 38 and 9% more maize, soybean and groundnut grain yield, respectively produced than in the NGS, while 11% more cowpea grain yield was produced in the NGS. Sole crops of maize and legumes produced significantly more grain yield per unit area than the respective intercrops of maize and legumes. Land equivalent ratios (LERs) of all intercrop patterns were greater than

  17. Benefits from Below: Silicon Supplementation Maintains Legume Productivity under Predicted Climate Change Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott N; Ryalls, James M W; Gherlenda, Andrew N; Frew, Adam; Hartley, Susan E

    2018-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO 2 ) can promote root nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes such as lucerne ( Medicago sativa ). But when elevated temperature (eT) conditions are applied in tandem with eCO 2 , a more realistic scenario for future climate change, the positive effects of eCO 2 on nodulation and BNF in M. sativa are often much reduced. Silicon (Si) supplementation of M. sativa has also been reported to promote root nodulation and BNF, so could potentially restore the positive effects of eCO 2 under eT. Increased nitrogen availability, however, could also increase host suitability for aphid pests, potentially negating any benefit. We applied eCO 2 (+240 ppm) and eT (+4°C), separately and in combination, to M. sativa growing in Si supplemented (Si+) and un-supplemented soil (Si-) to determine whether Si moderated the effects of eCO 2 and eT. Plants were either inoculated with the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum or insect-free. In Si- soils, eCO 2 stimulated plant growth by 67% and nodulation by 42%, respectively, whereas eT reduced these parameters by 26 and 48%, respectively. Aphids broadly mirrored these effects on Si- plants, increasing colonization rates under eCO 2 and performing much worse (reduced abundance and colonization) under eT when compared to ambient conditions, confirming our hypothesized link between root nodulation, plant growth, and pest performance. Examined across all CO 2 and temperature regimes, Si supplementation promoted plant growth (+93%), and root nodulation (+50%). A. pisum abundance declined sharply under eT conditions and was largely unaffected by Si supplementation. In conclusion, supplementing M. sativa with Si had consistent positive effects on plant growth and nodulation under different CO 2 and temperature scenarios. These findings offer potential for using Si supplementation to maintain legume productivity under predicted climate change scenarios

  18. Benefits from Below: Silicon Supplementation Maintains Legume Productivity under Predicted Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N. Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies demonstrate that elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2 can promote root nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in legumes such as lucerne (Medicago sativa. But when elevated temperature (eT conditions are applied in tandem with eCO2, a more realistic scenario for future climate change, the positive effects of eCO2 on nodulation and BNF in M. sativa are often much reduced. Silicon (Si supplementation of M. sativa has also been reported to promote root nodulation and BNF, so could potentially restore the positive effects of eCO2 under eT. Increased nitrogen availability, however, could also increase host suitability for aphid pests, potentially negating any benefit. We applied eCO2 (+240 ppm and eT (+4°C, separately and in combination, to M. sativa growing in Si supplemented (Si+ and un-supplemented soil (Si- to determine whether Si moderated the effects of eCO2 and eT. Plants were either inoculated with the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum or insect-free. In Si- soils, eCO2 stimulated plant growth by 67% and nodulation by 42%, respectively, whereas eT reduced these parameters by 26 and 48%, respectively. Aphids broadly mirrored these effects on Si- plants, increasing colonization rates under eCO2 and performing much worse (reduced abundance and colonization under eT when compared to ambient conditions, confirming our hypothesized link between root nodulation, plant growth, and pest performance. Examined across all CO2 and temperature regimes, Si supplementation promoted plant growth (+93%, and root nodulation (+50%. A. pisum abundance declined sharply under eT conditions and was largely unaffected by Si supplementation. In conclusion, supplementing M. sativa with Si had consistent positive effects on plant growth and nodulation under different CO2 and temperature scenarios. These findings offer potential for using Si supplementation to maintain legume productivity under predicted climate change scenarios

  19. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C.; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D.K.; Abaidoo, Robert C.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights • Productivity of different intercropping patterns was tested in Guinea savanna of northern Ghana. • Land Equivalent Ratios in intercropping systems are greater under low soil fertility conditions. • Competitive balance between intercrops in poor fields leads to greater Land Equivalent Ratios. • Within-row maize-legume intercropping is more productive than distinct row systems. • Radiation use efficiency is higher in intercrops than in sole crops.

  20. Integration of biochar and legumes in summer gap for enhancing productivity of wheat under cereal based cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalal, F.; Munif, F.; Khan, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Biochar application is gaining popularity in agriculture system as prime technology in sustainable context. Field experiments were conducted at the Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Peshawar, during 2011-2013. Wheat-maize-wheat cropping pattern was followed with the adjustment of legumes in summer gap (land available after wheat harvest till maize sowing). Legumes i.e., mungbean, cowpea and Sesbania with a fallow were adjusted in the summer gap with and without biochar application. Biochar was applied at the rate of 0 and 50 t ha-1 with four N levels of 0, 60, 90 and 120 kg ha-1 to subsequent wheat crop. Biohcar application and plots previously sown with legumes improved thousand grain weight of wheat crop. Nitrogen application increased thousand spikes m-2, grains weight, grain and biological yield. It is concluded that integration of biochar and legumes could be a useful strategy for enhancing the overall farm profitability and productivity of cereal-based systems by providing increased yields from this additional summer gap crop. (author)

  1. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND in vitro GAS PRODUCTION OF SOME LEGUME BROWSE SPECIES IN SUBTROPICAL AREAS OF MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Garcia Montes de Oca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the chemical composition and in vitro gas production of different legume and wild arboreal pods. Seven seeds of legume browse species, Mexican calabash (Crescentia alata, esculent leadtree (Leucaena esculenta, guamuchil (Phitecellobium dulce, bastard cedar (Guazuma ulmifolia, needle bush (Acacia farnesiana, mimosa (Mimosa sp. and elephant ear tree (Enterolobium cyclocarpum. Were evaluated for their chemical composition (g/kg DM and in vitro gas production pattern. Crude Protein was higher for L. esculenta (220 and lower for G. ulmifolia (70. Neutral and acid detergent fiber were higher for G. ulmifolia (687 and 554 and lower for A. farnesiana (267 and 176. Lignin was higher for Mimosa sp. (219 and lower for P. dulce (81. Total gas production (ml gas/g DM of P. dulce (187 and E. cyclocarpum (164 were higher (P

  3. HEAVY METAL AND TRACE ELEMENT CONTAMINATION IN LEGUMES CEREAL AND PRODUCT SOLD IN LOCAL MARKET OF QUETTA CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Ayub* , Mujeeb U R Rehman2, Muhammad Ajmal , Khurum shezad

    2017-01-01

    Millet, wheat, rice, Barley, Biscuit, spaghetti, Noodle are mainly consumed as food in Quetta city. These samples were collected from Quetta city market for the analysis of heavy metals and trace elements by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The collected 35 samples of cereal, legumes and their product from local market of Quetta were analyzed by Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. After digestion with 10:3 HNO3/HCIO4 for assessment to four potentially hazardous heavy metals, copper, zinc...

  4. Analyzing production potential of selected food and legume crops for food security in Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Hassan, S.; Bashir, A.; Mehmood, I.; Mahmood, H. Z.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess growth rate in area, yield and production of selected major food commodities and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commodities. The findings of the study showed the positive growth rates of area, production and yield of all selected food grain and legume crops. The estimated co-efficient for all growth models (area, production and yield) of selected commodities were statistically highly significant at 1 percentage level except yield of gram which was significant at 10 percentage level. The estimated annual growth rate of area for wheat, rice and sugarcane was 0.9 percentage, 2.1 percentage and 0.8 percentage, respectively with the production growth of 3.0 percentage, 3.8 percentage and 2.2 percentage, respectively and yield growth of 2.1 percentage, 1.6 percentage and 1.5 percentage, respectively. The results highlighted that the major contribution for expansion in production for rice and sugarcane was area while it was yield for wheat. In this scenario the wheat production can be enhanced by increasing its area than that of rice and sugarcane. The annual growth rate for gram and mung area was estimated about 1.0 v and 4.9 percentage, respectively, with the production growth rate of 2.3 percentage and 6.4 percentage while yield growth rate of 2.9 percentage and 1.4 percentage, respectively. Keeping in view the higher growth of gram yield the increase in its area may enhance its production more than that of mung. The proportionate higher increase in the area of wheat and gram may enhance the welfare of producers in particular and provide food security to masses in general. (author)

  5. Isoflavone rumen metabolites: A missing link in the benefits of legumes on grazing animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clovers are widely used to add protein to ruminant diets. Clovers and other legumes also produce a class of small molecules called isoflavones. Isoflavones have estrogenic properties, which can interfere with reproduction in grazing ruminants, but they also have benefits. We identified potential b...

  6. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Mutation breeding of food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present mission were to assist and advise mutation breeders on the induction, selection, utilization and maintenance of useful mutants in grain legumes, especially in soybean, mungbean, red kidney bean, sugar pea, cowpea and yard-long bean, and to provide consultation to plant breeders

  7. Highly productive forage legume stands show no positive biodiversity effect on yield and N2-fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Eriksen, Jørgen; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    . Methodology N fixation, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) yields were quantified in a field experiment for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) pure stands and mixtures using the isotope dilution method. Results All three forage legume species...

  8. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gratton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71 and HOMI (15.7 kg OM were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d, milk fat yield (742 g/d and milk protein yield (667 g/d were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production.

  9. Utilization of Tannin Containing Shrub Legumes for Small Ruminant Production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Wina

    2010-01-01

    Shrub legumes have been well established in Indonesia and some of which contain significant levels of tannin. Several methods of tannin analysis have been conducted and correlated with its biological property of tannin. Total phenolics and total tannin measured by Folin Ciocalteau have a high correlation with the biological assay of tannin using gas in vitro method. Tannin values measured by the above methods negatively correlated with protein digestibility. Several feeding experiments on tan...

  10. Determination of Nutrient Contents and Gas Production Values of Some Legume Forages Grown in the Harran Plain Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of some legume species in salt-affected soils of South-East Anatolian region using chemical composition and in vitro gas production kinetics. In this study, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium alexandrinum, Medicago sativa were sown and tested in four different locations. A 3 by 4 factorial design with 3 legume species and 4 salt levels (non salty electrical conductivity (ECECECEC was used in the study. Results indicated that salinity and plants had no significant effect on ash and ether extract. Dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, dry matter intake (DMI were affected by plant, salinity and plant×salinity interaction. On the other hand neutral detergent fiber, relative feed value (RFV, and DMI were affected by salinity and plant×salinity interaction. Mineral contents were affected by plant species, salinity and salinity×plants interactions. In vitro gas production, their kinetics and estimated parameters such as were not affected by salinity whereas the gas production up to 48 h, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME, and net energy lactation (NEL were affected by plant and plant×salt interaction. Generally RFVs of all species ranged from 120 to 210 and were quite satisfactory in salty conditions. Current results show that the feed value of Medicago sativa is higher compared to Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium alexandrinum.

  11. Compatibility, persistence and productivity of grass-legume mixtures for sustainable animal production in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibrahim, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify compatible and persistent grass-legume mixtures of high feeding value for forage improvement in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. The study was conducted between September 1989 and October 1992 at LA)s Diamantes research station, Guápiles,

  12. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  13. Bioavailability of Fe and Zn in selected legumes, cereals, meat and milk products consumed in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Poonam; Prasad, Surendra; Aalbersberg, William

    2016-09-15

    The present study reports contents and the bioavailability of Fe and Zn from 25 selected raw and cooked food samples. The results showed highest variation of Fe content in raw food samples ranging from 2.19 ± 0.04 to 0.93 ± 0.03 mg/100g in legumes. The raw black eye bean, cheese and fish showed high Zn content up to 8.85 ± 0.01, 12.93 ± 0.26 and 172.03 ± 5.09 mg/100g, respectively. Pulses and cereals showed high level of ionizable Fe. Zn bioavailability was quite low in cereals as compared to pulses; 4.02% in yellow split to 17.40% in Bengal gram. Zn bioavailability of 17.40% is in cheese. Fe bioavailability is high in cooked rice 160.60%, white bread 428.30% and milk powder 241.67% showing that Fe bioavailability increased after cooking whereas the lowest in fish 0.84%. The multivariate and cluster analysis categorized studied foods into two main groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stringent Expression Control of Pathogenic R-body Production in Legume Symbiont Azorhizobium caulinodans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Matsuoka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available R bodies are insoluble large polymers consisting of small proteins encoded by reb genes and are coiled into cylindrical structures in bacterial cells. They were first discovered in Caedibacter species, which are obligate endosymbionts of paramecia. Caedibacter confers a killer trait on the host paramecia. R-body-producing symbionts are released from their host paramecia and kill symbiont-free paramecia after ingestion. The roles of R bodies have not been explained in bacteria other than Caedibacter. Azorhizobium caulinodans ORS571, a microsymbiont of the legume Sesbania rostrata, carries a reb operon containing four reb genes that are regulated by the repressor PraR. Herein, deletion of the praR gene resulted in R-body formation and death of host plant cells. The rebR gene in the reb operon encodes an activator. Three PraR binding sites and a RebR binding site are present in the promoter region of the reb operon. Expression analyses using strains with mutations within the PraR binding site and/or the RebR binding site revealed that PraR and RebR directly control the expression of the reb operon and that PraR dominantly represses reb expression. Furthermore, we found that the reb operon is highly expressed at low temperatures and that 2-oxoglutarate induces the expression of the reb operon by inhibiting PraR binding to the reb promoter. We conclude that R bodies are toxic not only in paramecium symbiosis but also in relationships between other bacteria and eukaryotic cells and that R-body formation is controlled by environmental factors.

  15. Comparison fermentation kinetics (in vitro of grass and shrub legume leaves: The pattern of VFA concentration, estimated CH4 and microbial biomass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Widiawati

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the process of fermentation, rumen microbes normally convert major fractions of carbohydrates and proteins in a feed to useful end-products (i.e. VFA, microbial protein and B-vitamins and some waste products (i.e. CH4 and CO2. The pattern of these end-products depend largely on the fraction contained in the feed eaten by the animal. Two types of feeds, namely grass and shrub legume, leucaena have different fraction proportions. Grass contains more fibre but less protein compared to shrub legumes. Thus in the rumen they might be fermented to produce different pattern of end products. The experiment was conducted in order to examine the pattern of VFA, CH4 and microbial protein products of the two types of feeds when fermented in the rumen. In vitro method was used to determine the pattern of these end products. Results showed that the grass produced more total VFA/mg organic matter degraded (0.0229 mM/mg vs 0.0075 mM/mg and CH4 gas (0.20 mole/mg vs 0.09 mole/mg but less propionate in partial and less microbial protein (2646 g vs 2656 g compared to the legume. Approximately 32% less CH4 (per mg OM degraded would be produced from leucaena compared to that produced from grass, which mean that there will be less energy loss as CH4 thus more energy for animal production.

  16. PRODUCTIVE AND QUALITATIVE PERFORMANCE OF NATURALIZED AND NATIVE FORAGE LEGUMES IN THE TEMPERATE ZONE OF PUEBLA STATE, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Guerrero-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate seven species of native and naturalized legumes in terms of forage production and nutritive quality. The control species, Vicia sativa was represented by two varieties, which maintained a high dry matter production at two locations, in one of them, matched by Melilotus albus. The latter species also had high yields of dry matter in two locations, but in one of them the varieties of V. sativa were not successful. Less yielding species were those that had lower fiber concentration, a situation that was in part due to a higher leaf:stem ratio. Medicago polymorpha had the lowest digestibility, which coincided with higher concentrations of neutral and acid detergent fiber. The crude protein concentration was different among species (P<0.0001, where M. polymorpha consistently had low (P<0.05 concentration (16.8% as well as M. albus (17%. Among the species tested in this study, several of them have potential yield and quality to improve the diet of ruminants in the highland region of Puebla State and can replace the vetches. Additionally, even when the climate may be the same, the soil conditions also determine which species can thrive in a region.

  17. Rhizobium promotes non-legumes growth and quality in several production steps: towards a biofertilization of edible raw vegetables healthy for humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula García-Fraile

    Full Text Available The biofertilization of crops with plant-growth-promoting microorganisms is currently considered as a healthy alternative to chemical fertilization. However, only microorganisms safe for humans can be used as biofertilizers, particularly in vegetables that are raw consumed, in order to avoid sanitary problems derived from the presence of pathogenic bacteria in the final products. In the present work we showed that Rhizobium strains colonize the roots of tomato and pepper plants promoting their growth in different production stages increasing yield and quality of seedlings and fruits. Our results confirmed those obtained in cereals and alimentary oil producing plants extending the number of non-legumes susceptible to be biofertilized with rhizobia to those whose fruits are raw consumed. This is a relevant conclusion since safety of rhizobia for human health has been demonstrated after several decades of legume inoculation ensuring that they are optimal bacteria for biofertilization.

  18. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  19. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  20. Health benefits of legumes and pulses with a focus on Australian sweet lupins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The 68th United Nations General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses. Therefore it is timely to review the current evidence of the benefits of legumes for human health with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library were searched to identify cross-sectional/epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. The strongest evidence appears to be for links between eating legumes and reduced risk of colorectal cancer as well as eating soy foods and reduced LDL cholesterol. However, epidemiological studies and RCTs suggest that replacing several meat-based meals a week with legumes can have a positive impact on longevity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and weight management, potentially via favourable effects on the gut microbiome. Sweet lupins are unique among legumes with one of the highest combined amounts of digestible plant protein (38%) and dietary fibre (30%). Unlike other legumes, their low amount of anti-nutritional factors negates the need for soaking/cooking and they can therefore be eaten uncooked. Sweet lupins may lower blood pressure, improve blood lipids and insulin sensitivity and favourably alter the gut microbiome. There is growing interest in pulses, especially sweet lupins, as ingredients to improve the nutritional value of baked goods (particularly gluten free) and to create novel products to replace meat. Legumes form part of most traditional diets. They, including sweet lupins, can play a useful role in health maintenance.

  1. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  2. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures; Senkung der THG-Emissionen in landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsverfahren zur Erzeugung von Biokraftstoffen durch Leguminosenanbau und produktionstechnische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, Andreas [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Sachgebiet Nachwachsende Rohstoffe; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-08-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO{sub 2eq} per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  3. An analysis of the nutritive value of heat processed legume seeds for animal production using the DVE/OEB model : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, P.; Goelema, J.O.; Leury, B.J.; Tamminga, S.; Egan, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recently obtained information on structural and compositional effects of processing of legume seeds is reviewed, in relation to legume seed characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization. The emphasis is on (1) manipulation of digestive behavior by heat processing methods,

  4. Determination of Nutrient Contents and In vitro Gas Production Values of Some Legume Forages Grown in the Harran Plain Saline Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boga, M; Yurtseven, S; Kilic, U; Aydemir, S; Polat, T

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of some legume species in salt-affected soils of South-East Anatolian region using chemical composition and in vitro gas production kinetics. In this study, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium alexandrinum, Medicago sativa were sown and tested in four different locations. A 3 by 4 factorial design with 3 legume species and 4 salt levels (non salty electrical conductivity (EC)ECECEC) was used in the study. Results indicated that salinity and plants had no significant effect on ash and ether extract. Dry matter (DM), acid detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, dry matter intake (DMI) were affected by plant, salinity and plant×salinity interaction. On the other hand neutral detergent fiber, relative feed value (RFV), and DMI were affected by salinity and plant×salinity interaction. Mineral contents were affected by plant species, salinity and salinity×plants interactions. In vitro gas production, their kinetics and estimated parameters such as were not affected by salinity whereas the gas production up to 48 h, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME), and net energy lactation (NEL) were affected by plant and plant×salt interaction. Generally RFVs of all species ranged from 120 to 210 and were quite satisfactory in salty conditions. Current results show that the feed value of Medicago sativa is higher compared to Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium alexandrinum.

  5. Innovations in agronomy for food legumes. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Kadambot; Johansen,; Turner, Neil; Jeuffroy,; Hashem,; Sakar,; Gan,; Alghamdi, Salem

    2012-01-01

    Although there is increasing awareness of the importance of food legumes in human, animal and soil health, adoption of improved production technologies for food legume crops is not proceeding at the same pace as for cereal crops. Over the previous decade, the only food legumes to have shown significant production increases have been chickpea, lentil and faba bean in North America, chickpea in Australia, and faba bean in Europe. In smallholder farming in developing countries, production trends...

  6. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  7. The effects of rapeseed meal and legume seeds as substitutes for soybean meal on productivity and gastrointestinal function in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugołek, Andrzej; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Strychalski, Janusz; Zwoliński, Cezary; Żary-Sikorska, Ewa; Konstantynowicz, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of soybean meal (SBM) substitution by a mixture of rapeseed meal (RSM), white lupine seeds (WLS) and pea seeds (PS) on productivity, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen retention and gastrointestinal function in Hyplus rabbits. The Control diet (SBM 15 ) contained 15% SBM, whereas Diet SBM 7.5 contained 7.5% SBM, 5% RSM, 4% WLS and 3% PS. In Diet SBM 0, SBM was completely replaced by RSM, WLS and PS (10%, 8% and 6%, respectively). A production trial was performed on 90 Hyplus rabbits aged from 35 to 84 d (45 each sex; 953 ± 4.6 g). A digestion and balance trial was conducted on 30 rabbits. Additionally, several parameters of the gastrointestinal tracts from eight animals from each group were analysed, where special attention was paid to the enzymatic activity of microbiota and the short-chain fatty acids concentration in caecum and colon. The experimental diets did not cause significant differences regarding performance parameters evaluated in vivo and post-mortem, and in the nutrient and energy digestibility or nitrogen retention. The observed changes in the enzymatic activity of large gut microbiota, including the selective increase in secretion of glycoside hydrolases by bacterial cells, seem to be responsible for the unchanged growth performance of rabbits fed diets where SBM was substituted by a mixture of RSM, WLS and PS. The obtained results indicate that in rabbit diets SBM may be, partially or completely, successfully replaced by a feed mixture of RSM, WLS and PS.

  8. Ecological principles underlying the increase of productivity achieved by cereal-grain legume intercrops in organic farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    fertilizers use and associated fossil energy consumption. Organic farming, which does not allow the use of chemical, is also regarded as one prototype to enhance the sustainability of modern agriculture while decreasing environmental impacts. Here, we review the potential advantages of eco......-functional intensification in organic farming by intercropping cereal and grain legume species sown and harvested together. Our review is based on a literature analysis reinforced with integration of an original dataset of 58 field experiments conducted since 2001 in contrasted pedo-climatic European conditions in order...... mechanistic understanding is required to propose generic crop management procedures. Also, development of this practice must be achieved with the collaboration of value chain actors such as breeders to select cultivars suited to intercropping...

  9. Use of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei for a potential probiotic legume-based fermented product using pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, K; Ferrer, M; Piñero, M; Barboza, Y; Medina, L M

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) as an appropriate substrate in the production of a legume-based fermented product with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314 or Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 and then to ascertain the effects of the addition of ingredients such as powdered milk and banana or strawberry sauce. The products were analyzed for viable cell counts, pH, and sensory attributes during product manufacture and throughout the refrigerated storage period at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Nine types of products were produced. At the end of the storage period, the viability of L. acidophilus was above 7 log CFU/g in the presence of milk and 20% sucrose fruit sauce. For products with L. casei, the lack of ingredients such as milk caused no significant loss in viability; however, a high concentration of sucrose in the fruit sauce was an important factor in maintaining a high L. casei population. L. casei had high viability and good sensory attributes. Both strains could be considered suitable for a pigeon pea-based fermented potential probiotic product and a low-cost protein source.

  10. Production and Metabolism of Indole Acetic Acid in Root Nodules and Symbiont (Rhizobium undicola Isolated from Root Nodule of Aquatic Medicinal Legume Neptunia oleracea Lour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallab Kumar Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Indole acetic acid is a phytohormone which plays a vital role in plant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to shed some light on the production of IAA in roots, nodules, and symbionts of an aquatic legume Neptunia oleracea and its possible role in nodular symbiosis. The symbiont (N37 was isolated from nodules of this plant and identified as Rhizobium undicola based on biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence homology, and DNA-DNA hybridization results. The root nodules were found to contain more IAA and tryptophan than root; however, no detectable amount of IAA was found in root. The IAA metabolizing enzymes IAA oxidase, IAA peroxidase (E.C.1.11.1.7, and polyphenol oxidase (E.C.1.14.18.1 were higher in root than nodule but total phenol and IAA content were reversed. The strain N37 was found to produce copious amount of IAA in YEM broth medium with tryptophan and reached its stationary phase at 20 h. An enrichment of the medium with mannitol, ammonium sulphate, B12, and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde was found to promote the IAA production. The presence of IAA metabolizing enzymes and IAA production with PGPR traits including ACC deaminase activity of the symbionts was essential for plant microbe interaction and nodule function.

  11. Rotation effects of grain and herbaceous legumes on maize yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes and fallow has been known to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. This prompted an investigation into the effects of some legumes and fallow on some soil chemical properties and yield of maize. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 on an Alfisol to determine the effects of crop ...

  12. The Study of Perennial Grasses and Legumes Mixtures in the Environmental Conditions Part 1: The Evolution of Mixtures Productivity from Someşelor Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin-Benone Pleşa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Lately it is a high interest in the establishing of temporary grasslands, these being considered a valuable source of fodder from the quantitative and qualitative point of view. Temporary grasslands can be established instead of degraded permanent grasslands or in arable lands. In the paper are presented the results of the research which took place in 2010 and 2011, regarding the fodder evolution of a double factor experience; A factor – mixtures (8 complex mixtures of perennial grasses and legumes and one alfalfa pure crop, considered as a witness,B factor – levels of fertilization (0N0P2O5, 60N70P2O5,120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1. In 2010 the highest productions (13.16 SU t·ha-1 were obtained at all the cycles from the 5th mixture composed from red clover and 4 species of grasses Trifolium pratense L., Dactylis glomerata L., Festulolium Asch. & Graebn., Phleum pratense L., Lolium perenne L.. In 2011, mixture number 3, recognized as being recommended for the forest steppe area and composed from Lotus corniculatus L.,Onobrychis viciifolia Scop., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca pratensis Huds., Bromus inermis Leyss, presented the highest productions (4.82 t·ha-1 for the 60N70P2O5 and 120N70P2O5 kg·ha-1 levels of fertilization.

  13. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugas, D.V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, C.E.; Jansen, R.K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, J.T.; Hajrah, N.H.; Alharbi, N.S.; Al-Malki, A.L.; Sabir, J.S.M.; Bailey, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily

  14. [Duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of E. coli O157 and E. coli O104 in the legume plants and its products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomei; Zhao, Guiming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Ying; Jiao, Yanchao; Luo, Adong

    2016-03-01

    To establish a rapid assay to detect enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104 (E. coli O104) in the legume plants and its products by using the duplex real-time PCR. Based on part fragments of E. coli O157 specific gene rfbE and E. coli O104 specific gene wzy, primers and Taq-Man probes were designed. Results DNA (Q157): DNA (O104) = 1 : 3, DNA 2 μL, Master Mix 12.5 μL, primers (10 μmol/L) 1 μL,Taq-Man probes( 10 μmol/L) 0.5 μL, ddH2O 25 μL. The two pathogens could be detected in one reaction system, the lowest limit of detection sensitivity was 10(2) CFU/mL(g). This method is rapid and convenient, with good specificity, high sensitivity. The duplex real-time PCR assay could provide a cost-effective and convenient method for detect foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Crops, Nitrogen, Water: Are Legumes Friend, Foe, or Misunderstood Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark A; Buchmann, Nina; Sprent, Janet; Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L

    2018-03-17

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N. We propose that breeding grain legumes for reduced stomatal conductance can increase WUE without compromising production or BNF. Legume crops remain a better bet than relying on INF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tree legumes: an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tree legumes are an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures. Perceived benefits of tree legumes include provisioning (browse/mast, timber, fuel, human food, natural medicines, and ornamentals, regulating (C sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, soil erosion control and riparian buffers, shade, windbreaks, and habitat for pollinators, supporting (biological N2-fixation, nutrient cycling, soil fertility and soil health, photosynthesis, and primary productivity, and cultural ecosystem services. Tree legumes, however, have not been assessed to the same extent as herbaceous legumes. Once tree legumes are established, they are often more persistent than most herbaceous legumes. There are limitations for extended research with tree legume silvopastures, but extensive research has been done in Africa and Australia and recent efforts have been reported in South America. Economic benefits must be demonstrated to land managers to increase adoption. These benefits are apparent in the research and successes already available, but more long-term research, including the livestock component is necessary. Other factors that reduce adoption include paucity of domesticated germplasm, lag in research/technology, challenges of multipurpose trees and management complexity, challenges to mechanization, dangers of invasive weeds, and social and cultural barriers. In the current scenario of climate change and the need to increase food security, tree legumes are a key component for the sustainable intensification of livestock systems in warm-climate regions.

  17. Effect of oilseed source on ruminal fermentation and methane production of a grass-legume diet in continuous culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addition of oilseeds to pasture-based ruminant diets has been shown to decrease enteric CH4 emissions. However, little research has directly compared the effect of oilseed source on ruminal fermentation and Methane (CH4) production. A 4-unit continuous culture fermentor system was used to test 4 oil...

  18. Phytoremediation of heavy and transition metals aided by legume-rhizobia symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, X.; Taghavi, S.; Xie, P.

    2014-01-01

    Legumes are important for nitrogen cycling in the environment and agriculture due to the ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. In this review, we introduce an important and potential role of legume-rhizobia symbiosis in aiding phytoremediation of some metal contaminated soils as various legumes...... nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, phytohormone synthesis, siderophore release, and production of ACC deaminase and the volatile compounds of acetoin and 2, 3-butanediol may facilitate legume growth while lessening metal toxicity. The benefits of using legumes inoculated with naturally resistant...

  19. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  20. Biological Nitrogen Fixation on Legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armiadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the major limiting factors for crop growth and is required in adequate amount, due to its function as protein and enzyme components. In general, plants need sufficient nitrogen supply at all levels of growth, especially at the beginning of growth phase. Therefore, the availability of less expensive N resources would reduce the production cost. The increasing use of chemical fertilizer would probably disturb soil microorganisms, reduce the physical and chemical characteristics of soil because not all of N based fertilizer applied can be absorbed by the plants. Approximately only 50% can be used by crops, while the rest will be altered by microorganism into unavailable N for crops or else dissappear in the form of gas. Leguminous crops have the capacity to immobilize N2 and convert into the available N if innoculated with Rhizobium. The amount of N2 fixed varies depending on legume species and their environment.

  1. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes are large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy ...

  2. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Legume genetic resources and transcriptome dynamics under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Burritt, David J; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2018-01-04

    Grain legumes are an important source of nutrition and income for billions of consumers and farmers around the world. However, the low productivity of new legume varieties, due to the limited genetic diversity available for legume breeding programmes and poor policymaker support, combined with an increasingly unpredictable global climate is resulting in a large gap between current yields and the increasing demand for legumes as food. Hence, there is a need for novel approaches to develop new high-yielding legume cultivars that are able to cope with a range of environmental stressors. Next-generation technologies are providing the tools that could enable the more rapid and cost-effective genomic and transcriptomic studies for most major crops, allowing the identification of key functional and regulatory genes involved in abiotic stress resistance. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent achievements regarding abiotic stress resistance in a wide range of legume crops and highlight the transcriptomic and miRNA approaches that have been used. In addition, we critically evaluate the availability and importance of legume genetic resources with desirable abiotic stress resistance traits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  5. Tropical pasture legumes in southern Africa: A review. | J.H. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clipping trials have indicated that the use of tropical legumes could possibly be extended into drier areas and areas experiencing extremes of temperature. More intensive plant introduction, breeding and evaluation programmes are needed if the full potential of tropical legumes is to be realised. Keywords: adaptation ...

  6. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  7. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J

    2017-10-01

    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  8. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  9. Potential of legume-based grassland–livestock systems in Europe: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-01-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil–plant–animal–atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30–50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland–livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future. PMID:26300574

  10. Potential of legume-based grassland-livestock systems in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-06-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil-plant-animal-atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30-50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland-livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future.

  11. Características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais submetidas a duas frequências de corte Morphologic and productive characteristics of tropical forage legumes under two harvest frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdson José da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar características morfológicas e produtivas de leguminosas forrageiras submetidas a duas frequências de corte (28 e 56 dias a altura de 10 cm. Foram avaliadas as seguintes espécies: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela e Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial (7 leguminosas × 2 frequências de corte com quatro repetições, para avaliação das seguintes variáveis: acúmulo de biomassa, número de ramificações/planta, número de folhas vivas/planta, massa seca das raízes, número e massa seca dos nódulos. A produção acumulada de MS da parte aérea e das raízes foi equivalente para os cortes efetuados a cada 28 dias ou a cada 56 dias, com exceção do Arachis, Clitoria e Desmodium, que apresentaram maior biomassa aérea e de raízes no intervalo de corte de 56 dias. Houve diferenças entre leguminosas quanto à massa seca e ao número de nódulos, todavia, o maior número de nódulos foi observado na frequência de 56 dias. O número de folhas vivas/planta foi maior na frequência de 56 dias, com exceção das leguminosas Arachis e Calopogonium, cujos valores foram próximos quando cortadas nas diferentes frequências. A frequência de corte afetou de forma diferenciada as características morfológicas e produtivas das leguminosas estudadas, o que indica a necessidade de manejo diferenciado para as variedades testadas.The objective of this research was to evaluate morphological and productive characteristics of forage legumes under two harvest frequencies (28 and 56 days and 10 cm harvest intensity. The following legume species were evaluated: Arachis pintoi (cv. Amarillo, Clitoria ternatea, Calopogonium mucunoides, Desmodium ovalifolium (cv. Itabela and Stylosanthes guianensis (cvs. Bandeirante, Cook, Mineirão. A randomized

  12. Product Trial Processing (PTP): a model approach from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product Trial Processing (PTP): a model approach from theconsumer's perspective. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... Among the constructs used in the model of consumer's processing of product trail includes; experiential and non- experiential attributes, perceived validity of product trial, consumer perceived expertise, ...

  13. Produtividade e valor nutritivo de pastos consorciados com diferentes espécies de leguminosas Productivity and nutritive value of mixed pastures with different legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM

  14. Effects of legume reinforcement of veld on the performance of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To measure the effect of legume reinforcement of veld on animal production, a 24 ha block of reverted granite sandveld dominated by Hyparrhenia filipendula was fenced into 8 equal-sized paddocks, 4 of which were seeded with legumes. Two paddocks were seeded in December 1971 with a mixture of Stylosanthes ...

  15. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  16. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  17. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  18. Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Kuhlman, T.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Oudendag, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe (Legume Futures) is an international research project funded by the European Union through the Framework 7 Programme (FP7) under grant agreement number 245216 (FP7-KBBE-2009-3). The Legume Futures research consortium comprises 20 partners in 13 countries.

  19. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  20. Effects of alternative legume seeds on Barbaresca lamb meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pennisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a renewed interest towards the use of local legume seeds in animal nutrition was raising in Mediterranean areas. Conventional feedstuffs such as maize and soybean and animal by-products, the former widely diffused as genetically modified organisms (GMO and the latter related to “mad cow disease” produced significative changes in public perceptions, justifying a dramatic increase of the use of alternative protein and energy sources such as legume seeds (peas, faba beans, chickpeas (Hanbury et al., 2000...

  1. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  2. 77 FR 9947 - Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ...] Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... ``Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing... for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and...

  3. Product Trial Processing (PTP): a model approach from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Product trial is described as consumer's first usage experience with a company's brand or product that is most important in determining brand attributes and the intention to make a purchase. Among the constructs used in the model of consumer's processing of product trail includes; experiential and non- experiential ...

  4. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of macromineral concentration of Panicum/Stylosanthes mixtures was carried out at the Cattle Production Venture, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, in Southwest Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture grazed by the ...

  5. Perennial legumes on dry lands in the western Highveld region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a great need for perennial pasture legumes which are adapted to dryland production in the western Highveld. ... Averaged over two years, three selections yielded more than two tonnes dry material per ha: namely, Desmodium uncinatum 2,78, Medicago sativa 2,74 and Macroptilium atropurpureum 2,10.

  6. evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    was found to be highest in N(1.10kg-1) and P(0.0597) than other legumes residues. Other essential nutrients like calcium, magnesium and potassium were also determined. Generally, crop residues and their ashes are ... to the integrated application of organic and inorganic fertilizer in tropical crop production. Despite the.

  7. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  8. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  9. Laboratory research at the clinical trials of Veterinary medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    ZHYLA M.I.

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the importance of laboratory test methods, namely pathomorfological at conduct of clinical trials. The article focuses on complex laboratory diagnostics at determination of clinical condition of animals, safety and efficacy of tested medicinal product.

  10. Effects of a tannin-rich legume (Onobrychis viciifolia) on in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M.A.; Peláez, F.R.; Martínez, A.L.; Avilés, C.; Peña, F.

    2016-11-01

    There is still controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the ruminal biohydrogenation (BH) of fatty acids (FA) and improve the lipid profile of milk or meat without conferring a negative response in the digestive utilization of the diet. Based on this, an in vitro trial using batch cultures of rumen microorganisms was performed to compare the effects of two legume hays with similar chemical composition but different tannin content, alfalfa and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia), on the BH of dietary unsaturated FA and on the ruminal fermentation. The first incubation substrate, alfalfa, was practically free of tannins, while the second, sainfoin, contained 3.5% (expressed as tannic acid equivalents). Both hays were enriched with sunflower oil as a source of unsaturated FA. Most results of the lipid composition analysis (e.g., greater concentrations of 18:2n-6, cis-9 18:1 or total polyunsaturated FA in sainfoin incubations) showed the ability of this tannin-containing legume to inhibit the BH process. However, no significant differences were detected in the accumulation of cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and variations in trans-11 18:1 and trans-11 cis-15 18:2 did not follow a regular pattern. Regarding the rumen fermentation, gas production, ammonia concentration and volatile FA production were lower in the incubations with sainfoin (‒17, ‒23 and ‒11%, respectively). Thus, although this legume was able to modify the ruminal BH, which might result in improvements in the meat or milk lipid profile, the present results were not as promising as expected or as obtained before with other nutritional strategies. (Author)

  11. Effects of a tannin-rich legume (Onobrychis viciifolia on in vitro ruminal biohydrogenation and fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Hervás

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There is still controversy surrounding the ability of tannins to modulate the ruminal biohydrogenation (BH of fatty acids (FA and improve the lipid profile of milk or meat without conferring a negative response in the digestive utilization of the diet. Based on this, an in vitro trial using batch cultures of rumen microorganisms was performed to compare the effects of two legume hays with similar chemical composition but different tannin content, alfalfa and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia, on the BH of dietary unsaturated FA and on the ruminal fermentation. The first incubation substrate, alfalfa, was practically free of tannins, while the second, sainfoin, contained 3.5% (expressed as tannic acid equivalents. Both hays were enriched with sunflower oil as a source of unsaturated FA. Most results of the lipid composition analysis (e.g., greater concentrations of 18:2n-6, cis-9 18:1 or total polyunsaturated FA in sainfoin incubations showed the ability of this tannin-containing legume to inhibit the BH process. However, no significant differences were detected in the accumulation of cis-9 trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid, and variations in trans-11 18:1 and trans-11 cis-15 18:2 did not follow a regular pattern. Regarding the rumen fermentation, gas production, ammonia concentration and volatile FA production were lower in the incubations with sainfoin (-17, -23 and -11%, respectively. Thus, although this legume was able to modify the ruminal BH, which might result in improvements in the meat or milk lipid profile, the present results were not as promising as expected or as obtained before with other nutritional strategies.

  12. Contribution of clinical trials to gross domestic product in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaló, Zoltán; Antal, János; Pénzes, Miklós; Pozsgay, Csilla; Szepezdi, Zsuzsanna; Nagyjánosi, László

    2014-10-01

    To determine the contribution of clinical trials to the gross domestic product (GDP) in Hungary. An anonymous survey of pharmaceutical companies and clinical research organizations (CROs) was conducted to estimate their clinical trial-related employment and revenues. Clinical trial documents at the National Institute of Pharmacy (NIP) were analyzed to estimate trial-related revenues at health care institutions and the value of investigational medical products (IMPs) based on avoided drug costs. Financial benefits were calculated as 2010 US $ purchasing power parity (PPP) values. Clinical trials increased the revenue of Hungarian health care providers by 1 US $65.6 million. The value of IMPs was US $67.0 million. Clinical trial operation and management activities generated 900 jobs and US $166.9 million in revenue among CROs and pharmaceutical companies. The contribution of clinical trials to the Hungarian GDP in 2010 amounted to 0.2%. Participation in international clinical trials may result in health, financial, and intangible benefits that contribute to the sustainability of health care systems, especially in countries with severe resource constraints. Although a conservative approach was employed to estimate the economic benefits of clinical trials, further research is necessary to improve the generalizability of our findings.

  13. N2-fixing legumes are linked to enhanced mineral dissolution and microbiome modulations in Neotropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar; Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Saltonstall, Kristin; Hall, Jefferson; Leake, Jonathan; Beerling, David

    2017-04-01

    Legumes represent the dominant family of many tropical forests with estimates of 120 billion legume trees in the Amazon basin alone. Many rainforest legume trees form symbioses with N2-fixing bacteria. In the process of atmospheric N2-fixation large amounts of nitrogen-rich litter are generated, supplying half of all nitrogen required to support secondary rainforest succession. However, it is unclear how N2-fixers affect the biogeochemical cycling of other essential nutrients by affecting the rates of mineral dissolution and rock weathering. Here we show that N2-fixing legumes in young Panamanian rainforests promote acidification and enhance silicate rock weathering by a factor of 2 compared to non-fixing trees. We report that N2-fixers also associate with enhanced dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing secondary minerals native to tropical oxisols. In legume-rich neighbourhoods, non-fixers benefited from raised weathering rates relative to those of legume-free zones thus suggesting a positive community effect driven by N2-fixers. These changes in weathering potential were tracked by parallel functional and structural changes in the soil and rock microbiomes. Our findings support the view that N2-fixing legumes are central components of biogeochemical cycling, associated with enhanced release of Fe- and Al-bound P and primary mineral products (Mg, Mo). Rainforest legume services therefore bear important implications to short-term C cycling related to forest growth and the long-term C cycle related to marine carbonate deposition fuelled by silicate weathering.

  14. Fertilizantes de leguminosas como fontes alternativas de nitrogênio para produção orgânica de alface Legume fertilizers as alternative sources of nitrogen for organic lettuce production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Merçon Tezolin Barros Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de dois fertilizantes de leguminosas - produtos derivados do corte, desidratação e moagem da biomassa aérea das leguminosas mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium - como fontes alternativas de nitrogênio (N para a produção orgânica de alface (Lactuca sativa cv. Vera, e a influência dessas adubações sobre a vida útil pós-colheita da hortaliça, em condições de laboratório. Esses fertilizantes foram empregados em cobertura e comparados com cama-de-aviário industrial, assegurando-se doses equivalentes de N total. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições: T1: adubação pré-plantio, com termofosfato sílico-magnesiano + sulfato de potássio; T2: T1 + esterco bovino, em pré-plantio; T3: T2 + fertilizante de mucuna-cinza, em cobertura; T4: T2 + fertilizante de gliricídia, em cobertura; T5: T2 + cama-de-aviário em cobertura. Não houve diferença entre os fertilizantes de ambas as espécies de leguminosas e a cama-de-aviário, quanto à produtividade, teor de N, padrão comercial e período de vida útil pós-colheita das alfaces, o que indica potencial de uso desses fertilizantes como fontes de N para sistemas orgânicos de produção de hortaliças.The objective of this work was to evaluate the potential use of two legume fertilizers - products derived from cutting, dehydration and milling of the aerial biomass of legume plants, velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens and gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium - as alternative sources of N for organic production of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Vera; and to evaluate the influence of soil fertilization on lettuce shelf life at laboratory bench condition. These fertilizers were applied on soil surface and compared to factory poultry-bed manure at equivalent total N doses. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications, as

  15. Heating and Soaking Influence in Vitro Hindgut Fermentation of Tropical Legume Grains in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Julieta; Muñoz, Luz S; Peters, Michael; Montoya, Carlos A

    2018-01-17

    The effects of different thermal (raw versus autoclaving or boiling for 5 and 20 min) and soaking (with or without) treatments on the in vitro hindgut fermentation in pigs of undigested residue collected after in vitro foregut digestion of tropical legumes' grains (Canavalia brasiliensis; Lablab purpureus; pink, red and white Vigna unguiculata) were investigated. The undigested residue was fermented with a pig fecal inoculum to determine fermentability, gas, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) productions. Soaked raw legumes increased the production of SCFAs (e.g., butyric acid) and fermentability, while autoclaving reduced them. The productions of butyric acid and energy derived from SCFAs differed between legumes, with canavalia and lablab having the lowest and highest values, respectively. SCFAs and energy productions were highly related to the predicted nutrients entering the hindgut. In conclusion, different heating and soaking treatments can be applied to legumes to modulate the production of target SCFAs.

  16. Bioactive Peptides in Cereals and Legumes: Agronomical, Biochemical and Clinical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes are key components of a healthy and balanced diet. Accordingly, many national nutritional guidelines emphasize their health promoting properties by placing them at the base of nutritional food pyramids. This concept is further validated by the observed correlation between a lower risk and occurrence of chronic diseases and the adherence to dietary patterns, like the Mediterranean diet, in which cereal grains, legumes and derived products represent a staple food. In the search for a dietary approach to control/prevent chronic degenerative diseases, protein derived bioactive peptides may represent one such source of health-enhancing components. These peptides may already be present in foods as natural components or may derive from hydrolysis by chemical or enzymatic treatments (digestion, hydrolysis or fermentation. Many reports are present in the literature regarding the bioactivity of peptides in vitro and a wide range of activities has been described, including antimicrobial properties, blood pressure-lowering (ACE inhibitory effects, cholesterol-lowering ability, antithrombotic and antioxidant activities, enhancement of mineral absorption/bioavailability, cyto- or immunomodulatory effects, and opioid-like activities. However it is difficult to translate these observed effects to human. In fact, the active peptide may be degraded during digestion, or may not be absorbed or reach the target tissues at a concentration necessary to exert its function. This review will focus on bioactive peptides identified in cereals and legumes, from an agronomical and biochemical point of view, including considerations about requirements for the design of appropriate clinical trials necessary for the assessment of their nutraceutical effect in vivo.

  17. production, dry season survival and soil fertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    legume species to the study location on the basis of their ground cover, biomass production, seed yield, dry season survival .... has been renewed interest in the use of leguminous The trials were located on the University of Ilorin ... the inter row spacing was reduced to 750 mm in ha as single super phosphate and 30 kg K,0.

  18. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients) of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors...

  19. NPR1 Protein Regulates Pathogenic and Symbiotic Interactions between Rhizobium and Legumes and Non-Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA)....

  20. Legume promotion in counselling: an e-mail survey of dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, N; Brauer, P M

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about dietitians current practice in counselling clients about the use of legumes in a low fat, high fibre diet. An exploratory e-mail questionnaire was sent to members of Dietitians of Canada to assess: dietitian use and preferences for legumes, dietitian practice, opinions about clients attitudes and preferences, and resource needs. Counsellors (n=256) had high personal use of legumes (64% > or = 1 serving/week) and frequently recommended legumes in counselling. The legumes most preferred by respondents and their clients were: peanuts, kidney beans, split peas, chickpeas, and lentils. Respondents often recommended canned bean products (76%) and tofu (61%), but other legume grocery products were less often recommended. The most common client issues identified were: flatulence (87% agreed), lack of familiarity (85%), and knowledge of preparation (82%). Dietitians were not satisfied with current resources to support practice, especially those respondents providing primarily clinical counselling services. The most requested resources were: recipes (90%), pamphlets (82%), food demonstrations (75%) and Internet sites (63%). Client level research is now needed to confirm the importance of the issues identified and to develop and test strategies for legume promotion in counselling.

  1. Herbage dry-matter production and forage quality of three legumes and four non-leguminous forbs grown in single-species stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    –white clover mixture were investigated in a small-plot cutting trial in Denmark during 2009 and 2010. Plots were harvested four times per year. On average, annual herbage yield was highest for lucerne (15·4 t DM) and grass–white clover (12·5 t DM ha−1), and lowest for salad burnet (4·6 t DM ha−1) and yellow...

  2. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  3. Risk of discontinuation of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cecile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources. Our objective is to identify the number and characteristics of discontinued ATMPs trials in order to evaluate the rate of discontinuation. We searched for ATMPs trials conducted between 1999 to June 2015 using three databases, which are Clinicaltrials.gov, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT). We selected the ATMPs trials after elimination of the duplicates. We identified the disease areas and the sponsors as commercial or non-commercial organizations. We classified ATMPs by type and trial status, that is, ongoing, completed, terminated, discontinued, and prematurely ended. Then, we calculated the rate of discontinuation. Between 1999 and June 2015, 143 withdrawn, terminated, or prematurely ended ATMPs clinical trials were identified. Between 1999 and June 2013, 474 ongoing and completed clinical trials were identified. Therefore, the rate of discontinuation of ATMPs trials is 23.18%, similar to that for non-ATMPs drugs in development. The probability of discontinuation is, respectively, 27.35, 16.28, and 16.34% for cell therapies, gene therapies, and TEP. The highest discontinuation rate is for oncology (43%), followed by cardiology (19.2%). It is almost the same for commercial and non-commercial sponsors; therefore, the discontinuation reason may not be financially driven. No failure risk rate per development phase is available for ATMPs. The discontinuation rate may prove helpful when assessing the

  4. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  5. Modification of ruminal fermentation and methane production by adding legumes containing condensed tannins to an orchardgrass diet in continuous culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condensed tannins (CT) can alter ruminal fermentation and enteric methane (CH4) production in ruminants; however, research is lacking on how increased CT levels affect nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, bacterial protein synthesis, fatty acid (FA) profiles, protozoal popul...

  6. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  7. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  8. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  9. Legume proteomics: Progress, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) in industry trial testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris

    2006-12-01

    To identify patterns in trial testimony that may reflect on the intentions or expectations of tobacco manufacturers with regard to the introduction of potential reduced exposure products (PREPs). Research was conducted using the Deposition and Trial Testimony Archive (DATTA) collection of trial testimony and depositions housed online at Tobacco Documents Online (www.tobaccodocuments.org). Relevant testimony was identified through full-text searches of terms indicating PREPs or harm reduction strategies. The role and function of PREPs in testimony were classified according to common and contrasting themes. These were analysed in the context of broader trial arguments and against changes in time period and the market. Analysis of testimony suggests that the failure of PREPs in the market tempered initial industry enthusiasm and made protection of the conventional cigarette market its major priority. The "breakthrough" character of PREPs has been de-emphasised, with trial arguments instead positioning PREPs as simply another choice for consumers. This framework legitimises the sale of conventional brands, and shifts the responsibility for adoption of safer products from the manufacturer to the consumer. Likewise, testimony has abandoned earlier dramatic health claims made with regard to PREPs, which had undermined industry arguments regarding efforts to reduce harm in conventional products. More recent testimony advocates the broad acceptance of independent guidelines that would validate use of health claims and enable the industry to market PREPs to consumers. Trial testimony reflects the changing role and positioning of PREPs by the tobacco industry. The findings are of particular importance with regard to future evaluation and potential regulation of reduced harm products.

  11. product trial processing (ptp): a model approach from theconsumer's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    with some combination of visual, tactile, auditory and/or taste data that are channeled to the sensory register for attention and evaluation. The memory of these stimuli needs to be relatively high because consumers are normally in an evaluative mind-set during the product trial and are motivated to remember the brand's.

  12. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of during management

  13. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpei Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of

  14. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  15. Mesorhizobium bacterial strains isolated from the legume Lotus corniculatus are an alternative source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) to obtain bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Filipová, Alena; Menéndez, Esther; Mateos, Pedro F; Velázquez, Encarna; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Rivas, Raúl

    2017-07-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs) are natural polyesters that can be used to produce bioplastics which are biodegradable. Numerous microorganisms accumulate PHAs as energy reserves. Combinations of different PHAs monomers lead to the production of bioplastics with very different properties. In the present work, we show the capability of strains belonging to various phylogenetic lineages within the genus Mesorhizobium, isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules, to produce different PHA monomers. Among our strains, we found the production of 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-hydroxydodecanoate, and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoate. Most of the PHA-positive strains were phylogenetically related to the species M. jarvisii. However, our findings suggest that the ability to produce different monomers forming PHAs is strain-dependent.

  16. Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

    2000-01-01

    Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen

  17. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  18. How product trial changes quality perception of four new processed beef products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Faiza; Grunert, Klaus G; Therkildsen, Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the quantitative analysis of the change in quality perception of four new processed beef products from pre to post trial phases. Based on the Total Food Quality Model, differences in pre and post-trial phases were measured using repeated measures technique for cue...... ingredients and ways of processing, which were not confirmed during trial. For the other two products, evaluations on key sensory dimensions based on trial exceeded expectations, whereas the other evaluations remained unchanged. Several demographic factors influenced the pattern of results, notably age...... and gender, which may be due to underlying differences in previous experience. The study gives useful insights for testing of new processed meat products before market introduction....

  19. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nacira; Liu, Ailin; Kan, Leo; Li, Man-Wah; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-02-04

    Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea) to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes.

  20. Tropical forage legumes for environmental benefits: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schultze-Kraft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock production in the tropics, particularly when based on pastures, is frequently blamed for being detrimental to the environment, allegedly contributing to: (1 degradation and destruction of ecosystems, including degradation and loss of soil, water and biodiversity; and (2 climate change (global warming. In this paper we argue that, rather than being detrimental, tropical forage legumes can have a positive impact on the environment, mainly due to key attributes that characterize the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family: (1 symbiotic nitrogen fixation; (2 high nutritive value; (3 deep-reaching tap-root system; (4 wide taxonomic and genetic diversity; and (5 presence of particular secondary metabolites. Although there are also potential negative aspects, such as soil acidification and the risks of introduced legumes becoming invasive weeds, we submit that legumes have potential to contribute significantly to sustainable intensification of livestock production in the tropics, along with the provision of ecosystem services. To further assess, document and realize this potential, research for development needs in a range of areas are indicated.

  1. Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Franco-Arellano, Beatriz; Murphy, Sarah A; Norsen, Sheida; Comelli, Elena M; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2017-04-19

    Probiotic food products contain a variety of different bacterial strains and may offer different health effects. The objective was to document the prevalence and dosage of probiotic strains in the Canadian food supply and to review the literature investigating these strains in order to understand what health benefits these products may offer. The Food Label Information Program was used to identify probiotic-containing products in the food supply. PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled trials that tested the health effects of these strains in humans. There were six probiotic strains/strain combinations identified in the food supply. Thirty-one studies investigated these strains and found that they are associated with decreased diarrhea and constipation, improved digestive symptoms, glycemic control, antioxidant status, blood lipids, oral health, and infant breastfeeding outcomes, as well as enhanced immunity and support for Helicobacter pylori eradication. There were a limited number of studies investigating these strains. Many studies were funded by the food industry and tested dosages that were up to twenty-five times the dosage found in most food products. Probiotic food products could have health benefits not currently reported on their labels. However, many dosages are too low to provide the benefits demonstrated in clinical trials. Further research is needed to enable more effective use of these functional foods.

  2. Gross Domestic Product (GDP and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenton Mark

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Methods Ecological study – investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. Results GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76. Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. Conclusions This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

  3. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and productivity of schizophrenia trials: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Carina; Gessler, Ursula; Bartsch, Stephanie; El-Sayeh, Hany George; Fenton, Mark; Adams, Clive Elliott

    2003-12-05

    The 5000 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's database affords an opportunity to research for variables related to the differences between nations of their output of schizophrenia trials. Ecological study--investigating the relationship between four economic/demographic variables and number of schizophrenia RCTs per country. The variable with closest correlation was used to predict the expected number of studies. GDP closely correlated with schizophrenia trial output, with 76% of the total variation about the Y explained by the regression line (r = 0.87, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.92, r2 = 0.76). Many countries have a strong tradition of schizophrenia trials, exceeding their predicted output. All nations with no identified trial output had GDPs that predicted zero trial activity. Several nations with relatively small GDPs are, nevertheless, highly productive of trials. Some wealthy countries seem either not to have produced the expected number of randomised trials or not to have disseminated them to the English-speaking world. This hypothesis-generating study could not investigate causal relationships, but suggests, that for those seeking all relevant studies, expending effort searching the scientific literature of Germany, Italy, France, Brazil and Japan may be a good investment.

  4. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Cleary, Alan M; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E; Weeks, Nathan T; Wilkey, Andrew P; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-01-04

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premaratne, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  6. Comprehensive comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the legume genes controlling the nodulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g. Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max and Phaseolous vulgaris to identify key regulatory genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  7. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  8. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  9. Unlocking the potential of orphan legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Christopher; Kunert, Karl J

    2017-04-01

    Orphan, or underutilized, legumes are domesticated legumes with useful properties, but with less importance than major world crops due to use and supply constraints. However, they play a significant role in many developing countries, providing food security and nutrition to consumers, as well as income to resource-poor farmers. They have been largely neglected by both researchers and industry due to their limited economic importance in the global market. Orphan legumes are better adapted than the major legume crops to extreme soil and climatic conditions, with high tolerance to abiotic environmental stresses such as drought. As a stress response they can also produce compounds with pharmaceutical value. Orphan legumes are therefore a likely source of important traits for introduction into major crops to aid in combating the stresses associated with global climate change. Modern large-scale genomics techniques are now being applied to many of these previously understudied crops, with the first successes reported in the genomics area. However, greater investment of resources and manpower are necessary if the potential of orphan legumes is to be unlocked and applied in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  11. Yields and quality of forage legumes under imbalanced year precipitation conditions on south Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Lang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, yield and quality of forage following species of forage legumes were evaluated with regard to precipitations: lucerne (Medicago sativa L., red clover (Trifolium pratense L., white clover (Trifolium repens L., kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M., alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L. and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.. The trial was sown in the spring of 2008, evaluated in the period 2009–2011. Analysis of samples was performed with the apparatus NIRS 6500. Following parameters were evaluated: production of dry matter, energy concentration (NEL, contents of fibre and crude protein. The highest three year yield average was measured for lucerne (15.01 t.ha−1, followed by red clover group (9.3–11.8 t.ha−1. Kura clover gained the lowest yield (1.97 t.ha−1. The average crude protein contents (g.kg−1 were: lucerne 211.47, red clover group (184.3–194.8, white clover group (229.1–238.7 and birdsfoot trefoil (204.2. The obtained results indicated that lucerne responded at best to periods of drought. Although the production of dry matter decreased in periods of drought, the canopy of stands remained to be complete in contradistinction to white clover, which partly disappeared from the stand. Red clover and alsike clover disappeared from the stand during the trial.

  12. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya — Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sennhenn

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] and lablab [Lablab purpureus (L. Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM. The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index. While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha−1. An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and

  13. Exploring Niches for Short-Season Grain Legumes in Semi-Arid Eastern Kenya - Coping with the Impacts of Climate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennhenn, Anne; Njarui, Donald M G; Maass, Brigitte L; Whitbread, Anthony M

    2017-01-01

    Climate variability is the major risk to agricultural production in semi-arid agroecosystems and the key challenge to sustain farm livelihoods for the 500 million people who inhabit these areas worldwide. Short-season grain legumes have great potential to address this challenge and help to design more resilient and productive farming systems. However, grain legumes display a great diversity and differ widely in growth, development, and resource use efficiency. Three contrasting short season grain legumes common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and lablab [ Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet] were selected to assess their agricultural potential with respect to climate variability and change along the Machakos-Makueni transect in semi-arid Eastern Kenya. This was undertaken using measured data [a water response trial conducted during 2012/13 and 2013/14 in Machakos, Kenya] and simulated data using the Agricultural Production System sIMulator (APSIM). The APSIM crop model was calibrated and validated to simulate growth and development of short-season grain legumes in semi-arid environments. Water use efficiency (WUE) was used as indicator to quantify the production potential. The major traits of adaptation include early flowering and pod and seed set before the onset of terminal drought. Early phenology together with adapted canopy architecture allowed more optimal water use and greater partitioning of dry matter into seed (higher harvest index). While common bean followed a comparatively conservative strategy of minimizing water loss through crop transpiration, the very short development time and compact growth habit limited grain yield to rarely exceed 1,000 kg ha -1 . An advantage of this strategy was relatively stable yields independent of in-crop rainfall or season length across the Machakos-Makueni transect. The growth habit of cowpea in contrast minimized water loss through soil evaporation with rapid ground cover and dry matter

  14. Exploring socio-ecological niches for legumes in western Kenya smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojiem, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: adaptability, agro-ecosystems, biophysical and socio-economic heterogeneity, economic benefits, N2-fixation, productivity.This thesis explores the potential of using herbaceous and grain legume species to improve soil fertility and farm productivity in the heterogeneous

  15. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.A.; Hussain, N.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  16. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  17. The Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Legume Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation treatment, at room temperature, on the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millerd reaction products, MRPs) generated in soybeans, broad beans and dried peas seeds at dose levels of 10, 30 and 60 kGy and their effects on the chemical constituents, soluble protein, available lysine and in vitro protein digestibility. The formation of MRPs in the studied legumes was assayed by monitoring the formation of brown pigments (browning intensity) by spectrophotometric method. The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated legumes showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one. A dose dependent decrease in soluble proteins and available lysine in the three legumes were observed. The non-enzymatic browning reaction was significantly increased with increasing the radiation dose, which was proved by changes in browning index tests. At the same time, the in vitro protein digestibility was increased after irradiation up to 60 kGy. Irradiation of dried peas with 60 kGy produced higher browning index than the other legumes. A positive correlation was observed between the radiation dose and the browning index for soybeans (R2= 0.96), broad beans (R2 = 0.81) and dried peas (R2 = 0.97) which means that 96%, 81% and 97 of the variation in the incidence of non-enzymatic browning reaction in soybean, broad bean and dried peas, respectively, are due to the effect of irradiation treatments. The present study suggests that the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction did not impair the nutritional quality of legumes, therefore, the process of irradiation was helpful in increasing the in vitro protein digestibility of studied legumes. These results clearly indicated that gamma irradiation processing at the studied doses can add valuable effects to the studied legumes

  18. Grain legume protein quality: a hot subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes, also called pulses, play a key role in the nutritional improvement of food and feed. These legumes are important sources of protein as well as other nutritional compounds. Today, protein is one of the most sought after ingredients in the market and grain legumes represent one of the most sustainable protein sources. However, not all grain legume proteins are nutritionally equal. Their quality varies and depends on their amino acid composition and digestibility. In this article, we review concepts related to grain legume protein quality and discuss challenges regarding their genetic improvement. A comprehensive database of grain legume amino acid profiles and protein digestibility is needed to address the matter of protein quality in grain legume breeding. This database will be enhanced by quantitative information on digestibility-reducing bioactive compounds and the development of reliable screening tools. The achievement of higher protein quality grain legume varieties, better adjusted to animal and human requirements, will cut dietary protein content, associated costs and nitrogen excretion, thus reducing the environmental impact.Las leguminosas grano tienen un alto potencial en alimentación humana y animal siendo una importante fuente de proteínas así como de otros compuestos beneficiosos para la nutrición y salud. La proteína es uno de los ingredientes más demandados y las leguminosas grano son una delas fuentes más sostenible de proteína. Sin embargo, no todas las leguminosas grano son igual de nutritivas, variando la calidad con la composición de aminoácidos y su digestibilidad. En este artículo revisaremos los conceptos de calidad de la proteína y discutiremos las posibilidades de mejora genética. Para abordar con éxito la mejora de la calidad de la proteína será de gran ayuda disponer de bases de datos con los perfiles de aminoácidos y de digestibilidad, así como de información cuantitativa sobre los

  19. Signals exchanged between legumes and Rhizobium: agricultural uses and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, William J.; Perret, Xavier; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang Feng

    2001-01-01

    Legumes and rhizobia exchange at least three different, but sometimes complementary sets of signals. Amongst the variety of substances normally and continuously secreted into the rhizosphere by plants are phenolic compounds. Flavonoid components of these mixtures are especially active in inducing rhizobial nodulation genes. Many nodgenes exist. Some (e.g., nodD) serve as regulators of transcription, but most code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of a family of lipo-chito-oligosaccharides (LCOs) called Nod-factors. Nod-factors possess hormone-like properties, are key determinants in nodulation, and allow rhizobia to enter the plant. As Nod-factors also stimulate the synthesis and release of flavonoids from legume roots, the response to inoculation is amplified. Once the bacteria enter the plant, other sets of signals are exchanged between the symbionts. These include extra-cellular polysaccharides (EPSs) as well as proteins externalised via type-three secretion systems. These carbohydrates/proteins may be active in invasion of the root. At the time of writing, only flavonoids and Nodfactors have been chemically synthesised and of these only the former are available in large quantities. Field trials in North America show that seed application of flavonoids stimulates nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybeans grown at low soil temperatures. The biological basis to these responses is discussed. (author)

  20. Identification of companion legumes for Midmar Italian ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a preliminary investigation seven legumes were planted alone and in combination with Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar. The pure stands of legumes were harvested at either four, five of six week cutting intervals, while the pure stands of Lolium multiflorum and the ryegrass/legume mixtures received in addition to the cutting ...

  1. legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aimed at assessing legume-derived nutrient use efficiencies (NUE) by maize and quantifying the importance of these legumes ... replacement indices (N-FRI and P-FRI) by legumes, which express their importance as source of N and P for maize relative to .... associated nutrient stocks were measured at the dry pod stage, ...

  2. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  3. The Concentration of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se in Fiber Fractions of Legumes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitayani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate concentration of micro minerals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber/NDF and acid detergent fiber/ADF in West Sumatra during dry and rainy seasons. Four species of common legume namely Leucaena leucocephala, Centrocema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides and Acacia mangium were collected at native pasture during rainy and dry seasons. The results showed that micro minerals concentration of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction varied among species and season. In general, concentration of micro minerals was slightly higher in rainy season compared to dry season either in legumes forages. Data on legume forages showed that 75% of legumes were deficient in Zn and Mn, 62.5 % deficient in Cu and 50 % deficient in Se. There was no species of legume deficient in Fe. Distribution of micro minerals in NDF and ADF were also significantly affected by species and season and depends on the kinds of element measured. Generally, micro minerals were associated in fiber fractions and it yield much higher during dry season compared to rainy season. Iron (Fe and selenium (Se in forages were the highest elements associated in NDF and ADF, while the lowest was found in Copper (Cu. (Animal Production 12(2: 105-110 (2010Keywords: Seasons, forages, micro mineral distribution, fiber fraction

  4. Perennial Grain Legume Domestication Phase I: Criteria for Candidate Species Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlautman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual cereal and legume grain production is dependent on inorganic nitrogen (N and other fertilizers inputs to resupply nutrients lost as harvested grain, via soil erosion/runoff, and by other natural or anthropogenic causes. Temperate-adapted perennial grain legumes, though currently non-existent, might be uniquely situated as crop plants able to provide relief from reliance on synthetic nitrogen while supplying stable yields of highly nutritious seeds in low-input agricultural ecosystems. As such, perennial grain legume breeding and domestication programs are being initiated at The Land Institute (Salina, KS, USA and elsewhere. This review aims to facilitate the development of those programs by providing criteria for evaluating potential species and in choosing candidates most likely to be domesticated and adopted as herbaceous, perennial, temperate-adapted grain legumes. We outline specific morphological and ecophysiological traits that may influence each candidate’s agronomic potential, the quality of its seeds and the ecosystem services it can provide. Finally, we suggest that perennial grain legume breeders and domesticators should consider how a candidate’s reproductive biology, genome structure and availability of genetic resources will determine its ease of breeding and its domestication timeline.

  5. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  6. Effect of interventions with ingestion of legumes and/or supervised exercise on the lipid profile of young, healthy sedentary women

    OpenAIRE

    Luis F. Fajardo; Dora G. Castellanos; Myriam Chinchilla; Luz N. Vargas; Martha Guerra; Leonardo Quintana; Johnson Niño

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To contribute to the knowledge of some aspects of the Healthy Life Style by studying the effects of including legumes in the diet and exercise at two intensity levels, along with the lipid profile of young sedentary women living at 2640 meters above sea level. Materials and methods: The study included a non-randomized clinical trial with four intervention groups: exercise at 45% VO2 peak plus legumes in diet, exercise at 65% VO2 peak plus legumes in diet, only exercise at 65% VO...

  7. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  8. 7606 IMPROVEMENT OF DIABETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA BY LEGUMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotimi

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... motor and sensory function occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus [19]. This may contribute to decrease in food intake and faecal output as well as eventual loss in weight. The findings from this study indicate that consumption of legume-based diets by diabetic rats resulted in increase in both food intake and ...

  9. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    They were fertilized with South African rock phosphate (EPL 86) and 20 mg of readily soluble phosphate (SP). KH,PO, was also used as starter fertilizer and its effect on utilization of the rock phosphate-P for growth by the legumes was investigated. Shoot dry weight of cowpea was unaffected by mycorrhiza only treatment but ...

  10. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  11. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil S. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%–1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%–62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  12. Transfer of biologically fixed nitrogen to the non-legume component of mixed pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haystead, A.

    1983-01-01

    Pasture ecosystems are extremely diverse, as are the management procedures imposed upon them by the pastoralist. In low input pasture enterprises in marginal areas, legume nitrogen fixation is frequently (but not invariably) crucial to continued productivity. Legumes usually do not dominate a pasture and their role in transferring fixed nitrogen to a non-legume, frequently graminaceous, species is important. Methods for measuring this transfer are critically assessed in terms of their usefulness in realistic pasture environments. Existing techniques all have serious disadvantages in this respect. Isotopic studies of individual processes within the transfer system are described and some new lines of investigation are proposed. The value of isotopic studies in improving pasture management is discussed. (author)

  13. Commentary: considerations for using the 'Trials within Cohorts' design in a clinical trial of an investigational medicinal product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Anna C; Torgerson, David J; Leach, Samantha; Lewis-White, Helen; Maskell, Nick A

    2018-01-08

    The 'trials within cohorts' (TwiC) design is a pragmatic approach to randomised trials in which trial participants are randomly selected from an existing cohort. The design has multiple potential benefits, including the option of conducting multiple trials within the same cohort. To date, the TwiC design methodology been used in numerous clinical settings but has never been applied to a clinical trial of an investigational medicinal product (CTIMP). We have recently secured the necessary approvals to undertake the first CTIMP using the TwiC design. In this paper, we describe some of the considerations and modifications required to ensure such a trial is compliant with Good Clinical Practice and international clinical trials regulations. We advocate using a two-stage consent process and using the consent stages to explicitly differentiate between trial participants and cohort participants who are providing control data. This distinction ensured compliance but had consequences with respect to costings, recruitment and the trial assessment schedule. We have demonstrated that it is possible to secure ethical and regulatory approval for a CTIMP TwiC. By including certain considerations at the trial design stage, we believe this pragmatic and efficient methodology could be utilised in other CTIMPs in future.

  14. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-12-21

    Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  15. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  16. Effects of non-soy legume consumption on C-reactive protein: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Saraf-Bank, Sahar; Bellissimo, Nick; Azadbakht, Leila

    2015-05-01

    Because of conflicting results of presented studies, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) was to examine the effect of non-soy legume intake on inflammatory markers and C-reactive protein (CRP). We searched Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowledge, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar for relevant studies up to July 2013, using medical subject headings [MeSH] and other related keywords. Nine RCTs were systematically reviewed to examine the effect of non-soy legume consumption on inflammatory markers. Eight studies involving 464 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that non-soy legume consumption had a trend toward a significant effect on decreasing CRP and high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP concentrations (mean difference (MD) = -0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.44 to 0.02; P = 0.068). There was no overall effect of non-soy legume consumption on CRP or hs-CRP levels in either the parallel or crossover study designs. Our subgroup analysis of CRP type and study design, showed that non-soy legume intake had a significant effect on CRP levels in parallel studies (MD = -1.01; 95% CI, -1.78 to -0.23; P = 0.011) and a significant effect on hs-CRP levels (MD = -0.53; 95% CI, -0.95 to -0.11; P = 0.014) and in the crossover sub group (MD = -0.68; 95% CI, -1.28 to -0.08; P = 0.026). This review of RCTs showed that non-soy legume consumption may contribute to reductions in CRP and hs-CRP concentrations. However, further controlled clinical trials are needed to investigate the effect of non-soy legume intake on other inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This

  18. Estimation of extractable protein in botanical fractions of legume and grass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    With a globally strong interest in bio-based products such as fuels and chemicals, a feasible source of protein for the industry with positive economic impacts could be from leaves. However, more knowledge is needed on how to improve the content of extractable protein. Grasses and legumes have a ...

  19. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  20. Legumes as suppliers of nitrogen to pasture. | B.W. | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen losses ranging between 0, 16 and 0, 26 kg/ha/day may occur direct from the soil of grazed legume pastures while removal of animal products from the system represents a major loss of N from the system in the form of protein. On a global basis it has been estimated that annully 200 million tons of N are fixed ...

  1. Legume consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandreou, Christopher; Becerra-Tomás, Nerea; Bulló, Mònica; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Corella, Dolores; Estruch, Ramon; Ros, Emilio; Arós, Fernando; Schroder, Helmut; Fitó, Montserrat; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Lapetra, José; Fiol, Miquel; Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Sorli, Jose V; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2018-01-09

    Limited prospective studies have examined the association between legumes consumption and mortality, whereas scarce, if at all, previous studies have evaluated such associations taking into consideration specific grain legumes. We aimed to investigate the association between total legumes consumption and grain legumes species (dry beans, chickpeas, lentils, and fresh peas) with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and other-cause mortality among elderly Mediterranean individuals at high CVD risk. We prospectively assessed 7216 participants from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and yearly during follow-up by using a validated food frequency questionnaire. During a median follow-up of 6.0 years, 425 total deaths, 103 CVD deaths, 169 cancer deaths and 153 due to other-causes deaths occurred. Hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of CVD mortality were 1.52 (1.02-2.89) (P-trend = 0.034) and 2.23 (1.32-3.78) (P-trend = 0.002) for the 3rd tertile of total legumes and dry beans consumption, respectively, compared with the 1st tertile. When comparing extreme tertiles, higher total legumes and lentils consumption was associated with 49% (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.31-0.84; P-trend = 0.009) and 37% (HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.40-0.98; P-trend = 0.049) lower risk of cancer mortality. Similar associations were observed for CVD death in males and for cancer death in males, obese and diabetic participants. These findings support the benefits of legumes consumption for cancer mortality prevention which may be counterbalanced by their higher risk for CVD mortality. The trial is registered at http://www.controlled-trials.com (ISRCTN35739639). Registration date: 5th October 2005. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. 75 FR 63188 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Early Clinical Trials With Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry...: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft guidance provides... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft guidance...

  3. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant–Pollinator Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso, María J.; Bebeli, Penelope J.; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A. A.; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant–pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the “pest control service” and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System. PMID:27047514

  4. Enhancing legume ecosystem services through an understanding of plant-pollinator interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose eSuso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant-pollinator interplay (PPI, in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: 1 optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and 2 biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the pest control service and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: a Farming with Alternative Pollinators (FAP and b Crop Design System (CDS.

  5. forage systems mixed with forage legumes grazed by lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluates productivity, stocking and nutritional rates of three forage systems with Elephant Grass (EG + Italian Ryegrass (IR + Spontaneous Growth Species (SGS, without forage legumes; EG + IR + SGS + Forage Peanut (FP, mixed with FP; and EG + IR + SGS + Red Clover (RC, mixed with RC, in rotational grazing method by lactating cows. IR developed between rows of EG. FP was maintained, whilst RC was sow to respective forage systems. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and two replication, subdivided into parcels over time. Mean rate for forage yield and average stocking rate were 10.6, 11.6 and 14.4 t ha-1; 3.0, 2.8 and 3.1 animal unit ha-1 day-1, for the respective systems. Levels of crude protein and total digestible nutrients were 17.8, 18.7 and 17.5%; 66.5, 66.8 and 64.8%, for the respective forage systems. The presence of RC results in better and higher forage yield in the mixture, whilst FP results in greater control of SGS. The inclusion of forage legumes in pasture systems provides better nutritional rates.

  6. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  7. Leveraging model legume information to find candidate genes for soybean sudden death syndrome using the legume information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Michael D; Gajendran, Kamal; Farmer, Andrew D; Archuleta, Eric; Beavis, William D

    2007-01-01

    Comparative genomics is an emerging and powerful approach to achieve crop improvement. Using comparative genomics, information from model plant species can accelerate the discovery of genes responsible for disease and pest resistance, tolerance to plant stresses such as drought, and enhanced nutritional value including production of anti-oxidants and anti-cancer compounds. We demonstrate here how to use the Legume Information System for a comparative genomics study, leveraging genomic information from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic), the model legume, to find candidate genes involved with sudden death syndrome (SDS) in Glycine max (soybean). Specifically, genetic maps, physical maps, and annotated tentative consensus and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from G. max and M. truncatula can be compared. In addition, the recently published M. truncatula genomic sequences can be used to identify M. truncatula candidate genes in a genomic region syntenic to a quantitative trait loci region for SDS in soybean. Genomic sequences of candidate genes from M. truncatula can then be used to identify ESTs with sequence similarities from soybean for primer design and cloning of potential soybean disease causing alleles.

  8. Monitoring additive manufacturing based products in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinakis, Yorgos; Harms, Rainer; Walsh, Steven Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Under U.S. federal regulation 31 CFR §312, medical interventions must report on a series of clinical trials phases before being submitted for approval for release to the U.S. market. Clinical trials are now being performed on medical interventions that were constructed through additive

  9. Performances of legume-grass mixtures under different cutting managements in mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Annual forage crops have great importance for sustaining animal production in southern Italy. Knowledge of the performance of legume-grass associations under management similar to systems encountered in farm practice is essential for their effective exploitation of the available environmental resources. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the effects of five cutting managements on the productivity and botanical composition of ten annual fodder crop mixtures in two Mediterranean environments. Ten ternary combinations of one grass (Avena sativa L., oat and Lolium multiflorum Lam., Italian ryegrass, one clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L., berseem; Trifolium incarnatum L., crimson and Trifolium squarrosum L., squarrosum or burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. were compared in a field trial (split-plot design, 3 replicates in two locations (Cagliari and Foggia, Italy during the 2000-2001 growing season. The cutting treatments included a winter grazing simulation (G, a cutting only regime at early (EF or late flowering (F of legumes and a combination of treatments (GEF and GF. Plant density (no. m-2 prior to cutting, dry matter yield (g m-2 and botanical composition (% were evaluated. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable dry matter yields of mixtures among cutting treatments in both localities, with treatment F showing the higher values (787.1 and 415.7 g m-2 for Cagliari and Foggia, respectively. The forage species were able to compete and establish good growth during their initial phase in both localities. However, the botanical composition between the two sites differed considerably after the winter period. Particularly, at Foggia, grass dominance was a permanent feature of all treatments, and all the mixtures contained about 84% of grass. Italian ryegrass was the most representative species under all treatments in both sites. Mixtures with Italian ryegrass, crimson or berseem

  10. A comparison between legume technologies and fallow, and their effects on maize and soil traits, in two distinct environments of the West African savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franke, A.C.; Laberge, G.; Oyewole, B.D.; Schulz, S.; Tobe, O.

    2008-01-01

    Legume¿maize rotation and maize nitrogen (N)-response trials were carried out simultaneously from 1998 to 2004 in two distinct agro-ecological environments of West Africa: the humid derived savannah (Ibadan) and the drier northern Guinea savannah (Zaria). In the N-response trial, maize was grown

  11. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  12. Host differentiation and variability of Orobanche crenata populations from legume species in Morocco as revealed by cross-infestation and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennami, Mounia; Briache, Fatima Zahra; Gaboun, Fatima; Abdelwahd, Rabha; Ghaouti, Lamiae; Belqadi, Loubna; Westwood, James; Mentag, Rachid

    2017-08-01

    Orobanche crenata represents a major biotic constraint to production of faba bean and lentil in Morocco. While this parasitic plant attacks both of these crops, the extent to which Orobanche biotypes specialise in parasitising specific crops is unknown. To address this question, we studied O. crenata that grew on different hosts and quantified their host specificity to faba bean and lentil. The virulence of O. crenata populations on each host was investigated through field trials, pot and Petri dishes assays. Genetic diversity of the parasite populations was also assessed through molecular analyses. The two legume species showed distinct patterns of specificity. Faba bean was more susceptible to both O. crenata populations, while the specificity for lentil by lentil-grown O. crenata was evident at the final stage of the parasite life cycle as shown by correspondence factorial analyses. Considerable internal variation (81%) within O. crenata populations parasitising both legume species was observed by molecular analyses, but significant divergence (19%; Ø = 0.189; P = 0.010) among the populations was detected. These results indicate that O. crenata can adapt to specific host species, which is important knowledge when developing integrated pest management practices for parasitic weed control. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Self-reseeding annual legumes for cover cropping in rainfed managed olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ângelo Rodrigues, M.; Ferreira, I. Q.; Freitas, S.L.; Pires, J.M.; Arrobas, M.P.

    2015-07-01

    Given the environmental impact of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer manufacture and use, the sustainable management of agro-systems should be sought by growing N-fixing legumes. In this work, eleven self-reseeding annual legumes were grown in pure stands as mulching cover crops in a rainfed olive orchard managed without grazing animals. Dry matter yield, N content in above-ground biomass, groundcover percentage and persistence of the sown species were assessed during four growing seasons. All covers provided enough soil protection over the year, with living plants during the autumn/winter period and a mulch of dead residues during the summer. The legumes overcame a false break observed in the third year recovering the dominance of the covers in the fourth growing season. This means that the seed bank established in previous seasons ensured the persistence of the sown legume even when a gap in seed production occurred. The early-maturing cultivars produced less biomass and fixed less N (approx. 50 kg N/ha/yr present in the above-ground biomass) than the late-maturing ones, but would compete less for water since the growing cycle finished earlier in the spring. They seem best suited to being grown in dry farmed olive orchards with low N demand in drought prone regions. (Author)

  14. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All results were statistically evaluated. The highest content of Cys, Glu, Asp, Leu, Lys and Arg was determined in seeds of G. max; only the content of Cys and His was lower than 10 g kg-1. The greatest total content of essential amino acids (EAA was discovered in soybeans, almost 128 g kg-1. The majority (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, trace (Fe, Zn, and Cr and toxic elements (Pb, Cd were determined. Legumes were rich in Mg and Ca-mainly G. max and Ph. vulgaris. The content of Mg was 2.1 g/1000g in soybeans and 1.6 g/1000g in common beans. Also in these two legumes the greatest concentration of toxic Pb was found. Values obtained during the determination of the chemical composition in samples of legumes and buckwheat products can be influenced by many factors, e.g. climatic conditions, location etc.

  15. The Role of Micro-Ribonucleic Acids in Legumes with a Focus on Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Mantri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are special group of N-fixing plants that are an essential component of cropping system and important source of food and feed for human and animal consumption. Like other crops, the productivity of legumes is threatened by environmental stresses caused due to global climate change. Abiotic stress tolerance is complex trait involving a suite of genes, the expression of which is controlled by transcription factors including gene and/or polypeptide sequences. Recently, micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs have been increasingly recognized for their role in regulating the synthesis of polypeptides from different messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs including those that act as transcription factors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of different miRNAs in response to main abiotic stresses in legumes. We found consistent as well as conflicting results within and between different legume species. This highlights that we have barely scratched the surface and very comprehensive and targeted experiments will be required in future to underpin the role of miRNAs in controlling the expression of important genes associated with abiotic stress tolerances.

  16. Study and analysis of the legume crop market in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukhanyan Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous and sub-mountainous zones of the Republic of Armenia farmers mainly grow beans, chickpeas, and peas. In addition there are very small crop areas (mainly homestead lands of faba bean, soybean, mung bean, and grass pea. The village population does not know much about the cultivation of these plants. The data show that in 2007-2009 the specific weight of legume in overall cropland was approximately 94%, and about the 96% of the gross harvest. Local production needs appropriate marketing strategy. The research of local market showed that more attention should be paid to the consumption of goods produced by the farmer households, as well as to offer them to various consumer groups.

  17. Exploring farmer perceptions of agricultural innovations for maize-legume intensification in the mid-hills region of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alomía Hinojosa, M.V.; Speelman, Erika N.; Thapa, Arun; Wei, Hisiang-En; Mcdonald, Andrew J.; Tittonell, Pablo; Groot, Jeroen C.J.

    2018-01-01

    Maize-legume intercropping is a fundamental component of mixed farming systems in the mid-hills of Nepal. However, its productivity is constrained by several biophysical and social factors, and limited adoption of proven agricultural innovations. In this study, we assessed the productivity impact of

  18. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  19. Food Legumes and Rising Temperatures: Effects, Adaptive Functional Mechanisms Specific to Reproductive Growth Stage and Strategies to Improve Heat Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change. The reproductive period is vital in the life cycle of all plants and is susceptible to high-temperature stress as various metabolic processes are adversely impacted during this phase, which reduces crop yield. Food legumes exposed to high-temperature stress during reproduction show flower abortion, pollen and ovule infertility, impaired fertilization, and reduced seed filling, leading to smaller seeds and poor yields. Through various breeding techniques, heat tolerance in major legumes can be enhanced to improve performance in the field. Omics approaches unravel different mechanisms underlying thermotolerance, which is imperative to understand the processes of molecular responses toward high-temperature stress.

  20. Clitoria ternatea, The Alternative Shrub Legume for Cattle and Corn Integration System in Timor Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Nulik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle and maize play important roles in the dryland faming systems in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province, contributing to the farmers’ income, social status, and the regional food security and sources of income. However, the productivity of both commodities is low because of several problems. Lack of feed supply and management knowledge has contributed to the low cattle productivity, while lack of cultivation knowledge and the use of low productivity local maize have caused low productivity in maize. Farmers in Timor in general do not apply fertilizer to their maize plants, although lack of nitrogen (N is evident in many of their maize fields. There is potential to improve the available N in the soils through the incorporation of herbaceous legumes, which can supply the nutrient to the soil as well as providing good quality fodders for the cattle. Among the introduced herbaceous legumes tested, Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea has shown good performances to be used as an alternative herbaceous legume in the farming system for improving soil fertility and maize production as well as to provide good quality fordder for the cattle.

  1. Comparisonof physicochemical properties of selected locally available legume varieties (mung bean, cowpea and soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulasooriyage Tharuka Gunathilake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes are widely used as high-protein contained crops that play a secondary role to cereal or root crops. In Sri Lanka various legume species are cultivated and often utilised in the whole grain boiled form. The objective of present study was to analyse and compare locally grown legumes varieties; Mung bean (MI 5, MI 6, Cowpea (Bombay, Waruni, Dhawal, MICP1, ANKCP1 and soybean (pb1, MISB1 for their morphological characteristics, proximate and mineral composition (Fe, Ca, Zn, K, P. Seed shape, seed coat texture and colour, seed size and 100 seed weight (g were observed morphological characteristics in present study. Most of the characteristics of mung bean and soybean were similar within their species whereas characteristics of cowpea varieties largely differed. Values of 100 seed weight among the varieties of mung bean, soybean and cowpea were ranged from 5.8 - 6.5 g, 13.5 - 14.1 g and 13.4 - 17.2 g, respectively. The moisture content of all legume seeds ranged from 6.81% to 11.99%. Results were shown that the protein content significantly higher in soybean (36.56 - 39.70% followed by mung bean (26.56 - 25.99% and cowpea (25.22 - 22.84% respectively. Range of total carbohydrate, crude fat, crude fibre and total ash contents of nine legume varieties varied from 15.29 - 62.97%, 1.25 - 22.02%, 3.04 - 7.93% and 3.43 - 6.35 respectively. potassium (K, phosphorus (P, calcium (Ca, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn ranged from 1000 - 1900, 360 - 669, 15.0 - 192.3, 2.26 - 11.6 and 1.67 - 4.26 mg.100g-1 respectively in all the species of studied legume varieties. The wide variation in the chemical and physical properties of observed nine legume varieties, suggesting possible applications for various end-use products

  2. Assessing socio–economic factors influencing adoption of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the numerous benefits of legume-based multiple cropping systems in soil fertility management, most smallholder sorghum farmers have not adopted them. The aim of this study was to examine socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems among smallholder sorghum ...

  3. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial fertilizers are expensive for small-scale farmers who, as alternative, rely on legume crops for providing N for a subsequent maize crop. A legume-maize rotational experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Ferralsol at Mlingano Agricultural Research Institute in Muheza, Tanga, Tanzania, to evaluate the effects of ...

  4. Probing nod factor perception in legumes by fluorescence microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants of the family of legumes are capable of forming a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. These Gram-negative bacteria invade the root system of a host legume and fix nitrogen in a specialized organ, the so-called root nodule. In exchange for sugars, the bacteria convert atmospheric

  5. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic,

  6. Glycaemic responses of some legumes in Nigeria using non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is established that legumes generally have a low glycaemic index (GI) which means that they raise blood glucose levels very little. However, the glycaemic responses to normal subjects and the GI of these local legumes are not yet established. Objective: This work determined the postprandial glycaemic ...

  7. Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... Studies were conducted in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya with the aim of evaluating farmers' perception about the impact of legume cover crops (LCC) on soil ...

  8. Testing forage legume technologies with smallholder dairy farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    on-station research, suggest the possibility of incorporating forage legumes in farming systems that could solve feed shortages during the ... This paper presents benefits and constraints identified by farmers as a result of integrating forage legumes in farming systems and lessons ..... stock Research Institute. Vol. 5. pp.10-11.

  9. Systematics, diversity and forage value of indigenous legumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A map representing the collection intensity for the study area showed that the majority of legumes species were collected in the Fynbos, Savanna and Grassland Biome. It is concluded that indigenous South African legumes are extremely diverse and this denotes the importance of further investigating their forage potential ...

  10. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume

  11. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of legumes with residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes can help reduce the inorganic nitrogen fertilizer need of the following maize as a result of increased nitrogen availability in the soil. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value (NFRV) method was used to estimate the nitrogen contribution of grain legumes (soybean, cowpea) and an herbaceous ...

  12. Effect of Intercropping Finger Millet with two Indigenous Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In phase one, an indigenous edible legume (Crotalaria brevidens) and a fodder legume (Trifolium quartinianum) were intercropped with finger millet. Each plot was supplied with three nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 Kg N/ha) in the form of Urea (46% N) in a completely randomized block design with three replicates.

  13. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiangli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. Description The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. Conclusion MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  14. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  15. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  16. Aflatoxin contamination in cereals and legumes to reconsider usage as complementary food ingredients for Ghanaian infants: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Atongbiik Achaglinkame

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cereals and legumes, being the major staples of many African communities, frequently used for complementary foods for infants and young children. However, aflatoxin contamination is a threatening issue in these staples and its negative effects on human health, most especially infants and young children, are very alarming. Thus, this review sought to highlight the risk of aflatoxin contamination in cereals and legumes so as to reconsider their usage in complementary feeding. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity/moisture, soil properties, type and length of storage as well as nutrient composition of the food produce greatly influence fungal growth and aflatoxin production in cereals and legumes. Consumption of such contaminated food ingredients could expose many infants and young children to poor growth and development. Nonetheless, the toxin, though seemingly inevitable, can be minimized if not curbed completely through awareness creation/education, good agricultural practices and proper storage practices. Moreover, consumption of root and tuber crops such as sweetpotato, especially the orange-fleshed sweetpotato, can be a sustainable approach to reduce aflatoxin ingestion in children. Thus, to control the adverse effects of aflatoxin in infants and young children, cereal-legume blends could be substituted with root and tuber-based blends in complementary feeding. Keywords: Cereal-legume blends, Complementary foods, Aflatoxin, Infant health, Roots and tubers

  17. Tannin containing legumes as a model for nutraceuticals against digestive parasites in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoste, H.; Torres-Acosta, J. F. J.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    parasitology based on data obtained on the most studied models to control GINs in small ruminants, the tannin-containing legumes (Fabaceae); (ii) to illustrate how the 'nutraceutical concept' could be expanded to other plants, other livestock production systems and other GI parasitic diseases, and (iii......) to explain how this concept is opening up new research fields for better understanding the interactions between the host, the digestive parasites and the environment....

  18. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tracy, Jennifer; Alstone, Peter; Jacobson, Arne; Mills, Evan

    2010-06-21

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, arural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.

  19. A meta-analysis of relative crop yields in cereal/legume mixtures suggests options for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yang; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Makowski, David; Zhang, Lizhen; Werf, van der Wopke

    2016-01-01

    Intercrops of cereals and legumes are grown worldwide, both in smallholder agriculture in developing countries and in organic farming systems in developed countries. The competitive balance between species is a key factor determining productivity in mixtures. Management factors, e.g. sowing time,

  20. Composition and structural features of condensed tannins from Texas legumes exhibiting methane abatement activity during in vitro rumen digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies showed that a series of purified condensed tannins (CTs) from warm-season perennial legumes exhibited high variability in their modulation of methane production during in vitro rumen digestion. The molecular weight difference of these CTs did not provide correlation with either the ...

  1. [Approval of clinical trials of immunobiological medicinal products at the Paul Ehrlich Institute].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, H; Cichutek, K

    2005-02-01

    The GCP Directive 2001/20/EG has been implemented in Germany by the 12th Law Amending the Drug Law of 6 August 2004, thereby introducing new regulations for the performance of clinical trials. The amount of the required documentation has increased, but the assessment and the approval of clinical trials as well as scientific advice procedures (national or by the EMEA) allow the early discussion of many details of the development and the non-clinical and clinical testing of the medicinal product with the experts of the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI). This might shorten the times required for later marketing authorisation procedures. To facilitate these new tasks, the PEI has created a new central section "Approval of Clinical Trials", which is responsible for the assessment of the clinical trial applications and will coordinate the procedures within the institute. The main topics of clinical trial applications and the particularities of biological/biotechnological medicinal products such as allergens, blood products, vaccines, sera/mAb and products for cell and gene therapy as well as the differences from chemically defined products are discussed.

  2. Regulation of Clinical Trials with Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Matthias; Anliker, Brigitte; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Schuele, Silke

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union, clinical trials for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products are regulated at the national level, in contrast to the situation for a Marketing Authorisation Application, in which a centralised procedure is foreseen for these medicinal products. Although based on a common understanding regarding the regulatory requirement to be fulfilled before conduct of a clinical trial with an Advanced Therapy Investigational Medicinal Product, the procedures and partly the scientific requirements for approval of a clinical trial application differ between the European Union Member States. This chapter will thus give an overview about the path to be followed for a clinical trial application and the subsequent approval process for an Advanced Therapy Investigational Medicinal Product in Germany and will describe the role of the stakeholders that are involved. In addition, important aspects of manufacturing, quality control and non-clinical testing of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products in the clinical development phase are discussed. Finally, current and future approaches for harmonisation of clinical trial authorisation between European Union Member States are summarised.

  3. Comparative phylogenetic and expression analysis of small GTPases families in legume and non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ana Claudia; Via, Virginia Dalla; Savy, Virginia; Villagra, Ulises Mancini; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants. Phylogenetic analyses did not show clear differences in the organization of the different subfamilies of small GTPases between plants that engage or not in nodule symbiosis. Protein alignments revealed a strong conservation at the sequence level of small GTPases previously linked to nodulation by functional genetics. Interestingly, one Rab and three Rop proteins showed conserved amino acid substitutions in legumes, but these changes do not alter the predicted conformational structure of these proteins. Although the steady-state levels of most small GTPases do not change in response to rhizobia, we identified a subset of Rab, Rop and Arf genes whose transcript levels are modulated during the symbiotic interaction, including their spatial distribution along the indeterminate nodule. This study provides a comprehensive study of the small GTPase superfamily in several plant species. The genetic program associated to root nodule symbiosis includes small GTPases to fulfill specific functions during infection and formation of the symbiosomes. These GTPases seems to have been recruited from members that were already present in common ancestors with plants as distant as monocots

  4. Differences in crenate broomrape parasitism dynamics on three legume crops using a thermal time model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez-De-Luque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Root parasitic weeds are a major limiting production factor in a number of crops, and control is difficult. Genetic resistance and chemical control lead the fight, but without unequivocal success. Models that help to describe and even predict the evolution of parasitism underground are a valuable tool for herbicide applications, and even could help in breeding programs. Legumes are heavily affected by Orobanche crenata (crenate broomrape in the Mediterranean basin. This work presents a descriptive model based on thermal time and correlating growing day-degrees (GDD with the different developmental stages of the parasite. The model was developed in three different legume crops (faba bean, grass pea and lentil attacked by crenate broomrape. The developmental stages of the parasite strongly correlated with the GDD and differences were found depending on the host crop.

  5. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  6. Napier Grass and Legume Silage for Smallholder Farmers in Coastal Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muinga, R.W.; Mambo, L.C.; Bimbuzi, S.

    1999-01-01

    Inadequate feed during the dry season is a major cause of low dairy productivity in Kenya. Napier grass is grown by smallholder dairy farmers due to its high biomass yield especially during the rainy season when it can be ensiled to ensure feed available in the dry season.The objective of the study was to determine the silage quality of mixtures of Napier grass and Legume forages. Maize bran was used as the main source of readily available carbohydrates replacing molasses. The mixtures were compared to the conventional Napier grass/legume has higher nutritive value than silage made from Napier grass only and that maize bran could replace molasses as a source of readily available carbohydrates

  7. Expounding the Value of Grain Legumes in the Semi- and Arid Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendai P. Chibarabada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 70% of the population in the semi- and arid tropics reside in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Crop production is primarily focused on a few starchy staple crops. While this can ensure adequate calories, it inadvertently neglects the need for dietary diversity. Consequently, food and nutritional insecurity remains prevalent in the semi- and arid tropics. We reviewed the legume value chain with the aim to identify opportunities and challenges to unlocking their value and promoting them in the tropics. Several grain legumes are rich in proteins and micronutrients. They also possess adaptability to marginal environmental conditions such as drought and low input systems which typify rural landscapes. Adaptability to abiotic stresses such as drought makes them key to agriculture in areas that will receive less rainfall in the future. However, this potential was currently not being realized due to a range of challenges. Aspects related to their seed systems, production, post-harvest handling and marketing remain relatively under-researched. This was especially true for minor legumes. There is a need for trans-disciplinary research which will address the entire value chain, as has been done for major starchy crops. This could also unlock significant economic opportunities for marginalized groups such as women. This will unlock their value and allow them to contribute meaningfully to food and nutrition security as well as sustainable and resilient cropping systems.

  8. The Food and Drug Administration and pragmatic clinical trials of marketed medical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Monique L; Griffin, Joseph; Goldkind, Sara F; Zeitler, Emily P; Wing, Liz; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Sherman, Rachel E

    2015-10-01

    Pragmatic clinical trials can help answer questions of comparative effectiveness for interventions routinely used in medical practice. Pragmatic clinical trials may examine outcomes of one or more marketed medical products, and they are heterogeneous in design and risk. The Food and Drug Administration is charged with protecting the rights, safety, and welfare of individuals enrolled in clinical investigations, as well as assuring the integrity of the data upon which approval of medical products is made. The Food and Drug Administration has broad jurisdiction over drugs and medical devices (whether or not they are approved for marketing), and as such, clinical investigations of these products are subject to applicable Food and Drug Administration regulations. While many pragmatic clinical trials will meet the criteria for an exemption from the requirements for an investigational new drug application or investigational device exemption, in general, all clinical investigations of medical products that fall under Food and Drug Administration jurisdiction must adhere to regulations for informed consent and review by an institutional review board. We are concerned that current Food and Drug Administration requirements for obtaining individual informed consent may deter or delay the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials intended to develop reliable evidence of comparative safety and effectiveness of approved medical products that are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. Under current regulations, there are no described mechanisms to alter or waive informed consent to make it less burdensome or more practicable for low-risk pragmatic clinical trials. We recommend that the Food and Drug Administration establish a risk-based approach to obtaining informed consent in pragmatic clinical trials that would facilitate the conduct of pragmatic clinical trials without compromising the protection of enrolled individuals or the integrity of the resulting data. © The Author

  9. New product trial, use of edibles, and unexpected highs among marijuana and hashish users in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, Kevin C; Duke, Jennifer C; Nonnemaker, James M; Bradfield, Brian R; Farrelly, Matthew C

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between trial of new marijuana or hashish products and unexpected highs, and use of edible products and unexpected highs. We conducted an online survey of 634 adult, past-year marijuana users in Colorado. We used logistic regression models to examine the relationship between new product trial or edible use and unexpected highs. In the first year that recreational marijuana was legal in Colorado, 71.4% of respondents tried a new marijuana or hashish product, and 53.6% used an edible product. Trial of new products was associated with greater odds of experiencing an unexpected high after controlling for age, gender, education, mental health status, current marijuana or hashish use, and mean amount of marijuana or hashish consumed in the past month (OR=2.13, pmarijuana or hashish products, or use edible marijuana or hashish products, are at greater risk for an unexpected high. It is possible that some negative outcomes associated with marijuana use and unexpected highs may be averted through a better understanding of how to use product packaging to communicate with consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    plantain ( Plantago lanceolata )) and three legume species (yellow sweet clover ( Melilotus officinalis ), lucerne ( Medicago sativa ), and birdsfoot trefoil ( Lotus corniculatus ))] and a perennial ryegrass-white clover mixture were investigated in a cutting trial with four harvests (May-October) during...

  11. Agronomic evaluation of herbaceous legumes in a subhumid zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , albeit their introduction into Uganda is recent. Keywords: agronomy; anthracnose; botany; evaluation; forage; herbage; legumes; Namulonge; reseeding; seed yield; Uganda African Journal of Range and Forage Science 1995, 12(2): 68–71 ...

  12. Effect of legume foliage supplementary feeding to dairy cattle offered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pennisetum purpureum) is the main basal diet offered, and is supplemented with legume forages among others. Recent observations indicate reduction in fodder yields of P. purpureum although farmers are applying cattle manure to improve soil fertility ...

  13. Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under three grazing regimes in southern Mozambique. JP Muir. Abstract. Leucaena leucocephala, Clitoria ternatea, Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Cassia rotundifolia cv. Wynn, Macrotyloma axillare cv. Archer, Stylosanthes guianensis var. guianensis cv.

  14. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  15. Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Singla, Ranju; Geetanjali

    2004-02-01

    A large amount of energy is utilized by legume nodules for the fixation of nitrogen and assimilation of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) into organic compounds. The source of energy is provided in the form of photosynthates by the host plant. Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme, which is responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, has also been found to play an important role in carbon metabolism in legume root nodule. PEPC-mediated CO2 fixation in nodules results in the synthesis of C4 dicarboxylic acids, viz. aspartate, malate, fumarate etc. which can be transported into bacteroids with the intervention of dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) protein. PEPC has been purified from the root nodules of few legume species. Information on the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism through PEPC in leguminous plants is scanty and incoherent. This review summarizes the various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in legume root nodules.

  16. Requirements for Clinical Trials with Gene Therapy and Transplant Products in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to describe and summarize the regulation of gene and cell therapy products in Switzerland and its legal basis. Product types are briefly described, as are Swiss-specific terminologies such as the term "transplant product," which means products manufactured from cells, tissues, or even whole organs. Although some parts of this chapter may show a guideline character, they are not legally binding, but represent the current thinking of Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products. As so far the experience with marketing approval of gene therapy and cell therapy products in Switzerland is limited, this chapter focuses on the regulation of clinical trials conducted with these products. Quality, nonclinical, and clinical aspects are summarized separately for gene therapy products and transplant products.

  17. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  18. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Small RNA Biogenesis Purveyors Reveal Their Role in Regulation of Biotic Stress Responses in Three Legume Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Varshney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stress in legume crops is one of the major threats to crop yield and productivity. Being sessile organisms, plants have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to combat different stresses imposed on them. One such mechanism, deciphered in the last decade, is small RNA (sRNA mediated defense in plants. Small RNAs (sRNAs have emerged as one of the major players in gene expression regulation in plants during developmental stages and under stress conditions. They are known to act both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Dicer-like (DCL, Argonaute (AGO, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RDR constitute the major components of sRNA biogenesis machinery and are known to play a significant role in combating biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is, therefore, focused on identification and characterization of sRNA biogenesis proteins in three important legume crops, namely chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins between legume species classified them into distinct clades and suggests the evolutionary conservation of these genes across the members of Papillionidoids subfamily. Variable expression of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to the biotic stresses among the three legumes indicate the possible existence of specialized regulatory mechanisms in different legumes. This is the first ever study to understand the role of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to pathogen attacks in the studied legumes.

  19. Legume root symbioses: Natural history and prospects for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtark Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM, rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that 'first' rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single 'evolutionary plant-microbial continuum'. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.

  20. The distribution of leaf photosynthetic activity in a mixed grass-legume pasture canopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G L; Ludlow, M M

    1983-06-01

    The distribution of net photosynthetic activity of leaves was measured in a mixed grass (Setaria sphacelata var. sericea)-legume (Desmodium intortum) pasture stand using a method based on concurrent measurement of the rate of CO2 exchange, and (14)CO2 dosing followed by rapid harvesting according to height strata. Comparisons were also made between plots which differed in the period of regrowth following defoliation.The usual superiority of leaf net photosynthetic rates of a C4 grass, compared with C3 legume leaves, was found in the upper, well illuminated strata. These rates were, however, much lower than those usually described for horizontally exposed leaves, primarily because leaves in the pasture stand were inclined to the horizontal. At greater depth in the canopies, the superiority of rates in the grass was less evident, and consequently the relative contributions of grass and legume to canopy photosynthesis became more dependent on their leaf area indices.Attention is drawn to the relative simplicity of the method for examining the contribution of leaves, which may differ according to species or position in the canopy, to productivity of the whole stand.

  1. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Tolerance to Environmental Constraints in Grain and Forage Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, Bargaz; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Mohamed, Farissi; Mohamed, Lazali; Jean-Jacques, Drevon; Rim, Maougal T; Georg, Carlsson

    2015-08-13

    Despite the agronomical and environmental advantages of the cultivation of legumes, their production is limited by various environmental constraints such as water or nutrient limitation, frost or heat stress and soil salinity, which may be the result of pedoclimatic conditions, intensive use of agricultural lands, decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation. The development of more sustainable agroecosystems that are resilient to environmental constraints will therefore require better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to abiotic constraints. This review provides highlights of legume tolerance to abiotic constraints with a focus on soil nutrient deficiencies, drought, and salinity. More specifically, recent advances in the physiological and molecular levels of the adaptation of grain and forage legumes to abiotic constraints are discussed. Such adaptation involves complex multigene controlled-traits which also involve multiple sub-traits that are likely regulated under the control of a number of candidate genes. This multi-genetic control of tolerance traits might also be multifunctional, with extended action in response to a number of abiotic constraints. Thus, concrete efforts are required to breed for multifunctional candidate genes in order to boost plant stability under various abiotic constraints.

  2. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Tolerance to Environmental Constraints in Grain and Forage Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Bargaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the agronomical and environmental advantages of the cultivation of legumes, their production is limited by various environmental constraints such as water or nutrient limitation, frost or heat stress and soil salinity, which may be the result of pedoclimatic conditions, intensive use of agricultural lands, decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation. The development of more sustainable agroecosystems that are resilient to environmental constraints will therefore require better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to abiotic constraints. This review provides highlights of legume tolerance to abiotic constraints with a focus on soil nutrient deficiencies, drought, and salinity. More specifically, recent advances in the physiological and molecular levels of the adaptation of grain and forage legumes to abiotic constraints are discussed. Such adaptation involves complex multigene controlled-traits which also involve multiple sub-traits that are likely regulated under the control of a number of candidate genes. This multi-genetic control of tolerance traits might also be multifunctional, with extended action in response to a number of abiotic constraints. Thus, concrete efforts are required to breed for multifunctional candidate genes in order to boost plant stability under various abiotic constraints.

  3. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  4. A comparison of different legume seeds as protein supplement to optimise the use of low quality forages by ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R; Martín-García, Antonio I; Weisbjerg, Martin R; Hvelplund, Torben; Molina-Alcaide, Eduarda

    2009-02-01

    The potential of different legume seeds species, including recently new developed varieties (Vicia faba: a commercial variety and varieties Alameda, Palacio and Baraka; Lupinus angustifolius; Pisum sativum and Cicer arietinum: varieties Fardon and Zegri) as protein supplements to low quality forages was evaluated. First, the chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, in situ degradability and in vitro/in situ intestinal digestibility of legume seeds were determined. The chemical composition was rather similar within genus. Vicia faba beans contained more condensed tannins (35.8-56.4 g/kg DM) and less ether extract (12.8-9.5 g/kg DM) than the other legumes. The rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of the undegraded protein in the rumen was very similar among the seeds, with exception of lupins, having a much higher degradation rate than the rest. Second, the fermentation characteristics of diets, which were based on two low quality forages (olive leaves and barley straw) and feed blocks without or with supplementation of legume seeds or soybean meal, were investigated by using single-flow continuous culture fermenters. In this trial, the fermentation parameters (ammonia, pH and volatile fatty acids), the microbial protein synthesis and the degradation of olive leaves and barley straw promoted by the different diets were studied. Compared to soybean meal, beans and peas showed similar suitability as protein supplements for sustaining in vitro fermentation of low-quality forages. However, our results suggest a significant interaction between the type of legume used as supplement and the type of forage used, which need to be further studied in vivo.

  5. Immunosuppression during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Lu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobium infects host legumes to elicit new plant organs, nodules where dinitrogen is fixed as ammonia that can be directly utilized by plants. The nodulation factor (NF) produced by Rhizobium is one of the determinant signals for rhizobial infection and nodule development. Recently, it was found to suppress the innate immunity on host and nonhost plants as well as its analogs, chitins. Therefore, NF can be recognized as a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern (M/PAMP) like chitin to induce the M/PAMP triggered susceptibility (M/PTS) of host plants to rhizobia. Whether the NF signaling pathway is directly associated with the innate immunity is not clear till now. In fact, other MAMPs such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and cyclic-β-glucan, together with type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors are also required for rhizobial infection or survival in leguminous nodule cells. Interestingly, most of them play similarly negative roles in the innate immunity of host plants, though their signaling is not completely elucidated. Taken together, we believe that the local immunosuppression on host plants induced by Rhizobium is essential for the establishment of their symbiosis.

  6. Pollen structure and function in caesalpinioid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J

    2016-03-01

    A diverse range of pollen morphologies occurs within the large, paraphyletic legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae, especially among early-branching lineages. Previous studies have hypothesized an association between surface ornamentation and pollination syndrome or other aspects of pollen function such as desiccation tolerance and adaptations to accommodate volume changes. We reviewed caesalpinioid pollen morphology using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with a literature survey of pollination vectors. Pollen structural diversity is greatest in the early-branching tribes Cercideae and Detarieae, whereas Cassieae and Caesalpinieae are relatively low in pollen diversity. Functional structures to counter desiccation include opercula (lids) covering apertures and reduced aperture size. Structures preventing wall rupture during dehydration and rehydration include different forms of colpi (syncolpi, parasyncolpi, pseudocolpi), striate supratectal ornamentation, and columellate or granular wall structures that resist tensile or compressive forces respectively. Specialized aperture structures (Zwischenkörper) may be advantageous for efficient germination of the pollen tube. In Detarieae and Cercideae in particular, there is potential to utilize pollen characters to estimate pollination systems where these are unknown. Supratectal verrucae and gemmae have apparently evolved iteratively in Cercideae and Detarieae. At the species level, there is a potential correlation between striate/verrucate patterns and vertebrate pollination. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  8. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  9. Market Trial: Selling Off-Grid Lighting Products in Rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we performed a market trial of off-grid LED lighting products in Maai Mahiu, a rural Kenyan town. Our goals were to assess consumer demand and consumer preferences with respect to off-grid lighting systems and to gain feedback from off-grid lighting users at the point of purchase and after they have used to products for some time.

  10. Utilização de cama sobreposta de suínos e sobressemeadura de leguminosas para aumento da produção e qualidade de pastagem natural Swine deep bedding amendment and legume sod-seeding to increase production and quality of natural pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Hentz

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da fertilização com dois tipos de camas sobrepostas de suínos (CSS, à base de casca de arroz (CA e maravalha (MA, sobre a produção de uma pastagem natural, com predomínio de Axonopus sp. e Paspalum sp., sobressemeada com leguminosas (cornichão e trevo-branco. As camas sobrepostas foram aplicadas em quantidades equivalentes a 180, 360, 540 e 720 kg/ha de P2O5, constituindo quatro níveis de cama de casca de arroz (30, 60, 90 ou 120 t/ha e quatro níveis de cama de maravalha (20,6; 41,2; 62,2 ou 82,8 t/ha. Foram incluídos dois tratamentos-testemunha: 180 kg/ha de superfosfato triplo (SFT e ausência de adubação (AA. A sobressemeadura das leguminosas foi realizada em maio de 2004 e, a partir de agosto de 2004, foram realizados nove cortes da pastagem, a cada seis semanas. As maiores produções de matéria seca (MS anuais (setembro/2004 a agosto/2005 com as aplicações de cama de casca de arroz foram obtidas nos níveis 30 e 60 t/ha e, com cama de maravalha, nos níveis 62,2 e 82,8 t/ha, que resultaram em produções de MS de 8.083 e 8.276 kg/ha, superiores às obtidas com superfosfato triplo (4.091 kg MS/ha e sem adubação (3.071 MS kg/ha. A produção de MS de trevo-branco aumentou linearmente no outono e no inverno, de acordo com os níveis de adubação com cama de maravalha, mas não variaram com a adubação com cama de casca de arroz. O efeito fertilizante varia entre os tipos de cama sobreposta, que podem influenciar a composição botânica de pastagens mistas de leguminosas-gramíneas.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of two swine deep beddings (SDB: rice husk (CA and sawdust coarse (MA on the production of natural pasture. The predominant species in this pasture were Axonopus sp. and Paspalum sp. that was sod-seeded with the forage legumes birdsfoot trefoil and white clover. The SDBs were applied in amounts equivalent to 180, 360, 540, and 720 kg/ha of P2O

  11. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Sugiura, S.; Shinoda, S.; Daigo, Y.; Fujihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  12. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation and Persistence, along with the Production of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Virulence Factors, Are Disrupted by a Triterpenoid Coumarate Ester Isolated from Dalbergia trichocarpa, a Tropical Legume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, Laurent; Huet, Joelle; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry; Stévigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; El Jaziri, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extracts of Dalbergia trichocarpa bark have been shown to disrupt P. aeruginosa PAO1 quorum sensing (QS) mechanisms, which are key regulators of virulence factor expression and implicated in biofilm formation. One of the active compounds has been isolated and identified as oleanolic aldehyde coumarate (OALC), a novel bioactive compound that inhibits the formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm and its maintenance as well as the expression of the las and rhl QS systems. Consequently, the production of QS-controlled virulence factors including, rhamnolipids, pyocyanin, elastase and extracellular polysaccharides as well as twitching and swarming motilities is reduced. Native acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) production is inhibited by OALC but exogenous supply of AHLs does not restore the production of virulence factors by OALC-treated cultures, indicating that OALC exerts its effect beyond AHLs synthesis in the QS pathways. Further experiments provided a significant inhibition of the global virulence factor activator gacA by OALC. OALC disorganizes established biofilm structure and improves the bactericidal activity of tobramycin against biofilm-encapsulated PAO1 cells. Finally, a significant reduction of Caenorhabditis elegans paralysis was recorded when the worms were infected with OALC-pre-treated P. aeruginosa. Taken together, these results show that triterpenoid coumarate esters are suitable chemical backbones to target P. aeruginosa virulence mechanisms. PMID:26186595

  14. Study of Potential and Real Seed Producing Capacity in Some Romanian Varieties of Legumes and Perennial Gramineae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the potential and real seed producing capacity in some Romanian varieties of legumes and perennial gramineae: Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne, Festuca pratensis, Festuca arundinacea and Dactylis glomerata. To calculate the potential production, we performed determinations and analyses on each variety, regarding floral apparatus’ morphological and anatomic structure (number of inflorescences, number of flowers, number of ovules/ovary, and the real production was determined „in situ”.

  15. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  16. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO EXPERT EVALUATION OF PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL TRIALS OF HUMAN IMMUNOGLOBULIN PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the experience of Russian and leading foreign regulatory agencies in organisation and conduction of preclinical and clinical trials of human immunoglobulin products. The authors suggest a classification of human immunoglobulins and provide updated information on authorization of these products in Russia. The article summarizes methodological approaches, basic scientific principles and criteria relating to expert evaluation of preclinical and clinical trials of blood products. The authors further define the expert body’s requirements for data on preclinical and clinical trials of human normal immuniglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases which are submitted as part of applications for marketing authorization or marketing authorization variation. The article suggests programs of preclinical and clinical trials for human normal immunoglobulins and human specific immunoglobulins for the prevention and/or treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases that are aligned with the Russian legislation and Eurasian Economic Union’s regulations on medicines circulation, and have been elaborated with respect to the guidelines of the European Medicines Agency.

  17. Characterization of Black Raspberry Functional Food Products for Cancer Prevention Human Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Junnan; Ahn-Jarvis, Jennifer H.; Riedl, Kenneth M.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Clinton, Steven K.; Vodovotz, Yael

    2014-01-01

    Our team is designing and fully characterizing black raspberry (BRB) food products suitable for long-term cancer prevention studies. The processing, scale-up, and storage effects on the consistency, quality, bioactive stability, and sensory acceptability of two BRB delivery systems of various matrices are presented. BRB dosage, pH, water activity, and texture were consistent in the scale-up production. Confections retained >90% of anthocyanins and ellagitannin after processing. Nectars had >69% of anthocyanins and >66% of ellagitannin retention, which varied with BRB dosage due to the processing difference. Texture remained unchanged during storage. BRB products consumed in a prostate cancer clinical trial were well accepted in sensory tests. Thus, this study demonstrates that two different BRB foods can be formulated to meet quality standards with a consistent bioactive pattern and successfully scaled up for a large human clinical trial focusing on cancer risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24345009

  18. Intercropping of reed canary grass, phalaris arundinacea l., with legumes can cut costs for n-fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden, Umeaa (Sweden)), e-mail: eva.lindvall@njv.slu.se

    2010-07-15

    In a field experiment close to Oestersund in mid Sweden reed canary grass was intercropped with barley, Alsike clover, Trifolium hybridum L., red clover, T. pratense L., goats rue, Galega orientalis L. or a combination of red clover and goats rue. There were also three fertilization treatments: A: Recommended amounts of N, P and K. B: Recommended amounts of P and K and half amount of N. C: Sewage sludge application before sowing (establishment year) and recommended amounts of P and K and half amount of N. The biomass was lower where reed canary grass had been undersown in barley, and higher with full N-fertilization than with half N-fertilization. However there were no significant differences between legume intercrops with half N-fertilization and pure reed canary grass with full Nfertilization. Alsike clover was the most productive legume, followed by red clover. The amount of nitrogen fixed by the legumes was less with full N-fertilization (29 kg/ha as a mean) than with half N-fertilization (38 kg/ha). Intercropping with legumes could substitute half of the N in fertilization but similar experiments in other parts of Sweden has shown that there is a higher risk of weed problems

  19. Effect of soaking, boiling, and steaming on total phenolic contentand antioxidant activities of cool season food legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-09-01

    The effects of soaking, boiling and steaming processes on the total phenolic components and antioxidant activity in commonly consumed cool season food legumes (CSFL's), including green pea, yellow pea, chickpea and lentil were investigated. As compared to original unprocessed legumes, all processing steps caused significant (pboiling treatments caused significant (pboiling and pressure steaming caused significant (pboiling treatments. To obtain cooked legumes with similar palatability and firmness, pressure boiling shortened processing time as compared to atmospheric boiling, resulted in insignificant differences in TPC, DPPH for green and yellow pea. However, TPC and DPPH in cooked lentils differed significantly between atmospheric and pressure boiling. As compared to atmospheric processes, pressure processes significantly increased ORAC values in both boiled and steamed CSFL's. Greater TPC, DPPH and ORAC values were detected in boiling water than that in soaking and steaming water. Boiling also caused more solid loss than steaming. Steam processing exhibited several advantages in retaining the integrity of the legume appearance and texture of the cooked product, shortening process time, and greater retention of antioxidant components and activities. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  1. Caries clinical trial methods for the assessment of oral care products in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, R P; Gomez, J; Goma, J; Pretty, I A

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, caries clinical trials of oral care products have focused on the prevention of caries in children and adolescents at the "cavitation" level. Because of a general reduction in caries incidence and the use of positive control comparators, studies have grown both in size and duration to improve statistical power. Currently, they tend to be of 2 to 3 years' duration, with up to 2,000 high-risk individuals per group. During the past decade, there has been a shift in emphasis from a restorative approach to the treatment of dental caries to a therapeutic approach focused on the remineralization of early caries lesions. However, caries clinical trials of oral care products have not often reflected this paradigm change. This manuscript reviews alternative caries clinical trial methods for oral care products. It is concluded that methods focused on the detection and monitoring of enamel caries and root caries, by visual approaches such as ICDAS and instrumental methods such as QLF, Diagnodent, and Electrical Caries Monitors, provide viable alternatives to traditional methods. In particular, such approaches more accurately reflect the modes of action of many therapeutic agents and formulations and may reduce the cost and duration of product innovation.

  2. Chemical composition, “in vitro” digestibility and production of woody forage legumes cultivated in sandy soils Composição bromatológica, digestibilidade "in vitro" e produção de biomassa de leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas cultivadas em solo arenoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimilson Volpe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nutritional value and productivity of woody forage legumes Albizia lebbeck, Cajanus cajan, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium e Leucaena leucocephala, to be used in supplementation of cattle as a bank protein, five species in Quartzpisament were evaluated. The experiment was conducted from March 2006 to October 2007. The evaluations were carried out in two periods (rainy and dry, with two cuts by period. There was no difference in the accumulation of dry matter, in rainy period. In the dry evaluation, A. lebbeck and C. argentea were higher than the other legumes. The C. cajan was not recovered after the rainy period, which resulted in a low accumulation of dry matter in the dry period. The leaves of Albizia lebbeck showed the highest levels of crude protein in cuts evaluated (210 to 212 g/kg. The in vitro digestibility of dry matter in the leaves of A. lebbeck was significantly higher, with average values of 568g/kg. A. lebbeck, Cratylia argentea and Gliricidea sepium showed the highest content for digestibility of the thin stem. The A. lebbek and C. argentea presented higher accumulation of dry matter (19,3 and 24,3 t DM/ha, respectively and, still, the best values for the qualitative characteristics. Both species are the most promising and adapted to the formation of protein banks in these types of soils.Com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo e a produtividade das leguminosas forrageiras lenhosas: Albizia lebbeck (Albízia, Cajanus cajan (Feijão-Guandu, Cratylia argentea (Cratília, Gliricidia sepium (Gliricídia e Leucaena leucocephala (Leucena, a serem utilizadas na suplementação de bovinos como banco de proteína, conduziu-se um experimento em Neossolo Quartzarênico. O experimento foi realizado entre março de 2006 e outubro de 2007. As avaliações foram realizadas em dois períodos (chuvoso e seco, com dois cortes para cada período. Não houve diferença no acúmulo de matéria seca nos cortes do per

  3. CARBON CYCLES, NITROGEN FIXATION AND THE LEGUME-RHIZOBIA SYMBIOSIS AS SOIL CONTAMINANT BIOTEST SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Werner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The major pools and turnover  rates of the global carbon (C cycles are presented and compared to the human production of CO2  from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. coal and oil and geothermal  fuels (natural  gases, both categorized as non-renewable energy resources which  in amount  reaches around  6.5 Gigatons C per year. These pools that serve as C-holding stallions  are in the atmosphere,  the land plant biomass, the organic soils carbon, the ocean carbon and the lithosphere. In another related case, the present focus in the area of nitrogen  fixation  is discussed with  data on world  production of grain  legumes  compared  to cereals production and nitrogen  fertilizer use. The focus to understand  the molecular  biology of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis as a major contributor to nitrogen  fixation  is in the areas of signal exchange between  host plants and rhizobia  in the rhizophere including  the nod factor signalling, the infection  and nodule compartmentation and the soils stress factors affecting the symbiosis. The use of the Legume-Rhizobia symbiosis as a biotest system for soil contaminants includes data for cadmium,  arsenate, atrazine,  lindane,  fluoranthene, phenantrene and acenaphthene and also results  on the mechanism,  why the symbiotic system is more sensitive  than test systems with plant growth  parameters.

  4. Performance of tropical legumes grown as understory of a eucalypt plantation in a seasonally dry area of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza F. Nicodemo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine tropical legumes were grown outside the canopy and in the understory of an 8-year-old Eucalyptus grandis stand in order to assess their seasonal production and forage quality for 4 evaluation periods. Incident photosynthetically active radiation in the understory was 18% of that outside the canopy. In the understory, production of Lablab purpureus, Centrosema schiedeanum, Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Aeschynomene villosa, Estilosantes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata + S. macrocephala, Calopogonium mucunoides and Arachis pintoi was <1 kg/ha/d for most samples. Even considering this low production, the large area available for animal production in forest plantations might justify the interest in legumes because of their high nutritive value. Lablab purpureus produced the greatest amount of dry matter in the understory in the establishment phase (12.1 kg/ha/d, but did not persist. It could be a suitable candidate for a cover legume species mixture to provide early growth. Centrosema schiedeanum developed rapidly and showed a high capacity for ground cover (>70% and persistence, and had high nitrogen concentration, thus demonstrating good potential for protecting soils and promoting nutrient cycling in forest plantations. Another species with potential is A. pintoi, which established slowly but towards the end of the experiment showed moderate to high understory ground cover.Keywords: Dry matter production, forage quality, shade, silvopastoral system.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3151-160

  5. Nitrogen contributions of legume roots to cabbage nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of roots are generally not considered in studies assessing crop responses to green manure. However, measuring such effects can contribute to a better understanding of crop rotation. In two experiments, we evaluated the content of legume-N in crop tissue and the fertilizer value of the roots and shoots of two legume species. Roots, shoots, or whole plants of the legumes sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea and jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis were cropped as green manure to supply nitrogen to cabbage crops (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The principle of the A-value technique was applied to estimate the fertilizer value of each plant part. In a pot experiment, both the content of legume-N in cabbage and the fertilizer value of the whole plant was higher than the shoots, which was in turn higher than that of the roots. In field condition, roots had a decreasing effect on the N content of cabbage plants. Growing cabbage on legume root residue resulted in an increased absorption of 15N-urea, resulting in negative values ​​for legume-N content: -13.59 g kg-1 and -3.51 g kg-1 for sunhemp and jack beans, respectively. Suggesting both low N supply by roots and N immobilization in soil organic matter or microbial biomass. Future research should focus on estimating the net N acquisition by plants from root residues under field conditions, where rooting patterns and biomass distribution differ from those in pot experiments, therefore giving a more realistic quantitative estimate.

  6. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...... to neighbouring plants differed among nitrogen donors and nitrogen receivers and may depend on root characteristics and regrowth strategies of plant species in the multi-species grassland.......Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...

  7. Influence of tree canopy on N₂ fixation by pasture legumes and soil rhizobial abundance in Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranca, C; Castro, I V; Figueiredo, N; Redondo, R; Rodrigues, A R F; Saraiva, I; Maricato, R; Madeira, M A V

    2015-02-15

    Symbiotic N2 fixation is of primordial significance in sustainable agro-forestry management as it allows reducing the use of mineral N in the production of mixed stands and by protecting the soils from degradation. Thereby, on a 2-year basis, N2 fixation was evaluated in four oak woodlands under Mediterranean conditions using a split-plot design and three replicates. (15)N technique was used for determination of N2 fixation rate. Variations in environmental conditions (temperature, rainfall, radiation) by the cork tree canopy as well as the age of stands and pasture management can cause great differences in vegetation growth, legume N2 fixation, and soil rhizobial abundance. In the present study, non-legumes dominated the swards, in particular beneath the tree canopy, and legumes represented only 42% of total herbage. A 2-fold biomass reduction was observed in the oldest sown pasture in relation to the medium-age sward (6 t DW ha(-1)yr(-1)). Overall, competition of pasture growth for light was negligible, but soil rhizobial abundance and symbiotic N2 fixation capacity were highly favored by this environmental factor in the spring and outside the influence of tree canopy. Nitrogen derived from the atmosphere was moderate to high (54-72%) in unsown and sown swards. Inputs of fixed N2 increased from winter to spring due to more favorable climatic conditions (temperature and light intensity) for both rhizobia and vegetation growths. Assuming a constant fixation rate at each seasonal period, N2 fixation capacity increased from about 0.10 kg N ha(-1) per day in the autumn-winter period to 0.15 kg N ha(-1) per day in spring. Belowground plant material contributed to 11% of accumulated N in pasture legumes and was not affected by canopy. Size of soil fixing bacteria contributed little to explain pasture legumes N. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [LEGUME-RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS PROTEOMICS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Iu Iu; Mamenko, P M; Kots, S Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present review contains results of proteomic researches of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The technical difficulties associated with the methods of obtaining protein extracts from symbiotic structures and ways of overcoming them were discussed. The changes of protein synthesis under formation and functioning of symbiotic structures were shown. Special attention has been given to the importance of proteomic studies of plant-microbe structures in the formation of adaptation strategies under adverse environmental conditions. The technical and conceptual perspectives of legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics were shown.

  9. The effect of fire on the dormancy break of three annual legume seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gresta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a common phenomenon in the Mediterranean environment and strongly influences vegetal population dynamics through its impact on vegetation and the soil seed bank. Fire is able to break down the seed coat of hard-seeded legumes within the soil and trigger germination. To evaluate the effect of fire on the dormancy break in Medicago ciliaris, Medicago rugosa and Scorpiurus muricatus subsp. subvillosus, the seeds were placed at three different depths (surface, 25 mm and 50 mm and subjected to fires at two different intensities (high and low. As a control sample, a batch of seeds was buried at 25 mm for the duration of the trial and not subjected to fire. Soil temperatures during the fire were compared directly to stubble quantity and indirectly related to soil depth. The two Medicago species survived exposure to 90°C for a few minutes and displayed a significant increase in germination with exposure to high temperatures (over 70°C for several minutes. On the other hand, no germination occurred in Scorpiurus, irrespective of treatment. In conclusion, fire had a significant and positive effect in triggering germination of the Medicago species, but the dispersal strategies of these hard-seeded legumes are only partially interrupted by fire as a large number of seeds (>50% remained non-germinated in the soil.

  10. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production.

  11. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of different cereal-legume blending ratios on nutritional quality and functional property of different blends. The legumes and steeped cereals were cleaned, minimally roasted, dehulled, milled and sifted separately. A single-factor experiment with three levels of the factor (cereal: legume ratio ...

  12. rotational effects of grain legumes on maize performance in the rift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-10-27

    Oct 27, 2000 ... The study has demonstrated that the use of grain legumes, particularly dolichos in rotation with maize, is a ... legume plant residues (Onim etal., 1990; Kwesiga and Coe, 1994; Wortmann et al., 1994; Peoples et ... It may be feasible to produce suitably adapted legumes during the shcrt rains to produce ...

  13. US smokers' reactions to a brief trial of oral nicotine products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahoney Martin C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that cigarette smokers will switch to alternative oral nicotine delivery products to reduce their health risks if informed of the relative risk difference. However, it is important to assess how smokers are likely to use cigarette alternatives before making predictions about their potential to promote individual or population harm reduction. Objectives This study examines smokers' interest in using a smokeless tobacco or a nicotine replacement product as a substitute for their cigarettes. Methods The study included 67 adult cigarette smokers, not currently interested in quitting, who were given an opportunity to sample four alternative oral nicotine products: 1 Camel Snus, 2 Marlboro Snus, 3 Stonewall dissolvable tobacco tablets, and 4 Commit nicotine lozenges. At visit 1, subjects were presented information about the relative benefits/risks of oral nicotine delivery compared to cigarettes. At visit 2, subjects were given a supply of each of the four products to sample at home for a week. At visit 3, subjects received a one-week supply of their preferred product to see if using such products reduced or eliminated cigarette use. Results After multiple product sampling, participants preferred the Commit lozenges over the three smokeless tobacco products (p = 0.011. Following the one week single-product trial experience, GEE models controlling for gender, age, level of education, baseline cigarettes use, and alternative product chosen, indicated a significant decline in cigarettes smoked per day across one week of single-product sampling (p Conclusions Findings from this study show that smokers, who are currently unwilling to make a quit attempt, may be willing to use alternative products in the short term as a temporary substitute for smoking. However, this use is more likely to be for partial substitution (i.e. they will continue to smoke, albeit at a lower rate rather than complete substitution. Of the

  14. Transgenesis and genomics in molecular breeding of pasture grasses and legumes for forage quality and other traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, G.

    2005-01-01

    Significant advances in the establishment of the methodologies required for the molecular breeding of temperate forage grasses (Lolium and Festuca species) and legumes (Trifolium and Medicago species) are reviewed. Examples of current products and approaches for the application of these methodologies to forage grass and legume improvement are outlined. The plethora of new technologies and tools now available for high-throughput gene discovery and genome-wide expression analysis have opened up opportunities for innovative applications in the identification, functional characterization and use of genes of value in forage production systems and beyond. Selected examples of current work in pasture plant genomics, xenogenomics, symbiogenomics and micro-array-based molecular phenotyping are discussed. (author)

  15. Biochemical studies on weaning foods based legumes and carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabag, Fatima Omer

    1997-01-01

    Attempts were made to utilize available food sources in formulation of weaning foods. Common legumes (chick pea and pigeon pea ) were used as protein source. While dehydrated carrots powder were used as a vitamin A source. Addition of 25% chick pea increased the protein content of the weaning foods to 16.7% and 14.4%,respectively ,while Cerelac and Riri gave protein content of 15.3% and 7.3%,respectively. In corporation of carrots at 10% level gave a vitamin A content of 564 RE/100 g material. Weaning food containing chick pea recorded higher preference among panelists and significantly better (p≤0.05)than samples containing pigeon pea. The bulk density of newly developed based formulae CP 3 , PP 3 (0.7 g/ml, 0.8 g/ml, respectively ) was higher than the market weaning food Cerelac and Riri (0.6 g/ml and 0.5 g/ml,respectively )The formula CP 3 recorded lower hot paste viscosity (3500 cp.) than both values obtained for Cerelac (4500 cp.) and Riri (extremely viscous). The lysine content of CP 3 (3.9 g/100 g protein) was higher than respective values in market foods and for better when calculated per weaning material (0.65 g/100 g material) compared to the other products (0.57; 0.28 g/100 material of Cerelac and Riri, respectively). Chick pea-based formula (CP 3 ) was also found to possess higher in vitro protein didestibility (95.2%) compared to Cerelac (94.2%) and Riri (88.5%). The calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of CP 3 (1.7) was higher than that of Riri (1.6) and lower than that of cerelac (2.7). (Author)

  16. Edge-state inner products and real-space entanglement spectrum of trial quantum Hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubail, J.; Read, N.; Rezayi, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    We consider the trial wave functions for the fractional quantum Hall effect that are given by conformal blocks, and construct their associated edge excited states in full generality. The inner products between these edge states are computed in the thermodynamic limit, assuming generalized screening (i.e., short-range correlations only) inside the quantum Hall droplet and using the language of boundary conformal field theory (boundary CFT). These inner products take universal values in this limit: they are equal to the corresponding inner products in the bulk two-dimensional chiral CFT which underlies the trial wave function. This is a bulk/edge correspondence; it shows the equality between equal-time correlators along the edge and the correlators of the bulk CFT up to a Wick rotation. This approach is then used to analyze the entanglement spectrum of the ground state obtained with a bipartition A∪B in real space. Starting from our universal result for inner products in the thermodynamic limit, we tackle corrections to scaling using standard field-theoretic and renormalization-group arguments. We prove that generalized screening implies that the entanglement Hamiltonian HE=-lnρA is isospectral to an operator that is local along the cut between A and B. We also show that a similar analysis can be carried out for particle partition. We discuss the close analogy between the formalism of trial wave functions given by conformal blocks and tensor product states, for which results analogous to ours have appeared recently. Finally, the edge theory and entanglement spectrum of px±ipy paired superfluids are treated in a similar fashion in the Appendixes.

  17. An automated HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped virus production for global HIV vaccine trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Schultz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections with HIV still represent a major human health problem worldwide and a vaccine is the only long-term option to fight efficiently against this virus. Standardized assessments of HIV-specific immune responses in vaccine trials are essential for prioritizing vaccine candidates in preclinical and clinical stages of development. With respect to neutralizing antibodies, assays with HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses are a high priority. To cover the increasing demands of HIV pseudoviruses, a complete cell culture and transfection automation system has been developed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The automation system for HIV pseudovirus production comprises a modified Tecan-based Cellerity system. It covers an area of 5×3 meters and includes a robot platform, a cell counting machine, a CO(2 incubator for cell cultivation and a media refrigerator. The processes for cell handling, transfection and pseudovirus production have been implemented according to manual standard operating procedures and are controlled and scheduled autonomously by the system. The system is housed in a biosafety level II cabinet that guarantees protection of personnel, environment and the product. HIV pseudovirus stocks in a scale from 140 ml to 1000 ml have been produced on the automated system. Parallel manual production of HIV pseudoviruses and comparisons (bridging assays confirmed that the automated produced pseudoviruses were of equivalent quality as those produced manually. In addition, the automated method was fully validated according to Good Clinical Laboratory Practice (GCLP guidelines, including the validation parameters accuracy, precision, robustness and specificity. CONCLUSIONS: An automated HIV pseudovirus production system has been successfully established. It allows the high quality production of HIV pseudoviruses under GCLP conditions. In its present form, the installed module enables the production of 1000 ml of virus-containing cell

  18. Improvement of protein quality in grain legumes. An overview on mutational improvement of protein quality in pigeon pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Ravi, S.; Pulliah, T.

    1982-01-01

    Grain legumes provide an essential part of the diet in developing countries in terms of protein. Besides increasing production also improving the grain quality would be an important objective. The paper discusses the methodology for protein improvement in seeds of pigeon pea. Variety Hy-2 was irradiated with 20, 25, 30 and 35 Kr of gamma radiation and the M 2 population was screened for total sulfur content

  19. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... Seed characteristics of legume species used in this study. Species. Cultivar. Collect location. Seed mass (mg). T. repens. -. Jilin Province. 0.58±0.002 .... The effects of depth (D), light (L), species (S) and their interaction on germination characteristics, morphological ..... Early seedling growth of pine (Pinus.

  20. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ..... and oil quality at UAS-D, while genotyping with 53 poly- morphic markers was generated at ...

  1. Assessment of Traditionally Produced Dakuwa (A Cereal/Legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dakuwa (a local legume/cereal snack) samples were collected from local producers cutting across seven local government areas in Niger State, central Nigeria and assessed on the basis of proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and mineral content, microbiological and sensory qualities. There were significant ...

  2. Progress with the legume bacteria in Rhodesia | HDL | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress during eight years of work in Rhodesia with Rhizobium is presented. 370 of the country's 507 known indigenous species of legumes have been examined for nodulation, and all but 13 found to form nodules. A collection of 573 isolates of Rhizobium, 221 of them from other countries, has been built up on a basis of ...

  3. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes (Trifolium repens L., Medicago falcata L., Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb, Medicago sativa L. and Lespedeza davurica Schindler) at five planting depths (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm) and two light levels (full light and shade) on the 21st day after ...

  4. Smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area under the crop, distance to local markets, knowledge of legume root nodules, education level, contacts with organisations promoting biological N fixation (BNF) technologies, group membership, soybean market and location of the farm based on agro-ecological zone were factors that determine the use of the ...

  5. Manipulating legume/cereal mixtures to optimize the above and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of mixing legume and cereals in the cropping systems is to optimise the use of spatial, temporal, and physical resources both above- and below ground, by maximising positive interactions (facilitation) and minimising negative ones (competition) among the components. The complex interactions in ...

  6. Qualitative nutrient requirements of selected legume species on two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three perennial legumes (Macroptilium atropurpureum, Rhynchosia totta and Rhynchosia minima) were evaluated in a glass-house under uncontrolled environmental conditions for herbage, root and nodule yield on two soils and on river sand under six fertilizer treatments. Keywords: qualitative analyses|nutrient ...

  7. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ... soil plant analytical development; SSR, simple sequence repeats; TAC, transcript assembly contig; TE, transpiration efficiency; TUS, tentative unique sequences.

  8. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and ...

  9. Symbiotic specificity of tropical tree rhizobia for host legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The host range and specificity is reported of a genetically diverse group of rhizobia isolated from nodules of Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nodule number and nitrogen content was measured in seedlings of herbaceous and woody legume species

  10. Effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, in early 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients and performance of maize. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four levels of crop ...

  11. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  12. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  13. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  14. Annual legumes for improving soil fertility in the smallholder maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We need to screen new legumes for local adaptation to see if there are new species or accessions that do better on smallholder farms. Some green manures, especially ... More work with velvet beans is required on farms to establish the size and speed of yield gains for following maize crops. Also, more participatory work ...

  15. Legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentations included eight treatments in a RCB design (n=3): four herbaceous legume-maize successions and four continuous maize cropping with urea (U, 46% N, 50 kg ha-1), triple superphosphate (TSP, 45% P, 30 kg ha-1), urea+triple superphosphate (U+TSP) and a control. The NUE was estimated through ...

  16. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach. J. Sinja,ab*J. Karugia,b M. Waithakaac, D. Miano,c I. Baltenwecka; S. Franzeld ... informal methods of dissemination especially farmer-to-farmer extension. It is not known ... Results showed that farmers with positions in farmer groups, with.

  17. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    02001, African Crop Science Society. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF PIGEONPEA. IN SMALLHOLDER FARMING SYSTEMS OF ZIMBABWE. - P. MAPFUMO, B.M. CAMPBELL1, S. MPEPEREKI and P. MAFONGOYA2. Department of Soil Sclence and Agricultural Engineering, University of ...

  18. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soyabean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with 32 P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soyabean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding). (author)

  19. Profitability of sorghum-legume cropping practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    kilogram. Besides that, groundnut and sorghum-legume intercrops incurred the highest variable costs which could have negatively affected their gross margins. Corresponding gross margins from the different enterprises were generated as shown in table 2. Analysis of variance on the Gross margin of sorghum-cowpea ...

  20. Improvement of diabetic dyslipidemia by legumes in experimental rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain legumes are a valuable source of food proteins; hence, their exploitation is expected to grow in relation to a growing world's food needs. Apart from high level of dietary fibre, their protein composition makes them useful in managing diabetes. This paper reports a study conducted to evaluate the effects of four different ...

  1. Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors

  2. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... reduction in dietary protein intake of rabbits in the latter stages of growth where rabbits are raised up to 2.5-2.8 kg live weight. This study was designed therefore to evaluate the utilization of combinations of concentrate, grass and legume forages on performance and nutrient digestibility of grower rabbits.

  3. Clinical trial registries: a practical guide for sponsors and researchers of medicinal products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foote, MaryAnn

    2006-01-01

    ... Industry perspective on public clinical trial registries and results databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

  4. Estimation of Nitrogenase Enzyme Activities and Plant Growth of Legume and Non-legume Inoculated with Diazotrophic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwani S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF process benefits the agriculture sector especially for reducing cost of nitrogenfertilizer. In the process, the diazotrophs convert N2 into ammonia (NH3 which is useable by plants. The BNF process iscatalysed by nitrogenase enzyme that involved protons and electrons together with evolution of H2 therefore, theassessment of N2 fixation is also available via H2 production and electron allocation analysis. Thus, the aims of thisexperiment were to estimate the nitrogenase enzyme activities and observe the influence of diazothrophs on growth oflegume (soybean and non legume (rice plants. Host plants were inoculated with respective inocula; Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum (strain 532C for soybean while Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7 and locally isolated diazotroph (isolate 5 forrice. At harvest, the plants were observed for plant growth parameters, H2 evolution, N2 fixation and electron allocationcoefficient (EAC values. The experiment recorded N2 fixation activities of inoculated soybean plants at 141.2 μmol N2 h-1g-1 dry weight nodule, and the evolution of H2 at 144.4 μmol H2 h-1 g-1 dry weight nodule. The electron allocationcoefficient (EAC of soybean was recorded at 0.982. For inoculated rice plants, none of the observations was successfully recorded. However, results for chlorophyll contents and plant dry weight of both plants inoculated with respective inocula were similar to the control treatments supplied with full nitrogen fertilization (+N. The experiment clearly showed that inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria could enhance growth of the host plants similar to plants treated with nitrogenous fertilizer due to efficient N2 fixation process

  5. Dry fractionation for sustainable production of functional legume protein concentrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant proteins gain increasing interest as part of a sustainable diet. Because plant materials not only contain protein, they are generally isolated via an energy intensive wet fractionation. This review discusses dry fractionation as an alternative and more sustainable route for producing

  6. Effects of species diversity on seasonal variation in herbage yield and nutritive value of seven binary grass-legume mixtures and pure grass under cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Intensively managed sown temperate grasslands are generally of low species diversity, although swards based on grass-legume mixtures may have superior productivity and herbage quality than grass-only swards. We conducted a cutting experiment over two years to test the effect of species composition...... and diversity on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD). Perennial ryegrass (PR, Lolium perenne) was sown alone and with each of four forage legumes: red clover (RC, Trifolium pratense), lucerne (LU, Medicago sativa), birdsfoot trefoil (BT...... and IVOMD lowest in LU, followed by BT and the clovers. The highest N content was in WC. Among grasses, PR and HR had lower NDF contents and a higher IVOMD than MF; the highest N content was in PR. The grass component of mixtures had less effect than the legume component on herbage yield and quality...

  7. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p < 0.01). The release of histamine was decreased significantly when sensitized basophils were challenged with hydrolysates as compared to raw extracts. Significant reduction in the biopotency of hydrolysates was also observed in SPT where only 1/10 kidney bean-sensitive individuals, 2/6 black gram-sensitive individuals and 1/7 peanut-sensitive individuals were found positive to their respective hydrolysates. In conclusion, enzymatic hydrolysis is effective in attenuating allergenicity of legume proteins and may be employed for preparing hypoallergenic food extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  9. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Elana; Naudin, Christophe; Piva, Guillaume; Shirtliffe, Steven J; Fustec, Joëlle; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle

    2017-02-01

    Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N 2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N 2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N 2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N 2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  10. Contribution of legumes to the soil N pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustec, Joëlle; Malagoli, Philippe; Mahieu, Stéphanie

    2010-05-01

    Grain legumes can be used for nitrogen acquisition in different ways in sustainable agriculture (Fustec et al., 2009). They are seen as a tool to reduce mineral N fertilizers in cropping systems. However, estimates of biological N fixation, N balance and N benefit either for the following crop or in mixed crops, remain unclear. The contribution of legumes to the soil N pool is difficult to measure, especially N rhizodeposition, since it is a critical point for assessing N benefits for other crops and for soil biological activity, and for reducing water pollution (Mayer et al., 2003). We adapted and refined the cotton-wick 15N stem labeling method for measuring the amount of soil N derived from rhizodeposition by field peas (Mahieu et al., 2007, 2009). The method was tested in different conditions in the field and in the greenhouse with various pea varieties and isolines. In addition, we used the cotton-wick method for assessing N transfers from pea to neighbouring durum wheat. In the greenhouse, a positive relationship was found between the amount of N rhizodeposits and the legume N content. N rhizodeposition was about 15% of the plant N and 30% in the field. In field pea / durum wheat intercrops, plant-plant N transfers were quantified and found to be bidirectional. Such results should be taken into account when estimating N benefits from biological N fixation by a grain legume crop and for the prediction of N economies in legume-based cropping systems. More studies dealing with rhizodeposit compounds and soil biological activity would now be necessary. Fustec et al. 2009. Agron. Sustain. Dev., DOI 10.1051/agro/2009003, in press. Mahieu et al. 2007. Plant Soil 295, 193-205. Mahieu et al. 2009. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 2236-2243. Mayer et al. 2003. Soil Biol. Biochem. 35, 21-28.

  11. Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. STODDARD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important in world agriculture, providing biologically fixed nitrogen, breaking cereal disease cycles and contributing locally grown food and feed, including forage. Pea and faba bean were grown by early farmers in Finland, with remains dated to 500 BC. Landraces of pea and faba bean were gradually replaced by better adapted, higher quality materials for food use. While grain legumes have been restricted by their long growing seasons to the south of the country, red, white and alsike clovers are native throughout and have long been used in leys for grazing, hay and silage. Breeding programmes released many cultivars of these crops during the 1900s, particularly pea and red clover. A.I. Virtanen earned the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on both nitrogen fixation and silage preservation. Use of crop mixtures may appear modern, but farmers used them already in the early 1800s, when oat was used to support pea, and much effort has been devoted to improving the system and establishing its other benefits. Although international cultivars have been easily accessible since Finland’s 1995 entry into the European Union, the combination of feed quality and appropriate earliness is still needed, as < 1% of arable land is sown to grain legumes and an increase to 9–10% would allow replacement of imported protein feeds. Climate change will alter the stresses on legume crops, and investment in agronomy, physiology and breeding is needed so that farmers can gain from the many advantages of a legume-supported rotation.;

  12. Assessment of oils of selected legumes and oil plants with regard to animal nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Rusníková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to compare nutritional quality of oils of legumes (soybean, pea, faba bean and lupin and oil plants (rape, sunflower, poppy and flax grown in the Czech Republic. Individual seeds of legumes and oil seeds were analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography, following fat extraction. The fatty acid profile was evaluated for contents of fatty acids saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The highest proportion of fat in the dry matter of seed was found in poppy, followed by sunflower, flax, rape, soybean, lupin, pea, and faba bean. Differences in fat contents between individual plants were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01, except for differences between flax and rape (P ≤ 0.05, pea and faba bean and poppy and sunflower (non-significant. Apart from rapeseed, markedly higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in other oils but rapeseed had the least content of saturated fatty acids. Legumes had a favourable ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids, especially lupin oil (1:4.3, which is in accordance with the recommended ratio 1:5. Sunflower oil is less suitable, with n-3 present in trace concentration. The most significant source of n-3 is flaxseed oil. The study brings new findings regarding oil composition in a wide range of feed components. These data may be used for development of diets for specific purposes and for production of functional food.

  13. SoyBase and the legume information system: accessing information about the soybean and other legume genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes two websites relevant for soybean research: SoyBase, and the Legume Information System (LIS). SoyBase and LIS have different objectives and areas of emphasis. SoyBase holds a wide range of specialized data in support of soybean breeding and research activities, with the primary...

  14. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: implications for the use of green manures in saline environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruning, B.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; Broekman, R.A.; de Vos, A.C.; Parra González, A.; Rozema, J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manure can potentially increase crop productivity in saline environments and thus contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems. Here, we present results from a field experiment conducted in the Netherlands that addressed the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fixation

  15. Trial Production of Surgical Gloves from Irradiated Natural Rubber Latex on Factory Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Utama

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Trial production of surgical gloves from irradiated natural rubber latex at the PT. Laxindo Utama Serang Banten glove factory has been carried out. The variation of heating temperature and leaching time during processing were evaluated. The physical and mechanical properties and the protein allergen respond of surgical gloves using ELISA method were measured. The results showed that the physical and mechanical of surgical gloves such as tensile strength, modulus, and elongation at break arefound to meet the requirements of the ISO or SNI standard for surgical gloves. While the allergic response through clinical tested latex-sensitive protein allergen known as ELISA test is found to be negative.

  16. Transport and partitioning of CO2 fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to 14 CO 2 to investigate the contribution of nodule CO 2 fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO 2 fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO 2 fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO 2 fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  17. Tropical Legume Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Efficiency of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motior M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m−2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m−2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE, nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE, N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m−2 achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13–23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m−2. The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m−2 can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m−2. The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility.

  18. Production trials involving use of the FAMACHA© system for haemonchosis in sheep : preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Van Wyk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In three trials conducted on two separate farms the production of sheep treated for naturally acquired haemonchosis using the FAMACHA© system of targeted selective treatment (TST (i.e. to treat only those animals unable to manage unaided in the face of heavy Haemonchus challenge was compared to that of suppressively drenched sheep in the same flock. As expected by the research team who developed and evaluated the FAMACHA© system, TST did result in some loss in production. However, despite high levels of worm challenge in two of the trials and the fact that the comparison was with suppressive drenching which is not sustainable, the total effect was relatively small in relation to the important advantage of using the TST as regards reduced selection for anthelmintic resistance (AR. Concerning the sustainability of worm control, it is concluded that the development of drug resistance to anthelmintics leaves sheep and goat farmers in South Africa no choice but to use methods of TST such as FAMACHA©. The FAMACHA© system can also be a useful clinical aid for early on-farm detection of AR by farmers; the degree of improvement in the colour of the ocular mucous membrane from pale to red in individually drenched anaemic animals over a period of 7-14 days can give a good indication of the efficacy of the compound(s used.

  19. Trial fabrication of Be12Ti electrode for pebble production by rotating electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Iwadachi, T.; Uchida, M.; Nakamichi, M.; Kawamura, H.

    2004-01-01

    Be 12 Ti has been one of candidates for advanced neutron multipliers, due to its high melting points and good chemical stability. Although Be 12 Ti is too brittle to product pebbles for neutron multipliers with the rotating electrode method (REM), a preliminary production of the pebbles which was made of two phase material of α-beryllium (α-Be) and Be 12 Ti was successfully demonstrated with REM. In this study a trial fabrication of the Be-5at%Ti'' ingot (α-Be + Be 12 Ti) for the REM electrode was carried out with a vacuum casting process. Three kinds of refractory crucibles (MgO, CaO and BeO) were tested for the evaluation of durability to the melt of Be-5%Ti. The water-cooled copper mould was applied for the casting mold to assist a one-direction solidification. The appearance (crack(s), shrinkage, etc.), microstructure and chemical analysis of the ''Be-5at%Ti'' ingots were investigated. As for the results of the trial fabrication, it was made clear that BeO crucible is most useful for the melting of Be-5at%Ti. The ingot, which was a size of φ85 x h 150 mm, had h 40mm sound portion from the bottom. The microstructure of the ingots showed two phases (probably α-Be and Be 12 Ti). The chemical composition of the Ti in the ingot were 3.1 - 6.2at%. (author)

  20. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...... as in Denmark using spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops. Intercropping involves simultaneously growing two or more crops in the same field for a significant period of time. The practice is ancient as early records from many human societies all over the world have shown. Intercropping systems...... are estimated to still provide as much as 15–20% of the world’s food supply. The practice was widespread in some European farming systems up until the 1950s – before the so-called fossilisation of agriculture. At that time as much as 50 % of all available nitrogen (N) may have originated from symbiotic N2...

  1. Rhizobium-legume symbioses: the crucial role of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, Benjamin; Berrabah, Fathi; Ratet, Pascal; Stacey, Gary

    2015-03-01

    New research results have significantly revised our understanding of the rhizobium-legume infection process. For example, Nod factors (NFs), previously thought to be absolutely essential for this symbiosis, were shown to be dispensable under particular conditions. Similarly, an NF receptor, previously considered to be solely involved in symbiosis, was shown to function during plant pathogen infections. Indeed, there is a growing realization that plant innate immunity is a crucial component in the establishment and maintenance of symbiosis. We review here the factors involved in the suppression of plant immunity during rhizobium-legume symbiosis, and we attempt to place this information into context with the most recent and sometimes surprising research results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil macrofauna in wooded pasture with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusimar Lamarte Gonzaga Galindo da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands afforestation aims at adding different soil uses in a way they become profitable for their owners. As such handling aims at minimizing impacts, the current study had as its goal the use of soil macrofauna in order to evaluate legume afforestation effects on the soil, regardless the depth. Thus, nitrogen fixing species were inserted onto grassland areas and the macrofauna collection was performed 6 years after their planting in the 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20.30cm layers, in winter and summer. Leguminous influence was different between depths and times of the year. It mostly favors communities under "Mimosa" Genus treetops. Besides, the effects from climatic seasonal variations on invertebrates were mitigated by the implementation of such legume trees

  3. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grljušić; M. Tucak; T. Čupić; S. Popović

    2008-01-01

    The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the fora...

  5. Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source of nutrients on cereal grain yield and fodder dry matter yields. ... La disposition en lignes a produit un rendement élévé en fourrages secs (5%) et en grains des céréales que les céréales plantés aux hazard. La valeur nutritive (CP, NDF et degradabilité de ...

  6. Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulter, D.; Evans, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  7. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marciano Marra; Silvia Maria de Oliveira; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB) were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T). Four of the str...

  8. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  9. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  10. Differences for traits associated with early N acquisition in a grain legume and early complementarity in grain legume-triticale mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Nicolas; Naudin, Christophe; Piva, Guillaume; Baccar, Rim; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle

    2018-02-01

    Early strategies of crop growth and N acquisition can be critical for determining competitive interactions between weeds and crops. Grain legumes and especially lupins are known to be poor competitors against weeds. Grain legumes are known to have low mineral soil N uptake abilities. However, inter- and intraspecific differences in N uptake ability in relation to below-ground traits have received little attention. Our objectives were (i) to measure differences among lupins for a set of traits associated with early growth and N acquisition; (ii) to examine how this variation compares to differences between lupin and a cereal, triticale, and (iii) to assess if mixing lupin with triticale provides a higher potential than does pure lupin regarding plant biomass and mineral soil N acquisition early in the crop cycle. Lupin (12 genotypes) and triticale plants were grown separately and in mixed species pairs in a replacement design for 1 and 2 months in three rhizotron experiments. Shoot and root biomass, root length, root expansion dynamics, N 2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. Differences among lupin species and genotypes regarding traits related to early growth and to mineral soil N uptake were observed, but all lupins demonstrated slow early growth and low ability to absorb mineral soil N compared to triticale. In lupin-triticale mixture, a contrast in early growth strategies between species induced a higher total soil mineral N uptake compared with pure lupin. Complementarity between lupin and triticale persisted during the second month, when interactions began. This complementarity may allow for reduced competition between species, favouring higher triticale biomass production than in pure triticale, without compromising lupin growth.

  11. An overview of the marine natural products in clinical trials and on the market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Rangel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first marine natural products that served as leads or scaffolds for medicines were discovered in the middle of last century: the arabinosyl glycosides from the marine sponge Tectitethya crypta. Synthesis and modifications of the natural molecules generated antiviral and antileukemic drugs developed in the 1970’s and in the following decades, including the first effective treatment against HIV infection. With the improvement of techniques for the elucidation of chemical structure of the molecules, as well as chemical synthesis, especially from the 1990’s, there was an increase in the number of bioactive natural products characterized from marine organisms. New chemical structures with high specificity towards molecular targets in cells allowed the development of new drugs with indication for the treatment of several illnesses, from cancer to new antibiotics, and even neurological disorders. Currently there are at least 13 molecules derived from marine natural products on advanced clinical trials, and nine were approved to be used as medicines. Considering that in the past eight years, more than 1000 new compounds from marine organisms were described, per year, the expectation is that many more drugs will be derived from marine natural products in a near future.

  12. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marciano Marra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T. Four of the strains are used as inoculants for cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Bradyrhizobium sp. UFLA 03-84; Bradyrhizobium elkani INPA 03-11B and Bradyrhizobium japonicum BR3267 or for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris (Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Rhizobium etli UFLA 02-100 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 316C10a are also efficient nodulators of beans and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T nodulates on Mimosa pudica. Two experiments, with solid and liquid media, were performed to determine whether the strains were able to solubilise CaHPO4, Al(H2PO43 or FePO4.2H2O. On solid GELP medium none of the strains dissolved FePO4.2H2O, but LMG 1222, UFLA 03-84 and CIAT 899 solubilised CaHPO4 particularly well. These strains, along with LMG 19424 and BR 3267, were also able to increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. The strains CIAT 899 and UFLA 02-100 were the only legume nodulating bacteria able to solubilise the other phosphate sources in liquid media, dissolving both CaHPO4 and FePO4.2H2O. There was a negative correlation between the pH of the culture medium and the concentration of soluble phosphate when the phosphorus source was CaHPO4 or FePO4.2H2O. The contribution of these strains to increasing the phosphorus nutrition of legumes and non-legume plant species should be investigated further by in vivo experiments.

  13. Dairy cows fed on tropical legume forages: effects on milk yield, nutrients use efficiency and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Montoya, J M; García, R A; Ramos, R A; Flores, J M; Alas, E A; Corea, E E

    2018-04-01

    Two trials with multiparous dairy cows were conducted. Experiment 1 tested the effects of increasing forage proportion in the diet (500, 600, and 700 g/kg DM) when a mixed sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and jackbean (Cannavalia ensiformis) silage was used as forage. Experiment 2 studied the substitution of sorghum silage and soybean meal by jackbean silage or fresh cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forage in the diet. All diets were iso-energetic and iso-proteic. In each experiment, 30 cows were used and separated into three groups. In experiment 1, there were no differences in dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield (MY), or apparent total tract digestibility (aTTd) among the three diets, but milk fat content increased with increasing forage proportion, even though the similar neutral detergent fiber of all diets. Nitrogen use efficiency was highest in the diet containing 600 g forage/kg DM, and some evidence was observed for a better profitability with this forage proportion. In experiment 2, feeding legumes increased DMI despite no effects on aTTd. Milk yield increased in line with DMI, with a larger increase for the fresh cowpea. Nitrogen use efficiency and milk composition were not affected by the diets. The increased MY and lower feed costs increased the economic benefits when feeding legumes, particularly when feeding fresh cowpea. Feeding fresh cowpea or jackbean silage to dairy cows appears to be an alternative to soybean as protein source, ideally at a forage proportions of 600 g/kg DM, without altering milk yield and quality and increasing the farm profitability.

  14. In vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics and utilisable CP supply of sainfoin and birdsfoot trefoil silages and their mixtures with other legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, A; Wyss, U; Arrigo, Y; Girard, M; Bee, G; Zeitz, J O; Kreuzer, M; Dohme-Meier, F

    2017-04-01

    The extensive protein degradation occurring during ensiling decreases the nutritive value of silages, but this might be counteracted by tannins. Therefore, silages from two legume species containing condensed tannins (CT) - sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (two cultivars: birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Bull (BTB) and birdsfoot trefoil, cv. Polom) - were compared for their in vitro ruminal fermentation characteristics. The effect of combining them with two CT-free legume silages (lucerne (LU) and red clover (RC)) was also determined. The supply of duodenally utilisable CP (uCP) in the forages was emphasised. The legumes were each harvested from three field sites. After 24 h of wilting on the field, the legumes were ensiled in laboratory silos for 86 days. Proximate constituents, silage fermentation characteristics, CT content and CP fractions were determined. Subsequently, silage samples and 1 : 1 mixtures of the CT-containing and CT-free silages were incubated for 24 h in batch cultures using ruminal fluid and buffer (1 : 2, v/v). Each treatment was replicated six times in six runs. The effects on pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations, protozoal counts, and total gas and methane production were determined. uCP content was calculated by considering the CP in the silage and the ammonia in the incubation fluid from treatments and blanks. Statistical evaluation compared data from single plants alone and together with that from the mixtures. Among treatments, SF silage contained the least CP and the most CT. The non-protein nitrogen content was lower, favouring neutral detergent soluble and insoluble protein fractions, in the SF and RC silages. Absolute uCP content was lowest in SF and SF mixtures, although the ratio to total CP was the highest. In comparison with LU, the ammonia concentration of the incubation fluid was lower for SF, RC and BTB and for the mixture of SF with LU. The total gas and methane production was similar among the treatments, and the

  15. Trial production of x-ray protective coat in clinico-orthodontics and evaluation of efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hatsuo; Nezu, Fumio; Arita, Masatoshi; Numata, Keisuke; Nishioka, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    The authors produced for trial an x-ray protective coat for patients which could be used for any type of dental roentogenography particularly by clinicoorthodontists and could easily exert a sufficient protective effect. The trial product is of coat type covering the front, sides, and back of the trunk and is made of vinyl sheet containing lead and rubber sheet containing lead. When patients put on the coat during cephalography, the internally absorbed dose was decreased greatly in the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra and the area of thyroid and considerably in the area of right joint and the area corresponding to the center of the sternal shaft. The protective effect of the coat was also great in ortho-pantomography in regions corresponding to hemopoietic tissues abundant in bone-marrow, such as the areas of bilateral joints the back corresponding to the 7th cervical vertebra, and the area corresponding to the center of sternal shaft. Internally absorbed doses in different regions due to various types of roentgenography were tabulated. The x-ray protective coat was described to be useful not only in orthodontics but also in roentogenography in the craniocervical region. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornaro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental Retardation (MR is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in adaptive daily life skills and difficulties in social and interpersonal functioning. Since multiple causes may contribute to MR, associated clinical pictures may vary accordingly. Nevertheless, when psychiatric disorders as Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD and/or alcohol abuse co-exist, their proper detection and management is often troublesome, essentially due to a limited vocabulary MR people could use to describe their symptoms, feelings and concerns, and the lack of reliable screening tools. Furthermore, MR people are among the most medicated subjects, with (over prescription of antidepressants and/or typical antipsychotics being the rule rather than exception. Thus, treatment resistance or even worsening of depression, constitute frequent occurrences. This report describes the case of a person with MR who failed to respond to repetitive trials of antidepressant monotherapies, finally recovering using aripiprazole to fluvoxamine augmentation upon consideration of a putative bipolar diathesis for “agitated” TRD. Although further controlled investigations are needed to assess a putative bipolar diathesis in some cases of MR associated to TRD, prudence is advised in the long-term prescription of antidepressant monotherapies in such conditions.

  17. Quality of natural product clinical trials: a comparison of those published in alternative medicine versus conventional medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Zara Risoldi; Gregory, Philip; Wilson, Amy

    2011-06-01

    To compare the quality of natural product clinical trials published in alternative medicine journals versus those published in conventional medicine journals. Systematic search and review of the literature. Randomized controlled trials of natural products were included if they were published in English between 2003 and 2008. Articles were categorized by their journal of publication (alternative medicine versus conventional medicine). Two independent reviewers evaluated study quality using guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. The results with respect to the primary outcome (positive or negative) were also assessed. Thirty articles were evaluated, 15 published in alternative medicine journals and 15 in conventional medicine journals. Of articles published in alternative medicine journals, 33.33% (n = 5) were considered low quality, and none were considered high quality. Of articles published in conventional medicine journals, 26.67% (n = 4) were considered low quality and 6.67% (n = 1) were considered high quality. Two thirds of all trials reviewed were of unclear quality, due to inadequate reporting of information relating to the study's methodology. Similar proportions of positive and negative primary outcomes were found in alternative and conventional medicine journals, and low-quality articles were not more likely to report a positive primary outcome (Fisher's exact test, two-tailed p = .287). The quality of natural product randomized controlled trials was similar among alternative and conventional medicine journals. Efforts should be made to improve the reporting of natural product clinical trials for accurate determinations of study quality to be possible.

  18. Health Promotion and Healthier Products Increase Vending Purchases: A Randomized Factorial Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sophia V; Kimmel, Lisa; Van Emmenes, Michael; Taherian, Rafi; Remer, Geraldine; Millman, Adam; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-07-01

    The current food environment has a high prevalence of nutrient-sparse foods and beverages, most starkly seen in vending machine offerings. There are currently few studies that explore different interventions that might lead to healthier vending machine purchases. To examine how healthier product availability, price reductions, and/or promotional signs affect sales and revenue of snack and beverage vending machines. A 2×2×2 factorial randomized controlled trial was conducted. Students, staff, and employees on a university campus. All co-located snack and beverage vending machines (n=56, 28 snack and 28 beverage) were randomized into one of eight conditions: availability of healthier products and/or 25% price reduction for healthier items and/or promotional signs on machines. Aggregate sales and revenue data for the 5-month study period (February to June 2015) were compared with data from the same months 1 year prior. Analyses were conducted July 2015. The change in units sold and revenue between February through June 2014 and 2015. Linear regression models (main effects and interaction effects) and t test analyses were performed. The interaction between healthier product guidelines and promotional signs in snack vending machines documented increased revenue (Penvironment. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Abalone, Haliotis mariae (Wood, 1828, Hatchery and Seed Production Trials in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalfan M. Al-Rashdi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hatchery and seed production trials for the Omani endemic abalone Haliotis mariae were carried out at the land-based Mirbat Abalone Seed Production Station in Oman between 1999 and 2000. The methods developed for broodstock conditioning, induction of spawning and fertilization, larval settlement, and the handling of small juveniles are shown. Abalone collected in the post-monsoon period and held for 2 months matured faster than those collected before the monsoon and held for 6 months. Spawning induction of males and females had 63% and 11% success rates respectively, and the morphology of early larval stages is shown. Survival rates of veliger larvae introduced to settlement plates ranged from 35.9% to 73.7%, but the survival of post-larvae was low at 0.1% to 3.6%. The high mortality rate was attributed to invasions of filamentous green- and coralline algae on settlement plates and occurrence of low quantity of diatoms as food. Juveniles reacted best to 2% ethanol as anaesthetic, dropping off culture plates within 4 min and recovering within 17 min. Cultured abalone reached an average shell length of 52.9 mm over 13 months, which translates to an increment of 4.1 mm.mon-1. The overall conclusion of these preliminary research trials confirms  that H. mariae can be cultured successfully in Oman. Further studies on the standardization of the techniques would help in stock enhancement programmes and commercial farming.

  20. Rumen microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen efficiency as affected by tanniferous and non-tanniferous forage legumes incubated individually or together in Rumen Simulation Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Brinkhaus, Anja; Bee, Giuseppe; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Dohme-Meier, Frigga; Zeitz, Johanna O

    2018-03-01

    A limited availability of microbial protein can impair productivity in ruminants. Ruminal nitrogen efficiency might be optimised by combining high-quality forage legumes such as red clover (RC), which has unfavourably high ruminal protein degradability, with tanniferous legumes like sainfoin (SF) and birdsfoot trefoil (BT). Silages from SF and from BT cultivars [Bull (BB) and Polom (BP)] were incubated singly or in combination with RC using the Rumen Simulation Technique (n = 6). The tanniferous legumes, when compared to RC, changed the total short-chain fatty acid profile by increasing propionate proportions at the expense of butyrate. Silage from SF contained the most condensed tannins (CTs) (136 g CT kg -1 dry matter) and clearly differed in various traits from the BT and RC silages. The apparent nutrient degradability (small with SF), microbial protein synthesis, and calculated content of potentially utilisable crude protein (large with SF) indicated that SF had the greatest efficiency in ruminal protein synthesis. The effects of combining SF with RC were mostly linear. The potential of sainfoin to improve protein supply, demonstrated either individually or in combination with a high-performance forage legume, indicates its potential usefulness in complementing protein-deficient ruminant diets and high-quality forages rich in rumen-degradable protein. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Functional Properties of Some Commonly Used Cereal and Legume Flours and Their Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties such as protein solubility, swelling capacity, water holding capacity, gelling ability, bulk density and foaming capacity of flours of some commonly used cereals and legume (wheat, refined wheat, maize and chickpea and their blends were studied. Blends of flours were prepared by mixing equal proportions of selected floors. Statistically significant difference  in studied functional properties except bulk density was observed among cereal flours and their blends. Chickpea flour was found to possess comparatively high water holding capacity, protein solubility index and swelling capacity. The functional properties of maize and wheat flours were found to be improved when blended with chickpea. Chickpea flour and its blends with cereal flours were found to possess good functional score and suggested as favorable candidates for use in the preparation of viscous foods and bakery products. The data provide guidelines regarding the improvement in functional properties of economically favorable cereal flours.

  2. Optimizing adherence in HIV prevention product trials: Development and psychometric evaluation of simple tools for screening and adherence counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; Guthrie, Kate Morrow; Zissette, Seth; Fava, Joseph L; Gill, Katherine; Louw, Cheryl E; Kotze, Philip; Reddy, Krishnaveni; MacQueen, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    Low adherence in recent HIV prevention clinical trials highlights the need to better understand, measure, and support product use within clinical trials. Conventional self-reported adherence instruments within HIV prevention trials, often relying on single-item questions, have proven ineffective. While objective adherence measures are desirable, none currently exist that apply to both active and placebo arms. Scales are composed of multiple items in the form of questions or statements that, when combined, measure a more complex construct that may not be directly observable. When psychometrically validated, such measures may better assess the multiple factors contributing to adherence/non-adherence. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically evaluate tools to screen and monitor trial participants' adherence to HIV prevention products within the context of clinical trial research. Based on an extensive literature review and conceptual framework, we identified and refined 86 items assessing potential predictors of adherence and 48 items assessing adherence experience. A structured survey, including adherence items and other variables, was administered to former ASPIRE and Ring Study participants and similar non-trial participants (n = 709). We conducted exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify a reduced set of constructs and items that could be used at screening to predict potential adherence, and at follow-up to monitor and intervene on adherence. We examined associations with other variables to assess content and construct validity. The EFA of screener items resulted in a 6-factor solution with acceptable to very good internal reliability (α: .62-.84). Similar to our conceptual framework, factors represent trial-related commitment (Distrust of Research and Commitment to Research); alignment with trial requirements (Visit Adherence and Trial Incompatibility); Belief in Trial Benefits and Partner Disclosure. The EFA on monitoring items resulted in 4

  3. Teknologi Pengendalian Gulma Alang-alang dengan Tanaman Legum untuk Pertanian Tanaman Pangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Juarsah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia, Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica L. Beauv merupakan salah satu gulma terpenting dan termasuk sepuluh gulma bermasalah di dunia.  Melalui biji dan rimpang, alang-alang dapat tumbuh dan menyebar luas pada hampir semua kondisi lahan. Teknologi pengendalian alang-alang telah banyak dikenal namun belum dapat menjamin eradikasi populasi alang-alang secara berkelanjutan tanpa diikuti oleh kultur teknis dan pola budidaya tanaman pangan sepanjang tahun. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa lahan alang-alang dapat dikendalikan/dikelola menjadi lahan produktif setelah direhabilitasi dengan tanaman legume (Mucuna sp. untuk usaha tani tanaman pangan lahan kering berorientasi konservasi tanah. Bahan hijauan tanaman Mucuna dapat meningkatkan kadar C-organik, memperbaiki sifat fisika, kimia tanah dan meningkatkan  produksi tanaman pangan. In Indonesia, Alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica L. Beauv is one of important weeds and included to ten most problematic weeds around the world. Through its seeds and roots, alang-alang can grow and expand in nearly all soil conditions. Many technologies for controlling have been known but can not ensure the eradication of weeds population, however the controlling via food crops cropping systems for the whole years is the best method so far to have sustainability of the agriculture land. Research showed that alang-alang area could be controlled/managed became more productive land after rehabilitation with legume (ie Mucuna sp. especially for dry land conservation oriented. Mucuna green materials might increase C-organic content, both soil chemical and physical improvement, furthermore increased foodcrops production.

  4. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e. Medicago truncatula (Mt, Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv and Glycine max (Gm. Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the farthest distance between Mt and Pv in 6 legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reported some interesting observations e.g. no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

  5. Consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Caroline Diniz Brito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar o estado nutricional e os fatores associados ao consumo alimentar de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes atendidas em um serviço público de referência para assistência pré-natal. Métodos: Estudo transversal e analítico, com 73 gestantes adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, atendidas no Núcleo de Assistência ao Adolescente (NASA do Hospital Materno Infantil, em São Luís, Maranhão. Utilizou-se o Questionário de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar (QFCA, medidas antropométricas (peso, altura, índice de massa corporal - IMC - pré-gravídico e gravídico e questionário socioeconômico. As variáveis dependentes foram o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes, e as independentes foram escolaridade, estado civil, raça, renda, situação demográfica, dados gestacionais e antropométricos. Resultados: Observou-se que 39,7% apresentaram IMC pré-gestacional de desnutrição, 50,7% de eutrofia, e menos de 10% sobrepeso ou obesidade. Para o IMC gestacional, os valores se alteraram, com 27,4% das gestantes desnutridas, 57,5% eutróficas e 15,1% com sobrepeso. Observou-se que os maiores percentuais de adequação para o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foram em adolescentes casadas ou em união estável (65,4%, que não trabalhavam (92,3% e com renda familiar menor que 1 salário mínimo (84,62%. Entretanto, a única associação positiva encontrada com o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foi o início do pré-natal. Conclusão: A maior parte das gestantes avaliadas apresentou-se eutrófica, apesar de cerca de um quarto apresentar baixo peso durante a gestação. Além disso, elas não consumiam uma dieta balanceada, com uma ingestão abaixo do recomendado de FVL. Entre os fatores relacionados a um melhor consumo de FVL destaca-se o início do acompanhamento pré-natal no primeiro trimestre.

  6. [Genome editing technology and its application in forage legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Meng, Yingying; Niu, Lifang; Lin, Hao

    2017-10-25

    Genome editing is a novel targeted genome modification biotechnology, which could successfully mutate specific loci as well as generate gene replacement and insertion in various organisms. So far, genome editing technology has been widely applied in investigating gene function and developing valuable traits in both model plants and major crops. In this review, we briefly survey the historical development of genome editing technology, summarize recent progress using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for plant genome editing and explore the potential of the CRISPR/Cas technology in improving forage legumes.

  7. The Effect of Flixweed-Honey Vaginal Product on Cervicitis: a Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh Nabimeybodi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Cervicitis is a common and recurrent gynecologic disease which is usually resistant to treatments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM product, flixweed- honey, on cervicitis. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted as a clinical trial before and after the intervention at the School of Traditional Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. The married women referring to the clinic aged 17-55 years with a diagnosis of cervicitis who were not pregnant and breastfeeding, without any history of cervical polyps and pelvic surgery, and non-concurrent use of herbal or other chemical medicines were included in the study. During this research, 97 patients were treated through the vaginal use of flixweed- honey for two weeks. One week after the treatment, clinical symptoms were examined.  Results: Among 97 patients who were evaluated in this study, 72 returned for follow-up. All subjective and objective parameters including vaginal irritation, itching, discharge, bleeding and pain after coitus, tenderness, and cervical wound size and friability improved significantly in comparison to the time before taking the medication. There was no treatment; five patients (0.69% who took the medication had vulvovaginal itching that was resolved after 3-4 days. Conclusions: Vaginal product of flixweed– honey could be used in the treatment of clinical symptoms of cervicitis regardless of the reason causing cervicitis, without causing severe or serious side effects.

  8. Productivity of authors in the field of diabetes: bibliographic analysis of trial publications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holleman, Frits; Uijldert, Mick; Donswijk, Lennart F.; Gale, Edwin A. M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether trial publications of glucose lowering drugs are dominated by a small group of highly prolific authors ("supertrialists") and to identify some of their characteristics. Bibliographic analysis of trial publications. We searched PubMed for all randomised controlled trials (RCTs)

  9. Influence of tree canopy on N{sub 2} fixation by pasture legumes and soil rhizobial abundance in Mediterranean oak woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranca, C., E-mail: corina.carranca@iniav.pt [INIAV, Qta Marquês, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Castro, I.V.; Figueiredo, N. [INIAV, Qta Marquês, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Redondo, R. [Laboratorio de Isotopos Estables, Universidade Autonoma, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigues, A.R.F. [Centro de Estudos Florestais, ISA/UL, Tapada Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal); Saraiva, I.; Maricato, R. [INIAV, Qta Marquês, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Madeira, M.A.V. [Centro de Estudos Florestais, ISA/UL, Tapada Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation is of primordial significance in sustainable agro-forestry management as it allows reducing the use of mineral N in the production of mixed stands and by protecting the soils from degradation. Thereby, on a 2-year basis, N{sub 2} fixation was evaluated in four oak woodlands under Mediterranean conditions using a split-plot design and three replicates. {sup 15}N technique was used for determination of N{sub 2} fixation rate. Variations in environmental conditions (temperature, rainfall, radiation) by the cork tree canopy as well as the age of stands and pasture management can cause great differences in vegetation growth, legume N{sub 2} fixation, and soil rhizobial abundance. In the present study, non-legumes dominated the swards, in particular beneath the tree canopy, and legumes represented only 42% of total herbage. A 2-fold biomass reduction was observed in the oldest sown pasture in relation to the medium-age sward (6 t DW ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}). Overall, competition of pasture growth for light was negligible, but soil rhizobial abundance and symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation capacity were highly favored by this environmental factor in the spring and outside the influence of tree canopy. Nitrogen derived from the atmosphere was moderate to high (54–72%) in unsown and sown swards. Inputs of fixed N2 increased from winter to spring due to more favorable climatic conditions (temperature and light intensity) for both rhizobia and vegetation growths. Assuming a constant fixation rate at each seasonal period, N{sub 2} fixation capacity increased from about 0.10 kg N ha{sup −1} per day in the autumn–winter period to 0.15 kg N ha{sup −1} per day in spring. Belowground plant material contributed to 11% of accumulated N in pasture legumes and was not affected by canopy. Size of soil fixing bacteria contributed little to explain pasture legumes N. - Highlights: • Legumes fixation in oak woodlands was quantified in terms of biomass and N

  10. Distribution of native Legumes (Leguminoseae) in frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinaceae)-Wiregrass (Poaceae) ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Hainds; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Lindsay R. Boring; Dean H. Gjerstad

    1999-01-01

    Legume species distribution and abundance and selected environmental variables were quantified across a complex gradient (varying in both water-holding capacity and fertility) for frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Aristida stricta) ecosystems. Legumes were present in all months; however, abundance...

  11. Some views on the potential for legume-based pastures in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of South Africa for legume-based pastures is discussed in the light of available information. It is concluded that the potential is considerable and that most of this potential can be exploited by legume species available at present. With regard to suitable species, it is considered that temperates warrant most ...

  12. Sucrose synthase and enolase expression in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa: comparison with legume nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghelue, van M.; Ribeiro, A.; Solheim, B.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Bisseling, T.; Pawlowski, K.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Two different types of nitrogen-fixing root nodules are known - actinorhizal nodules induced by Frankia and legume nodules induced by rhizobia. While legume nodules show a stem-like structure with peripheral vascular bundles, actinorhizal nodule lobes resemble modified lateral roots with a

  13. The effects of some raw tropical legume seeds on performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of some raw legumes (jack beans, bambara groundnut and benne seeds) on performance characteristics, serum metabolites and organ morphology of exotic adult cockerels of gold mine strain. Each of the raw legumes replaced full fat soybean meal at 25% and 50% ...

  14. Influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (11o38'N and 10o31'E) both in Bauchi state, during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 to determine the influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The treatments consist of two legumes (cowpea and soybean), nitrogen fertilizer applied at the rate ...

  15. Determination of N2 -fixation ability of legume trees using the 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemay, Johannis; Syaukat, Sriharti; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    A sequence field experiment has been conducted for determining the capability of N 2 -fixation by several legume trees. The experiment was designed using a randomize design with 4 replicates. Each replicate was planted with 100 legume trees and 100 non legume trees. The isotope plot, where 15 N was applied with 18 legume trees and 18 non legume trees. The planting distance was 1m x 1m. For the calculation of N 2 -fixation each legume and standard tree (Eucalypthus alba) was applied with 12.52g in the from of ammonium sulfate with 10.12% 15 N. The 15 N AS was applied in three splits 11 month earlier. Data obtained from this experiment showed that percentage of N derived from fixation (%N-dfF) of all legume trees was reasonable high. The legume trees used in this experiment were, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Caliandra tetragona, Flemengia congesta and Gliriciadia sepium with potential fixation from 62.31% to 90,68%. (author)

  16. Nonlegumes, legumes, and root nodules harbor different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Ridgway, K.P.; Young, J.P.W.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Legumes are an important plant functional group since they can form a tripartite symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, not much is known about AMF community composition in legumes and their root nodules. In this study,

  17. Harvesting management options for legumes intercropped in napier grass in the central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, D.M.; Cadisch, G.; Thorpe, W.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Ways of promoting integration of herbaceous forage legumes into a napier grass fodder system were evaluated with the aim of increasing forage quantity and quality on smallholder dairy farms in central Kenya. The herbaceous legumes Desmodium intortum cv. Greenleaf (ILRI 104), Macrotyloma axillare cv.

  18. Will Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Amplify the Benefits of Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence suggests there are three key features of the response of legumes to elevated [CO2]: (1) unlike other non-leguminous C3 plants, only legumes have the potential to maximize the benefit of elevated [CO2] by matching stimulated photosynthesis with increased N2 fixation; (2) this potenti...

  19. Subsoil Nitrogen Capture in Mixed Legume Stands as Assessed by Deep Nitrogen-15 Placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathumbi, S.M.; Cadisch, G.; Buresh, R.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation of crops with planted N2-fixing legumes (improved fallows) is a promising agroforestry innovation for replenishing soil fertility in the tropics. We postulated that woody and herbaceous legumes with different rooting and growth patterns could be mixed in improved fallows to maximize

  20. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the

  1. Characteristic elements of "Mediterranean Diet": the consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece (1950-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiou, K.Z.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Georgakopoulos, G.

    2012-01-01

    on).This paper describes the dietary consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece during the period 1950 to 2005. All dimensions of alimentary consumption patterns of vegetables and legumes are examined here with a specific focus on: a) their natural characteristics; b) technical features of the

  2. The suitability of non-legume cover crops for inorganic soil nitrogen immobilisation in the transition period to an organic no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rühlemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate non-legume cover crops for growing no-till grain legumes in organic farming systems. Evaluated cover crops should be able to suppress weed growth, reduce plant available nitrogen in the soil and produce large amounts of biomass with slow N mineralisation. Six non-legume species; spring rye (Secale cereale L., black oat (Avena sativa L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., white mustard (Sinapis alba L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and hemp (Cannabis sativa L. were tested. Plots with organic fertiliser (50 kg N ha−1 and without fertiliser incorporation at three locations in south-east Germany were trialled and the cover crops’ ability to produce biomass and accumulate N in plant compartments was evaluated. The N mineralisation from stem and leaf material was simulated using the STICS model. The biomass production ranged from 0.95 to 7.73 Mg ha−1, with fertiliser increasing the total biomass at locations with low-N status. Sunflower consistently displayed large biomass and N accumulation at all locations and fertiliser variations, although not always significantly more than other species. Most N was stored in sunflower leaf material, which can be easily mineralised making it less suited as cover crop before no-till sown spring grain legumes. Rye, which produced slightly less biomass, but accumulated more N in the stem biomass, would be better suited than sunflower in this type of system. The N mineralisation simulation from rye biomass indicated long N immobilisation periods potentially improving weed suppression within no-till sown legume cash crops.

  3. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and groups sponsor clinical trials that test the safety of products, such as medicines, and how well they work. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) oversees these clinical trials. ...

  4. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  5. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu Bahar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage. Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.47±3.84 kg/cm2 (no-tillage to 3.31±0.43 kg/cm2 (minimum tillage and 3.19±0.45 kg/cm2 (total tillage. Otherwise significant increasing on aeration porosity from 12.80±0.80% vol. (no-tillage to 21.70±0.95% vol. (minimum tillage and 20.70±0.35% vol. (total tillage. Total tillage gives increased dry matter yield. Also both total tillage and minimum tillage give yields with a higher percentage of legumes compared with no-tillage. It was concluded that total tillage and minimum tillage could be used for improving native grassland.

  6. TRUNCATULIX--a data warehouse for the legume community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, Kolja; Runte, Kai J; Bekel, Thomas; Dondrup, Michael; Jakobi, Tobias; Küster, Helge; Goesmann, Alexander

    2009-02-11

    Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database - hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  7. Widespread fitness alignment in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Maren L

    2012-06-01

    Although 'cheaters' potentially destabilize the legume-rhizobium mutualism, we lack a comprehensive review of host-symbiont fitness correlations. Studies measuring rhizobium relative or absolute fitness and host benefit are surveyed. Mutant studies are tallied for evidence of pleiotropy; studies of natural strains are analyzed with meta-analysis. Of 80 rhizobium mutations, 19 decrease both partners' fitness, four increase both, two increase host fitness but decrease symbiont fitness and none increase symbiont fitness at the host's expense. The pooled correlation between rhizobium nodulation competitiveness and plant aboveground biomass is 0.65 across five experiments that compete natural strains against a reference, whereas, across 14 experiments that compete rhizobia against soil populations or each other, the pooled correlation is 0.24. Pooled correlations between aboveground biomass and nodule number and nodule biomass are 0.76 and 0.83. Positive correlations between legume and rhizobium fitness imply that most ineffective rhizobia are 'defective' rather than 'defectors'; this extends to natural variants, with only one significant fitness conflict. Most studies involve non-coevolved associations, indicating that fitness alignment is the default state. Rhizobium mutations that increase both host and symbiont fitness suggest that some plants maladaptively restrict symbiosis with novel strains. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Experimental evolution of a plant pathogen into a legume symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate alpha- and beta-proteobacteria that have achieved the environmentally essential function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. Ample evidence indicates that horizontal transfer of symbiotic plasmids/islands has played a crucial role in rhizobia evolution. However, adaptive mechanisms that allow the recipient genomes to express symbiotic traits are unknown. Here, we report on the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into Mimosa nodulating and infecting symbionts. Two types of adaptive mutations in the hrpG-controlled virulence pathway of R. solanacearum were identified that are crucial for the transition from pathogenicity towards mutualism. Inactivation of the hrcV structural gene of the type III secretion system allowed nodulation and early infection to take place, whereas inactivation of the master virulence regulator hrpG allowed intracellular infection of nodule cells. Our findings predict that natural selection of adaptive changes in the legume environment following horizontal transfer has been a major driving force in rhizobia evolution and diversification and show the potential of experimental evolution to decipher the mechanisms leading to symbiosis.

  9. Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Roe

    2004-02-27

    Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 Conference Report for the Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program provided $481,000 for the Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma. These funds were used to support our research that is aimed at determining the entire sequence of the gene rich regions of the genome of the legume, Medicago truncatula, by allowing us to obtain a greater degree of finished BAC sequences from the draft sequences we have already obtained through research funded by the Noble Foundation. During the funding period we increased the number of Medicago truncatula BACs with finished (Bermuda standard) sequences from 109 to 359, and the total number of BACs for which we collected sequence data from 584 to 842, 359 of which reached phase 2 (ordered and oriented contigs). We also sequenced a series of pooled BAC clones that cover additional euchromatic (gene rich) genomic regions. This work resulted in 6 refereed publications, see below. Genes whose sequence was determined during this study included multiple members of the plant disease resistance (R-gene) family as well as several genes involved in flavinoid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and plant-microbial symbosis. This work also served as a prelude to obtaining NSF funding for the international collaborative effort to complete the entire sequence of the Medicago truncatula genomic euchromatic regions using a BAC based approach.

  10. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Jacob; Paz, Ytzhak; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240–10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture. PMID:28542358

  11. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Vardi, Jacob; Paz, Ytzhak; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.

  12. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Caracuta

    Full Text Available New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean, V. ervilia (bitter vetch, V. narbonensis (narbon vetch, Lens sp. (lentil, Pisum sp. (pea, Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling. Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.

  13. Legume integration as an agroecological intensification option for smallholders in uplands of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Von Yi

    that the initial performance of ricebean was affected by drought and grazing livestock. The results also demonstrated that the top-down Farming Systems Research & Extension intervention approach by the extension agents in promoting the innovation of legume integration into maize-based cropping systems without...... availability, the financial status of the household and access to extension services were the major factors influencing the decisions of resource-poor maize smallholders in legume adoption. The type of intervention approach by the extension agents needs to be considered to ensure sustained adoption of legume...... innovation. Since extreme weather events caused by climate change are becoming more common and unpredictable, it is imperative to find ways to reduce the risks that farmers may face upon integrating legumes under variable weather conditions. The assessment of the sustainability and resilience of legume...

  14. Selection and characterization of coal mine autochthonous rhizobia for the inoculation of herbaceous legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Anabel González; de Moura, Ginaini Doin; Binati, Renato Leal; Nascimento, Francisco Xavier Inês; Londoño, Diana Morales; Mamede, Ana Carolina Peixoto; da Silva, Emanuela Pille; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Giachini, Admir José; Rossi, Márcio José; Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa

    2017-09-01

    Coal open pit mining in the South of Santa Catarina state (Brazil) was inappropriately developed, affecting approximately 6.700 ha. Re-vegetation is an alternative for the recovery of these areas. Furthermore, the use of herbaceous legumes inoculated with nitrogen fixing bacteria is motivated due to the difficulty implementing a vegetation cover in these areas, mainly due to low nutrient availability. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate, among 16 autochthonous rhizobia isolated from the coal mining areas, those with the greatest potential to increase growth of the herbaceous legumes Vicia sativa and Calopogonium mucunoides. Tests were conducted in greenhouse containing 17 inoculation treatments (16 autochthonous rhizobia + Brazilian recommended strain for each plant species), plus two treatments without inoculation (with and without mineral nitrogen). After 60 days, nodulation, growth, N uptake, and symbiotic efficiency were evaluated. Isolates characterization was assessed by the production of indole acetic acid, ACC deaminase, siderophores, and inorganic phosphate solubilization. The classification of the isolates was performed by 16 S rDNA gene sequencing. Only isolates UFSC-M4 and UFSC-M8 were able to nodulate C. mucunoides. Among rhizobia capable of nodulating V. sativa, only UFSC-M8 was considered efficient. It was found the presence of more than one growth-promoting attributes in the same organism, and isolate UFSC-M8 presented all of them. Isolates were classified as belonging to Rhizobium, Burkholderia and Curtobacterium. The results suggest the inoculation of Vicia sativa with strain UFSC-M8, classified as Rhizobium sp., as a promising alternative for the revegetation of coal mining degraded areas.

  15. Nitrogen deposition, competition and the decline of a regionally threatened legume, Desmodium cuspidatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Krissa A; Holsinger, Kent E; Cardon, Zoe G

    2011-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition, resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, production of synthetic fertilizers, growth of N(2)-fixing crops and high-intensity agriculture, is one of the anthropogenic factors most likely to cause global biodiversity changes over the next century. This influence may be especially large in temperate zone forests, which are highly N limited and occur in regions with the highest levels of N deposition. Within these ecosystems, N(2)-fixing plants, including legumes, may be more sensitive to N deposition than other plant species. Though it has long been recognized that the competitive edge conferred by N(2)-fixation diminishes with increasing soil N availability, the conservation implications of increased N deposition on native N(2)-fixers have received less attention. We focus on Desmodium cuspidatum, which has experienced dramatic population losses in the last 30-40 years in the northeastern United States. We explore competition between this regionally threatened legume and a common non-N(2)-fixing neighbor, Solidago canadensis, across a gradient of N deposition. Our data show that increased N deposition may be detrimental to N(2)-fixers such as D. cuspidatum in two ways: (1) biomass accumulation in the non-N(2)-fixer, S. canadensis, responds more strongly to increasing N deposition, and (2) S. canadensis competes strongly for available mineral nitrogen and can assimilate N previously fixed by D. cuspidatum, resulting in D. cuspidatum relying more heavily on energetically expensive N(2)-fixation when grown with S. canadensis. N deposition may thus reduce or eliminate the competitive advantage of N(2)-fixing species growing in N-limited ecosystems.

  16. ABI5 Is a Regulator of Seed Maturation and Longevity in Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsmeister, Julia; Lalanne, David; Terrasson, Emmanuel; Chatelain, Emilie; Vandecasteele, Céline; Vu, Benoit Ly; Dubois-Laurent, Cécile; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Signor, Christine Le; Dalmais, Marion; Gutbrod, Katharina; Dörmann, Peter; Gallardo, Karine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Buitink, Julia; Leprince, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    The preservation of our genetic resources and production of high-quality seeds depends on their ability to remain viable and vigorous during storage. In a quantitative trait locus analysis on seed longevity in Medicago truncatula, we identified the bZIP transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). Characterization of Mt-abi5 insertion mutant seeds revealed that both the acquisition of longevity and dormancy were severely impaired. Using transcriptomes of developing Mt-abi5 seeds, we created a gene coexpression network and revealed ABI5 as a regulator of gene modules with functions related to raffinose family oligosaccharide (RFO) metabolism, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, and photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes (PhANGs). Lower RFO contents in Mt-abi5 seeds were linked to the regulation of SEED IMBIBITION PROTEIN1 Proteomic analysis confirmed that a set of LEA polypeptides was reduced in mature Mt-abi5 seeds, whereas the absence of repression of PhANG in mature Mt-abi5 seeds was accompanied by chlorophyll and carotenoid retention. This resulted in a stress response in Mt-abi5 seeds, evident from an increase in α-tocopherol and upregulation of genes related to programmed cell death and protein folding. Characterization of abi5 mutants in a second legume species, pea (Pisum sativum), confirmed a role for ABI5 in the regulation of longevity, seed degreening, and RFO accumulation, identifying ABI5 as a prominent regulator of late seed maturation in legumes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical Trials

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sponsor clinical trials that test the safety of products, such as medicines, and how well they work. ... placebo (plah-SE-bo). This is an inactive product that looks like the test product. You'll ...

  18. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC–UV–MS. The relationship between phytochemical

  19. Clinical trial registries: a practical guide for sponsors and researchers of medicinal products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foote, MaryAnn

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix MaryAnn Foote Clinical trial registries and publication of results - a primer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Ana Marušić and Charlotte Haug The journal...

  20. The value of symbiotic nitrogen fixation by grain legumes in comparison to the cost of nitrogen fertilizer used in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardarson, G.; Bunning, S.; Montanez, A.; Roy, R.; MacMillan, A.

    2001-01-01

    A great challenge lies in devising more sustainable farming systems without compromising food production levels and food security. Obviously, increasing productivity is necessary to accommodate growth in the global population. World wide, the environmental factors that most severely restrict plant growth are the availability of water and nitrogen. The challenges in developing countries are to find ways of meeting this additional nitrogen demand without concomitant degrading natural productivity. Widespread adoption of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) would contribute to this goal. BNF, together with adequate N management in the ecosystem, appears to be the most promising alternative to increasing the use of inorganic fertiliser nitrogen. BNF technologies represent economic, sustainable and environmentally friendly means of ensuring the nitrogen requirement of an agro-ecosystem. Here we investigate the value of BNF by grain legumes and compares it to the cost of nitrogen fertilizer used in developing countries. Our data show that major grain legumes fix approximately 11.1 million metric tons of nitrogen per annum in developing countries. If this N was supplied by inorganic fertiliser one would have to apply at least double that amount to achieve the same yields, and this would cost approximately 6.7 billion US dollars. As the eight major grain legumes grown in developing countries contribute 30 - 40% of the annual N requirement the contribution of BNF is of great economic and environmental importance. (author)

  1. Radiation interception and the accumulation of biomass and nitrogen by soybean and three tropical annual forage legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengelly, B.C.; Blamey, F.P.C.; Muchow, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Gatton and Dalby in southeastern Queensland to determine parameters associated with radiation interception and biomass and nitrogen (N) accumulation for the ley legume species, phasey bean (Macroptilum lathyroides (L.) Urban) and vigna, (Vigna trilobata (L.) Verdc.). Sesbania (Sesbania cannabina Retz.), a native legume species, and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)) were included in the study for comparison. The most important differences between species related to differences in radiation interception, radiation-use efficiency (RUE), N-accumulation efficiency and the partitioning of N to plant parts. During early growth, soybean intercepted more radiation than the other species, primarily because of its greater leaf area index (LAI). Sesbania had the highest RUE (1.08 g MJ −1 ) followed by phasey bean (0.94 g MJ −1 ), soybean (0.89 g MJ −1 ) and vigna (0.77 g MJ −1 ). The efficiency of N-accumulation was greater in soybean (0.028 g N g −1 ) and phasey bean (0.030 g N g −1 ) than in vigna (0.022 g N g −1 ) and sesbania (0.021 g N g −1 ). In all species, the proportion of N allocated to leaves declined throughout the experimental period, being more rapid in soybean than in sesbania and phasey bean. Despite this decline in total N partitioned to the leaves, both soybean and phasey bean maintained a relatively stable specific leaf nitrogen (SPLN) throughout the experimental periods although sesbania and vigna displayed rapid decreases in SPLN. The large variation between species in RUE and N-accumulation efficiency indicates that the development of ley legume cultivars with a combination of traits for more efficient legume production, water use and soil N-accumulation in the water-limited environments of the grain belt of eastern Australia may be possible. The sensitivity of forage production, water use and soil N-accumulation to variation in RUE and N-accumulation efficiency needs to be quantified using modeling

  2. Produção de matéria seca e eficiência nutricional para P, Ca e Mg em leguminosas herbáceas Dry matter production and nutritional efficiency for P, Ca and Mg in herbaceous legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available As leguminosas para adubação verde têm sido introduzidas nos sistemas agrícolas para a recuperação de solos desgastados pelo uso intensivo. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a resposta de leguminosas herbáceas à aplicação de calcário e fósforo sobre a produção de biomassa e eficiência nutricional para o P, Ca e Mg. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia, utilizando-se um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico coletado na profundidade de 0 - 20 cm, em Belém, PA. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com arranjo de tratamentos em um fatorial 3³, onde foram comparadas três espécies de leguminosas: mucuna preta (Stizolobium atterrimum, mucuna cochinchinensis (Stilozobium cochinchinensis e feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes; três níveis de calagem: de calcário dolomítico (0, 4 e 8 t.ha-1 e de fósforo (0, 25 e 45 mg.dm-3, com quatro repetições cada um. Mucuna cochinchinensis e o feijão de porco produziram maiores quantidades de biomassa vegetal do que a mucuna preta, sendo que a primeira espécie acumulou maior quantidade de P e a segunda maior quantidade de Ca. Mucuna cochinchinensis apresentou maior eficiência de utilização de P, Ca e Mg na ausência da calagem. Nos solos intemperizados com baixa concentração de P, Ca e Mg, o feijão-de-porco e a mucuna cochinchinensis poderão ter melhor desempenho do que a mucuna preta, visto que apresentaram maior eficiência de translocação e de utilização desses nutrientes, respectivamente.The legumes used for green manure have been introduced in agricultural systems for recovering degraded soils by intensive use. The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of herbaceous legumes to liming and P application on dry matter and its nutritional efficiency. The experiment was developed in greenhouse at the Soil Science Department of the Federal University

  3. Evaluation of forage legume Lablab purpureus as a supplement for lactating Bunaji cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.; Barje, P.P.; Bawa, E.K.; Ehoche, O.W.; Makun, H.J.; Sekoni, V.O.; Rekwot, P.I.; Chiezey, N.P.; Bale, J.O.; Malau-Aduli, A.E.O.; Osuhor, C.U.; Alawa, C.B.I.; Okaiyeto, P.O.; Olorunju, S.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of forage legume lablab (Lablab purpureus) as a supplement for Bunaji cows was investigated both on-station and on-farm. The results of the on-farm trial involving five herds in each of two villages (control and supplemented) showed that supplementation with 3 kg of lablab increased milk off-take significantly (P<0.001) (1.27±0.09 vs. 0.71±0.1 kg per cow/day for supplemented and non-supplemented cows, respectively). Cows in the supplemented group showed a higher gain in body weight compared to non-supplemented animals (411±1.4 vs. 127±1.8 g/day respectively). They also showed a higher (P<0.001) body condition score than those in the non-supplemented group (3.5-4.5 vs. 2.0-3.5). Overall mean weight gain for calves was however, similar for both supplemented and non-supplemented groups (428±5.3 vs. 428±1.5 g/day). Supplementation of suckling Bunaji cows with lablab improved the performance of the animals and the income of the farmers. (author)

  4. Transfer Comparison Study Nitrogen on the Intact and Decapitated Legumes by Using the 15N Labeling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjayanto, Didik W.

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was done in order to evaluate the N transfer from the intact and decapitated legumes by using the 15 N labeling technique. Seven days after final labeling the above ground biomass from labeled legume species was removed and the remaining stalks capped to prevent regrowth. Twenty days after final labeling (fourteen days after capping) the all treatments were sample and analyzed. The decapitated legumes appeared to transfer more percentage N than the intact legumes. Although both decapitated and intact legumes transferred, the transfer of N did not incur a dry matter and N yield benefit

  5. Interrelations between herbage yield, α-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, protein, and fiber in non-leguminous forbs, forage legumes, and a grass-clover mixture as affected by harvest date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2015-01-21

    Pastures with diverse botanical composition may enhance animal-derived product quality. A recent study demonstrated high vitamin concentrations and yields in some forb species. The objectives of the present study were to investigate interrelations between herbage yields, vitamin concentrations, protein and fiber contents and analyze the effect of harvest date. We hypothesized that interrelations would be similar across investigated forage species. Four nonleguminous forbs: salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor), caraway (Carum carvi), chicory (Cichorium intybus), and ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata), three legumes: yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis), lucerne (Medicago sativa), and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) and a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixture were sown in a field trial with two replicated and randomized blocks. Forage in 1.5 m × 9 m plots was grown in two consecutive years and cut four times per year (May-October). Analyses of variance were performed. In most herbages, α-tocopherol and β-carotene were positively correlated as were β-carotene and lutein; all vitamins were negatively correlated with fiber content and herbage yield. β-Carotene was positively correlated with protein content. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene contents were generally highest in October and lowest in July. Our results showed similar interrelationships in most investigated species, and we suggest that these species may be mixed when designing novel biodiverse mixtures for particular product quality characteristics.

  6. Lotus tenuis x L. corniculatus interspecific hybridization as a means to breed bloat-safe pastures and gain insight into the genetic control of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaray, Francisco J; Passeri, Valentina; Babuin, Florencia M; Marco, Francisco; Carrasco, Pedro; Damiani, Francesco; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Paolocci, Francesco; Ruiz, Oscar A

    2014-02-03

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that strongly affect plant quality traits. The concentration and the structure of these metabolites influence the palatability and nutritional value of forage legumes. Hence, modulating PAs in the leaves of forage legumes is of paramount relevance for forage breeders worldwide. The lack of genetic variation in the leaf PA trait within the most important forage species and the difficulties in engineering this pathway via the ectopic expression of regulatory genes, prompted us to pursue alternative strategies to enhance this trait in forage legumes of agronomic interest. The Lotus genus includes forage species which accumulate PAs in edible organs and can thus be used as potential donor parents in breeding programs. We recovered a wild, diploid and PA-rich population of L. corniculatus and crossed with L. tenuis. The former grows in an alkaline-salty area in Spain while the latter is a diploid species, grown extensively in South American pastures, which does not accumulate PAs in the herbage. The resulting interspecific hybrids displayed several traits of outstanding agronomic relevance such as rhizome production, PA levels in edible tissues sufficient to prevent ruminal bloating (around 5 mg of PAs/g DW), biomass production similar to the cultivated parent and potential for adaptability to marginal lands. We show that PA levels correlate with expression levels of the R2R3MYB transcription factor TT2 and, in turn, with those of the key structural genes of the epicatechin and catechin biosynthetic pathways leading to PA biosynthesis. The L. tenuis x L. corniculatus hybrids, reported herein, represent the first example of the introgression of the PA trait in forage legumes to levels known to provide nutritional and health benefits to ruminants. Apart from PAs, the hybrids have additional traits which may prove useful to breed forage legumes with increased persistence and adaptability to marginal conditions. Finally, our

  7. Isolation of Rhizobium Bacteria from Forage Legumes for the Development of Ruminant Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuskhah, E.; Purbajanti, E. D.; Anwar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The aimed of the study was to explore the presence of Rhizobium bacteria along the northern coast of Central Java, to develop a saline-resistant legumes. Rhizobium bacteria is a mutualistic bacterium capable of symbiosis with legumes so that legumes crop yields increase. The research begins with sampling of soil and root nodule of forage legumes along the Northern Coast of Central Java including Tegal, Pekalongan, Semarang, Demak, Pati. Soil samples were analysed for salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, and pH. Rhizobium bacteria were isolated from the acquired root nodule, then identified by biochemical test to ensure that the isolates obtained were Rhizobium bacteria. The results showed that the five districts/municipal sites sampled by the soil have very low salinity to very high levels. The highest level of soil salinity was found in Demak (Sayung) which has an electrical conductivity value (EC) of 17.77 mmhos/cm. The EC values of legumes overgrown soils showed a low salinity level while bare soils have high salinity levels. Feed crops legumes that could be found in the northern coast of Central Java were Centrosema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides, Leucaena leucocephala, and Sesbania grandiflora. The study obtained 6 kinds of isolates of rhizobium bacteria isolated from forage legumes, included 1) Centrosema pubescens isolated from Pekalongan, 2) Centrosema pubescens isolated from Tegal, 3) Calopogonium mucunoides isolated from Pekalongan, 4) Leucaenaleucocephala isolated from Tegal, 5) Leucaena leucocephala isolated from Semarang, 6) Sesbania grandiflora isolated from Tegal.

  8. Interaction between Orobanche crenata and its host legumes: unsuccessful haustorial penetration and necrosis of the developing parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-DE-Luque, A; Rubiales, D; Cubero, J I; Press, M C; Scholes, J; Yoneyama, K; Takeuchi, Y; Plakhine, D; Joel, D M

    2005-05-01

    Orobanche species represent major constraints to crop production in many parts of the world as they reduce yield and alter root/shoot allometry. Although much is known about the histology and effect of Orobanche spp. on susceptible hosts, less is known about the basis of host resistance to these parasites. In this work, histological aspects related to the resistance of some legumes to Orobanche crenata have been investigated in order to determine which types of resistance responses are involved in the unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata. Samples of resistance reactions against O. crenata on different genotypes of resistant legumes were collected. The samples were fixed, sectioned and stained using different procedures. Sections were observed using a transmission light microscope and by epi-fluorescence. Lignification of endodermal and pericycle host cells seems to prevent parasite intrusion into the root vascular cylinder at early infection stages. But in other cases, established tubercles became necrotic and died. Contrary to some previous studies, it was found that darkening at the infection site in these latter cases does not correspond to death of host tissues, but to the secretion of substances that fill the apoplast in the host-parasite interface and in much of the infected host tissues. The secretions block neighbouring host vessels. This may interfere with the nutrient flux between host and parasite, and may lead to necrosis and death of the developing parasite. The unsuccessful penetration of O. crenata seedlings into legume roots cannot be attributed to cell death in the host. It seems to be associated with lignification of host endodermis and pericycle cells at the penetration site. The accumulation of secretions at the infection site, may lead to the activation of xylem occlusion, another defence mechanism, which may cause further necrosis of established tubercles.

  9. Composition and hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification performance of grasses and legumes from a mixed-species prairie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeMartini Jaclyn D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixtures of prairie species (mixed prairie species; MPS have been proposed to offer important advantages as a feedstock for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. Therefore, understanding the performance in hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of select species harvested from a mixed prairie is valuable in selecting these components for such applications. This study examined composition and sugar release from the most abundant components of a plot of MPS: a C3 grass (Poa pratensis, a C4 grass (Schizachyrium scoparium, and a legume (Lupinus perennis. Results from this study provide a platform to evaluate differences between grass and leguminous species, and the factors controlling their recalcitrance to pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Results Significant differences were found between the grass and leguminous species, and between the individual anatomical components that influence the recalcitrance of MPS. We found that both grasses contained higher levels of sugars than did the legume, and also exhibited higher sugar yields as a percentage of the maximum possible from combined pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Furthermore, particle size, acid-insoluble residue (AcIR, and xylose removal were not found to have a direct significant effect on glucan digestibility for any of the species tested, whereas anatomical composition was a key factor in both grass and legume recalcitrance, with the stems consistently exhibiting higher recalcitrance than the other anatomical fractions. Conclusions The prairie species tested in this study responded well to hydrothermal pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Information from this study supports recommendations as to which plant types and species are more desirable for biological conversion in a mixture of prairie species, in addition to identifying fractions of the plants that would most benefit from genetic modification or targeted growth.

  10. RePHILL: protocol for a randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital blood product resuscitation for trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, I M; Crombie, N; Bishop, J R; McLaughlin, A; Naumann, D N; Herbert, M; Hancox, J M; Slinn, G; Ives, N; Grant, M; Perkins, G D; Doughty, H; Midwinter, M J

    2017-11-28

    To describe the 'Resuscitation with Pre-HospItaL bLood products' trial (RePHILL) - a multi-centre randomised controlled trial of pre-hospital blood product (PHBP) administration vs standard care for traumatic haemorrhage. PHBP are increasingly used for pre-hospital trauma resuscitation despite a lack of robust evidence demonstrating superiority over crystalloids. Provision of PHBP carries additional logistical and regulatory implications, and requires a sustainable supply of universal blood components. RePHILL is a multi-centre, two-arm, parallel group, open-label, phase III randomised controlled trial currently underway in the UK. Patients attended by a pre-hospital emergency medical team, with traumatic injury and hypotension (systolic blood pressure pre-hospital time, coagulation indices, in-hospital transfusion requirements and morbidity. Pilot study recruitment began in December 2016. Approval to proceed to the main trial was received in June 2017. Recruitment is expected to continue until 2020. RePHILL will provide high-quality evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of PHBP resuscitation for trauma. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Consistent use of a combination product versus a single product in a safety trial of the diaphragm and microbicide in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Straten, Ariane; Moore, Jie; Napierala, Sue; Clouse, Kate; Mauck, Christine; Hammond, Nii; Padian, Nancy

    2008-06-01

    We examined the use and acceptability of a combination product (diaphragm and gel) compared to a single product (gel) during a 6-month safety trial in Zimbabwe. Women were randomized to the use of a diaphragm with gel or the use of gel alone, in addition to male condoms. Ever use and use of study product on the last act of sexual intercourse were assessed monthly by Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing. Acceptability, correct use and consistent use (use at every sexual act during the previous 3 months) were measured on the last visit by face-to-face interview. Predictors of consistent use were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. In this sample of 117 sexually active, monogamous, contracepting women, rates of consistent use were similar in both groups (59.7% for combination method vs. 56.4% for gel alone). Product acceptability was high, but was not independently associated with consistent use. Independent predictors of consistent use included age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.01-1.16], consistent condom use (AOR=3.85; 95% CI=1.54-9.63) and having a partner who approves of product use (AOR=2.66; 95% CI=1.10-6.39). Despite high reported acceptability and few problems with the products, the participants reported only moderate product adherence levels. Consistent use of condoms and consistent use of products were strongly associated. If observed in other studies, this may bias the estimation of product effectiveness in future trials of female-controlled methods.

  12. INDEKS GLISEMIK KACANG-KACANGAN [Glycemic Index of Selected Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional management for diabetic patients based on selection of low available carbohydrate foods has been criticized because the same availability of carbohydrate in different foods may result in different degree of glycemic response. This management is now being corrected by additional aid in selecting foods with the glycemic index (GI of foods. GI is a measure of the glycemic response to the carbohydrate component within a food relative to the response to an equal carbohydrate portion of reference food (glucose or white bread. In Indonesia, data of the glycemic index of foods is still very limited. The objectives of the research are to provide GI of selected legumes, including red bean (Vigna umbellata, Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus, cow pea (Vigna sinensis ENDL, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan MILLSPAUGH, edible podded peas (Pisum sativum LINN and soy bean (Glycine max MERR. Eleventh health and normal volunteers (not diabetic were provided. The volunteers took an overnight fasting, blood were drawn in the morning and analyzed for serum glucose. Then they were given the test legumes containing total carbohydrates equivalent to 25-g glucose to be consumed. Blood samples were drawn for glucose measurement every 30 minutes until 120 min after meal. Serum glucose was determined enzymatically and the glucose responses were drawn graphically. The GI of the beans studied was lowest for red bean (26 and highest for mung bean (76, Edible podded pea and soy bean had similar value of GI i.e. 30 and 31; whereas pigeon and cow pea had a higher value i.e. 35 and 51, respectively.

  13. TRUNCATULIX – a data warehouse for the legume community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runte Kai J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database – hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. Results The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. Conclusion The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  14. Classical and molecular genetics of the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Gresshoff, P M

    1997-01-01

    The model legume Lotus japonicus was demonstrated to be amenable to classical and molecular genetic analysis, providing the basis for the genetic dissection of the plant processes underlying nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have developed an efficient method for the sexual hybridization of L. japonicus and obtained F1 progeny derived from a cross of L. japonicus B-129-S9 Gifu x B-581 Funakura. Over half of the cross-pollinations resulted in fertile hybrid seed, which were confirmed morphologically and by single arbitrary primer DNA amplification polymorphisms using the DAF technique. Molecular and morphological markers segregated in true Mendelian fashion in a F2 population of 100 plants. Several DAF loci were linked using the MAPMAKER software to create the first molecular linkage groups of this model legume. The mapping population was advanced to generate a set of immortal recombinant inbred lines (F6; RILs), useful for sharing plant material fixed genetically at most genomic regions. Morphological loci for waved stem shape (Ssh), dark leaf color (Lco), and short flowering period (Fpe) were inherited as single dominant Mendelian loci. DAF markers were dominant and were detected between Gifu and Funakura at about one per primer, suggesting that the parents are closely related. One polymorphism (270G generated by single octomer primer 8.6m) was linked to a morphological locus controlling leaf coloration. The results demonstrate that (i) Lotus japonicus is amenable to diploid genetic analysis, (ii) morphological and molecular markers segregate in true diploid fashion, (iii) molecular polymorphisms can be obtained at a reasonable frequency between the related Gifu and Funakura lines, and iv) the possibility exists for map-based cloning, marker assisted selection and mapping of symbiotic mutations through a genetic and molecular map.

  15. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 degreesC or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ N-15 stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...

  16. Comparisonof physicochemical properties of selected locally available legume varieties (mung bean, cowpea and soybean)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulasooriyage Tharuka Gunathilake; Theja Herath; Jagath Wansapala

    2016-01-01

    Grain legumes are widely used as high-protein contained crops that play a secondary role to cereal or root crops. In Sri Lanka various legume species are cultivated and often utilised in the whole grain boiled form. The objective of present study was to analyse and compare locally grown legumes varieties; Mung bean (MI 5, MI 6), Cowpea (Bombay, Waruni, Dhawal, MICP1, ANKCP1) and soybean (pb1, MISB1) for their morphological characteristics, proximate and mineral composition (Fe, Ca, Zn, K, P)....

  17. Improving yield and nitrogen fixation of grain legumes in the tropics and sub-tropics of Asia. Results of a co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a Co-ordinated Research Project on The Use of Isotopes in Studies to Improve Yield and N 2 Fixation of Grain Legumes with the Aim of Increasing Food Production and Saving N-fertilizer in the Tropics and Sub-Tropics of Asia that was operational from 1990 to 1995. This Project was underpinned by extensive experience in the use of 15 N-labelled fertilizer in quantifying N 2 fixation by food and pasture legumes; the isotope-dilution technique, recognized as the most accurate mode of quantifying fixation, was developed at the IAEA and has been used profitably for over 20 years in co-ordinated research projects that were focused on aspects relevant to the sustainability of agriculture in developing countries in which food security is most under threat. This effort to improve N 2 fixation by food legumes in Asia, and in so doing to increase productivity of cereal-based farming systems as a whole, was timely in terms of regional needs. It was complemented by an overlapping Co-ordinated Research Project entitled ''The Use of Nuclear and Related Techniques in Management of Nitrogen Fixation by trees for Enhancing Soil Fertility and Soil Conservation in Fragile Tropical Soils''. The project involved scientists from Australia, Bangladesh, China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam

  18. [Effect of milk product with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women: randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Antonia; Quesada Charneco, Miguel; Alvárez Guisado, Alejandro; Jiménez Moleón, José Juan; Fonollá Joya, Juristo; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-02-04

    To analyze the effects of nutritional intervention with a milk product enriched with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women. We performed a double-blind controlled randomized trial in ninety-nine postmenopausal women. Group S women (n=48) were randomized to consume milk product enriched with soy isoflavone (50 mg/day) while group C (n=51) consumed product control for 12 months. Parameters of quality of life (Cervantes scale), markers of bone metabolism and bone mass estimated by ultrasound of the calcaneus (QUS) were evaluated. Overall, there was an improvement in the domains menopause (P=.015) and vasomotor symptoms (Pmilk products increases levels of 25-OH-vitamin D and decreases bone metabolism markers. Additional supplementation with soy isoflavones seems to improve quality of life and bone mass in Spanish postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  19. Economic efficiency of legume-cereal intercrops in conditions of organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents economic analysis of growing of legume-cereal intercropping in conditions of organic farming. Results of the analysis are based on data monitoring in chosen organic farms that grow LCI. In the paper there is also compared economic efficiency of LCI grown in organic and conventional farming system. Methodological solution results from costingness and earnings monitoring of LCI production in five chosen organic farms in the period 2007–2008.When evaluating costs existing in individual variants of LCI growing it is necessary to say that the selection of individual machines and machine aggregations represents the most important factor of influencing direct costs, namely with regard to the size of organic farms and to the area of individual field blocks. Under conditions of organic farms, the LCI production is also significantly influenced also by agrotechnical (tillage operations. As compared with conventional farms, the final yield of both green fodder and grain is lower by 14–38%. Total direct costs per hectare of harvested LCI acreage ranged in case of fodder production from 9.249 CZK to 11.620 CZK per hectare. In case of grain production, the corresponding costs ranged from 8.848 to 9.970 CZK per hectare. In case of LCI, the direct costs of organic farms per unit of production of both fodder and grain consist mainly of material costs, which represent 63–76% and 61–68% of total expenses associated with production of fodder and grain, respectively. These direct costs are influenced also by higher prices of inputs.

  20. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  1. GeMprospector--online design of cross-species genetic marker candidates in legumes and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Madsen, Lene H; Hougaard, Birgit K; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Bertioli, David; Schauser, Leif

    2006-07-01

    The web program GeMprospector (URL: http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/GeMprospector/main) allows users to automatically design large sets of cross-species genetic marker candidates targeting either legumes or grasses. The user uploads a collection of ESTs from one or more legume or grass species, and they are compared with a database of clusters of homologous EST and genomic sequences from other legumes or grasses, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments between submitted ESTs and their homologues in the appropriate database form the basis of automated PCR primer design in conserved exons such that each primer set amplifies an intron. The only user input is a collection of ESTs, not necessarily from more than one species, and GeMprospector can boost the potential of such an EST collection by combining it with a large database to produce cross-species genetic marker candidates for legumes or grasses.

  2. Phylogeny and Phylogeography of Rhizobial Symbionts Nodulating Legumes of the Tribe Genisteae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stępkowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The legume tribe Genisteae comprises 618, predominantly temperate species, showing an amphi-Atlantic distribution that was caused by several long-distance dispersal events. Seven out of the 16 authenticated rhizobial genera can nodulate particular Genisteae species. Bradyrhizobium predominates among rhizobia nodulating Genisteae legumes. Bradyrhizobium strains that infect Genisteae species belong to both the Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii superclades. In symbiotic gene phylogenies, Genisteae bradyrhizobia are scattered among several distinct clades, comprising strains that originate from phylogenetically distant legumes. This indicates that the capacity for nodulation of Genisteae spp. has evolved independently in various symbiotic gene clades, and that it has not been a long-multi-step process. The exception is Bradyrhizobium Clade II, which unlike other clades comprises strains that are specialized in nodulation of Genisteae, but also Loteae spp. Presumably, Clade II represents an example of long-lasting co-evolution of bradyrhizobial symbionts with their legume hosts.

  3. Deciphering composition and function of the root microbiome of a legume plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Kyle; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Roussely-Provent, Valexia; Walser, Jean-Claude; Schlaeppi, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including

  4. GMP production of pDERMATT for vaccination against melanoma in a phase I clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, S G L; van den Berg, J H; Toebes, M; Schumacher, T N M; Haanen, J B A G; Beijnen, J H; Nuijen, B

    2008-10-01

    For the treatment of melanoma DNA vaccines are a promising therapeutic approach. In our institute a plasmid encoding a melanoma-associated epitope (MART-1) and an immunostimulatory sequence (tetanus toxin fragment-c) termed pDERMATT was developed. In a phase I study the plasmid will be administered intradermally using a newly developed tattoo strategy to assess the toxicity and efficacy of inducing tumor-specific T-cell immunity. To facilitate this study a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant plasmid manufacturing process was set up and a pharmaceutical dosage form was developed. Each batch resulted in approximately 200mg plasmid DNA of a high purity >90% supercoiled DNA, an A260/280 ratio 1.80-1.95, undetectable or extremely low residual endotoxins, Escherichia coli host cell protein, RNA, and DNA. In the manufacturing process no animal derived enzymes like RNase or potentially harmful organic solvents are used. After sterile filtration the concentration of the plasmid solution is approximately 1.1mg/mL. For the scheduled phase I study a concentration of 5mg/mL is desired, and further concentration of the solution is achieved by lyophilisation. The formulation solution is composed of 1mg/mL pDERMATT and 20mg/mL sucrose in Water for Injections. Upon reconstitution with a five times smaller volume an isotonic sucrose solution containing 5mg/mL pDERMATT is obtained. Lyophilised pDERMATT is sterile with >90% supercoiled DNA, an A260-280 ratio 1.80-1.95, content 90-110% of labeled, and residual water content <2% (w/w). The product yields the predicted profile upon restriction-enzyme digestion, is highly immunogenic as confirmed in an in vivo mouse model, and stable for at least six months at 5 degrees C. We have not only developed a reproducible process to manufacture pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA but also a stable dosage form for the use in clinical trials.

  5. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  6. Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium (collectively referred to as rhizobia) grow in the soil as free-living organisms but can also live as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodule cells of legume plants. The interactions between several rhizobial species and their host plants have become models for this type of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Temperate legumes such as alfalfa, pea, and vetch form indeterminate nodules that a...

  7. Legume breeding for rust resistance: Lessons to learn from the model Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales, Diego; Castillejo Sánchez, M. Ángeles; Madrid, Eva; Barilli, Eleonora; Rispail, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Rusts are major biotic constraints of legumes worldwide. Breeding for rust resistance is regarded as the most cost efficient method for rust control. However, in contrast to common bean for which complete monogenic resistance exists and is efficiently used, most of the rust resistance reactions described so far in cool season food legumes are incomplete and of complex inheritance. Incomplete resistance has been described in faba bean, pea, chickpea and lentil and several of their associated Q...

  8. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-03-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Culinary Spice Plants in Dietary Supplement Products and Tested in Clinical Trials123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Leila G; Dwyer, Johanna T; Betz, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Dried plant parts used as culinary spices (CSs) in food are permitted as dietary ingredients in dietary supplements (DSs) within certain constraints in the United States. We reviewed the amounts, forms, and nutritional support (structure/function) claims of DSs that contain CS plants listed in the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) and compared this label information with trial doses and health endpoints for CS plants that were the subject of clinical trials listed in clinicaltrials.gov. According to the DSLD, the CS plants occurring most frequently in DSs were cayenne, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, pepper, rosemary, and turmeric. Identifying the botanical species, categorizing the forms used, and determining the amounts from the information provided on DS labels was challenging. CS plants were typically added as a component of a blend, as the powered biomass, dried extracts, and isolated phytochemicals. The amounts added were declared on about 55% of the labels, rendering it difficult to determine the amount of the CS plant used in many DSs. Clinicaltrials.gov provided little information about the composition of test articles in the intervention studies. When plant names were listed on DS labels and in clinical trials, generally the common name and not the Latin binomial name was given. In order to arrive at exposure estimates and enable researchers to reproduce clinical trials, the Latin binomial name, form, and amount of the CS plant used in DSs and tested in clinical trials must be specified. PMID:26980817

  10. Dietary Advanced Glycation End Products and Risk Factors for Chronic Disease: A Systematic Review of Randomised Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Clarke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGEs form during heating and processing of food products and are widely prevalent in the modern Western diet. Recent systematic reviews indicate that consumption of dietary AGEs may promote inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Experimental evidence indicates that dietary AGEs may also induce renal damage, however, this outcome has not been considered in previous systematic reviews. The purpose of this review was to examine the effect of consumption of a high AGE diet on biomarkers of chronic disease, including chronic kidney disease (CKD, in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Six databases (SCOPUS, CINHAL, EMBASE, Medline, Biological abstracts and Web of Science were searched for randomised controlled dietary trials that compared high AGE intake to low AGE intake in adults with and without obesity, diabetes or CKD. Twelve dietary AGE interventions were identified with a total of 293 participants. A high AGE diet increased circulating tumour necrosis factor-alpha and AGEs in all populations. A high AGE diet increased 8-isoprostanes in healthy adults, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in patients with diabetes. Markers of CKD were not widely assessed. The evidence presented indicates that a high AGE diet may contribute to risk factors associated with chronic disease, such as inflammation and oxidative stress, however, due to a lack of high quality randomised trials, more research is required.

  11. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  12. Physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of premature-processed and matured green legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sila; Malleshi, N G

    2012-08-01

    Premature green legumes are good sources of nutraceuticals and antioxidants and are consumed as snacks as well as vegetables. They are seasonal and have limited shelf-life. Efforts are provided to prepare shelf-stable green legumes to extend their availability throughout the year. Green legumes from chick pea or Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) and field bean (Dolichos lablab) have been processed to enhance their shelf-life, and determined their nutritional, physico-chemical and nutraceutical qualities. The shelf stable green legumes (SSGL) show higher water absorption capacity compared to matured dry legumes (MDL). The total colour change in the processed/dried SSGL and MDL samples increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the freshly harvested green samples. The carotenoid content of Bengal gram and field bean SSGLs are 8.0 and 3.2 mg/100 g, and chlorophyll contents are 12.5 and 0.5 mg/100 g, respectively, which are in negligible quantities in matured legumes; the corresponding polyphenol contents are 197.8 and 153.1 mg/100 g. These results indicate that SSGLs possess potential antioxidant activity.

  13. Legume intake and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Mao, Qi-Qi

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies regarding the relationship between legume intake and risk of prostate cancer have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize evidence on this association. A systematic literature search of articles published through June 2016 was performed using PubMed and Web of Science databases. The combined relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest intake of legumes was calculated with a random-effects model. Dose-response meta-analysis was also performed for the studies that provided at least three levels of legume consumption. Ten articles (eight cohorts) reporting 281,034 individuals and 10,234 incident cases were identified. The individuals with high consumption of legumes compared with the reference group experienced a significantly reduced risk for developing prostate cancer (RR: 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.96], P = 0.010). Moderate heterogeneity of RRs was observed across these studies (P = 0.064 for heterogeneity, I2 = 45.8 %). Dose-response meta-analysis indicated that the risk of prostate cancer reduced by 3.7% (95% CI 1.5%-5.8%) for each 20 grams per day increment of legume intake. In conclusion, the results from this meta-analysis suggest that a high intake of legumes is associated with a low incidence of prostate cancer.

  14. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew S; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity.

  15. Emulsifying properties of legume proteins compared to β-lactoglobulin and Tween 20 and the volatile release from oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, O; Silcock, P; Beauchamp, J; Buettner, A; Everett, D W

    2014-10-01

    The emulsifying properties of plant legume protein isolates (soy, pea, and lupin) were compared to a milk whey protein, β-lactoglobulin (β-lg), and a nonionic surfactant (Tween 20). The protein fractional composition was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The following emulsion properties were measured: particle diameter, shear surface ζ-potential, interfacial tension (IT), and creaming velocity. The effect of protein preheat treatment (90 °C for 10 min) on the emulsifying behavior and the release of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from emulsions under oral conditions was also investigated in real time using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. The legume proteins showed comparable results to β-lg and Tween 20, forming stable, negatively charged emulsions with particle diameter d3,2 emulsions was significantly correlated with the low protein surface hydrophobicity and IT of the emulsion. After heating the proteins, the droplet size of pea and lupin emulsions decreased. The VOC release profile was similar between the protein-stabilized emulsions, and greater retention was observed for Tween 20-stabilized emulsions. This study demonstrates the potential application of legume proteins as alternative emulsifiers to milk proteins in emulsion products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. THE BIG PICTURE ON SMALL MEDICINE: THE STATE OF NANOMEDICINE PRODUCTS APPROVED FOR USE OR IN CLINICAL TRIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Michael L.; Campbell, Stephen A.; Erdman, Arthur G.; Haynes, Christy L.; Wolf, Susan M.; McCullough, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Developments in nanomedicine are expected to provide solutions to many of modern medicine’s unsolved problems, so it is no surprise that literature is flush with articles discussing the subject. However, existing reviews tend to focus on specific sectors of nanomedicine or take a very forward looking stance and fail to provide a complete perspective on the current landscape. This article provides a more comprehensive and contemporary inventory of nanomedicine products. A keyword search of literature, clinical trial registries, and the Web, yielded 247 nanomedicine products that are approved or in various stages of clinical study. Specific information on each was gathered, so the overall field could be described based on various dimensions, including: FDA classification, approval status, nanoscale size, treated condition, nanostructure, and others. In addition to documenting the large number of nanomedicine products already in human use, this study indentifies some interesting trends forecasting the future of nanomedicine. PMID:22684017

  17. Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Verstraete

    Full Text Available Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria not only occur in root nodules of legumes but are also found in leaves of certain Rubiaceae. The discovery of bacteria in plants formerly not implicated in endosymbiosis suggests a wider occurrence of plant-microbe interactions. Several ß-proteobacteria of the genus Burkholderia are detected in close association with tropical plants. This interaction has occurred three times independently, which suggest a recent and open plant-bacteria association. The presence or absence of Burkholderia endophytes is consistent on genus level and therefore implies a predictive value for the discovery of bacteria. Only a single Burkholderia species is found in association with a given plant species. However, the endophyte species are promiscuous and can be found in association with several plant species. Most of the endophytes are part of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental group, but others are closely related to B. glathei. This soil bacteria, together with related nodulating and non-nodulating endophytes, is therefore transferred to a newly defined and larger PBE group within the genus Burkholderia.

  18. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-α-Rhap(1→6)-β-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Galp or O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  20. Phenolphthalein false-positive reactions from legume root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Daniel; Kovacs, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Presumptive tests for blood play a critical role in the examination of physical evidence and in the determination of subsequent analysis. The catalytic power of hemoglobin allows colorimetric reactions employing phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer test) to indicate "whether" blood is present. Consequently, DNA profiles extracted from phenolphthalein-positive stains are presumed to be from blood on the evidentiary item and can lead to the identification of "whose" blood is present. Crushed nodules from a variety of legumes yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactions that were indistinguishable from true bloodstains both in color quality and in developmental time frame. Clothing and other materials stained by nodules also yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactivity for several years after nodule exposure. Nodules from leguminous plants contain a protein (leghemoglobin) which is structurally and functionally similar to hemoglobin. Testing of purified leghemoglobin confirmed this protein as a source of phenolphthalein reactivity. A scenario is presented showing how the presence of leghemoglobin from nodule staining can mislead investigators. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Tropical tanniniferous legumes used as an option to mitigate sheep enteric methane emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Guilherme Dias; Lima, Paulo de Mello Tavares; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; Primavesi, Odo; Longo, Cibele; McManus, Concepta; Abdalla, Adibe; Louvandini, Helder

    2013-03-01

    This study presents the first results from Brazil using SF(6) tracer technique adapted from cattle to evaluate the capability of condensed tannin (CT) present in three tropical legume forages, Leucaena leucocephala (LEU), Styzolobium aterrimum (STA), and Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth (MIM) to reduce enteric CH(4) production in Santa Inês sheep. Twelve male lambs [27.88 ± 2.85 kg body weight (BW)] were allocated in individual metabolic cages for 20-day adaptation followed by 6 days for measuring dry matter intake (DMI) and CH(4) emission. All lambs received water, mineral supplement, and Cynodon dactylon v. coast-cross hay ad libitum. The treatments consisted of soybean meal (710 g/kg) and ground corn (290 g/kg) [control (CON)]; soybean meal (150 g/kg), ground corn (30 g/kg), and Leucaena hay (820 g/kg) (LEU); soybean meal (160 g/kg), ground corn (150 g/kg), and Mucuna hay (690 g/kg) (STA); and soybean meal (280 g/kg), ground corn (190 g/kg), and Mimosa hay (530 g/kg) (MIM); all calculated to provide 40 g/kg CT (except for CON). DMI (in grams of DMI per kilogram BW per day) was lower for LEU (22.0) than CON (29.3), STA (31.2), and MIM (31.6). The LEU group showed emission of 7.8 g CH(4)/day, significantly lower than CON (10.5 g CH(4)/day), STA (10.4 g CH(4)/day), and MIM (11.3 g CH(4)/day). However, when the CH(4) emission per DMI was considered, there were no significant differences among treatments (0.37, 0.36, 0.33, and 0.35 g CH(4)/g DMI/kg BW/day, respectively, for CON, LEU, STA, and MIM). The sheep receiving STA had shown a tendency (p = 0.15) to reduce methane emission when compared to the CON group. Therefore, it is suggested that tropical tanniniferous legumes may have potential to reduce CH(4) emission in sheep, but more research is warranted to confirm these results.

  2. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  3. Long-term effects of conservation systems on productivity for the old rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter legumes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production is not new to the Southeast. In 1896, the Old Rotation experiment at Auburn University was established to study the feasibility of producing cotton in crop rotations with winter legumes managed as a green manure crop. Throughout the experim...

  4. Eugenol specialty chemical production in transgenic poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba) field trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da; Yuan, Xianghe; Kim, Sung-Jin; Marques, Joaquim V; Chakravarthy, P Pawan; Moinuddin, Syed G A; Luchterhand, Randi; Herman, Barri; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2017-08-01

    A foundational study assessed effects of biochemical pathway introduction into poplar to produce eugenol, chavicol, p-anol, isoeugenol and their sequestered storage products, from potentially available substrates, coniferyl and p-coumaryl alcohols. At the onset, it was unknown whether significant carbon flux to monolignols vs. other phenylpropanoid (acetate) pathway metabolites would be kinetically favoured. Various transgenic poplar lines generated eugenol and chavicol glucosides in ca. 0.45% (~0.35 and ~0.1%, respectively) of dry weight foliage tissue in field trials, as well as their corresponding aglycones in trace amounts. There were only traces of any of these metabolites in branch tissues, even after ~4-year field trials. Levels of bioproduct accumulation in foliage plateaued, even at the lowest introduced gene expression levels, suggesting limited monolignol substrate availability. Nevertheless, this level still allows foliage collection for platform chemical production, with the remaining (stem) biomass available for wood, pulp/paper and bioenergy product purposes. Several transformed lines displayed unexpected precocious flowering after 4-year field trial growth. This necessitated terminating (felling) these particular plants, as USDA APHIS prohibits the possibility of their interacting (cross-pollination, etc.) with wild-type (native plant) lines. In future, additional biotechnological approaches can be employed (e.g. gene editing) to produce sterile plant lines, to avoid such complications. While increased gene expression did not increase target bioproduct accumulation, the exciting possibility now exists of significantly increasing their amounts (e.g. 10- to 40-fold plus) in foliage and stems via systematic deployment of numerous 'omics', systems biology, synthetic biology and metabolic flux modelling approaches. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and

  5. Identification and functionality prediction of pathogenesis-related protein 1 from legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis, Meenakshi; Mathur, Monika; Gurjar, Gayatri; Kadoo, Narendra; Gupta, Vidya

    2017-11-01

    The production and accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in plants is one of the important responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Large number of identified PR proteins has been categorized into 17 functional families based on their structure, phylogenetics, and biological activities. However, they are not widely studied in legume crops. Using 29 PR1 proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, as query, here we have predicted 92 candidate PR1 proteins through the PSI-BLAST and HMMER programs. These candidate proteins were comprehensively analyzed with, multiple sequence alignment, domain architecture studies, signal peptide, and motif extraction followed by phylogenetic analysis. Further, response of two candidate PR1 proteins from chickpea against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp.ciceri attack was validated using qRT-PCR followed by their 3D structure prediction. To decipher mode of action for PR1s, docking of pathogen extracellular matrix components along with fungal elicitors was performed with two chickpea PR1 proteins. Based on these findings, we propose carbohydrate to be the unique pathogen-recognition feature for PR1 proteins and β-glucanase activity via β-glucan binding or modification. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legume and buckwheat samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Vojtíšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine crude protein, fibre and phytic acid in vitro digestibility of selected legumes and buckwheat products. All analyses except the phytic acid contents were performed in the line with the Commission Regulation (EC No. 152/2009. A modified version of Holt’s Method was used for phytic acid (phytate determination. None of all samples contained more than 11% of moisture. Soybeans are rich in crude protein; they contain nearly 40% of this compound. The content of crude protein in buckwheat flours was about 14%. The highest amount of phytate was found in common beans and soybeans-about 2 g/100 g of dry matter. On the other hand, the lowest phytate content was observed in buckwheat pasta (F. esculentum groats was 1.9 g per 100 g of dry matter. In vitro digestibility was determined using an incubator Daisy and pepsin enzymes and the combination of pepsin and pancreatin. The highest coefficient of crude protein digestibility was discovered to be in peels and wholemeal flour. The greatest fibre digestibility coefficients were obtained for peels, which contain about 65% of fibre in their dry matter. When pepsin was used, a higher phytic acid digestibility coefficient for G. max, Ph. vulgaris, peels, flour, groats and broken groats was observed; while when the combination of pepsin and pancreatin was used, higher phytic acid digestibility coefficients for peas, lentil and wholemeal flour were observed.

  7. Influence of legume crops on content of organic carbon in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajduk Edmund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 3-year field experiment designed to evaluate the content of organic carbon in brown soil (Haplic Cambisol Dystric developed from a light loamy sand under legumes cultivation. Experimental factors were: species of legume crop (colorful-blooming pea (Pisum sativum, chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus, narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, methods of legumes tillage (legumes in pure culture and in mixture with naked oats and mineral N fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N·ha−1. Cultivation of legumes on sandy soil did not result in an increase of organic carbon content in the soil after harvest as compared to the initial situation, i.e. 7.39 vs. 7.76 g·kg−1 dry matter (DM, on average, respectively. However, there was the beneficial effect of this group of plants on soil abundance in organic matter, the manifestation of which was higher content of organic carbon in soils after legume harvest as compared to soils with oats grown (7.21 g·kg−1 DM, on average. Among experimental crops, cultivation of pea exerted the most positive action to organic carbon content (7.58 g·kg−1, after harvest, on average, whereas narrow-leaved lupin had the least effect on organic carbon content (7.23 g·kg−1, on average. Pure culture and greater intensity of legume cultivation associated with the use of higher doses of mineral nitrogen caused less reduction in organic carbon content in soils after harvest.

  8. Productivity of authors in the field of diabetes: bibliographic analysis of trial publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, Frits; Uijldert, Mick; Donswijk, Lennart F; Gale, Edwin A M

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether trial publications of glucose lowering drugs are dominated by a small group of highly prolific authors ("supertrialists") and to identify some of their characteristics. Bibliographic analysis of trial publications. We searched PubMed for all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) relating to glucose lowering drugs published between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2013. From these publications we identified the 110 most prolific authors using PubReMiner. The 991 RCTs they published were examined for various characteristics such as author number, commercial sponsorship, company authorship, conflicts of interest, etc. The track record of the top 11 authors was studied in more detail. Proportion of articles published by the top 110 and the top 11 authors. 3782 articles from 13,592 authors were identified. The top 110 authors were named in 1227 (32.4%) of all articles, and the top 11 authors in 397 (10.5%) of all articles. The top 110 authors published 991 RCTs for a median of 20 (range 4-77) RCTs per author; the top 11 published 354 RCTs for a median of 42 (36-77) RCTs per author. Of the 110 top authors, 48 were employed by a pharmaceutical company. Of the 991 RCTs, 906 were commercially sponsored. Of 704 articles that could be assessed for conflicts of interest, only 42 (6%) were considered fully independent. Medical writing assistance was acknowledged in 439 (44.3%) of 991 RCTs. The past two decades have seen an explosive increase in the number of published clinical trials regarding glucose lowering treatment. Some authors have made a disproportionate contribution to the therapeutic evidence base; one third of the RCT evidence base on glucose lowering drug treatment for diabetes was generated by authors. Of these, 44% were company employees and 56% were academics who work closely with the pharmaceutical companies. © Holleman et al 2015.

  9. RNA interference-based resistance against a legume mastrevirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Shahid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a homology-dependant gene silencing mechanism and has been widely used to engineer resistance in plants against RNA viruses. However, its usefulness in delivering resistance against plant DNA viruses belonging to family Geminiviridae is still being debated. Although the RNAi approach has been shown, using a transient assay, to be useful in countering monocotyledonous plant-infecting geminiviruses of the genus Mastrevirus, it has yet to be investigated as a means of delivering resistance to dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus (CpCDPKV is a legume-infecting mastrevirus that affects chickpea and other leguminous crops in Pakistan. Results Here a hairpin (hpRNAi construct containing sequences encompassing part of replication-associated protein gene, intergenic region and part of the movement protein gene of CpCDPKV under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter has been produced and stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Plants harboring the hairpin construct were challenged with CpCDPKV. All non-transgenic N. benthamiana plants developed symptoms of CpCDPKV infection within two weeks post-inoculation. In contrast, none of the inoculated transgenic plants showed symptoms of infection and no viral DNA could be detected by Southern hybridization. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis identified very low-level accumulation of viral DNA in the inoculated transgenic plants. Conclusions The results presented show that the RNAi-based resistance strategy is useful in protecting plants from a dicot-infecting mastrevirus. The very low levels of virus detected in plant tissue of transgenic plants distal to the inoculation site suggest that virus movement and/or viral replication was impaired leading to plants that showed no discernible signs of virus infection.

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grljušić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the forage species involved in program and comparison of conventional and molecular marker efficiency in variability evaluation. RAPDs were used (i to estimate availability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago falcata L. genetic variation and (ii to identify changes of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. variability after natural selection. SSRs were applied to evaluate diversity within and among field pea (Pisum sativum L. var. arvense and sativum groups/varieties. A total of 90 (alfalfa or 92 (red clover polymorphic bands was found by RAPDs. Total number of SSR alleles recorded was 118. The average Roger's distance per species/genus estimated was 0.29 (red clover, 0.33 (alfalfa and 0.51 (field pea. 2D PCo analysis of each species/genus separated materials into respective groups. A high degree of genetic variation within populations/varieties of each investigated species was found by AMOVA. The correspondence between pairs of matrices based on the morphological and molecular data was significant (p=0.95 only for red clover. RAPD and SSR data have given valuable information on genetic structure of materials and provided a description that determines heterogeneity. Further studies will be focused on identifying quantitative trait loci and marker assisted selection.

  11. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eBustos-Sanmamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small non coding RNAs (smRNA participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA that are cleaved into 20- to 24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL. One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179 and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence databases. In addition, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legumes. Functional significance of these variant isoforms may reflect peculiarities of smRNA biogenesis in

  12. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  13. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signalling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiatul Akmal Mohd-Radzman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  14. Emerging Genomic Tools for Legume Breeding: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K.; Roorkiwal, Manish; Singh, Vikas K.; Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Chitikineni, Anu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in ensuring global nutritional food security and improving soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Accelerated higher genetic gains is required to meet the demand of ever increasing global population. In recent years, speedy developments have been witnessed in legume genomics due to advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput genotyping technologies. Reference genome sequences for many legume crops have been reported in the last 5 years. The availability of the draft genome sequences and re-sequencing of elite genotypes for several important legume crops have made it possible to identify structural variations at large scale. Availability of large-scale genomic resources and low-cost and high-throughput genotyping technologies are enhancing the efficiency and resolution of genetic mapping and marker-trait association studies. Most importantly, deployment of molecular breeding approaches has resulted in development of improved lines in some legume crops such as chickpea and groundnut. In order to support genomics-driven crop improvement at a fast pace, the deployment of breeder-friendly genomics and decision support tools seems appear to be critical in breeding programs in developing countries. This review provides an overview of emerging genomics and informatics tools/approaches that will be the key driving force for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding and ultimately ensuring nutritional and food security in developing countries. PMID:27199998

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-12

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  16. Effect of industrial dehydration on the soluble carbohydrates and dietary fiber fractions in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; Benítez, Vanesa; Molla, Esperanza; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Esteban, Rosa M

    2006-10-04

    The effects of soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration treatments on soluble carbohydrates, including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and also on total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and soluble (SDF) dietary fiber fractions were studied in legumes (lentil and chickpea). Ciceritol and stachyose were the main alpha-galactosides for chickpea and lentil, respectively. The processing involved a drastic reduction of soluble carbohydrates of these legumes, 85% in the case of lentil and 57% in the case of chickpea. The processed legume flours presented low residual levels of alpha-galactosides, which are advisable for people with digestive problems. Processing of legumes involved changes in dietary fiber fractions. A general increase of IDF (27-36%) due to the increase of glucose and Klason lignin was observed. However, a different behavior of SDF was exhibited during thermal dehydration, this fraction increasing in the case of chickpea (32%) and decreasing in the case of lentil (27%). This is probably caused by the different structures and compositions of the cell wall networks of the legumes.

  17. Flowers of the early-branching papilionoid legume Petaladenium urceoliferum display unique morphological and ontogenetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Gerhard; Cardoso, Domingos; Zartman, Charles E; de Queiroz, Luciano P

    2015-11-01

    Floral development can help to shed light on puzzling features across flowering plants. The enigmatic Amazonian monospecific genus Petaladenium of the legume family (Leguminosae) had rarely been collected and only recently became available for ontogenetic studies. The fimbriate-glandular wing petals of P. urceoliferum are unique among the more than 19000 legume species. Ontogenetic data illuminate the systematic position of the genus and foster our understanding on floral evolution during the early diversification of the papilionoid legumes. Flower buds were collected in the field, fixed in 70% ethanol, and investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results were compared with existing material from early-diverging papilionoid legumes. Formation of sepals and petals shows bidirectional tendencies. Stamens arise in two whorls, and the single carpel arises concomitantly with the outer stamen whorl. Gland formation starts early on the edges of the wing petals. The carpel reopens for a short time when the initiation of ovules is visible. Stomata at the base of the hypanthium indicate that the flower functions like other standard flag blossoms. The floral ontogeny confirms the close affinity of P. urceoliferum with the florally heterogeneous, early-diverging papilionoid Amburaneae clade. The results strengthen the theory of a distinct experimental phase among early-branching papilionoid legumes during which a wider range of floral morphologies arose. Polysymmetry, monosymmetry, variable organ numbers, and a wide range of ontogenetic patterns laid the foundation for a successful canalization toward the more restricted but well-adapted dorsiventral papilionoid flag blossom. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Sushama A; Rajalakshmi, V; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Sharma, Arun

    2011-09-01

    Legumes are rich source of proteins, dietary fiber, micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. Thirty different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India, were screened for phenolic content and antioxidant activity using, radical scavenging [(1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, (ABTS·⁺], Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and metal ion (Fe²⁺) chelation assays. Legumes varied largely in their antioxidant activity. Horse gram, common beans, cowpea (brown and red) and fenugreek showed high DPPH· radical scavenging activity (>400 units/g), while lablab bean (cream and white), chickpea (cream and green), butter bean and pea (white and green) showed low antioxidant activity (pea, lentils, cowpea (white) and common bean (maroon) showed intermediate activity. Similar trend was observed when the activity was assessed with ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays. Thus most of the varieties having light color seed coat, except soybean exhibited low antioxidant activity. While legumes having dark color seed coat did not always possessed high antioxidant activity (e.g. moth bean, black pea, black gram, lentils). Antioxidant activity showed positive correlation (r²>0.95) with phenolic contents, in DPPH·, ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays, whereas poor correlation (r²=0.297) was observed between Fe²⁺ chelating activity of the legumes and phenolic contents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-01-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use on hot/arid lands in field trials in the Califronia Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42/sup 0/C (108/sup 0/F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium fluoridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean ovendry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosopis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (ovendry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 ovendry T ha/sup -1/ yr/sup -1/ for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba (0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse.

  20. Biomass production of Prosopis species (mesquite), Leucaena, and other leguminous trees grown under heat/drought stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.; Cannell, G.H.; Clark, P.R.; Osborn, J.F.; Nash, P.

    1983-09-01

    Leguminous trees were examined for use of hot/arid lands in field trials in the California Imperial Valley where July daily maximum temperatures are 42 degrees C (108 degrees F). Two field trials were carried out to rank 55 accessions in biomass per tree and to evaluate biomass production per unit area with four of the more productive accessions identified in earlier trials. The trial with 55 accessions compared Prosopis (mesquite) to widely recommended species for arid lands such as Leucaena leucocephala (K-8), Parkinsonia aculeata, and Prosopis tamarugo and to other drought adapted tree legume species of California/Arizona deserts such as Cercidium floridium and Olneya tesota. Prosopis selections were identified that had greater productivity than either Leucaena leucocephala (K-8) or Parkinsonia aculeata. The mean oven-dry biomass per accession ranged from 0.2 kg/tree for Prosospis tamarugo to 29 kg/tree for P. alba (0166) when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. Clones were obtained from trees in this trial which had 45-56 kg/tree (oven-dry) in two seasons. The plots designed to measure biomass production per unit area were on a 1.5 m spacing and had productivities of 7, 11.2, 14.3, and 14.5 oven-dry T ha-1 yr-1 for P. glandulosa var torreyana (0001), P. alba (0163), P. chilensis (0009), and P. alba(0039), respectively, when measured 2 years from germination in the greenhouse. 30 references

  1. Potential use of pyrite cinders as raw material in cement production: results of industrial scale trial operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, I; Deveci, H; Yazici, E Y; Türk, T; Süngün, Y H

    2009-07-15

    Pyrite cinders, which are the waste products of sulphuric acid manufacturing plants, contain hazardous heavy metals with potential environmental risks for disposal. In this study, the potential use of pyrite cinders (PyCs) as iron source in the production of Portland cement clinker was demonstrated at the industrial scale. The chemical and mineralogical analyses of the PyC sample used in this study have revealed that it is essentially a suitable raw material for use as iron source since it contains >87% Fe(2)O(3) mainly in the form of hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)). The samples of the clinkers produced from PyC in the industrial scale trial operation of 6 months were tested for the conformity of their chemical composition and the physico-mechanical performance of the resultant cement products. The data were compared with the clinker products of the iron ore, which is used as the raw material for the production Portland cement clinker in the plant. The chemical compositions of all the clinker products of PyC appeared to conform to those of the iron ore clinker, and hence, a Portland cement clinker. The mechanical performance of the mortars prepared from the PyC clinker was found to be consistent with those of the industrial cements e.g. CEM I type cements. It can be inferred from the leachability tests (TCLP and SPLP) that PyC could be a potential source of heavy metal pollution while the mortar samples obtained from the PyC clinkers present no environmental problems. These findings suggest that the waste pyrite cinders can be readily used as iron source for the production of Portland cement. The availability of PyC in large quantities at low cost provides further significant benefits for the management/environmental practices of these wastes and for the reduction of mining and processing costs of cement raw materials.

  2. PvTFDB: a Phaseolus vulgaris transcription factors database for expediting functional genomics in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhawna; Bonthala, V S; Gajula, Mnv Prasad

    2016-01-01

    The common bean [Phaseolus vulgaris (L.)] is one of the essential proteinaceous vegetables grown in developing countries. However, its production is challenged by low yields caused by numerous biotic and abiotic stress conditions. Regulatory transcription factors (TFs) symbolize a key component of the genome and are the most significant targets for producing stress tolerant crop and hence functional genomic studies of these TFs are important. Therefore, here we have constructed a web-accessible TFs database for P. vulgaris, called PvTFDB, which contains 2370 putative TF gene models in 49 TF families. This database provides a comprehensive information for each of the identified TF that includes sequence data, functional annotation, SSRs with their primer sets, protein physical properties, chromosomal location, phylogeny, tissue-specific gene expression data, orthologues, cis-regulatory elements and gene ontology (GO) assignment. Altogether, this information would be used in expediting the functional genomic studies of a specific TF(s) of interest. The objectives of this database are to understand functional genomics study of common bean TFs and recognize the regulatory mechanisms underlying various stress responses to ease breeding strategy for variety production through a couple of search interfaces including gene ID, functional annotation and browsing interfaces including by family and by chromosome. This database will also serve as a promising central repository for researchers as well as breeders who are working towards crop improvement of legume crops. In addition, this database provide the user unrestricted public access and the user can download entire data present in the database freely.Database URL: http://www.multiomics.in/PvTFDB/. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

    2013-10-15

    Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) forage production, tissue and soil nutrient concentration under three N based broiler litter regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is considered as most important forage legume grown in Kentucky. Alfalfa supports many livestock production systems including the beef, dairy, and horse industries in Kentucky. Being a legume, alfalfa typically meets its N requirement through symbiotic N2 fixation, but h...

  5. Dairy products and physical stature: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, H.

    2012-01-01

    The positive relationship between per capita availability of dairy products and average height found in historical studies (for instance in nineteenth century Bavaria, Prussia and France; Baten, 2009) does not necessarily indicate a causal relationship. Historical studies usually apply

  6. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  7. A qualitative study of the nodulating ability of legumes of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis accumulates substantial amounts of mineralizable nitrogen which help in ecological rehabilitation of degraded soils and increase the soil fertility in agricultural ecosystem. Nodulation was studied in 72 legume species from various parts of Pakistan. All the species of Papilionoideae and Mimosoideae were nodulated whereas all the species examined in Caesalpinioideae were non-nodulated. Attempts to elicit nodulation in Caesalpinioid species by rhizobial inoculation were not successful and they were accepted as lacking nodulating ability. Nodulation is reported for the first time in 6 species within 3 genera of Mimosoideae and 9 species within 5 genera of Papilionoideae. Majority of the species were abundantly nodulated under natural soil conditions or when grown in uninoculated garden soil indicating distribution of wide range of naturalized rhizobia. The study shows that the wild legumes hold great promise for inclusion in revegetation of denuded and derelict ecosystems.

  8. PGPRs and nitrogen-fixing legumes: a perfect team for efficient Cd phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, biologically non-essential and highly mobile metal that has become an increasingly important environmental hazard to both wildlife and humans. In contrast to conventional remediation technologies, phytoremediation based on legume-rhizobia symbiosis has emerged as an inexpensive decontamination alternative which also revitalize contaminated soils due to the role of legumes in nitrogen cycling. In recent years, there is a growing interest in understanding symbiotic legume-rhizobia relationship and its interactions with Cd. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the main effects of Cd in N2-fixing leguminous plants and the benefits of exploiting this symbiosis together with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to boost an efficient reclamation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  9. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  10. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965......Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate...

  11. Probiotic Soy Product Supplemented with Isoflavones Improves the Lipid Profile of Moderately Hypercholesterolemic Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cardoso Umbelino Cavallini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Several studies have demonstrated that specific probiotics affect the host’s metabolism and may influence the cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an isoflavone-supplemented soy product fermented with Enterococcus faecium CRL 183 and Lactobacillus helveticus 416 on cardiovascular risk markers in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Design: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial Setting: São Paulo State University in Araraquara, SP, Brazil. Participants: 49 male healthy men with total cholesterol (TC >5.17 mmol/L and <6.21 mmol/L Intervention: The volunteers have consumed 200 mL of the probiotic soy product (group SP-1010 CFU/day, isoflavone-supplemented probiotic soy product (group ISP–probiotic plus 50 mg of total isoflavones/100 g or unfermented soy product (group USP-placebo for 42 days in a randomized, double-blind study. Main outcome measures: Lipid profile and additional cardiovascular biomarkers were analyzed on days 0, 30 and 42. Urine samples (24 h were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment so as to determine the isoflavones profile. Results: After 42 days, the ISP consumption led to improved total cholesterol, non-HDL-C (LDL + IDL + VLDL cholesterol fractions and electronegative LDL concentrations (reduction of 13.8%, 14.7% and 24.2%, respectively, p < 0.05. The ISP and SP have prevented the reduction of HDL-C level after 42 days. The C-reactive protein and fibrinogen levels were not improved. The equol production by the ISP group subjects was inversely correlated with electronegative LDL concentration. Conclusions: The results suggest that a regular consumption of this probiotic soy product, supplemented with isoflavones, could contribute to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in moderately hypercholesterolemic men, through the an

  12. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  13. Responses of legumes to rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A meta-analysis of potential photosynthate limitation of symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.; Alberton, O.; Hungria, M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Legumes are prized for their seed protein and lipid mass fractions. Since legumes spend up to 4–16% of photosynthesis on each of the rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal symbioses, it might be expected that positive responses in yield due to rhizobial and AM symbioses are accompanied by

  14. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  15. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  16. A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Safety Trial Evaluating D-Lactic Acid Production in Healthy Infants Fed a -containing Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Papagaroufalis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background D-Lactic acidosis in infants fed lactic acid bacteria-containing products is a concern. Methods The primary objective of this non-inferiority trial was to compare urinary D-lactic acid concentrations during the first 28 days of life in infants fed formula containing Lactobacillus reuteri (1.2 x 10 6 colony forming units (CFU/ml with those fed a control formula. The non-inferiority margin was set at a two-fold increase in D-lactic acid (0.7 mmol/mol creatinine, log-transformed. Healthy term infants in Greece were enrolled between birth and 72 hours of age, and block randomized to a probiotic ( N = 44 or control ( N = 44 group. They were exclusively fed their formulae until 28 days of age and followed up at 7, 14, 28, 112, and 168 ± 3 days. Anthropometric measurements were taken at each visit and tolerance recorded until 112 days. Urine was collected before study formula intake and at all visits up to 112 days and blood at 14 days. Results D-Lactic acid concentration in the probiotic group was below the non-inferiority margin at 28 days: treatment effect -0.03 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [-0.48 to 0.41] mmol/mol creatinine but was above the non-inferiority margin at 7 and 14 days–-treatment effect 0.50 (95% CI: [0.05-0.96] mmol/mol creatinine and 0.45 (95% CI: [0.00-0.90] mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. Blood acid excess and pH, anthropometry, tolerance, and adverse events (AEs were not significantly different between groups. Conclusion Intake of L. reuteri -containing formula was safe and did not cause an increase in D-lactic acid beyond two weeks. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01119170.

  17. Protease inhibitors from processed legumes effectively inhibit superoxide generation in response to TPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavelow, J; Gidlund, M; Troll, W

    1982-01-01

    Crude extracts containing protease inhibitors from edible legumes (canned chick-peas, canned kidney beans and bean curd) were capable of blocking the superoxide response to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes produced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Protease inhibitors purified from crude extracts more effectively blocked the superoxide response produced by TPA. Bowman-Birk soybean inhibitor was more effective in blocking this effect of the tumor promoter than Kunitz soybean inhibitor. The significance of protease inhibitors in edible legumes and the possible role of free oxygen radicals in tumor promotion are discussed.

  18. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  19. Kidney bean: a major sensitizer among legumes in asthma and rhinitis patients from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrashan Kasera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of IgE mediated food allergies has increased over the last two decades. Food allergy has been reported to be fatal in highly sensitive individuals. Legumes are important food allergens but their prevalence may vary among different populations. The present study identifies sensitization to common legumes among Indian population, characterizes allergens of kidney bean and establishes its cross reactivity with other legumes. METHODOLOGY: Patients (n = 355 with history of legume allergy were skin prick tested (SPT with 10 legumes. Specific IgE (sIgE and total IgE were estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Characterization of kidney bean allergens and their cross reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of major allergens of kidney bean was carried out by mass spectrometry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kidney bean exhibited sensitization in 78 (22.0% patients followed by chickpea 65 (18.0% and peanut 53 (15%. SPT positive patients depicted significantly elevated sIgE levels against different legumes (r = 0.85, p<0.0001. Sera from 30 kidney bean sensitive individuals exhibited basophil histamine release (16-54% which significantly correlated with their SPT (r = 0.83, p<0.0001 and sIgE (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Kidney bean showed eight major allergens of 58, 50, 45, 42, 40, 37, 34 and 18 kDa on immunoblot and required 67.3±2.51 ng of homologous protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Inhibition assays revealed extensive cross reactivity among kidney bean, peanut, black gram and pigeon pea. nLC-MS/MS analysis identified four allergens of kidney bean showing significant matches with known proteins namely lectin (phytohemagglutinin, phaseolin, alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor and group 3 late embryogenesis abundant protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Among legumes, kidney bean followed by chick pea and peanut are the major allergic triggers in asthma and rhinitis patients in India

  20. Changes in nutritive value and herbage yield during extended growth intervals in grass-legume mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2018-01-01

    . Perennial ryegrass was sown with each of four legumes: red clover, white clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil, and white clover was sown with hybrid ryegrass, meadow fescue and timothy. Effects of species composition on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF......There is a lack of information on the effects of companion species in grass–legume mixtures on herbage yield and quality changes during prolonged growth. Such information is relevant for harvest planning and estimation of consequences for feeding value of conserved feed when harvesting is delayed...

  1. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerreman; Pedersen, Mona H; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    protein extracts of seeds and sprouts (comprising cotelydons and hypocotyls/epicotyls) of peanut, soybean, green pea, blue lupine, mung bean, alfalfa, broad bean, and azuki bean were prepared. The reactivity of sera from 10 peanut-allergic patients to these extracts was analysed by indirect histamine......BACKGROUND: Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to identify immunoreactivity to seeds and sprouts of legumes other than peanut in sera from peanut-allergic patients. METHODS: Crude...

  2. Regulatory requirements for clinical trial and marketing authorisation application for cell-based medicinal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmikangas, P; Flory, E; Reinhardt, J; Hinz, T; Maciulaitis, R

    2010-01-01

    The new era of regenerative medicine has led to rapid development of new innovative therapies especially for diseases and tissue/organ defects for which traditional therapies and medicinal products have not provided satisfactory outcome. Although the clinical use and developments of cell-based medicinal products (CBMPs) could be witnessed already for a decade, robust scientific and regulatory provisions for these products have only recently been enacted. The new Regulation for Advanced Therapies (EC) 1394/2007 together with the revised Annex I, Part IV of Directive 2001/83/EC provides the new legal framework for CBMPs. The wide variety of cell-based products and the foreseen limitations (small sample sizes, short shelf life) vs. particular risks (microbiological purity, variability, immunogenicity, tumourigenicity) associated with CBMPs have called for a flexible, case-by-case regulatory approach for these products. Consequently, a risk-based approach has been developed to allow definition of the amount of scientific data needed for a Marketing Authorisation Application (MAA) of each CBMP. The article provides further insight into the initial risk evaluation, as well as to the quality, non-clinical, and clinical requirements of CBMPs. Special somatic cell therapies designed for active immunotherapy are also addressed.

  3. Attorneys' Questions and Children's Productivity in Child Sexual Abuse Criminal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemfuss, J Zoe; Quas, Jodi A; Lyon, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the links between questions child witnesses are asked in court, children's answers, and case outcome. Samples of acquittals and convictions were matched on child age, victim-defendant relationship, and allegation count and severity. Transcripts were coded for question types, including a previously under-examined type of potentially suggestive question, declarative questions. Children's productivity was conceptualized in a novel way by separating new from repeated content and by adjusting the definition based on the linguistic demands of the questions. Attorneys frequently used declarative questions, and disconcertingly, attorneys who used these and other suggestive questions more frequently were more likely to win their case. Open-ended and closed-ended questions elicited similar levels of productivity from children, and both elicited more productivity compared with suggestive questions. Results highlight how conceptualization of questions and answers can influence conclusions, and demonstrate the important real-world implications of attorney questioning strategies on legal cases with child witnesses.

  4. Short-term effect of cocoa product consumption on lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lei; Liu, Xuan; Bai, Yong Yi; Li, Shao Hua; Sun, Kai; He, Chen; Hui, Rutai

    2010-07-01

    The effect of cocoa products on lipid changes is controversial. We aimed to identify and quantify the effect of cocoa on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for relevant trials of cocoa on lipid profile. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in lipid concentrations by using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Previously defined subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Eight trials (involving 215 participants) were included and evaluated. Because there was only one relatively longer-term study, we focused on the short-term data to evaluate the effects of cocoa on plasma lipid. Cocoa consumption significantly lowered LDL cholesterol by 5.87 mg/dL (95% CI: -11.13, -0.61; P consumption significantly reduced blood cholesterol, but the changes were dependent on the dose of cocoa consumption and the healthy status of participants. There was no dose response and no effect in healthy participants. Future high-quality studies are needed to determine the efficiency of moderate cocoa consumption on lipid profile in long-term intervention and in subjects with other cardiometabolic risk factors.

  5. PEMANFAATAN LEGUM COVER CROP UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI SIFAT KIMIA TANAH PADA LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG EMAS DI KABUPATEN SIJUNJUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giska Oktabriana

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sijunjung is one of the regencies in West Sumatra, which has reserves of gold mines. Gold mining in Sijunjung usually done illegally conducted dialiran river and spread the paddy rice is traditionally owned by the community. Problems encountered on mined land is that low productivity due to less good is the chemical properties of the soil it self like acid soil, N-total, P-available, cation exchange capacity (CEC and the content of bases (K, Ca, Mg and Na is low and Al dissolved in the soil is very high. One way you can do to fix it is by the use of Legume Cover Crop (LCC which is able to live on land that is damaged and is useful to protect the soil from erosion damage and is able to produce large amounts of organic matter. The purpose of this research is to improve the chemical properties of the gold mined land and to determine the type of Legume Cover Crop (LCC are good at improving the chemical nature of the gold mined lands. This research was conducted in Nagari Koto subdistrict Pala Outer Seven Sijunjung for 3 months and continued with the analysis in the Laboratory of Soil Faculty of Agriculture, Andalas University. The design used in this study is a randomized block design (RAK with 5 treatments and 3 replications, treatment plant use LCC where, A = Control (without LCC,B =Mucuna conchinchinensis, C = Calopogonium mucunoide, D =Centrocema pubescen, E = Mucuna bracteata. Data analysis using Anova table 5% if F count is count more than F table 5% and a further test HSD 5%. From the research results can be concluded that the use of LCC M. conchinchinensisable to improve soil chemical properties in the gold mining land in Sijunjung.

  6. Field trials with plant products to protect stored cowpea against insect damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Plant products were evaluated under field conditions for their efficacy as insecticides against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, on stored cowpea. Seeds, mixed with finely ground clay and three volatile oils were stored in air-tight jerry-cans and canisters. Pods were treated with leaf

  7. Methyl Bromide alternatives for vegetable production in Georgia: Small-plot trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Georgia, the loss of MeBr directly impacts the production and profitability of several fruiting vegetables [specifically, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), eggplant (Solanum melogena L.), and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)) and cucurbits (specifically, squash [yellow (Cucurbita pepo L.)], melon...

  8. High Protein Diet Maintains Glucose Production During Exercise-Induced Energy Deficit: A Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    watching TV , playing video games, reading) on days 1, 5, and 8. Isotope-Infusion Protocol Endogenous rate of glucose production and the...responsiveness in normal and obese human subjects. Am J Physiol 1987, 252:E189-E196. 24. Bortz WM, Paul P, Haff AC, Holmes WL: Glycerol turnover

  9. Crop Rotational Effects on Yield Formation in Current Sugar Beet Production – Results From a Farm Survey and Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Josef Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, the framework for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers’ survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions. The dominating sugar beet cropping interval was ≥4 years in the farm survey with pronounced differences between regions. However, the cropping intervals 2, 3, and ≥4 years did not affect the sugar yield. Therefore, significant differences in sugar yield between regions were assumed to be caused by multiple interactions between year, site, and farmers’ skills. Throughout Germany, the dominating preceding crops in sugar beet cultivation were winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. In the field trials, the sugar yield was 5% higher after pea (Pisum sativum L. compared to maize (Zea mays L. as preceding crop, while differences between the preceding crops pea and winter wheat, and wheat and maize were not significant. Repeated measurements of canopy development and leaf color during the growing season revealed a higher N-availability after pea as preceding crop. However, decreased growth after maize was not completely compensated for by high N-fertilizer doses. Overall, the causes for the differences in sugar yield between the preceding crops remained open. The results do not support concerns about substantial yield losses in sugar beet production due to a reduction in the cropping interval from 3 to 2 years. Nevertheless, short rotations with maize and sugar beet might increase the risk of Rhizoctonia solani crown and root rot infestation. Leguminous crops such as pea offer the potential

  10. Crop Rotational Effects on Yield Formation in Current Sugar Beet Production – Results From a Farm Survey and Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Heinz-Josef; Trimpler, Kerrin; Jacobs, Anna; Stockfisch, Nicol

    2018-01-01

    In Europe, the framework for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers’ survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions. The dominating sugar beet cropping interval was ≥4 years in the farm survey with pronounced differences between regions. However, the cropping intervals 2, 3, and ≥4 years did not affect the sugar yield. Therefore, significant differences in sugar yield between regions were assumed to be caused by multiple interactions between year, site, and farmers’ skills. Throughout Germany, the dominating preceding crops in sugar beet cultivation were winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the field trials, the sugar yield was 5% higher after pea (Pisum sativum L.) compared to maize (Zea mays L.) as preceding crop, while differences between the preceding crops pea and winter wheat, and wheat and maize were not significant. Repeated measurements of canopy development and leaf color during the growing season revealed a higher N-availability after pea as preceding crop. However, decreased growth after maize was not completely compensated for by high N-fertilizer doses. Overall, the causes for the differences in sugar yield between the preceding crops remained open. The results do not support concerns about substantial yield losses in sugar beet production due to a reduction in the cropping interval from 3 to 2 years. Nevertheless, short rotations with maize and sugar beet might increase the risk of Rhizoctonia solani crown and root rot infestation. Leguminous crops such as pea offer the potential for higher

  11. Biogenic synthesis and spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in the legume mungbean plant (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Singh, Jay Shankar; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the in vivo synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the legume Vigna radiata. The level of plant metabolites such as total phenolics, lipid, terpenoids, alkaloids and amino acid increased by 65%, 133%, 19%, 67% and 35%, respectively, in AgNO 3 (100 mg L -1 ) treated plants compared to control. Whereas protein and sugar contents in the treated plants were reduced by 38% and 27%, respectively. FTIR analysis of AgNO 3 (20-100 mg L -1 ) treated plants exhibited changes in the IR regions between 3297 and 3363 cm -1 , 1635-1619 cm -1 , 1249-1266 cm -1 and that corresponded to alterations in OH groups of carbohydrates, OH and NH groups of amide I and II regions of protein, when compared with the control. Transmission electron micrographs showed the spatial distribution of AgNPs in the chloroplast, cytoplasmic spaces, vacuolar and nucleolar plant regions. Metal quantification in different tissues of plants exposed to 20-100 mg L -1 AgNO 3 showed about a 22 fold accumulation of Ag in roots as compared to shoots. The phytotoxic parameters such as percent seed germination and shoot elongation remained almost unaltered at low AgNO 3 doses (20-50 mg L -1 ). However, at higher levels of exposure (100 mg L -1 ), the percent seed germination as well as root and shoot elongation exhibited concentration dependent decline. In conclusion, synthesis of AgNPs in V. radiata particularly at lower doses of AgNO 3 , could be used as a sustainable and environmentally safe technology for large scale production of metal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative Effects of Different Balance-Training-Progression Styles on Postural Control and Ankle Force Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Duncan, Ashley; Wikstrom, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Despite the effectiveness of balance training, the exact parameters needed to maximize the benefits of such programs remain unknown. One such factor is how individuals should progress to higher levels of task difficulty within a balance-training program. Yet no investigators have directly compared different balance-training-progression styles. To compare an error-based progression (ie, advance when proficient at a task) with a repetition-based progression (ie, advance after a set amount of repetitions) style during a balance-training program in healthy individuals. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. A total of 28 (16 women, 12 men) physically healthy young adults (age = 21.57 ± 3.95 years, height = 171.60 ± 11.03 cm, weight = 72.96 ± 16.18 kg, body mass index = 24.53 ± 3.7). All participants completed 12 supervised balance-training sessions over 4 weeks. Each session consisted of a combination of dynamic unstable-surface tasks that incorporated a BOSU ball and lasted about 30 minutes. Static balance from an instrumented force plate, dynamic balance as measured via the Star Excursion Balance Test, and ankle force production in all 4 cardinal planes of motion as measured with a handheld dynamometer before and after the intervention. Selected static postural-control outcomes, dynamic postural control, and ankle force production in all planes of motion improved (P .05) for any of the outcome measures. A 4-week balance-training program consisting of dynamic unstable-surface exercises on a BOSU ball improved dynamic postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults. These results suggest that an error-based balance-training program is comparable with but not superior to a repetition-based balance-training program in improving postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults.

  13. Whole grain products, fish and bilberries alter glucose and lipid metabolism in a randomized, controlled trial: the Sysdimet study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lankinen

    Full Text Available Due to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, new dietary solutions are needed to help improve glucose and lipid metabolism in persons at high risk of developing the disease. Herein we investigated the effects of low-insulin-response grain products, fatty fish, and berries on glucose metabolism and plasma lipidomic profiles in persons with impaired glucose metabolism.Altogether 106 men and women with impaired glucose metabolism and with at least two other features of the metabolic syndrome were included in a 12-week parallel dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into three diet intervention groups: (1 whole grain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish three times a week, and bilberries three portions per day (HealthyDiet group, (2 Whole grain enriched diet (WGED group, which includes principally the same grain products as group (1, but with no change in fish or berry consumption, and (3 refined wheat breads (Control. Oral glucose tolerance, plasma fatty acids and lipidomic profiles were measured before and after the intervention. Self-reported compliance with the diets was good and the body weight remained constant. Within the HealthyDiet group two hour glucose concentration and area-under-the-curve for glucose decreased and plasma proportion of (n-3 long-chain PUFAs increased (False Discovery Rate p-values <0.05. Increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid associated curvilinearly with the improved insulin secretion and glucose disposal. Among the 364 characterized lipids, 25 changed significantly in the HealthyDiet group, including multiple triglycerides incorporating the long chain (n-3 PUFA.The results suggest that the diet rich in whole grain and low insulin response grain products, bilberries, and fatty fish improve glucose metabolism and alter the lipidomic profile. Therefore, such a diet may have a beneficial effect in the efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes in high risk

  14. Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varshney, Rajeev K.; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Yupeng

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume food crop grown primarily by smallholder farmers in many semi-arid tropical regions of the world. We used the Illumina next-generation sequencing platform to generate 237.2 Gb of sequence, which along with Sanger-based bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences...

  15. N2 Fixation by Grain Legume Varieties as Affected By Rhizobia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Rhizobium – legume symbiotic association contributes considerable amount of N in tropical soils. However, low rainfall and high temperature in Sudano-Sahelian region of Northeastern. Nigeria may affect the Rhizobial population in the soil. Therefore, the influence of Rhizobia inoculation on N2 fixation by ...

  16. Plastid Genome Evolution in the Early-Diverging Legume Subfamily Cercidoideae (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Huan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Cercidoideae is an early-branching legume lineage, which consists of 13 genera distributed in the tropical and warm temperate Northern Hemisphere. A previous study detected two plastid genomic variations in this subfamily, but the limited taxon sampling left the overall plastid genome (plastome diversification across the subfamily unaddressed, and phylogenetic relationships within this clade remained unresolved. Here, we assembled eight plastomes from seven Cercidoideae genera and conducted phylogenomic-comparative analyses in a broad evolutionary framework across legumes. The plastomes of Cercidoideae all exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with a conserved gene content typical of most angiosperm plastomes. Plastome size ranged from 151,705 to 165,416 bp, mainly due to the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat (IR regions. The order of genes varied due to the occurrence of several inversions. In Tylosema species, a plastome with a 29-bp IR-mediated inversion was found to coexist with a canonical-type plastome, and the abundance of the two arrangements of isomeric molecules differed between individuals. Complete plastome data were much more efficient at resolving intergeneric relationships of Cercidoideae than the previously used selection of only a few plastid or nuclear loci. In sum, our study revealed novel insights into the structural diversification of plastomes in an early-branching legume lineage, and, thus, into the evolutionary trajectories of legume plastomes in general.

  17. The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on mild yield and composition in lactating. BZ Mugweni, M titterton, BV Maasdorp, JF Mupangwa, F Gandiya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Superparamagnetic adsorbents for high-gradient magnetic fishing of lectins out of legume extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Dalkiær, M.; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    culinaris agglutinin (greater than or equal to 250 mg g(-1)) with dissociation constants in the micromolar range, though neither of these systems showed any selectivity for lectins in leguminous extracts. When the affinity supports were applied to carbohydrate containing legume extracts only the dextran...

  19. Processing of legume seeds : effects on digestive behaviour in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goelema, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, effects of toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in situ rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of legume seeds are described. Toasting decreases protein degradability of peas, lupins, faba beans and soybeans and starch degradability of peas and faba beans,

  20. Tree legumes in medium-term fallows: Nz fixation, nitrate recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legume effects on the fixation of atmospheric N and nitrate recovery were determined in a sub-humid, bi-modal rainfall system. Fallows improved with sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and tephrosia (Tephrosia vogellii) produced more biomass and fixed more N than those fallows improved with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) or ...

  1. The potential of legume pods as supplements to low quality roughages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of legume pods as supplements to low quality roughages. A.T. Ngwa, I.V. Nsahlai, M.L.K. Bonsi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 107-108). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Studies on legume root hair development : correlations with the infection process by Rhizobium bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylona, P.

    1996-01-01


    Rhizobia-legume interaction leading to the formation of specific organs, namely root nodules, starts at the epidermis of the root. Bacteria interfere with the develomental programme of the epidermal cells by inducing a number of responses, as new root hair growth, root hair deformation

  3. Soil chemical properties and legume-cereal rotation benefits in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted at the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. The objective was to evaluate the effects of edible grain legumes (cowpea and soybean) and velvet-bean/maize rotations on soil chemical properties and the contribution ...

  4. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  5. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes for extending the grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss how clovers and warm-season legumes, such as alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil, in mixture with grasses can enhance the overall nutritive value of the overall forage, increase dry matter yield, and contribute nitrogen to the soil via the nitrogen fixing Rhizobia bacteria ...

  6. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  7. Mineral composition of legumes forages cultivated under different levels of shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos de Carvalho Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of calcium, phosphorus and potassium, and the leaf: stem ratio of four tropical forage legumes: Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo, Pueraria phaseoloides (puero, Macrotyloma axillare (archer and Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean, under different levels of artificial shade (0, 30, 50 and 70% in the summer and autumn seasons of 2006 and 2007, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial 4x4 design with four replications. Was used SNK test at 5% probability to evaluate the effect of the legume species and regression analysis to test the effect of the level of shading. There was a trend of increase in the concentration of 3 independent minerals examined the season. In contrast, there was a reduction in the leaf: stem ratio and a slight increase in specific leaf area archer, perennial soybean and puero (R2 ? 40%, which suggests small effect of shading on the morphology of leaves of 3 forage legumes, which in turn have little effect concentrating minerals, besides these finding is confirmed the annual calopo behavior, which prevents their use as legume forage for the autumn season.

  8. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  9. Nodulation of tree legumes and the ecology of their native rhizobial populations in tropical soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Murphy, P.J.; Osunde, A.O.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    A legume introduced into a new area will only form nodules and fix nitrogen if compatible rhizobia are present in the soil. Using 25 (60 in the case of Sesbania sesban) soils sampled from tropical areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America, we examined the nodulation of four agroforestry tree species

  10. Condensed tannins in some forage legumes: their role in the prevention of ruminant pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1992-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the focus in our laboratory has been on finding the causes of ruminant pasture bloat and eventually breeding a bloat-safe alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); i.e., with bloat potential reduced to the economic threshold. In the mid-seventies, the mechanisms of bloat were explored and found to be more physical than chemical. Characteristic of all bloating legumes after ingestion was a very rapid initial rate of ingestion by rumen microbes. Through the study of bloating and non-bloating legumes, factors were elucidated in the plant that would slow this process. One of these factors was the presence of condensed tannins in the herbage. Some of the non-bloating legumes contained these secondary metabolites, but no condensed tannins were found in any of the bloating legumes. Therefore, species containing an appreciable amount of condensed tannins in their leaves and stems are considered to be non-bloating. Conventional breeding methods have not been successful in producing an alfalfa with condensed tannins in its herbage. New approaches using tissue culture techniques are being attempted, but genetic engineering has the greatest potential for success.

  11. Grain legume impacts on soil biological processes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain legumes occupy about 20 million hectares in Africa. The major crops are cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), which is grown on about 11 million hectares mostly in west Africa, and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), grown on about 5 million hectares mostly in eastern and southern Africa. These grain le...

  12. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  13. THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CACTI (Opuntia ficus indica)-LEGUME MIXED SILAGE

    OpenAIRE

    J. GUSHA; S. KATSANDE; P.I. ZVINOROVA; S. NCUBE

    2013-01-01

    The potential of making silage using dry browse legume hay (Acacia angustissima, Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra callothrysus and Macroptilium Atropurpureum) mixed with fresh cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) for winter supplementation of veld grass was evaluated using the proximate, tannins and the pH analyses. Chemical analysis revealed that N values were significantly increased (P

  14. Evolution of a symbiotic receptor through gene duplications in the legume-rhizobium mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mita, De S.; Streng, A.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2014-01-01

    •The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia co-opted pre-existing endomycorrhizal features. In particular, both symbionts release lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) that are recognized by LysM-type receptor kinases. We investigated the evolutionary history of rhizobial LCO receptor

  15. Selection and breeding of grain legumes in Australia for enhanced nodulation and N2 fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herridge, D.F.; Holland, J.F.; Rose, I.A.; Redden, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    During the period 1980-87, the areas sown to grain legumes in Australia increased dramatically, from 0.25 Mha to 1.65 Mha. These increases occurred in the western and southern cereal belts, but not in the north which N continued to be supplied by the mineralization of soil organic matter. Therefore, there was a need to promote the use of N 2 -fixing legumes in the cereal-dominated northern cropping belt. Certain problems had to be addressed before farmers would accept legumes and change established patterns of cropping. Here we describe our efforts to improve N 2 fixation by soybean, common bean and pigeon pea. Selection and breeding for enhanced N 2 fixation of soybean commenced at Tamworth in 1980 after surveys of commercial crops indicated that nodulation was sometimes inadequate, particularly on new land, and that the levels of fixed-N inputs were variable and often low. Similar programmes were established in 1985 (common bean) and 1988 (pigeon bean). Progress was made in increasing N 2 fixation by these legumes towards obtaining economic yields without fertilizer N and contributing organic N for the benefit of subsequent cereal crops

  16. Legume Protein Isolates for Stable Acidic Emulsions Prepared by Premix Membrane Emulsification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladjal Ettoumi, Yakoub; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Chibane, Mohamed; Schroën, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Proteins originating from dry legumes are not that much used in food formulations, yet, they are interesting components from a sustainability point of view, and could have interesting functional properties, e.g. for emulsion preparation. Therefore, this work focuses on the potential of the water

  17. Method Development to Increase Protein Enrichment During Dry Fractionation of Starch-Rich Legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was developed to establish milling settings that optimally separate starch granules from protein bodies and cell wall fibres for starch-rich legumes. Optimal separation was obtained for pea, bean, lentil and chickpea when the particle size distribution curve of flour and isolated

  18. The pulvinus endodermal cells and their relation to leaf movement in legumes of the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T M; Machado, S R

    2007-07-01

    Legume pulvini have a clearly delimited endodermis, whose variable content has been associated with the velocity and type of leaf movement: pulvini in leaves with fast nastic movement contain starch grains; pulvini in leaves with slow nastic movements have calcium oxalate crystals as well as starch grains in the endodermis. However, the studies carried out to date have involved few legume species. This study therefore purported to examine the consistency of this hypothesis in other legumes. Thus, the structure and content of the pulvinus endodermal cells of nine legumes of the Brazilian cerrado, with different types and velocities of leaf movement, were investigated: slow nyctinastic and heliotropic movements ( BAUHINIA RUFA, COPAIFERA LANGSDORFFII, SENNA RUGOSA - Caesalpinioideae; ANDIRA HUMILIS and DALBERGIA MISCOLOBIUM - Faboideae; STRYPHNODENDRON POLYPHYLLUM - Mimosoideae), slow heliotropic movement ( ZORNIA DIPHYLLA - Faboideae), and fast seismonastic and slow nyctinastic and heliotropic movements ( MIMOSA RIXOSA and MIMOSA FLEXUOSA - Mimosoideae). Samples were prepared following standard plant anatomy and ultrastructure techniques. The endodermis of all the species contains starch grains. In the species displaying only slow movements, calcium oxalate prismatic crystals were observed in addition to starch grains, except in ZORNIA DIPHYLLA. In conclusion, oxalate crystals occur only in endodermal cells of pulvini that display slow movements, while starch grains are always present in pulvinus endodermal cells of plants with any kind of movement.

  19. Alterations in biochemical and physiological characters in radiation-induced mutants of grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    Selected examples from different grain legumes are studied. The biochemically and physiologically detectable alterations in distintc characters as caused by the action of mutant genes are presented comparatively. The interactions between different mutant genes in order to evaluated the influence of the genotypic constitution on the expression of mutated genes are emphasized. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Common bean-Rhizobium symbiosis: functional genomics of legume response to abiotic stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is the world's most important grain legume for direct human consumption and a main source of proteins in Latin America and Africa. Environmental factors such as nutrient deficiency, soil acidity, and metal toxicity are important constraints for bean symbiotic nitroge...