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Sample records for legume plants growing

  1. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  2. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...... to neighbouring plants differed among nitrogen donors and nitrogen receivers and may depend on root characteristics and regrowth strategies of plant species in the multi-species grassland.......Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...

  3. Rhizobium-legume symbioses: the crucial role of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, Benjamin; Berrabah, Fathi; Ratet, Pascal; Stacey, Gary

    2015-03-01

    New research results have significantly revised our understanding of the rhizobium-legume infection process. For example, Nod factors (NFs), previously thought to be absolutely essential for this symbiosis, were shown to be dispensable under particular conditions. Similarly, an NF receptor, previously considered to be solely involved in symbiosis, was shown to function during plant pathogen infections. Indeed, there is a growing realization that plant innate immunity is a crucial component in the establishment and maintenance of symbiosis. We review here the factors involved in the suppression of plant immunity during rhizobium-legume symbiosis, and we attempt to place this information into context with the most recent and sometimes surprising research results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  5. Phylogenetic diversity of Rhizobium strains nodulating diverse legume species growing in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Tulu; Wolde-meskel, Endalkachew; Frostegård, Åsa

    2013-06-01

    The taxonomic diversity of thirty-seven Rhizobium strains, isolated from nodules of leguminous trees and herbs growing in Ethiopia, was studied using multilocus sequence analyses (MLSA) of six core and two symbiosis-related genes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene grouped them into five clusters related to nine Rhizobium reference species (99-100% sequence similarity). In addition, two test strains occupied their own independent branches on the phylogenetic tree (AC86a2 along with R. tibeticum; 99.1% similarity and AC100b along with R. multihospitium; 99.5% similarity). One strain from Milletia ferruginea was closely related (>99%) to the genus Shinella, further corroborating earlier findings that nitrogen-fixing bacteria are distributed among phylogenetically unrelated taxa. Sequence analyses of five housekeeping genes also separated the strains into five well-supported clusters, three of which grouped with previously studied Ethiopian common bean rhizobia. Three of the five clusters could potentially be described into new species. Based on the nifH genes, most of the test strains from crop legumes were closely related to several strains of Ethiopian common bean rhizobia and other symbionts of bean plants (R. etli and R. gallicum sv. phaseoli). The grouping of the test strains based on the symbiosis-related genes was not in agreement with the housekeeping genes, signifying differences in their evolutionary history. Our earlier studies revealing a large diversity of Mesorhizobium and Ensifer microsymbionts isolated from Ethiopian legumes, together with the results from the present analysis of Rhizobium strains, suggest that this region might be a potential hotspot for rhizobial biodiversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative phylogenetic and expression analysis of small GTPases families in legume and non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ana Claudia; Via, Virginia Dalla; Savy, Virginia; Villagra, Ulises Mancini; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants. Phylogenetic analyses did not show clear differences in the organization of the different subfamilies of small GTPases between plants that engage or not in nodule symbiosis. Protein alignments revealed a strong conservation at the sequence level of small GTPases previously linked to nodulation by functional genetics. Interestingly, one Rab and three Rop proteins showed conserved amino acid substitutions in legumes, but these changes do not alter the predicted conformational structure of these proteins. Although the steady-state levels of most small GTPases do not change in response to rhizobia, we identified a subset of Rab, Rop and Arf genes whose transcript levels are modulated during the symbiotic interaction, including their spatial distribution along the indeterminate nodule. This study provides a comprehensive study of the small GTPase superfamily in several plant species. The genetic program associated to root nodule symbiosis includes small GTPases to fulfill specific functions during infection and formation of the symbiosomes. These GTPases seems to have been recruited from members that were already present in common ancestors with plants as distant as monocots

  7. Deciphering composition and function of the root microbiome of a legume plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Kyle; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Roussely-Provent, Valexia; Walser, Jean-Claude; Schlaeppi, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including

  8. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leuce...

  9. NPR1 Protein Regulates Pathogenic and Symbiotic Interactions between Rhizobium and Legumes and Non-Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA)....

  10. Estimation of Nitrogenase Enzyme Activities and Plant Growth of Legume and Non-legume Inoculated with Diazotrophic Bacteria

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    Salwani S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF process benefits the agriculture sector especially for reducing cost of nitrogenfertilizer. In the process, the diazotrophs convert N2 into ammonia (NH3 which is useable by plants. The BNF process iscatalysed by nitrogenase enzyme that involved protons and electrons together with evolution of H2 therefore, theassessment of N2 fixation is also available via H2 production and electron allocation analysis. Thus, the aims of thisexperiment were to estimate the nitrogenase enzyme activities and observe the influence of diazothrophs on growth oflegume (soybean and non legume (rice plants. Host plants were inoculated with respective inocula; Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum (strain 532C for soybean while Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7 and locally isolated diazotroph (isolate 5 forrice. At harvest, the plants were observed for plant growth parameters, H2 evolution, N2 fixation and electron allocationcoefficient (EAC values. The experiment recorded N2 fixation activities of inoculated soybean plants at 141.2 μmol N2 h-1g-1 dry weight nodule, and the evolution of H2 at 144.4 μmol H2 h-1 g-1 dry weight nodule. The electron allocationcoefficient (EAC of soybean was recorded at 0.982. For inoculated rice plants, none of the observations was successfully recorded. However, results for chlorophyll contents and plant dry weight of both plants inoculated with respective inocula were similar to the control treatments supplied with full nitrogen fertilization (+N. The experiment clearly showed that inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria could enhance growth of the host plants similar to plants treated with nitrogenous fertilizer due to efficient N2 fixation process

  11. Experimental evolution of a plant pathogen into a legume symbiont.

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    Marta Marchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate alpha- and beta-proteobacteria that have achieved the environmentally essential function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. Ample evidence indicates that horizontal transfer of symbiotic plasmids/islands has played a crucial role in rhizobia evolution. However, adaptive mechanisms that allow the recipient genomes to express symbiotic traits are unknown. Here, we report on the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into Mimosa nodulating and infecting symbionts. Two types of adaptive mutations in the hrpG-controlled virulence pathway of R. solanacearum were identified that are crucial for the transition from pathogenicity towards mutualism. Inactivation of the hrcV structural gene of the type III secretion system allowed nodulation and early infection to take place, whereas inactivation of the master virulence regulator hrpG allowed intracellular infection of nodule cells. Our findings predict that natural selection of adaptive changes in the legume environment following horizontal transfer has been a major driving force in rhizobia evolution and diversification and show the potential of experimental evolution to decipher the mechanisms leading to symbiosis.

  12. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  13. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919T; a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919T is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919T was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919T is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919T does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919T, together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project. PMID:25197433

  14. Genome sequence of Ensifer arboris strain LMG 14919(T); a microsymbiont of the legume Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; Bräu, Lambert; Goodwin, Lynne; Munk, Christine; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Liolios, Konstantinos; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Woyke, Tanja; Mavrommatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Kyrpides, Nikos; Willems, Anne

    2014-06-15

    Ensifer arboris LMG 14919(T) is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that can exist as a soil saprophyte or as a legume microsymbiont of several species of legume trees. LMG 14919(T) was isolated in 1987 from a nodule recovered from the roots of the tree Prosopis chilensis growing in Kosti, Sudan. LMG 14919(T) is highly effective at fixing nitrogen with P. chilensis (Chilean mesquite) and Acacia senegal (gum Arabic tree or gum acacia). LMG 14919(T) does not nodulate the tree Leucena leucocephala, nor the herbaceous species Macroptilium atropurpureum, Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus and Galega orientalis. Here we describe the features of E. arboris LMG 14919(T), together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 6,850,303 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged into 7 scaffolds of 12 contigs containing 6,461 protein-coding genes and 84 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 100 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea-Root Nodule Bacteria (GEBA-RNB) project.

  15. HYDROPONICS TECHNOLOGY TO GROW PLANTS WITHOUT SOIL

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    P. V. Shishkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of hydroponics for growing plants without soil has been developed, where the many advantages are: the high technological performance; reduce of expenses; economy in watering and fertilizers due to lack of drainage system and extra engineering needed for solution circulation; reduce of exploitations expenses due to lack of soil tilling. There is also no problem concerning the root rots that are typical for all methods of growing plants without soil. This allows growing the plants with large root volume and prolonged period of vegetation. Efficiency of this system  has been proven by multi-year experiments. It was shown  that  vegetable crop  such as cucumber,  the root system of which is very sensible to oxygen deficiency, well grew, developed and gave fruits on the vegetation tray.

  16. Enhancing legume ecosystem services through an understanding of plant-pollinator interplay

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    Maria Jose eSuso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant-pollinator interplay (PPI, in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: 1 optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and 2 biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the pest control service and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: a Farming with Alternative Pollinators (FAP and b Crop Design System (CDS.

  17. Does legume nitrogen fixation underpin host quality for the hemiparasitic plant Rhinanthus minor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fan; Jeschke, W Dieter; Hartung, Wolfram; Cameron, Duncan D

    2008-01-01

    The high quality of leguminous hosts for the parasitic plant Rhinanthus minor (in terms of growth and fecundity), compared with forbs (non-leguminous dicots) has long been assumed to be a function of the legume's ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen (N) from the air and the potential for direct transfer of compatible amino compounds to the parasite. Using associations between Rhinanthus minor and Vicia faba (Fabaceae) that receive N either exclusively via symbiotic associations with rhizobia supplying organic N fixed from N(2) or exclusively through the supply of inorganic nitrate to the substrate, the underlying reasons for the quality of legumes as hosts for this parasite are unravelled. It is shown that sole dependence of the host, V. faba, on N fixation results in lower growth of the attached parasite than when the host is grown in a substrate supplied exclusively with inorganic N. In contrast, the host plants themselves achieved a similar biomass irrespective of their N source. The physiological basis for this is investigated in terms of N and abscisic acid (ABA) partitioning, haustorial penetration, and xylem sap amino acid profiles. It is concluded that legume N fixation does not underpin the quality of legumes as hosts for Rhinanthus but rather the well-developed haustorium formed by the parasite, coupled with the lack of defensive response of the host tissues to the invading haustorium and the presence of sufficient nitrogenous compounds in the xylem sap accessible to the parasite haustoria, would appear to be the primary factors influencing host quality of the legumes.

  18. Biological Nitrogen Fixation by Legumes and N Uptake by Coffee Plants

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    Eduardo de Sá Mendonça

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Green manures are an alternative for substituting or supplementing mineral nitrogen fertilizers. The aim of this study was to quantify biological N fixation (BNF and the N contribution derived from BNF (N-BNF to N levels in leaves of coffee intercropped with legumes grown on four family farms located in the mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest Biome in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The following green manures were evaluated: pinto peanuts (Arachis pintoi, calopo (Calopogonium mucunoides, crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis, Brazilian stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, lablab beans (Dolichos lablab, and velvet beans (Stizolobium deeringianum, and spontaneous plants. The experimental design was randomized blocks with a 4 × 8 factorial arrangement (four agricultural properties and eight green manures, and four replications. One hundred grams of fresh matter of each green manure plant were dried in an oven to obtain the dry matter. We then performed chemical and biochemical characterizations and determined the levels of 15N and 14N, which were used to quantify BNF through the 15N (δ15N natural abundance technique. The legumes C. mucunoides, S. guianensis, C. cajan, and D. lablab had the highest rates of BNF, at 46.1, 45.9, 44.4, and 42.9 %, respectively. C. cajan was the legume that contributed the largest amount of N (44.42 kg ha-1 via BNF.C. cajan, C. spectabilis, and C. mucunoides transferred 55.8, 48.8, and 48.1 %, respectively, of the N from biological fixation to the coffee plants. The use of legumes intercropped with coffee plants is important in supplying N, as well as in transferring N derived from BNF to nutrition of the coffee plants.

  19. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase.

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    Chrysoula Spanou

    Full Text Available Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC(50 values range from 40-135 µg/mL and 55-260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their K(i values ranged from 13-767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action.

  20. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanou, Chrysoula; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Kerasioti, Thalia; Kontou, Maria; Angelis, Apostolos; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC(50) values range from 40-135 µg/mL and 55-260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their K(i) values ranged from 13-767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action.

  1. Acoustic properties of low growing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoshenkov, Kirill V; Khan, Amir; Benkreira, Hadj

    2013-05-01

    The plane wave normal incidence acoustic absorption coefficient of five types of low growing plants is measured in the presence and absence of soil. These plants are generally used in green living walls and flower beds. Two types of soil are considered in this work: a light-density, man-made soil and a heavy-density natural clay base soil. The absorption coefficient data are obtained in the frequency range of 50-1600 Hz using a standard impedance tube of diameter 100 mm. The equivalent fluid model for sound propagation in rigid frame porous media proposed by Miki [J. Acoust. Soc. Jpn. (E) 11, 25-28 (1990)] is used to predict the experimentally observed behavior of the absorption coefficient spectra of soils, plants, and their combinations. Optimization analysis is employed to deduce the effective flow resistivity and tortuosity of plants which are assumed to behave acoustically as an equivalent fluid in a rigid frame porous medium. It is shown that the leaf area density and dominant angle of leaf orientation are two key morphological characteristics which can be used to predict accurately the effective flow resistivity and tortuosity of plants.

  2. Does plant immunity play a critical role during initiation of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Katalin; Stacey, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Plants are exposed to many different microbes in their habitats. These microbes may be benign or pathogenic, but in some cases they are beneficial for the host. The rhizosphere provides an especially rich palette for colonization by beneficial (associative and symbiotic) microorganisms, which raises the question as to how roots can distinguish such 'friends' from possible 'foes' (i.e., pathogens). Plants possess an innate immune system that can recognize pathogens, through an arsenal of protein receptors, including receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) located at the plasma membrane. In addition, the plant host has intracellular receptors (so called NBS-LRR proteins or R proteins) that directly or indirectly recognize molecules released by microbes into the plant cell. A successful cooperation between legume plants and rhizobia leads to beneficial symbiotic interaction. The key rhizobial, symbiotic signaling molecules [lipo-chitooligosaccharide Nod factors (NF)] are perceived by the host legume plant using lysin motif-domain containing RLKs. Perception of the symbiotic NFs trigger signaling cascades leading to bacterial infection and accommodation of the symbiont in a newly formed root organ, the nodule, resulting in a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis. The net result of this symbiosis is the intracellular colonization of the plant with thousands of bacteria; a process that seems to occur in spite of the immune ability of plants to prevent pathogen infection. In this review, we discuss the potential of the invading rhizobial symbiont to actively avoid this innate immune response, as well as specific examples of where the plant immune response may modulate rhizobial infection and host range.

  3. Assessment of oils of selected legumes and oil plants with regard to animal nutrition

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    Lucie Rusníková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to compare nutritional quality of oils of legumes (soybean, pea, faba bean and lupin and oil plants (rape, sunflower, poppy and flax grown in the Czech Republic. Individual seeds of legumes and oil seeds were analysed for fat content and fatty acid profile. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatography, following fat extraction. The fatty acid profile was evaluated for contents of fatty acids saturated, unsaturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, n-3 and n-6 fatty acids. The highest proportion of fat in the dry matter of seed was found in poppy, followed by sunflower, flax, rape, soybean, lupin, pea, and faba bean. Differences in fat contents between individual plants were highly significant (P ≤ 0.01, except for differences between flax and rape (P ≤ 0.05, pea and faba bean and poppy and sunflower (non-significant. Apart from rapeseed, markedly higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids were found in other oils but rapeseed had the least content of saturated fatty acids. Legumes had a favourable ratio of n-3:n-6 fatty acids, especially lupin oil (1:4.3, which is in accordance with the recommended ratio 1:5. Sunflower oil is less suitable, with n-3 present in trace concentration. The most significant source of n-3 is flaxseed oil. The study brings new findings regarding oil composition in a wide range of feed components. These data may be used for development of diets for specific purposes and for production of functional food.

  4. Legume-rhizobium symbiotic promiscuity and effectiveness do not affect plant invasiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keet, Jan-Hendrik; Ellis, Allan G; Hui, Cang; Le Roux, Johannes J

    2017-06-01

    The ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen is thought to play an important role in the invasion success of legumes. Interactions between legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia) span a continuum of specialization, and promiscuous legumes are thought to have higher chances of forming effective symbioses in novel ranges. Using Australian Acacia species in South Africa, it was hypothesized that widespread and highly invasive species will be more generalist in their rhizobial symbiotic requirements and more effective in fixing atmospheric nitrogen compared with localized and less invasive species. To test these hypotheses, eight localized and 11 widespread acacias were examined using next-generation sequencing data for the nodulation gene, nodC , to compare the identity, species richness, diversity and compositional similarity of rhizobia associated with these acacias. Stable isotope analysis was also used to determine levels of nitrogen obtained from the atmosphere via symbiotic nitrogen fixation. No differences were found in richness, diversity and community composition between localized and widespread acacias. Similarly, widespread and localized acacias did not differ in their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. However, for some species by site comparisons, significant differences in δ15N isotopic signatures were found, indicating differential symbiotic effectiveness between these species at specific localities. Overall, the results support recent findings that root nodule rhizobial diversity and community composition do not differ between acacias that vary in their invasiveness. Differential invasiveness of acacias in South Africa is probably linked to attributes such as differences in propagule pressure, reasons for (e.g. forestry vs. ornamental) and extent of, plantings in the country.

  5. Effects Total Solar Eclipse to Nasty Behaviour of the Several Legume Plants as a Result Student Research

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    Anggraeni, S.; Diana, S.; Supriatno, B.

    2017-09-01

    Some group students of plant Physiology course have given task to do free inquiry. They investigated of the nasty behaviour of several legume plants in response to changes in light during the partial solar eclipse that occurred at March 9, 2016. The investigation carried out in UPI Bandung, West Java, Indonesia, which is in the penumbra region of a total solar eclipse with the location coordinates of latitude: -6.86105, longitude: 07.59071, S 6057’ 37.53553 “and E 107035’ 24.29141”. They were measuring the movement of opening leaves every ten minutes at the beginning of the start until the end of the eclipse compared with the behaviour without eclipsing. Influence is expressed by comparing the leaf opening movement (measured in the form of leaf angular) at the time of the eclipse with a normal day. Each group was observed for one plant of the legume, there are: Mimosa pudica, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Arachis pintoi. The results showed that the changes in leaf angular in plants Mimosa pudica, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, and Arachis pintoi differently significant, except for Bauhinia purpurea. In conclusion, the total solar eclipse in the penumbra area affects the movement of some nasty legume plants. It is recommended to conduct a study of the nasty behaviour of legume plants in the area umbra in the path of a total solar eclipse.

  6. Does plant immunity have a central role in the legume rhizobium symbiosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin eToth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to many different microbes in their habitat. These microbes may be benign or pathogenic, but in some cases they are beneficial. The rhizosphere provides an especially rich palette for colonization by beneficial (associative and symbiotic microorganisms, which raises the question as to how roots can distinguish such ‘friends’ from possible ‘foes’ (i.e., pathogens. Plants possess an innate immunity system that can recognize pathogens, through an arsenal of protein receptors. These receptors include receptor-like kinases (RLK and receptor-like proteins (RLP located at the plasma membrane, as well as intracellular receptors (so called NBS-LRR proteins or R proteins that recognize molecules released by microbes into the plant cell. The key rhizobial, symbiotic signaling molecule (called Nod factor is perceived by the host legume plant using LysM-domain containing RLKs. Perception of the symbiotic Nod factor triggers signaling cascades leading to bacterial infection and accommodation of the symbiont in a newly formed root organ, the nodule, resulting in a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis (RNS. The net result of this symbiosis is the intracellular colonization of the plant with thousands of bacteria; a process that seems to occur in spite of the immune ability of plants to prevent pathogen infection. In this review, we discuss the potential of the invading rhizobial symbiont to actively avoid this innate immunity response, as well as specific examples of where the plant immune response may modulate rhizobial infection and host range.

  7. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes are large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy ...

  8. Effects of Greek legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanou, Chrysoula I; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Stagos, Dimitrios; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Aligiannis, Nectarios; Angelis, Apostolos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Anastasiadi, Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-03-01

    Legumes are considered to have beneficial health implications, which have been attributed to their phytochemical content. Polyphenols are considered the most important phytochemical compounds extensively studied for their antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of potent antioxidant legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. XO exerts a dual role, as it is the major contributor of free radicals during exercise while it generates uric acid, the most potent antioxidant molecule in plasma. CAT and SOD are two of the main enzymes of the antioxidant defence of tissues. We demonstrate that the majority of the extracts inhibited XO activity, but they had no effect on CAT inhibition and SOD induction when used at low concentrations. These results imply that the tested extracts may be considered as possible source of novel XO inhibitors. However, we have shown that allopurinol administration, a known XO inhibitor, before exercise reduces performance and induces oxidative stress in rats. Considering the fact that the extracts examined had an inhibitory effect on XO activity, possibly posing a restriction in their characterization as antioxidants, phytochemical antioxidant administration before exercise should probably be reconsidered.

  9. Plant growth-promoting actinobacteria: a new strategy for enhancing sustainable production and protection of grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam

    2017-06-01

    Grain legumes are a cost-effective alternative for the animal protein in improving the diets of the poor in South-East Asia and Africa. Legumes, through symbiotic nitrogen fixation, meet a major part of their own N demand and partially benefit the following crops of the system by enriching soil. In realization of this sustainability advantage and to promote pulse production, United Nations had declared 2016 as the "International Year of pulses". Grain legumes are frequently subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses resulting in severe yield losses. Global yields of legumes have been stagnant for the past five decades in spite of adopting various conventional and molecular breeding approaches. Furthermore, the increasing costs and negative effects of pesticides and fertilizers for crop production necessitate the use of biological options of crop production and protection. The use of plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria for improving soil and plant health has become one of the attractive strategies for developing sustainable agricultural systems due to their eco-friendliness, low production cost and minimizing consumption of non-renewable resources. This review emphasizes on how the PGP actinobacteria and their metabolites can be used effectively in enhancing the yield and controlling the pests and pathogens of grain legumes.

  10. Synthesis of Rhizobial Exopolysaccharides and Their Importance for Symbiosis with Legume Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Marczak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia dwell and multiply in the soil and represent a unique group of bacteria able to enter into a symbiotic interaction with plants from the Fabaceae family and fix atmospheric nitrogen inside de novo created plant organs, called nodules. One of the key determinants of the successful interaction between these bacteria and plants are exopolysaccharides, which represent species-specific homo- and heteropolymers of different carbohydrate units frequently decorated by non-carbohydrate substituents. Exopolysaccharides are typically built from repeat units assembled by the Wzx/Wzy-dependent pathway, where individual subunits are synthesized in conjunction with the lipid anchor undecaprenylphosphate (und-PP, due to the activity of glycosyltransferases. Complete oligosaccharide repeat units are transferred to the periplasmic space by the activity of the Wzx flippase, and, while still being anchored in the membrane, they are joined by the polymerase Wzy. Here we have focused on the genetic control over the process of exopolysaccharides (EPS biosynthesis in rhizobia, with emphasis put on the recent advancements in understanding the mode of action of the key proteins operating in the pathway. A role played by exopolysaccharide in Rhizobium–legume symbiosis, including recent data confirming the signaling function of EPS, is also discussed.

  11. Biogenic synthesis and spatial distribution of silver nanoparticles in the legume mungbean plant (Vigna radiata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rima; Singh, Jay Shankar; Singh, Devendra Pratap

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study the in vivo synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in the legume Vigna radiata. The level of plant metabolites such as total phenolics, lipid, terpenoids, alkaloids and amino acid increased by 65%, 133%, 19%, 67% and 35%, respectively, in AgNO 3 (100 mg L -1 ) treated plants compared to control. Whereas protein and sugar contents in the treated plants were reduced by 38% and 27%, respectively. FTIR analysis of AgNO 3 (20-100 mg L -1 ) treated plants exhibited changes in the IR regions between 3297 and 3363 cm -1 , 1635-1619 cm -1 , 1249-1266 cm -1 and that corresponded to alterations in OH groups of carbohydrates, OH and NH groups of amide I and II regions of protein, when compared with the control. Transmission electron micrographs showed the spatial distribution of AgNPs in the chloroplast, cytoplasmic spaces, vacuolar and nucleolar plant regions. Metal quantification in different tissues of plants exposed to 20-100 mg L -1 AgNO 3 showed about a 22 fold accumulation of Ag in roots as compared to shoots. The phytotoxic parameters such as percent seed germination and shoot elongation remained almost unaltered at low AgNO 3 doses (20-50 mg L -1 ). However, at higher levels of exposure (100 mg L -1 ), the percent seed germination as well as root and shoot elongation exhibited concentration dependent decline. In conclusion, synthesis of AgNPs in V. radiata particularly at lower doses of AgNO 3 , could be used as a sustainable and environmentally safe technology for large scale production of metal nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolution of a horizontally acquired legume gene, albumin 1, in the parasitic plant Phelipanche aegyptiaca and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeting; Fernandez-Aparicio, Monica; Wafula, Eric K; Das, Malay; Jiao, Yuannian; Wickett, Norman J; Honaas, Loren A; Ralph, Paula E; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Timko, Michael P; Yoder, John I; Westwood, James H; Depamphilis, Claude W

    2013-02-20

    Parasitic plants, represented by several thousand species of angiosperms, use modified structures known as haustoria to tap into photosynthetic host plants and extract nutrients and water. As a result of their direct plant-plant connections with their host plant, parasitic plants have special opportunities for horizontal gene transfer, the nonsexual transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. There is increasing evidence that parasitic plants have served as recipients and donors of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), but the long-term impacts of eukaryotic HGT in parasitic plants are largely unknown. Here we show that a gene encoding albumin 1 KNOTTIN-like protein, closely related to the albumin 1 genes only known from papilionoid legumes, where they serve dual roles as food storage and insect toxin, was found in Phelipanche aegyptiaca and related parasitic species of family Orobanchaceae, and was likely acquired by a Phelipanche ancestor via HGT from a legume host based on phylogenetic analyses. The KNOTTINs are well known for their unique "disulfide through disulfide knot" structure and have been extensively studied in various contexts, including drug design. Genomic sequences from nine related parasite species were obtained, and 3D protein structure simulation tests and evolutionary constraint analyses were performed. The parasite gene we identified here retains the intron structure, six highly conserved cysteine residues necessary to form a KNOTTIN protein, and displays levels of purifying selection like those seen in legumes. The albumin 1 xenogene has evolved through >150 speciation events over ca. 16 million years, forming a small family of differentially expressed genes that may confer novel functions in the parasites. Moreover, further data show that a distantly related parasitic plant, Cuscuta, obtained two copies of albumin 1 KNOTTIN-like genes from legumes through a separate HGT event, suggesting that legume KNOTTIN structures have been

  13. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andnet Abtew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies.

  14. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-12-21

    Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  15. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  16. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  17. Role of plant growth-promoting Ochrobactrum sp. MC22 on triclocarban degradation and toxicity mitigation to legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahutar, Merry Krisdawati; Vangnai, Alisa S

    2017-05-05

    Triclocarban (TCC) is an emerging and persistent pollutant once released into environment. In this study, TCC-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. MC22, was isolated and characterized. This is the first report on plant-growth promoting bacterium with versatile capability of TCC degradation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The aerobic degradation of TCC occurred completely of which the kinetic analysis revealed a non-self-inhibitive substrate effect, and broad-concentration-range degradation efficiency (ranging from 0.16-30mgL -1 ). Anaerobic TCC degradation was feasible, but was significantly enhanced up to 40-50% when ferric, or acetate was provided as electron donor, or acceptor, respectively. TCC biodegradation under both conditions was proposed to initially occur through hydrolysis leading to transient accumulation of chloroanilines, which could be completely metabolized and detoxified. With concern on TCC adverse effect to plants, role of MC22 on toxicity mitigation was investigated using two legume plants: Vigna radiata and Glycine max (L.) Merr. Upon TCC exposure, damage of both plant structures, especially root system was observed, but was substantially mitigated by MC22 bioaugmentation. This study not only provides thorough TCC degradation characteristic and kinetics of MC22, but also suggests a potential role of this bacterial strain for a rhizoremediation in crop area with TCC contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were ...

  19. Evaluation of efficient glucose release using sodium hydroxide and phosphoric acid as pretreating agents from the biomass of Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers.: A fast growing tree legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Nitesh K; Dash, Debabrata; Barik, Chitta R; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj; Mishra, Prasannajit; Nayak, Nihar R

    2017-07-01

    Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. is one of the fast growing tree legumes having the efficiency to produce around 50tha -1 above ground dry matters in a year. In this study, biomass of 2years old S. grandiflora was selected for the chemical composition, pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis studies. The stem biomass with a wood density of 3.89±0.01gmcm -3 contains about 38% cellulose, 12% hemicellulose and 28% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass revealed that phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) pretreated samples even at lower cellulase loadings [1 Filter Paper Units (FPU)], could efficiently convert about 86% glucose, while, even at higher cellulase loadings (60FPU) alkali pretreated biomass could convert only about 58% glucose. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid pretreatment was also supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. But How Do You Grow Plants Without Dirt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Ronald F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a class project on hydroponic farming (growing plants in water and in organic nutrients rather than dirt). Students formed a corporation to raise necessary funds and paid dividends from the proceeds earned selling the crop. (JMB)

  1. [Signaling Systems of Rhizobia (Rhizobiaceae) and Leguminous Plants (Fabaceae) upon the Formation of a Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis (Review)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyan'ko, A K

    2015-01-01

    Data from the literature and our own data on the participation and interrelation of bacterial signaling Nod-factors and components of the calcium, NADPH-oxidase, and NO-synthase signaling systems of a plant at the preinfection and infectious stages of the formation of a legume-rhizobium symbiosis are summarized in this review. The physiological role of Nod-factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS), calcium (Ca2+), NADPH-oxidase, nitric oxide (NO), and their cross influence on the processes determining the formation of symbiotic structures on the roots of the host plant is discussed.

  2. Linking growing degree-days and cranberry plant phenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Steffan lab has coordinated cranberry growers as citizen scientists since 2014 to record growing degree-days and make observations of cranberry plant phenology. The data from the last three years was analyzed to link plant phenology with degree-days....

  3. Air pollution tolerance indices of plants growing around Umuebulu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FRANKLIN

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... The air pollution tolerance indices of 10 plants growing around the vicinity of Umuebulu Gas flare. Station in Oyigbo Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria were analyzed. Plant samples were randomly collected from the vicinity of the gas station. A composite sample of eight leaves for each.

  4. Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium (collectively referred to as rhizobia) grow in the soil as free-living organisms but can also live as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodule cells of legume plants. The interactions between several rhizobial species and their host plants have become models for this type of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Temperate legumes such as alfalfa, pea, and vetch form indeterminate nodules that a...

  5. DAMPAK FASILITATIF TUMBUHAN LEGUM PENUTUP TANAH DAN TANAMAN BERMIKORIZA PADA SUKSESI PRIMER DI LAHAN BEKAS TAMBANG KAPUR (Facilitative Impacts of Legume Cover-crop and Mycorrhizal-inoculated Plant on Primary Succession of Limestone Quarries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Prayudyaningsih

    2015-11-01

    melalui peningkatkan kerapatan individu dan keanekaragaman jenis pada semua tingkatan habitus, meskipun untuk tingkat herba dan semak, kerapatan individu dan keanekaragaman jenis terendah pada areal pertanaman tanpa mikoriza. ABSTRACT Limestone mining using open pit mining method that involves vegetation removal and soil drilling and blasting in accessing limestone material has caused ecosystem damages. Natural recovery of such a harsh site is a slow process as the site condition in the successional process do not favor the natural vegetation development. Plants Establishment could facilitate other plants by ameliorating harsh environmental characteristics and/or increasing the availability of nutrient resources. Facilitation impact of legume cover crop (Centrosema pubescens and mycorrhizal-inoculated plantation (Vitex cofassus was studied on primary succession of TNS limestone mining quarry. The emergence of natural plants is measured using individual density, diversity and number of species by quadrat systematic plot method base on their habitus. Site conditions measured by litterfall thickness and biomass, soil organic matter content and soil organic carbon levels. The study was conducted in four types of areas on limestone postmining lands are open areas/natural conditions without planting, legume cover crop area, non mycorrhizal-inoculated plant area and mycorrhizal-inoculated plant area. The results indicated, establishment of legume cover crops and mycorrhizal-inoculated plants improved site conditions of limestone quarry. Legume cover crops establishment produced a large amount of litters with 1.08 cm of a thickness and 188.96 g/m2 of biomass, and it’s subsequent decomposition increased soil organic matter of 3.80% and the organic carbon content of 2.20%. Plantation formation gave similar impact as well, particulary those inoculated with Arbuscula Mycorrhizae Fungi (AMF produced amount of litters with 1.32 cm of a thickness and 220.48 g/m2 of biomass, with 3

  6. Cell wall integrity signaling in plants: "To grow or not to grow that's the question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voxeur, Aline; Höfte, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Plants, like yeast, have the ability to monitor alterations in the cell wall architecture that occur during normal growth or in changing environments and to trigger compensatory changes in the cell wall. We discuss how recent advances in our understanding of the cell wall architecture provide new insights into the role of cell wall integrity sensing in growth control. Next we review the properties of membrane receptor-like kinases that have roles in pH control, mechano-sensing and reactive oxygen species accumulation in growing cells and which may be the plant equivalents of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) sensors. Finally, we discuss recent findings showing an increasing role for CWI signaling in plant immunity and the adaptation to changes in the ionic environment of plant cells. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Flavonoid Glycosides Isolated from Unique Legume Plant Extracts as Novel Inhibitors of Xanthine Oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Spanou, Chrysoula; Veskoukis, Aristidis S.; Kerasioti, Thalia; Kontou, Maria; Angelis, Apostolos; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, ...

  8. Growing Plants - USMES Teacher Resource Book. Second Edition. Trial Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, L. Ray, Jr.; Keskulla, Jean

    This Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) unit challenges students to grow plants and to determine some purpose for their use (transplanting, selling, gifts). The challenge is general enough to apply to many problem-solving situations in mathematics, science, social science, and language arts at any elementary school…

  9. Control of plant virus diseases in cool-season grain legume crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G; van Leur, Joop A G; Jones, Roger A C

    2014-01-01

    Cool-season grain legume crops become infected with a wide range of viruses, many of which cause serious diseases and major yield losses. This review starts by discussing which viruses are important in the principal cool-season grain legume crops in different parts of the world, the losses they cause and their economic impacts in relation to control. It then describes the main types of control measures available: host resistance, phytosanitary measures, cultural measures, chemical control, and biological control. Examples are provided of successful deployment of the different types of measures to control virus epidemics in cool-season grain legume crops. Next it emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to control because single control measures used alone rarely suffice to adequately reduce virus-induced yield losses in these crops. Development of effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies depends on an interdisciplinary team approach to (i) understand the ecological and climatic factors which lead to damaging virus epidemics and (ii) evaluate the effectiveness of individual control measures. In addition to using virus-resistant cultivars, other IDM components include sowing virus-tested seed stocks, selecting cultivars with low seed transmission rates, using diverse phytosanitary or cultural practices that minimize the virus source or reduce its spread, and using selective pesticides in an environmentally responsible way. The review finishes by briefly discussing the implications of climate change in increasing problems associated with control and the opportunities to control virus diseases more effectively through new technologies.

  10. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  11. To feed or not to feed: plant factors located in the epidermis, mesophyll, and sieve elements influence pea aphid's ability to feed on legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzkopf, Alexander; Rosenberger, Daniel; Niebergall, Martin; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Kunert, Grit

    2013-01-01

    The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris), a legume specialist, encompasses at least 11 genetically distinct sympatric host races. Each host race shows a preference for a certain legume species. Six pea aphid clones from three host races were used to localize plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding behavior on four legume species. Aphid performance was tested by measuring survival and growth. The location of plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding was determined using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Every aphid clone performed best on the plant species from which it was originally collected, as well as on Vicia faba. On other plant species, clones showed intermediate or poor performance. The most important plant factors influencing aphid probing and feeding behavior were localized in the epidermis and sieve elements. Repetitive puncturing of sieve elements might be relevant for establishing phloem feeding, since feeding periods appear nearly exclusively after these repetitive sieve element punctures. A combination of plant factors influences the behavior of pea aphid host races on different legume species and likely contributes to the maintenance of these races.

  12. Soybeans Growing inside the Advanced Astroculture Plant Growth Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This composite image shows soybean plants growing in the Advanced Astroculture experiment aboard the International Space Station during June 11-July 2, 2002. DuPont is partnering with NASA and the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to grow soybeans aboard the Space Station to find out if they have improved oil, protein, carbohydrates or secondary metabolites that could benefit farmers and consumers. Principal Investigators: Dr. Tom Corbin, Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., a Dupont Company, with headquarters in Des Moines, Iowa, and Dr. Weijia Zhou, Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics (WCSAR), University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  13. Modulation of quorum sensing controlled behaviour of bacteria by growing seedling, seed and seedling extracts of leguminous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Qaseem; Zahin, Maryam; Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-06-01

    Effect of growing seedling, seeds and seedlings extracts from seven leguminous plants (Pisum sativum, Vigna radiata, Vigna mungo, Cajanus cajan, Lentil culinaris, Cicer arietinum and Trigonella foenum graecum) were screened for their ability to influence quorum sensing controlled pigment production in Chromobacterium violaceum indicator strains (CV12472 and CVO26). Germinating seedling and seedling extracts of only P. sativum (pea) showed inhibition of violacein production. Interestingly, the T. foenum graecum (fenugreek) seed extracts enhances the pigment production. Quorum sensing regulated swarming motility in Pseudomonas aerugionsa PAO1 was reduced by pea seedling extract while enhanced by the fenugreek seed extracts. These findings suggest that plant metabolites of some legumes interact actively with bacterial quorum sensing and could modulate its associated functions.

  14. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, A.; Anjum, T.; Shah, M.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  15. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  16. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  17. Use of 15N enriched plant material for labelling of soil nitrogen in legume dinitrogen fixation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1989-06-01

    The soil nitrogen in a field plot was labelled with nitrogen-15 (15N) by incorporating labelled plant material derived from previous experiments. The plot was used the following 3 years for determination of the amount of N2 fixed by different leguminous plants. The atom % 15N excess in grains of cereals grown as reference crops was 0.20, 0.05 and 0.03 in the 3 years, respectively. In the first year the level of enrichment was adequate for estimating symbiotic nitrogen fixation. In the second and third year lack of precision in determination of the 15N/14N ratios of legume N, may have caused an error in estimates of nitrogen fixation. About 23% of the labelled N was taken up by plants during the 3 years of cropping; after 4 years about 44% of the labelled N was found still to be present in the top soil. The labelling of the soil nitrogen with organic bound 15N, compared to adding mineral 15N at sowing, is advantageous because the labelled N is released by mineralization so that the enrichment of the plant available soil N pool become more uniform during the growth season; and high levels of mineral N, which may depress the fixation process, is avoided. (author) 7 tabs., 1 ill., 30 refs

  18. Dust collection capacity of plants growing in coal mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    Plant can act as living filter of dust pollution in coal mining areas, where the amount of suspended particulate matter and dust fall rate is very high. Therefore, plant species growing in coal mining areas are classified as evergreen or deciduous with simple and compound leaf basis. The dust arresting capacity of each leaf is measured and expressed in g/m 2 . The study indicated that evergreen plants with simple, pilose surface, like - Alstonia, Ficus cunea, F. benghalensis and Mangifera indica are good dust catcher than evergreen compound leaves of Cassia siamea, Acacia arabica and Leucaena leucocephala. Deciduous with simple leaves, such as Zizyphus mauritiana, F. religiosa, Psidium guyava are also good dust collectors. Suitable plant species also help in quick reclamation of mined out areas; one practical difficulty for establishment of trees as green belts or reclamation purpose, has been incidence of cattle grazing. This study suggested a systematic way of selecting plant species on the basis of their efficiency in dust control and resistance to cattle grazing. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Antioxidant properties of some plants growing wild in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serteser, A.; Kargioglu, M.; Gok, V.; Bagci, Y.; Musa Ozcan, M.; Arslan, D.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of 38 plants growing in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey were evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) scavenging and metal (Fe{sup 2}+) chelating activities. The methanolic fruit extracts of the Cornus and Morus species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and DPPH scavenging activities, Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity) and the methanolic leaf extracts of the Mentha species (DPPH scavenging activities) examined in the assay showed the strongest activities. These antioxidant properties depended on the concentration of samples. (Author) 30 refs.

  20. Cell physiology of plants growing in cold environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, Cornelius

    2010-08-01

    The life of plants growing in cold extreme environments has been well investigated in terms of morphological, anatomical, and ecophysiological adaptations. In contrast, long-term cellular or metabolic studies have been performed by only a few groups. Moreover, a number of single reports exist, which often represent just a glimpse of plant behavior. The review draws together the literature which has focused on tissue and cellular adaptations mainly to low temperatures and high light. Most studies have been done with European alpine plants; comparably well studied are only two phanerogams found in the coastal Antarctic. Plant adaptation in northern polar regions has always been of interest in terms of ecophysiology and plant propagation, but nowadays, this interest extends to the effects of global warming. More recently, metabolic and cellular investigations have included cold and UV resistance mechanisms. Low-temperature stress resistance in plants from cold environments reflects the climate conditions at the growth sites. It is now a matter of molecular analyses to find the induced genes and their products such as chaperones or dehydrins responsible for this resistance. Development of plants under snow or pollen tube growth at 0 degrees C shows that cell biology is needed to explain the stability and function of the cytoskeleton. Many results in this field are based on laboratory studies, but several publications show that it is not difficult to study cellular mechanisms with the plants adapted to a natural stress. Studies on high light and UV loads may be split in two parts. Many reports describe natural UV as harmful for the plants, but these studies were mainly conducted by shielding off natural UV (as controls). Other experiments apply additional UV in the field and have had practically no negative impact on metabolism. The latter group is supported by the observations that green overwintering plants increase their flavonoids under snow even in the absence of

  1. Nitrogen contributions of legume roots to cabbage nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of roots are generally not considered in studies assessing crop responses to green manure. However, measuring such effects can contribute to a better understanding of crop rotation. In two experiments, we evaluated the content of legume-N in crop tissue and the fertilizer value of the roots and shoots of two legume species. Roots, shoots, or whole plants of the legumes sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea and jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis were cropped as green manure to supply nitrogen to cabbage crops (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The principle of the A-value technique was applied to estimate the fertilizer value of each plant part. In a pot experiment, both the content of legume-N in cabbage and the fertilizer value of the whole plant was higher than the shoots, which was in turn higher than that of the roots. In field condition, roots had a decreasing effect on the N content of cabbage plants. Growing cabbage on legume root residue resulted in an increased absorption of 15N-urea, resulting in negative values ​​for legume-N content: -13.59 g kg-1 and -3.51 g kg-1 for sunhemp and jack beans, respectively. Suggesting both low N supply by roots and N immobilization in soil organic matter or microbial biomass. Future research should focus on estimating the net N acquisition by plants from root residues under field conditions, where rooting patterns and biomass distribution differ from those in pot experiments, therefore giving a more realistic quantitative estimate.

  2. Reducing GHG emissions in agricultural production process for production of biofuels by growing legumes and production-technical measures; Senkung der THG-Emissionen in landwirtschaftlichen Produktionsverfahren zur Erzeugung von Biokraftstoffen durch Leguminosenanbau und produktionstechnische Massnahmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurgel, Andreas [Landesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Guelzow-Pruezen (Germany). Sachgebiet Nachwachsende Rohstoffe; Schiemenz, Katja

    2017-08-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions in the supply chain for biofuels is a big challenge especially for the German and European cultivation of energy crops. The production of nitrogen fertilizers and field emissions are the main factors of GHG emissions. The amount of field emissions depends very strongly on the nitrogen effort and the intensity of tillage. The main objective is to reduce GHG emissions in field cropping systems within the biofuel production chains. An inclusion of legumes into crop rotations is particularly important because their cultivation does not require nitrogen fertilizer. Data base for the project is a complex field experiment with the biofuel crops winter rape and winter wheat. Previous crops are winter wheat, peas and lupins. ln each case tilling systems are compared with non-tilling. The first results of the field experiments are nitrogen functions depending on previous crops, sites and tilling system. Calculation models for GHG reduction models were developed on the bases of these results. By growing legumes as previous crops before wheat and rape it is possible to reduce GHG emissions from 2 to 10 g CO{sub 2eq} per MJ. The best reduction of GHG emissions is possible by combining legumes as previous crops with a reduced nitrogen effort.

  3. [STUDY OF SOME PLANT SEED LIPIDS GROWING IN GEORGIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikalishvili, B; Gorgaslidze, N; Sulakvelidze, Ts; Malania, M; Urushadze, N; Turabelidze, D

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the research was to study seed lipids of cultivated plants: Medicago sativa, Ruta graveolens L., Linum usitatissimum L., which are growing on experimental field of I. Kutateladze Institute of Pharmacochemistry. From the above-mentioned plant seeds was obtained the sum of neutral and polar lipids, the classes were determined qualitatively. Using standard methods were determined some physico-chemical constant of oils. Fatty acids was established qualitatively and was determined quantitatively using Gas chromatography and High performance liquid chromatography methods. As a result of research in the seed oil of Medicago Sativa was revealed high percentage content of Oktadekadien - 9,12 fatty acid. Oktadekadien -9 dominates in the oil obtained from the seeds of Ruta graveolens L. and Oktadekantrien - 9,12,15 dominates in the oil obtained from the seeds of Linum usitatissimum L. Phospholipids were established qualitatively and using spectrophotometric method were determined In the sum of polar lipids: (λ 820 nm). The oils which are obtained from above-mentioned plant seeds contains biologically active compounds, which gives the opportunity to use these oils as in medical practice, also in cosmetology.

  4. Plant domestication versus crop evolution: a conceptual framework for cereals and grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbo, Shahal; Pinhasi van-Oss, Ruth; Gopher, Avi; Saranga, Yehoshua; Ofner, Itai; Peleg, Zvi

    2014-06-01

    'Domestication syndrome' (DS) denotes differences between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. Crop plants are dynamic entities; hence, not all parameters distinguishing wild progenitors from cultigens resulted from domestication. In this opinion article, we refine the DS concept using agronomic, genetic, and archaeobotanical considerations by distinguishing crucial domestication traits from traits that probably evolved post-domestication in Near Eastern grain crops. We propose that only traits showing a clear domesticated-wild dimorphism represent the pristine domestication episode, whereas traits showing a phenotypic continuum between wild and domesticated gene pools mostly reflect post-domestication diversification. We propose that our approach may apply to other crop types and examine its implications for discussing the timeframe of plant domestication and for modern plant science and breeding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protoplast-derived streptomycin resistant plants of the forage legume Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, J D; Ahuja, P S; Davey, M R; Cocking, E C

    1986-12-01

    Approximately 10(6) protoplast-derived cell colonies of sainfoin were stressed with streptomycin and two resistant colonies were recovered. Plants regenerated from these colonies could be recallused on streptomycin-containing medium three years after growth in the absence of the antibiotic.Ultrastructural studies showed cells of resistant callus grown in the presence of streptomycin to contain chloroplasts with internal thykaloids and grana. Such mutant plants should be useful in designing biochemical selection schemes to recover somatic hybrids and cybrids.

  6. Does plant immunity play a critical role during initiation of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis?

    OpenAIRE

    T?th, Katalin; Stacey, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Plants are exposed to many different microbes in their habitats. These microbes may be benign or pathogenic, but in some cases they are beneficial for the host. The rhizosphere provides an especially rich palette for colonization by beneficial (associative and symbiotic) microorganisms, which raises the question as to how roots can distinguish such ‘friends’ from possible ‘foes’ (i.e., pathogens). Plants possess an innate immune system that can recognize pathogens, through an arsenal of prote...

  7. Does plant immunity have a central role in the legume rhizobium symbiosis?

    OpenAIRE

    Katalin eToth; Gary eStacey; Gary eStacey

    2015-01-01

    Plants are exposed to many different microbes in their habitat. These microbes may be benign or pathogenic, but in some cases they are beneficial. The rhizosphere provides an especially rich palette for colonization by beneficial (associative and symbiotic) microorganisms, which raises the question as to how roots can distinguish such ‘friends’ from possible ‘foes’ (i.e., pathogens). Plants possess an innate immunity system that can recognize pathogens, through an arsenal of protein receptors...

  8. Dominance of legume trees alters nutrient relations in mixed species forest restoration plantings within seven years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas Siddique; Vera Lex Engel; David Lamb; Gabriela B. Nardoto; Jean P.H.B. Ometto; Luiz A. Martinelli; Susanne. Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    Failures in reforestation are often attributed to nutrient limitation for tree growth. We compared tree performance and nitrogen and phosphorus relations in adjacent mixed-species plantings of contrasting composition, established for forest restoration on Ultisol soil, originally covered by tropical semi-deciduous Atlantic Forest in Southeast Brazil. Nutrient relations...

  9. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  10. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of during management

  11. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpei Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of

  12. Apple latent spherical virus vectors for reliable and effective virus-induced gene silencing among a broad range of plants including tobacco, tomato, Arabidopsis thaliana, cucurbits, and legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Aki; Yamagata, Kousuke; Sugai, Tomokazu; Takahashi, Yukari; Sugawara, Emiko; Tamura, Akihiro; Yaegashi, Hajime; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Isogai, Masamichi; Takahashi, Hideki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors were evaluated for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of endogenous genes among a broad range of plant species. ALSV vectors carrying partial sequences of a subunit of magnesium chelatase (SU) and phytoene desaturase (PDS) genes induced highly uniform knockout phenotypes typical of SU and PDS inhibition on model plants such as tobacco and Arabidopsis thaliana, and economically important crops such as tomato, legume, and cucurbit species. The silencing phenotypes persisted throughout plant growth in these plants. In addition, ALSV vectors could be successfully used to silence a meristem gene, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and disease resistant N gene in tobacco and RCY1 gene in A. thaliana. As ALSV infects most host plants symptomlessly and effectively induces stable VIGS for long periods, the ALSV vector is a valuable tool to determine the functions of interested genes among a broad range of plant species.

  13. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients) of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors...

  14. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  15. Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

    2000-01-01

    Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen

  16. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  17. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  19. Influence of a native legume on soil N and plant response following prescribed fire in sagebrush steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin M. Goergen; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2009-01-01

    Woodland expansion affects grasslands and shrublands on a global scale. Prescribed fire is a potential restoration tool, but recovery depends on nutrient availability and species responses after burning. Fire often leads to longterm losses in total nitrogen, but presence of native legumes can influence recovery through addition of fixed nitrogen.We examined the effects...

  20. Identification of companion legumes for Midmar Italian ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a preliminary investigation seven legumes were planted alone and in combination with Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar. The pure stands of legumes were harvested at either four, five of six week cutting intervals, while the pure stands of Lolium multiflorum and the ryegrass/legume mixtures received in addition to the cutting ...

  1. Legume proteomics: Progress, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Growing Greener Cities: A Tree-Planting Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Gary; Young, Stanley

    This step-by-step guide, developed by the Global ReLeaf organization, presents tree-planting advice and simple steps to organizing a successful community tree-planting and tree-care program. The text is divided into three parts. Part 1 introduces trees and discusses the role they play as components of the living urban environment. Distinctions are…

  3. Some wild growing plants in traditional foods of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olim K. Khojimatov

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: The collected data represents less than 10% of the plants which are used as a food in Uzbekistan. Analysis of the indigenous plants revealed a number of them which are also used in traditional food in China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries.

  4. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  5. Growing under water - how plants cope with low CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Hinke, Anne Bækbo; Konnerup, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Aquatic plants are never short of water but instead they are challenged with low light and slow movement of oxygen (O₂) and carbon dioxide (CO₂). In the present paper, we focus on CO₂ limitation of underwater photosynthesis and the various strategies to overcome the limitation resulting from...... evolutionary adaptation to growth under water. Knowledge of such strategies helps you to select the right CO₂ environment and thereby maximize the chances that your favorite plants flourish....

  6. Growing knowledge: an overview of Seed Plant diversity in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Zappi, Daniela C.; Filardi, Fabiana L. Ranzato; Leitman, Paula; Souza, Vinícius C.; Walter, Bruno M.T.; Pirani, José R.; Morim, Marli P.; Queiroz, Luciano P.; Cavalcanti, Taciana B.; Mansano, Vidal F.; Forzza, Rafaela C.; Abreu, Maria C.; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Agra, Maria F.; Almeida Jr., Eduardo B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An updated inventory of Brazilian seed plants is presented and offers important insights into the country's biodiversity. This work started in 2010, with the publication of the Plants and Fungi Catalogue, and has been updated since by more than 430 specialists working online. Brazil is home to 32,086 native Angiosperms and 23 native Gymnosperms, showing an increase of 3% in its species richness in relation to 2010. The Amazon Rainforest is the richest Brazilian biome for Gymnosperms,...

  7. Genomic analyses of metal resistance genes in three plant growth promoting bacteria of legume plants in Northwest mine tailings, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Pin; Hao, Xiuli; Herzberg, Martin; Luo, Yantao; Nies, Dietrich H; Wei, Gehong

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the diversity of metal resistance genetic determinant from microbes that survived at metal tailings in northwest of China, a highly elevated level of heavy metal containing region, genomic analyses was conducted using genome sequence of three native metal-resistant plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB). It shows that: Mesorhizobium amorphae CCNWGS0123 contains metal transporters from P-type ATPase, CDF (Cation Diffusion Facilitator), HupE/UreJ and CHR (chromate ion transporter) family involved in copper, zinc, nickel as well as chromate resistance and homeostasis. Meanwhile, the putative CopA/CueO system is expected to mediate copper resistance in Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 while ZntA transporter, assisted with putative CzcD, determines zinc tolerance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens CCNWGS0286. The greenhouse experiment provides the consistent evidence of the plant growth promoting effects of these microbes on their hosts by nitrogen fixation and/or indoleacetic acid (IAA) secretion, indicating a potential in-site phytoremediation usage in the mining tailing regions of China. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  9. PGPRs and nitrogen-fixing legumes: a perfect team for efficient Cd phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, biologically non-essential and highly mobile metal that has become an increasingly important environmental hazard to both wildlife and humans. In contrast to conventional remediation technologies, phytoremediation based on legume-rhizobia symbiosis has emerged as an inexpensive decontamination alternative which also revitalize contaminated soils due to the role of legumes in nitrogen cycling. In recent years, there is a growing interest in understanding symbiotic legume-rhizobia relationship and its interactions with Cd. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the main effects of Cd in N2-fixing leguminous plants and the benefits of exploiting this symbiosis together with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to boost an efficient reclamation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  10. A major host plant volatile, 1-octen-3-ol, contributes to mating in the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendera, M.; Ekesi, S.; Ndung'u, M.; Srinivasan, R.; Torto, B.

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies on the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a serious pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae), in sub-Saharan Africa have focused on sex pheromones, but the role of the host plant on sexual behavior has not been explored. We investigated this interaction in the laboratory using behavioral assays and chemical analyses. We found that the presence of cowpea seedlings and a dichloromethane extract of the leaf increased coupling in the legume pod borer by 33 and 61 %, respectively, compared to the control, suggesting the involvement of both contact and olfactory cues. We used coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify compounds from the cowpea leaf extract, detected by M. vitrata antenna. We found that the antennae of the insect consistently detected four components, with 1-octen-3-ol identified as a common and dominant component in both the volatiles released by the intact cowpea plant and leaf extract. We therefore investigated its role in the coupling of M. vitrata. In dose-response assays, 1-octen-3-ol increased coupling in M. vitrata with increasing dose of the compound compared to the control. Our results suggest that the cowpea volatile 1-octen-3-ol contributes to M. vitrata sexual behavior.

  11. Health benefits of legumes and pulses with a focus on Australian sweet lupins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The 68th United Nations General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses. Therefore it is timely to review the current evidence of the benefits of legumes for human health with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library were searched to identify cross-sectional/epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. The strongest evidence appears to be for links between eating legumes and reduced risk of colorectal cancer as well as eating soy foods and reduced LDL cholesterol. However, epidemiological studies and RCTs suggest that replacing several meat-based meals a week with legumes can have a positive impact on longevity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and weight management, potentially via favourable effects on the gut microbiome. Sweet lupins are unique among legumes with one of the highest combined amounts of digestible plant protein (38%) and dietary fibre (30%). Unlike other legumes, their low amount of anti-nutritional factors negates the need for soaking/cooking and they can therefore be eaten uncooked. Sweet lupins may lower blood pressure, improve blood lipids and insulin sensitivity and favourably alter the gut microbiome. There is growing interest in pulses, especially sweet lupins, as ingredients to improve the nutritional value of baked goods (particularly gluten free) and to create novel products to replace meat. Legumes form part of most traditional diets. They, including sweet lupins, can play a useful role in health maintenance.

  12. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts.

  13. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  14. Self-reseeding annual legumes for cover cropping in rainfed managed olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ângelo Rodrigues, M.; Ferreira, I. Q.; Freitas, S.L.; Pires, J.M.; Arrobas, M.P.

    2015-07-01

    Given the environmental impact of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer manufacture and use, the sustainable management of agro-systems should be sought by growing N-fixing legumes. In this work, eleven self-reseeding annual legumes were grown in pure stands as mulching cover crops in a rainfed olive orchard managed without grazing animals. Dry matter yield, N content in above-ground biomass, groundcover percentage and persistence of the sown species were assessed during four growing seasons. All covers provided enough soil protection over the year, with living plants during the autumn/winter period and a mulch of dead residues during the summer. The legumes overcame a false break observed in the third year recovering the dominance of the covers in the fourth growing season. This means that the seed bank established in previous seasons ensured the persistence of the sown legume even when a gap in seed production occurred. The early-maturing cultivars produced less biomass and fixed less N (approx. 50 kg N/ha/yr present in the above-ground biomass) than the late-maturing ones, but would compete less for water since the growing cycle finished earlier in the spring. They seem best suited to being grown in dry farmed olive orchards with low N demand in drought prone regions. (Author)

  15. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and animal performance of growing and finishing beef cattle fed warm-season legume (Stylosanthes capitata plus Stylosanthes macrocephala) silage replacing corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, W F; Pereira, O G; Ribeiro, K G; Santos, S A; Valadares Filho, S C

    2014-09-01

    It was hypothesized that Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande (ES) silage could be used as the single source of dietary forage for beef cattle and that performance on ES would be similar to corn silage (CS) at a 50:50 forage:concentrate. The objectives of this study were to evaluate intake, total and partial digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia, and productive performance in growing beef cattle fed diets with varying proportions of ES silage replacing CS. Treatments consisted of diets with ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0% ES:CS. Two experiments were conducted simultaneously. In the first experiment, 10 crossbred Holstein-Zebu bulls with an average initial weight of 272 ± 86 kg were used. The bulls were rumen and abomasums fistulated. An experimental design of two 5 × 5 Latin squares (Exp. 1) was used. The second experiment used 40 Nellore bulls with an average BW of 386 ± 30 kg in a completely randomized design (Exp. 2). Results showed a linear increase in CP intake (P Nitrogen balance, excretion of urinary urea, and plasma urea nitrogen did not respond to the inclusion of ES in the diet (P > 0.05). There was also no effect (P > 0.05) of ES inclusion on animal performance. Ruminal pH was not affected by an increased proportion of ES in the diet (P > 0.05), but ruminal pH was affected (P interaction (P nitrogen concentration. It can be concluded that ES silage can be used as a source of roughage in the diet of beef cattle during the growing and finishing phases at a proportion of 50% of DM in the total diet. Therefore, ES silage is a promising alternative dietary ingredient and the use of this alternative source of silage will depend on availability and economic factors.

  16. Effect of growing plants on denitrification at high soil nitrate concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haider, K.; Mosier, A.; Heinemeyer, O.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of plant rhizosphere C deposits and its influence on microbial denitrification is not clearly defined. Conflicting reports as to the influence of plants and root exudation on denitrification continue to appear in the literature. The results of the authors earlier phytotron study indicated that denitrification was not stimulated in soils planted with corn or wheat compared to unplanted soils. Lower nitrate concentrations in the planted soils, however, may have led to misinterpretation of this data. A second study was conducted, to evaluate the effect of actively growing plants on denitrification where the NO 3 7 content of planted soils was maintained similar to unplanted soils. Simultaneously the C fixed by corn (Zea mays) and the fate of fertilizer N applied to the soil during the growing season were quantified. The corn was grown in a phytotron under a continuous supply of 14 CO 2 in 15 N fertilized soils to which 15 N-NO 3 - was added periodically during the growing season. The results of these studies showed that denitrification was not stimulated in soils planted with corn during active plant growth phase even when soil NO 3 - was relatively high. Denitrification was, however, greater in corn planted than unplanted soil when the recoverable root biomass began to decrease. Less N was immobilized and net 15 N immobilization was lower in planted soils than in unplanted soils. As denitrification was lower in planted soils during the time of active plant growth, the study suggests that root exudates did not stimulate either process

  17. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  18. TNT removal from culture media by three commonly available wild plants growing in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Torres, Sandra N; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C; Espinosa-Fuentes, Eduardo A; Rodríguez, Lolita; Souto-Bachiller, Fernando A; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P

    2012-01-01

    Plants growing in the Caribbean, Rubia tinctorum, Lippia dulcis and Spermacoce remota, were used in vitro to remove TNT from culture media. Plants were found to be resistant to high TNT levels. S. remota was able to remove TNT in less than 48 h. Part of the TNT was physically removed from the culture media by evaporation.

  19. Feeding and survival of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae on plants growing in Kenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impoinvil, D.E.; Kongere, J.O.; Foster, W.A.; Njiru, B.N.; Killeen, G.F.; Githure, J.I.; Beier, J.C.; Hassanali, A.; Knols, B.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    The propensity of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) to ingest sugars from various plants, and subsequent survival rates, were assessed with laboratory-reared males and females offered eight species of plants commonly cultivated and/or growing wild in western

  20. Spatial root distribution of plants growing in vertical media for use in living walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lars; Dresbøll, Dorte Bodin; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: For plants growing in living walls, the growth potential is correlated to the roots ability to utilize resources in all parts of the growing medium and thereby to the spatial root distribution. The aim of the study was to test how spatial root distribution was affected...... of rockwool) in transparent boxes under greenhouse conditions. Root frequency was registered and the activity of individual root systems was studied via 15N uptake and plant dry weight was measured. Results: Plants in coir had stronger root growth in all parts of the medium than plants in rockwool. Upwards...... root growth was limited for plants in the middle or lower parts of the medium and 15N measurements confirmed that only plants in the bottom of the box had active roots in the bottom of the medium. The species differed in root architecture and spatial root distribution. Conclusions: The choice...

  1. Medicinal plants growing in the Judea region: network approach for searching potential therapeutic targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Budovsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing in the Judea region are widely used in traditional medicine of the Levant region. Nevertheless, they have not so far been sufficiently analyzed and their medicinal potential has not been evaluated. This study is the first attempt to fill the gap in the knowledge of the plants growing in the region. Comprehensive data mining of online botanical databases and peer-reviewed scientific literature including ethno-pharmacological surveys from the Levant region was applied to compile a full list of plants growing in the Judea region, with the focus on their medicinal applications. Around 1300 plants growing in the Judea region were identified. Of them, 25% have medicinal applications which were analyzed in this study. Screening for chemical-protein interactions, together with the network-based analysis of potential targets, will facilitate discovery and therapeutic applications of the Judea region plants. Such an approach could also be applied as an integrative platform for further searching the potential therapeutic targets of plants growing in other regions of the world.

  2. Spectral composition of light and growing of plants in controlled environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, A.A. [Institute of Biophysics, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The curve of the action spectrum of photosynthesis is examined under the controlled influence of light that involves av 3-5 minutes irradiation with one specific spectral flux. Different curves were obtained for spectral affectivity of green leaf photosynthesis when plants have had long duration adaptation to lamps of different spectral composition and PAR intensity. The author suggests that the illumination of plants in natural conditions does not have to be copied for growing plants in controlled environments.

  3. Waterlogging tolerance, tissue nitrogen and oxygen transport in the forage legume Melilotus siculus: a comparison of nodulated and nitrate-fed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Toro, Guillermo; Pedersen, Ole; Colmer, Timothy David

    2018-01-17

    Soil waterlogging adversely impacts most plants. Melilotus siculus is a waterlogging-tolerant annual forage legume, but data were lacking for the effects of root-zone hypoxia on nodulated plants reliant on N2 fixation. The aim was to compare the waterlogging tolerance and physiology of M. siculus reliant on N2 fixation or with access to NO3-. A factorial experiment imposed treatments of water level (drained or waterlogged), rhizobia (nil or inoculated) and mineral N supply (nil or 11 mm NO3-) for 21 d on plants in pots of vermiculite in a glasshouse. Nodulation, shoot and root growth and tissue N were determined. Porosity (gas volume per unit tissue volume) and respiration rates of root tissues and nodules, and O2 microelectrode profiling across nodules, were measured in a second experiment. Plants inoculated with the appropriate rhizobia, Ensifer (syn. Sinorhizobium) medicae, formed nodules. Nodulated plants grew as well as plants fed NO3-, both in drained and waterlogged conditions. The growth and total N content of nodulated plants (without any NO3- supplied) indicated N2 fixation. Respiration rates (mass basis) were highest in nodules and root tips and lowest in basal root tissues. Secondary aerenchyma (phellem) formed along basal root parts and a thin layer of this porous tissue also covered nodules, which together enhanced gas-phase diffusion of O2 to the nodules; O2 was below detection within the infected zone of the nodule interior. Melilotus siculus reliant on N2 fixation grew well both in drained and waterlogged conditions, and had similar tissue N concentrations. In waterlogged conditions the relatively high respiration rates of nodules must rely on O2 movement via the aerenchymatous phellem in hypocotyl, roots and the outer tissue layers of nodules. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Toxicity and DNA damage in tobacco and potato plants growing on soil polluted with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichner, Tomás; Patková, Zdenka; Száková, Jirina; Demnerová, Katerina

    2006-11-01

    Heterezygous tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. xanthi) and potato (Solanum tuberosum var. Korela) plants were cultivated on soil from the site Strimice which is highly polluted with heavy metals and on nonpolluted soil from the recreational site Jezerí, both in North Bohemia, Czech Republic. The total content, the content of bioavailable, easily mobile, and potentially mobile components of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in the tested soils, and the accumulation of these metals in the above-ground biomass and roots of tested plants were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry or flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. The average tobacco leaf area and potato plant height were significantly reduced in plants growing on the polluted soil. We have measured the DNA damage in nuclei of leaves of both plant species using the Comet assay. A small but significant increase in DNA damage was noted in plants growing on the polluted soil versus controls. As the tobacco and potato plants with increased DNA damage were severely injured (inhibited growth, distorted leaves), this increase may be associated with necrotic or apoptotic DNA fragmentation. No increase in the frequency of somatic mutation was detected in tobacco plants growing on the polluted soil. Thus, the polluted soil probably induced toxic but not genotoxic effects on tobacco and potato plants.

  5. A hydroponic system for growing gnotobiotic vs. sterile plants to study phytoremediation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbaum, E; Kirzhner, F; Armon, R

    2014-01-01

    In some phytoremediation studies it is desirable to separate and define the specific contribution of plants and root-colonizing bacteria towards contaminant removal. Separating the influence of plants and associated bacteria is a difficult task for soil root environments. Growing plants hydroponically provides more control over the biological factors in contaminant removal. In this study, a hydroponic system was designed to evaluate the role of sterile plant roots, rhizodeposition, and root-associated bacteria in the removal of a model contaminant, phenol. A strain of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes that grows on phenol was inoculated onto plant roots. The introduced biofilm persisted in the root zone and promoted phenol removal over non-augmented controls. These findings indicate that this hydroponic system can be a valuable tool for phytoremediation studies that investigate the effects of biotic and abiotic factors on pollution remediation.

  6. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dispenza, V.; Pasquale, C. de; Fascella, G.; Mammano, M.M.; Alonzo, G.

    2016-01-01

    Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v) of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  7. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Dispenza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  8. Use of biochar as peat substitute for growing substrates of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dispenza, V.; Pasquale, C. de; Fascella, G.; Mammano, M.M.; Alonzo, G.

    2016-07-01

    Biochar from conifers wood was used in soilless culture as growing substrate alternative to peat for ornamental crops. Potted plants of Euphorbia × lomi Rauh cv. ‘Ilaria’ were grown with different mixtures (v:v) of brown peat and biochar in order to evaluate main physical and chemical characteristics of this biomaterial as well as its effect on plant growth, ornamental characteristics and nutrients uptake. Biochar addition to peat increased pH, EC and K content of the growing substrates, as well as air content and bulk density. Biochar content of substrates significantly affected plant growth and biomass partitioning: higher number of shoots and leaves, leaf area and leaf dry weight were recorded in plants grown in 40% peat-60% biochar, with respect to plants grown in 100% peat and secondarily in 100% biochar. Leaf chlorophyll content was higher in plants grown in 60% and 80% biochar, while biomass water use efficiency was higher with 60% biochar. Plant uptake of K and Ca increased as biochar content of the substrates increased. Hence, a growing substrate containing 40% brown peat and 60% conifers wood biochar was identified as the more suitable mixture allowing to have a high-quality production of Euphorbia × lomi potted plants.

  9. Effects of plant cover on soil N mineralization during the growing season in a sandy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Y.; Shao, M.; Wei, X.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Soil nitrogen (N) mineralization and its availability plays a vital role in regulating ecosystem productivity and C cycling, particularly in semiarid and desertified ecosystems. To determine the effect of plant cover on N turnover in a sandy soil ecosystem, we measured soil N mineralization and inorganic N pools in soil solution during growing season in a sandy soil covered with various plant species (Artemisia desertorum, Salix psammophila, and Caragana korshinskii). A bare sandy soil without any plant was selected as control. Inorganic N pools and N mineralization rates decreased overtime during the growing season, and were not affected by soil depth in bare land soils, but were significantly higher at the 0-10 cm layer than those at the 10-20 cm soil layer under any plant species. Soil inorganic N pool was dominated by ammonium, and N mineralization was dominated by nitrification regardless of soil depth and plant cover. Soils under C. korshinskii have significant higher inorganic N pools and N mineralization rate than soils under bare land and A. desertorum and S. psammophila, and the effects of plant cover were greater at the 0-10 cm soil layer than at the 10-20 cm layer. The effects of C. korshinskii on soil inorganic N pools and mineralization rate varied with the stage of growing season, with greater effects on N pools in the middle growing season, and greater effects on mineralization rate at the last half of the growing season. The results from this study indicate that introduction of C. korshinskii has the potential to increase soil N turnover and availability in sandy soils, and thus to decrease N limitation. Caragana korshinskii is therefore recommend for the remediation of the desertified land.

  10. Toward Self-Growing Soft Robots Inspired by Plant Roots and Based on Additive Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali; Mondini, Alessio; Mazzolai, Barbara

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we present a novel class of robots that are able to move by growing and building their own structure. In particular, taking inspiration by the growing abilities of plant roots, we designed and developed a plant root-like robot that creates its body through an additive manufacturing process. Each robotic root includes a tubular body, a growing head, and a sensorized tip that commands the robot behaviors. The growing head is a customized three-dimensional (3D) printer-like system that builds the tubular body of the root in the format of circular layers by fusing and depositing a thermoplastic material (i.e., polylactic acid [PLA] filament) at the tip level, thus obtaining movement by growing. A differential deposition of the material can create an asymmetry that results in curvature of the built structure, providing the possibility of root bending to follow or escape from a stimulus or to reach a desired point in space. Taking advantage of these characteristics, the robotic roots are able to move inside a medium by growing their body. In this article, we describe the design of the growing robot together with the modeling of the deposition process and the description of the implemented growing movement strategy. Experiments were performed in air and in an artificial medium to verify the functionalities and to evaluate the robot performance. The results showed that the robotic root, with a diameter of 50 mm, grows with a speed of up to 4 mm/min, overcoming medium pressure of up to 37 kPa (i.e., it is able to lift up to 6 kg) and bending with a minimum radius of 100 mm.

  11. CAROTENOID CLEAVAGE DIOXYGENASE 7 modulates plant growth, reproduction, senescence, and determinate nodulation in the model legume Lotus japonicas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Novero, M.; Charnikhova, T.; Ferrandino, A.; Schubert, A.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Biofante, P.; Lovisolo, C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Strigolactones (SLs) are newly identified hormones that regulate multiple aspects of plant development, infection by parasitic weeds, and mutualistic symbiosis in the roots. In this study, the role of SLs was studied for the first time in the model plant Lotus japonicus using transgenic lines

  12. Heavy metals content in plant-growing products as the results of agroecological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.V.; Lunev, M.I.; Pavlikhina, A.V.; Lobas, N.V.

    2008-01-01

    The generalised data on the heavy metals and arsenic contents in grain and vegetable cultures, green mass and hay of various grasses are presented. The dependence of heavy metal accumulation factors in plant-growing products on soil properties is shown. The estimation of levels of the heavy metals contents in accordance with the admissible content standards is given.

  13. Symbiotic leghemoglobins are crucial for nitrogen fixation in legume root nodules but not for general plant growth and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Thomas; van Dongen, Joost T; Günther, Catrin

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobins are ubiquitous in nature and among the best-characterized proteins. Genetics has revealed crucial roles for human hemoglobins, but similar data are lacking for plants. Plants contain symbiotic and nonsymbiotic hemoglobins; the former are thought to be important for symbiotic nitrogen...... accumulate to millimolar concentrations in the cytoplasm of infected plant cells prior to nitrogen fixation and are thought to buffer free oxygen in the nanomolar range, avoiding inactivation of oxygen-labile nitrogenase while maintaining high oxygen flux for respiration. Although widely accepted......RNAi plants grew normally when fertilized with mineral nitrogen. These data indicate roles for leghemoglobins in oxygen transport and buffering and prove for the first time that plant hemoglobins are crucial for symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Mar-29...

  14. Plant tissue culture of fast-growing trees for phytoremediation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couselo, José Luis; Corredoira, Elena; Vieitez, Ana M; Ballester, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The ability of plants to remove pollutants from the environment is currently used in a simple and low-cost cleaning technology known as phytoremediation. Unfortunately, little is known about the metabolic pathways involved in the transformation of xenobiotic compounds and the ability of certain plants to tolerate, detoxify, and store high concentrations of heavy metals. Plant cell and tissue culture is considered an important tool for fundamental studies that provide information about the plant-contaminant relationships, help to predict plant responses to environmental contaminants, and improve the design of plants with enhanced characteristics for phytoremediation. Callus, cell suspensions, hairy roots, and shoot multiplication cultures are used to study the interactions between plants and pollutants under aseptic conditions. Many plant species have an inherent ability to accumulate/metabolize a variety of pollutants, but they normally produce little biomass. However, fast-growing trees are excellent candidates for phytoremediation because of their rapid growth, extensive root system, and high water uptake. This chapter outlines the in vitro plant production of both somaclonal variants and transgenic plants of Populus spp. that exhibit high tolerance to heavy metals.

  15. [Duplex real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of E. coli O157 and E. coli O104 in the legume plants and its products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomei; Zhao, Guiming; Wang, Ping; Chen, Ying; Jiao, Yanchao; Luo, Adong

    2016-03-01

    To establish a rapid assay to detect enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157) and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O104 (E. coli O104) in the legume plants and its products by using the duplex real-time PCR. Based on part fragments of E. coli O157 specific gene rfbE and E. coli O104 specific gene wzy, primers and Taq-Man probes were designed. Results DNA (Q157): DNA (O104) = 1 : 3, DNA 2 μL, Master Mix 12.5 μL, primers (10 μmol/L) 1 μL,Taq-Man probes( 10 μmol/L) 0.5 μL, ddH2O 25 μL. The two pathogens could be detected in one reaction system, the lowest limit of detection sensitivity was 10(2) CFU/mL(g). This method is rapid and convenient, with good specificity, high sensitivity. The duplex real-time PCR assay could provide a cost-effective and convenient method for detect foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Probing nod factor perception in legumes by fluorescence microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants of the family of legumes are capable of forming a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. These Gram-negative bacteria invade the root system of a host legume and fix nitrogen in a specialized organ, the so-called root nodule. In exchange for sugars, the bacteria convert atmospheric

  17. Growing plants on oily, nutrient-poor soil using a native symbiotic fungus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S Repas

    Full Text Available The roots of land plants associate with microbes, including fungal symbionts that can confer abiotic stress tolerance. Bitumen extraction following oil-sand surface mining in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada removes plant nutrients but leaves a petrochemical residue, making the coarse tailings (CT hostile to both plants and microbes. We isolated an endophyte strain of the Ascomycete Trichoderma harzianum we call TSTh20-1 (hereafter, TSTh from a dandelion that was naturally growing on CT. TSTh colonization allowed tomato, wheat, and remediation seed mixtures to germinate and their seedlings to flourish on CT without the use of fertilizer. Compared to control plants, TSTh increased germination speed, percent germination, and biomass accumulation. TSTh also improved plant water use efficiency and drought recovery. TSTh-colonized plants secreted twice the level of peroxidase into CT as did plants alone. Over two months, plants colonized with TSTh doubled the petrochemical mobilization from CT over plants alone, suggesting a peroxide-mediated mechanism for petrochemical degradation. TSTh grew on autoclaved CT, bitumen, and other petrochemicals as sole carbon sources. Further, TSTh is a micro-aerobe that could metabolize 13C-phenanthrene to 13CO2 in 0.5% oxygen. TSTh has excellent potential for contributing to revegetating and remediating petrochemical contamination.

  18. Growing plants on oily, nutrient-poor soil using a native symbiotic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repas, Timothy S; Gillis, D Michael; Boubakir, Zakia; Bao, Xiaohui; Samuels, Gary J; Kaminskyj, Susan G W

    2017-01-01

    The roots of land plants associate with microbes, including fungal symbionts that can confer abiotic stress tolerance. Bitumen extraction following oil-sand surface mining in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada removes plant nutrients but leaves a petrochemical residue, making the coarse tailings (CT) hostile to both plants and microbes. We isolated an endophyte strain of the Ascomycete Trichoderma harzianum we call TSTh20-1 (hereafter, TSTh) from a dandelion that was naturally growing on CT. TSTh colonization allowed tomato, wheat, and remediation seed mixtures to germinate and their seedlings to flourish on CT without the use of fertilizer. Compared to control plants, TSTh increased germination speed, percent germination, and biomass accumulation. TSTh also improved plant water use efficiency and drought recovery. TSTh-colonized plants secreted twice the level of peroxidase into CT as did plants alone. Over two months, plants colonized with TSTh doubled the petrochemical mobilization from CT over plants alone, suggesting a peroxide-mediated mechanism for petrochemical degradation. TSTh grew on autoclaved CT, bitumen, and other petrochemicals as sole carbon sources. Further, TSTh is a micro-aerobe that could metabolize 13C-phenanthrene to 13CO2 in 0.5% oxygen. TSTh has excellent potential for contributing to revegetating and remediating petrochemical contamination.

  19. Decontamination and/or revegetation of fly ash dykes through naturally growing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit K; Sinha, Sarita

    2008-05-30

    Present study is focused on the decontamination and/or revegetation of fly ash dykes through naturally growing plants, namely Calotropis procera, Cassia tora, Chenopodium album, Sida cardifolia, Blumea lacera. The results of sequential extraction study showed that maximum amount of metals (Na, K, Fe, Mn, Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd) were associated with residual and Fe-Mn fractions. Diethylenetriamine penta acetic acid (DTPA)-triethanolamine (TEA) extraction assessed the bioavailability of the metals. The total metal accumulation in tested plants was found in the order; C. album>S. cardifolia>C. tora>C. procera>B. lacera. The maximum bioconcentration factor (BCF) was recorded in S. cardifolia for the metals (Na, Fe, Zn, Cd), in C. procera for the metals (Mn, Cu, Ni, Cr) and in C. album for the metals (Co, Pb). However, the translocation factor (TF) of most of the metals was found more in S. cardifolia followed by C. album than other plants. Among all the plants, C. album have shown high BCF and low TF values for toxic metals (Pb, Cd) and suitable for phytostabilization of these metals. Principal component analysis was used to predict translocation behavior of the metals in different parts of the plants which was found similar for the metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr). All examined plants are suitable for revegetation (naturally grows on fly ash dykes) and S. cardifolia and C. album may be used for decontamination purposes.

  20. Alternative soilless media using olive-mill and paper waste for growing ornamental plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysargyris, Antonios; Antoniou, Omiros; Tzionis, Andreas; Prasad, Munoo; Tzortzakis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-18

    Peat-based growing media are not ecologically sustainable and peat extraction threatens sensitive peatland ecosystem. In this study, olive-stone waste (OSW) and paper waste (PW) were used in different ratios-as growing media-for ornamental crop production, as peat (P) substitutes. Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), petunia (Petunia x hybrita L.) and matthiola (Matthiola incana L.) plants were grown in (1) P (100%), (2) P:OSW (90%:10%), (3) P:OSW (70%:30%), and (4) P:OSW:PW (60%:20%:20%). The physicochemical properties of these substrates and the effects on plant growth were determined. The addition of 10-30% OSW into the substrate increased marigold height compared to plants grown in 100% peat. No differences in plant size, plant biomass (leaves and flowers), and dry matter content were found. Adding PW, in combination with OSW, maintained marigold height and total number of flowers produced to similar levels as in plants grown in 100% peat. In matthiola, adding 30% OSW into the substrate reduced plant size and fresh weight, but not plant height. No differences were observed when plants grew in lower OSW (i.e., 10%) content. Petunia's height, its total number of flowers and flower earliness (flower opening) were increased in the presence of OSW compared to the plants grown in 100% peat. The addition of OSW did not affect petunia's size and fresh weight among treatments. The addition of PW suppressed several plant growth-related parameters for both matthiola and petunia. The insertion of OSW did not change leaf chlorophyll content whereas the presence of PW decreased chlorophylls for marigold, petunia, and matthiola. Both OSW and PW altered the content of total phenolics and antioxidant capacity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) in leaves and flowers for marigold and petunia. Both 30% OSW and PW increased antioxidative enzyme metabolism due to the increased damage index and lipid peroxidation

  1. Toxic element profiles in selected medicinal plants growing on serpentines in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Dolja; Karadjova, Irina

    2013-12-01

    Populations of medicinal plants growing on serpentines and their respective soils were analyzed for Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Aqua regia extraction and 0.43 M acetic acid extraction were used for the quantification of pseudototal and bioavailable fractions, respectively, of elements in soil and nitric acid digestion for determination of total element content in plants. Screening was performed to (1) document levels of toxic metals in herbs extensively used in preparation of products and standardized extracts, (2) compare accumulation abilities of ferns and seed plants, and (3) estimate correlations between metal content in plants and their soils. The toxic element content of plants varied from site to site on a large scale. The concentrations of Fe and Ni were elevated while those of Cu, Zn, and Pb were close to average values usually found in plants. The highest concentrations for almost all elements were measured in both Teucrium species. Specific differences in metal accumulation between ferns and seed plants were not recorded. The investigated species are not hyperaccumulators but can accumulate toxic elements, in some cases exceeding permissible levels proposed by the World Health Organization and European Pharmacopoeia. The harvesting of medicinal plants from serpentines could be hazardous to humans.

  2. rotational effects of grain legumes on maize performance in the rift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-10-27

    Oct 27, 2000 ... The study has demonstrated that the use of grain legumes, particularly dolichos in rotation with maize, is a ... legume plant residues (Onim etal., 1990; Kwesiga and Coe, 1994; Wortmann et al., 1994; Peoples et ... It may be feasible to produce suitably adapted legumes during the shcrt rains to produce ...

  3. Absolute alpha activity measurements of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahawatte, P.; Hewamanna, R. (Colombo Univ. (Sri Lanka). Radioisotope Centre)

    1991-01-01

    Deposits of monazite bearing soils occur along the Southwest, West and East Coasts of Sri Lanka. High levels of gamma activity in some plant species growing in the West Coast have been reported. The high levels were due to the presence of the daughter nuclides of {sup 232}Th, most of which are alpha emitters. Absolute alpha activity measurements of ash samples of some plants growing in monazite bearing soils were carried out using the alpha sensitive polymeric nuclear track detector CR-39. The values ranged from 60-1900 mBq/g and were in good agreement with the values obtained from conventional scintillation counting method. The activity concentration of {sup 228}Th in the ash samples was also calculated by measuring the activity concentration of emanated thoron trapped inside a glass bottle with the use of a CR-39 track detector. (author).

  4. Monitoring of Solar Radiation Intensity using Wireless Sensor Network for Plant Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, B.; Fadli, F.; Andayani, U.; Harahap, LA; Fahmi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract— Plant growth is highly depending on the sunlight, if the consumption of sunlight is enough, it will grow well. The plant will be green because of its chlorophyll and it can perform photosynthesis at maximum; but if the plants get less sunlight, it will make the plants be yellowing. Radiation is electromagnetic waves that are good for plants, so-called visible light. In the electromagnetic wave spectrum the best wavelength range from 400-700 nm for the plant. A monitoring of sun intensity is needed in order to obtain sufficient solar radiation consumption and provide notification if there is a high radiation. In this study, several sensors and devices were combined such as photosynthetic solar radiation sensors, GSM / GPRS and waspmote as a main board or a microcontroller. The test was carried out on at least three occasions; the system has a stable radiation in the morning with an average of 505.51 micrometers. IN this study, we have successfully developed a monitoring tools for solar radiation intensity applied on plant growth by using wireless sensor network.

  5. Bacterial Root Microbiome of Plants Growing in Oil Sands Reclamation Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo K. Mitter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil sands mining in northern Alberta impacts a large footprint, but the industry is committed to reclaim all disturbed land to an ecologically healthy state in response to environmental regulations. However, these newly reconstructed landscapes may be limited by several factors that include low soil nutrient levels and reduced microbial activity. Rhizosphere microorganisms colonize plant roots providing hosts with nutrients, stimulating growth, suppressing disease and increasing tolerance to abiotic stress. High-throughput sequencing techniques can be used to provide a detailed characterization of microbial community structure. This study used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the bacterial root microbiome associated with annual barley (Hordeum vulgare and sweet clover (Melilotus albus growing in an oil sands reclamation area. Our results indicate that Proteobacteria dominated the endosphere, whereas other phyla such as Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were restricted to the rhizosphere, suggesting that plants have the ability to select for certain soil bacterial consortia. The bacterial community in the endosphere compartments were less rich and diverse compared to the rhizosphere. Furthermore, it was apparent that sweet clover plants were more selective, as the community exhibited a lower richness and diversity compared to barley. Members of the family Rhizobiaceae, such as Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium were mainly associated with clover, whereas Acholeplasma (wall-less bacteria transmitted by insects was unique to barley. Genera from the Enterobacteriaceae family, such as Yersinia and Lentzea were also mostly detected in barley, while other genera such Pseudomonas and Pantoea were able to successfully colonize both plants. Endophytic bacterial profiles varied within the same plant species at different sampling locations; however, these differences were driven by factors other than slope positions or cover management. Our results

  6. In Depth Characterization of Repetitive DNA in 23 Plant Genomes Reveals Sources of Genome Size Variation in the Legume Tribe Fabeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Macas

    Full Text Available The differential accumulation and elimination of repetitive DNA are key drivers of genome size variation in flowering plants, yet there have been few studies which have analysed how different types of repeats in related species contribute to genome size evolution within a phylogenetic context. This question is addressed here by conducting large-scale comparative analysis of repeats in 23 species from four genera of the monophyletic legume tribe Fabeae, representing a 7.6-fold variation in genome size. Phylogenetic analysis and genome size reconstruction revealed that this diversity arose from genome size expansions and contractions in different lineages during the evolution of Fabeae. Employing a combination of low-pass genome sequencing with novel bioinformatic approaches resulted in identification and quantification of repeats making up 55-83% of the investigated genomes. In turn, this enabled an analysis of how each major repeat type contributed to the genome size variation encountered. Differential accumulation of repetitive DNA was found to account for 85% of the genome size differences between the species, and most (57% of this variation was found to be driven by a single lineage of Ty3/gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, the Ogre elements. Although the amounts of several other lineages of LTR-retrotransposons and the total amount of satellite DNA were also positively correlated with genome size, their contributions to genome size variation were much smaller (up to 6%. Repeat analysis within a phylogenetic framework also revealed profound differences in the extent of sequence conservation between different repeat types across Fabeae. In addition to these findings, the study has provided a proof of concept for the approach combining recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics to perform comparative analyses of repetitive DNAs in a large number of non-model species without the need to assemble their genomes.

  7. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  8. Molecular diversity of rhizobia nodulating the invasive legume Cytisus scoparius in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, B; Burdon, J J

    2006-06-01

    To contribute to the understanding of Cytisus scoparius success at invading and establishing itself in Australia. Root-nodule bacteria isolated from C. scoparius, growing on five different sites and originally introduced to Australia, were compared with isolates from indigenous plants growing in France and isolates from native legumes growing on the same Australian sites as C. scoparius. Small-subunit rDNA from 251 isolates were analysed by PCR-RFLP and representatives from different genospecies were selected for sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a great diversity of lineages belonging to Bradyrhizobium, with one genospecies being specific for Cytisus both in Australia and in France, Rhizobium and Mesorhizobium and one falling outside the described genera of legume-nodulating bacteria. Principal component analysis showed that the Cytisus Australian rhizobial communities are more similar to each other than to their co-occurring native partners. Early established rhizobial symbionts may have an increased probability to contribute inoculum for the development of further nodules. This is a first report comparing rhizobia nodulating C. scoparius in its native and exotic environments. Cytisus scoparius symbionts were identified outside the Bradyrhizobium genus and a new lineage of legume-nodulating bacteria was identified.

  9. Demethylation of methylmercury in growing rice plants: An evidence of self-detoxification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaohan; Zhao, Jiating; Li, Yunyun; Fan, Yuqin; Zhu, Nali; Gao, Yuxi; Li, Bai; Liu, Hanyu; Li, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant that poses a serious threat to human and the environment. Rice was found as an important source for human exposure to Hg in some areas. In this study, the transportation and transformation of IHg and MeHg in rice plants exposed to IHg or MeHg were investigated. The IHg and MeHg concentrations in rice roots and shoots collected every five days were analyzed by HPLC-ICP-MS and SR-XANES. When exposed to MeHg, the percent of IHg in rice roots and shoots increased while MeHg decreased significantly, suggesting prominent demethylation of MeHg occurred. However no notable MeHg was found in both roots and shoots of rice plant when exposed to IHg. SR-XANES analysis further confirmed the demethylation of MeHg with rice. This study provides a new finding that demethylation of MeHg could occur in growing rice, which may be a self-defense process of rice plant. - Graphical abstract: Inorganic mercury in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants exposed to methylmercury was detected: An evidence of rice plant against methylmercury phytotoxicity. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Demethylation of MeHg in rice plant was found in rice root. • Hg in rice roots mainly present as MeHg-SR or RS-Hg-SR form. • MeHg-SR in roots can be gradually transformed to RS-Hg-SR with rice growth. - Demethylation of MeHg in growing rice.

  10. Interaction between exercising humans and growing plants in a closed ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, D. F.; Convertino, V. A.; Blue, J.; Wheeler, R. M.; Knott, W. M.

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the gas exchange between plants growing in a Closed Environmental Life Support System (CELSS) and the metabolism of human subjects undergoing various levels of physical exercise, and subsequently determine the buffer characteristics in relation to the carbon exchange established for plants in this closed loop life support system. Two men (ages 42 and 45 yr) exercised on a cycle ergometer at three different work intensities, each on a separate day. The CELSS, a 113 m 3 chamber, was sized to meet the needs of one human. The plants, consisting of 20 m 2 of potato, provided oxygen to the human during an artificially lighted photosynthesis phase and the human provided CO 2 to the plants. The average rates of exchange for the subjects were 0.88, 1.69, and 2.47 liters O 2/min and 0.77, 1.47, and 2.21 liters CO 2/min at approximately 25%, 50%, and 75% of their maximal aerobic capacity, respectively. The photosynthetic rate for the CELSS was 0.95 liters/ min. A balance between human CO 2 production and plant utilization was noted at approximately the 50% VO 2max level. The oxygen balance and changes were not within detectable limits of the CELSS instrumentation for the durations of these exercise exposures. If a CELSS environment is the methodology selected for long term spaceflight, it will be important to select plants that efficiently grow at the available light and nutrient levels while balancing the needs for the human crew at their levels of physical activity.

  11. Geography, plants, and growing systems shape the genetic structure of Tunisian Botrytis cinerea populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchani-Balma, S; Gautier, A; Raies, A; Fournier, E

    2008-12-01

    Botrytis cinerea, considered for a long time as a generalist fungal pathogen of a multitude of plants, was recently shown to exhibit significant population structure in France according to the host, suggesting sympatric specialization. Recent models also showed that adaptation to new hosts may facilitate the process of sympatric speciation in fungal plant pathogens. The present work aimed at investigating if host plants, combined with geographic origin and growing systems, shape the diversity and structure of Tunisian populations of B. cinerea. We genotyped 153 isolates with 9 microsatellites. In all the investigated populations, the fungus reproduced mainly sexually. Gene flow was significantly reduced between greenhouses and open fields from strawberry but not from grapevine. Populations from tomatoes, sampled under greenhouses only, exhibited a low genotypic diversity. The effects of plant and geography from open fields were investigated on a sample of 74 isolates. Six populations were inferred, mainly structured according to a geographic barrier corresponding to the Grande Dorsale Mountain. However, this effect could not be separated from the host plant origin of isolates. The analysis of 63 isolates recovered from strawberries and faba beans in the Cap Bon and Centre regions did not reveal any significant effect of plant on pathogen population differentiation.

  12. Adaptive technology of environmentally - friendly production of legumes in the dry steppe zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Popov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern agronomic technologies must include environmentally- friendly technologies in crop growing. In Kazakhstan, despite its significant potential, environmentallyfriendly farming is underdeveloped with little scientific backing. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop and suggest an adaptive technology for cultivation of legumes taking into account existing methodologies for environmentallyfriendly production in the dry steppe zone of Akmola region, Northern Kazakhstan. In order to achieve the objectives, the study focused on determination of a complex impact of combination of agroecological conditions (incl. agro- climatic, content of selected heavy metals such as Cu and Zn in soil, weed pressure, etc., contrasting soil cultivation technology (i.e. traditional vs zero- tillage, nutrient inputs (fertilizers, legume stimulators and pesticides on growth and productivity of selected legume crops (peas and chickpeas. The overall agroecological and growing conditions were suitable for producing economically- important legume crops (i.e. pea and chickpea, despite the temperature fluctiations and soil moisture shortage. Despite the very low content of N and P in the upper soil layer, the Cu and Zn content was within the Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL for Kazakhstan, with a low anticipated negative effect on target legume growth. The least number of weeds was recorded by the variant with application of biological preparation Respecta. The targeted legumes were better developed during the growing season under the traditional technology compared to zero- tillage technology, i.e. germination and seed viability, which might be attributed to better utilisation of soil air and improved soil porosity of the soil layer of 0- 20 cm when using traditional technology. Combinations of mineral fertilizer CaSO4 + 2H2O5 with the innoculation promoter Rizotorfin, and Izagry Phosphorus with Rizotorfin may be recommended to farmers. The application of

  13. Biomonitoring of heavy metals using higher plants growing at former mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha Bustamante, M.M. da.

    1993-01-01

    The principal purpose of the present work is the study of the heavy metal contamination of higher plants growing on the soils of former mining sites. Different plant species were compared with respect to their use in the monitoring of heavy metal pollution. The study sites are located in Germany; Bleialf (a former Pb mining area), and Donnersberg am Imsbach (a former Cu mining area); and in Luxemburg: Dudelange (a former Fe mining area and current cinder dump). An area near Trier, Rheinland-Pfalz was chosen as control site. The heavy metals Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn were analyzed. Soil samples were collected from the surface horizon (0-15 cm). The total contents of the heavy metals were determined. The metal solubility was evaluated by the use of different extraction methods (CaCl[sub 2], NH[sub 4]Cl and EDTA). Moreover, chemical soil properties (pH, CEC, and organic carbon content) which can influence the metal solubility, and consequently the metal availability to plants, were determined. Betula pendula, Populus tremula, Quercus robur and Quercus petraea, Salix caprea, Sambucus racemosa and Sorbus aria, and Sorbus aucuparia were chosen as test plants. Plant samples were collected at two seasons of the year - summer (leaves) and winter (buds). The plant contents of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn, as well as the contents of the nutrients P, K, Mg, and Ca were determined. The heavy metal concentrations in the soil and plants were correlated in order to evaluate the efficiency of the extraction methods, and the use of leaves and buds in the prediction of the heavy metal availability. Interchanges of the heavy metals and the plant macronutrients were also analysed. (orig./UWA)

  14. Legume root symbioses: Natural history and prospects for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtark Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM, rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that 'first' rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single 'evolutionary plant-microbial continuum'. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.

  15. Mercury-resistant rhizobial bacteria isolated from nodules of leguminous plants growing in high Hg-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Quiñones, Miguel A; Fajardo, Susana; López, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-10-01

    A survey of symbiotic bacteria from legumes grown in high mercury-contaminated soils (Almadén, Spain) was performed to produce a collection of rhizobia which could be well adapted to the environmental conditions of this region and be used for restoration practices. Nineteen Hg-tolerant rhizobia were isolated from nodules of 11 legume species (of the genera Medicago, Trifolium, Vicia, Lupinus, Phaseolus, and Retama) and characterized. Based on their growth on Hg-supplemented media, the isolates were classified into three susceptibility groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the effective concentrations that produce 50% mortality identified the patterns of mercury tolerance and showed that 15 isolates were tolerant. The dynamics of cell growth during incubation with mercury showed that five isolates were unaffected by exposure to Hg concentrations under the MICs. Genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene assigned ten strains to Rhizobium leguminosarum, six to Ensifer medicae, two to Bradyrhizobium canariense, and one to Rhizobium radiobacter. Inoculation of host plants and analysis of the nodC genes revealed that most of them were symbiotically effective. Finally, three isolates were selected for bioremediation processes with restoration purposes on the basis of their levels of Hg tolerance, their response to high concentrations of this heavy metal, and their genetic affiliation and nodulation capacity.

  16. The Effect of Different Fertilizer Applications on Plant and Fruit Yield in Greenhouse Organic Tomato Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Ulusu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato production is in the first place in Turkey, 34% of total tomato production (3.614.472 tonnes is under greenhouse conditions. The increase in yield in Turkey is due to the spread of undergrowth cultivation besides the use of qualified varieties and seeds. Synthetic fertilizers can’t be used to obtain economic efficiency in underground organic tomato growing Therefore, the application of alternative fertilizers (barn stubble, green manure, organic fertilizer, vermicompost etc. needs to be improved. For this purpose, effect of the eight different fertilizer combination including organic and worm liquid fertilizer, humic acid and mycorrhizae applications on tomato plant and fruit yield were investigated in the study. Negative check without any fertilizer application growing and a positive check; a synthetic liquid fertilizer application was included. Experiment was set up according to completely randomised block design with 3 replications under greenhouse conditions. Tomato fruit length, diameter and weight was determined as fruit yield and fresh and dry weight as plant yield. There was not any statistical difference among fertilizer applications for fruit and plant yield. However, the highest tomato fruit yield was obtained in the treatments of organic (7.17 kg/ plot and worm fertilizers (4,80 kg/ plot in combination with mycorrhizae. The results were similar for fruit diameter and length. Plant fresh and dry weight was between 2.01 to 5.92 and 0.368 to 1.153 kg, respectively. The highest plant weight was belong to mycorrhizae and organic fertilizer application.

  17. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  18. Trends in biological activity research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džamić, A.M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowering plants consists of more than 300.000 species around the world, out of which a small percentage has been sufficiently investigated from phytochemical and biological activity aspects. Plant diversity of the Balkans is very rich, but still poorly investigated. The aim of this paper is survey of current status and trends in research of wild-growing aromatic plants from Central Balkans. Many aromatic plants are investigated from morphological, physiological, ecological, systematic and phytochemical aspects. However, traditionally used medicinal and aromatic plants can also be considered from applicative aspects, concerning their health effects, and from wide range of usage in cosmetics, and as food, agrochemical and pharmaceutical products. In order to achieve all planned objectives, following methodology has been applied: field research, taxonomic authentication and, comparative biologically assayed phytochemical investigations. The total herbal extracts, postdistillation waste (deodorized extracts, essential oils and individual compounds of some autochthonous plants have been considered as potential source of antibacterial, antifungal, anti-biofilm, antioxidant and cytotoxic agents. In this manuscript, composition of essential oils and extracts were evaluated in a number of species, from the Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Asteraceae families. Extracts which were rich in phenols mostly of flavonoids, often showed high antioxidant potential. Also, phenolic compounds identified in essential oils and extracts were mostly responsible for expected antimicrobial activity. Current worldwide demand is to reduce or, if possible, eliminate chemically synthesized food additives. Plant-produced compounds are becoming of interest as a source of more effective and safe substances than synthetically produced antimicrobial agents (as inhibitors, growth reducers or even inactivators that control growth of microorganisms. Many different pathogens have

  19. Biological Nitrogen Fixation on Legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armiadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the major limiting factors for crop growth and is required in adequate amount, due to its function as protein and enzyme components. In general, plants need sufficient nitrogen supply at all levels of growth, especially at the beginning of growth phase. Therefore, the availability of less expensive N resources would reduce the production cost. The increasing use of chemical fertilizer would probably disturb soil microorganisms, reduce the physical and chemical characteristics of soil because not all of N based fertilizer applied can be absorbed by the plants. Approximately only 50% can be used by crops, while the rest will be altered by microorganism into unavailable N for crops or else dissappear in the form of gas. Leguminous crops have the capacity to immobilize N2 and convert into the available N if innoculated with Rhizobium. The amount of N2 fixed varies depending on legume species and their environment.

  20. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugas, D.V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, C.E.; Jansen, R.K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, J.T.; Hajrah, N.H.; Alharbi, N.S.; Al-Malki, A.L.; Sabir, J.S.M.; Bailey, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily

  1. Phytoextraction of rare earth elements in herbaceous plant species growing close to roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczak, Patrycja; Borowiak, Klaudia; Niedzielski, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    The aim of study was to determine the phytoextraction of rare earth elements (REEs) to roots, stems and leaves of five herbaceous plant species (Achillea millefolium L., Artemisia vulgaris L., Papaver rhoeas L., Taraxacum officinale AND Tripleurospermum inodorum), growing in four areas located in close proximity to a road with varied traffic intensity. Additionally, the relationship between road traffic intensity, REE concentration in soil and the content of these elements in plant organs was estimated. A. vulgaris and P. rhoeas were able to effectively transport REEs in their leaves, independently of area collection. The highest content of REEs was observed in P. rhoeas leaves and T. inodorum roots. Generally, HREEs were accumulated in P. rhoeas roots and leaves and also in the stems of T. inodorum and T. officinale, whereas LREEs were accumulated in T. inodorum roots and T. officinale stems. It is worth underlining that there was a clear relationship between road traffic intensity and REE, HREE and LREE concentration in soil. No positive correlation was found between the concentration of these elements in soil and their content in plants, with the exception of T. officinale. An effective transport of REEs from the root system to leaves was observed, what points to the possible ability of some of the tested plant species to remove REEs from soils near roads.

  2. Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Singla, Ranju; Geetanjali

    2004-02-01

    A large amount of energy is utilized by legume nodules for the fixation of nitrogen and assimilation of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) into organic compounds. The source of energy is provided in the form of photosynthates by the host plant. Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme, which is responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, has also been found to play an important role in carbon metabolism in legume root nodule. PEPC-mediated CO2 fixation in nodules results in the synthesis of C4 dicarboxylic acids, viz. aspartate, malate, fumarate etc. which can be transported into bacteroids with the intervention of dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) protein. PEPC has been purified from the root nodules of few legume species. Information on the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism through PEPC in leguminous plants is scanty and incoherent. This review summarizes the various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in legume root nodules.

  3. Growing Beyond Earth; Students Exploring Plant Varieties for Future Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzinger, Marion; Massa, Gioia

    2017-01-01

    Future space exploration and long duration space flight will pose an array of challenges to the health and wellbeing of astronauts. Since 2015, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (FTBG), in partnership with NASA's Veggie team, has been testing edible crops for space flight potential through a series of citizen science experiments. FTBG's interest in classroom-based science projects, along with NASA's successful operation of the Veggie system aboard the International Space Station (ISS), led to a NASA-FTBG partnership that gave rise to the Growing Beyond Earth STEM Initiative (GBE). Established in 2015, GBE now involves 131 middle and high school classrooms in South Florida, all conducting simultaneous plant science experiments. The results of those experiments (both numeric and visual) are directly shared with the space food production researchers at KSC. Through this session, we will explore the successful classroom implementation and integration into the curriculum, how the data is being used and the impact of the project on participating researchers, teachers, and students. Participating schools were supplied with specialized LED-lit growth chambers, mimicking the Veggie system on ISS, for growing edible plants under similar physical and environmental constraints. Research protocols were provided by KSC scientists, while edible plant varieties were selected mainly by the botanists at FTBG. In a jointly-led professional development workshop, participating teachers were trained to conduct GBE experiments in their classrooms. Teachers were instructed to not only teach basic botany concepts, but to also demonstrate practical applications of math, physics and chemistry. As experiments were underway, students shared data on plant germination, growth, and health in an online spreadsheet. Results from the students research show a promising selection of new plant candidates for possible further testing. Over a two year period, more than 5000 South Florida students, ages

  4. Use of morphometric data for the evaluation of the essential oil content of wild growing Thymus L. plants

    OpenAIRE

    Koureas, Dimitrios; Kokkini, Stella

    2012-01-01

    The plants of the genus Thymus L. hold a significant position in the global medicinal and aromatic plants market, largely due to their Essential Oils (EOs). International, European and Greek specifications for quality screening of plants commercially distributed as “thyme” include, amongst other, the minimum value of EO content (mL 100g-1 dry weight). In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the EO content of wild growing Th. sibthorpii Benth. plants through morphometry. The ...

  5. Infection and invasion of roots by symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia during nodulation of temperate legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Daniel J

    2004-06-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium (collectively referred to as rhizobia) grow in the soil as free-living organisms but can also live as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodule cells of legume plants. The interactions between several rhizobial species and their host plants have become models for this type of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Temperate legumes such as alfalfa, pea, and vetch form indeterminate nodules that arise from root inner and middle cortical cells and grow out from the root via a persistent meristem. During the formation of functional indeterminate nodules, symbiotic bacteria must gain access to the interior of the host root. To get from the outside to the inside, rhizobia grow and divide in tubules called infection threads, which are composite structures derived from the two symbiotic partners. This review focuses on symbiotic infection and invasion during the formation of indeterminate nodules. It summarizes root hair growth, how root hair growth is influenced by rhizobial signaling molecules, infection of root hairs, infection thread extension down root hairs, infection thread growth into root tissue, and the plant and bacterial contributions necessary for infection thread formation and growth. The review also summarizes recent advances concerning the growth dynamics of rhizobial populations in infection threads.

  6. Study and analysis of the legume crop market in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukhanyan Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous and sub-mountainous zones of the Republic of Armenia farmers mainly grow beans, chickpeas, and peas. In addition there are very small crop areas (mainly homestead lands of faba bean, soybean, mung bean, and grass pea. The village population does not know much about the cultivation of these plants. The data show that in 2007-2009 the specific weight of legume in overall cropland was approximately 94%, and about the 96% of the gross harvest. Local production needs appropriate marketing strategy. The research of local market showed that more attention should be paid to the consumption of goods produced by the farmer households, as well as to offer them to various consumer groups.

  7. Evolving technologies for growing, imaging and analyzing 3D root system architecture of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, Miguel A; Larson, Brandon G; Shaff, Jon E; Schneider, David J; Falcão, Alexandre Xavier; Yuan, Lixing; Clark, Randy T; Craft, Eric J; Davis, Tyler W; Pradier, Pierre-Luc; Shaw, Nathanael M; Assaranurak, Ithipong; McCouch, Susan R; Sturrock, Craig; Bennett, Malcolm; Kochian, Leon V

    2016-03-01

    A plant's ability to maintain or improve its yield under limiting conditions, such as nutrient deficiency or drought, can be strongly influenced by root system architecture (RSA), the three-dimensional distribution of the different root types in the soil. The ability to image, track and quantify these root system attributes in a dynamic fashion is a useful tool in assessing desirable genetic and physiological root traits. Recent advances in imaging technology and phenotyping software have resulted in substantive progress in describing and quantifying RSA. We have designed a hydroponic growth system which retains the three-dimensional RSA of the plant root system, while allowing for aeration, solution replenishment and the imposition of nutrient treatments, as well as high-quality imaging of the root system. The simplicity and flexibility of the system allows for modifications tailored to the RSA of different crop species and improved throughput. This paper details the recent improvements and innovations in our root growth and imaging system which allows for greater image sensitivity (detection of fine roots and other root details), higher efficiency, and a broad array of growing conditions for plants that more closely mimic those found under field conditions. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  8. MOX manufacturing perspectives in a fast growing future and the MELOX plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekiarian, A.; Le Bastard, G.

    1991-01-01

    The potential MOX fuel market will grow regularly in the nineties. In view of satisfying the needs of the market, mixed-oxide fuel manufacturers have a strong incentive to increase the capacity of existing facilities and to build new ones. The Belgonucleaire plant at Dessel has been in operation since 1973. It has been backfitted up to a capacity of 35 t/y of LWR fuel which is now fully available. To satisfy the need of MOX fuel it was equally decided to adapt facilities in Cadarache where a production line, with a capacity of 15 t/y, is now delivering its production. But planned production up to the end of the century implies further increases in manufacturing capacities : MELOX, a plant for 120 t/y is under construction on the COGEMA site of Marcoule as well as a further expansion of Belgonucleaire plant at Dessel (P1) is studied to reach 70 t/y on this site. Similar developments are also planned by SIEMENS for a new manufacturing capability at Hanau (Germany). MELOX as well as all the new facilities have to get high levels of safety concerning environment and personnel. This leads to largely automated operations, and a particular care for waste treatment. (author)

  9. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochs, Johannes; Pflugfelder, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants. PMID:26729797

  10. Fast growing aspens in the development of a plant micropropagation system based on plant-produced ethylene action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žiauka, Jonas; Kuusienė, Sigutė; Šilininkas, Mindaugas

    2013-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Populus (poplars), such as Populus tremula L. (European aspen) and its fast-growing hybrids, are recognized as being among the most suitable tree species for short rotation coppicing in Northern Europe. Several technologies have been developed for fast propagation of selected aspen genotypes, including laboratory (in vitro) micropropagation, which is usually based on the action of exogenous plant hormones. Seeking to minimize the use of the latter, the present study was designed to test if the conditions suitable for increased accumulation of plant-produced gas, including the gaseous plant hormone ethylene, inside a culture vessel could contribute to commercially desirable changes in aspen development. Shoot cultures of several European and hybrid (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula) aspen genotypes were studied using two different types of culture vessels: tightly sealed Petri dishes (15 × 54 mm) designed to provide restricted gas exchange (RGE) conditions, and capped (but not sealed) test tubes (150 × 18 mm) providing control conditions. Under RGE conditions, not only the positive impact of the ethylene precursors 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid (ACC) and ethephon on shoot proliferation was demonstrated but also a several-fold increase, compared to the control conditions, in the mean shoot number per explant was recorded even on the hormone-free nutrient medium. Moreover, the shoots developed under RGE conditions were distinguished by superior rooting ability in the subsequent culture. These results suggest that a plant micropropagation system based on the action of plant-produced ethylene rather than of exogenous hormones is possible. -- Highlights: ► Aspen in vitro cultures were grown in different vessels. ► Small-volume vessels were used for restriction of gas exchange. ► Aspen explants produced most shoots in small-volume vessels. ► Shoot proliferation was increased due to explant response to ethylene.

  11. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  12. Improvement of diabetic dyslipidemia by legumes in experimental rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain legumes are a valuable source of food proteins; hence, their exploitation is expected to grow in relation to a growing world's food needs. Apart from high level of dietary fibre, their protein composition makes them useful in managing diabetes. This paper reports a study conducted to evaluate the effects of four different ...

  13. Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors

  14. Hyperaccumulator of Pb in native plants growing on Peruvian mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria; Boluda, Rafael; Tume, Pedro; Duran, Paola; Poma, Wilfredo; Sanchez, Isidoro

    2014-05-01

    Tailings usually provide an unfavourable substrate for plant growth because of their extreme pH, low organic matter and nutrients, high concentrations of trace elements and physical disturbance, such as bad soil structure, and low water availability. Heavy metal contamination has also been one serious problem in the vicinity of mine sites due to the discharge and dispersion of mine-waste materials into the ecosystem. Moreover, Pb is considered a target metal when undertaking soil remediation, because it is usually quite immobile and not readily accumulated in upper plant parts. The presence of vegetation reduces water and wind erosion, which may decrease the downward migration of contaminants into the groundwater and improve aesthetical aspects. Plants growing on naturally metal-enriched soils are of particular interest in this perspective, since they are genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations, have an excellent adaptation to this multi-stress environment. Efficient phytoextraction requires plant species combining both high metal tolerance and elevated capacity for metal uptake and metal translocation to easily harvestable plant organs (e.g. shoots). Soil and plant samples were taken in Peru, at a polymetallic mine (mainly Ag, Pb and Cu) in Cajamarca Province, Hualgayoc district. Top soils (0-20 cm) were analysed for physical and chemical properties by standard methods. Total Pb concentrations in top soils were determined by ICP-OES. Pb content in plants were analysed separately (aerial and root system) by ICP-MS. Ti content was used as an indicator for contamination of plant samples with soil particles. Translocation Factor (TF) and Shoot Accumulation Factor (SAF) were determined to assess the tolerance strategies developed by these species and to evaluate their potential for phytoremediation purposes. The non-polluted soils had near neutral pH (6.8±0.1), a great content of organic carbon (42 ± 4.0 g•kg-1) and a silt loamy texture. Soil and plant

  15. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...... to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve...

  16. Quantitative 3D Analysis of Plant Roots Growing in Soil Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Metzner, Ralf; Kochs, Johannes; Postma, Johannes A; Pflugfelder, Daniel; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2016-03-01

    Precise measurements of root system architecture traits are an important requirement for plant phenotyping. Most of the current methods for analyzing root growth require either artificial growing conditions (e.g. hydroponics), are severely restricted in the fraction of roots detectable (e.g. rhizotrons), or are destructive (e.g. soil coring). On the other hand, modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are noninvasive and allow high-quality three-dimensional imaging of roots in soil. Here, we present a plant root imaging and analysis pipeline using MRI together with an advanced image visualization and analysis software toolbox named NMRooting. Pots up to 117 mm in diameter and 800 mm in height can be measured with the 4.7 T MRI instrument used here. For 1.5 l pots (81 mm diameter, 300 mm high), a fully automated system was developed enabling measurement of up to 18 pots per day. The most important root traits that can be nondestructively monitored over time are root mass, length, diameter, tip number, and growth angles (in two-dimensional polar coordinates) and spatial distribution. Various validation measurements for these traits were performed, showing that roots down to a diameter range between 200 μm and 300 μm can be quantitatively measured. Root fresh weight correlates linearly with root mass determined by MRI. We demonstrate the capabilities of MRI and the dedicated imaging pipeline in experimental series performed on soil-grown maize (Zea mays) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Testing fungistatic properties of soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzhu, Hu; Nesterenko, Elena; Liu, Professor Hong; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, Vladimir; Gurevich, Yu.; Kozlov, Vladimir; Khizhnyak, Serge; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu; Enzhu, Hu

    There are two ways of getting vegetable food in BLSS: in hydroponic culture and on soil substrates. In any case there is a chance that the plants will be affected by plant pathogenic microorganisms. The subject of the research was a soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). We estimated the fungistatic properties of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris and Alternaria plant pathogenic fungi. Experiments were made with the samples of SLS, natural soil and sand (as control). We tested 2 samples of SLS produced by way of bioconversion of wheat and rice straw. We measured the disease severity of wheat seedlings and the incidence of common root rot in natural (non-infectious) background and man-made (infectious) conditions. The severity of disease on the SLS was considerably smaller both in non-infectious and infectious background conditions (8 and 12%) than on the natural soil (18 and 32%) and sand. It was the soil-like substrate that had the minimal value among the variants being compared (20% in non-infectious and 40% in infectious background conditions). This index in respect of the soil was 55 and 78%, correspondingly, and in respect of the sand - 60%, regardless of the background. It was found that SLS significantly suppressed conidia germination of Bipolaris soroikiniana (p<0.001). In the presence of SLS germination of conidia decreased to 9.9 - 12.2% of the control value. No significant differences were found between SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw.

  18. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC–UV–MS. The relationship between phytochemical

  19. The 'Ahakhav Native Plant Nursery on the Colorado River Indian Reservation: Growing trees and shrubs for southwest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Kleffner

    2002-01-01

    The Colorado River Indian Reservation is located in southwestern Arizona on the California/Arizona border. On the reservation is the 'Ahakhav Tribal Preserve, located on the banks of the Lower Colorado River. On the preserve is the 'Ahakhav Native Plant Nursery, specializing in plants used for southwest riparian restoration. The nursery primarily grows native...

  20. Can Plants Grow on Mars and the Moon: A Growth Experiment on Mars and Moon Soil Simulants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamelink, G.W.W.; Frissel, J.Y.; Krijnen, W.H.J.; Verwoert, M.R.; Goedhart, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars

  1. Enzyme activities at different stages of plant biomass decomposition in three species of fungus-growing termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Costa, Rafael R.; Hu, Haofu; Pilgaard, Bo

    2018-01-01

    contributing to the success of the termites as the main plant decomposers in the Old World. Here we evaluate which plant polymers are decomposed and which enzymes are active during the decomposition process in two major genera of fungus-growing termites. We find a diversity of active enzymes at different......Fungus-growing termites rely on the mutualistic fungus Termitomyces and gut microbes for plant biomass degradation. Due to a certain degree of symbiont complementarity, this tripartite symbiosis has evolved as a complex bioreactor, enabling decomposition of nearly any plant polymer, likely...... stages of decomposition and a consistent decrease in plant components during the decomposition process. Furthermore, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that termites transport enzymes from the older mature parts of the fungus comb through young worker guts to freshly inoculated plant...

  2. In Vitro Assessment of Plants Growing in Cuba Belonging to Solanaceae Family Against Leishmania amazonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzote, Lianet; Jiménez, Jenny; Cuesta-Rubio, Osmany; Márquez, Ingrid; Gutiérrez, Yamile; da Rocha, Cláudia Quintino; Marchi, Mary; Setzer, William N; Vilegas, Wagner

    2016-11-01

    In this study, an in vitro antileishmanial assessment of plant extracts from 12 genera and 46 species growing in Cuba belonging to Solanaceae family was performed. A total of 226 extracts were screened against promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, and cytotoxicity of active extracts [median inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) promastigotes 5 were then assayed against intracellular amastigote. Metabolomics analysis of promissory extracts was performed using chemical profile obtained by ultra performance liquid chromatography. Only 11 extracts (4.9%) from nine plants were selected as potentially actives: Brunfelsia cestroides A. Rich, Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum chinense Jacq., Cestrum nocturnum L., Nicotiana plumbaginifolia Viv., Solanum havanense Jacq., Solanum myriacanthum Dunal, Solanum nudum Dunal and Solanum seaforthianum And., with IC 50  5. Metabolomics analysis demonstrated significant differences in the chemical profiles with an average of 42.8 (range 31-88) compounds from m/z 104 to 1477, which demonstrated the complex mixture of compounds. In addition, no common markers among active extracts were identified. The results demonstrate the importance of the Solanaceae family to search new antileishmanial agents, particularly in unexplored species of this family. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Microbial abundance in rhizosphere of medicinal and aromatic plant species in conventional and organic growing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the abundance of microorganisms in the rhizosphere of four different medicinal and aromatic plant species (basil, mint, dill and marigold grown under both conventional and organic management on the chernozem soil at the experimental field of Bački Petrovac (Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. Two sampling terms (June 1 and July 18, 2012 were performed to collect samples for microbiological analyses. The microbial abundance was higher in organic than in conventional system while at the same time significant differences were obtained only with dill rhizosphere. The differences in number of microorganisms belonging to different groups relied upon both plant species and sampling term. Thus, in mint, the recorded number of azotobacters and fungi was significantly higher whereas the number of ammonifiers was significantly lower. The present results indicate that organic growing system affected the abundance of microorganisms in rhizosphere of species investigated, especially in the second term of sampling.

  4. Measurement of hydraulic characteristics of porous media used to grow plants in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan L.; Poritz, Darwin

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the effect of gravity on hydraulic properties of plant growth medium is essential for growing plants in space. The suitability of existing models to simulate hydraulic properties of porous medium is uncertain due to limited understanding of fundamental mechanisms controlling water and air transport in microgravity. The objective of this research was to characterize saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) of two particle-size distributions of baked ceramic aggregate using direct measurement techniques compatible with microgravity. Steady state (Method A) and instantaneous profile measurement (Method B) methods for K were used in a single experimental unit with horizontal flow through thin sections of porous medium providing an earth-based analog to microgravity. Comparison between methods was conducted using a crossover experimental design compatible with limited resources of space flight. Satiated (natural saturation) K ranged from 0.09 to 0.12 cm s-1 and 0.5 to >1 cm s-1 for 0.25- to 1- and 1- to 2-mm media, respectively. The K at the interaggregate/intraaggregate transition was approximately 10(-4) cm s-1 for both particle-size distributions. Significant differences in log(10)K due to method and porous medium were less than one order of magnitude and were attributed to variability in air entrapment. The van Genuchten/Mualem parametric models provided an adequate prediction of K of the interaggregate pore space, using residual water content for that pore space. The instantaneous profile method covers the range of water contents relevant to plant growth using fewer resources than Method A, all advantages for space flight where mass, volume, and astronaut time are limited.

  5. Socioeconomic Study of Grasses and Legumes in Baria and Godhra Forest Division, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhara J. GANDHI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Gujarat has rich traditional knowledge associated with biodiversity. The cultural diversity in the Indian society reflects close relationship between the existence of human life and nature including all other living creatures and non-living creatures. The present paper deals with the traditional knowledge of villagers in 10 villages nearby the grasslands in Panchmahal and Dahod districts of Gujarat, India, regarding the multipurpose use of grasses and associated legumes prevailing in these grasslands. A survey with the help of questionnaire was conducted to analyze the socioeconomic status. 69 grass species and 34 legumes could be identified growing in these grasslands of which 92 were used for livestocks. Among these grasses the most preferred grass species were Dichanthium annulatum and Sehima nervosum because of its high palatability. Three grasses and 8 legume species were used for food and medicine. The study emphasizes the use of plant wealth to human needs of the regions and assist in appraisal of various anthropogenic interventions accountable for loss of prevailing biodiversity of the region.

  6. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Iran�s climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  7. Climatic Suitability of Growing Summer Squash (Cucurbita pepo L. as a Medicinal Plant in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BANNAYAN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Irans climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005 for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan, 39 years (1966-2005 for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa, 28 years (1977-2005 for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan and 20 years (1985-2005 for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs. Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.

  8. Photosynthetic properties of C4 plants growing in an African savanna/wetland mosaic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantlana, K B; Arneth, A; Veenendaal, E M; Wohland, P; Wolski, P; Kolle, O; Wagner, M; Lloyd, J

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthesis rates and photosynthesis-leaf nutrient relationships were analysed in nine tropical grass and sedge species growing in three different ecosystems: a rain-fed grassland, a seasonal floodplain, and a permanent swamp, located along a hydrological gradient in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. These investigations were conducted during the rainy season, at a time of the year when differences in growth conditions between the sites were relatively uniform. At the permanent swamp, the largest variations were found for area-based leaf nitrogen contents, from 20 mmol m(-2) to 140 mmol m(-2), nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE), from 0.2 mmol (C) mol(-1) (N) s(-1) to 2.0 mmol (C) mol(-1) (N) s(-1), and specific leaf areas (SLA), from 50 cm(2) g(-1) to 400 cm(2) g(-1). For the vegetation growing at the rain-fed grassland, the highest leaf gas exchange rates, high leaf nutrient levels, a low ratio of intercellular to ambient CO(2) concentration, and high carboxylation efficiency were found. Taken together, these observations indicate a very efficient growth strategy that is required for survival and reproduction during the relatively brief period of water availability. The overall lowest values of light-saturated photosynthesis (A(sat)) were observed at the seasonal floodplain; around 25 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and 30 micromol m(-2) s(-1). To place these observations into the broader context of functional leaf trait analysis, relationships of photosynthesis rates, specific leaf area, and foliar nutrient levels were plotted, in the same way as was done for previously published 'scaling relationships' that are based largely on C(3) plants, noting the differences in the analyses between this study and the previous study. The within- and across-species variation in both A(sat) and SLA appeared better predicted by foliar phosphorus content (dry mass or area basis) rather than by foliar nitrogen concentrations, possibly because the availability of phosphorus is even more critical

  9. Identification of legume RopGEF gene families and characterization of a Medicago truncatula RopGEF mediating polar growth of root hairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riely, Brendan K; He, Hengbin; Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Sarma, Birinchi; Schraiber, Joshua; Ané, Jean-Michel; Cook, Douglas R

    2011-01-01

    Root hairs play important roles in the interaction of plants with their environment. Root hairs anchor the plant in the soil, facilitate nutrient uptake from the rhizosphere, and participate in symbiotic plant-microbe interactions. These specialized cells grow in a polar fashion which gives rise to their elongated shape, a process mediated in part by a family of small GTPases known as Rops. RopGEFs (GEF, guanine nucleotide exchange factor) activate Rops to effect tip growth in Arabidopsis pollen and root hairs, but the genes mediating tip growth in legumes have not yet been characterized. In this report we describe the Rop and RopGEF gene families from the model legume Medicago truncatula and from the crop legume soybean. We find that one member of the M. truncatula gene family, MtRopGEF2, is required for root hair development because silencing this gene by RNA interference affects the cytosolic Ca2+ gradient and subcellular structure of root hairs, and reduces root hair growth. Consistent with its role in polar growth, we find that a GFP::MtRopGEF2 fusion protein localizes in the apex of emerging and actively growing root hairs. The amino terminus of MtRopGEF2 regulates its ability to interact with MtRops in yeast, and regulates its biological activity in vivo. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Surface Soil Preparetion for Leguminous Plants Growing in Degraded Areas by Mining Located in Amazon Forest-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Hashimoto Fengler, Felipe; Araújo de Medeiros, Gerson; Márcia Longo, Regina; Frederici de Mello, Giovanna; José de Melo, Wanderley

    2015-04-01

    The revegetation of areas degraded by mining usually requires adequate mobilization of surface soil for the development of the species to be implemented. Unlike the traditional tillage, which has periodicity, the mobilization of degraded areas for revegetation can only occur at the beginning of the recovery stage. In this sense, the process of revegetation has as purpose the establishment of local native vegetation with least possible use of inputs and superficial tillage in order to catalyze the process of natural ecological succession, promoting the reintegration of areas and minimizing the negative impacts of mining activities in environmental. In this context, this work describes part of a study of land reclamation by tin exploitation in the Amazon ecosystem in the National Forest Jamari- Rondonia Brazil. So, studied the influence of surface soil mobilization in pit mine areas and tailings a view to the implementation of legumes. The results show that the surface has areas of mobilizing a significant effect on the growth of leguminous plants, areas for both mining and to tailings and pit mine areas.

  11. Nitrogen-fixing legume tree species for the reclamation of severely degraded lands in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaer, Guilherme Montandon; Resende, Alexander Silva; Campello, Eduardo Francia Carneiro; de Faria, Sergio Miana; Boddey, Robert Michael

    2011-02-01

    The main challenges faced in the reclamation of severely degraded lands are in the management of the systems and finding plant species that will grow under the harsh conditions common in degraded soils. This is especially important in extremely adverse situations found in some substrates from mining activities or soils that have lost their upper horizons. Under these conditions, recolonization of the area by native vegetation through natural succession processes may be extremely limited. Once the main physical and chemical factors restrictive to plant growth are corrected or attenuated, the introduction of leguminous trees able to form symbioses with nodulating N₂-fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi constitutes an efficient strategy to accelerate soil reclamation and initiate natural succession. These symbioses give the legume species a superior capacity to grow quickly in poor substrates and to withstand the harsh conditions presented in degraded soils. In this article we describe several successful results in Brazil using N₂-fixing legume tree species for reclamation of areas degraded by soil erosion, construction and mining activities, emphasizing the potential of the technique to recover soil organic matter levels and restore ecosystem biodiversity and other environmental functions.

  12. Morphogenesis of complex plant cell shapes: the mechanical role of crystalline cellulose in growing pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouar, Leila; Chebli, Youssef; Geitmann, Anja

    2010-03-01

    Cellulose is the principal component of the load-bearing system in primary plant cell walls. The great resistance to tensile forces of this polysaccharide and its embedding in matrix components make the cell wall a material similar to a fiber composite. In the rapidly growing pollen tube, the amount of cellulose in the cell wall is untypically low. Therefore, we want to investigate whether the load-bearing function of cellulose is nevertheless important for the architecture of this cell. Enzymatic digestion with cellulase and inhibition of cellulose crystal formation with CGA (1-cyclohexyl-5-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenoxy)-1lambda4,2,4,6-thiatriazin-3-amine) resulted in the formation of tubes with increased diameter in Solanum chacoense and Lilium orientalis when present during germination. In pre-germinated tubes, application of both agents resulted in the transient arrest of growth accompanied by the formation of an apical swelling indicating a role in the mechanical stabilization of this cellular region. Once growth resumed in the presence of cellulase, however, the cell wall in the newly formed tube showed increased amounts of pectins, possibly to compensate for the reduced amount of cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy of pollen tubes subjected to digestion of matrix polysaccharides revealed the mechanical anisotropy of the cell wall. In both Lilium and Solanum, the angle of highest stability revealed by crack formation was significantly below 45 degrees , an indication that in the mature part of the cell cellulose may not the main stress-bearing component against turgor pressure induced tensile stress in circumferential direction.

  13. 76 FR 13890 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... certain plants and plant products to prevent the introduction of plant pests and noxious weeds. The...' Food and Agriculture Organization. Such analyses are conducted to determine the plant pest risks... accordance with Sec. 319.37-8(g), APHIS has conducted the required pest risk analysis. The pest risk analysis...

  14. Can plants grow on Mars and the moon: a growth experiment on Mars and moon soil simulants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G W Wieger Wamelink

    Full Text Available When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars and moon soil simulants. The results show that plants are able to germinate and grow on both Martian and moon soil simulant for a period of 50 days without any addition of nutrients. Growth and flowering on Mars regolith simulant was much better than on moon regolith simulant and even slightly better than on our control nutrient poor river soil. Reflexed stonecrop (a wild plant; the crops tomato, wheat, and cress; and the green manure species field mustard performed particularly well. The latter three flowered, and cress and field mustard also produced seeds. Our results show that in principle it is possible to grow crops and other plant species in Martian and Lunar soil simulants. However, many questions remain about the simulants' water carrying capacity and other physical characteristics and also whether the simulants are representative of the real soils.

  15. Can plants grow on Mars and the moon: a growth experiment on Mars and moon soil simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamelink, G W Wieger; Frissel, Joep Y; Krijnen, Wilfred H J; Verwoert, M Rinie; Goedhart, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    When humans will settle on the moon or Mars they will have to eat there. Food may be flown in. An alternative could be to cultivate plants at the site itself, preferably in native soils. We report on the first large-scale controlled experiment to investigate the possibility of growing plants in Mars and moon soil simulants. The results show that plants are able to germinate and grow on both Martian and moon soil simulant for a period of 50 days without any addition of nutrients. Growth and flowering on Mars regolith simulant was much better than on moon regolith simulant and even slightly better than on our control nutrient poor river soil. Reflexed stonecrop (a wild plant); the crops tomato, wheat, and cress; and the green manure species field mustard performed particularly well. The latter three flowered, and cress and field mustard also produced seeds. Our results show that in principle it is possible to grow crops and other plant species in Martian and Lunar soil simulants. However, many questions remain about the simulants' water carrying capacity and other physical characteristics and also whether the simulants are representative of the real soils.

  16. Bioaccumulation of {sup 226}Ra by plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around the uranium industry at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.co [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.co [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India); Sethy, N.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Puranik, V.D. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2010-09-15

    A field study has been conducted to evaluate the {sup 226}Ra bioaccumulation among aquatic plants growing in the stream/river adjoining the uranium mining and ore-processing complex at Jaduguda, India. Two types of plant group have been investigated namely free floating algal species submerged into water and plants rooted in stream and riverbed. The highest {sup 226}Ra activity concentration (9850 Bq kg{sup -1}) was found in filamentous algae growing in the residual water of tailings pond. The concentration ratios of {sup 226}Ra in filamentous algae (activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in plant Bq kg{sup -1} fresh weight/activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra in water Bq l{sup -1}) widely varied i.e. from 1.1 x 10{sup 3} to 8.6 x 10{sup 4}. Other aquatic plants were also showing wide variability in the {sup 226}Ra activity concentration. The ln-transformed filamentous algae {sup 226}Ra activity concentration was significantly correlated with that of ln-transformed water concentration (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra in stream/riverbed rooted plants and the substrate. For this group, correlation between {sup 226}Ra activity concentration and Mn, Fe, Cu concentration in plants were statistically significant.

  17. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  18. Evaluation of dredged sediment co-composted with green waste as plant growing media assessed by eco-toxicological tests, plant growth and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola; Pastorelli, Roberta; Rami, Gabriele; Mocali, Stefano; Giagnoni, Laura; Gonnelli, Cristina; Renella, Giancarlo

    2017-07-05

    Dredged sediments have currently no broad reuse options as compared to other wastes due to their peculiar physico-chemical properties, posing problems for the management of the large volumes of sediments dredged worldwide. In this study we evaluated the performance of sediment (S) co-composted with green waste (GW) as growing medium for ornamental plants. Analysis of the microbial community structure, eco-toxicological tests, were conducted on sediments at 1:1 and 3:1S:GW composting ratios. Sediment-based growing media were then reused to growth the ornamental plant Photina x fraseri in a pilot-scale experiment and plants' physiological and chemical parameters were measured. The results showed that co-composting with green waste increased the diversity of bacteria, fungi and archaea as compared to the untreated sediments, and that both the 1:1 and 3:1 S:GW composted sediments had no substantial eco-toxicological impacts, allowing an excellent plant growth. We concluded that co-composted of sediment with green waste produce a growing medium with suitable properties for growing ornamental plants, and represent a sustainable option for beneficial use of dredged sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Tropical pasture legumes in southern Africa: A review. | J.H. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clipping trials have indicated that the use of tropical legumes could possibly be extended into drier areas and areas experiencing extremes of temperature. More intensive plant introduction, breeding and evaluation programmes are needed if the full potential of tropical legumes is to be realised. Keywords: adaptation ...

  20. Nonlegumes, legumes, and root nodules harbor different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Ridgway, K.P.; Young, J.P.W.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Legumes are an important plant functional group since they can form a tripartite symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, not much is known about AMF community composition in legumes and their root nodules. In this study,

  1. Will Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Amplify the Benefits of Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence suggests there are three key features of the response of legumes to elevated [CO2]: (1) unlike other non-leguminous C3 plants, only legumes have the potential to maximize the benefit of elevated [CO2] by matching stimulated photosynthesis with increased N2 fixation; (2) this potenti...

  2. Subsoil Nitrogen Capture in Mixed Legume Stands as Assessed by Deep Nitrogen-15 Placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathumbi, S.M.; Cadisch, G.; Buresh, R.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation of crops with planted N2-fixing legumes (improved fallows) is a promising agroforestry innovation for replenishing soil fertility in the tropics. We postulated that woody and herbaceous legumes with different rooting and growth patterns could be mixed in improved fallows to maximize

  3. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the

  4. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  5. A conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system including soil-like substrate for growing plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Yu, C. Y.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu L.; Wang, J.

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents a conceptual configuration of the lunar base bioregenerative life support system (LBLSS), including soil-like substrate (SLS) for growing plants. SLS makes it possible to combine the processes of plant growth and the utilization of plant waste. Plants are to be grown on SLS on the basis of 20 kg of dry SLS mass or 100 kg of wet SLS mass per square meter. The substrate is to be delivered to the base ready-made as part of the plant growth subsystem. Food for the crew was provided by prestored stock 24% and by plant growing system 76%. Total dry weight of the food is 631 g per day (2800 kcal/day) for one crew member (CM). The list of candidate plants to be grown under lunar BLSS conditions included 14 species: wheat, rice, soybean, peanuts, sweet pepper, carrots, tomatoes, coriander, cole, lettuce, radish, squash, onion and garlic. From the prestored stock the crew consumed canned fish, iodinated salt, sugar, beef sauce and seafood sauce. Our calculations show that to provide one CM with plant food requires the area of 47.5 m 2. The balance of substance is achieved by the removal dehydrated urine 59 g, feces 31 g, food waste 50 g, SLS 134 g, and also waters 86 g from system and introduction food 236 g, liquid potassium soap 4 g and mineral salts 120 g into system daily. To reduce system setup time the first plants could be sowed and germinated to a certain age on the Earth.

  6. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  7. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmono Dharmono; Ahmad Sofyan; Herita Warni

    2013-01-01

    Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or tea...

  8. The Root-Associated Microbial Community of the World’s Highest Growing Vascular Plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angel, R.; Conrad, R.; Dvorský, Miroslav; Kopecký, Martin; Kotilínek, M.; Hiiesalu, Inga; Schweingruber, F. H.; Doležal, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 2 (2016), s. 394-406 ISSN 0095-3628 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : vascular plants * upward migration * subnival soil * plant-associated bacteria Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.630, year: 2016

  9. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant : a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shou-Li; Yu, Fei-Hai; Werger, Marinus J A; Dong, Ming; During, Heinjo J; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  10. Mobile dune fixation by a fast-growing clonal plant: a full life-cycle analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werger, M.J.A.; During, H.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    Desertification is a global environmental problem, and arid dunes with sparse vegetation are especially vulnerable to desertification. One way to combat desertification is to increase vegetation cover by planting plant species that can realize fast population expansion, even in harsh environments.

  11. 76 FR 67581 - Importation of Bromeliad Plants in Growing Media From Belgium, Denmark, and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... influenced by trade considerations, and the components of a risk management program may be a product of... requirement take into account factors that mitigate that plant pest risk. Those exceptions, which are found in... marketing channels, with retailers able to buy mature plants directly from European suppliers rather than...

  12. Potential of legume-based grassland-livestock systems in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-06-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil-plant-animal-atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30-50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland-livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future.

  13. The Exogenous Amelioration Roles of Growth Regulators on Crop Plants Grow under Different Osmotic Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdia M. Abd El-Samad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of fresh and dry matter of maize, wheat, cotton, broad and parsley plants show a variable response to the elevation of salinity stress. The production of fresh and dry matter of shoots and roots in wheat and broad bean plants tended to decrease with increasing NaCl concentration, salt stress progressively decrease in fresh and dry matter yield of maize plants. The increase in salinization levels induced a general insignificant change in production of fresh and dry matter of both organs of parsley plants. However, salinity induced a marked increase in the values of fresh and dry matter yields of cotton plants grown at the lowest level (-0.3 MPa NaCl and a reduction at higher salinization levels. Leaf area of unsprayed plants was excesivly decreased with the rise of osmotic stress levels especially at higher salinity levels of maize, wheat, cotton, and broad bean and parsley plants. the total pigments concentration decreased with rise of salinization levels in maize and cotton, these contents remained more or less un affected up to the level of 0.6 MPa NaCl in wheat and up to 0.9 MPa in parsley plants, there above, they were significantly reduced with increasing salinity levels. In broad bean plants the total pigments contents showed a non-significant alterations at all salinity stress. Spraying the vegetative parts of the five tested plants with 200 ppm of either GA3 or kinetin completely ameliorated the deleterious effect of salinity in fresh, dry matter, leaf area and pigment contents.

  14. Diurnal patterns of gas-exchange and metabolic pools in tundra plants during three phases of the arctic growing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Rajit; Mortazavi, Behzad; Oberbauer, Steven F; Starr, Gregory

    2013-02-01

    Arctic tundra plant communities are subject to a short growing season that is the primary period in which carbon is sequestered for growth and survival. This period is often characterized by 24-h photoperiods for several months a year. To compensate for the short growing season tundra plants may extend their carbon uptake capacity on a diurnal basis, but whether this is true remains unknown. Here, we examined in situ diurnal patterns of physiological activity and foliar metabolites during the early, mid, and late growing season in seven arctic species under light-saturated conditions. We found clear diurnal patterns in photosynthesis and respiration, with midday peaks and midnight lulls indicative of circadian regulation. Diurnal patterns in foliar metabolite concentrations were less distinct between the species and across seasons, suggesting that metabolic pools are likely governed by proximate external factors. This understanding of diurnal physiology will also enhance the parameterization of process-based models, which will aid in better predicting future carbon dynamics for the tundra. This becomes even more critical considering the rapid changes that are occurring circumpolarly that are altering plant community structure, function, and ultimately regional and global carbon budgets.

  15. Diurnal patterns of gas-exchange and metabolic pools in tundra plants during three phases of the arctic growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, Rajit; Mortazavi, Behzad; Oberbauer, Steven F; Starr, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Arctic tundra plant communities are subject to a short growing season that is the primary period in which carbon is sequestered for growth and survival. This period is often characterized by 24-h photoperiods for several months a year. To compensate for the short growing season tundra plants may extend their carbon uptake capacity on a diurnal basis, but whether this is true remains unknown. Here, we examined in situ diurnal patterns of physiological activity and foliar metabolites during the early, mid, and late growing season in seven arctic species under light-saturated conditions. We found clear diurnal patterns in photosynthesis and respiration, with midday peaks and midnight lulls indicative of circadian regulation. Diurnal patterns in foliar metabolite concentrations were less distinct between the species and across seasons, suggesting that metabolic pools are likely governed by proximate external factors. This understanding of diurnal physiology will also enhance the parameterization of process-based models, which will aid in better predicting future carbon dynamics for the tundra. This becomes even more critical considering the rapid changes that are occurring circumpolarly that are altering plant community structure, function, and ultimately regional and global carbon budgets. PMID:23467719

  16. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF COHERENT LIGHT ON RESISTANCE OF PLANTS GROWING IN UNFAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śliwka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experiments on the effect of the coherent light emitted by lasers on plant material show that properly selected laser stimulation parameters, such as: wavelength, power, time and type of exposure, allow to obtain a greater growth of plant biomass, changes in the content of elements in the biomass and increasing plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of laser stimulation on selected plant species (Iris pseudoacorus L., Lemna minor L. to increase their resistance to low temperatures and the ability to adapt to an environment polluted by mining activities (Phelum pratense L.. Plants from experimental groups (Iris pseudoacorus L., Phelum pratense L., Lemna minor L. were stimulated with coherent light with specific characteristics. To irradiate plants from experimental groups different algorithms of stimulation parameters, differentiating the method and time of exposure were used. Plants group without the stimulation, were the reference group. The article discusses the results of preliminary experiments carried out on a laboratory scale and pot experiments.

  17. Optimizing reed canary grass cropping to increase profitability. Field studies of plant varieties, intercropping with legumes and barley, fertilization and soil compaction; Optimering av odlingsaatgaerder i roerflen foer oekad loensamhet. Faeltstudier av sorter, samodling med baljvaexter och korn, goedsling samt markpackning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva (Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Reed Canary Grass is a promising crop for biofuel production. For reed canary grass the first year is an establishment year when the small biomass is not harvested. The second year the biomass is usually cut in late autumn but the harvest (removal of the biomass from the field) is delayed until spring. This technique has resulted in lower costs and increases in fuel quality through lower ash contents, including lower contents of chlorine, sodium and potassium. However costs for production are still high, especially establishment costs, fertilization costs and harvesting costs. The aim of this project was to test ways to cut costs per MWh by increased yields, and decreased establishment costs. The methods used have been variety trials to develop more productive plant material, intercropping with nitrogen fixing legumes to reduce the nitrogen demand of the crop, fertilization with waste material (sewage sludge, reed canary grass ash or poultry manure) and harvest at frozen ground as a strategy to reduce soil compaction and harvest damages on the crop. Reed canary grass grown as a fuel has so far been grown as a mono culture. However, when it is been grown for forage, or as a biogas crop, intercropping with legumes has been successful in some studies. In addition to NPK-fertilizers sewage sludge, ash from combustion of reed canary grass and poultry manure was used. An economic calculation showed that the establishment costs (the first two growing seasons) can be lowered by intercropping with red clover. However it is also involves more risks, related to weeds, and cannot be recommended on fallow soil with a large seed bank of weeds. A ten year old reed canary grass ley was used for the experiment. Two 25 m wide strips were harvested with a mower on November 19 2008 when the top soil was frozen. The harvested material was chopped and removed from the field the following day. The following spring, May 19 2009, the remaining reed canary grass on the field was cut with a

  18. Planting geometry and growing season effects on the growth and yield of dryland cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The declining Ogallala Aquifer beneath the Southern High Plains may necessitate dryland crop production and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a well-adapted and potentially profitable alternative crop. The limited growing season duration of the Texas Panhandle and southwestern Kansas, however, impos...

  19. Photosynthetic properties of C4 plants growing in an African savanna/wetland mosaic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantlana, K.B.; Arneth, A.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Wohland, P.; Wolski, P.; Kolle, O.; Wagner, M.; Lloyd, J.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthesis rates and photosynthesis-leaf nutrient relationships were analysed in nine tropical grass and sedge species growing in three different ecosystems: a rain-fed grassland, a seasonal floodplain, and a permanent swamp, located along a hydrological gradient in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

  20. Modeling phosphorus capture by plants growing in a multi-species riparian buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore phosphorus (P) uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126-d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr.), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and smooth brome (Bromis inermis L...

  1. Carbohydrate/glycan-binding specificity of legume lectins in respect to their proposed biological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Viana Ramos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lectins, proteins which specifically recognize carbohydrate moieties, have been extensively studied in many biochemical and structural aspects in order to establish the molecular basis of this non-catalytic event. On the other hand, their clinical and agricultural potentials have been growing fast. Although lectins, mainly those from legume plants, had been investigated for biological properties, studies about the physiological functions of lectins are scarce in literature. Therefore, despite the accumulated data on lectins (as proteins, the role played by these signalizing molecules is poorly discussed. In the light of our accumulated results on legume lectins, specially those obtained from plants belonging to the Diocleinae sub-tribe and available data in literature, we discuss here the main hypothesis of their functions according to their carbohydrate/glycan-binding specificity.As lectinas, proteinas que especificamente reconhecem estruturas que contém carboidratos, têm sido extensivamente estudadas em muitos aspectos bioquímicos e estruturais, objetivando estabelecer as bases moleculares deste evento não-catalítico. Por outro lado, os potenciais clínicos e agriculturais destas proteínas têm crescido rapidamente. Embora as lectinas, principalmente aquelas de legumes tenham sido bastante investigadas em suas propriedades biológicas, estudos sobre as funcões fisiológicas de lectinas são escassos na literatura. Além disto, a despeito da quantidade de dados acumulados sobre lectinas (como proteínas, o papel desempenhado por estas moléculas de sinalização é pobremente discutido. Valendo-se de nossos estudos sobre lectinas de leguminosas, principalmente da sub-tribo Diocleinae, e outros dados presentes na literatura, discutimos aqui, as principais hipóteses de suas funções com base na especificidade por carboidratos e glicanos complexos.

  2. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes (Trifolium repens L., Medicago falcata L., Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb, Medicago sativa L. and Lespedeza davurica Schindler) at five planting depths (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm) and two light levels (full light and shade) on the 21st day after ...

  3. Productivity and stability of various grass-legume mixtures with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were established at Cedara under dryland conditions to determine the production, persistence and value of Trifolium repens cv. Ladino, Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland red and Desmodium uncinatum cv. Silverleaf. These legumes were row-planted into Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu); Cynodon nlemfuensis ...

  4. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ... soil plant analytical development; SSR, simple sequence repeats; TAC, transcript assembly contig; TE, transpiration efficiency; TUS, tentative unique sequences.

  5. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  6. [LEGUME-RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS PROTEOMICS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Iu Iu; Mamenko, P M; Kots, S Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present review contains results of proteomic researches of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The technical difficulties associated with the methods of obtaining protein extracts from symbiotic structures and ways of overcoming them were discussed. The changes of protein synthesis under formation and functioning of symbiotic structures were shown. Special attention has been given to the importance of proteomic studies of plant-microbe structures in the formation of adaptation strategies under adverse environmental conditions. The technical and conceptual perspectives of legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics were shown.

  7. Determination of N2 -fixation ability of legume trees using the 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemay, Johannis; Syaukat, Sriharti; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    A sequence field experiment has been conducted for determining the capability of N 2 -fixation by several legume trees. The experiment was designed using a randomize design with 4 replicates. Each replicate was planted with 100 legume trees and 100 non legume trees. The isotope plot, where 15 N was applied with 18 legume trees and 18 non legume trees. The planting distance was 1m x 1m. For the calculation of N 2 -fixation each legume and standard tree (Eucalypthus alba) was applied with 12.52g in the from of ammonium sulfate with 10.12% 15 N. The 15 N AS was applied in three splits 11 month earlier. Data obtained from this experiment showed that percentage of N derived from fixation (%N-dfF) of all legume trees was reasonable high. The legume trees used in this experiment were, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Caliandra tetragona, Flemengia congesta and Gliriciadia sepium with potential fixation from 62.31% to 90,68%. (author)

  8. Lifeact-mEGFP reveals a dynamic apical F-actin network in tip growing plant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vidali

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Actin is essential for tip growth in plants. However, imaging actin in live plant cells has heretofore presented challenges. In previous studies, fluorescent probes derived from actin-binding proteins often alter growth, cause actin bundling and fail to resolve actin microfilaments.In this report we use Lifeact-mEGFP, an actin probe that does not affect the dynamics of actin, to visualize actin in the moss Physcomitrella patens and pollen tubes from Lilium formosanum and Nicotiana tobaccum. Lifeact-mEGFP robustly labels actin microfilaments, particularly in the apex, in both moss protonemata and pollen tubes. Lifeact-mEGFP also labels filamentous actin structures in other moss cell types, including cells of the gametophore.Lifeact-mEGFP, when expressed at optimal levels does not alter moss protonemal or pollen tube growth. We suggest that Lifeact-mEGFP represents an exciting new versatile probe for further studies of actin's role in tip growing plant cells.

  9. Energetic utilization of residues from wine-growing. Sewage plant Iphofen; Energetische Nutzung von Weinbaureststoffen. Klaeranlage Iphofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinle, Eberhard; Carozzi, Alvaro [Dr.-Ing. Steinle Ingenieurgesellschaft fuer Abwassertechnik mbH, Weyarn (Germany); Mend, Josef; Kurth, Matthias [Stadt Iphofen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The treatment of waste water from the wine-growing and the treatment of liquid residual substances in local purification plants frequently result in a temporary overloading and disturbances. An innovative drop-off scheme was introduced at the purification plant Iphofen (Federal Republic of Germany). With this drop-off scheme, the winegrowers directly supply the highly concentrated liquid residual substances from the winemaking to the purification plant. There the residual substances can be used for the support of the denitrification and fermentation. After the successful conversion of this system, a gas utilization with small cogeneration units could be installed. Thus the resulting mass of gas will be used to the production of electricity and thermal energy. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on this system approach and on first operational experiences.

  10. The suitability of non-legume cover crops for inorganic soil nitrogen immobilisation in the transition period to an organic no-till system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rühlemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate non-legume cover crops for growing no-till grain legumes in organic farming systems. Evaluated cover crops should be able to suppress weed growth, reduce plant available nitrogen in the soil and produce large amounts of biomass with slow N mineralisation. Six non-legume species; spring rye (Secale cereale L., black oat (Avena sativa L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., white mustard (Sinapis alba L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench and hemp (Cannabis sativa L. were tested. Plots with organic fertiliser (50 kg N ha−1 and without fertiliser incorporation at three locations in south-east Germany were trialled and the cover crops’ ability to produce biomass and accumulate N in plant compartments was evaluated. The N mineralisation from stem and leaf material was simulated using the STICS model. The biomass production ranged from 0.95 to 7.73 Mg ha−1, with fertiliser increasing the total biomass at locations with low-N status. Sunflower consistently displayed large biomass and N accumulation at all locations and fertiliser variations, although not always significantly more than other species. Most N was stored in sunflower leaf material, which can be easily mineralised making it less suited as cover crop before no-till sown spring grain legumes. Rye, which produced slightly less biomass, but accumulated more N in the stem biomass, would be better suited than sunflower in this type of system. The N mineralisation simulation from rye biomass indicated long N immobilisation periods potentially improving weed suppression within no-till sown legume cash crops.

  11. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  12. Behavior of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne growing in a heavy metal contaminated field: Plant metal concentration and phytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidar, G. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Garcon, G. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Pruvot, C. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Dewaele, D. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Cazier, F. [Centre Commun de Mesures, MREI 1, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 145, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Douay, F. [Laboratoire Sols et Environnement, Institut Superieur d' Agriculture, 48 Boulevard Vauban, 59046 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, P. [LCE-EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, MREI2, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, Universite du Littoral-Cote d' Opale, 189A Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: pirouz.shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-06-15

    The use of a vegetation cover for the management of heavy metal contaminated soils needs prior investigations on the plant species the best sustainable. In this work, behaviors of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne, growing in a metal-polluted field located near a closed lead smelter, were investigated through Cd, Pb and Zn-plant metal concentrations and their phytotoxicity. In these plant species, metals were preferentially accumulated in roots than in shoots, as follow: Cd > Zn > Pb. Plant exposure to such metals induced oxidative stress in the considered organs as revealed by the variations in malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase activities. These oxidative changes were closely related to metal levels, plant species and organs. Accordingly, L. perenne seemed to be more affected by metal-induced oxidative stress than T. repens. Taken together, these findings allow us to conclude that both the plant species could be suitable for the phytomanagement of metal-polluted soils. - Usefulness of Trifolium repens and Lolium perenne for the phytomanagement of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

  13. An improved, low-cost, hydroponic system for growing Arabidopsis and other plant species under aseptic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Calderón-Vázquez, Carlos; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Yong-Villalobos, Lenin; Pérez-Torres, Claudia-Anahí; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Méndez-Bravo, Alfonso; González-Morales, Sandra-Isabel; Gutiérrez-Alanís, Dolores; Chacón-López, Alejandra; Peña-Ocaña, Betsy-Anaid; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2014-03-21

    Hydroponics is a plant growth system that provides a more precise control of growth media composition. Several hydroponic systems have been reported for Arabidopsis and other model plants. The ease of system set up, cost of the growth system and flexibility to characterize and harvest plant material are features continually improved in new hydroponic system reported. We developed a hydroponic culture system for Arabidopsis and other model plants. This low cost, proficient, and novel system is based on recyclable and sterilizable plastic containers, which are readily available from local suppliers. Our system allows a large-scale manipulation of seedlings. It adapts to different growing treatments and has an extended growth window until adult plants are established. The novel seed-holder also facilitates the transfer and harvest of seedlings. Here we report the use of our hydroponic system to analyze transcriptomic responses of Arabidopsis to nutriment availability and plant/pathogen interactions. The efficiency and functionality of our proposed hydroponic system is demonstrated in nutrient deficiency and pathogenesis experiments. Hydroponically grown Arabidopsis seedlings under long-time inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiency showed typical changes in root architecture and high expression of marker genes involved in signaling and Pi recycling. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of gene expression of Arabidopsis roots depleted of Pi by short time periods indicates that genes related to general stress are up-regulated before those specific to Pi signaling and metabolism. Our hydroponic system also proved useful for conducting pathogenesis essays, revealing early transcriptional activation of pathogenesis-related genes.

  14. Physiological and morphological responses of olive plants to ozone exposure during a growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnocci, A.; Panicucci, A.; Sebastiani, L.; Lorenzini, G.; Vitagliano, C.

    1999-05-01

    Physiological and morphological responses in leaves of two varieties (Frantoio and Moraiolo) of five-year old olive plants were measured following exposure in filtered air to three ppb or 100 ppb of ozone, five hours per day, for 120 days in fumigation chambers. Significant reduction in photosynthetic activity and stomatal conductance were detected in ozone-fumigated plants of Frantoio leaves compared with control plants. In Moraiolo leaves, the differences were not statistically significant but there was a significant reduction in stomatal conductance. In both cultivars, there was evidence of decrease in stomatal aperture and stomatal surface after ozone exposure, and increased stomatal density compared with control leaves. Since stomata play a crucial role in controlling water use in olive tree leaves, the large ozone-induced reduction in transpiring stomatal surface could have serious consequences for olive productivity in the Mediterranean area where high ozone concentration is common for long periods during the year. 37 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  15. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  16. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 degreesC or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ N-15 stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...

  17. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  18. Potential for plant growth promotion of rhizobacteria associated with Salicornia growing in Tunisian hypersaline soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Rolli, Eleonora; Barbato, Marta; Cherif, Hanene; Guesmi, Amel; Ouzari, Imen; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP) features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  19. Potential for Plant Growth Promotion of Rhizobacteria Associated with Salicornia Growing in Tunisian Hypersaline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Mapelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity and drought are among the environmental stresses that most severely affect plant growth and production around the world. In this study the rhizospheres of Salicornia plants and bulk soils were collected from Sebkhet and Chott hypersaline ecosystems in Tunisia. Depiction of bacterial microbiome composition by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis unveiled the occurrence of a high bacterial diversity associated with Salicornia root system. A large collection of 475 halophilic and halotolerant bacteria was established from Salicornia rhizosphere and the surrounding bulk soil, and the bacteria were characterized for the resistance to temperature, osmotic and saline stresses, and plant growth promotion (PGP features. Twenty Halomonas strains showed resistance to a wide set of abiotic stresses and were able to perform different PGP activities in vitro at 5% NaCl, including ammonia and indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilisation, and potential nitrogen fixation. By using a gfp-labelled strain it was possible to demonstrate that Halomonas is capable of successfully colonising Salicornia roots in the laboratory conditions. Our results indicated that the culturable halophilic/halotolerant bacteria inhabiting salty and arid ecosystems have a potential to contribute to promoting plant growth under the harsh salinity and drought conditions. These halophilic/halotolerant strains could be exploited in biofertilizer formulates to sustain crop production in degraded and arid lands.

  20. Bioaccumulation of 226Ra in the plants growing near uranium facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tykva, Richard; Podracká, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), S25-S27 ISSN 0029-5922 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : uranium mine * contaminated soils * plant accumulation Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.289, year: 2005

  1. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  2. Radionuclide uptake by various plants growing on uranium tailings, Elliot Lake, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, N.K.; Lim, T.P.; Cloutier, N.R.

    1984-02-01

    Detectable levels of Ra-226 (0.2 to 27.6 pCi/g), Ra-223 (<= 0.1 to 4.3 pCi/g) and Pb-210 (0.6 to 6.9 pCi/g) were measured in various species of vegetation growing on various uranium tailings in Elliot Lake. On the other hand levels of Th-232 (<= 0.1 pCi/g), Th-230 (<= 0.1 pCi/g) were near detection limits in the same vegetation samples. In tailings substrates, all radionuclides investigated were detectable: Ra-226 (8.8 to 552 pCi/g), Ra-223 (3.1 to 213 pCi/g), Pb-210 (5.4 to 441 pCi/g), Th-232 (1.6 to 15.4 pCi/g), Th-230 (4.9 to 62 pCi/g) and Th-228 (1.3 to 38 pCi/g). Lower Th than Ra and Pb levels in tailings substrate were believed to be the cause for the relatively lower Th levels measured in vegetation when compared to Ra and Pb concentrations. No correlation was observed between the level of a given radionuclide in tailings and in the vegetation growing on that tailings

  3. Contribution of legumes to the soil N pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustec, Joëlle; Malagoli, Philippe; Mahieu, Stéphanie

    2010-05-01

    Grain legumes can be used for nitrogen acquisition in different ways in sustainable agriculture (Fustec et al., 2009). They are seen as a tool to reduce mineral N fertilizers in cropping systems. However, estimates of biological N fixation, N balance and N benefit either for the following crop or in mixed crops, remain unclear. The contribution of legumes to the soil N pool is difficult to measure, especially N rhizodeposition, since it is a critical point for assessing N benefits for other crops and for soil biological activity, and for reducing water pollution (Mayer et al., 2003). We adapted and refined the cotton-wick 15N stem labeling method for measuring the amount of soil N derived from rhizodeposition by field peas (Mahieu et al., 2007, 2009). The method was tested in different conditions in the field and in the greenhouse with various pea varieties and isolines. In addition, we used the cotton-wick method for assessing N transfers from pea to neighbouring durum wheat. In the greenhouse, a positive relationship was found between the amount of N rhizodeposits and the legume N content. N rhizodeposition was about 15% of the plant N and 30% in the field. In field pea / durum wheat intercrops, plant-plant N transfers were quantified and found to be bidirectional. Such results should be taken into account when estimating N benefits from biological N fixation by a grain legume crop and for the prediction of N economies in legume-based cropping systems. More studies dealing with rhizodeposit compounds and soil biological activity would now be necessary. Fustec et al. 2009. Agron. Sustain. Dev., DOI 10.1051/agro/2009003, in press. Mahieu et al. 2007. Plant Soil 295, 193-205. Mahieu et al. 2009. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 2236-2243. Mayer et al. 2003. Soil Biol. Biochem. 35, 21-28.

  4. Bacterial diseases of tomato plants in terms of open and covered growing of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.V. Kolomiets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It was established that the main causes of mass diseases of tomato in covered ground in Ukraine are agents of bacterial black spotting, bacterial speck and in open ground are agent of bacterial cancer of tomato plants. Typical symptoms of diseases are wilting and die-off of young plants, blackening of fiber vascular bundles, black spotting of leaves and fruits, and fruit stem rot. It was studied morphological and cultural, as well as physiological and biochemical properties of the selected strains of the agents of tomato bacterial diseases. We recommended biological preparations Phytocide and Phytohelp based on the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, to restrict the development of the agents of bacterial black spotting Xanthomonas vesicatoria and bacterial cancer Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis.

  5. Elaboration of natural polyfunctional preparations with antiparasitic and biostimulating properties for plant growing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iutynska, G O

    2012-01-01

    Producer of macrolide antibiotic avermectin Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2179 has been isolated from Ukrainian chernozem soil, its biosynthetic activity has been increased by the traditional selection and chemical mutagenesis methods. Streptomyces avermitilis UCM Ac-2179 synthesizes avermectin with the content of anti-parasitic B-components more than 40%. Addition of exogenous Na-pyruvate (1.5 mg/L) in cultural medium promotes a 2.5-fold augmentation of the avermectin synthesis. The preparation Avercom has been obtained by the method of ethanol extraction from the producer biomass. This preparation includes antibiotic avermectin and other biologically active substances: free amino acids, lipids, phytohormones. Avercom has high nematicidic activity and raises plant resistance to fungal and viral diseases. On the base of Avercom and plant growth regulators the complex preparations Actinolan and Ascoldia have been elaborated. The effectiveness of the biopreparations as nematicidic and plantstimulating means under experimental and industrial conditions was confirmed.

  6. Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Kuhlman, T.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Oudendag, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe (Legume Futures) is an international research project funded by the European Union through the Framework 7 Programme (FP7) under grant agreement number 245216 (FP7-KBBE-2009-3). The Legume Futures research consortium comprises 20 partners in 13 countries.

  7. The contents of amino acids and sterols in maize plants growing under different nitrogen conditions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlík, Milan; Pavlíková, D.; Balík, J.; Neuberg, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 3 (2010), s. 125-132 ISSN 1214-1178 R&D Projects: GA MZe 1G58027; GA MŠk 2B06024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : plant metabolism * ammonium nutrition * phytosterol Subject RIV: GD - Fertilization, Irrigation, Soil Processing Impact factor: 1.076, year: 2010 www.agriculturejournals.cz/publishedArticle?journal=PSE&volume=56&firstPage=125

  8. Preliminary evaluation for cancer chemopreventive and cytotoxic potential of naturally growing ethnobotanically selected plants of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan-ul-Haq; Mirza, Bushra; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Park, Eun-Jung; Burns, Brittany E; Marler, Laura E; Pezzuto, John M

    2013-03-01

    Natural products are a very productive source of leads for the development of medicines. Six Pakistani plants were chosen for study based on ethnobotanical data. Exploration of important medicinal plants of Pakistan for cancer treatment. The crude extracts of the six plants and their fractions were tested for inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB), aromatase, and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, induction of quinone reductase 1 (QR1), agonism of retinoid X receptor, and growth inhibition with MCF-7, LU-1 and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. Two samples of Withania coagulans (Stocks) Dunal (Solanaceae) demonstrated inhibition of TNF-α induced activity of NFκB with IC₅₀ values of 2.6 and 4.3 µg/mL, respectively. Two fractions from W. coagulans and Euphorbia wallichii Hook F. (Euphorbiaceae) aerial parts inhibited aromatase with IC₅₀ values of 17.0 and 17.7 µg/mL, respectively. A total of 13 samples (five from E. wallichii, one from Acer oblongifolium Hort. ex Dippel (Aceraceae), one from Aster thomsonii C. B. Clarke (Asteraceae) and six from W. coagulans aerial parts with fruits) inhibited NO production with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.3 to 15.6 µg/mL. Fourteen samples demonstrated induction of QR1 with CD ranging from 1.0 to 20.6 µg/mL, and a total of eight extracts and fractions inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells in culture with IC₅₀ values ranging from 1.2 to 7.8 µg/mL. Selected plants can be a valuable source of chemopreventive and anticancer products. W. coagulans aerial parts showed the strongest activity.

  9. Plant Ribonucleases and Nucleases as Antiproliferative Agens Targeting Human Tumors Growing in Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Matoušek, Josef

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), s. 29-39 ISSN 1872-2156 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/06/1149; GA ČR GA521/09/1214 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : antiproliferative cytotoxic * effect human * plant nuclease Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. [Stereochemistry, syntheses and biological activity of lupine alkaloids--from studies on the leguminous plants growing mainly in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmiya, Shigeru

    2007-10-01

    Lupine alkaloids have been studied from the viewpoints of biosynthesis, biotechnology, chemotaxonomy, and biological activity, on the basis of the chemical investigation of the leguminous plants of the 28 species belonging to the 9 genera, which mainly grow in Japan. The results obtained have been comprehensively reviewed by authors. This review describes the stereochemistry of lupine alkaloids and focuses on the conformational flexibility of nitrogen-fused systems such as quinolizidine and indolizidine, syntheses of new unusual types of alkaloids from known lupine alkaloids, and pharmacological activity of lupine alkaloids, especially kappa-opioid receptor-mediated antinociceptive effects of matrine-type lupine alkaloids.

  11. Indigenous Knowledge of Dayaks Bakumpai in Barito Kuala District on the Management of Plant Diversity Growing at Streams and Swamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmono Dharmono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Research aimed at describing profile of indigenous knowldge owned by the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district on managing the diversity of herbs growing at the river flow and swamp. Data on herb used by the tribe were grouped based on the etnobotanic study, covering study botany, etnofarmacology, etnoantrophology, etnolinguistik and etnoekologi. We also observed how the Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district preserve the diversity of plant in around them, and how their efforts in bequeathing or teaching the traditional knowledge of an old breed generation to his young daam in managing diversity of herbs around them. The study was carried out at three vellages, namely Simpang Arja, Pengulu and Ulu Benteng. The results showed that 52 plant species living along the river and 67 species that live in the marsh. Based on the interview we found that (1 the profile of indigenous knowldge dayaks bakumpai district batola in making use of the diversity of plant in surrounding shown through etno-linguistic, etno-economy, etno-anthropology, etno-farmacology and etno-ecology against 44 tufted herbs of 67 of herbs found, (2 Dayaks Bakumpai in Batola district, to preserve the diversity of plant surrounding them, have done without planting, but by making use of herbs without a certain rule, making use of herbs by a certain rule, making use of herbs let plant grown in nature, and destroy plants that exist or cultivated, and (3 efforts for the inheriting the indigenous knowldge to its young generation have been done by women and quite alarming that many young ages of Dayaks Bakumpai do not know the name of herbs around them.

  12. Amino acid digestibility of plant protein feed ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, B; Ragland, D; Thomson, J E; Adeola, O

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the N and AA digestibility of various protein sources (potato protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, linseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal) fed to growing pigs. In each experiment, barrows were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 4 experimental diets and a N-free diet (NFD) on the basis of a replicated 5 × 2 crossover arrangement with 5 diets and 2 periods. For Exp. 1, 20 cannulated 25-kg barrows received potato concentrate, soy concentrate, soy isolate, and linseed meal. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N for potato concentrate, soy concentrate, and soy isolate were similar and greater than that for linseed meal ( protein concentrate than soy concentrate ( digestibility among protein sources ( protein sources ( digestibility of N and AA varies greatly among oilseed meals.

  13. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  14. Benefits from Below: Silicon Supplementation Maintains Legume Productivity under Predicted Climate Change Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott N; Ryalls, James M W; Gherlenda, Andrew N; Frew, Adam; Hartley, Susan E

    2018-01-01

    Many studies demonstrate that elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO 2 ) can promote root nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in legumes such as lucerne ( Medicago sativa ). But when elevated temperature (eT) conditions are applied in tandem with eCO 2 , a more realistic scenario for future climate change, the positive effects of eCO 2 on nodulation and BNF in M. sativa are often much reduced. Silicon (Si) supplementation of M. sativa has also been reported to promote root nodulation and BNF, so could potentially restore the positive effects of eCO 2 under eT. Increased nitrogen availability, however, could also increase host suitability for aphid pests, potentially negating any benefit. We applied eCO 2 (+240 ppm) and eT (+4°C), separately and in combination, to M. sativa growing in Si supplemented (Si+) and un-supplemented soil (Si-) to determine whether Si moderated the effects of eCO 2 and eT. Plants were either inoculated with the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum or insect-free. In Si- soils, eCO 2 stimulated plant growth by 67% and nodulation by 42%, respectively, whereas eT reduced these parameters by 26 and 48%, respectively. Aphids broadly mirrored these effects on Si- plants, increasing colonization rates under eCO 2 and performing much worse (reduced abundance and colonization) under eT when compared to ambient conditions, confirming our hypothesized link between root nodulation, plant growth, and pest performance. Examined across all CO 2 and temperature regimes, Si supplementation promoted plant growth (+93%), and root nodulation (+50%). A. pisum abundance declined sharply under eT conditions and was largely unaffected by Si supplementation. In conclusion, supplementing M. sativa with Si had consistent positive effects on plant growth and nodulation under different CO 2 and temperature scenarios. These findings offer potential for using Si supplementation to maintain legume productivity under predicted climate change scenarios

  15. Benefits from Below: Silicon Supplementation Maintains Legume Productivity under Predicted Climate Change Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott N. Johnson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many studies demonstrate that elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (eCO2 can promote root nodulation and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF in legumes such as lucerne (Medicago sativa. But when elevated temperature (eT conditions are applied in tandem with eCO2, a more realistic scenario for future climate change, the positive effects of eCO2 on nodulation and BNF in M. sativa are often much reduced. Silicon (Si supplementation of M. sativa has also been reported to promote root nodulation and BNF, so could potentially restore the positive effects of eCO2 under eT. Increased nitrogen availability, however, could also increase host suitability for aphid pests, potentially negating any benefit. We applied eCO2 (+240 ppm and eT (+4°C, separately and in combination, to M. sativa growing in Si supplemented (Si+ and un-supplemented soil (Si- to determine whether Si moderated the effects of eCO2 and eT. Plants were either inoculated with the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum or insect-free. In Si- soils, eCO2 stimulated plant growth by 67% and nodulation by 42%, respectively, whereas eT reduced these parameters by 26 and 48%, respectively. Aphids broadly mirrored these effects on Si- plants, increasing colonization rates under eCO2 and performing much worse (reduced abundance and colonization under eT when compared to ambient conditions, confirming our hypothesized link between root nodulation, plant growth, and pest performance. Examined across all CO2 and temperature regimes, Si supplementation promoted plant growth (+93%, and root nodulation (+50%. A. pisum abundance declined sharply under eT conditions and was largely unaffected by Si supplementation. In conclusion, supplementing M. sativa with Si had consistent positive effects on plant growth and nodulation under different CO2 and temperature scenarios. These findings offer potential for using Si supplementation to maintain legume productivity under predicted climate change scenarios

  16. Detection of new viruses in alfalfa, weeds and cultivated plants growing adjacent to alfalfa fields in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Al-Shahwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1368 symptomatic plant samples showing different virus-like symptoms such as mottling, chlorosis, mosaic, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and stunting were collected from alfalfa, weed and cultivated plant species growing in vicinity of alfalfa fields in five principal regions of alfalfa production in Saudi Arabia. DAS-ELISA test indicated occurrence of 11 different viruses in these samples, 10 of which were detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Eighty percent of the alfalfa samples and 97.5% of the weed and cultivated plants samples were found to be infected with one or more of these viruses. Nine weed plant species were found to harbor these viruses namely, Sonchus oleraceus, Chenopodium spp., Hibiscus spp., Cichorium intybus, Convolvulus arvensis, Malva parviflora, Rubus fruticosus, Hippuris vulgaris, and Flaveria trinervia. These viruses were also detected in seven cultivated crop plants growing adjacent to the alfalfa fields including Vigna unguiculata, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cucurbita maxima, Capsicum annuum, and Vicia faba. The newly reported viruses together with their respective percent of detection in alfalfa, and in both weeds and cultivated crop plant species together were as follows: Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV {12.5 and 4.5%}, Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV {2.9 and 3.5%}, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV {1.4 and 4.5%}, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV {1.2 and 4.5%}, Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV {1.2 and 4%}, White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV {1.0 and 5%}, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV {0.8 and 3%}, Pea streak virus (PeSV {0.4 and 4.5%} and Tobacco streak virus (TSV {0.3 and 2.5%}. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, the previously reported virus in alfalfa, had the highest percentage of detection in alfalfa accounting for 58.4% and 62.8% in the weeds and cultivated plants. Peanut stunt virus (PSV was also detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia with a 66.7% of infection in 90

  17. Detection of new viruses in alfalfa, weeds and cultivated plants growing adjacent to alfalfa fields in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahwan, I M; Abdalla, O A; Al-Saleh, M A; Amer, M A

    2017-09-01

    A total of 1368 symptomatic plant samples showing different virus-like symptoms such as mottling, chlorosis, mosaic, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and stunting were collected from alfalfa, weed and cultivated plant species growing in vicinity of alfalfa fields in five principal regions of alfalfa production in Saudi Arabia. DAS-ELISA test indicated occurrence of 11 different viruses in these samples, 10 of which were detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Eighty percent of the alfalfa samples and 97.5% of the weed and cultivated plants samples were found to be infected with one or more of these viruses. Nine weed plant species were found to harbor these viruses namely, Sonchus oleraceus, Chenopodium spp., Hibiscus spp., Cichorium intybus , Convolvulus arvensis , Malva parviflora , Rubus fruticosus , Hippuris vulgaris , and Flaveria trinervia . These viruses were also detected in seven cultivated crop plants growing adjacent to the alfalfa fields including Vigna unguiculata , Solanum tuberosum , Solanum melongena , Phaseolus vulgaris , Cucurbita maxima , Capsicum annuum , and Vicia faba . The newly reported viruses together with their respective percent of detection in alfalfa, and in both weeds and cultivated crop plant species together were as follows: Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV) {12.5 and 4.5%}, Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) {2.9 and 3.5%}, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) {1.4 and 4.5%}, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) {1.2 and 4.5%}, Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV) {1.2 and 4%}, White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV) {1.0 and 5%}, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) {0.8 and 3%}, Pea streak virus (PeSV) {0.4 and 4.5%} and Tobacco streak virus (TSV) {0.3 and 2.5%}. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), the previously reported virus in alfalfa, had the highest percentage of detection in alfalfa accounting for 58.4% and 62.8% in the weeds and cultivated plants. Peanut stunt virus (PSV) was also detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia with a 66.7% of infection in 90

  18. Plant Viability as a Function of Temperature Stress (The Richards Function Applied to Data from Freezing Tests of Growing Shoots).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Fircks, H. A.; Verwijst, T.

    1993-09-01

    Frost resistance of growing Salix viminalis L. shoots was determined by rating mortality percentage under two commonly used freezing conditions: a condition in which plants were encased in crushed ice and another in which plants were moistened with tap water prior to freezing. The mortality-temperature data were fitted with a logistic function (having a fixed inflection point halfway between the asymptotes) and with a Richards function, which is a double asymptotic sigmoid function with a variable inflection point. Different frost resistance curves were obtained, depending on the freezing conditions used. However, conditions were inadequate for efficient ice nucleation under either condition. This implies that the applied freezing conditions are not suitable when the purpose is to induce and duplicate early ice crystal formation conditions. The Richards derivatives were negatively skewed in the one case and positively skewed in the other case, giving inflection points, as a function of the upper asymptote, situated at 0.37 when shoots were frosted in the presence of ice and at 0.81 when shoots were frozen in the presence of added moisture. These values differed significantly from 0.50, through which the logistic function would have forced the curves. Because of the significant asymmetry in these frost-resistance curves, the Richards function led to a more accurate reflection of the temperature-mortality course of growing Salix stems than the logistic function. The Richards function possesses the flexibility needed to describe plant injury response in terms of physical and plant physiological mechanisms. Therefore, the Richards function is recommended rather than the logistic function for the assessment of frost resistance.

  19. Arsenic and other heavy metal accumulation in plants and algae growing naturally in contaminated area of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N K; Raghubanshi, A S; Upadhyay, A K; Rai, U N

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify the arsenic (As) and other heavy metal concentrations in the plants and algae growing naturally in As contaminated blocks of North-24-Pargana and Nandia district, West Bengal, India to assess their bioaccumulation potential. The plant species included five macrophytes and five algae were collected from the nine selected sites for estimation of As and other heavy metals accumulated therein by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). Results revealed that maximum As concentration (117mgkg(-1)) was recorded in the agricultural soil at the Barasat followed by Beliaghat (111mgkg(-1)) sites of North-24-Pargana. Similarly, concentration of selenium (Si, 249mgkg(-1)), lead (Pb, 79.4mgkg(-1)), chromium (Cr, 138mgkg(-1)) was also found maximum in the soil at Barasat and cadmium (Cd, 163mgkg(-1)) nickel (Ni, 36.5mgkg(-1)) at Vijaynagar site. Among the macrophytes, Eichhornia crassipes found more dominating species in As contaminated area and accumulate As (597mgkg(-1)) in the shoot at kanchrapara site. The Lemna minor found to accumulate maximum As (735mgkg(-1)) in the leaves at Sonadanga and Pistia stratiotes accumulated minimum As (24.5mgkg(-1)) in the fronds from Ranaghat site. In case of diatoms, maximum As (760mgkg(-1)) was accumulated at Kanchrapara site followed by Hydrodictiyon reticulatum (403mgkg(-1)) at the Ranaghat site. High concentration of As and other heavy metal in soil indicates long term effects of irrigation with contaminated ground water, however, high concentration of heavy metals in naturally growing plants and algae revealed their mobilization through leaching and possible food chain contamination. Therefore, efficient heavy metal accumulator macrophytes Eichhornia crassipes, Lemna minor, Spirodela polyrhiza may be exploited in removing metals from contaminated water by developing a plant based treatment system. However, As accumulator algal species may be used as a bioresource for

  20. Uptake of radionuclides by plants growing on Brazilian soil: the effect of soil ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Maria A.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Ferreira, Ana C.M.; Vidal Perez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides in soil is governed by several mechanisms that can vary significantly according to the specific reactivity of each element and soil properties. The 137 Cs is one of radionuclides that generally reduces with time its mobility and phytoavailability due to irreversible fixation in high activity clay mineral such as illite, vermiculite and montmorilonite. A long-term experimental essay using Brazilian soils was done in order to determine the effect of ageing of contamination on 137 Cs mobility in soils and transfer to plants. To perform this study, 4 different soils with different properties were contaminated with 137 Cs at different period: The older contamination refers to an urban soil contaminated at the Goiania accident (1987). A similar type of Goiania's soil (Ferralsol rich in Gibbsite) was artificially contaminated with 137 Cs in 1993. A subtropical class of soil (Nitisol) was contaminated in 1996 and two other tropical soils were contaminated in 2000 (Acrisol and Ferralsol rich in Goethite). The time's effect was studied by characterizing the evolution of soil properties and the changes in the distribution of radionuclides between phases till 2006. In addition, the phytoavailability was evaluated by carrying out experiments in lysimeters where radish was sowed at different periods:1996, 2000 and 2004. These results showed that the phytoavailability changed with time only in 2 situations: after changes in some soil properties such as pH or due to Cs fixation in high activity clay mineral when it was present in the soils even as trace mineral. The 137 Cs distribution in soil showed that Fe oxides are the main sink for this element in all type of soil and 14 years after contamination, the 137 Cs was still available for plants in the Ferralsol Gbbiste rich. In the Nitisol, 5 years after contamination, the 137 Cs was not detected as in the slightly acidic phase of sequential extraction neither detectable in radish roots or leaves

  1. Economic Potentialities of Some Aquatic Plants Growing in North East Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ziada, M. E.; Mashaly, I. A.; Abd El-Monem, M.; Torky, M.

    The present study provides quantitative assessment of the vegetative yield, growth characteristics, metabolic products, elemental composition and antimicrobial bioactivity of five common macrohydrophytes: Bolboschoenus glaucus (Cyperaceae), Veronica anagallis-aquatica (Scrophulariaceae), Nymphaea lotus (Nymphaceae), Pistia stratiotes (Araceae) and Myriophyllum spicatum (Haloragidaceae). These plants tend to flourish vegetatively during the summer season (June-August). Their relative growth rate, relative assimilating surface growth rate and net assimilation rate were higher during early vegetative stage (February-May). The highest percentages of protein and lipids content were recorded in Nymphaea, while the crude fiber content was higher in Bolboschoenus than in other species. The macronutrient elements were detected with relatively high concentration and sodium cation appeared to be an essential accumulatent as compared with K, Ca and Mg. Myriophyllum appeared to be the major accumulator species of heavy metals, while Pistia appeared to be the minor one. Sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and resins were detected in these plants. Nymphyaea was found to have the most effective antimicrobial activities than the other studied species.

  2. The Mechanism Forming the Cell Surface of Tip-Growing Rooting Cells Is Conserved among Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Suvi; Jones, Victor A S; Morieri, Giulia; Champion, Clement; Hetherington, Alexander J; Kelly, Steve; Proust, Hélène; Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Prescott, Helen; Dolan, Liam

    2016-12-05

    To discover mechanisms that controlled the growth of the rooting system in the earliest land plants, we identified genes that control the development of rhizoids in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. 336,000 T-DNA transformed lines were screened for mutants with defects in rhizoid growth, and a de novo genome assembly was generated to identify the mutant genes. We report the identification of 33 genes required for rhizoid growth, of which 6 had not previously been functionally characterized in green plants. We demonstrate that members of the same orthogroup are active in cell wall synthesis, cell wall integrity sensing, and vesicle trafficking during M. polymorpha rhizoid and Arabidopsis thaliana root hair growth. This indicates that the mechanism for constructing the cell surface of tip-growing rooting cells is conserved among land plants and was active in the earliest land plants that existed sometime more than 470 million years ago [1, 2]. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Growing substrates for aromatic plant species in green roofs and water runoff quality: pilot experiments in a Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cristina M; Calheiros, Cristina S C; Palha, Paulo; Castro, Paula M L

    2017-09-01

    Green roof technology has evolved in recent years as a potential solution to promote vegetation in urban areas. Green roof studies for Mediterranean climates, where extended drought periods in summer contrast with cold and rainy periods in winter, are still scarce. The present research study assesses the use of substrates with different compositions for the growth of six aromatic plant species - Lavandula dentata, Pelargonium odoratissimum, Helichrysum italicum, Satureja montana, Thymus caespititius and T. pseudolanuginosus, during a 2-year period, and the monitoring of water runoff quality. Growing substrates encompassed expanded clay and granulated cork, in combination with organic matter and crushed eggshell. These combinations were adequate for the establishment of all aromatic plants, allowing their propagation in the extensive system located on the 5th storey. The substrate composed of 70% expanded clay and 30% organic matter was the most suitable, and crushed eggshell incorporation improved the initial plant establishment. Water runoff quality parameters - turbidity, pH, conductivity, NH 4 + , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- and chemical oxygen demand - showed that it could be reused for non-potable uses in buildings. The present study shows that selected aromatic plant species could be successfully used in green roofs in a Mediterranean climate.

  4. Volatile oil profile of some lamiaceous plants growing in Saudi Arabia and their biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Abdallah, Hossam M; Mohamed, Gamal A; Farag, Mohamed A; Alshali, Khalid Z; Alsherif, Emad A; Ross, Samir A

    2017-01-01

    A comparative investigation of hydro-distilled essential oils from aerial parts of Mentha longifolia L. (ML), Mentha microphylla K.Koch (MM), Mentha australis R.Br. (MA), and Teucrium polium L. (TP) growing in Al Madinah Al Munawwarah, Saudi Arabia, was carried out. The total numbers of identified constituents were 22, 23, 14, and 20 in ML, MM, MA, and TP oils, representing 93.0, 99.3, 78.1, and 81.1% of the total oil composition, respectively. Pulegone (40.7%) and cineole (33.4%) were the major components in ML, whereas carvone (64.6%) was the major one in MM. Furthermore, β-linalool (22.9%) and α-terpineol (12%) were the major components in MA, whereas, (E)-3-caren-2-ol accounted for 12.1% in TP. The essential oils of TP and MA exhibited promising activities against Leishmania donovani promastigotes with IC50 values of 2.3 and 3.7 μg/mL, respectively. In contrast, MA essential oils exhibited antifungal activities towards Candida krusei and C. glabrata with IC50 values of 1 and 1.2 μg/mL, respectively.

  5. Modeling Phosphorus Capture by Plants Growing in a Multispecies Riparian Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The NST 3.0 mechanistic nutrient uptake model was used to explore P uptake to a depth of 120 cm over a 126 d growing season in simulated buffer communities composed of mixtures of cottonwood (Populus deltoids Bartr., switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., and smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss. Model estimates of P uptake from pure stands of smooth brome and cottonwood were 18.9 and 24.5 kg ha−1, respectively. Uptake estimates for mixed stands of trees and grasses were intermediate to pure stands. A single factor sensitivity analysis of parameters used to calculate P uptake for each cover type indicated that Imax, k, ro, and Lo were consistently the most responsive to changes ranging from −50% to +100%. Model exploration of P uptake as a function of soil depth interval indicated that uptake was highest in the 0–30 cm intervals, with values ranging from 85% of total for cottonwood to 56% for switchgrass.

  6. Immunosuppression during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Lu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobium infects host legumes to elicit new plant organs, nodules where dinitrogen is fixed as ammonia that can be directly utilized by plants. The nodulation factor (NF) produced by Rhizobium is one of the determinant signals for rhizobial infection and nodule development. Recently, it was found to suppress the innate immunity on host and nonhost plants as well as its analogs, chitins. Therefore, NF can be recognized as a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern (M/PAMP) like chitin to induce the M/PAMP triggered susceptibility (M/PTS) of host plants to rhizobia. Whether the NF signaling pathway is directly associated with the innate immunity is not clear till now. In fact, other MAMPs such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and cyclic-β-glucan, together with type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors are also required for rhizobial infection or survival in leguminous nodule cells. Interestingly, most of them play similarly negative roles in the innate immunity of host plants, though their signaling is not completely elucidated. Taken together, we believe that the local immunosuppression on host plants induced by Rhizobium is essential for the establishment of their symbiosis.

  7. THE USE OF PHYSICAL METHODS FOR PLANT GROWING STIMULATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA ALADJADJIYAN

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Different chemical additives are used for rising productivity of plants and animals. Their application causes the contamination of raw materials for food production with toxins that is dangerous for consumers’ health. On-farm safety for fresh produce needs developing and implementing new methods for quality assurance. The influence of physical factors as microwave and laser radiation, magnetic field and ultrasound treatment is an alternative of soil additives and fertilizers. The substitution of chemical amelioration by physical one can reduce the toxins in raw materials and thus – raise the food safety. The use of some physical factors (laser irradiation; ultrasound influence; irradiation with microwave electromagnetic rays; magnetic field influence, gamma irradiation for stimulation of seed vitality in Bulgarian agriculture has been discussed.

  8. Testing soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, J. B.; Lasseur, Ch.; Tikhomirov, A. A.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Zolotukhin, I. G.; Tirranen, L. S.; Karnachuk, R. A.; Dorofeev, V. Yu.

    We studied soil-like substrate (SLS) as a potential candidate for plant cultivation in bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS). The SLS was obtained by successive conversion of wheat straw by oyster mushrooms and worms. Mature SLS contained 9.5% humic acids and 4.9% fulvic acids. First, it was shown that wheat, bean and cucumber yields as well as radish yields when cultivated on mature SLS were comparable to yields obtained on a neutral substrate (expanded clay aggregate) under hydroponics. Second, the possibility of increasing wheat and radish yields on the SLS was assessed at three levels of light intensity: 690, 920 and 1150 μmol m -2 s -1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). The highest wheat yield was obtained at 920 μmol m -2 s -1, while radish yield increased steadily with increasing light intensity. Third, long-term SLS fertility was tested in a BLSS model with mineral and organic matter recycling. Eight cycles of wheat and 13 cycles of radish cultivation were carried out on the SLS in the experimental system. Correlation coefficients between SLS nitrogen content and total wheat biomass and grain yield were 0.92 and 0.97, respectively, and correlation coefficients between nitrogen content and total radish biomass and edible root yield were 0.88 and 0.87, respectively. Changes in hormone content (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins and abscisic acid) in the SLS during matter recycling did not reduce plant productivity. Quantitative and species compositions of the SLS and irrigation water microflora were also investigated. Microbial community analysis of the SLS showed bacteria from Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Proteus, Nocardia, Mycobacterium, Arthrobacter and Enterobacter genera, and fungi from Trichoderma, Penicillium, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Mucor, Botrytis, and Cladosporium genera.

  9. Leguminosa no controle integrado de plantas daninhas para aumentar a produtividade da laranja-'Pêra' Legume plants in the integrated weeds control to improve orange 'Pera' yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ EDUARDO B. DE CARVALHO

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a produtividade da laranja-'Pêra', em dois ecossistemas, considerando dois diferentes manejos de solo para o controle integrado de plantas daninhas. O experimento foi instalado nos municípios de Rio Real e Conceição do Almeida, Bahia, no período de 1994 a 1999, em área total de 6000 m², em cada local. O manejo utilizado pelo produtor constou de três capinas manuais nas linhas de plantio e três gradagens nas entrelinhas, enquanto o manejo proposto utilizou como cobertura vegetal o feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformes L., nas entrelinhas do pomar, associado a uma subsolagem. O controle químico das plantas daninhas nas linhas do pomar foi realizado duas vezes ao ano com glifosate. O manejo proposto apresentou melhores resultados em relação ao manejo do produtor nos dois municípios para todos os parâmetros analisados: peso do fruto, número de frutos por planta e produtividade. Em Conceição do Almeida, o sistema proposto foi 56,8% mais produtivo que o do produtor e, em Rio Real, 64,9%.Aimed to evaluate the productivity of sweet orange "Pera" grown considering two different ecosystems and under two soil management systems to control weeds. This work was carried out at the cities of Rio Real and Conceição de Almeida, Bahia State, during the period from 1994 to 1999. The soil management used by the farmer comprised three hoeings within planting lines and three harrowings between the planting lines. The new soil management proposed used a green cover of pig beans (Canavalia ensiformes, L. between the planting lines along with subsoiling, associated with a chemical control of the weeds by Gliphosate, on the planting lines, twice a year. The soil management proposed yielded better results than the farmer soil management at both ecosystems for fruit weight of fruit, number, and plant productivity. At Conceição do Almeida and Rio Real the proposed soil management was 56,8% and 64,9%, respectively, superior than the

  10. Production of potato minitubers using advanced environmental control technologies developed for growing plants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Development of plant growth systems for use in outer space have been modified for use on earth as the backbone of a new system for rapid growth of potato minitubers. The automation of this new biotechnology provides for a fully controllable method of producing pathogen-free nuclear stock potato minitubers from tissue cultured clones of varieties of potato in a biomanufacturing facility. These minitubers are the beginning stage of seed potato production. Because the new system provides for pathogen-free minitubers by the tens-of-millions, rather than by the thousands which are currently produced in advanced seed potato systems, a new-dimension in seed potato development, breeding and multiplication has been achieved. The net advantage to earth-borne agricultural farming systems will be the elimination of several years of seed multiplication from the current system, higher quality potato production, and access to new potato varieties resistant to diseases and insects which will eliminate the need for chemical controls.

  11. Testing anti-fungal activity of a soil-like substrate for growing plants in bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterenko, E. V.; Kozlov, V. A.; Khizhnyak, S. V.; Manukovsky, N. S.; Kovalev, V. S.; Gurevich, Yu. L.; Liu, Hong; Xing, Yidong; Hu, Enzhu

    2009-10-01

    The object of this research is to study a soil-like substrate (SLS) to grow plants in a Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS). Wheat and rice straw were used as raw materials to prepare SLS. Anti-fungal activity of SLS using test cultures of Bipolaris sorokiniana, a plant-pathogenic fungus which causes wheat root rot was studied. Experiments were conducted with SLS samples, using natural soil and sand as controls. Infecting the substrates, was performed at two levels: the first level was done with wheat seeds carrying B. sorokiniana and the second level with seeds and additional conidia of B. sorokiniana from an outside source. We measured wheat disease incidence and severity in two crop plantings. Lowest disease incidence values were obtained from the second planting, SLS: 26% and 41% at the first and the second infection levels, respectively. For soil the values were 60% and 82%, respectively, and for sand they were 67% and 74%, respectively. Wheat root rot in the second crop planting on SLS, at both infection levels was considerably less severe (9% and 13%, respectively) than on natural soil (20% and 33%) and sand (22% and 32%). SLS significantly suppressed the germination of B. sorokiniana conidia. Conidia germination was 5% in aqueous SLS suspension, and 18% in clean water. No significant differences were found regarding the impact on conidia germination between the SLS samples obtained from wheat and rice straw. The anti-fungal activity in SLS increased because of the presence of worms. SLS also contained bacteria stimulating and inhibiting B. sorokiniana growth.

  12. Above- and Belowground Development of a Fast-Growing Willow Planted in Acid-Generating Mine Technosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, M; Lortie, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface metal mining produces large volumes of waste rocks. If they contain sulfide minerals, these rocks can generate a flow of acidic water from the mining site, known as acid mine drainage (AMD), which increases trace metals availability for plant roots. Adequate root development is crucial to decreasing planting stress and improving phytoremediation with woody species. However, techniques to improve revegetation success rarely take into account root development. An experiment was conducted at a gold mine in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate the establishment ability over 3 yr of a fast-growing willow ( Sx64) planted in acid-generating waste rocks. The main objective was to study root development in the soil profile and trace element accumulation in leaves among substrates varying in thickness (0, 20, and 40 cm of soil) and composition (organic carbon [OC] and alkaline AMD treatment sludge). Trees directly planted in waste rocks survived well (69%) but had the lowest productivity (lowest growth in height and diameter, aerial biomass, total leaf area, and root-system size). By contrast, the treatment richer in OC showed the greatest aerial biomass and total leaf area the first year; the thicker treatment resulted in the greatest growth in height and diameter, aboveground biomass, and root-system size in both the first and third years. Willow root development was restricted to soil layers during the first year, but this restriction was overcome in the third year after planting. Willow accumulation factors in leaves were below one for all investigated trace metals except for zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and strontium. For Cd and Zn, concentrations increased with time in willow foliage, decreasing the potential of this willow species use for phytostabilization, despite its ability to rapidly develop extensive root systems in the mine Technosol. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. You grow where you're planted: Community building in Colstrip, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Ramsey

    The expansion of energy production in the 1970s resulted in the construction of large extraction and power production facilities in many parts of the American West. Boomtowns almost always accompanied these enterprises. Colstrip, Montana, became the focus of a wide variety of social and environmental controversies when the Montana Power Company began strip mining operations and power plant construction in the early 1970s. Nevertheless, a sense of community attachment in Colstrip has steadily grown. Increased participation in public affairs, often in response to challenges made to the community, has accompanied the integration of Colstrip's residents in the non-economic environments of families, churches, recreation, and school-related activities. Researchers in the 1970s and early '80s often took the view that rapid development disrupts long-standing patterns of community attachment and integration. Using a model derived from Ferdinand Tonnies' Gemeinschaft-Gesell schaft continuum, these researchers undertook to demonstrate the folly of the energy companies' activities. The decline of community has frequently appeared as a theme in sociology and history. Yet the venerable but erroneous and largely sentimental theoretical perspective used by some early social impact assessment researchers did not accurately represent the processes at work in Colstrip and places like it. I suggest that Colstrip demonstrates an evolutionary continuum, but precisely the opposite of Tonnies' proposition. The feeling of attachment and home we call community is a growth-oriented phenomenon, not a simply a passive object subject only to decline. Colstrip, where sociologists found community lacking, is now found by the historian as the model of community.

  14. Adaptability of some legume trees on quartz tailings of a former tin mining area in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B H Narendra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tin mining activities in Bangka Island, besides their important role in contributing to state revenues, also caused damage to the environment, among others in the form of quartz tailings overlay. To rehabilitate this land, in addition to the necessary efforts to improve soil conditions, success is also determined by the selection of appropriate plant species. This study was aimed to determine the adaptability of some legume trees grown on the quartz tailings in land rehabilitation trials in the post tin mining areas of Bangka Island. The legume trees tested were Calliandra calothyrsus Meisn., Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp., Delonix regia ( Hook. Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk. Treatments of growing media applied  in  the field were medium I (a mixture of 20% organic material, 20% top soil, 1% NPK fertilizer, 5% calcium, and 54% quartz tailings, media II (a mixture of 25%organic material, 25%top soil, 2% NPK fertilizer, 6% calcium, 42% quartz tailings, and media III (a mixture of 30% organic material, 30% top soil, 3% NPK fertilizer, 7% calcium, and 30% quartz tailings. The observation was done by measuring the height and diameter of the stem of the plants, as well as the viability of one year after planting. Analysis of the results of measurements of stem height and diameter showed their diversity. Enterolobium cyclocarpum had the largest dimensions, while the lowest was Caesalpinia sappan. At the age of one year in the field, Gliricida sepium and Enterolobium cyclocarpum showed the average ability of the high life of up to 100%, whereas Calliandra calothyrsus was totally death. In general, the types of legumes selected in this trial showed good adaptability, except for of Calliandra calothyrsus

  15. Comprehensive comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the legume genes controlling the nodulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g. Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max and Phaseolous vulgaris to identify key regulatory genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  16. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  17. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  18. Phytochemical standardization and biological activities of certain desert plants growing in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneera S. Al-Saleem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of Calendula tripterocarpa, Centarea sinaica, Centaurea pseudosinaica, Koelpinia linearis, Plectranthus arabicus, Plectranthus asirensis and Tripleurospermum auriculatum determined. The best antibacterial activity; 41.8 ± 0.23 mm, 39.7 ± 0.25 mm, 35.8 ± 0.58 mm, 34.7 ± 0.51 mm and 32.7 ± 0.25 mm was obtained by Plectranthus arabicus against Klebsiella pneumonia, Tripleurospermum auriculatum against Bacillus subtilis, Centaurea pseudosinaica against Bacillus subtilis, Centaurea pseudosinaica against Stroptococcus pyogenes and Plectranthus arabicus against Staphylococcus epidermidis, respectively. While the highest antifungal activity; 35.9 ± 1.15 mm, 34.6 ± 0.34, 30.6 ± 0.26 mm and 29.9 ± 0.63 mm was obtained by Tripleurospermum auriculatum against Geotricum candidum, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis and Aspergillus fumigatus, respectively. The antitumor activity (IC50 obtained by Centarea sinaica; 3.1 ± 6.9 µg/ml, 14.3 ± 3.1 µg/ml and 22.7 ± 4.1 µg/ml was better than activity of vinblastine sulphate; 5.9 ± 0.4 µg/ml, 59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml and 30.3 ± 1.4 µg/ml against breast carcinoma (MCF-7, cervical carcinoma (Hela and colorectal carcinoma (CACO, respectively. Plectranthus arabicus alcoholic extract showed higher antitumor activity; 15.3 ± 5.3 µg/ml, 28.6 ± 3.6 µg/ml and 24.3 ± 4.1 µg/ml than vinblastine; 21.2 ± 0.9 µg/ml, 59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml and 30.3 ± 1.4 µg/ml against prostate carcinoma (Pc3, cervical carcinoma (Hela and colorectal carcinoma (CACO, respectively. Also, the antitumor activity of Plectranthus asirensis against cervical carcinoma (Hela (37.1 ± 2.6 µg/ml was potent than vinblastine sulphate (59.7 ± 2.1 µg/ml. The obtained results of LD50 and sub-chronic toxicity revealed that the plants have no

  19. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  20. Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. STODDARD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important in world agriculture, providing biologically fixed nitrogen, breaking cereal disease cycles and contributing locally grown food and feed, including forage. Pea and faba bean were grown by early farmers in Finland, with remains dated to 500 BC. Landraces of pea and faba bean were gradually replaced by better adapted, higher quality materials for food use. While grain legumes have been restricted by their long growing seasons to the south of the country, red, white and alsike clovers are native throughout and have long been used in leys for grazing, hay and silage. Breeding programmes released many cultivars of these crops during the 1900s, particularly pea and red clover. A.I. Virtanen earned the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on both nitrogen fixation and silage preservation. Use of crop mixtures may appear modern, but farmers used them already in the early 1800s, when oat was used to support pea, and much effort has been devoted to improving the system and establishing its other benefits. Although international cultivars have been easily accessible since Finland’s 1995 entry into the European Union, the combination of feed quality and appropriate earliness is still needed, as < 1% of arable land is sown to grain legumes and an increase to 9–10% would allow replacement of imported protein feeds. Climate change will alter the stresses on legume crops, and investment in agronomy, physiology and breeding is needed so that farmers can gain from the many advantages of a legume-supported rotation.;

  1. Bacterial communities associated with the pitcher fluids of three Nepenthes (Nepenthaceae) pitcher plant species growing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lee Yiung; Clarke, Charles M; Dykes, Gary A

    2014-10-01

    Nepenthes pitcher plants produce modified jug-shaped leaves to attract, trap and digest insect prey. We used 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing to compare bacterial communities in pitcher fluids of each of three species, namely Nepenthes ampullaria, Nepenthes gracilis and Nepenthes mirabilis, growing in the wild. In contrast to previous greenhouse-based studies, we found that both opened and unopened pitchers harbored bacterial DNA. Pitchers of N. mirabilis had higher bacterial diversity as compared to other Nepenthes species. The composition of the bacterial communities could be different between pitcher types for N. mirabilis (ANOSIM: R = 0.340, p Nepenthes species had similar bacterial composition between pitcher types. SIMPER showed that more than 50 % of the bacterial taxa identified from the open pitchers of N. mirabilis were not found in other groups. Our study suggests that bacteria in N. mirabilis are divided into native and nonnative groups.

  2. Uptake of uranium, thorium and radium isotopes by plants growing in dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region (Kazakhstan)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveyeva, Ilona; Burkitbayev, Mukhambetkali [al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan). Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Planinsek, Petra; Smodis, Borut [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-04-01

    The activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in dominant species of plants (Xantium strumarium, Phragmites communis, Artemisia nitrosa and Artemisia serotina) growing on the territories contaminated by uranium industry of Kazakhstan (close to dam impoundment Tasotkel and the Lower Shu region) are presented. The obtained data showed the significant variations of activity concentrations of isotopes of uranium, thorium and radium-226 in above ground parts. The concentrations of most of the investigated radionuclides in the root system are higher than in the aboveground parts; it can be explained by root barrier. It was found that the highest root barrier has Xantium strumarium, especially for uranium isotopes. The concentration ratios of radionuclides were calculated, and as the result it was found that the highest accumulation ability in the investigated region has Artemisia serotina.

  3. Ecophysiological and biochemical traits of three herbaceous plants growing on the disposed coal combustion fly ash of different weathering stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajić Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecophysiological and biochemical traits of Calamagrostis epigejos (Roth. Festuca rubra L. and Oenothera biennis L. growing on two fly ash lagoons of different weathering stage (L1-3 years and L2-11 years of the “Nikola Tesla- A” thermoelectric plant (Obrenovac, Serbia were studied. Species-dependent variations were observed at the L1 lagoon; the greatest vitality (Fv/Fm and Fm/Fo followed by higher photopigment and total phenolic contents were measured in O. biennis in relation to C. epigejos (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.001. At the L2 site, higher vitality was found in O. biennis (p<0.001 and F. rubra (p<0.01 compared to C. epigejos. O. biennis had the highest photosynthetic capacity. The results obtained in this study indicate that all examined species maintained a level of photosynthesis that allowed them to survive and grow under the stressful conditions in ash lagoons, albeit with lower than optimal success. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173018

  4. The impact of cotton growing practices on soil microbiology and its relation to plant and soil health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereg, Lily

    2013-04-01

    different microbes to perform certain activities). Therefore, agricultural practices may determine the ability of beneficial microbes to realise their plant growth promoting potential or the pathogenic expression of others. This presentation will review the current knowledge about the impact of cotton growing practices on microbial communities and soil health in different environments as well as endeavour to identify gaps worthwhile exploring in future research for promoting plant growth in healthy soils.

  5. Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source of nutrients on cereal grain yield and fodder dry matter yields. ... La disposition en lignes a produit un rendement élévé en fourrages secs (5%) et en grains des céréales que les céréales plantés aux hazard. La valeur nutritive (CP, NDF et degradabilité de ...

  6. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marciano Marra; Silvia Maria de Oliveira; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB) were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T). Four of the str...

  7. Ant predation on an invasive herbivore: Can an extrafloral nectar-producing plant provide associational resistance to Opuntia individuals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The legume Chamaecrista fasciculata attracts ants to its extrafloral nectar (EFN) which can lead to reduced herbivory and increased fecundity for the plant. In Florida, Opuntia stricta and O. humifusa, hosts of the invasive moth Cactoblastis cactorum, are often found growing in close association wit...

  8. Essential oil composition and variability of Laurus nobilis L. growing in Tunisia, comparison and chemometric investigation of different plant organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouki, H; Piras, A; Salah, K Bel Haj; Medini, H; Pivetta, T; Bouzid, S; Marongiu, B; Falconieri, D

    2009-01-01

    Stems, leaves, buds and flowers of Laurus nobilis L. growing wild in Tunisia were analysed for their essential oil composition. The essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. gathered from different stations were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by GC/MS. The oil yields on a dry weight basis ranged between 0.4% and 1.1%. The major component identified was 1,8-cineole, other predominant components were alpha-terpinyl acetate, methyl eugenol, eugenol and linalool. Although the same compounds were present in all plant organs, the leaves differed from the stems in the concentration of 1,8-cineole and methyl eugenol, buds and flowers in the concentration of 1,8-cineole and the stem's oil composition differs from the others in content of methyl eugenol. The results obtained from GC/MS analysis of the volatile oils from individual plant organs were submitted to principal component analysis. Chemometric investigations led to differentiation of stems, leaves and buds-flowers with the respect to the content of 1,8-cineole, metyhyl eugenol and alpha-terpynil acetate; flowers and buds were non-differentiated. Finally, the antibacterial activity of the leaves' essential oils has been assayed.

  9. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with plants growing in fly ash pond and their potential role in ecological restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar Babu, A; Sudhakara Reddy, M

    2011-09-01

    Root colonization and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) were analyzed in plants growing in fly ash pond. Eight species could be separated morphologically, while phylogenetic analyses after PCR amplification of the ITS region followed by RFLP and sequencing revealed seven different AM fungal sequence types. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these sequences cluster into four discrete groups, belonging to the genus Glomus and Archaeospora. Inoculation of plants with spores of AM fungal consortia (Glomus etunicatum, Glomus heterogama, Glomus maculosum, Glomus magnicaule, Glomus multicaule, Glomus rosea, Scutellospora heterogama, and Scutellospora nigra) along with colonized root pieces increased the growth (84.9%), chlorophyll (54%), and total P content (44.3%) of Eucalyptus tereticornis seedlings grown on fly ash compared to non-inoculated seedlings. The growth improvement was the consequence of increased P nutrition and decreased Al, Fe, Zn, and Cu accumulations. These observations suggested that the inoculation of tree seedlings with stress adapted AM fungi aid in the reclamation of fly ash ponds.

  10. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...... as in Denmark using spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops. Intercropping involves simultaneously growing two or more crops in the same field for a significant period of time. The practice is ancient as early records from many human societies all over the world have shown. Intercropping systems...... are estimated to still provide as much as 15–20% of the world’s food supply. The practice was widespread in some European farming systems up until the 1950s – before the so-called fossilisation of agriculture. At that time as much as 50 % of all available nitrogen (N) may have originated from symbiotic N2...

  11. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  12. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Elana; Naudin, Christophe; Piva, Guillaume; Shirtliffe, Steven J; Fustec, Joëlle; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle

    2017-02-01

    Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N 2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N 2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N 2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N 2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  13. Planting Seeds, Growing Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Last year, when students at Ridgecrest Intermediate School in Palos Verdes, California, were asked to name scientists, their answers--Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Edison, Albert Einstein, Bill Nye the Science Guy--reflected a common perception. Most of the leading scientists they came up with were white, male, or dead. Although women and people of…

  14. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  15. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  16. Effects of long-term exposure to elevated CO(2) conditions in slow-growing plants using a (12)C-enriched CO(2)-labelling technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Antoni; Aranjuelo, Iker; Biel, Carmen; Savé, Robert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquim; Nogués, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Despite their relevancy, long-term studies analyzing elevated CO(2) effect in plant production and carbon (C) management on slow-growing plants are scarce. A special chamber was designed to perform whole-plant above-ground gas-exchange measurements in two slow-growing plants (Chamaerops humilis and Cycas revoluta) exposed to ambient (ca. 400 micromol mol(-1)) and elevated (ca. 800 micromol mol(-1)) CO(2) conditions over a long-term period (20 months). The ambient isotopic (13)C/(12)C composition (delta(13)C) of plants exposed to elevated CO(2) conditions was modified (from ca. -12.8 per thousand to ca. -19.2 per thousand) in order to study carbon allocation in leaf, shoot and root tissues. Elevated CO(2) increased plant growth by ca. 45% and 60% in Chamaerops and Cycas, respectively. The whole-plant above-ground gas-exchange determinations revealed that, in the case of Chamaerops, elevated CO(2) decreased the photosynthetic activity (determined on leaf area basis) as a consequence of the limited ability to increase C sink strength. On the other hand, the larger C sink strength (reflected by their larger CO(2) stimulatory effect on dry mass) in Cycas plants exposed to elevated CO(2) enabled the enhancement of their photosynthetic capacity. The delta(13)C values determined in the different plant tissues (leaf, shoot and root) suggest that Cycas plants grown under elevated CO(2) had a larger ability to export the excess leaf C, probably to the main root. The results obtained highlighted the different C management strategies of both plants and offered relevant information about the potential response of two slow-growing plants under global climate change conditions. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of shading on tomato plants grow under greenhouse Efeito do sombreamento sobre o crescimento do tomateiro em cultivo protegido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angelo Sandri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, to determine the effect of shading on tomato plants grown in a greenhouse. Sowing was done on July 4th and planting on August 27th, 2000, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2, using an organic commercial rooting medium. Water and nutrients were supplied on a daily basis using a nutrient solution. Two polyethylene tunnels (2.20 m height, 5 m width, 15 m length were used. In the first plastic tunnel, used as control, the transmissivity of global radiation was 83% and plants were conducted as a commercial crop. In the second tunnel, plants were grown under a 52% shading screen. Plant growth and development were measured at 19; 26; 33; 40; 47; 54; 61; 75 and 89 days after beginning of anthesis. Daily average solar radiation in the first tunnel from planting time to the end of the experiment was 12.4 MJ m-2 day-1, whereas in the shaded tunnel it was 5.0 MJ m-2 day-1. Number of fruits per square meter did not differ significantly between the unshaded control and shaded tomato plants. At the last harvest, dry mass from unshaded and shaded plants differed significantly, with values of 974.9 g m-2 and 762.5 g m-2 for total dry mass, 550.1 g m-2 and 419.74 g m-2 for fruits, and 424.75 g m-2 and 342.74 g m-2 for vegetative organs, respectively. Total plant growth was reduced to 21.7% by shading, but plants continued to grow, in spite of the radiation level below the trophic limit of 8.4 MJ m-2 day-1. To establish the climatic suitability of horticultural crops in different regions, it should be advisable to take in account other variables than solar radiation.O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, para determinar o efeito do sombreamento sobre o crescimento do tomateiro em cultivo protegido. A semeadura foi feita em 04/07/00 e o plantio em 27/08, na densidade de 3,3 plantas m-2, empregando substrato comercial orgânico. A

  18. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  19. Nitrogen deposition, competition and the decline of a regionally threatened legume, Desmodium cuspidatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Krissa A; Holsinger, Kent E; Cardon, Zoe G

    2011-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition, resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, production of synthetic fertilizers, growth of N(2)-fixing crops and high-intensity agriculture, is one of the anthropogenic factors most likely to cause global biodiversity changes over the next century. This influence may be especially large in temperate zone forests, which are highly N limited and occur in regions with the highest levels of N deposition. Within these ecosystems, N(2)-fixing plants, including legumes, may be more sensitive to N deposition than other plant species. Though it has long been recognized that the competitive edge conferred by N(2)-fixation diminishes with increasing soil N availability, the conservation implications of increased N deposition on native N(2)-fixers have received less attention. We focus on Desmodium cuspidatum, which has experienced dramatic population losses in the last 30-40 years in the northeastern United States. We explore competition between this regionally threatened legume and a common non-N(2)-fixing neighbor, Solidago canadensis, across a gradient of N deposition. Our data show that increased N deposition may be detrimental to N(2)-fixers such as D. cuspidatum in two ways: (1) biomass accumulation in the non-N(2)-fixer, S. canadensis, responds more strongly to increasing N deposition, and (2) S. canadensis competes strongly for available mineral nitrogen and can assimilate N previously fixed by D. cuspidatum, resulting in D. cuspidatum relying more heavily on energetically expensive N(2)-fixation when grown with S. canadensis. N deposition may thus reduce or eliminate the competitive advantage of N(2)-fixing species growing in N-limited ecosystems.

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Depositions of Inorganic Nitrogen during Plant Growing Season in the Coastal Zone of Yellow River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbao Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological problems caused by dry and wet deposition of atmospheric nitrogen have been widespread concern in the world. In this study, wet and dry atmospheric depositions were monitored in plant growing season in the coastal zone of the Yellow River Delta (YRD using automatic sampling equipment. The results showed that SO42- and Na+ were the predominant anion and cation, respectively, in both wet and dry atmospheric depositions. The total atmospheric nitrogen deposition was ~2264.24 mg m−2, in which dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition was about 32.02%. The highest values of dry and wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition appeared in May and August, respectively. In the studied area, NO3-–N was the main nitrogen form in dry deposition, while the predominant nitrogen in wet atmospheric deposition was NH4+–N with ~56.51% of total wet atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The average monthly attribution rate of atmospheric deposition of NO3-–N and NH4+–N was ~31.38% and ~20.50% for the contents of NO3-–N and NH4+–N in 0–10 cm soil layer, respectively, suggested that the atmospheric nitrogen was one of main sources for soil nitrogen in coastal zone of the YRD.

  2. Growing Plants and Scientists: Fostering Positive Attitudes toward Science among All Participants in an Afterschool Hydroponics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants hydroponically (in water without soil). Participants' attitudes toward science, including anxiety, desire, and self-concept, were examined through pre-post survey data ( n = 234) over the course of an afterschool program at three separate sites. Data showed that participants' anxiety decreased and desire increased for both male and female participants over the program. Self-concept increased for female participants at all three sites but did not change significantly for male participants. Participants' first language (English or Spanish) was not a factor in attitude outcomes. The primarily positive outcomes suggest that hydroponics can be a useful educational platform for engaging participants in garden-based programming year round, particularly for settings that do not have the physical space or climate to conduct outdoor gardening. Similarities in positive attitude outcomes at the three sites despite differences in format, implementation, and instructor background experience suggest that the program is resilient to variation in context. Understanding which aspects of the program facilitated positive outcomes in the varied contexts could be useful for the design of future programs.

  3. Influence of sulfur on the accumulation of mercury in rice plant (Oryza sativa L.) growing in mercury contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Zhao, Jiating; Guo, Jingxia; Liu, Mengjiao; Xu, Qinlei; Li, Hong; Li, Yu-Feng; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gao, Yuxi

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential element for plant growth and its biogeochemical cycling is strongly linked to the species of heavy metals in soil. In this work, the effects of S (sulfate and elemental sulfur) treatment on the accumulation, distribution and chemical forms of Hg in rice growing in Hg contaminated soil were investigated. It was found that S could promote the formation of iron plaque on the root surface and decrease total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) accumulation in rice grains, straw, and roots. Hg in the root was dominated in the form of RS-Hg-SR. Sulfate treatment increased the percentage of RS-Hg-SR to T-Hg in the rice root and changed the Hg species in soil. The dominant Hg species (70%) in soil was organic substance bound fractions. Sulfur treatment decreased Hg motility in the rhizosphere soils by promoting the conversion of RS-Hg-SR to HgS. This study is significant since it suggests that low dose sulfur treatment in Hg-containing water irrigated soil can decrease both T-Hg and MeHg accumulation in rice via inactivating Hg in the soil and promoting the formation of iron plaque in rice root, which may reduce health risk for people consuming those crops. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Physiopathological effects of the administration of chronic cyanide to growing goats--a model for ingestion of cyanogenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, B; Górniak, S L; Kimura, E T

    2001-07-01

    Ingestion of cyanogenic plants, such as cassava and sorghum, has been associated with goitre and tropical pancreatic diabetes in both humans and animals. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the toxic effects on the thyroid and pancreas in growing goats of prolonged exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN). Thirty-four male goats were divided into five groups dosed with KCN at 0 (control). 0.3, 0.6, 1.2 or 3.0 mg/kg daily for 5 months. Blood samples were obtained in order to determine the glucose, cholesterol, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thiocyanate concentrations and for haematological studies; pancreas and thyroid gland were collected for histopathological study. The group receiving the highest dose of cyanide showed lower body weight gains and carcase weights and a decrease in plasma T3 concentrations compared to the control group. Reabsorption vacuoles in follicular colloid and normocytic normochromic anaemia were observed in the experimental animals. Inhibition of peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 is suggested. However, no diabetogenic effects were observed.

  5. Soil macrofauna in wooded pasture with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusimar Lamarte Gonzaga Galindo da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands afforestation aims at adding different soil uses in a way they become profitable for their owners. As such handling aims at minimizing impacts, the current study had as its goal the use of soil macrofauna in order to evaluate legume afforestation effects on the soil, regardless the depth. Thus, nitrogen fixing species were inserted onto grassland areas and the macrofauna collection was performed 6 years after their planting in the 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20.30cm layers, in winter and summer. Leguminous influence was different between depths and times of the year. It mostly favors communities under "Mimosa" Genus treetops. Besides, the effects from climatic seasonal variations on invertebrates were mitigated by the implementation of such legume trees

  6. Near-term lander experiments for growing plants on Mars: requirements for information on chemical and physical properties of Mars regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuerger, Andrew C.; Ming, Douglas W.; Newsom, Horton E.; Ferl, Robert J.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2002-01-01

    In order to support humans for long-duration missions to Mars, bioregenerative Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems have been proposed that would use higher plants as the primary candidates for photosynthesis. Hydroponic technologies have been suggested as the primary method of plant production in ALS systems, but the use of Mars regolith as a plant growth medium may have several advantages over hydroponic systems. The advantages for using Mars regolith include the likely bioavailability of plant-essential ions, mechanical support for plants, and easy access of the material once on the surface. We propose that plant biology experiments must be included in near-term Mars lander missions in order to begin defining the optimum approach for growing plants on Mars. Second, we discuss a range of soil chemistry and soil physics tests that must be conducted prior to, or in concert with, a plant biology experiment in order to properly interpret the results of plant growth studies in Mars regolith. The recommended chemical tests include measurements on soil pH, electrical conductivity and soluble salts, redox potential, bioavailability of essential plant nutrients, and bioavailability of phytotoxic elements. In addition, a future plant growth experiment should include procedures for determining the buffering and leaching requirements of Mars regolith prior to planting. Soil physical tests useful for plant biology studies in Mars regolith include bulk density, particle size distribution, porosity, water retention, and hydraulic conductivity.

  7. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780.......Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780....

  8. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  9. [Genome editing technology and its application in forage legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Meng, Yingying; Niu, Lifang; Lin, Hao

    2017-10-25

    Genome editing is a novel targeted genome modification biotechnology, which could successfully mutate specific loci as well as generate gene replacement and insertion in various organisms. So far, genome editing technology has been widely applied in investigating gene function and developing valuable traits in both model plants and major crops. In this review, we briefly survey the historical development of genome editing technology, summarize recent progress using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for plant genome editing and explore the potential of the CRISPR/Cas technology in improving forage legumes.

  10. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This

  11. Lotus tenuis x L. corniculatus interspecific hybridization as a means to breed bloat-safe pastures and gain insight into the genetic control of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaray, Francisco J; Passeri, Valentina; Babuin, Florencia M; Marco, Francisco; Carrasco, Pedro; Damiani, Francesco; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Paolocci, Francesco; Ruiz, Oscar A

    2014-02-03

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that strongly affect plant quality traits. The concentration and the structure of these metabolites influence the palatability and nutritional value of forage legumes. Hence, modulating PAs in the leaves of forage legumes is of paramount relevance for forage breeders worldwide. The lack of genetic variation in the leaf PA trait within the most important forage species and the difficulties in engineering this pathway via the ectopic expression of regulatory genes, prompted us to pursue alternative strategies to enhance this trait in forage legumes of agronomic interest. The Lotus genus includes forage species which accumulate PAs in edible organs and can thus be used as potential donor parents in breeding programs. We recovered a wild, diploid and PA-rich population of L. corniculatus and crossed with L. tenuis. The former grows in an alkaline-salty area in Spain while the latter is a diploid species, grown extensively in South American pastures, which does not accumulate PAs in the herbage. The resulting interspecific hybrids displayed several traits of outstanding agronomic relevance such as rhizome production, PA levels in edible tissues sufficient to prevent ruminal bloating (around 5 mg of PAs/g DW), biomass production similar to the cultivated parent and potential for adaptability to marginal lands. We show that PA levels correlate with expression levels of the R2R3MYB transcription factor TT2 and, in turn, with those of the key structural genes of the epicatechin and catechin biosynthetic pathways leading to PA biosynthesis. The L. tenuis x L. corniculatus hybrids, reported herein, represent the first example of the introgression of the PA trait in forage legumes to levels known to provide nutritional and health benefits to ruminants. Apart from PAs, the hybrids have additional traits which may prove useful to breed forage legumes with increased persistence and adaptability to marginal conditions. Finally, our

  12. Impact of increased ultraviolet-B radiation stress due to stratospheric ozone depletion on N2 fixation in traditional African commercial legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimphango, S.B.M.; Musil, C.F.; Dakora, F.D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports of diminished nodule formation and nitroge-nase activity in some Asian tropical legumes exposed to above-ambient levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B: 280-315nm) radiation have raised concerns as to the impact of stratospheric ozone depletion on generally poorly developed traditional African farming systems confronted by the high cost and limited availability of chemical fertilisers. These rely on N 2 -fixing legumes as the cheapest source of N for maintaining soil fertility and sustainable yields in the intrinsically infertile and heterogeneous African soils. In view of this, we examined the effects of supplemental UV-B radiation approximating 15% and 25% depletions in the total ozone column on N 2 fixation in eight traditional African commercial legume species representing crop, forest, medicinal, ornamental and pasture categories. In all categories examined, except medicinal, supplemental UV-B had no effect on root non-structural carbohydrates, antho-cyanins and flavonoids, known to signal Rhizobiaceae micro-symbionts and promote nodule formation, or on nodule mass, activity and quantities of N fixed in different plant organs and whole plants. In contrast, in the medicinal category Cyclopia maculata (Honeybush) a slow growing commercially important herbal beverage with naturally high flavonoid concentrations, displayed decreased nodule activity and quantities of N fixed in different plant organs and whole plants with increased UV-B. This study's findings conclude negligible impacts of ozone depletion on nitrogen fixation and soil fertility in most traditional African farming systems, these limited to occasional inhibition of nodule induction in some crops. (author)

  13. Nuclear methods for plant nutrient and water balance studies. Results of an FAO/IAEA regional technical co-operation programme on nuclear methods for plant nutrients and water balance studies under legume-cereal or fallow-cereal crop rotation systems implemented for Middle Eastern countries (1991-1994)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    In semi-arid Middle Eastern countries, the increasing demand for food and other agricultural products calls for urgent measures to increase plant nutrient availability and water use efficiency. Water and plant nutrients are the two main crop yield limiting factors in these regions. Improved methods must be developed to sustain crop productivity of the legume-cereal rotation systems. It has been recognized for years that the growth of leguminous crops can improve the N status of the soil through biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). The conditions to improve the efficiency of the fixation process should be further investigated in order to fully benefit from this cheap N source. The BNF process is especially interesting for those areas facing limited fertilizer N availability or where the price of the fertilizers is too high for the farmers. In view of sustainable productivity, even with adequate supply of nutrients (nitrogen) and water, crop rotations have been promoted for years. However, the best rotation, taking into account the available nutrients and water in a specific place, is not always known. Furthermore, if a leguminous crop can be incorporated into a crop rotation system, free N is provided for this crop and some of it can serve as residual N for the next crop in the rotation. The use of 15 N technology provides a unique tool to separately study the behaviour of fertilizer N as well as soil N. In addition, the quantification of residual fertilizer N is possible, as well as the quantification of BNF. Refs, figs, tabs

  14. ACE and platelet aggregation inhibitors from Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge (host plant of Herba Cistanches) growing in Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yachao; Liao, Jing; Tang, Yingzhan; Zhang, Peng; Tan, Chengyu; Ni, Hui; Wu, Xueqin; Li, Ning; Jia, Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamarix hohenackeri Bunge is a salt cedar that grows widespread in the desert mountains in Xinjiang. T. hohenackeri has not been investigated earlier, although there are many reports of phytochemical work on other Tamarix species. Materials and Methods: To find out natural angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and platelet aggregation inhibitors, the bioactive extract (ethyl acetate [EtOAc] fraction) from the dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri were investigated. The active fraction was purified by repeated column chromatography, including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 column, medium-pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) (polyamide column) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The isolated major constituents were tested for their anti-platelet aggregation activity. Results: Bioassay-directed separation of the EtOAc fraction of the 70% ethanol extract from the air-dried aerial parts of T. hohenackeri led to the isolation of a new triterpenoid lactone (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14). It was the first time to focus on screening bioactive constituents for this plant. The chemical structures were established on the basis of spectral data (ESI-MS and NMR). The results showed that the flavonoid compounds (7 and 8) and phenolic compounds (9, 10, 11, and 14) were potential ACE inhibitors. And the flavonoid compounds (5 and 7) showed significant anti-platelet aggregation activities. Conclusion: On the basis of the chemical and biological data, the material basis of ACE inhibitory activity for the active part was the phenolic constituents. However, the flavonoid compounds were responsible for the anti-platelet aggregation. The primary structure and activity relationship were also discussed respectively. PMID:24914275

  15. Avaliação de espécies leguminosas na formação de cafezais no segmento da agricultura familiar no Acre Evaluation of legume species for coffee plants formation in the segment of family farms in Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luis Bergo

    2006-03-01

    the implantation and maintenance of coffee plantations. The experiment was carried out from November 2000 to April 2003. The experimental delineation was by randomized blocks in subdivided plots, utilizing the legumes Stizolobium atterrimum, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia endiformis, Flemingia congesta, and the control (without legumes in plots, 0 and 22 g of N dosage in each hole in the subplots. The Flemingia congesta and the Stizolobium atterrimum were the species that most influenced the productivity of the coffee plants, independently of the nitrogen fertilization. In relation to the control; this productivity increased 109% greater when Flemingia congesta was used and 52% for Stizolobium atterrimum. The Flemingia congesta provided the best weed control, given the volume of matter produced, providing of two cuttings during a twelve months period. These results showed the potential of this legume species in the formation of new coffee crops in Acre State. Canavalia endiformis legume negatively influenced height, crown diameter and growth of the coffee plant contradicting the practice of using in the coffee crops in Acre and in other areas.

  16. Validation of a new phytotoxicity test (phytotoxkit) against an established four-week growing test with pre-grown plant plugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Aguilera, M.; Os, van E.A.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the studies was to correlate results of a fast extract-based toxicity test with results of an established growing test with mostly pre-grown plants. A standard white peat was contaminated with four levels of TCA (trichloroacetic acid), a known toxic substance. A range was composed of five

  17. Assessing potential climate change pressures across the conterminous United States: mapping plant hardiness zones, heat zones, growing degree days, and cumulative drought severity throughout this century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen N. Matthews; Louis R. Iverson; Matthew P. Peters; Anantha M. Prasad

    2018-01-01

    The maps and tables presented here represent potential variability of projected climate change across the conterminous United States during three 30-year periods in this century and emphasizes the importance of evaluating multiple signals of change across large spatial domains. Maps of growing degree days, plant hardiness zones, heat zones, and cumulative drought...

  18. Genetic diversity and differentiation of yellowwood [Cladrastis kentukea (Dum.Cours.) Rudd] growing in the wild and in planted populations outside the natural range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas LaBonte; Jadelys Tonos; Colleen Hartel; Keith E. Woeste

    2017-01-01

    Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) grows in small, widely scattered populations in the wild, but is also a popular ornamental tree that thrives when planted in urban areas outside its natural range. Since the small native populations of yellowwood in several states are considered at risk of extirpation, the cultivated population could serve as an ex...

  19. Elemental concentration of a native fern from Greece that grows in a monoculture and of corn plants grown in the same soil with different levels of copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopiou, J. (Ministry of Agriculture, Athens, Greece); Wallace, A.

    1982-07-01

    Analysis of a native fern (Pteridium aquilinum L.) growing in large tracts of soil at about 1200 meters mean sea level in Greece indicated that it tolerated low levels of copper. Corn plants (Zea mays L.) grown in potted soil from the area did respond slightly to Cu added to the soil.

  20. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew S; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity.

  1. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Genetic mapping and legume synteny of aphid resistance in African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Ndeve, Arsenio; Wanamaker, Steve; Lucas, Mitchell R; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (CPA) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, a staple legume crop in Sub-Saharan Africa and other semiarid warm tropics and subtropics. In California, CPA causes damage on all local cultivars from early vegetative to pod development growth stages. Sources of CPA resistance are available in African cowpea germplasm. However, their utilization in breeding is limited by the lack of information on inheritance, genomic location and marker linkage associations of the resistance determinants. In the research reported here, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a susceptible California blackeye cultivar (CB27) and a resistant African breeding line (IT97K-556-6) was genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers. The RILs and parents were phenotyped for CPA resistance using field-based screenings during two main crop seasons in a 'hotspot' location for this pest within the primary growing region of the Central Valley of California. One minor and one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) were consistently mapped on linkage groups 1 and 7, respectively, both with favorable alleles contributed from IT97K-556-6. The major QTL appeared dominant based on a validation test in a related F2 population. SNP markers flanking each QTL were positioned in physical contigs carrying genes involved in plant defense based on synteny with related legumes. These markers could be used to introgress resistance alleles from IT97K-556-6 into susceptible local blackeye varieties by backcrossing.

  3. Soil chemical properties and legume-cereal rotation benefits in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted at the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. The objective was to evaluate the effects of edible grain legumes (cowpea and soybean) and velvet-bean/maize rotations on soil chemical properties and the contribution ...

  4. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  5. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  6. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marciano Marra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T. Four of the strains are used as inoculants for cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Bradyrhizobium sp. UFLA 03-84; Bradyrhizobium elkani INPA 03-11B and Bradyrhizobium japonicum BR3267 or for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris (Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Rhizobium etli UFLA 02-100 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 316C10a are also efficient nodulators of beans and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T nodulates on Mimosa pudica. Two experiments, with solid and liquid media, were performed to determine whether the strains were able to solubilise CaHPO4, Al(H2PO43 or FePO4.2H2O. On solid GELP medium none of the strains dissolved FePO4.2H2O, but LMG 1222, UFLA 03-84 and CIAT 899 solubilised CaHPO4 particularly well. These strains, along with LMG 19424 and BR 3267, were also able to increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. The strains CIAT 899 and UFLA 02-100 were the only legume nodulating bacteria able to solubilise the other phosphate sources in liquid media, dissolving both CaHPO4 and FePO4.2H2O. There was a negative correlation between the pH of the culture medium and the concentration of soluble phosphate when the phosphorus source was CaHPO4 or FePO4.2H2O. The contribution of these strains to increasing the phosphorus nutrition of legumes and non-legume plant species should be investigated further by in vivo experiments.

  7. Nodule development on the tropical legume Sesbania virgata under flooded and non-flooded conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfeti, C A; Ferreira, P A A; Carvalho, T S; De Rycke, R; Moreira, F M S; Goormachtig, S; Holsters, M

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between the Brazilian pioneer legume Sesbania virgata and its microsymbiont Azorhizobium doebereinerae leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on roots that grow either in well-aerated soils or in wetlands. We studied the initiation and development of nodules under these alternative conditions. To this end, light and fluorescence microscopy were used to follow the bacterial colonisation and invasion into the host and, by means of transmission electron microscopy, we could observe the intracellular entry. Under hydroponic conditions, intercellular invasion took place at lateral root bases and mature nodules were round and determinate. However, on roots grown in vermiculite that allows aerated growth, bacteria also entered via root hair invasion and nodules were both of the determinate and indeterminate type. Such versatility in entry and developmental plasticity, as previously described in Sesbania rostrata, enables efficient nodulation in both dry and wet environments and are an important adaptive feature of this group of semi-tropical plants that grow in temporarily flooded habitats. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Effect of Radiation on Seed Germinating Ability Ofwild-Growing and Cultivated Plants, Sources of Bioactive Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabanov, Aleksandr; Tirranen, Lyalya; Zykova, Irina; Bondarenko, Gennadiy

    2016-07-01

    In the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media) the content of vitamin C was experimentally quantified, which (in terms of dry matter) was 81.55 mg/100 g; 133 mg/100 g and 161.76 mg/100 g depending on the growing site. 52 components were detected in the essential oil of the above-ground parts of common chickweed (Stellaria media). Chamazulene, neophytodien and phytol are the major components of whole oil. A wide range of elements was identified in the plants and seeds of common chickweed (Stellaria media), and in the seeds of carrots, parsley and lettuce. It was established that UV irradiation (lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm and 283 nm) of chickweed seeds (Stellaria media) for 15 sec. and 100 sec. in a microbiological box on a table at a distance from the object didn't affect their germinating ability. The germinating ability of the experimental seeds was identical to the control (no irradiation) seeds. With the help of an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer Renger 2 (Germany) at a voltage of 1.6 kV during 15 sec. the effect of "soft" radiation on the seed germinating ability of chickweed, carrot, parsley and lettuce seeds was studied.Under the effect of "soft" radiation during 15 sec. all the experimental chickweed seeds sprouted, like in the control. The germinating ability of the exposed lettuce seeds was 100% after one day, while only 45% of the exposed parsley seeds grew after 21 days. The exposed carrot seeds (70%) grew after 18 days. The effect of "hard" radiation on the germinating ability of common chickweed seeds was investigated using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer S4 Pioneer (Germany) at a voltage of 60 kV for 15 sec and 100 sec. Under the effect of "hard" radiation and during 15 seconds of exposure, where the distance (L) from the focus of the X-ray tube to the seeds of chickweed was 20 mm, the germinating ability of the experimental chickweed seeds was 30 %. At a voltage of 60 kV and 100-second exposure the germinating ability of the

  9. Transgenic tobacco plants with improved cyanobacterial Rubisco expression but no extra assembly factors grow at near wild-type rates if provided with elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhialini, Alessandro; Lin, Myat T; Andralojc, P John; Hanson, Maureen R; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-01-01

    Introducing a carbon-concentrating mechanism and a faster Rubisco enzyme from cyanobacteria into higher plant chloroplasts may improve photosynthetic performance by increasing the rate of CO2 fixation while decreasing losses caused by photorespiration. We previously demonstrated that tobacco plants grow photoautotrophically using Rubisco from Synechococcus elongatus, although the plants exhibited considerably slower growth than wild-type and required supplementary CO2 . Because of concerns that vascular plant assembly factors may not be adequate for assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco, prior transgenic plants included the cyanobacterial chaperone RbcX or the carboxysomal protein CcmM35. Here we show that neither RbcX nor CcmM35 is needed for assembly of active cyanobacterial Rubisco. Furthermore, by altering the gene regulatory sequences on the Rubisco transgenes, cyanobacterial Rubisco expression was enhanced and the transgenic plants grew at near wild-type growth rates, although still requiring elevated CO2 . We performed detailed kinetic characterization of the enzymes produced with and without the RbcX and CcmM35 cyanobacterial proteins. These transgenic plants exhibit photosynthetic characteristics that confirm the predicted benefits of introduction of non-native forms of Rubisco with higher carboxylation rate constants in vascular plants and the potential nitrogen-use efficiency that may be achieved provided that adequate CO2 is available near the enzyme. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Cleary, Alan M; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E; Weeks, Nathan T; Wilkey, Andrew P; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-01-04

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Distribution and accumulation of selenium in wild plants growing naturally in the Gumuskoy (Kutahya) mining area, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmaz, Merve; Akgül, Bunyamin; Sasmaz, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated selenium uptake and transport from the soil to 12 plant species in the mining area of Gumuskoy (Kutahya), Turkey. Plant samples and their associated soils were collected and analyzed for Se content by ICP-MS. Mean Se values in the soils, roots, and shoots of all plants were 0.9, 0.6, and 0.8 mg kg(-1), respectively. The mean enrichment coefficients for roots (ECR) and shoots (ECS) of these plants were 0.78 and 0.97. The mean translocation factors (TLF) were 1.33. These values indicate that all 12 plant species had the ability to transfer Se from the roots to the shoot, but that transfer was more efficient in plants with higher ECR and ECS. Therefore, these plants may be useful in phytoremediation in rehabilitating areas contaminated by Se because their ECR, ECS and TLFs are >1.

  12. Unlocking the potential of orphan legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Christopher; Kunert, Karl J

    2017-04-01

    Orphan, or underutilized, legumes are domesticated legumes with useful properties, but with less importance than major world crops due to use and supply constraints. However, they play a significant role in many developing countries, providing food security and nutrition to consumers, as well as income to resource-poor farmers. They have been largely neglected by both researchers and industry due to their limited economic importance in the global market. Orphan legumes are better adapted than the major legume crops to extreme soil and climatic conditions, with high tolerance to abiotic environmental stresses such as drought. As a stress response they can also produce compounds with pharmaceutical value. Orphan legumes are therefore a likely source of important traits for introduction into major crops to aid in combating the stresses associated with global climate change. Modern large-scale genomics techniques are now being applied to many of these previously understudied crops, with the first successes reported in the genomics area. However, greater investment of resources and manpower are necessary if the potential of orphan legumes is to be unlocked and applied in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Mutualism and Adaptive Divergence: Co-Invasion of a Heterogeneous Grassland by an Exotic Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie S.; Stanton, Maureen L.; Rice, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Species interactions play a critical role in biological invasions. For example, exotic plant and microbe mutualists can facilitate each other's spread as they co-invade novel ranges. Environmental context may influence the effect of mutualisms on invasions in heterogeneous environments, however these effects are poorly understood. We examined the mutualism between the legume, Medicago polymorpha, and the rhizobium, Ensifer medicae, which have both invaded California grasslands. Many of these invaded grasslands are composed of a patchwork of harsh serpentine and relatively benign non-serpentine soils. We grew legume genotypes collected from serpentine or non-serpentine soil in both types of soil in combination with rhizobium genotypes from serpentine or non-serpentine soils and in the absence of rhizobia. Legumes invested more strongly in the mutualism in the home soil type and trends in fitness suggested that this ecotypic divergence was adaptive. Serpentine legumes had greater allocation to symbiotic root nodules in serpentine soil than did non-serpentine legumes and non-serpentine legumes had greater allocation to nodules in non-serpentine soil than did serpentine legumes. Therefore, this invasive legume has undergone the rapid evolution of divergence for soil-specific investment in the mutualism. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the mutualism was less beneficial for legumes grown on the stressful serpentine soil than on the non-serpentine soil, possibly due to the inhibitory effects of serpentine on the benefits derived from the interaction. The soil-specific ability to allocate to a robust microbial mutualism may be a critical, and previously overlooked, adaptation for plants adapting to heterogeneous environments during invasion. PMID:22174755

  14. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, V.N., E-mail: jhavn1971@gmail.com; Tripathi, R.M., E-mail: tripathirm@yahoo.com; Sethy, N.K., E-mail: sethybarc@rediffmail.com; Sahoo, S.K., E-mail: sksbarc@gmail.com

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r = 0.86, p < 0.003). For sediment rooted plants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Both for other free floating species and sediment rooted plants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p < 0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. - Highlights: • Uranium mill tailings pond. • Jaduguda, India. • Fresh water plants. • Uranium uptake. • Relationship of uranium with stable elements.

  15. The behavior, ecology and control of legume flower thrips, #Megalurothrips sjostedti# (Trybom) in cowpea #Vigna unguiculata# (L.) towards the development of an integrated pest management (IPM) program in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Abtew, Andnet Bayleyegn

    2015-01-01

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour and ecology of the legume flower thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom and develop alternative control method. Its specific goals are to: (1) assess pest problems and management methods practiced by grain legume producers, and identifying the cropping systems in the study areas in Kenya; (2) study the impact of climate change on the geographic distribution of legume flower thrips on cowpea growing regions of Sub Saharn Africa...

  16. Signals exchanged between legumes and Rhizobium: agricultural uses and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, William J.; Perret, Xavier; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang Feng

    2001-01-01

    Legumes and rhizobia exchange at least three different, but sometimes complementary sets of signals. Amongst the variety of substances normally and continuously secreted into the rhizosphere by plants are phenolic compounds. Flavonoid components of these mixtures are especially active in inducing rhizobial nodulation genes. Many nodgenes exist. Some (e.g., nodD) serve as regulators of transcription, but most code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of a family of lipo-chito-oligosaccharides (LCOs) called Nod-factors. Nod-factors possess hormone-like properties, are key determinants in nodulation, and allow rhizobia to enter the plant. As Nod-factors also stimulate the synthesis and release of flavonoids from legume roots, the response to inoculation is amplified. Once the bacteria enter the plant, other sets of signals are exchanged between the symbionts. These include extra-cellular polysaccharides (EPSs) as well as proteins externalised via type-three secretion systems. These carbohydrates/proteins may be active in invasion of the root. At the time of writing, only flavonoids and Nodfactors have been chemically synthesised and of these only the former are available in large quantities. Field trials in North America show that seed application of flavonoids stimulates nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybeans grown at low soil temperatures. The biological basis to these responses is discussed. (author)

  17. The effect of drought on photosynthetic plasticity in Marrubium vulgare plants growing at low and high altitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ghader; Ajory, Neda

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is a biological process most affected by water deficit. Plants have various photosynthetic mechanisms that are matched to specific climatic zones. We studied the photosynthetic plasticity of C3 plants at water deficit using ecotypes of Marrubium vulgare L. from high (2,200 m) and low (1,100 m) elevation sites in the Mishou-Dagh Mountains of Iran. Under experimental drought, high-altitude plants showed more tolerance to water stress based on most of the parameters studied as compared to the low-altitude plants. Increased tolerance in high-altitude plants was achieved by lower levels of daytime stomatal conductance (g s) and reduced damaging effect on maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (F v /F m ) coupled with higher levels of carotenoids and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). High-altitude plants exhibited higher water use efficiency (WUE) than that in low-altitude plants depending on the presence of thick leaves and the reduced daytime stomatal conductance. Additionally, we have studied the oscillation in H(+) content and diel gas exchange patterns to determine the occurrence of C3 or weak CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) in M. vulgare through 15 days drought stress. Under water-stressed conditions, low-altitude plants exhibited stomatal conductance and acid fluctuations characteristic of C3 photosynthesis, though high-altitude plants exhibited more pronounced increases in nocturnal acidity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, suggesting photosynthetic flexibility. These results indicated that the regulation of carotenoids, NPQ, stomatal conductance and diel patterns of CO2 exchange presented the larger differences among studied plants at different altitudes and seem to be the protecting mechanisms controlling the photosynthetic performance of M. vulgare plants under drought conditions.

  18. Influence of legume crops on content of organic carbon in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajduk Edmund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 3-year field experiment designed to evaluate the content of organic carbon in brown soil (Haplic Cambisol Dystric developed from a light loamy sand under legumes cultivation. Experimental factors were: species of legume crop (colorful-blooming pea (Pisum sativum, chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus, narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, methods of legumes tillage (legumes in pure culture and in mixture with naked oats and mineral N fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N·ha−1. Cultivation of legumes on sandy soil did not result in an increase of organic carbon content in the soil after harvest as compared to the initial situation, i.e. 7.39 vs. 7.76 g·kg−1 dry matter (DM, on average, respectively. However, there was the beneficial effect of this group of plants on soil abundance in organic matter, the manifestation of which was higher content of organic carbon in soils after legume harvest as compared to soils with oats grown (7.21 g·kg−1 DM, on average. Among experimental crops, cultivation of pea exerted the most positive action to organic carbon content (7.58 g·kg−1, after harvest, on average, whereas narrow-leaved lupin had the least effect on organic carbon content (7.23 g·kg−1, on average. Pure culture and greater intensity of legume cultivation associated with the use of higher doses of mineral nitrogen caused less reduction in organic carbon content in soils after harvest.

  19. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Mutation breeding of food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present mission were to assist and advise mutation breeders on the induction, selection, utilization and maintenance of useful mutants in grain legumes, especially in soybean, mungbean, red kidney bean, sugar pea, cowpea and yard-long bean, and to provide consultation to plant breeders

  20. Forage production of grass-legume binary mixtures on Intermountain Western USA irrigated pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    A well-managed irrigated pasture is optimized for forage production with the use of N fertilizer which incurs extra expense. The objective was to determine which binary grass-legume mixture and mixture planting ratio of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) (TF), meadow brome (Bromus bieberstei...

  1. Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

  2. Management of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by growing petunia hybrida (l.) mill. as an ornamental plant in saudi arabia - a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qarawi, A.A.; Mridha, M.A.U.; Alghamdi, O.M.

    2014-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) regarded as ubiquitous soil fungi which help in improving plant growth under harsh conditions. Petunia hybrida is one of the most favorite ornamental plants growing all over the Riyadh city of Saudi Arabia. In the present study, we would like to highlight the Petunia as a mycotrophic plant for the management of mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Roots along with rhizosphere soils of P. hybrida were collected from various sites in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia to study AM colonization and biodiversity of AMF. The data obtained in this study indicated that P. hybrida is a very highly mycotrophic plants, and all the samples produced very high colonization with mycelium, vesicles, coiled hyphae and arbuscules. The significant variation was found with the occurrence of mycelium and vesicles among the locations but in case of arbuscules more or less same range of occurrence was found. Only different species of Glomus were observed in all the locations. Glomus showed diversity in all the locations as indicated by the Shanon Diversity Index. As the P. hybrida is a highly mycotrophic plant, so this plant may be grown under harsh condition of Saudi Arabia to manage the plant growth under different stresses viz., water stress, saline soils and heavy metal toxicity conditions. (author)

  3. Uptake of uranium by aquatic plants growing in fresh water ecosystem around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M; Sethy, N K; Sahoo, S K

    2016-01-01

    Concentration of uranium was determined in aquatic plants and substrate (sediment or water) of fresh water ecosystem on and around uranium mill tailings pond at Jaduguda, India. Aquatic plant/substrate concentration ratios (CRs) of uranium were estimated for different sites on and around the uranium mill tailings disposal area. These sites include upstream and downstream side of surface water sources carrying the treated tailings effluent, a small pond inside tailings disposal area and residual water of this area. Three types of plant groups were investigated namely algae (filamentous and non-filamentous), other free floating & water submerged and sediment rooted plants. Wide variability in concentration ratio was observed for different groups of plants studied. The filamentous algae uranium concentration was significantly correlated with that of water (r=0.86, pplants significant correlation was found between uranium concentration in plant and the substrate (r=0.88, pplants, uranium concentration was significantly correlated with Mn, Fe, and Ni concentration of plants (p<0.01). Filamentous algae, Jussiaea and Pistia owing to their high bioproductivity, biomass, uranium accumulation and concentration ratio can be useful for prospecting phytoremediation of stream carrying treated or untreated uranium mill tailings effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eBustos-Sanmamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small non coding RNAs (smRNA participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA that are cleaved into 20- to 24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL. One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179 and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence databases. In addition, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legumes. Functional significance of these variant isoforms may reflect peculiarities of smRNA biogenesis in

  5. Growing Plants and Scientists: Fostering Positive Attitudes toward Science among All Participants in an Afterschool Hydroponics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Amie K.; Zhang, Lin; Barnett, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This study examines an out-of-school time program targeting elementary-aged youth from populations that are typically underrepresented in science fields (primarily African-American, Hispanic, and/or English Language Learner participants). The program aimed to foster positive attitudes toward science among youth by engaging them in growing plants…

  6. Tuberous legumes: preliminary evaluation of tropical Australian and introduced species as fuel crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxon, E.C.

    1981-04-01

    The evaluation of native and introduced legumes with starch-storing roots or tubers was undertaken to test whether plants traditionally collected as food by Australian aborigines might have a role in the development of crops for liquid fuel production (by fermentation of carbohydrates to ethanol). Tuberous-rooted legumes from overseas were planted at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, Kimberley Research Station, Western Australia (15/sup 0/39'S, 128/sup 0/42'E) in December 1974, March 1978 and February 1979. Roots from the latter plantings were harvested in June 1979. Native plant material was collected during visits to aboriginal communities in the Kimberleys between April and June 1979. The native and introduced specimens were analyzed for fermentable carbohydrate and protein content. Several native plants appear more promising than introduced species as liquid fuel crops.

  7. Assessment of contamination potential of lettuce by Salmonella enterica serovar Newport added to the plant growing medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nirit; Sela, Shlomo; Neder-Lavon, Sarit

    2007-07-01

    The capacity of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport to contaminate Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Nogal) via the root system was evaluated in 17-, 20-, and 33-day-old plants. Apparent internalization of Salmonella via the root to the above-ground parts was identified in 33- but not 17- or 20-day-old plants and was stimulated by root decapitation. Leaves of lettuce plants with intact and damaged roots harbored Salmonella at 500 +/- 120 and 5,130 +/- 440 CFU/g of leaf, respectively, at 2 days postinoculation but not 5 days later. These findings are first to suggest that Salmonella Newport can translocate from contaminated roots to the aerial parts of lettuce seedlings and propose that the process is dependent on the developmental stage of the plant.

  8. Perennial Grain Legume Domestication Phase I: Criteria for Candidate Species Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlautman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual cereal and legume grain production is dependent on inorganic nitrogen (N and other fertilizers inputs to resupply nutrients lost as harvested grain, via soil erosion/runoff, and by other natural or anthropogenic causes. Temperate-adapted perennial grain legumes, though currently non-existent, might be uniquely situated as crop plants able to provide relief from reliance on synthetic nitrogen while supplying stable yields of highly nutritious seeds in low-input agricultural ecosystems. As such, perennial grain legume breeding and domestication programs are being initiated at The Land Institute (Salina, KS, USA and elsewhere. This review aims to facilitate the development of those programs by providing criteria for evaluating potential species and in choosing candidates most likely to be domesticated and adopted as herbaceous, perennial, temperate-adapted grain legumes. We outline specific morphological and ecophysiological traits that may influence each candidate’s agronomic potential, the quality of its seeds and the ecosystem services it can provide. Finally, we suggest that perennial grain legume breeders and domesticators should consider how a candidate’s reproductive biology, genome structure and availability of genetic resources will determine its ease of breeding and its domestication timeline.

  9. Flowers of the early-branching papilionoid legume Petaladenium urceoliferum display unique morphological and ontogenetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Gerhard; Cardoso, Domingos; Zartman, Charles E; de Queiroz, Luciano P

    2015-11-01

    Floral development can help to shed light on puzzling features across flowering plants. The enigmatic Amazonian monospecific genus Petaladenium of the legume family (Leguminosae) had rarely been collected and only recently became available for ontogenetic studies. The fimbriate-glandular wing petals of P. urceoliferum are unique among the more than 19000 legume species. Ontogenetic data illuminate the systematic position of the genus and foster our understanding on floral evolution during the early diversification of the papilionoid legumes. Flower buds were collected in the field, fixed in 70% ethanol, and investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results were compared with existing material from early-diverging papilionoid legumes. Formation of sepals and petals shows bidirectional tendencies. Stamens arise in two whorls, and the single carpel arises concomitantly with the outer stamen whorl. Gland formation starts early on the edges of the wing petals. The carpel reopens for a short time when the initiation of ovules is visible. Stomata at the base of the hypanthium indicate that the flower functions like other standard flag blossoms. The floral ontogeny confirms the close affinity of P. urceoliferum with the florally heterogeneous, early-diverging papilionoid Amburaneae clade. The results strengthen the theory of a distinct experimental phase among early-branching papilionoid legumes during which a wider range of floral morphologies arose. Polysymmetry, monosymmetry, variable organ numbers, and a wide range of ontogenetic patterns laid the foundation for a successful canalization toward the more restricted but well-adapted dorsiventral papilionoid flag blossom. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  10. ESTABLISHMENT TECHNIQUES FOR TROPICAL LEGUMES IN THE UNDERSTORY OF A EUCALYPTUS PLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Franceschi Nicodemo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated establishment methods for a mixture of herbaceous forage legumes [Centrosema acutifolium, Clitoria ternatea, Pueraria phaseoloides, Stylosanthes Campo Grande (Stylosanthes capitata + S. macrocephala, Calopogonium mucunoides, Lablab purpureus, Arachis pintoi, and Aeschynomene villosa] under the shade of an Eucalyptus grandis plantation submitted to thinning (40% 8 years after planting in Anhembi, São Paulo (22°40'S, 48°10'W, altitude of 455 m. The experiment started in December 2008 and consisted of the comparison of the following four types of seed incorporation by light disc harrowing: (1 broadcast sowing without seed incorporation; disc harrowing before (2 or after (3 planting, and (4 disc harrowing before and after planting. Ninety days after planting, the number of legume plants/m2 and the percentage of ground cover by the plants varied between the treatments tested; however, the treatments had no effect on the dry matter accumulation of forage legumes. Disc harrowing before planting yielded superior results compared to the treatments without disc harrowing and disc harrowing after planting. At the end of the experimental period, the plots contained Arachis, Centrosema, Stylosanthes, and Pueraria. The dry matter accumulated by Centrosema corresponded to 73% of total dry matter yield of the plots. The participation of Arachis, Centrosema and Stylosanthes in final dry matter composition of the plots varied according to establishment method. The advantages of the use of species mixtures rather than monocultures in the understory of forest plantations were discussed.

  11. Potential maternal effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on development and disease severity in a Mediterranean legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Grünzweig

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Global change can greatly affect plant populations both directly by influencing growing conditions and indirectly by maternal effects on development of offspring. More information is needed on transgenerational effects of global change on plants and on their interactions with pathogens. The current study assessed potential maternal effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on performance and disease susceptibility of first-generation offspring of the Mediterranean legume Onobrychis crista-galli. Mother plants were grown at three CO2 concentrations, and the study focused on their offspring that were raised under common ambient climate and CO2. In addition, progeny were exposed to natural infection by the fungal pathogen powdery mildew. In one out of three years, offspring of high-CO2 treatments (440 and 600 ppm had lower shoot biomass and reproductive output than offspring of low-CO2 treatment (280 ppm. Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO2 than in low-CO2 offspring. However, some of the findings on maternal effects changed when the population was divided into two functionally diverging plant types distinguishable by flower color (pink, Type P; white Type W. Disease severity in a heavy-infection year was higher in high-CO2 than in low-CO2 progeny in the more disease-resistant (Type P, but not in the more susceptible plant type (Type W. In a low-infection year, maternal CO2 treatments did not differ in disease severity. Mother plants of Type P exposed to low CO2 produced larger seeds than all other combinations of CO2 and plant type, which might contribute to higher offspring performance. This study showed that elevated CO2 potentially exerts environmental maternal effects on performance of progeny and, notably, also on their susceptibility to natural infection by a pathogen. Maternal effects of global change might differently affect functionally divergent plant types, which could impact population fitness and alter plant

  12. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  13. Widespread fitness alignment in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Maren L

    2012-06-01

    Although 'cheaters' potentially destabilize the legume-rhizobium mutualism, we lack a comprehensive review of host-symbiont fitness correlations. Studies measuring rhizobium relative or absolute fitness and host benefit are surveyed. Mutant studies are tallied for evidence of pleiotropy; studies of natural strains are analyzed with meta-analysis. Of 80 rhizobium mutations, 19 decrease both partners' fitness, four increase both, two increase host fitness but decrease symbiont fitness and none increase symbiont fitness at the host's expense. The pooled correlation between rhizobium nodulation competitiveness and plant aboveground biomass is 0.65 across five experiments that compete natural strains against a reference, whereas, across 14 experiments that compete rhizobia against soil populations or each other, the pooled correlation is 0.24. Pooled correlations between aboveground biomass and nodule number and nodule biomass are 0.76 and 0.83. Positive correlations between legume and rhizobium fitness imply that most ineffective rhizobia are 'defective' rather than 'defectors'; this extends to natural variants, with only one significant fitness conflict. Most studies involve non-coevolved associations, indicating that fitness alignment is the default state. Rhizobium mutations that increase both host and symbiont fitness suggest that some plants maladaptively restrict symbiosis with novel strains. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Roe

    2004-02-27

    Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 Conference Report for the Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program provided $481,000 for the Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma. These funds were used to support our research that is aimed at determining the entire sequence of the gene rich regions of the genome of the legume, Medicago truncatula, by allowing us to obtain a greater degree of finished BAC sequences from the draft sequences we have already obtained through research funded by the Noble Foundation. During the funding period we increased the number of Medicago truncatula BACs with finished (Bermuda standard) sequences from 109 to 359, and the total number of BACs for which we collected sequence data from 584 to 842, 359 of which reached phase 2 (ordered and oriented contigs). We also sequenced a series of pooled BAC clones that cover additional euchromatic (gene rich) genomic regions. This work resulted in 6 refereed publications, see below. Genes whose sequence was determined during this study included multiple members of the plant disease resistance (R-gene) family as well as several genes involved in flavinoid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and plant-microbial symbosis. This work also served as a prelude to obtaining NSF funding for the international collaborative effort to complete the entire sequence of the Medicago truncatula genomic euchromatic regions using a BAC based approach.

  15. Soil nitrogen availability and bradyrhizobium spp. inoculation influence the utilization of nitrogen resources in legume-cereal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababio, R.C.; Kessel, C. van; Ennin, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    Mixed farming systems are practiced in low latitude localities where the land tenure is inflexible and the soil is usually marginal. Two experiments were designed to evaluate Nitrogen (N) resource utilization in such systems as practiced in moist savanna and forest-savanna transitional agroecologies of West Africa. Two cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and two maize (Zea mays) cultivars of peanut (Arachis hypogea) and Sorghum sp. were used in the other as monocropped and mixed cropped treatments. Plants were provided with fertilizer N treatment at the rates of 0, 5, 10 and 35 mg N kg 1 of soil as 15 N-labeled ammonium sulphate. Legume components of inoculated treatments received a mixture of three serologically-distinct strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. recommended for each legume species. Results showed that mixed cropped legumes responded to Bradyrhizobium inoculation and utilized significantly (P<0.05) higher amounts of nitrogen from the atmosphere when compared with monocropped legumes. The inoculation response was influenced by legume-cereal combination, plant cultivars, and soil available nitrogen. The results indicate that in soils of given N availability status, selection of appropriate legume-cereal cultivar combinations will be a useful management practice for enhancing BNF for the benefit of resource poor farmers (author)

  16. Influence of modification of growth medium and using of plant growth regulator to enhance growing power and growth of True Seed of Shallot (TSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudaryono T.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Red onion is one of the main horticultural commodities in Indonesia. Generally red onion is cultivated by using tuber as a source of seeds. The weakness of the use of tuber as a source of seeds, besides the high cost also the quality of seed is less well guaranteed because it almost always carries of the pathogen disease. To overcome the weakness of red onion cultivation with tuber, the alternative is the cultivation with the seed of botani (True Seed of Shallot/TSS. The weakness of botanical seeds as a source of seed is the low germination/growing power. Therefore, to solve the problem of red onion cultivation with TSS, has been done research on the modification of growing medium and giving of plant growth regulator to produce seeds of red onion origin of botanical seed (TSS. Botanical seeds (TSS of red onion treated with coconut water and seeded on mixed soil + compost medium, soil + husk charcoal and soil + compost + chaff charcoal produce growing percentage and vegetative growth of optimum seeds. Based on the results of this study, coconut water can be used as a plant growth regulator in red onion seeding by using botanical seed (TSS.

  17. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  18. Leveraging model legume information to find candidate genes for soybean sudden death syndrome using the legume information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Michael D; Gajendran, Kamal; Farmer, Andrew D; Archuleta, Eric; Beavis, William D

    2007-01-01

    Comparative genomics is an emerging and powerful approach to achieve crop improvement. Using comparative genomics, information from model plant species can accelerate the discovery of genes responsible for disease and pest resistance, tolerance to plant stresses such as drought, and enhanced nutritional value including production of anti-oxidants and anti-cancer compounds. We demonstrate here how to use the Legume Information System for a comparative genomics study, leveraging genomic information from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic), the model legume, to find candidate genes involved with sudden death syndrome (SDS) in Glycine max (soybean). Specifically, genetic maps, physical maps, and annotated tentative consensus and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from G. max and M. truncatula can be compared. In addition, the recently published M. truncatula genomic sequences can be used to identify M. truncatula candidate genes in a genomic region syntenic to a quantitative trait loci region for SDS in soybean. Genomic sequences of candidate genes from M. truncatula can then be used to identify ESTs with sequence similarities from soybean for primer design and cloning of potential soybean disease causing alleles.

  19. Grain legume protein quality: a hot subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes, also called pulses, play a key role in the nutritional improvement of food and feed. These legumes are important sources of protein as well as other nutritional compounds. Today, protein is one of the most sought after ingredients in the market and grain legumes represent one of the most sustainable protein sources. However, not all grain legume proteins are nutritionally equal. Their quality varies and depends on their amino acid composition and digestibility. In this article, we review concepts related to grain legume protein quality and discuss challenges regarding their genetic improvement. A comprehensive database of grain legume amino acid profiles and protein digestibility is needed to address the matter of protein quality in grain legume breeding. This database will be enhanced by quantitative information on digestibility-reducing bioactive compounds and the development of reliable screening tools. The achievement of higher protein quality grain legume varieties, better adjusted to animal and human requirements, will cut dietary protein content, associated costs and nitrogen excretion, thus reducing the environmental impact.Las leguminosas grano tienen un alto potencial en alimentación humana y animal siendo una importante fuente de proteínas así como de otros compuestos beneficiosos para la nutrición y salud. La proteína es uno de los ingredientes más demandados y las leguminosas grano son una delas fuentes más sostenible de proteína. Sin embargo, no todas las leguminosas grano son igual de nutritivas, variando la calidad con la composición de aminoácidos y su digestibilidad. En este artículo revisaremos los conceptos de calidad de la proteína y discutiremos las posibilidades de mejora genética. Para abordar con éxito la mejora de la calidad de la proteína será de gran ayuda disponer de bases de datos con los perfiles de aminoácidos y de digestibilidad, así como de información cuantitativa sobre los

  20. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUDIANTO AMIRTA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Amirta R, Yuliansyah, Angi EM, Ananto BR, Setiyono B, Haqiqi MT, Septiana HA, Lodong M, Oktavianto RN. 2016. Plant diversity and energy potency of community forest in East Kalimantan, Indonesia: Searching for fast growing wood species for energy production. Nusantara Bioscience 8: 22-30. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in intensifying the production and use of biomass to replace fossil fuels for the production of heat and electricity, especially for a remote area that generally abundance with the wood biomass resources including in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. In this work, diversity of plant species that commonly growth in community forest area of East Kutai District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia had been studied to point out their energy potency to be used as biomass feedstock for the electricity generated. Diversity of plant species in the community forest was evaluated by making 13 sampling plots with 20mx20m size approximately. Concurently, the energy properties of plant biomass such as proximate and ultimate compositions were also analyzed using ASTM methods. Results showed that more than 30 species of tropical trees and wood shrubs were grown in the community forest. The presence of them was classified into two different growth of origins: natural and artificial plantation, and also three different categories of plant resources: tree species from logged over forest, commercial fast growing plant tree species for the fiber production and woody shrubs. The highest dominancy and productivity was found in Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Nielsen since the wood biomass was artificially planted for the commercial purposes. Among the 31 plant species analyzed we found the highest energy potency was obtained from Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Blume that produced 3.17 MWh/ton, and the lowest was from Trema orientalis (L. Blume 0.97 MWh/ton. The woody shrubs species such as Vernonia amigdalina Delile., Piper aduncum L., Gliricidia

  1. Where AD plants wildly grow: The spatio-temporal diffusion of agricultural biogas production in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinát, Stanislav; Navrátil, J.; Dvořák, Petr; Van der Horst, D.; Klusáček, Petr; Kunc, Josef; Frantál, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 95, September 2016 (2016), s. 85-97 ISSN 0960-1481 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : agricultural anaerobic digestion plants * Czech Republic * spatial determinants * Spatial analysis Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 4.357, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148116302610

  2. Temporal Expression Dynamics of Plant Biomass-Degrading Enzymes by a Synthetic Bacterial Consortium Growing on Sugarcane Bagasse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javier Jimenez, Diego; De Mares, Maryam Chaib; Salles, Joana Falcao

    2018-01-01

    Plant biomass (PB) is an important source of sugars useful for biofuel production, whose degradation efficiency depends on synergistic and dynamic interactions of different enzymes. Here, using a metatranscriptomics-based approach, we explored the expression of PB-degrading enzymes in a five-species

  3. Leguminous plants nodulated by selected strains of Cupriavidus necator grow in heavy metal contaminated soils amended with calcium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar Ferreira, Paulo Ademar; Lopes, Guilherme; Bomfeti, Cleide Aparecida; de Oliveira Longatti, Silvia Maria; de Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto Fonseca; Guimarães Guilherme, Luiz Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-11-01

    Increasing concern regarding mining area environmental contamination with heavy metals has resulted in an emphasis of current research on phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficiency of symbiotic Cupriavidus necator strains on different leguminous plants in soil contaminated with heavy metals following the application of inorganic materials. The application of limestone and calcium silicate induced a significant increase in soil pH, with reductions in zinc and cadmium availability of 99 and 94 %, respectively. In addition, improved nodulation of Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica in soil with different levels of contamination was observed. Significant increases in the nitrogen content of the aerial parts of the plant were observed upon nodulation of the root system of Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa pudica by strain UFLA01-659 (36 and 40 g kg(-1)) and by strain UFLA02-71 in Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia (39 g kg(-1)). The alleviating effect of calcium silicate resulted in higher production of dry matter from the aerial part of the plant, an increase in nodule number and an increase in the nitrogen fixation rate. The results of the present study demonstrate that the combination of rhizobia, leguminous plants and calcium silicate may represent a key factor in the remediation of areas contaminated by heavy metals.

  4. Effect of directed-spray glyphosate applications on survival and growth of planted oaks after three growing seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew B. Self; Andrew W. Ezell; Josh L. Moree; Rory O. Thornton

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of acres of oak (Quercus spp.) plantations are established across the South annually. Survival and growth of these plantings have been less than desirable. Several techniques have been utilized in attempts to achieve improved success in these areas. One such technique that has been recommended is the application of directed-spray herbicide...

  5. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajiani, N.J.; Ghaderian, S.M.; Karimi, N.; Schat, H.

    2015-01-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358–3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo

  6. Genomic survey, gene expression analysis and structural modeling suggest diverse roles of DNA methyltransferases in legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Garg

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays a crucial role in development through inheritable gene silencing. Plants possess three types of DNA methyltransferases (MTases, namely Methyltransferase (MET, Chromomethylase (CMT and Domains Rearranged Methyltransferase (DRM, which maintain methylation at CG, CHG and CHH sites. DNA MTases have not been studied in legumes so far. Here, we report the identification and analysis of putative DNA MTases in five legumes, including chickpea, soybean, pigeonpea, Medicago and Lotus. MTases in legumes could be classified in known MET, CMT, DRM and DNA nucleotide methyltransferases (DNMT2 subfamilies based on their domain organization. First three MTases represent DNA MTases, whereas DNMT2 represents a transfer RNA (tRNA MTase. Structural comparison of all the MTases in plants with known MTases in mammalian and plant systems have been reported to assign structural features in context of biological functions of these proteins. The structure analysis clearly specified regions crucial for protein-protein interactions and regions important for nucleosome binding in various domains of CMT and MET proteins. In addition, structural model of DRM suggested that circular permutation of motifs does not have any effect on overall structure of DNA methyltransferase domain. These results provide valuable insights into role of various domains in molecular recognition and should facilitate mechanistic understanding of their function in mediating specific methylation patterns. Further, the comprehensive gene expression analyses of MTases in legumes provided evidence of their role in various developmental processes throughout the plant life cycle and response to various abiotic stresses. Overall, our study will be very helpful in establishing the specific functions of DNA MTases in legumes.

  7. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2016-10-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  8. legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aimed at assessing legume-derived nutrient use efficiencies (NUE) by maize and quantifying the importance of these legumes ... replacement indices (N-FRI and P-FRI) by legumes, which express their importance as source of N and P for maize relative to .... associated nutrient stocks were measured at the dry pod stage, ...

  9. Plant phenological responses to a long-term experimental extension of growing season and soil warming in the tussock tundra of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand Rosa, Roxaneh; Oberbauer, Steven F; Starr, Gregory; Parker La Puma, Inga; Pop, Eric; Ahlquist, Lorraine; Baldwin, Tracey

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is strongly altering the timing of season initiation and season length in the Arctic. Phenological activities are among the most sensitive plant responses to climate change and have important effects at all levels within the ecosystem. We tested the effects of two experimental treatments, extended growing season via snow removal and extended growing season combined with soil warming, on plant phenology in tussock tundra in Alaska from 1995 through 2003. We specifically monitored the responses of eight species, representing four growth forms: (i) graminoids (Carex bigellowii and Eriophorum vaginatum); (ii) evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, Cassiope tetragona, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea); (iii) deciduous shrubs (Betula nana and Salix pulchra); and (iv) forbs (Polygonum bistorta). Our study answered three questions: (i) Do experimental treatments affect the timing of leaf bud break, flowering, and leaf senescence? (ii) Are responses to treatments species-specific and growth form-specific? and (iii) Which environmental factors best predict timing of phenophases? Treatment significantly affected the timing of all three phenophases, although the two experimental treatments did not differ from each other. While phenological events began earlier in the experimental plots relative to the controls, duration of phenophases did not increase. The evergreen shrub, Cassiope tetragona, did not respond to either experimental treatment. While the other species did respond to experimental treatments, the total active period for these species did not increase relative to the control. Air temperature was consistently the best predictor of phenology. Our results imply that some evergreen shrubs (i.e., C. tetragona) will not capitalize on earlier favorable growing conditions, putting them at a competitive disadvantage relative to phenotypically plastic deciduous shrubs. Our findings also suggest that an early onset of the growing season as a result of decreased snow cover

  10. Performances of legume-grass mixtures under different cutting managements in mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Martiniello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Annual forage crops have great importance for sustaining animal production in southern Italy. Knowledge of the performance of legume-grass associations under management similar to systems encountered in farm practice is essential for their effective exploitation of the available environmental resources. The purpose of this investigation was to estimate the effects of five cutting managements on the productivity and botanical composition of ten annual fodder crop mixtures in two Mediterranean environments. Ten ternary combinations of one grass (Avena sativa L., oat and Lolium multiflorum Lam., Italian ryegrass, one clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L., berseem; Trifolium incarnatum L., crimson and Trifolium squarrosum L., squarrosum or burr medic (Medicago polymorpha L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L. were compared in a field trial (split-plot design, 3 replicates in two locations (Cagliari and Foggia, Italy during the 2000-2001 growing season. The cutting treatments included a winter grazing simulation (G, a cutting only regime at early (EF or late flowering (F of legumes and a combination of treatments (GEF and GF. Plant density (no. m-2 prior to cutting, dry matter yield (g m-2 and botanical composition (% were evaluated. Considerable differences were observed in the harvestable dry matter yields of mixtures among cutting treatments in both localities, with treatment F showing the higher values (787.1 and 415.7 g m-2 for Cagliari and Foggia, respectively. The forage species were able to compete and establish good growth during their initial phase in both localities. However, the botanical composition between the two sites differed considerably after the winter period. Particularly, at Foggia, grass dominance was a permanent feature of all treatments, and all the mixtures contained about 84% of grass. Italian ryegrass was the most representative species under all treatments in both sites. Mixtures with Italian ryegrass, crimson or berseem

  11. Aromatic Plants growing in Nigeria: Essential Oil Constituents of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb. and Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff O. Kamil

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The volatile constituents identified from the leaves of two Nigerian plants are being reported. The oil samples were obtained from the studied plant species by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger apparatus and then subsequently analyzed for their constituents by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The quantitatively significant constituents of the leaf oil of Cassia alata (Linn. Roxb., (Fabaceae were 1, 8-cineole (39.8%, β-caryophyllene (19.1% and caryophyllene oxide (12.7%. Limonene (5.2%, germacrene D (5.5% and α-selinene (5.4% constituted the other significant compounds present in the oil. T he sunflower oil, Helianthus annuus L., (Asteraceae was rich in α-pinene (16.0%, germacrene D (14.4%, sabinene (9.4% and 14-hydroxy-α-muurolene (9.0%.

  12. Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Verstraete

    Full Text Available Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria not only occur in root nodules of legumes but are also found in leaves of certain Rubiaceae. The discovery of bacteria in plants formerly not implicated in endosymbiosis suggests a wider occurrence of plant-microbe interactions. Several ß-proteobacteria of the genus Burkholderia are detected in close association with tropical plants. This interaction has occurred three times independently, which suggest a recent and open plant-bacteria association. The presence or absence of Burkholderia endophytes is consistent on genus level and therefore implies a predictive value for the discovery of bacteria. Only a single Burkholderia species is found in association with a given plant species. However, the endophyte species are promiscuous and can be found in association with several plant species. Most of the endophytes are part of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental group, but others are closely related to B. glathei. This soil bacteria, together with related nodulating and non-nodulating endophytes, is therefore transferred to a newly defined and larger PBE group within the genus Burkholderia.

  13. A comparative study of antimony accumulation in plants growing in two mining areas in Iran, Moghanlo, and Patyar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali Hajiani, Naser; Ghaderian, Seyed Majid; Karimi, Naser; Schat, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Antimony occurs locally at high concentrations in some mineralized soils. Very little is known about behavior of antimony in plants. In this study, we analyzed the soil and vegetation of two mining areas in Iran, Patyar, and Moghanlo. Total Sb concentrations in soil were 358-3482 mg/kg in Moghanlo and 284-886 mg/kg in Patyar. Corresponding Sb concentrations in plant shoots were 0.8-287 and 1.3-49 mg/kg, respectively. In both areas, foliar Sb concentrations increased with acid-extractable soil Sb, although the slope was about 2-fold steeper for Patyar than for Moghanlo. Regressing the foliar concentrations on water-soluble Sb yielded identical slopes for both areas, suggesting that the soluble fraction of Sb rather than total Sb is the direct determinant of foliar Sb accumulation. Both in Patyar and Moghanlo, only a minor part of the total variance of shoot Sb was explained by soluble Sb. The major part was explained by plant species, demonstrating that plant taxonomic identity is the most important determinant of foliar Sb accumulation capacity in both areas. The translocation factor (TF) was highly variable too, with species as the only significant variance component. Only four species were able to accumulate more than 100 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Among these species, Achillea wilhelmsii and Matthiola farinosa were by far the best Sb accumulators, with, on average, 141 and 132 mg/kg Sb in their leaves. Of these two, only Matthiola farinosa consistently maintained TF values far above unity across the whole range of soluble Sb in Moghanlo.

  14. Influence of irradiated chitosan on rice plants growing in hydroponic medium contaminated with salt and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Diep, T.B. [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique-VAEC, Nghiado, Cau giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Effect of chitosan and radiation-degraded chitosan on rice seedlings of a Vietnam's original variety was investigated. Potential of irradiated chitosan in plant tolerance for several stress factors (salt, zinc, and vanadium) also was studied as well. Chitosan represented in hydroponic medium clearly inhibited the growth of rice seedlings at concentrations arranging from 50 ppm. Radiation processing of chitosan with dose higher than 100 kGy reduced toxicity of chitosan and the efficacy was of dose proportion. Rice plant of 203 origin was almost normally grown in hydroponic solution containing chitosan that has been irradiated with dose of 150 and 200 kGy. Irradiated chitosan increased plant resistance to environmental stress caused by vanadium (V); thereby the seedlings could be recovered completely, even gained in biomass. This effect was not appeared when applied chitosan to rice in media contaminated by zinc (Zn) and salt (NaCl). The selectness of irradiated chitosan on various stress factors partly clarified the assistant action of chitosan in the vanadium intoxication because chelating with metal ions could not be evaluated as main mechanism. (author)

  15. Influence of irradiated chitosan on rice plants growing in hydroponic medium contaminated with salt and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.D.; Diep, T.B.; Kume, Tamikazu

    2000-01-01

    Effect of chitosan and radiation-degraded chitosan on rice seedlings of a Vietnam's original variety was investigated. Potential of irradiated chitosan in plant tolerance for several stress factors (salt, zinc, and vanadium) also was studied as well. Chitosan represented in hydroponic medium clearly inhibited the growth of rice seedlings at concentrations arranging from 50 ppm. Radiation processing of chitosan with dose higher than 100 kGy reduced toxicity of chitosan and the efficacy was of dose proportion. Rice plant of 203 origin was almost normally grown in hydroponic solution containing chitosan that has been irradiated with dose of 150 and 200 kGy. Irradiated chitosan increased plant resistance to environmental stress caused by vanadium (V); thereby the seedlings could be recovered completely, even gained in biomass. This effect was not appeared when applied chitosan to rice in media contaminated by zinc (Zn) and salt (NaCl). The selectness of irradiated chitosan on various stress factors partly clarified the assistant action of chitosan in the vanadium intoxication because chelating with metal ions could not be evaluated as main mechanism. (author)

  16. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  17. 7606 IMPROVEMENT OF DIABETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA BY LEGUMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotimi

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... motor and sensory function occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus [19]. This may contribute to decrease in food intake and faecal output as well as eventual loss in weight. The findings from this study indicate that consumption of legume-based diets by diabetic rats resulted in increase in both food intake and ...

  18. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    They were fertilized with South African rock phosphate (EPL 86) and 20 mg of readily soluble phosphate (SP). KH,PO, was also used as starter fertilizer and its effect on utilization of the rock phosphate-P for growth by the legumes was investigated. Shoot dry weight of cowpea was unaffected by mycorrhiza only treatment but ...

  19. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  20. Composting of wine industry wastes and their use as a substrate for growing soil less ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, E.; Moreno, M. T.; Aviles, M.; Ordovas, J.

    2012-11-01

    To study the process of composting of grape marc and test the resulting compost as a substrate for the cultivation of ornamental plants, six composting processes, with mixtures of dealcoholised grapevine marc and grape stalk (DM + GS) in a 1:1 ratio (v:v), were carried out in Seville (Spain) between 2000 and 2006. The duration of the composting ranged between 20 and 24 weeks in the Spring-Summer season. Weekly, temperature, pH, EC, N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} and N-NH{sub 4} +, were measured. The maximum temperatures reached values of 65-73 degree centigrade at a depth between 40 and 80 cm. The compost had a slightly alkaline pH, slightly salinity, high organic matter and total nitrogen contents. The final compost chemical composition in total elements showed values in the same range as those corresponding to plant material, except for Fe. The distribution in the size of the particles gives way to a total porous space that is close to the one considered as optimal in a substrate for soil less cropping. Pore size distribution showed a prevalence of big pores that produces unbalance in the water-air ratios, resulting in a material with a good aeration but with low water retention. The composts were tested as substrates for four ornamental species: geranium, petunia, carnation and gerbera. The results suggest that compost has no limiting characteristics for its use as a medium for the cultivation of ornamental plants in container, and can replace conventional substrates, such as peat and coconut fibre. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. The pulvinus endodermal cells and their relation to leaf movement in legumes of the Brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, T M; Machado, S R

    2007-07-01

    Legume pulvini have a clearly delimited endodermis, whose variable content has been associated with the velocity and type of leaf movement: pulvini in leaves with fast nastic movement contain starch grains; pulvini in leaves with slow nastic movements have calcium oxalate crystals as well as starch grains in the endodermis. However, the studies carried out to date have involved few legume species. This study therefore purported to examine the consistency of this hypothesis in other legumes. Thus, the structure and content of the pulvinus endodermal cells of nine legumes of the Brazilian cerrado, with different types and velocities of leaf movement, were investigated: slow nyctinastic and heliotropic movements ( BAUHINIA RUFA, COPAIFERA LANGSDORFFII, SENNA RUGOSA - Caesalpinioideae; ANDIRA HUMILIS and DALBERGIA MISCOLOBIUM - Faboideae; STRYPHNODENDRON POLYPHYLLUM - Mimosoideae), slow heliotropic movement ( ZORNIA DIPHYLLA - Faboideae), and fast seismonastic and slow nyctinastic and heliotropic movements ( MIMOSA RIXOSA and MIMOSA FLEXUOSA - Mimosoideae). Samples were prepared following standard plant anatomy and ultrastructure techniques. The endodermis of all the species contains starch grains. In the species displaying only slow movements, calcium oxalate prismatic crystals were observed in addition to starch grains, except in ZORNIA DIPHYLLA. In conclusion, oxalate crystals occur only in endodermal cells of pulvini that display slow movements, while starch grains are always present in pulvinus endodermal cells of plants with any kind of movement.

  2. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  3. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    After an introduction on plant science research in Malaysia concerning crop breeding, 22 research reports are presented, 17 of which are analyzed individually and constitute separate INIS references. The remaining 5 were essentially concerned with only future applications of nuclear technology: a paper by V.L. Chopra (India) on mutation breeding for partial disease resistance of wheat; by H.H. Hoppe (Federal Republic of Germany) on mechanisms of resistance against Uromyces in Phaseolus vulgaris; by I.S. Santos (Philippines) on induction evaluation and utilization of beneficial mutations in the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), where gamma rays and fast neutrons will be used as well as other mutagens; by F. Saccardo (Italy) on breeding for disease resistance in peas and other vegetables (short communication only); and by E. Balazs and I. Sziraki (Hungary) on in vitro studies on virus resistance of legumes, including virus-host interaction studies involving gamma irradiation (short communication only). The conclusions and recommendations of the Regional Seminar on Induced Mutations for the Improvement of Grain Legumes in S.E. Asia 1975 (IAEA-203, 1977) were considered and generally endorsed, with some clarification. Conclusions and recommendations are given on p.121-126

  4. Mixed Cropping of Legumes and Maize by the Use of Urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Alibakhshi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers and mixed cropping of legumes and maize on its grain yield and yield component of corn in Arak, an experiment was carried at the Agricultural Research Center of Markazi Province in 2013. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Treatments were four levels of urea (N0= control, N1= 75 kg.ha-1, N2= 150 kg.ha-1, N3= 225 kg.ha-1 and mixed cropping with four levels (S1= planting corn, S2= planting corn + chickpea, S3= planting corn + cowpea, S4= planting corn + mung bean. Plot consisted of 4 rows, 6 m long with 60 cm between rows space and 20 cm between plants on the rows, and S.C 704 corn hybrid was used. In this study characteristics such as: plant height, number of green leaf, grain yield, number of row per ear, number of grain per ear row, nitrogen use efficiency, biomasses of legumes, nitrogen percentage and 1000 grain weight were assessed. Results indicated that the effect of different levels of urea on plant height, number of green leaf, grain yield, number of grain per row, nitrogen use efficiency, legumes biomass and nitrogen percentage were significant. Effect of mixed cropping on characteristics like grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency, biomasses of legumes nitrogen percentage was also significant. Highest and lowest grain yield (7.37 and 5.47 t.ha-1 were obtained with the use of 225 and 75 kg.ha-1 urea, respectively. The highest and lowest grain yield (7.30 and 6.01 t.ha-1 belonged to sole cropping at corn and mixed cropping of corn + mung bean, respectively.

  5. Nitrogen and Potassium Concentrations in the Nutrients Solution for Melon Plants Growing in Coconut Fiber without Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Gratieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The “Bonus no. 2” was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L−1 and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L−1. The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO3 and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L−1 and K (10 mmol L−1 resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g and the second (951 g fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm−2.

  6. Nitrogen and potassium concentrations in the nutrients solution for melon plants growing in coconut fiber without drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratieri, Luiz Augusto; Cecílio Filho, Arthur Bernardes; Barbosa, José Carlos; Pavani, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the effects of N and K concentrations for melon plants, an experiment was carried out from July 1, 2011 to January 3, 2012 in Muzambinho city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The "Bonus no. 2" was cultivated at the spacing of 1.1 × 0.4. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications in a 4 × 4 factorial scheme with four N concentrations (8, 12, 16, and 20 mmol L(-1)) and four K concentrations (4, 6, 8, and 10 mmol L(-1)). The experimental plot constituted of eight plants. It was observed that the leaf levels of N and K, of N-NO₃ and of K, and the electrical conductivity (CE) of the substrate increased with the increment of N and K in the nutrients' solution. Substratum pH, in general, was reduced with increments in N concentration and increased with increasing K concentrations in the nutrients' solution. Leaf area increased with increments in N concentration in the nutrients solution. Fertigation with solutions stronger in N (20 mmol L(-1)) and K (10 mmol L(-1)) resulted in higher masses for the first (968 g) and the second (951 g) fruits and crop yield (4,425 gm(-2)).

  7. Anti-MRSA activity of oxysporone and xylitol from the endophytic fungus Pestalotia sp. growing on the Sundarbans mangrove plant Heritiera fomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurunnabi, Tauhidur Rahman; Nahar, Lutfun; Al-Majmaie, Shaymaa; Rahman, S M Mahbubur; Sohrab, Md Hossain; Billah, Md Morsaline; Ismail, Fyaz M D; Rahman, M Mukhlesur; Sharples, George P; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2018-02-01

    Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham., a mangrove plant from the Sundarbans, has adapted to a unique habitat, muddy saline water, anaerobic soil, brackish tidal activities, and high microbial competition. Endophytic fungal association protects this plant from adverse environmental conditions. This plant is used in Bangladeshi folk medicine, but it has not been extensively studied phytochemically, and there is hardly any report on investigation on endophytic fungi growing on this plant. In this study, endophytic fungi were isolated from the surface sterilized cladodes and leaves of H. fomes. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and the fungal strain, Candida albicans. Extracts of Pestalotia sp. showed activities against all test bacterial strains, except that the ethyl acetate extract was inactive against Escherichia coli. The structures of the purified compounds, oxysporone and xylitol, were elucidated by spectroscopic means. The anti-MRSA potential of the isolated compounds were determined against various MRSA strains, that is, ATCC 25923, SA-1199B, RN4220, XU212, EMRSA-15, and EMRSA-16, with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 32 to 128 μg/ml. This paper, for the first time, reports on the anti-MRSA property of oxysporone and xylitol, isolation of the endophyte Pestalotia sp. from H. fomes, and isolation of xylitol from a Pestalotia sp. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Production and transcriptional regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Wei, Li; Sun, Zhanmin; Gao, Lihua; Meng, Yu; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2015-05-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA), also known as condensed tannins, contribute to important forage legumes traits including disease resistance and forage quality. PA in forage plants has both positive and negative effects on feed digestibility and animal performance. The analytical methods and their applicability in measuring the contents of PA in forage plants are essential to studies on their nutritional effects. In spite of important breakthroughs in our understanding of the PA biosynthesis, important questions still remain to be answered such as the PA polymerization and transport. Recent advances in the understanding of transcription factor-mediated gene regulation mechanisms in anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic pathway in model plants suggest new approaches for the metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. The present review will attempt to present the state-of-the-art of research in these areas and provide an update on the production and metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. We hope that this will contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which PA production to manipulate the content of PA for beneficial effects in forage plants.

  9. RNA interference-based resistance against a legume mastrevirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Shahid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a homology-dependant gene silencing mechanism and has been widely used to engineer resistance in plants against RNA viruses. However, its usefulness in delivering resistance against plant DNA viruses belonging to family Geminiviridae is still being debated. Although the RNAi approach has been shown, using a transient assay, to be useful in countering monocotyledonous plant-infecting geminiviruses of the genus Mastrevirus, it has yet to be investigated as a means of delivering resistance to dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus (CpCDPKV is a legume-infecting mastrevirus that affects chickpea and other leguminous crops in Pakistan. Results Here a hairpin (hpRNAi construct containing sequences encompassing part of replication-associated protein gene, intergenic region and part of the movement protein gene of CpCDPKV under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter has been produced and stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Plants harboring the hairpin construct were challenged with CpCDPKV. All non-transgenic N. benthamiana plants developed symptoms of CpCDPKV infection within two weeks post-inoculation. In contrast, none of the inoculated transgenic plants showed symptoms of infection and no viral DNA could be detected by Southern hybridization. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis identified very low-level accumulation of viral DNA in the inoculated transgenic plants. Conclusions The results presented show that the RNAi-based resistance strategy is useful in protecting plants from a dicot-infecting mastrevirus. The very low levels of virus detected in plant tissue of transgenic plants distal to the inoculation site suggest that virus movement and/or viral replication was impaired leading to plants that showed no discernible signs of virus infection.

  10. An assessment of crop water deficits of the plants growing on the Małopolska Upland (Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalczyk Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of water scarcity is unfavourable for the economy, with the most significant water deficits felt by agriculture. In Poland water deficits in agriculture are occurring more frequently, causing losses in yield, not only in the Lowland areas but also in the Uplands. This paper presents an assessment of the water deficits at various excedance probability levels for four varieties of field crop and for soil types with various water retention capacity, which occur in the Małopolska Upland. Calculations were performed by balancing the amount of available soil water in the root zone. The study was based on the meteorological data from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management for the years 1971–2010. Daily precipitation data from six rainfall stations: Borusowa, Igołomia, Książ Wielki, Miechów, Olewin and Sielec was utilised as well as average decadal air temperature, water vapour pressure, wind speed and sunshine hours from the meteorological station at Kraków–Balice. The water deficits at an excedance probability level of 20% fluctuated during the growing season from 5 mm (Phaeozems to 190 mm (Leptosols. In the Małopolska Upland in soils with a medium capacity to retain water (110–160 mm, water deficits have occurred even in years of average rainfall (with probability 50%. This study confirms the considerable impact of the high variability of the soil and pluvial conditions in the region on the water deficits of the field crops.

  11. Classical and molecular genetics of the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Gresshoff, P M

    1997-01-01

    The model legume Lotus japonicus was demonstrated to be amenable to classical and molecular genetic analysis, providing the basis for the genetic dissection of the plant processes underlying nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have developed an efficient method for the sexual hybridization of L. japonicus and obtained F1 progeny derived from a cross of L. japonicus B-129-S9 Gifu x B-581 Funakura. Over half of the cross-pollinations resulted in fertile hybrid seed, which were confirmed morphologically and by single arbitrary primer DNA amplification polymorphisms using the DAF technique. Molecular and morphological markers segregated in true Mendelian fashion in a F2 population of 100 plants. Several DAF loci were linked using the MAPMAKER software to create the first molecular linkage groups of this model legume. The mapping population was advanced to generate a set of immortal recombinant inbred lines (F6; RILs), useful for sharing plant material fixed genetically at most genomic regions. Morphological loci for waved stem shape (Ssh), dark leaf color (Lco), and short flowering period (Fpe) were inherited as single dominant Mendelian loci. DAF markers were dominant and were detected between Gifu and Funakura at about one per primer, suggesting that the parents are closely related. One polymorphism (270G generated by single octomer primer 8.6m) was linked to a morphological locus controlling leaf coloration. The results demonstrate that (i) Lotus japonicus is amenable to diploid genetic analysis, (ii) morphological and molecular markers segregate in true diploid fashion, (iii) molecular polymorphisms can be obtained at a reasonable frequency between the related Gifu and Funakura lines, and iv) the possibility exists for map-based cloning, marker assisted selection and mapping of symbiotic mutations through a genetic and molecular map.

  12. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L.; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature) are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection efficiency and

  13. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Sangam L; Scheben, Armin; Edwards, David; Spillane, Charles; Ortiz, Rodomiro

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature) are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection efficiency and

  14. Assessing and Exploiting Functional Diversity in Germplasm Pools to Enhance Abiotic Stress Adaptation and Yield in Cereals and Food Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangam L. Dwivedi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to accelerate crop improvement by introducing alleles conferring host plant resistance, abiotic stress adaptation, and high yield potential. Elite cultivars, landraces and wild relatives harbor useful genetic variation that needs to be more easily utilized in plant breeding. We review genome-wide approaches for assessing and identifying alleles associated with desirable agronomic traits in diverse germplasm pools of cereals and legumes. Major quantitative trait loci and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with desirable agronomic traits have been deployed to enhance crop productivity and resilience. These include alleles associated with variation conferring enhanced photoperiod and flowering traits. Genetic variants in the florigen pathway can provide both environmental flexibility and improved yields. SNPs associated with length of growing season and tolerance to abiotic stresses (precipitation, high temperature are valuable resources for accelerating breeding for drought-prone environments. Both genomic selection and genome editing can also harness allelic diversity and increase productivity by improving multiple traits, including phenology, plant architecture, yield potential and adaptation to abiotic stresses. Discovering rare alleles and useful haplotypes also provides opportunities to enhance abiotic stress adaptation, while epigenetic variation has potential to enhance abiotic stress adaptation and productivity in crops. By reviewing current knowledge on specific traits and their genetic basis, we highlight recent developments in the understanding of crop functional diversity and identify potential candidate genes for future use. The storage and integration of genetic, genomic and phenotypic information will play an important role in ensuring broad and rapid application of novel genetic discoveries by the plant breeding community. Exploiting alleles for yield-related traits would allow improvement of selection

  15. A company-wide activity to grow safety culture in a maintenance department of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hirokazu; Sugiman, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to conduct a field survey to collect specific instances of 'learning activity' that would help develop a safety culture in a maintenance department of nuclear power plant, with 'activity theory' as a theoretical base, and to derive a conceptual model that portrays these instances as part of comprehensive organizational activities. First, the field survey found instances where an accident that occurred a few years ago provided momentum; a company-wide activity is being implemented in order to fulfill the requests of field workers so that their requests for improvements are positively honored and budgets are allocated to measures designed to accommodate these requests. This paper calls this company-wide activity 'an activity to materialize the requests for improvements in the workplace' and considers it to be a typical instance of learning activity. Second, the field survey found that, in the workplace under discussion, a daily meeting was held in a unique way and a study session was conducted frequently and regularly. Last, we came up with a conceptual model for the entire aspect of organizational activities in which we could position the above instances as well as the results of our past field surveys. This model conceptualizes organizational activities from the two aspects of 'learning activity (primary learning activity)' and 'management activity) and characterizes an activity that would transform the existing organizational activities into ones that could not be even predicted as 'secondary learning activity'. 'An activity to materialize the requests for improvement in the workplace' was taken as falling under the category of secondary learning activity. (author)

  16. Establishment of propagation methods for growing promising aromatic plant species of the Lippia (Verbenaceae and Tagetes (Asteraceae genera in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Mauricio Herrera-Moreno

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate methods of asexual propagation with stem cuttings in the aromatic plant species Lippia origanoides (accessions CA-90 and CA-93, Lippia alba (accession CA-300 and Tagetes zypaquirensis (accession CA-247 and determine the germination behavior of Tagetes caracasana (accession CA-10, in order to contribute to the establishment of these promising aromatics as potential new crops in Colombia. The factors evaluated were the substrate (fine coconut fiber (FCF; fine coconut fiber: coal slag 1:1 (FCFCS; fine coconut fiber: coal slag: river sand 1:1:1 (FCFCSRS and IBA hormone concentration (0, 2,000 and 4,000 mg L-1. Germination tests of seeds of the accession CA-10 were carried out in Petri dishes with 50 seeds per dish, with three replicates in controlled conditions and constant temperature (25°C, humidity (90% and total darkness. In general, the accessions CA-90, CA-93, CA-300 and CA-247 showed better rooting percentage, root length, number of roots and root dry weight in the fine coconut fiber substrate and a higher number of roots with an exogenous application of 2,000 mg L-1 IBA. L. alba and T. zypaquirensis responded better than L. origanoides to the treatments. The latter species showed a relatively poor performance and may require more complex and improved propagation methods to obtain more satisfactory results. T. caracasana seeds had a relatively short germination time (less than three weeks and relatively high germination under controlled laboratory and greenhouse conditions (70 and 60%, respectively; these percentages are high relative to wild species of the same genus, meaning this method of seed propagation is appropriate for this wild species

  17. Ozone and nitrogen effects on yield and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, J.; González-Fernández, I.; Calvete-Sogo, H.; Lin, J. S.; Alonso, R.; Muntifering, R.; Bermejo, V.

    2014-09-01

    Two independent experiments were performed in an Open-Top Chamber facility to determine the response of biomass and nutritive quality of the annual legume Trifolium cherleri to increased levels of ozone (O3) and nitrogen (N) deposition, two main drivers of global change. Plants growing in pots were exposed to three O3 treatments: charcoal-filtered air (CFA); non-filtered air, reproducing ambient O3 levels of the site (NFA); and non-filtered air supplemented with 40 nl l-1 (NFA+). Nitrogen was added in biweekly doses to achieve final doses of 5 (N5), 15 (N15) and 30 kg ha-1 (N30), reproducing the N deposition range in the Iberian Peninsula. Ozone negatively affected all the growth-related parameters and increased plant senescent biomass. The pollutant affected subterranean biomass to a greater extent than aerial biomass, resulting in altered aerial/subterranean ratio. Effects in the second experiment followed the same pattern as in the first, but were of lesser magnitude. However, these differences between assays could not be explained adequately by the absorbed O3 fluxes (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose, POD). Concentrations of cell-wall constituents related to nutritive quality increased with the O3 exposure, reducing the Relative Food Value index (RFV) that indicates decreased nutritive quality of the forage. Nitrogen stimulated all growth-related parameters, but increased the aboveground biomass more than the subterranean biomass. No effects of N fertilizer were detected for the nutritive quality parameters. A significant interaction between O3 and N was found in the second experiment. N further enhanced the increase of senescent biomass caused by O3. Results indicate that O3 is a potentially significant environmental stress factor in terms of structure and diversity of Mediterranean pastures.

  18. Anti-plasmodial and insecticidal activities of the essential oils of aromatic plants growing in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dell’Agli Mario

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sardinia is a Mediterranean area endemic for malaria up to the last century. During a screening study to evaluate the anti-plasmodial activity of some aromatic plants traditionally used in Sardinia, Myrtus communis (myrtle, Myrtaceae, Satureja thymbra (savory, Lamiaceae, and Thymus herba-barona (caraway thyme, Lamiaceae were collected in three vegetative periods: before, during and after flowering. Methods The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation, fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and analysed by GC-FID-MS. Total oil and three main fractions were tested on D10 and W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Larvicidal and adulticidal activities were tested on Anopheles gambiae susceptible strains. Results The essential oil of savory, rich in thymol, was the most effective against P. falciparum with an inhibitory activity independent from the time of collection (IC50 17–26 μg/ml on D10 and 9–11 μg/ml on W2. Upon fractionation, fraction 1 was enriched in mono-sesquiterpenoid hydrocarbons; fraction 2 in thymol (73-83%; and fraction 3 contained thymol, carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol, with a different composition depending on the time of collection. Thymol-enriched fractions were the most active on both strains (IC50 20–22 μg/ml on D10 and 8–10 μg/ml on W2 and thymol was confirmed as mainly responsible for this activity (IC50 19.7± 3.0 and 10.6 ± 2.0 μg/ml on D10 and W2, respectively. The essential oil of S. thymbra L. showed also larvicidal and adulticidal activities. The larvicidal activity, expressed as LC50, was 0.15 ± 0.002; 0.21 ± 0.13; and 0.15 ± 0.09 μg/ml (mean ± sd depending on the time of collection: before, during and after flowering, respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence for the use of essential oils for treating malaria and fighting the vector at both the larval and adult stages. These findings open the possibility for further

  19. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  20. Condensed tannins in some forage legumes: their role in the prevention of ruminant pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1992-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the focus in our laboratory has been on finding the causes of ruminant pasture bloat and eventually breeding a bloat-safe alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); i.e., with bloat potential reduced to the economic threshold. In the mid-seventies, the mechanisms of bloat were explored and found to be more physical than chemical. Characteristic of all bloating legumes after ingestion was a very rapid initial rate of ingestion by rumen microbes. Through the study of bloating and non-bloating legumes, factors were elucidated in the plant that would slow this process. One of these factors was the presence of condensed tannins in the herbage. Some of the non-bloating legumes contained these secondary metabolites, but no condensed tannins were found in any of the bloating legumes. Therefore, species containing an appreciable amount of condensed tannins in their leaves and stems are considered to be non-bloating. Conventional breeding methods have not been successful in producing an alfalfa with condensed tannins in its herbage. New approaches using tissue culture techniques are being attempted, but genetic engineering has the greatest potential for success.

  1. The Role of Micro-Ribonucleic Acids in Legumes with a Focus on Abiotic Stress Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Mantri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are special group of N-fixing plants that are an essential component of cropping system and important source of food and feed for human and animal consumption. Like other crops, the productivity of legumes is threatened by environmental stresses caused due to global climate change. Abiotic stress tolerance is complex trait involving a suite of genes, the expression of which is controlled by transcription factors including gene and/or polypeptide sequences. Recently, micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs have been increasingly recognized for their role in regulating the synthesis of polypeptides from different messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNAs including those that act as transcription factors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of different miRNAs in response to main abiotic stresses in legumes. We found consistent as well as conflicting results within and between different legume species. This highlights that we have barely scratched the surface and very comprehensive and targeted experiments will be required in future to underpin the role of miRNAs in controlling the expression of important genes associated with abiotic stress tolerances.

  2. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant–Pollinator Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso, María J.; Bebeli, Penelope J.; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A. A.; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant–pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the “pest control service” and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System. PMID:27047514

  3. Food Legumes and Rising Temperatures: Effects, Adaptive Functional Mechanisms Specific to Reproductive Growth Stage and Strategies to Improve Heat Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumari Sita

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient temperatures are predicted to rise in the future owing to several reasons associated with global climate changes. These temperature increases can result in heat stress- a severe threat to crop production in most countries. Legumes are well-known for their impact on agricultural sustainability as well as their nutritional and health benefits. Heat stress imposes challenges for legume crops and has deleterious effects on the morphology, physiology, and reproductive growth of plants. High-temperature stress at the time of the reproductive stage is becoming a severe limitation for production of grain legumes as their cultivation expands to warmer environments and temperature variability increases due to climate change. The reproductive period is vital in the life cycle of all plants and is susceptible to high-temperature stress as various metabolic processes are adversely impacted during this phase, which reduces crop yield. Food legumes exposed to high-temperature stress during reproduction show flower abortion, pollen and ovule infertility, impaired fertilization, and reduced seed filling, leading to smaller seeds and poor yields. Through various breeding techniques, heat tolerance in major legumes can be enhanced to improve performance in the field. Omics approaches unravel different mechanisms underlying thermotolerance, which is imperative to understand the processes of molecular responses toward high-temperature stress.

  4. Plants growing on contaminated and brownfield sites appropriate for use in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development terrestrial plant growth test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnett, Danielle E; Lawrence, Victoria K; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) terrestrial plant test is often used for the ecological risk assessment of contaminated land. However, its origins in plant protection product testing mean that the species recommended in the OECD guidelines are unlikely to occur on contaminated land. Six alternative species were tested on contaminated soils from a former Zn smelter and a metal fragmentizer with elevated concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. The response of the alternative species was compared with that of two species recommended by the OECD: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium pratense (red clover). Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Poa annua (annual meadowgrass) had low emergence rates in the control soil and so may be considered unsuitable. Festuca rubra (Chewings fescue), Holcus lanatus (Yorkshire fog), Senecio vulgaris (common groundsel), and Verbascum thapsus (great mullein) offer good alternatives to the OECD species. In particular, H. lanatus and S. vulgaris were more sensitive to the soils with moderate concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the OECD species. © 2010 SETAC.

  5. Lotus tenuis x L. corniculatus interspecific hybridization as a means to breed bloat-safe pastures and gain insight into the genetic control of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Escaray, Francisco J; Passeri, Valentina; Babuin, Florencia M; Marco, Francisco; Carrasco, Pedro; Damiani, Francesco; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Paolocci, Francesco; Ruiz, Oscar A

    2014-01-01

    Background Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are secondary metabolites that strongly affect plant quality traits. The concentration and the structure of these metabolites influence the palatability and nutritional value of forage legumes. Hence, modulating PAs in the leaves of forage legumes is of paramount relevance for forage breeders worldwide. The lack of genetic variation in the leaf PA trait within the most important forage species and the difficulties in engineering this pathway via the ectopic ...

  6. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  7. Tannin containing legumes as a model for nutraceuticals against digestive parasites in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoste, H.; Torres-Acosta, J. F. J.; Sandoval-Castro, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    parasitology based on data obtained on the most studied models to control GINs in small ruminants, the tannin-containing legumes (Fabaceae); (ii) to illustrate how the 'nutraceutical concept' could be expanded to other plants, other livestock production systems and other GI parasitic diseases, and (iii......) to explain how this concept is opening up new research fields for better understanding the interactions between the host, the digestive parasites and the environment....

  8. The role of the testa during development and in establishment of dormancy of the legume seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smýkal, Petr; Vernoud, Vanessa; Blair, Matthew W.; Soukup, Aleš; Thompson, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Timing of seed germination is one of the key steps in plant life cycles. It determines the beginning of plant growth in natural or agricultural ecosystems. In the wild, many seeds exhibit dormancy and will only germinate after exposure to certain environmental conditions. In contrast, crop seeds germinate as soon as they are imbibed usually at planting time. These domestication-triggered changes represent adaptations to cultivation and human harvesting. Germination is one of the common sets of traits recorded in different crops and termed the “domestication syndrome.” Moreover, legume seed imbibition has a crucial role in cooking properties. Different seed dormancy classes exist among plant species. Physical dormancy (often called hardseededness), as found in legumes, involves the development of a water-impermeable seed coat, caused by the presence of phenolics- and suberin-impregnated layers of palisade cells. The dormancy release mechanism primarily involves seed responses to temperature changes in the habitat, resulting in testa permeability to water. The underlying genetic controls in legumes have not been identified yet. However, positive correlation was shown between phenolics content (e.g., pigmentation), the requirement for oxidation and the activity of catechol oxidase in relation to pea seed dormancy, while epicatechin levels showed a significant positive correlation with soybean hardseededness. myeloblastosis family of transcription factors, WD40 proteins and enzymes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were involved in seed testa color in soybean, pea and Medicago, but were not tested directly in relation to seed dormancy. These phenolic compounds play important roles in defense against pathogens, as well as affecting the nutritional quality of products, and because of their health benefits, they are of industrial and medicinal interest. In this review, we discuss the role of the testa in mediating legume seed germination, with a focus on

  9. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Small RNA Biogenesis Purveyors Reveal Their Role in Regulation of Biotic Stress Responses in Three Legume Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev K. Varshney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stress in legume crops is one of the major threats to crop yield and productivity. Being sessile organisms, plants have evolved a myriad of mechanisms to combat different stresses imposed on them. One such mechanism, deciphered in the last decade, is small RNA (sRNA mediated defense in plants. Small RNAs (sRNAs have emerged as one of the major players in gene expression regulation in plants during developmental stages and under stress conditions. They are known to act both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Dicer-like (DCL, Argonaute (AGO, and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RDR constitute the major components of sRNA biogenesis machinery and are known to play a significant role in combating biotic and abiotic stresses. This study is, therefore, focused on identification and characterization of sRNA biogenesis proteins in three important legume crops, namely chickpea, pigeonpea, and groundnut. Phylogenetic analysis of these proteins between legume species classified them into distinct clades and suggests the evolutionary conservation of these genes across the members of Papillionidoids subfamily. Variable expression of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to the biotic stresses among the three legumes indicate the possible existence of specialized regulatory mechanisms in different legumes. This is the first ever study to understand the role of sRNA biogenesis genes in response to pathogen attacks in the studied legumes.

  10. Innovations in agronomy for food legumes. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Kadambot; Johansen,; Turner, Neil; Jeuffroy,; Hashem,; Sakar,; Gan,; Alghamdi, Salem

    2012-01-01

    Although there is increasing awareness of the importance of food legumes in human, animal and soil health, adoption of improved production technologies for food legume crops is not proceeding at the same pace as for cereal crops. Over the previous decade, the only food legumes to have shown significant production increases have been chickpea, lentil and faba bean in North America, chickpea in Australia, and faba bean in Europe. In smallholder farming in developing countries, production trends...

  11. Differences in crenate broomrape parasitism dynamics on three legume crops using a thermal time model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pérez-De-Luque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Root parasitic weeds are a major limiting production factor in a number of crops, and control is difficult. Genetic resistance and chemical control lead the fight, but without unequivocal success. Models that help to describe and even predict the evolution of parasitism underground are a valuable tool for herbicide applications, and even could help in breeding programs. Legumes are heavily affected by Orobanche crenata (crenate broomrape in the Mediterranean basin. This work presents a descriptive model based on thermal time and correlating growing day-degrees (GDD with the different developmental stages of the parasite. The model was developed in three different legume crops (faba bean, grass pea and lentil attacked by crenate broomrape. The developmental stages of the parasite strongly correlated with the GDD and differences were found depending on the host crop.

  12. The influence of ethephon application to processing tomato plants on yield structure in relation to weather conditions during the growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrszczyk Elżbieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethephon application (Agrostym 480 SL on the yield and yield structure of five processing tomato cultivars (Rumba, Hubal, Sokal F1 , Mieszko F1 and Polset F1 . The experiment was carried out in the open field in the years 2009-2011 in Mydlniki near Kraków, Poland. Two weeks before harvesting, half of the plants of each cultivar were treated with Agrostym 480 SL (3 dm3 ha-1 and the other half were left as a control without spraying. Marketable yield included properly shaped and welldeveloped light red and red fruits. Non-marketable yield included pink and turning fruits, mature green and breaker fruits, and diseased fruits. A generalized linear model (GLM for Poisson distribution with the log link function was used to determine the relationship between the years of the study and cultivar and selected values of the yield structure. The yield structure of tomato depended significantly on the weather conditions during the growing period in different years of the study, on the cultivar, and on the use of ethephon. Ethephon had a particularly beneficial effect on yield structure in the years with an unfavourable distribution of precipitation. Ethephon application in the years 2009 and 2010 had a beneficial effect on the health of tomato plants.

  13. Surviving and growing of seedlings planted with their tubes in arid areas prepared with different soil cultivatıon methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, surviving percent and growing of seedlings planted with their tubes of Black pine [Pinus nigra Arnold. ssp. pallasiana (Lamb. Holmboe.], Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich, Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb. were evaluated in the areas prepared with different soil cultivation methods for afforestation studies in arid areas. For this aim, afforestation area in Karaman disrict was selected. In the experiment, 12 treatments for land preparation by using different equipments were applied. In parcels applied these treatments, seedlings of the species were planted as tubed only cutting their 1 cm partial of bottom. The experiment was established in completely randomized plot design with three replications, 20 seedlings for each one. At the end of the second vegetation period survival rate, seedling height, growth of the terminal shoot in the last year and bottom diameter of the seedlings were measured. According to results of data analysing, minimum survival rate was 38.89% (Balck pine, maximum was 88.89% (Crimean juniper. The treatments made top soil tillage combined disc harrows and gradoni terrace applications more successful than the other treatments for all seedling characteristics and surviving percentages. In addition the treatments, double riper + gradoni terrace and triple ripper + gradoni terrace, which had better performance can suggest for soil preparetaion in arid area. Because these treatments are more practicable and cheap than the others.

  14. Correlation between chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimanga, K; Kambu, K; Tona, L; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Hermans, N; Totté, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-02-01

    The chemical composition of essential oils from 15 aromatic medicinal plant species growing in the Democratic Republic of Congo have been studied. More than 15 constituents in an amount higher than 0.1% were identified in each essential oil. 1,8-cineole, alpha and beta-pinene, p-cymene, myrcene, gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpineol and limonene were prevalent constituents in almost more than 10 selected plant species. Results from the antibacterial testing by the diffusion method indicate that all essential oils (5 microl per disc) inhibited the growth of selected bacteria at different extents. The most active antibacterial essential oils were those of the leaves of Eucalyptus camadulensis and Eucalyptus terticornis (12-30 mm zone diameter of inhibition). They showed particularly a most potent inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth (15-16 mm), followed by Eucalyptus robusta (12 mm). Essential oils from the leaves of Eucalyptus alba, Eucalyptus citriodora, Eucalyptus deglupta, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus saligna, Eucalyptus robusta, Aframomum stipulatum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum americanum and that of the seeds of Monodora myristica showed also a good antibacterial activity (10-18 mm). Eucalyptus propinqua, Eucalyptus urophylla and Ocimum gratissimum essential oils were the less active samples against the selected bacteria. No correlation between the amount of major constituents such as 1,8-cineol, alpha-pinene, p-cymene, cryptone or thymol and the antibacterial activity was observed.

  15. Bacterial communities associated with the rhizosphere of pioneer plants (Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis) growing on heavy metals-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Noya, Yendi E; Jan-Roblero, Janet; González-Chávez, Maria del Carmen; Hernández-Gama, Regina; Hernández-Rodríguez, César

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the bacterial communities associated with the rhizospheres of pioneer plants Bahia xylopoda and Viguiera linearis were explored. These plants grow on silver mine tailings with high concentration of heavy metals in Zacatecas, Mexico. Metagenomic DNAs from rhizosphere and bulk soil were extracted to perform a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis (DGGE) and to construct 16S rRNA gene libraries. A moderate bacterial diversity and twelve major phylogenetic groups including Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae and Actinobacteria phyla, and divisions TM7, OP10 and OD1 were recognized in the rhizospheres. Only 25.5% from the phylotypes were common in the rhizosphere libraries and the most abundant groups were members of the phyla Acidobacteria and Betaproteobacteria (Thiobacillus spp., Nitrosomonadaceae). The most abundant groups in bulk soil library were Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria, and no common phylotypes were shared with the rhizosphere libraries. Many of the clones detected were related with chemolithotrophic and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, characteristic of an environment with a high concentration of heavy metal-sulfur complexes, and lacking carbon and organic energy sources.

  16. Cultivo hidropônico da alface empregando substratos: uma alternativa a NFT? Growing lettuce plants in hydroponics using substrates: an alternative for the NFT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo L. Andriolo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi desenvolvido um dispositivo experimental para o cultivo da alface em sistema hidropônico fechado empregando substratos. As bancadas foram constituídas por telhas de cimento amianto, cujos canais foram preenchidos com brita basáltica. Sobre a brita foram dispostos os substratos, formando uma camada de 0,05 m de altura, com a superfície revestida com filme de polietileno opaco branco. As mudas foram produzidas em bandejas de poliestireno e plantadas em orifícios feitos sobre a superfície do filme de polietileno. Uma solução nutritiva completa foi fornecida diariamente, por meio de tubos gotejadores localizados na superfície da camada de substrato e abaixo do filme de polietileno. A solução drenada foi recolhida por gravidade para dentro do reservatório principal. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, no período entre 16 de maio e 24 de junho e 1º e 28 de outubro de 2003, empregando as cultivares Regina e Mimosa e os substratos areia média e substrato orgânico Plantmax® Folhosas HA. No decorrer dos experimentos, houve diminuição dos valores de pH da solução nutritiva, tendo sido feita apenas uma correção em cada um dos experimentos. No dia mais quente do experimento de primavera, a temperatura foi mais elevada na areia, sem diferença significativa do substrato orgânico, cuja média situou-se 5,4ºC acima da temperatura da solução nutritiva e 0,4ºC acima daquela do ar. As médias mais elevadas das variáveis de crescimento e desenvolvimento foram observadas no substrato orgânico no outono, enquanto, na primavera, foram constatadas nos tratamentos tendo areia como substrato. O emprego dos substratos permitiu uma redução em torno de 92,4% no tempo de funcionamento da motobomba e simplificou tanto o manejo da fertirrigação como os controles da solução nutritiva.An experimental set-up to grow lettuce plants in a closed hydroponic growing system using substrates was made up and tested. Commercial fibber cement tiles

  17. Formation of organelle-like N2-fixing symbiosomes in legume root nodules is controlled by DMI2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, E.H.M.; Mirabella, R.; Fedorova, E.; Franken, C.; Franssen, H.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2005-01-01

    In most legume nodules, the N2-fixing rhizobia are present as organelle-like structures inside their host cells. These structures, named symbiosomes, contain one or a few rhizobia surrounded by a plant membrane. Symbiosome formation requires the release of bacteria from cell-wall-bound infection

  18. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiangli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. Description The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. Conclusion MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  19. Biogeography of a Novel Ensifer meliloti Clade Associated with the Australian Legume Trigonella suavissima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardly, Bertrand; Elia, Patrick; Brockwell, John; Golemboski, Daniel; van Berkum, Peter

    2017-05-15

    Here, we describe a novel clade within Ensifer meliloti and consider how geographic and ecological isolation contributed to the limited distribution of this group. Members of the genus Ensifer are best known for their ability to form nitrogen-fixing symbioses with forage legumes of three related genera, Medicago L., Melilotus Mill., and Trigonella L., which are members of the tribe Trifolieae. These legumes have a natural distribution extending from the Mediterranean Basin through western Asia, where there is an unsurpassed number of species belonging to these genera. Trigonella suavissima L. is unusual in that it is the only species in the tribe Trifolieae that is native to Australia. We compared the genetic diversity and taxonomic placement of rhizobia nodulating T. suavissima with those of members of an Ensifer reference collection. Our goal was to determine if the T. suavissima rhizobial strains, like their plant host, are naturally limited to the Australian continent. We used multilocus sequence analysis to estimate the genetic relatedness of 56 T. suavissima symbionts to 28 Ensifer reference strains. Sequence data were partitioned according to the replicons in which the loci are located. The results were used to construct replicon-specific phylogenetic trees. In both the chromosomal and chromid trees, the Australian strains formed a distinct clade within E. meliloti The strains also shared few alleles with Ensifer reference strains from other continents. Carbon source utilization assays revealed that the strains are also unusual in their ability to utilize 2-oxoglutarate as a sole carbon source. A strategy was outlined for locating similar strains elsewhere. IMPORTANCE In this study, we employed a biogeographical approach to investigate the origins of a symbiotic relationship between an Australian legume and its nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. The question of the ancestral origins of these symbionts is based on the observation that the legume host is not closely

  20. Cross-species EST alignments reveal novel and conserved alternative splicing events in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendel Volker

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although originally thought to be less frequent in plants than in animals, alternative splicing (AS is now known to be widespread in plants. Here we report the characteristics of AS in legumes, one of the largest and most important plant families, based on EST alignments to the genome sequences of Medicago truncatula (Mt and Lotus japonicus (Lj. Results Based on cognate EST alignments alone, the observed frequency of alternatively spliced genes is lower in Mt (~10%, 1,107 genes and Lj (~3%, 92 genes than in Arabidopsis and rice (both around 20%. However, AS frequencies are comparable in all four species if EST levels are normalized. Intron retention is the most common form of AS in all four plant species (~50%, with slightly lower frequency in legumes compared to Arabidopsis and rice. This differs notably from vertebrates, where exon skipping is most common. To uncover additional AS events, we aligned ESTs from other legume species against the Mt genome sequence. In this way, 248 additional Mt genes were predicted to be alternatively spliced. We also identified 22 AS events completely conserved in two or more plant species. Conclusion This study extends the range of plant taxa shown to have high levels of AS, confirms the importance of intron retention in plants, and demonstrates the utility of using ESTs from related species in order to identify novel and conserved AS events. The results also indicate that the frequency of AS in plants is comparable to that observed in mammals. Finally, our results highlight the importance of normalizing EST levels when estimating the frequency of alternative splicing.

  1. Nod factor signaling and infection in Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, P.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    Plants require nutrients in order to grow. Most of these are readily available, but a few, like the macronutrients nitrogen and phosphorous, are often limiting growth due to presence in low concentrations or in complexes that cannot be taken up by the plant root. To acquire these macronutrients

  2. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  3. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  4. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution: IR expansion, tandem repeat expansions, and accelerated rate of evolution in clpP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, Diana V; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J M; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, Colin E; Jansen, Robert K; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, Joshua T; Hajrah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Sabir, Jamal S M; Bailey, C Donovan

    2015-11-23

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily Papilionoideae. We investigate plastome evolution in subfamily Mimosoideae based on two newly sequenced plastomes (Inga and Leucaena) and two recently published plastomes (Acacia and Prosopis), and discuss the results in the context of other legume and rosid plastid genomes. Mimosoid plastomes have a typical angiosperm gene content and general organization as well as a generally slow rate of protein coding gene evolution, but they are the largest known among legumes. The increased length results from tandem repeat expansions and an unusual 13 kb IR-SSC boundary shift in Acacia and Inga. Mimosoid plastomes harbor additional interesting features, including loss of clpP intron1 in Inga, accelerated rates of evolution in clpP for Acacia and Inga, and dN/dS ratios consistent with neutral and positive selection for several genes. These new plastomes and results provide important resources for legume comparative genomics, plant breeding, and plastid genetic engineering, while shedding further light on the complexity of plastome evolution in legumes and angiosperms.

  5. Phytotoxic effects of Cu, Cd and Zn on the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii and metal accumulation in plants growing in Xincun Bay, Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Gu, Xiao-Qian; Zhang, Tai-Jie; Liu, Hui-Hui; Ou, Qiao-Jing; Peng, Chang-Lian

    2018-03-19

    Seagrasses play an important role in coastal marine ecosystems, but they have been increasingly threatened by human activities. In recent years, seagrass communities have rapidly degenerated in the coastal marine ecosystems of China. To identify the reasons for the decline in seagrasses, the phytotoxic effects of trace metals (Cu, Cd and Zn) on the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii were investigated, and the environmental contents of the metals were analyzed where the seagrass grows. The results showed that leaf necrosis in T. hemprichii exposed to 0.01-0.1 mg L -1 of Cu 2+ for 5 days was more serious than that in plants exposed to the same concentrations of Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ . The chlorophyll content in T. hemprichii declined in a concentration-dependent manner after 5 days of exposure to Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ . The evident reduction in ΔF/F m ' in T. hemprichii leaves was observed at day 1 of exposure to 0.01-1.0 mg L -1 of Cu 2+ and at day 3 of exposure to 0.1-1.0 mg L -1 of Cd 2+ . The antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD, POD and CAT) in T. hemprichii leaves exposed to the three metal ions also showed significant changes. In seawater from Xincun Bay (Hainan, China), where T. hemprichii grows, Cu had reached a concentration (i.e., 0.01 mg L -1 ) that could significantly reduce chlorophyll content and ΔF/F m ' in T. hemprichii leaves. Our results indicate that Cu influences the deterioration of seagrasses in Xincun Bay.

  6. Applicability of a “Multi-Stage Pulse Labeling” 15N Approach to Phenotype N Dynamics in Maize Plant Components during the Growing Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Oliveira Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available HighlightsThis work utilizes “multi-stage pulse labeling” 15N applications, primarily during reproductive growth stages, as a phenotyping strategy to identify maize hybrids with superior N use efficiency (NUE under low N conditions.Research using labeled isotopic N (15N can precisely quantify fertilizer nitrogen (N uptake and organ-specific N allocation in field crops such as maize (Zea mays L.. The overall research objective was to study plant N uptake patterns potentially correlated with N use efficiency (NUE in field-grown maize hybrids using a “multi-stage pulse labeling” 15N phenotyping strategy with an emphasis on the reproductive period. Five hybrids varying in NUE were compared under zero N fertilizer application (0N plus a moderate rate of 112 kg N ha−1 (112N in 2013 (2 locations and 2014 growing seasons. The equivalent of 3.2 (2013 to 2.1 (2014 kg of 15N ha−1, as labeled Ca(15NO32, was injected into soil on both sides of consecutive plants at multiple stages between V14 and R5. Aboveground plant biomass was primarily collected in short-term intervals (4–6 days after each 15N application in both years, and following a single long-term interval (at R6 after 15N injection at R1 in 2014. Averaged across hybrids and site-years, the moderate N rate (112N increased absolute 15N uptake at all stages; however, plants in the 0N treatment allocated proportionally more 15N to reproductive organs. Before flowering, short-term recovery of 15N (15Nrec totaled ~0.30 or 0.40 kg kg−1 of the 15N applied, and ~50% of that accumulated 15Nu was found in leaves and 40% in stems. After flowering, plant 15Nrec totaled ~0.30 kg kg−1 of 15N applied, and an average 30% of accumulated 15Nu was present in leaves, 17% in stems, and the remainder—usually the majority—in ears. At the R5 stage, despite a declining overall rate of 15N uptake per GDD thermal unit, plant 15Nrec represented ~0.25 kg kg−1 of 15N applied, of which ~65% was allocated

  7. Cobertura do solo e estoque de nutrientes de duas leguminosas perenes, considerando espaçamentos e densidades de plantio Soil cover and nutrient accumulation of two perennial legumes as functions of spacing and planting densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perin

    2004-02-01

    arrangement 2 x 2 x 4, with four replications. The treatments consisted of the plant species Galactia striata and Pueraria phaseoloides, planted in two spacings (25 and 50 cm apart and four sowing densities (5, 10, 15 and 20 plants m-1. The most adequate density for a fast soil cover was 10 plants m-1 for Pueraria phaseoloides and Galactia striata, in a 25 cm spacing between planting rows. The highest dry matter production and accumulation of N, P and K in the aerial part of the plant were found in the first cut, in a spacing of 25 cm and row density of 10 plants m-1. The 25 cm spacing with 10 plants m-1 was identified as the most adequate combination for the formation of a full soil cover with Pueraria phaseoloides and Galactia striata.

  8. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Tolerance to Environmental Constraints in Grain and Forage Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, Bargaz; Mainassara, Zaman-Allah; Mohamed, Farissi; Mohamed, Lazali; Jean-Jacques, Drevon; Rim, Maougal T; Georg, Carlsson

    2015-08-13

    Despite the agronomical and environmental advantages of the cultivation of legumes, their production is limited by various environmental constraints such as water or nutrient limitation, frost or heat stress and soil salinity, which may be the result of pedoclimatic conditions, intensive use of agricultural lands, decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation. The development of more sustainable agroecosystems that are resilient to environmental constraints will therefore require better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to abiotic constraints. This review provides highlights of legume tolerance to abiotic constraints with a focus on soil nutrient deficiencies, drought, and salinity. More specifically, recent advances in the physiological and molecular levels of the adaptation of grain and forage legumes to abiotic constraints are discussed. Such adaptation involves complex multigene controlled-traits which also involve multiple sub-traits that are likely regulated under the control of a number of candidate genes. This multi-genetic control of tolerance traits might also be multifunctional, with extended action in response to a number of abiotic constraints. Thus, concrete efforts are required to breed for multifunctional candidate genes in order to boost plant stability under various abiotic constraints.

  9. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Tolerance to Environmental Constraints in Grain and Forage Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnane Bargaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the agronomical and environmental advantages of the cultivation of legumes, their production is limited by various environmental constraints such as water or nutrient limitation, frost or heat stress and soil salinity, which may be the result of pedoclimatic conditions, intensive use of agricultural lands, decline in soil fertility and environmental degradation. The development of more sustainable agroecosystems that are resilient to environmental constraints will therefore require better understanding of the key mechanisms underlying plant tolerance to abiotic constraints. This review provides highlights of legume tolerance to abiotic constraints with a focus on soil nutrient deficiencies, drought, and salinity. More specifically, recent advances in the physiological and molecular levels of the adaptation of grain and forage legumes to abiotic constraints are discussed. Such adaptation involves complex multigene controlled-traits which also involve multiple sub-traits that are likely regulated under the control of a number of candidate genes. This multi-genetic control of tolerance traits might also be multifunctional, with extended action in response to a number of abiotic constraints. Thus, concrete efforts are required to breed for multifunctional candidate genes in order to boost plant stability under various abiotic constraints.

  10. Interactive effects of UV radiation and reduced precipitation on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and the antioxidant activity of naturally growing Arbutus unedo plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadis, Nikolaos; Llorens, Laura; Koufogianni, Agathi; Díaz, Laura; Font, Joan; Gonzalez, Josep Abel; Verdaguer, Dolors

    2015-12-01

    The effects of UV radiation and rainfall reduction on the seasonal leaf phenolic content/composition and antioxidant activity of the Mediterranean shrub Arbutus unedo were studied. Naturally growing plants of A. unedo were submitted to 97% UV-B reduction (UVA), 95% UV-A+UV-B reduction (UV0) or near-ambient UV levels (UVBA) under two precipitation regimes (natural rainfall or 10-30% rainfall reduction). Total phenol, flavonol and flavanol contents, levels of eight phenols and antioxidant activity [DPPH(●) radical scavenging and Cu (II) reducing capacity] were measured in sun-exposed leaves at the end of four consecutive seasons. Results showed a significant seasonal variation in the leaf content of phenols of A. unedo, with the lowest values found in spring and the highest in autumn and/or winter. Leaf ontogenetic development and/or a possible effect of low temperatures in autumn/winter may account for such findings. Regardless of the watering regime and the sampling date, plant exposure to UV-B radiation decreased the total flavanol content of leaves, while it increased the leaf content in quercitrin (the most abundant quercetin derivative identified). By contrast, UV-A radiation increased the leaf content of theogallin, a gallic acid derivative. Other phenolic compounds (two quercetin derivatives, one of them being avicularin, and one kaempferol derivative, juglanin), as well as the antioxidant activity of the leaves, showed different responses to UV radiation depending on the precipitation regime. Surprisingly, reduced rainfall significantly decreased the total amount of quantified quercetin derivatives as well as the DPPH scavenging activity in A. unedo leaves. To conclude, present findings indicate that leaves of A. unedo can be a good source of antioxidants throughout the year, but especially in autumn and winter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Rotation effects of grain and herbaceous legumes on maize yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes and fallow has been known to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. This prompted an investigation into the effects of some legumes and fallow on some soil chemical properties and yield of maize. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 on an Alfisol to determine the effects of crop ...

  12. Assessing socio–economic factors influencing adoption of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the numerous benefits of legume-based multiple cropping systems in soil fertility management, most smallholder sorghum farmers have not adopted them. The aim of this study was to examine socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems among smallholder sorghum ...

  13. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial fertilizers are expensive for small-scale farmers who, as alternative, rely on legume crops for providing N for a subsequent maize crop. A legume-maize rotational experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Ferralsol at Mlingano Agricultural Research Institute in Muheza, Tanga, Tanzania, to evaluate the effects of ...

  14. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic,

  15. Tree legumes: an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tree legumes are an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures. Perceived benefits of tree legumes include provisioning (browse/mast, timber, fuel, human food, natural medicines, and ornamentals, regulating (C sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, soil erosion control and riparian buffers, shade, windbreaks, and habitat for pollinators, supporting (biological N2-fixation, nutrient cycling, soil fertility and soil health, photosynthesis, and primary productivity, and cultural ecosystem services. Tree legumes, however, have not been assessed to the same extent as herbaceous legumes. Once tree legumes are established, they are often more persistent than most herbaceous legumes. There are limitations for extended research with tree legume silvopastures, but extensive research has been done in Africa and Australia and recent efforts have been reported in South America. Economic benefits must be demonstrated to land managers to increase adoption. These benefits are apparent in the research and successes already available, but more long-term research, including the livestock component is necessary. Other factors that reduce adoption include paucity of domesticated germplasm, lag in research/technology, challenges of multipurpose trees and management complexity, challenges to mechanization, dangers of invasive weeds, and social and cultural barriers. In the current scenario of climate change and the need to increase food security, tree legumes are a key component for the sustainable intensification of livestock systems in warm-climate regions.

  16. Glycaemic responses of some legumes in Nigeria using non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is established that legumes generally have a low glycaemic index (GI) which means that they raise blood glucose levels very little. However, the glycaemic responses to normal subjects and the GI of these local legumes are not yet established. Objective: This work determined the postprandial glycaemic ...

  17. Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... Studies were conducted in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya with the aim of evaluating farmers' perception about the impact of legume cover crops (LCC) on soil ...

  18. Testing forage legume technologies with smallholder dairy farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    on-station research, suggest the possibility of incorporating forage legumes in farming systems that could solve feed shortages during the ... This paper presents benefits and constraints identified by farmers as a result of integrating forage legumes in farming systems and lessons ..... stock Research Institute. Vol. 5. pp.10-11.

  19. Systematics, diversity and forage value of indigenous legumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A map representing the collection intensity for the study area showed that the majority of legumes species were collected in the Fynbos, Savanna and Grassland Biome. It is concluded that indigenous South African legumes are extremely diverse and this denotes the importance of further investigating their forage potential ...

  20. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume

  1. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of legumes with residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes can help reduce the inorganic nitrogen fertilizer need of the following maize as a result of increased nitrogen availability in the soil. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value (NFRV) method was used to estimate the nitrogen contribution of grain legumes (soybean, cowpea) and an herbaceous ...

  2. Effect of Intercropping Finger Millet with two Indigenous Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In phase one, an indigenous edible legume (Crotalaria brevidens) and a fodder legume (Trifolium quartinianum) were intercropped with finger millet. Each plot was supplied with three nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 Kg N/ha) in the form of Urea (46% N) in a completely randomized block design with three replicates.

  3. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  4. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  5. [The Effect of Cadmium on the Efficiency of Development of Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuhukova, O V; Postrigan, B N; Baimiev, A Kh; Chemeris, A V

    2015-01-01

    Screening of nodule bacteria (rhizobia) forming symbiotic relationships with legumes has been performed in order to isolate strains resistant to cadmium ions in a wide range of concentrations (6-132 mg/kg). The effect ofcadmium salts (6, 12, 24 mg/kg) on the legume-rhizobium symbiosis ofthe pea Pisum sativum L. with Rhizobium leguminosarum and of the fodder galega Galega orientalis Lam. with Rhizobium galegae has been studied under experimental laboratory conditions. No statistically significant differences have been revealed in the growth and biomass of plants with regard to the control in the range of concentrations given above. However, it was found that cadmium inhibited nodulation in P. sativum and stimulated it in G. orientalis.

  6. Xaraés palisadegrass remains productive after the disappearance of stylo in tropical legume-grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Carvalho Menezes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Gradual reduction of legumes in mixed tropical pastures requires periodic oversowing. Exploiting the carrying capacity of grass for an extra year after the disappearance of legumes can be economically advantageous to the farmer. This study aimed to evaluate the productivity of Xaraés palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha pastures in response to its historical association with stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis under two canopy heights to determine whether different grazing management conditions affect the defoliation pattern left by grazing animals. The split-plot experimental design was used, with the historical botanical composition (HBC (24, 34, 45 and 52 % legume composition corresponding to the main plots and the canopy frequency of defoliation determined at heights of 30 and 45 cm for Xaraés palisadegrass corresponding to the subplots with two replicates (500 m2 grazed by Tabapuã cows. Pastures with over 34 % stylo in the botanical composition remained productive for one year after legume disappearance, accumulating more than 8 mg ha−1 of forage per year. Xaraés palisadegrass pastures at a height of 30 cm provided better canopy structure, with 64 % less stem production and 43 % less dead material. The 30-cm pre-grazing canopy height provided a grazing environment conducive to forage intake by animals that resulted in efficient use of the pasture. In response to the improved canopy structure, the cows grazed an average of 60 fewer minutes. A HBC greater than 34 % of legumes in the pastures allows for the postponement of legume oversowing until the next growing season.

  7. Crops, Nitrogen, Water: Are Legumes Friend, Foe, or Misunderstood Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark A; Buchmann, Nina; Sprent, Janet; Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L

    2018-03-17

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N. We propose that breeding grain legumes for reduced stomatal conductance can increase WUE without compromising production or BNF. Legume crops remain a better bet than relying on INF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of soil type and light on height growth, biomass partitioning, and nitrogen dynamics on 22 species of tropical dry forest tree seedlings: Comparisons between legumes and nonlegumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Martin, Christina M; Gei, Maria G; Bergstrom, Ellie; Becklund, Kristen K; Becknell, Justin M; Waring, Bonnie G; Werden, Leland K; Powers, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    The seedling stage is particularly vulnerable to resource limitation, with potential consequences for community composition. We investigated how light and soil variation affected early growth, biomass partitioning, morphology, and physiology of 22 tree species common in tropical dry forest, including eight legumes. Our hypothesis was that legume seedlings are better at taking advantage of increased resource availability, which contributes to their successful regeneration in tropical dry forests. We grew seedlings in a full-factorial design under two light levels in two soil types that differed in nutrient concentrations and soil moisture. We measured height biweekly and, at final harvest, biomass partitioning, internode segments, leaf carbon, nitrogen, δ 13 C, and δ 15 N. Legumes initially grew taller and maintained that height advantage over time under all experimental conditions. Legumes also had the highest final total biomass and water-use efficiency in the high-light and high-resource soil. For nitrogen-fixing legumes, the amount of nitrogen derived from fixation was highest in the richer soil. Although seed mass tended to be larger in legumes, seed size alone did not account for all the differences between legumes and nonlegumes. Both belowground and aboveground resources were limiting to early seedling growth and function. Legumes may have a different regeneration niche, in that they germinate rapidly and grow taller than other species immediately after germination, maximizing their performance when light and belowground resources are readily available, and potentially permitting them to take advantage of high light, nutrient, and water availability at the beginning of the wet season. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Grain legume cultivars derived from induced mutations, and mutations affecting nodulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.; Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Zanten, L. van

    2001-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-five grain legume cultivars developed using induced mutations have been released in 32 countries. A maximum number of cultivars have been released in soybean (58), followed by common bean (50), groundnut (44), pea (32) and mungbean (14). Gamma or x-ray exposures of seeds led to the direct development of 111 cultivars, while neutron and chemical mutagen treatments resulted in 8 and 36 cultivars respectively. One hundred and three cultivars have been developed using mutants in cross breeding. Attempts have been made to estimate the successful dose range for gamma and x-rays, defined as the dose range, which led to the development, registration and release of a maximum number of mutant cultivars. Exposures to seeds ranging between 100-200 Gy in all grain legumes, except faba bean, resulted in 49 out of 111 cultivars being developed as direct mutants. Successful doses reported for faba bean are lower than 100 Gy. Modified crop plant characters are listed. Besides the development of new cultivars, a large number of induced mutants that show altered nodulation pattern have been isolated in grain legumes. Such mutants have made a significant contribution in basic studies on host-symbiont interactions and towards cloning of plant genes related to symbiosis and nitrogen fixation. Their exploitation in breeding programs for enhancing nitrogen fixation is just beginning. Available information on nodulation mutants in grain legume crops is summarised. Mainly, four types of nodulation mutants have been isolated. They show either: no nodulation (nod -), few nodules (nod +/-), ineffective nodulation (Fix-), hypernodulation (nod ++) or hypernodulation even in the presence of otherwise inhibitory nitrate levels (nts). Hypernodulating and nts mutants are of great interest. A soybean cultivar incorporating nts trait has been released in Australia. (author)

  10. Increased plant carbon translocation linked to overyielding in grassland species mixtures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlinde B De Deyn

    Full Text Available Plant species richness and productivity often show a positive relationship, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, especially at the plant species level. We examined how growing plants in species mixture influences intraspecific rates of short-term carbon (C- translocation, and determined whether such short-term responses are reflected in biomass yields. We grew monocultures and mixtures of six common C3 grassland plant species in outdoor mesocosms, applied a (13C-CO(2 pulse in situ to trace assimilated C through plants, into the soil, and back to the atmosphere, and quantified species-specific biomass. Pulse derived (13C enrichment was highest in the legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and relocation (i.e. transport from the leaves to other plant parts of the recently assimilated (13C was most rapid in T. repens grown in 6-species mixtures. The grass Anthoxanthum odoratum also showed high levels of (13C enrichment in 6-species mixtures, while (13C enrichment was low in Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata and Achillea millefolium. Rates of C loss through respiration were highest in monocultures of T. repens and relatively low in species mixtures, while the proportion of (13C in the respired CO(2 was similar in monocultures and mixtures. The grass A. odoratum and legume T. repens were most promoted in 6-species mixtures, and together with L. corniculatus, caused the net biomass increase in 6-species mixtures. These plant species also had highest rates of (13C-label translocation, and for A. odoratum and T. repens this effect was greatest in plant individuals grown in species mixtures. Our study reveals that short-term plant C translocation can be accelerated in plant individuals of legume and C3 grass species when grown in mixtures, and that this is strongly positively related to overyielding. These results demonstrate a mechanistic coupling between changes in intraspecific plant carbon physiology and increased

  11. High frequency microcloning of Aloe vera and their true-to-type conformity by molecular cytogenetic assessment of two years old field growing regenerated plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Sk Moquammel; Ghosh, Biswajit

    2013-12-01

    Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f is an important industrial crop, which has enormous application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Thereby, the demand for quality planting material of A. vera is increasing worldwide. Micropropagation is the widely accepted practical application of plant biotechnology that has gained the status of a multibillion-dollar industry throughout the world and this techniques can be used to meet the industrial demand of A. vera. Present studies aim to develop a proficient methods of high-frequency true-to-type plantlet regeneration without intermediate callus phase for A. vera. Nodal portion of rhizomatous stem of A. vera were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15:473 - 497, 1962) supplemented with various cytokinin and A. vera leaf gel (AvG) as organic supplement. Number of proliferated shoots per explant was increased along with the regeneration cycles and on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 10.0% (v/v) AvG, only 17.8 ± 0.35 shoots per explant were induced on 1 st regeneration cycle whereas on 3 rd regeneration cycle these number increase to 38.5 ± 0.44 shoots per explant on the same medium composition. AvG have an encouraging role to increase the proliferation rate and on 3 rd regeneration cycle 27.6 ± 0.53 shoot per explant induced on 2.5 mg/L BAP, but these number increase to 38.5 ± 0.44 shoots per explant when 10.0% (v/v) AvG was added along with 2.5 mg/L BAP. After transfer of individual excised shoots to a one-third strength MS medium containing 20.0% (v/v) AvG, all the shoots formed whole plantlets with maximum number (9.6 ± 0.29) of roots per shoot. 95.0% of the regenerated plantlets survived on poly-green house. Normal flower appeared in 84.2% field growing micropropagated plants after 18 to 20 months of field transfer. Further, clonal fidelity of the two years old micropropagated plants was established by studying mitotic and meiotic

  12. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  13. Biotechnology of Tohoku Electric Power Co. Application of plant biotechnology/Biomass utilization/Development of technology to control cold resistance of plant/Practical application of passion fruit growing technology/Identification of useful genes of plant/Light supplement growing of rose/Electric stimulus growing of shiitake mushroom,etc; Tohoku Denryoku no biotechnology. Shokubutsu biotechnology oyo, biomass riyo, shokubutsu no taireisei seigyo gijutsu kaihatsu, passion fruit saibai gijutsu no jitsuyoka, shokubutsu no yuyo idenshi dotei, bara no hoko saibai, shiitake denki shigeki saibai gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The paper introduced the biotechnology study in Tohoku Electric Power Co. in terms of the above-captioned items. In the study of the plant biotechnology application, with garlic growing as a target, technology to increase seedlings in large quantity by texture cultivation technology was studied. In the biomass utilization study, as to one of the biomass crops, its economical efficiency was studied in case of using it as energy. In the development of the technology to control cold resistance of plant, genes of Superoxide dismutase, etc. were introduced to rice plant to obtain a result which indicates enhancement of cold resistance. In the development of the technology to grow passion fruit, a method was established to grow a tropical fruit, passion fruit produced in Brazil, without heating in winter and to enable two harvests a year, for the contribution to the regional activation. In the study on the identification of useful genes of plant, the development of DNA markers was conducted, trying the identification of a rice blight true resistance gene, Pi-Z{sup t}. 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  15. Legume genetic resources and transcriptome dynamics under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Burritt, David J; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2018-01-04

    Grain legumes are an important source of nutrition and income for billions of consumers and farmers around the world. However, the low productivity of new legume varieties, due to the limited genetic diversity available for legume breeding programmes and poor policymaker support, combined with an increasingly unpredictable global climate is resulting in a large gap between current yields and the increasing demand for legumes as food. Hence, there is a need for novel approaches to develop new high-yielding legume cultivars that are able to cope with a range of environmental stressors. Next-generation technologies are providing the tools that could enable the more rapid and cost-effective genomic and transcriptomic studies for most major crops, allowing the identification of key functional and regulatory genes involved in abiotic stress resistance. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent achievements regarding abiotic stress resistance in a wide range of legume crops and highlight the transcriptomic and miRNA approaches that have been used. In addition, we critically evaluate the availability and importance of legume genetic resources with desirable abiotic stress resistance traits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  17. Biomass accumulation and chemical composition of Massai grass intercropped with forage legumes on an integrated crop-livestock-forest system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana da Costa Moreno Gama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of woody legumes (Albizia lebbeck, Cratylia argentea, Dipteryx Allata (Baru, a Leucaena hybrid (L. leucocephala + L. diversifolia, and Leucaena leucocephalacv. Cunningham and herbaceous legumes (Arachis pintoi intercropped with Panicum maximum cv. Massai, simultaneously implanted in a maize crop. The study made use of a randomized block experimental design with four replications. Assessments of biomass accumulation and forage nutritional value were made after the maize harvest, between June 2008 and October 2010. It was found that the residues of maize provided better growing conditions for Massai grass during the dry season. L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham and the Leucaena hybrid had the highest accumulation of all forage legumes evaluated, and provided the best nutritional value of all the arrangements tested. Of all woody legumes tested in this system, Leucaena was considered feasible for intercropping with Massai grass. The intercrop of perennial woody Baru with maize is not recommended. Albizia lebbeck and Cratylia argentea require further study, especially the yield assessment at different cutting intervals and cutting heights. Arachis pintoi had a low participation in the intercropping, showing greater performance over time, indicating slow thriving in this experimental condition.

  18. Phylogenetic clustering of Bradyrhizobium symbionts on legumes indigenous to North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppell, Jonathan H; Parker, Matthew A

    2012-08-01

    To analyse determinants of biogeographic structure in members of the genus Bradyrhizobium, isolates were obtained from 41 legume genera, originating from North American sites spanning 48.5 ° of latitude (Alaska to Panama). Sequencing of portions of six gene loci (3674 bp) in 203 isolates showed that there was only a weak trend towards higher nucleotide diversity in tropical regions. Phylogenetic relationships for nifD, in the symbiosis island region of the Bradyrhizobium chromosome, conflicted substantially with a tree inferred for five housekeeping gene loci. For both nifD and housekeeping gene trees, bacteria from each region were significantly more similar, on average, than would be expected if the source location was permuted at random on the tree. Within-region permutation tests also showed that bacteria clustered significantly on particular host plant clades at all levels in the phylogeny of legumes (from genus up to subfamily). Nevertheless, some bacterial groups were dispersed across multiple regions and were associated with diverse legume host lineages. These results indicate that migration, horizontal gene transfer and host interactions have all influenced the geographical divergence of Bradyrhizobium populations on a continental scale.

  19. Clitoria ternatea, The Alternative Shrub Legume for Cattle and Corn Integration System in Timor Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Nulik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle and maize play important roles in the dryland faming systems in Timor island of East Nusa Tenggara province, contributing to the farmers’ income, social status, and the regional food security and sources of income. However, the productivity of both commodities is low because of several problems. Lack of feed supply and management knowledge has contributed to the low cattle productivity, while lack of cultivation knowledge and the use of low productivity local maize have caused low productivity in maize. Farmers in Timor in general do not apply fertilizer to their maize plants, although lack of nitrogen (N is evident in many of their maize fields. There is potential to improve the available N in the soils through the incorporation of herbaceous legumes, which can supply the nutrient to the soil as well as providing good quality fodders for the cattle. Among the introduced herbaceous legumes tested, Clitoria ternatea (butterfly pea has shown good performances to be used as an alternative herbaceous legume in the farming system for improving soil fertility and maize production as well as to provide good quality fordder for the cattle.

  20. [Immunoproteomics of non water-soluble allergens from 4 legumes flours: peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakkadia, Hayette; Boutebba, Aissa; Haddad, Iman; Vinh, Joëlle; Guilloux, Laurence; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Peanut, soybean, sesame and lentil are members of legumes worldwide consumed by human that can induce food allergy in genetically predisposed individuals. Several protein allergens, mainly water-soluble, have been described. We studied the non water-soluble fraction from these 4 food sources using immunoproteomics tools and techniques. Flour extracts were solubilized in detergent and chaotropes and analysed in 1 and 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D). Results showed numerous proteins exhibiting wide ranges of isoelectric points and relative molecular masses. When IgE immunoreactivities of 18 food allergy patients were individually tested in 1 and 2D western-blots, a very diversified IgE repertoire was observed, reflecting extensive cross-reactivities but also co-sensitizations. Besides already well known and characterized allergens, mass spectrometry analysis allowed the identification of 22 allergens undescribed until now: 10 in peanut, 2 in soybean, 3 in sesame and 7 in lentil. Three allergens are legume storage proteins and the others belong to transport proteins, nucleotide binding proteins and proteins involved in the regulation of metabolism. Seven proteins are potentially similar to allergens described in plants and fungi and 11 are not related to any known allergen. Our results contribute to increase the repertoire of legume allergens that may improve the diagnosis, categorize patients and thus provide a better treatment of patients.

  1. Molecular diversity of legume root-nodule bacteria in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Lafay

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Symbiotic relationships between leguminous plants (family Fabaceae and nodule-forming bacteria in Australia native ecosystems remain poorly characterized despite their importance. Most studies have focused on temperate parts of the country, where the use of molecular approaches have already revealed the presence of Bradyrhizobium, Ensifer (formerly Sinorhizobium, Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium genera of legume root-nodule bacteria. We here provide the first molecular characterization of nodulating bacteria from tropical Australia.45 nodule-forming bacterial strains, isolated from eight native legume hosts at eight locations in Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia, were examined for their genetic diversity and phylogenetic position. Using SSU rDNA PCR-RFLPs and phylogenetic analyses, our survey identified nine genospecies, two of which, Bradyrhizobium genospp. B and P, had been previously identified in south-eastern Australia and one, Mesorhizobium genospecies AA, in southern France. Three of the five newly characterized Bradyrhizobium genospecies were more closely related to B. japonicum USDA110, whereas the other two belonged to the B. elkanii group. All five were each more closely related to strains sampled in various tropical areas outside Australia than to strains known to occur in Australia. We also characterized an entirely novel nodule-forming lineage, phylogenetically distant from any previously described rhizobial and non-rhizobial legume-nodulating lineage within the Rhizobiales.Overall, the present results support the hypothesis of tropical areas being centres of biodiversity and diversification for legume root-nodule bacteria and confirm the widespread occurrence of Bradyrhizobium genosp. B in continental Australia.

  2. The Mansonia genus (diptera: culicidae) and mosquitoes growing in Tucurui hydroelectric power plant (Para - Brazil); O genero Mansonia (diptera: culicidae) e a proliferacao de mosquitos na Usina Hidreletrica de Tucurui

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radei, Wanderli Pedro [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    Dams formed for hydroelectric generation normally are invaded by some kinds of aquatic plants. This plants besides the problems in navigation are also responsible for the growing of some mosquitoes. In Tucuri`s dam this plants appeared in so large quantity and make appear mosquitoes and others insects. In this study many captures were making in various places, identifying the mosquitoes and quantifying them from hour to hour. Some considerations were made about the characteristics of this mosquitoes. In conclusion the study shows that the growing of mosquito`s population can cause the appearing of epidemics not knowledge at this places with the population not prepared for them 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Phenolphthalein false-positive reactions from legume root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Daniel; Kovacs, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Presumptive tests for blood play a critical role in the examination of physical evidence and in the determination of subsequent analysis. The catalytic power of hemoglobin allows colorimetric reactions employing phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer test) to indicate "whether" blood is present. Consequently, DNA profiles extracted from phenolphthalein-positive stains are presumed to be from blood on the evidentiary item and can lead to the identification of "whose" blood is present. Crushed nodules from a variety of legumes yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactions that were indistinguishable from true bloodstains both in color quality and in developmental time frame. Clothing and other materials stained by nodules also yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactivity for several years after nodule exposure. Nodules from leguminous plants contain a protein (leghemoglobin) which is structurally and functionally similar to hemoglobin. Testing of purified leghemoglobin confirmed this protein as a source of phenolphthalein reactivity. A scenario is presented showing how the presence of leghemoglobin from nodule staining can mislead investigators. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria: nodulation and phylogenetic data across legume genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Luke Mahler, D; Burns, Jean H; Weber, Marjorie G; Wojciechowski, Martin F; Sprent, Janet; Strauss, Sharon Y

    2018-02-01

    How species interactions shape global biodiversity and influence diversification is a central - but also data-hungry - question in evolutionary ecology. Microbially based mutualisms are widespread and could cause diversification by ameliorating stress and thus allowing organisms to colonize and adapt to otherwise unsuitable habitats. Yet the role of these interactions in generating species diversity has received limited attention, especially across large taxonomic groups. In the massive angiosperm family Leguminosae, plants often associate with root-nodulating bacteria that ameliorate nutrient stress by fixing atmospheric nitrogen. These symbioses are ecologically-important interactions, influencing community assembly, diversity, and succession, contributing ~100-290 million tons of N annually to natural ecosystems, and enhancing growth of agronomically-important forage and crop plants worldwide. In recent work attempting to determine whether mutualism with N-fixing bacteria led to increased diversification across legumes, we were unable to definitively resolve the relationship between diversification and nodulation. We did, however, succeed in compiling a very large searchable, analysis-ready database of nodulation data for 749 legume genera (98% of Leguminosae genera; LPWG 2017), which, along with associated phylogenetic information, will provide a valuable resource for future work addressing this question and others. For each legume genus, we provide information about the species richness, frequency of nodulation, subfamily association, and topological correspondence with an additional data set of 100 phylogenetic trees curated for database compatibility. We found 386 legume genera were confirmed nodulators (i.e., all species examined for nodulation nodulated), 116 were non-nodulating, four were variable (i.e., containing both confirmed nodulators and confirmed non-nodulators), and 243 had not been examined for nodulation in published studies. Interestingly

  5. Compatibility between Legumes and Rhizobia for the Establishment of a Successful Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clúa, Joaquín; Roda, Carla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio A

    2018-02-27

    The root nodule symbiosis established between legumes and rhizobia is an exquisite biological interaction responsible for fixing a significant amount of nitrogen in terrestrial ecosystems. The success of this interaction depends on the recognition of the right partner by the plant within the richest microbial ecosystems on Earth, the soil. Recent metagenomic studies of the soil biome have revealed its complexity, which includes microorganisms that affect plant fitness and growth in a beneficial, harmful, or neutral manner. In this complex scenario, understanding the molecular mechanisms by which legumes recognize and discriminate rhizobia from pathogens, but also between distinct rhizobia species and strains that differ in their symbiotic performance, is a considerable challenge. In this work, we will review how plants are able to recognize and select symbiotic partners from a vast diversity of surrounding bacteria. We will also analyze recent advances that contribute to understand changes in plant gene expression associated with the outcome of the symbiotic interaction. These aspects of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis should contribute to translate the knowledge generated in basic laboratory research into biotechnological advances to improve the efficiency of the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis in agronomic systems.

  6. Agronomic evaluation of herbaceous legumes in a subhumid zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , albeit their introduction into Uganda is recent. Keywords: agronomy; anthracnose; botany; evaluation; forage; herbage; legumes; Namulonge; reseeding; seed yield; Uganda African Journal of Range and Forage Science 1995, 12(2): 68–71 ...

  7. Effect of legume foliage supplementary feeding to dairy cattle offered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pennisetum purpureum) is the main basal diet offered, and is supplemented with legume forages among others. Recent observations indicate reduction in fodder yields of P. purpureum although farmers are applying cattle manure to improve soil fertility ...

  8. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  9. Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under three grazing regimes in southern Mozambique. JP Muir. Abstract. Leucaena leucocephala, Clitoria ternatea, Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Cassia rotundifolia cv. Wynn, Macrotyloma axillare cv. Archer, Stylosanthes guianensis var. guianensis cv.

  10. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  11. Impact of global climate change and fire on the occurrence and function of understorey legumes in forest ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverchon, Frederique; Xu, Zhihong; Blumfield, Timothy J.; Chen, Chengrong; Abdullah, Kadum M. [Griffith Univ., Nathan, QLD (Australia). Environmental Futures Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences

    2012-02-15

    The objective of this review was to provide a better understanding of how global climate change and fire influence the occurrence of understorey legumes and thereby biological nitrogen (N) fixation rates in forest ecosystems. Legumes are interesting models since they represent an interface between the soil, plant, and microbial compartments, and are directly linked to nutrient cycles through their ability to fix N. As such, they are likely to be affected by environmental changes. Biological N fixation has been shown to increase under enriched CO{sub 2} conditions, but is constrained by the availability of phosphorus and water. Climate change can also influence the species composition of legumes and their symbionts through warming, altered rainfall patterns, or changes in soil physicochemistry, which could modify the effectiveness of the symbiosis. Additionally, global climate change may increase the occurrence and intensity of forest wildfires thereby further influencing the distribution of legumes. The establishment of leguminous species is generally favored by fire, as is N{sub 2} fixation. This fixed N could therefore replenish the N lost through volatilization during the fire. However, fire may also generate shifts in the associated microbial community which could affect the outcome of the symbiosis. Understorey legumes are important functional species, and even when they cannot reasonably be expected to reestablish the nutrient balance in forest soils, they may be used as indicators to monitor nutrient fluxes and the response of forest ecosystems to changing environmental conditions. This would be helpful to accurately model ecosystem N budgets, and since N is often a limiting factor to plant growth and a major constraint on C storage in ecosystems, would allow us to assess more precisely the potential of these forests for C sequestration. (orig.)

  12. Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Symbiotic Specificity in Legume-Rhizobium Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are able to form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia. The result of this symbiosis is to form nodules on the plant root, within which the bacteria can convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia that can be used by the plant. Establishment of a successful symbiosis requires the two symbiotic partners to be compatible with each other throughout the process of symbiotic development. However, incompatibility frequently occurs, such that a bacterial strain is unable to nodulate a particular host plant or forms nodules that are incapable of fixing nitrogen. Genetic and molecular mechanisms that regulate symbiotic specificity are diverse, involving a wide range of host and bacterial genes/signals with various modes of action. In this review, we will provide an update on our current knowledge of how the recognition specificity has evolved in the context of symbiosis signaling and plant immunity.

  13. CARBON CYCLES, NITROGEN FIXATION AND THE LEGUME-RHIZOBIA SYMBIOSIS AS SOIL CONTAMINANT BIOTEST SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietrich Werner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The major pools and turnover  rates of the global carbon (C cycles are presented and compared to the human production of CO2  from the burning of fossil fuels (e.g. coal and oil and geothermal  fuels (natural  gases, both categorized as non-renewable energy resources which  in amount  reaches around  6.5 Gigatons C per year. These pools that serve as C-holding stallions  are in the atmosphere,  the land plant biomass, the organic soils carbon, the ocean carbon and the lithosphere. In another related case, the present focus in the area of nitrogen  fixation  is discussed with  data on world  production of grain  legumes  compared  to cereals production and nitrogen  fertilizer use. The focus to understand  the molecular  biology of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis as a major contributor to nitrogen  fixation  is in the areas of signal exchange between  host plants and rhizobia  in the rhizophere including  the nod factor signalling, the infection  and nodule compartmentation and the soils stress factors affecting the symbiosis. The use of the Legume-Rhizobia symbiosis as a biotest system for soil contaminants includes data for cadmium,  arsenate, atrazine,  lindane,  fluoranthene, phenantrene and acenaphthene and also results  on the mechanism,  why the symbiotic system is more sensitive  than test systems with plant growth  parameters.

  14. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J

    2017-10-01

    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M.E., E-mail: marney.isaac@utoronto.ca [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); University of Toronto, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Hinsinger, P. [INRA, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); Harmand, J.M. [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France)

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N{sub 2}-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N{sub 2}-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems

  16. Mixed Cropping of Legumes and Maize by the Use of Urea

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeil Alibakhshi; Mohammad Mirzakhani

    2016-01-01

    To study the effect of nitrogenous fertilizers and mixed cropping of legumes and maize on its grain yield and yield component of corn in Arak, an experiment was carried at the Agricultural Research Center of Markazi Province in 2013. A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed. Treatments were four levels of urea (N0= control, N1= 75 kg.ha-1, N2= 150 kg.ha-1, N3= 225 kg.ha-1) and mixed cropping with four levels (S1= planting corn, S2=...

  17. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.E.; Hinsinger, P.; Harmand, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N 2 -fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N 2 -fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ 15 N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. -- Highlights

  18. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  19. Pollen structure and function in caesalpinioid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J

    2016-03-01

    A diverse range of pollen morphologies occurs within the large, paraphyletic legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae, especially among early-branching lineages. Previous studies have hypothesized an association between surface ornamentation and pollination syndrome or other aspects of pollen function such as desiccation tolerance and adaptations to accommodate volume changes. We reviewed caesalpinioid pollen morphology using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with a literature survey of pollination vectors. Pollen structural diversity is greatest in the early-branching tribes Cercideae and Detarieae, whereas Cassieae and Caesalpinieae are relatively low in pollen diversity. Functional structures to counter desiccation include opercula (lids) covering apertures and reduced aperture size. Structures preventing wall rupture during dehydration and rehydration include different forms of colpi (syncolpi, parasyncolpi, pseudocolpi), striate supratectal ornamentation, and columellate or granular wall structures that resist tensile or compressive forces respectively. Specialized aperture structures (Zwischenkörper) may be advantageous for efficient germination of the pollen tube. In Detarieae and Cercideae in particular, there is potential to utilize pollen characters to estimate pollination systems where these are unknown. Supratectal verrucae and gemmae have apparently evolved iteratively in Cercideae and Detarieae. At the species level, there is a potential correlation between striate/verrucate patterns and vertebrate pollination. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  20. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils. [USA - Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A M University, Normal, AL (USA). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science)

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza {ital Lespedeza striata} (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza {ital Lespedeza cuneata} (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by Bragg' soybean {ital Glycine max} (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl {gt} DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs.

  2. Coevolutionary constraints? The environment alters tripartite interaction traits in a legume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy D Heath

    Full Text Available Third party species, which interact with one or both partners of a pairwise species interaction, can shift the ecological costs and the evolutionary trajectory of the focal interaction. Shared genes that mediate a host's interactions with multiple partners have the potential to generate evolutionary constraints, making multi-player interactions critical to our understanding of the evolution of key interaction traits. Using a field quantitative genetics approach, we studied phenotypic and genetic correlations among legume traits for rhizobium and herbivore interactions in two light environments. Shifts in plant biomass allocation mediated negative phenotypic correlations between symbiotic nodule number and herbivory in the field, whereas positive genetic covariances suggested shared genetic pathways between nodulation and herbivory response. Trait variance-covariance (G matrices were not equal in sun and shade, but nevertheless responses to independent and correlated selection are expected to be similar in both environments. Interactions between plants and aboveground antagonists might alter the evolutionary potential of traits mediating belowground mutualisms (and vice versa. Thus our understanding of legume-rhizobium genetics and coevolution may be incomplete without a grasp of how these networks overlap with other plant interactions.

  3. Protection via parasitism: Datura odors attract parasitoid flies, which inhibit Manduca larvae from feeding and growing but may not help plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J K; Woods, H A

    2015-12-01

    Insect carnivores frequently use olfactory cues from plants to find prey or hosts. For plants, the benefits of attracting parasitoids have been controversial, partly because parasitoids often do not kill their host insect immediately. Furthermore, most research has focused on the effects of solitary parasitoids on growth and feeding of hosts, even though many parasitoids are gregarious (multiple siblings inhabit the same host). Here, we examine how a gregarious parasitoid, the tachinid fly Drino rhoeo, uses olfactory cues from the host plant Datura wrightii to find the sphingid herbivore Manduca sexta, and how parasitism affects growth and feeding of host larvae. In behavioral trials using a Y-olfactometer, female flies were attracted to olfactory cues emitted by attacked plants and by cues emitted from the frass produced by larval Manduca sexta. M. sexta caterpillars that were parasitized by D. rhoeo grew to lower maximum weights, grew more slowly, and ate less of their host plant. We also present an analytical model to predict how tri-trophic interactions change with varying herbivory levels, parasitization rates and plant sizes. This model predicted that smaller plants gain a relatively greater benefit compared to large plants in attracting D. rhoeo. By assessing the behavior, the effects of host performance, and the variation in ecological parameters of the system, we can better understand the complex interactions between herbivorous insects, the plants they live on and the third trophic level members that attack them.

  4. Influence of tree canopy on N₂ fixation by pasture legumes and soil rhizobial abundance in Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranca, C; Castro, I V; Figueiredo, N; Redondo, R; Rodrigues, A R F; Saraiva, I; Maricato, R; Madeira, M A V

    2015-02-15

    Symbiotic N2 fixation is of primordial significance in sustainable agro-forestry management as it allows reducing the use of mineral N in the production of mixed stands and by protecting the soils from degradation. Thereby, on a 2-year basis, N2 fixation was evaluated in four oak woodlands under Mediterranean conditions using a split-plot design and three replicates. (15)N technique was used for determination of N2 fixation rate. Variations in environmental conditions (temperature, rainfall, radiation) by the cork tree canopy as well as the age of stands and pasture management can cause great differences in vegetation growth, legume N2 fixation, and soil rhizobial abundance. In the present study, non-legumes dominated the swards, in particular beneath the tree canopy, and legumes represented only 42% of total herbage. A 2-fold biomass reduction was observed in the oldest sown pasture in relation to the medium-age sward (6 t DW ha(-1)yr(-1)). Overall, competition of pasture growth for light was negligible, but soil rhizobial abundance and symbiotic N2 fixation capacity were highly favored by this environmental factor in the spring and outside the influence of tree canopy. Nitrogen derived from the atmosphere was moderate to high (54-72%) in unsown and sown swards. Inputs of fixed N2 increased from winter to spring due to more favorable climatic conditions (temperature and light intensity) for both rhizobia and vegetation growths. Assuming a constant fixation rate at each seasonal period, N2 fixation capacity increased from about 0.10 kg N ha(-1) per day in the autumn-winter period to 0.15 kg N ha(-1) per day in spring. Belowground plant material contributed to 11% of accumulated N in pasture legumes and was not affected by canopy. Size of soil fixing bacteria contributed little to explain pasture legumes N. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptional regulators of legume-rhizobia symbiosis: nuclear factors Ys and GRAS are two for tango.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rípodas, Carolina; Clúa, Joaquín; Battaglia, Marina; Baudin, Maël; Niebel, Andreas; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors are DNA binding proteins that regulate gene expression. The nitrogen fixing symbiosis established between legume plants and soil bacteria is a complex interaction, in which plants need to integrate signals derived from the symbiont and the surrounding environment to initiate the developmental program of nodule organogenesis and the infection process. Several transcription factors that play critical roles in these processes have been reported in the past decade, including proteins of the GRAS and NF-Y families. Recently, we reported the characterization of a new GRAS domain containing-protein that interacts with a member of the C subunit of the NF-Y family, which plays an important role in nodule development and the progression of bacterial infection during the symbiotic interaction. The connection between transcription factors of these families highlights the significance of multimeric complexes in the fabulous capacity of plants to integrate and respond to multiple environmental stimuli.

  6. Determination of Nutrient Contents and Gas Production Values of Some Legume Forages Grown in the Harran Plain Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritive value of some legume species in salt-affected soils of South-East Anatolian region using chemical composition and in vitro gas production kinetics. In this study, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium alexandrinum, Medicago sativa were sown and tested in four different locations. A 3 by 4 factorial design with 3 legume species and 4 salt levels (non salty electrical conductivity (ECECECEC was used in the study. Results indicated that salinity and plants had no significant effect on ash and ether extract. Dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber, digestible dry matter, dry matter intake (DMI were affected by plant, salinity and plant×salinity interaction. On the other hand neutral detergent fiber, relative feed value (RFV, and DMI were affected by salinity and plant×salinity interaction. Mineral contents were affected by plant species, salinity and salinity×plants interactions. In vitro gas production, their kinetics and estimated parameters such as were not affected by salinity whereas the gas production up to 48 h, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME, and net energy lactation (NEL were affected by plant and plant×salt interaction. Generally RFVs of all species ranged from 120 to 210 and were quite satisfactory in salty conditions. Current results show that the feed value of Medicago sativa is higher compared to Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium alexandrinum.

  7. Aquaponics: What a Way to Grow! Fifth Graders Design Systems for Fish and Plants While Exploring Human Impacts on the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Amy; Raja, Shella

    2016-01-01

    In light of increasing populations and dwindling natural resources, elementary teachers play a crucial role in ensuring children understand and commit to more sustainable lifestyles. Climate change, growing pressures on global fisheries, and the harmful effects of traditional agricultural methods exacerbate this call. Coupled with this emphasis is…

  8. Growing and marketing woody species to support pollinators: An emerging opportunity for forest, conservation, and native plant nurseries in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Tara Luna

    2016-01-01

    The decline of insects that pollinate flowers is garnering more attention by land managers, policymakers, and the general public. Nursery managers who grow native trees, shrubs, and woody vines have a promising opportunity to showcase these species, marketing their contributions to pollinator health and other ecosystem services in urban and wild landscapes....

  9. Edible wild plants growing in contaminated floodplains: implications for the issuance of tribal consumption advisories within the Grand Lake watershed of northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Ean M; Bridge, Cas F; Garvin, Meredith S

    2017-05-02

    Metal releases from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) that is located in southwestern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, and northeastern Oklahoma, have contaminated floodplain soils within the Neosho and Spring river watersheds of the Grand Lake watershed. Since the Oklahoma portion of the watershed lies within ten tribal jurisdictions, the potential accumulation of metals within plant species that are gathered and consumed by tribal members, as well as the resulting metal exposure risks to tribal human health, was a warranted concern for further investigation. Within this study, a total of 36 plant species that are commonly consumed by tribes were collected from floodplain areas that were previously demonstrated to have elevated soil metal concentrations relative to reference sites. A significant, positive correlation was shown for metal concentrations in plant tissues versus soil (n = 258; Cd: R = 0.72, p = 0.00; Pb: R = 0.52, p = 0.00; and Zn: R = 0.70, p = 0.00). Additionally, a significant difference in metal concentration distributions existed between reference and impacted plant samples (n = 210, p = 0.00 for all metals). These results proved that floodplain soils are a major contamination pathway for metal accumulation within plants, and the source of metal contamination is the result of mining releases from the TSMD. Metal accumulation within plants was found to vary according to specific metal and plant species. The lowest dietary exposure out of all plant organs sampled were associated with fruit, whereas the highest was associated with roots, stem/leaves, and low-lying leafy greens. Metals in plants were compared to weekly dietary intake limits established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Based on specific serving sizes established within this study for tribal children and adults, many plant species had sufficient concentrations to warrant tribal consumption restrictions within the floodplains of Elm Creek

  10. Influence of fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, fruit order, planting date, shading, growing Environment, and genotype on the contents of selected phenolics in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttonen, Mikko J; Hoppula, Kalle I; Nestby, Rolf; Verheul, Michél J; Karjalainen, Reijo O

    2006-04-05

    The influence of agricultural practices (fertilization, mulch color, early forcing, and planting date), environment (light and growing area), cultivar, and fruit order on the selected phenolic content and antioxidant activity in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits was studied. Three different levels of fertilization were given to plants in the fertilization experiment. The lowest fertilization level increased the contents of flavonols and ellagic acid from 19 to 57%. Between cultivars, up to 4-fold differences were found in the flavonol content, and it also varied according to growing environment. Planting date in glasshouse production was important for the phenolic content, and a statistically significant interaction was found between planting date and fruit order. Fruit order caused at highest 1.5-2.0-fold differences in the contents of phenolics. Interestingly, compared with other phenolics, anthocyanins were affected differently by many factors. Thus, the findings show that minor cultivation changes can increase the content of phenolics, especially in under-glass production where conditions can be easily manipulated.

  11. Response of Short Duration Tropical Legumes and Maize to Water Stress: A Glasshouse Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Sohrawardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted as a pot experiment in the tropical glasshouse to evaluate the response of grain legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Vigna unguiculata, and Lablab purpureus in comparison to maize (Zea mays and estimate their potential and performance. Two experiments were established using completely randomized design. Physiological measurements (stomatal conductance, photosynthetic activities, and transpiration rates were measured using LCpro instrument. Scholander bomb was used for the measurement of plant cell water potential. Significant difference was observed in different plant species with increase of different water regimes. Among the legumes, L. purpureus showed better response in water stressed conditions. At the beginning, in dry watered treatment the photosynthetic rate was below 0 µmol m−2 s−1 and in fully watered condition it was 48 µmol m−2 s−1. In dry treatment, total dry weight was 10 g/pot and in fully watered condition it was near to 20 g/pot in P. vulgaris. The study concludes that water stress condition should be taken into consideration for such type of crop cultivation in arid and semiarid regions.

  12. Quantifying below-ground nitrogen of legumes: Optimizing procedures for 15N shoot-labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, D.F.; Peoples, M.B.; Herridge, D.F.

    2003-01-01

    Quantifying below-ground nitrogen (N) of legumes is fundamental to understanding their effects on soil mineral N fertility and on the N economies of following or companion crops in legume-based rotations. Methodologies based on 15 N-labelling of whole plants with subsequent measurement of 15 N in recovered plant parts and in the root-zone soil have proved promising. We report four glasshouse experiments with objectives to develop appropriate protocols for in situ 15 N labelling of four pulses, faba bean (Vicia faba), chickpea (Cicer arietinum), mung bean (Vigna radiata) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan). Treatments included 15 N-urea concentration, feeding technique, leaflet/petiole position, and frequency of feeding. Nitrogen- 15 -labelling via the leaf-flap was best for faba bean, mung and pigeon pea, whilst petiole feeding was best for chickpea, in all cases using 0.2-mL volumes of 0.5% urea (98 atom% 15 N excess). The implications of uneven enrichment of the nodulated roots because of effects of the 15 N-depleted nodules when calculating root-derived N in soil are discussed. (author)

  13. Transport and partitioning of CO2 fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to 14 CO 2 to investigate the contribution of nodule CO 2 fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO 2 fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO 2 fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO 2 fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables

  14. Specificity traits consistent with legume-rhizobia coevolution displayed by Ensifer meliloti rhizosphere colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, María Eugenia; Lozano, Mauricio Javier; López, José Luis; Draghi, Walter Omar; Serrania, Javier; Torres Tejerizo, Gonzalo Arturo; Albicoro, Francisco Javier; Nilsson, Juliet Fernanda; Pistorio, Mariano; Del Papa, María Florencia; Parisi, Gustavo; Becker, Anke; Lagares, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Rhizobia are α- and ß-proteobacteria that associate with legumes in symbiosis to fix atmospheric nitrogen. The chemical communication between roots and rhizobia begins in the rhizosphere. Using signature-tagged-Tn5 mutagenesis (STM) we performed a genome-wide screening for Ensifer meliloti genes that participate in colonizing the rhizospheres of alfalfa and other legumes. The analysis of ca. 6,000 mutants indicated that genes relevant for rhizosphere colonization account for nearly 2% of the rhizobial genome and that most (ca. 80%) are chromosomally located, pointing to the relevance and ancestral origin of the bacterial ability to colonize plant roots. The identified genes were related to metabolic functions, transcription, signal transduction, and motility/chemotaxis among other categories; with several ORFs of yet-unknown function. Most remarkably, we identified a subset of genes that impacted more severely the colonization of the roots of alfalfa than of pea. Further analyses using other plant species revealed that such early differential phenotype could be extended to other members of the Trifoliae tribe (Trigonella, Trifolium), but not the Fabeae and Phaseoleae tribes. The results suggest that consolidation of E. meliloti into its current symbiotic state should have occurred in a rhizobacterium that had already been adapted to rhizospheres of the Trifoliae tribe. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Tropical Legume Crop Rotation and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on Agronomic and Nitrogen Efficiency of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motior M. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bush bean, long bean, mung bean, and winged bean plants were grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 2, 4, and 6 g N m−2 preceding rice planting. Concurrently, rice was grown with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 4, 8, and 12 g N m−2. No chemical fertilizer was used in the 2nd year of crop to estimate the nitrogen agronomic efficiency (NAE, nitrogen recovery efficiency (NRE, N uptake, and rice yield when legume crops were grown in rotation with rice. Rice after winged bean grown with N at the rate of 4 g N m−2 achieved significantly higher NRE, NAE, and N uptake in both years. Rice after winged bean grown without N fertilizer produced 13–23% higher grain yield than rice after fallow rotation with 8 g N m−2. The results revealed that rice after winged bean without fertilizer and rice after long bean with N fertilizer at the rate of 4 g N m−2 can produce rice yield equivalent to that of rice after fallow with N fertilizer at rates of 8 g N m−2. The NAE, NRE, and harvest index values for rice after winged bean or other legume crop rotation indicated a positive response for rice production without deteriorating soil fertility.

  16. Qualitative and anatomical characteristics of tree-shrub legumes in the Forest Zone in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Alixandrina da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the nutritional value of forage legumes Mimosa caesalpiniifolia (Benth., Bauhinia cheilantha (Bong. and Leucaena leucocephala (Lan. and evaluate the anatomy of plants incubated and not incubated in the rumen. The experiment was conducted from September 2007 to November 2008. The experimental plot consisted of three useful plants, totaling three plots per block, and four repetitions. Plants were cut at 1 m height at intervals of 70 days; samples of leaf plus stem with a diameter smaller than 4 mm were collected for determination of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, insoluble protein bound to acid detergent fiber and in vitro dry matter digestibility. The anatomical characterization occurred through the analysis of the proportion of plant tissue nonincubated and incubated in the rumen for a period of 48 hours. The legumes had high crude protein, with an average of 26.1% to Leucena, 22.4% to Sabiá and 18.5% to Mororó, and low levels of in vitro digestibility of dry matter, with an average of 47.3% to Leucena, 42.8% to Mororó and 37.2% to Sabiá. In the leaf blade of Sabiá plants, much lignified tissues that differed from plants of Leucena and Mororó were observed. The degradation process was more visible in the leaves of the Leucena, Sabiá and Mororó plants. The degradation was more pronounced in the spongy parenchyma, leaving the incubated material intact. The average proportion of the epidermis in the incubated and not incubated leaves was 15.8 and 16.4% in Leucena, 16.8 and 19.2% in Mororó and 27.2 and 25.5% in Sabiá, respectively. There are differences in the digestion and nutritional value of leaf tissues of the evaluated legumes.

  17. An ecophysiological study of plants growing on the fly ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlović, Pavle; Mitrović, Miroslava; Djurdjević, Lola

    2004-05-01

    This ecophysiological research on the ash deposits from the "Nikola Tesla-A" thermal power station in Serbia covered 10 plant species (Tamarix gallica, Populus alba, Spiraea van-hauttei, Ambrosia artemisifolia, Amorpha fruticosa, Eupatorium cannabinum, Crepis setosa, Epilobium collinum, Verbascum phlomoides, and Cirsium arvense). This paper presents the results of a water regime analysis, photosynthetic efficiency and trace elements (B, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb, and Cd) content in vegetative plant parts. Water regime parameters indicate an overall stability in plant-water relations. During the period of summer drought, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) was low, ranging from 0.429 to 0.620 for all the species that were analyzed. An analysis of the tissue trace elements content showed a lower trace metal concentration in the plants than in the ash, indicating that heavy metals undergo major concentration during the combustion process and some are not readily taken up by plants. The Zn and Pb concentrations in all of the examined species were normal whereas Cu and Mn concentrations were in the deficiency range. Boron concentrations in plant tissues were high, with some species even showing levels of more than 100 microg/g (Populus sp., Ambrosia sp., Amorpha sp., and Cirsium sp.). The presence of Cd was not detected. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this research that biological recultivation should take into account the existing ecological, vegetation, and floristic potential of an immediate environment that is abundant in life forms and ecological types of plant species that can overgrow the ash deposit relatively quickly. Selected species should be adapted to toxic B concentrations with moderate demands in terms of mineral elements (Cu and Mn).

  18. Growing Out of Stress: The Role of Cell- and Organ-Scale Growth Control in Plant Water-Stress Responses[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Neil E.

    2016-01-01

    Water is the most limiting resource on land for plant growth, and its uptake by plants is affected by many abiotic stresses, such as salinity, cold, heat, and drought. While much research has focused on exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular signaling events governing water-stress responses, it is also important to consider the role organismal structure plays as a context for such responses. The regulation of growth in plants occurs at two spatial scales: the cell and the organ. In this review, we focus on how the regulation of growth at these different spatial scales enables plants to acclimate to water-deficit stress. The cell wall is discussed with respect to how the physical properties of this structure affect water loss and how regulatory mechanisms that affect wall extensibility maintain growth under water deficit. At a higher spatial scale, the architecture of the root system represents a highly dynamic physical network that facilitates access of the plant to a heterogeneous distribution of water in soil. We discuss the role differential growth plays in shaping the structure of this system and the physiological implications of such changes. PMID:27503468

  19. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  20. The pgip family in soybean and three other legume species: evidence for a birth-and-death model of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalunke, Raviraj M; Cenci, Alberto; Volpi, Chiara; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2014-07-18

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are leucine-rich repeat (LRR) plant cell wall glycoproteins involved in plant immunity. They are typically encoded by gene families with a small number of gene copies whose evolutionary origin has been poorly investigated. Here we report the complete characterization of the full complement of the pgip family in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) and the characterization of the genomic region surrounding the pgip family in four legume species. BAC clone and genome sequence analyses showed that the soybean genome contains two pgip loci. Each locus is composed of three clustered genes that are induced following infection with the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, and remnant sequences of pgip genes. The analyzed homeologous soybean genomic regions (about 126 Kb) that include the pgip loci are strongly conserved and this conservation extends also to the genomes of the legume species Phaseolus vulgaris L., Medicago truncatula Gaertn. and Cicer arietinum L., each containing a single pgip locus. Maximum likelihood-based gene trees suggest that the genes within the pgip clusters have independently undergone tandem duplication in each species. The paleopolyploid soybean genome contains two pgip loci comprised in large and highly conserved duplicated regions, which are also conserved in bean, M. truncatula and C. arietinum. The genomic features of these legume pgip families suggest that the forces driving the evolution of pgip genes follow the birth-and-death model, similar to that proposed for the evolution of resistance (R) genes of NBS-LRR-type.

  1. Above Ground Growing Trends of Persian Shallot (Allium altissimum Regel. as Affected by Different Levels of Phosphorus Application and Planting Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kheirkhah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Crop Ecophysiology / Vol. 10, No. 2, 2016                                                                                          18     Domestication, cultivation and mass production of shallot to prevent the loss of its genetic resources are of particular importance. This study was conducted in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with 3 replications to evaluate the effects of different levels of phosphorus fertilizer and planting densities on medicinal and industrial plants of shallots at the Agricultural Research Station of Higher Education Complex of Shirvan. Treatments of this study were plant densities at tree levels (20, 30 and 40 plants per square meter and phosphorus applications (superphosphate at four levels (0, 150, 250 and 350 kg.ha-1. The results showed that phosphorus, plant density and the interactions between them significantly affected growth parameters such as leaf area index, leaf area ratio, crop growth, relative growth, and net assimilation rates as compared to controls. According to these results, it can be concluded that this plant reacts positively to the phosphorus fertilization.

  2. Effects of alternative legume seeds on Barbaresca lamb meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pennisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a renewed interest towards the use of local legume seeds in animal nutrition was raising in Mediterranean areas. Conventional feedstuffs such as maize and soybean and animal by-products, the former widely diffused as genetically modified organisms (GMO and the latter related to “mad cow disease” produced significative changes in public perceptions, justifying a dramatic increase of the use of alternative protein and energy sources such as legume seeds (peas, faba beans, chickpeas (Hanbury et al., 2000...

  3. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.

    2008-01-01

    Intercropping is the simultaneous cultivation of more than one crop species on the same piece of land and is regarded as the practical application of basic ecological principles such as diversity, competition and facilitation. Field experiments were carried out on a sandy loam soil and a sandy soil......-270 g m-2). Nitrogen fixation was very constant in grain legume SC over species and location, varying from 13.2 to 15.8 g N m-2, being lowest in peas and highest in faba bean and lupin. The intercropped grain legumes increased the proportion of plant N derived from N2-fixation by on average 10...... was comparable; however, it tended to be the highest in sole cropped faba bean, lupin and unfertilized barley, where the application of urea to barley reduced the weed infestation by around 50%. Reduction in disease was observed in all IC systems compared to the corresponding SC, with a general disease reduction...

  4. Transgenesis and genomics in molecular breeding of pasture grasses and legumes for forage quality and other traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangenberg, G.

    2005-01-01

    Significant advances in the establishment of the methodologies required for the molecular breeding of temperate forage grasses (Lolium and Festuca species) and legumes (Trifolium and Medicago species) are reviewed. Examples of current products and approaches for the application of these methodologies to forage grass and legume improvement are outlined. The plethora of new technologies and tools now available for high-throughput gene discovery and genome-wide expression analysis have opened up opportunities for innovative applications in the identification, functional characterization and use of genes of value in forage production systems and beyond. Selected examples of current work in pasture plant genomics, xenogenomics, symbiogenomics and micro-array-based molecular phenotyping are discussed. (author)

  5. Extra-slow-growing Tardiphaga strains isolated from nodules of Vavilovia formosa (Stev.) Fed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, Vera I; Kuznetsova, Irina G; Sazanova, Anna L; Kimeklis, Anastasiia K; Belimov, Andrey A; Andronov, Evgeny E; Pinaev, Alexander G; Pukhaev, Andrey R; Popov, Konstantin P; Akopian, Janna A; Willems, Anne; Tikhonovich, Igor A

    2015-09-01

    Eleven extra-slow-growing strains were isolated from nodules of the relict legume Vavilovia formosa growing in North Ossetia (Caucasus) and Armenia. All isolates formed a single rrs cluster together with the type strain Tardiphaga robiniae LMG 26467(T), while the sequencing of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic region (ITS) and housekeeping genes glnII, atpD, dnaK, gyrB, recA and rpoB divided them into three groups. North Ossetian isolates (in contrast to the Armenian ones) were clustered separately from the type strain LMG 26467(T). However, all isolates were classified as T. robiniae because the DNA-DNA relatedness between them and the type strain LMG 26467(T) was 69.6% minimum. Two symbiosis-related genes (nodM and nodT) were amplified in all isolated Tardiphaga strains. It was shown that the nodM gene phylogeny is similar to that of ITS and housekeeping genes. The presence of the other symbiosis-related genes in described Tardiphaga strains, which is recently described genus of rhizobia, as well as their ability to form nodules on any plants are under investigation.

  6. Involvement of Hormone- and ROS-Signaling Pathways in the Beneficial Action of Humic Substances on Plants Growing under Normal and Stressing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Andrés Calderín; Olaetxea, Maite; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Mora, Verónica; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Garcia-Mina, José María

    2016-01-01

    The importance of soil humus in soil fertility has been well established many years ago. However, the knowledge about the whole mechanisms by which humic molecules in the rhizosphere improve plant growth remains partial and rather fragmentary. In this review we discuss the relationships between two main signaling pathway families that are affected by humic substances within the plant: one directly related to hormonal action and the other related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this sense, our aims are to try the integration of all these events in a more comprehensive model and underline some points in the model that remain unclear and deserve further research. PMID:27366744

  7. Herbaceous Legume Encroachment Reduces Grass Productivity and Density in Arid Rangelands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C Wagner

    Full Text Available Worldwide savannas and arid grasslands are mainly used for livestock grazing, providing livelihood to over a billion people. While normally dominated by perennial C4 grasses, these rangelands are increasingly affected by the massive spread of native, mainly woody legumes. The consequences are often a repression of grass cover and productivity, leading to a reduced carrying capacity. While such encroachment by woody plants has been extensively researched, studies on similar processes involving herbaceous species are rare. We studied the impact of a sustained and massive spread of the native herbaceous legume Crotalaria podocarpa in Namibia's escarpment region on the locally dominant fodder grasses Stipagrostis ciliata and Stipagrostis uniplumis. We measured tussock densities, biomass production of individual tussocks and tussock dormancy state of Stipagrostis on ten 10 m x 10 m plots affected and ten similarly-sized plots unaffected by C. podocarpa over eight consecutive years and under different seasonal rainfalls and estimated the potential relative productivity of the land. We found the percentage of active Stipagrostis tussocks and the biomass production of individual tussocks to increase asymptotically with higher seasonal rainfall reaching a maximum around 300 mm while the land's relative productivity under average local rainfall conditions reached only 40% of its potential. Crotalaria podocarpa encroachment had no effect on the proportion of productive grass tussocks, but reduced he productivity of individual Stipagrostis tussocks by a third. This effect of C. podocarpa on grass productivity was immediate and direct and was not compensated for by above-average rainfall. Besides this immediate effect, over time, the density of grass tussocks declined by more than 50% in areas encroached by C. podocarpa further and lastingly reducing the lands carrying capacity. The effects of C. podocarpa on grass productivity hereby resemble those of woody

  8. Differences for traits associated with early N acquisition in a grain legume and early complementarity in grain legume-triticale mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Nicolas; Naudin, Christophe; Piva, Guillaume; Baccar, Rim; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle

    2018-02-01

    Early strategies of crop growth and N acquisition can be critical for determining competitive interactions between weeds and crops. Grain legumes and especially lupins are known to be poor competitors against weeds. Grain legumes are known to have low mineral soil N uptake abilities. However, inter- and intraspecific differences in N uptake ability in relation to below-ground traits have received little attention. Our objectives were (i) to measure differences among lupins for a set of traits associated with early growth and N acquisition; (ii) to examine how this variation compares to differences between lupin and a cereal, triticale, and (iii) to assess if mixing lupin with triticale provides a higher potential than does pure lupin regarding plant biomass and mineral soil N acquisition early in the crop cycle. Lupin (12 genotypes) and triticale plants were grown separately and in mixed species pairs in a replacement design for 1 and 2 months in three rhizotron experiments. Shoot and root biomass, root length, root expansion dynamics, N 2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. Differences among lupin species and genotypes regarding traits related to early growth and to mineral soil N uptake were observed, but all lupins demonstrated slow early growth and low ability to absorb mineral soil N compared to triticale. In lupin-triticale mixture, a contrast in early growth strategies between species induced a higher total soil mineral N uptake compared with pure lupin. Complementarity between lupin and triticale persisted during the second month, when interactions began. This complementarity may allow for reduced competition between species, favouring higher triticale biomass production than in pure triticale, without compromising lupin growth.

  9. Screening of the anthocyanin profile and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibition by anthocyanin-containing extracts of fruits, vegetables, legumes and cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabroni, Simona; Ballistreri, Gabriele; Amenta, Margherita; Romeo, Flora V; Rapisarda, Paolo

    2016-11-01

    The phytotherapic treatment of overweight and/or moderate obesity is growing widely, thus there is a great interest towards the phenolic compounds of fruits and vegetables which may inhibit pancreatic lipase enzyme. In this study, we report the chemical composition and in vitro pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of 13 freeze-dried anthocyanin-containing extracts of different Mediterranean plants: fruits (blood orange, pomegranate, blackberry, mulberry and sumac), citrus by-products (blood orange peel), citrus vegetative tissues (young lemon shoots); vegetables (red cabbage and violet cauliflower), legume seeds (black bean), cereals (black rice), and cereal processing by-products (black rice hull). Total phenols and anthocyanins were determined. Individual anthocyanins were identified by UHPLC-PDA-ESI/MS n . Results revealed a wide variation in the distribution of anthocyanin compounds. Blood orange and pomegranate juice extracts had the highest total anthocyanin content and exhibited the strongest inhibition of pancreatic lipase in vitro. Inhibitory activity was positively correlated with anthocyanin content. In appropriate formulations, anthocyanin-containing extracts could find a use as anti-obesity agents. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Response of native soil microbial functions to the controlled mycorrhization of an exotic tree legume, Acacia holosericea in a Sahelian ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgo, Ablasse; Sangare, Sheikh K; Thioulouse, Jean; Prin, Yves; Hien, Victor; Galiana, Antoine; Baudoin, Ezekeil; Hafidi, Mohamed; Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin

    2012-04-01

    Fifty years of overexploitation have disturbed most forests within Sahelian areas. Exotic fast growing trees (i.e., Australian Acacia species) have subsequently been introduced for soil improvement and fuelwood production purposes. Additionally, rhizobial or mycorrhizal symbioses have sometimes been favored by means of controlled inoculations to increase the performance of these exotic trees in such arid and semiarid zones. Large-scale anthropogenic introduction of exotic plants could also threaten the native biodiversity and ecosystem resilience. We carried out an experimental reforestation in Burkina Faso in order to study the effects of Acacia holosericea mycorrhizal inoculation on the soil nutrient content, microbial soil functionalities and mycorrhizal soil potential. Treatments consisted of uninoculated A. holosericea, preplanting fertilizer application and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation with Glomus intraradices. Our results showed that (i) arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) inoculation and prefertilizer application significantly improved A. holosericea growth after 4 years of plantation and (ii) the introduction of A. holosericea trees significantly modified soil microbial functions. The results clearly showed that the use of exotic tree legume species should be directly responsible for important changes in soil microbiota with great disturbances in essential functions driven by microbial communities (e.g., catabolic diversity and C cycling, phosphatase activity and P availability). They also highlighted the importance of AM symbiosis in the functioning of soils and forest plantation performances. The AM effect on soil functions was significantly correlated with the enhanced mycorrhizal soil potential recorded in the AM inoculation treatment. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  11. Activity and isoenzyme spectrum of peroxidases and dehydrins of some plant species, growing on the shores of lake Baikal, under abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Zhivet’ev

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Termostability and optimal pH of weak-associated with plant cell wall and soluble peroxidases was shown to change in relation to natural conditions and season of year. Also the activity of peroxidase was variable during vegetation period. Dehydrine expression was followed by spike of peroxidase activity (and, a priori, an increase of hydrogen peroxide concentration.

  12. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils from wild growing aromatic plant species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous ...

  13. Plant community tolerant to trace elements growing on the degraded soils of São Domingos mine in the south east of Portugal: environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J

    2004-03-01

    The selection of trace element tolerant species is a key factor to the success of remediation of degraded mine soils. Mining activities generate a large amount of waste rocks and tailings, which get deposited at the surface. The degraded soils, the waste rocks and tailings are often very unstable and will become sources of pollution. The direct effects will be the loss of cultivated land, forest or grazing land, and the overall loss of production. The indirect effects will include air and water pollution and siltation of rivers. These will eventually lead to the loss of biodiversity, amenity and economic wealth. Restoration of a vegetation cover can fulfil the objectives of stabilization, pollution control, visual improvement and removal of threats to human beings. Thus, remediation of mine spoils/tailings and biogeochemical prospecting would rely on the appropriate selection of plant species. Plant community responds differently on their ability to uptake or exclude a variety of metals. In this work, plant species were sampled from all populations established in an abandoned copper mine of São Domingos, SE Portugal. Plants belonging to 24 species, 16 genera and 13 families were collected from the degraded copper mine of São Domingos. Plant samples were analysed for total Ag, As, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The highest concentrations of metals in soils dry matter were 11217.5 mg Pb kg(-1), 1829 mg Cu kg(-1), 1291 mg As kg(-1), 713.7 mg Zn kg(-1), 84.6 mg Cr kg(-1), 54.3 mg Co kg(-1), 52.9 mg Ni kg(-1) and 16.6 mg Ag kg(-1). With respect to plants, the higher concentrations of Pb and As were recorded in the semi-aquatic species Juncus conglomeratus with 84.8 and 23.5 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW), Juncus efusus with 22.4 and 8.5 mg kg(-1) DW, and Scirpus holoschoenus with 51.7 and 8.0 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Thymus mastichina also showed high content of As in the aboveground parts, 13.6 mg kg(-1) DW. Overall, the results indicate accumulation of various metals by

  14. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G. [Food Irradiation Research Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)]. E-mail: elniely@hotmail.com

    2007-06-15

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes.

  15. Effect of radiation processing on antinutrients, in-vitro protein digestibility and protein efficiency ratio bioassay of legume seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, Hania F.G.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidneybeans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and AL. IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AL, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  16. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of different cereal-legume blending ratios on nutritional quality and functional property of different blends. The legumes and steeped cereals were cleaned, minimally roasted, dehulled, milled and sifted separately. A single-factor experiment with three levels of the factor (cereal: legume ratio ...

  17. Metabolomic profiling reveals suppression of oxylipin biosynthesis during the early stages of legume-rhizobia symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Boersma, Melissa; Harms, Amy; Howes-Podoll, Maegen; den Os, Désirée; Ané, Jean-Michel; Sussman, Michael R

    2012-09-21

    The establishment of symbiosis between leguminous plants and rhizobial bacteria requires rapid metabolic changes in both partners. We utilized untargeted quantitative mass spectrometry to perform metabolomic profiling of small molecules in extracts of the model legume Medicago truncatula treated with rhizobial Nod factors. One metabolite closely resembling the 9(R)-HODE class of oxylipins reproducibly showed a decrease in concentration within the first hour of in planta nod factor treatment. Oxylipins are precursors of the jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway and we showed