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Sample records for legume lathyrus sylvestris

  1. Pinus sylvestris L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    . Growth characters and number of strobili in clonal seed orchards of Pinus sylvestris. Euphytica, 152: 293-301. Bhumibhamon S (1978). Studies on Scots pine seed orchards in. Finland with special emphasis on the genetic ...

  2. Effect of partial replacement of soybean with grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L. on heavy pig performance: first results

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    M.F. Trombetta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The ban of raw GMO materials for preparation of feedstuff (Law 422 29/12/00 has steered the animal productive system to find alternative grain of legumes to replace soybean meal as protein source for animal feeding. There are few research about performance of heavy pig fed with grasspea. In a review Hambury et al. (2000 reported that in pig’s diet the substitution rates is up to 30%. The goal of this research was to evaluate the effect of partial replacing soybean meal and barley with grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L. on fattening and slaughtering performance of pigs.........

  3. Rhizobium anhuiense as the predominant microsymbionts of Lathyrus maritimus along the Shandong Peninsula seashore line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, En Tao; Liu, Yajing; Li, Xiangyue; Yu, Bing; Ren, Chenggang; Liu, Wei; Li, Yunzhao; Xie, Zhihong

    2016-09-01

    Beach pea [Lathyrus maritimus Bigelow, or Lathyrus japonicus subsp. maritimus (L.) P.W. Ball] is a wild legume distributed on the seashore line, and the rhizobia nodulating with this plant have been reported only rarely. In order to reveal the diversity of beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula, China, a total of 124 bacterial strains were isolated from the root nodules of beach pea plants collected from five sites. All the isolates were divided into five recA types after screening by recA gene sequence analysis and they consisted of Rhizobium anhuiense covering 122 symbiotic isolates in three recA types, as well as two single isolates Rhizobium sp. and Rhizobium lusitanum representing distinct recA types. The recA genotype III of R. anhuiense (103 isolates) represented by strain YIC11270 was dominant at all five sampling sites. Identical symbiotic genes (nodC and nifH) were detected in the three recA genotypes of R. anhuiense isolates that were closely related to those of the pea and faba rhizobia. This study clarified that R. anhuiense was the main symbiont for beach pea rhizobia on the seashore line of Shandong Peninsula. The low level genetic diversity of beach pea rhizobia revealed by both MLSA and the symbiotic genes might be related to the strong selection pressure produced by the saline-alkaline environment and the host plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Pinus sylvestris L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... 1548-1552. Bergmann F (1978). The allelic distribution at an acid phosphatase locus in Norway spruce (Picea abies) along climatic gradients. Theor. Appl. Gen. 52: 57-64. Bilgen BB, Kaya N (2007). Allozyme variations in six natural popula- tions of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Turkey. Biologia, Volume ...

  5. β-N-Oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP Content in Lathyrus sativus: The Integration of Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism through β-Cyanoalanine Synthase

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    Quanle Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L. is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This underutilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for poor farmers when other crops fail under harsh environmental conditions; however, its use is limited because of the presence of an endogenous neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP. Long-term consumption of Lathyrus and β-ODAP is linked to lathyrism, which is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome. Pharmacological studies indicate that nutritional deficiencies in methionine and cysteine may aggravate the neurotoxicity of β-ODAP. The biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of β-ODAP is poorly understood, but is linked to sulfur metabolism. To date, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in grass pea on the sulfur assimilatory enzymes and how these enzymes regulate the biosynthesis of β-ODAP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of sulfur metabolism in grass pea and its contribution to β-ODAP biosynthesis. Unraveling the fundamental steps and regulation of β-ODAP biosynthesis in grass pea will be vital for the development of improved varieties of this underutilized legume.

  6. β-N-Oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic Acid (β-ODAP) Content in Lathyrus sativus: The Integration of Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism through β-Cyanoalanine Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Quanle; Liu, Fengjuan; Chen, Peng; Jez, Joseph M; Krishnan, Hari B

    2017-02-28

    Grass pea ( Lathyrus sativus L.) is an important legume crop grown mainly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. This underutilized legume can withstand harsh environmental conditions including drought and flooding. During drought-induced famines, this protein-rich legume serves as a food source for poor farmers when other crops fail under harsh environmental conditions; however, its use is limited because of the presence of an endogenous neurotoxic nonprotein amino acid β- N -oxalyl-l-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP). Long-term consumption of Lathyrus and β-ODAP is linked to lathyrism, which is a degenerative motor neuron syndrome. Pharmacological studies indicate that nutritional deficiencies in methionine and cysteine may aggravate the neurotoxicity of β-ODAP. The biosynthetic pathway leading to the production of β-ODAP is poorly understood, but is linked to sulfur metabolism. To date, only a limited number of studies have been conducted in grass pea on the sulfur assimilatory enzymes and how these enzymes regulate the biosynthesis of β-ODAP. Here, we review the current knowledge on the role of sulfur metabolism in grass pea and its contribution to β-ODAP biosynthesis. Unraveling the fundamental steps and regulation of β-ODAP biosynthesis in grass pea will be vital for the development of improved varieties of this underutilized legume.

  7. Diterpenoids from Casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Jianpin; Wang, Yan-hong; Smillie, Troy A; Li, Xing-Cong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2009-10-01

    Two highly oxygenated clerodane diterpenes casearins U (1) and V (2) and two ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides A (3) and B (4) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris, together with 13 known compounds. Their structures were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and comparison with literature data. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  8. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Jacob; Paz, Ytzhak; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240–10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture. PMID:28542358

  9. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Vardi, Jacob; Paz, Ytzhak; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.

  10. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Caracuta

    Full Text Available New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean, V. ervilia (bitter vetch, V. narbonensis (narbon vetch, Lens sp. (lentil, Pisum sp. (pea, Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling. Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.

  11. (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2018-04-06

    Apr 6, 2018 ... Indian Academy of Sciences https://doi.org/10.1007/s12041-018-0924-x. RETRACTION NOTE. Retraction Note to: Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativusL.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies. DIBYENDU TALUKDAR. Department of Botany, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741 235, ...

  12. In vitro regeneration of Turkish dwarf chickling (Lathyrus cicera L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-17

    Jun 17, 2008 ... Key words: Immature zygotic embryos, dwarf chickling, Lathyrus cicera L., axillary shoot regeneration, rooting. INTRODUCTION ... and pine forests, rocky slopes and fields (Tubives, 2008). It flowers during April and .... maintained in the greenhouse at 24 ± 2oC under natural light and watered every 2 days ...

  13. [Ecological function and application of toxin beta-ODAP in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jun-Lan; Bai, Xue; Batool, Asfa; Kong, Hai-Yan; Tan, Rui-Yue; Wang, Ya-Fu; Li, Zhi-Xiao; Xiong, You-Cai

    2014-04-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) is a legume with various adverse adaptability and rich nutrition. However, it can lead to the human and animal neurotoxicity after long-term consumption due to its neurotoxin, beta-N-oxalyl-L-alpha, beta-diaminopropionic acid (beta-ODAP), limiting its utilization. This paper summarized the influences of beta-ODAP on osmotic adjustment and growth regulation in grass pea under drought stress, the research progress in analysis methods, toxicological mechanisms and practical utility of beta-ODAP, and the breeding strategies for low- and zero-beta-ODAP. Beta-ODAP synthesis was found to be abundant in grass pea under drought stress and its content was enhanced gradually with the increasing extent of drought stress. beta-ODAP could supply nitrogen for plant growth and seed development, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), involve in osmotic adjustment as a soluble amino acid, transport zinc-ions as a carrier molecule, and impact nodule development. However, increasing the content of sulfur-containing amino acids (methionine and cysteine) could decrease the level of toxicity of grass pea. There were a lot of investigations on collecting genetic resources, cross breeding, tissue culture, and gene manipulation for low- and zero-toxin in grass pea in recent years. Although beta-ODAP could induce excitotoxicity by damaging intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and as glutamate analogues, it has medicinal value on hemostasis and anti-tumor.

  14. Mutation induction in grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shaikh, M.A.Q.; Islam, M.S.; Saha, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Grasspea is a widely grown food legume in Bangladesh, suited particularly for marginal conditions. Its yields are low, its main drawback, however, is that the seeds contain a neurotoxin BOAA, which requires heat degradation before consumption. The genetic base of local varieties is rather narrow. Introduced varieties are even lower yielding than the local ones or fail to flower and produce seeds. Thus, mutation induction of local cultivars should be regarded as a means for creating useful genetic variation. Seeds of the grasspea cultivar 'BINA Acc. No.1' collected from Jessore were treated with 2-5 mM solutions of sodium azide. A wide range of genetic variation was obtained regarding plant height, number of pods per plant, days to maturity. (author)

  15. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  16. Plant regeneration from pulse-treated longitudinally sliced half cotyledon node explants of Turkish ochrus chickling [Lathyrus ochrus (L. D.C.

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    Saglam S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The forage legume ochrus chickling [Lathyrus ochrus (L. D.C.] which is distributed in the Mediterranean region, is gaining importance in terms of economy and agriculture in Turkey. However, the full potential of the legume has yet to be realized due to the presence of neurotoxin, β-N-oxalyl-L-a, β-diaminopropionic acid (ODAP causing lathyrism. This study aimed to develop an efficient micropropagation system using longitudinally sliced cotyledon node explants for use in Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation in the future. The results show that the maximum number of shoots per explant was achieved on MS medium solidified with 8 g/l isubgol gelled medium containing 0.30 mg/l BA-0.2 mg/l NAA. Well-developed shoots were rooted by pulse treatment with 50 mg/l IBA and culturing on an 8 g/l isubgol gel solidified MS medium. The results showed 60% rooting in the treated shoots. The rooted plantlets were transferred to pots containing sand and organic matter and acclimatized.

  17. Influence of legume crops on content of organic carbon in sandy soil

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    Hajduk Edmund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 3-year field experiment designed to evaluate the content of organic carbon in brown soil (Haplic Cambisol Dystric developed from a light loamy sand under legumes cultivation. Experimental factors were: species of legume crop (colorful-blooming pea (Pisum sativum, chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus, narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, methods of legumes tillage (legumes in pure culture and in mixture with naked oats and mineral N fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N·ha−1. Cultivation of legumes on sandy soil did not result in an increase of organic carbon content in the soil after harvest as compared to the initial situation, i.e. 7.39 vs. 7.76 g·kg−1 dry matter (DM, on average, respectively. However, there was the beneficial effect of this group of plants on soil abundance in organic matter, the manifestation of which was higher content of organic carbon in soils after legume harvest as compared to soils with oats grown (7.21 g·kg−1 DM, on average. Among experimental crops, cultivation of pea exerted the most positive action to organic carbon content (7.58 g·kg−1, after harvest, on average, whereas narrow-leaved lupin had the least effect on organic carbon content (7.23 g·kg−1, on average. Pure culture and greater intensity of legume cultivation associated with the use of higher doses of mineral nitrogen caused less reduction in organic carbon content in soils after harvest.

  18. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Casearia sylvestris methanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfelder, Tatiana; Pich, Claus T; Geremias, Reginaldo; Avila, Silvio; Daminelli, Elaine N; Pedrosa, Rozangela C; Bettiol, Jane

    2008-09-01

    Casearia sylvestris methanolic extract (MCE) was screened at doses of 125-500 mg/kg for its antihyperlipidemic activity. The antihyperlipidemic effect was evaluated in olive oil-loaded mice. Acute treatment caused inhibition in the triglyceride (TG) and serum lipase elevation-induced by 5 ml/kg of olive oil.

  19. Volatile components from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R.; Koulman, A; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Quax, Wim; Pras, N.

    2002-01-01

    The volatile components of fresh leaves and roots from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm., obtained through hydrodistillation, were analysed by GC and GC-MS. This was compared to dichloromethane extracts of both fresh and dried leaf and root material. The monoterpene fraction (69-70%) dominated,

  20. Clerodane diterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz

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    André G. dos Santos

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Casearia sylvestris yielded a novel clerodane diterpene, 15-hydroxy-3-cleroden-2-one, together with the known diterpenes (--hardwickiic acid, reported for the first time from this species, and casearins B and G, previously isolated from C. sylvestris. The structures of all four compounds were determined by spectrometric analysis. The new clerodane diterpene and (--hardwickiic acid contain structural features that are completely different from the highly oxygenated casearins and casearvestrins isolated from C. sylvestris.

  1. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  2. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugas, D.V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, C.E.; Jansen, R.K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, J.T.; Hajrah, N.H.; Alharbi, N.S.; Al-Malki, A.L.; Sabir, J.S.M.; Bailey, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily

  3. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  4. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  5. Anti-PLA2 action test of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslan, D S; Jamal, C M; Duarte, D S; Borges, M H; De Lima, M E

    2002-01-01

    Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) is a plant which grows in the wild. The crude extract and pure substances from this plant induced partial inhibition of the PLA: (phospholipase A2) activity of snake venoms and some purified toxins. C. sylvestris extract efficiently neutralized the hemorrhagic and myotoxic activities caused by crude venoms and toxins.

  6. New clerodane diterpenoids from Casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ali, Zulfiqar; Li, Xing-Cong; Smillie, Troy A; Guo, De-An; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2009-10-01

    Two new clerodane diterpenoids 2 beta-methoxy-cleroda-3,13-dien-18-carboxy-15,16-olide (1) and 15 xi-methoxy-cleroda-3,12-dien-18-carboxy-15,16-olide (2) and one new nitrogen-containing clerodane diterpenoid 15-oxo-echinophyllin A (3), along with six known compounds, namely, echinophyllin A, (-)-patagonic acid, tyrosol, oplopanone, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-[(1R)-1-(1-methylethyl)-4-oxopentyl]-2-cyclohexen-1-one and 1 beta,6 alpha-dihydroxy-eudesman-4(15)-ene were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined by extensive NMR techniques.

  7. Italian legumes: effect of sourdough fermentation on lunasin-like polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Fernández-Tomé, Samuel; Curiel, José Antonio; Pinto, Daniela; Marzani, Barbara; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-10-22

    There is an increasing interest toward the use of legumes in food industry, mainly due to the quality of their protein fraction. Many legumes are cultivated and consumed around the world, but few data is available regarding the chemical or technological characteristics, and especially on their suitability to be fermented. Nevertheless, sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria has been recognized as the most efficient tool to improve some nutritional and functional properties. This study investigated the presence of lunasin-like polypeptides in nineteen traditional Italian legumes, exploiting the potential of the fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the native concentration. An integrated approach based on chemical, immunological and ex vivo (human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell cultures) analyses was used to show the physiological potential of the lunasin-like polypeptides. Italian legume varieties, belonging to Phaseulus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum species, were milled and flours were chemically characterized and subjected to sourdough fermentation with selected Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7, expressing different peptidase activities. Extracts from legume doughs (unfermented) and sourdoughs were subjected to western blot analysis, using an anti-lunasin primary antibody. Despite the absence of lunasin, different immunoreactive polypeptide bands were found. The number and the intensity of lunasin-like polypeptides increased during sourdough fermentation, as the consequence of the proteolysis of the native proteins carried out by the selected lactic acid bacteria. A marked inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells was observed using extracts from legume sourdoughs. In particular, sourdoughs from Fagiolo di Lamon, Cece dell'Alta Valle di Misa, and Pisello riccio di Sannicola flours were the most active, showing a decrease

  8. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes are large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy ...

  9. Agronomic Management under Organic Farming May Affect the Bioactive Compounds of Lentil (Lens culinaris L. and Grass Pea (Lathyrus communis L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Menga

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A two year field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of three row and eight row seeding on the total phenolic compound (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC, hydrolyzed (HTC and condensed tannin (CTC, antioxidant activity (ABTS assay, protein content and soluble dietary fiber (SDF and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF in the extracts of lentil (Lens culinaris L. and grass pea (Lathyrus communis L. cultivated under organic farming. The aim of this study was to determine whether row spacing used for seeding in organic farming systems for lentil and grass pea is a suitable method to increase the accumulation of antioxidant compounds in these crops. Grass pea showed the highest mean SDF and protein while lentil varieties showed the greatest and significant content of all of the antioxidant compounds. In lentil, there were increases in TPC (52%, HTC (73%, TFC (85% and CTC (41%, passing from three rows to eight rows, while in grass pea, the increases were lower, and only significant for TFC and CTC (37%, 13% respectively. In both lentils and grass pea, the highest correlation coefficient was between TPC and HTC, which indicates that the HTC includes the predominant phenolic compounds in lentil as well as in grass pea (r = 0.98, 0.71 p < 0.001, respectively. Regardless of legume species, TPC, HTC, TFC and CTC showed significant (p < 0.001 and linear correlations with the ABTS assay. These data confirm the key role of row spacing for the improvement of the antioxidant properties of lentil in organic farming; moreover, they hint at the major responsiveness and adaptation of lentil to environmental stimulus with respect to grass pea.

  10. Chemical analyses of the seeds of some forage legumes from Turkey. A chemotaxonomic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocak, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of six forage legumes (Leguminosae were investigated for their protein, tannin contents and fatty acid compositions. The protein contents of forage legume seeds were found to be between 23.1 and 37.2%. On the other hand, the tannin contents of the same seeds were found to be between 0.67 and 6.33%. The fatty acid compositions of these six different species were determined by gas chromatography of the methyl esters of their fatty acids. The seed oils of different Leguminous taxa contained linoleic and linolenic acids as their major components. The seed oils of Lathyrus annuus, Onobrychis crista-galli, Trigonella foenum-graceum, Lotus corniculatus, and Leuceana leucocephala species contain 50.0, 59.4, 69.5, 37.06, and 52.6% linoleic acid, respectively, as the major component fatty acids, whereas in the seed oil of Lathyrus cicer, linolenic acid accounts for 29.7% as the major component fatty acid. The ratios of these fatty acids in the Leguminous genera were found to be highly variable. In the study of taxa, palmitic acid was found in the major saturated fatty acids, on the other hand oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids were found in major unsaturated fatty acids.

    Se han estudiado las semillas procedentes de seis leguminosas forrajeras (leguminosas en relación a sus proteínas, contenido de taninos y composición de ácidos grasos. El contenido de proteínas de las semillas de leguminosas forrajeras osciló entre un 23,1 y un 37,2%. Por otro lado, el contenido de taninos de las mismas semillas se encontraron entre 0,67 y 6,33%. La composición en ácidos grasos de estas seis especies diferentes se determinó por cromatografía gaseosa como ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos. Los aceites de las semillas de diferentes taxones de leguminosas contenían los ácidos linoleico y linolénico como principales componentes. Los aceites de semillas de las especies Helianthus Lathyrus, Onobrychis

  11. Genetic Analysis of Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus sylvestris forma turfosa L. Using RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta ÁBRAHÁM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the level of genetic diversity within and among Ciuc basin, Romania (populations from Mohos and Luci raised bogs in Harghita Mountain and Sumuleu in Ciuc Mountain Pinus sylvestris populations using molecular markers. Two of populations (Mohos and Luci seems to be the descendants that survived the continental glaciation. Genetic diversity was analyzed by RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA. Nine primers were selected for analysis, which generated reproducible bands. On base of presence or absence of homologues bands Nei’s gene diversity, the percentage of polymorphic loci and Nei’s unbiased genetic distance were calculated. The level of genetic variation among populations was found to be low. For both populations the variation values among populations were higher than within populations. The fossil records and geological historical data explain the extremely low genetic diversity of this species. Pinus sylvestris experienced strong bottlenecks during its evolutionary history, which caused the loss of genetic variation. Genetic drift and breeding in post-bottlenecked small populations may be the major forces that contribute to low genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of populations. Human activities may have accelerated the loss of genetic diversity in Pinus sylvestris.

  12. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  13. Clerodane diterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    OpenAIRE

    André G. dos Santos; Carla C. Perez; Aristeu G. Tininis; Vanderlan da S. Bolzani; Alberto J. Cavalheiro

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Casearia sylvestris yielded a novel clerodane diterpene, 15-hydroxy-3-cleroden-2-one, together with the known diterpenes (-)-hardwickiic acid, reported for the first time from this species, and casearins B and G, previously isolated from C. sylvestris. The structures of all four compounds were determined by spectrometric analysis. The new clerodane diterpene and (-)-hardwickiic acid contain structural features that are completely different from the highly o...

  14. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant potential, enzyme inhibition activity and phenolic profile of Lathyrus cicera and Lathyrus digitatus: Potential sources of bioactive compounds for the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Zengin, G; Mocan, A; Simirgiotis, M J; Ceylan, R; Uysal, S; Aktumsek, A

    2017-09-01

    The genus Lathyrus has great importance in terms of food and agricultural areas. In this study, the in vitro antioxidant activity (phosphomolybdenum, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC and metal chelating) and enzyme inhibitory activity evaluation (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase) of L. cicera and L. digitatus were investigated, as well as their phytochemical profiles. The screening of the main phytochemical compounds in aerial parts of L. cicera and L. digitatus was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-ESI-MS n ), observing that flavonoids represent the highest percentage of identified compounds, with abundance of tri- and tetra-glycosilated flavonoids, including acylated ones, especially in L. cicera. Generally, L. digitatus exhibited stronger antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities in correlation with its higher level of phenolics. The high number of phenolic compounds and the results of the antioxidant and enzyme assays suggest that these plants may be further used as sources of bioactive compounds, and for the preparation of new nutraceuticals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Early stages of somatic embryogenesis in root callus of grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Piwowarczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures from root explants of Lathyrus sativus L. Derek were tested for their morphogenic capacity. Primary explants (fragments of roots were cultivated on three induction media. We obtained three lines of callus tissue among which we identified two non-embryogenic lines and one embryogenic line. Callus originally cultivated on modified MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg*L-1 picloram, formed embryo-like structures upon transfer to media containing 0.1 mg*L-1 picloram or 0.9 mg*L-12,4-D. Histological examinations confirmed embryogenity of obtained structures. Previous studies had revealed that, notwithstanding efficient callus induction and proliferation, its capacity to differentiate shoots or somatic embryos is limited. Consequently, rhizogenesis was only form of complete organogenesis obtained in our experiments. However attempts to develop the methods for indirect plant regeneration in L. sativus would allow creation of new genetic variations required to improvement of this species.

  17. Abyssnian pea (Lathyrus schaeferi Kosterin pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Br. – a problematic taxon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Kosterin

    2017-12-01

    have taken place under cultivation, in Yemen or Afar Depression. A representative of P. sativum subsp. elatius was revealed, the F1 hybrids of which with the Abyssinian pea as a seed parent had fully fertile pollen. P. abyssinicum × P. fulvum crosses provide the best hybrid seed outcome among remote crosses conducted, so that P. abyssinicum can be used as a ‘bridge’ for gene introgression from P. fulvum to P. sativum. Rather a high level of reproductive isolation of the Abyssinian pea from other representatives of the genus conforms the biological species concept, however the disposition of P. abyssinicum accessions as a small cluster among accessions of P. sativum subsp. elatius on molecular phylogeny reconstructions violates the phylogenetic species concept. Most authors assume the Abyssinian pea as a species, Pisum abyssinicum, some as a subspecies, P. sativum subsp. abyssinicum (A. Br. Berger. Perhaps it would be most correct to consider it as a hybridogenic species. Because of the recent subsuming of the genus Pisum L. into the genus Lathyrus and with respect to the existing name Lathyrus abyssinicus A. Br. (a synonym of L. sativus L., the Abyssinian pea was given a new name Lathyrus schaeferi (A. Braun Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 167. 2017 (pro Pisum abyssinicum A. Braun, in honour of Hanno Schaefer, who substantiated the revision of tribe Fabeae by molecular reconstruction of its phylogeny. The paper here translated contained new combinations of Lathyrus sectio Pisum (L. Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 168. 2017 and Lathurus fulvus (Sibthrop et Smith Kosterin (Vavilov Journal of Genetics and Breeding 21: 168. 2017.

  18. A phytochemical study of lignans in whole plants and cell suspension cultures of Anthriscus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Kubbinga, M.E.; Batterman, S; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.; Woolley, J.G.; Quax, Wim

    2003-01-01

    In the roots of Anthriscus sylvestris 12 different lignans were detected. Arctigenin, dimethylmatairesinol, dimethylthujaplicatin, podophyllotoxin, 7-hydroxyyatein and 7-hydroxyanhydropodorhizol have not been previously reported to be present in A. sylvestris. In the cell suspension cultures, which

  19. Effects of x-rays on growth of plants and mitotic chromosomal aberrations of Lathyrus sativus Linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, D.; Das, A.

    1985-01-01

    It has been found that the abnormalities of chromosome at different stages of mitosis show a linear dose relationship. From the detailed study of normal, abnormal phases of prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase, it is observed that the abnormality (per cent) in all stages of mitosis has increased with increase in dose. Under different doses, the observed characters of abnormality in chromosomes of Lathyrus sativus may exhibit the occurence of direct hit process. (M.N.)

  20. Atividade antimicrobiana das folhas de Casearia sylvestris Swart

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Naira F.Z.; Moura, Neusa F. de; Mendonça, Luciene C.; Denardim, Rosiane B.N.

    2010-01-01

    A atividade antimicrobiana das folhas da espécie Casearia sylvestris foi determinada utilizando a metodologia Concentração Inibitória Mínima (CIM) e Concentração Letal Mínima (CLM). Foram testados o extrato bruto e as frações hexânica, clorofórmica, acetato de etila e o óleo essencial da espécie C. sylvestris, sendo que todos demonstraram atividade antimicrobiana. Entre as frações testadas, a hexânica apresentou melhor CIM frente a Staphylococcus aureus e óleo essencial apresentou...

  1. Lathyrus sativus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for ... The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of ... Induction of mutation in recent times yielded some useful morphological ...

  2. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  3. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  4. Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Kuhlman, T.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Oudendag, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe (Legume Futures) is an international research project funded by the European Union through the Framework 7 Programme (FP7) under grant agreement number 245216 (FP7-KBBE-2009-3). The Legume Futures research consortium comprises 20 partners in 13 countries.

  5. In vitro regeneration of wild chervil (Anthriscus sylvestris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrawati, Oktavia; Hille, Jacques; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver; Finer, J.

    Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm. (Apiaceae) is a common wild plant that accumulates the lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin. Deoxypodophyllotoxin can be hydroxylated at the C-7 position in recombinant organisms yielding podophyllotoxin, which is used as a semi-synthetic precursor for the anticancer drugs,

  6. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 92; Online resources. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L. populations based on molecular data and inferences about the future use of this germplasm. J. Cipriano A. Carvalho C. Fernandes M. J. Gaspar J. Pires J. Bento L. Roxo J. Louzada J. Lima- ...

  7. Neolignans from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six new neolignans, casearialignans A-F (1-6) and one known lignan syringaresinol-ß-D-glucoside were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and high resolution ESI-MS spectroscopic analyses. The relative and absolute configura...

  8. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  9. L’hybride Rorippa amphibia x R. sylvestris en Belgique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawalrée, André

    1971-01-01

    The author briefly discusses and describes the hybrid Rorippa x anceps. Although its occurrence in Belgium was presumed, up till recently no localities were known. A key is given to facilitate distinction of the hybrid from its parents, R. amphibia and R. sylvestris.

  10. An interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Szweykowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intra- and interpopulational polymorphism in the production of phenolic compounds is described in Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. Two mutually exclusive forms of pine trees are present in changing proportions in all populations studied. This allows three groups of populations to be distinguished. The character of this differentiation is discussed.

  11. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  12. Lessons from neurolathyrism: A disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya S Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism.

  13. Attraction of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) to four varieties of Lathyrus sativus L. seed volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A

    2015-04-01

    Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.

  14. Determination of 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid Methyl Ester in Lathyrus Vicia and Pisum by Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen; Egsgaard, Helge; Larsen, Elfinn

    1980-01-01

    4-Chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester was identified unequivocally in Lathyrus latifolius L., Vicia faba L. and Pisum sativum L. by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The gas chromatographic system was able to separate underivatized chloroindole-3-acetic acid...... methyl ester isomers. The quantitative determination of 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid methyl ester in immature seeds of these three species was performed by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry using deuterium labelled 4-chloro-indole-3-acetic acid methyl ester as an internal standard. P. sativum...

  15. Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of Casearia sylvestris extract against oral pathogenic microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    V. R. SANTOS; M. G.L. BRANDãO; R. T. GOMES; K. I. R. TEIXEIRA; A. C.M. APOLôNIO; W. L. F. TAVARES

    2009-01-01

    An ethanolic extract of leaves from the tree Casearia sylvestris, known as guaçatonga in Brazil, was tested for in vitro activity against oral pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed susceptibility of all the microorganisms tested. This study suggests a potential use of ethanolic extract of C. sylvestris as a novel treatment of oral infectious conditions, such as denture stomatitis, periodontitis and dental caries. Keywords: Casearia sylvestris; guaçatonga; oral microorganisms; anti...

  16. Assessment of the antimicrobial activity of Casearia sylvestris extract against oral pathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. SANTOS

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An ethanolic extract of leaves from the tree Casearia sylvestris, known as guaçatonga in Brazil, was tested for in vitro activity against oral pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed susceptibility of all the microorganisms tested. This study suggests a potential use of ethanolic extract of C. sylvestris as a novel treatment of oral infectious conditions, such as denture stomatitis, periodontitis and dental caries. Keywords: Casearia sylvestris; guaçatonga; oral microorganisms; antimicrobial activity.

  17. Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Molavi, Ghader; Ghasemi, Ghader

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Resu...

  18. Acetylated DNA-damaging clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paulo Roberto F.; Furlan, Maysa; Young, Maria Claudia M.; Kingston, David G. I.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.

    1998-11-20

    In addition to the known diterpene casearin G (1), two new clerodane diterpene casearins type, casearin S (2) and casearin T (3), were isolated from an acetylated bioactive CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH extract from leaves of Casearia sylvestris. The diterpenes 1-3 exhibited moderate but selective activity towards the DNA-repair deficient yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants RAD 52YK and RS 321. The structures of 1-3 were established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic experiments

  19. Short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of Casearia sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide A.S. Tirloni

    Full Text Available Abstract Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, is an important medicinal plant widely used in Brazil for the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders. This species was included as of interest by Brazilian Unified Health System. Although preclinical studies described cardiovascular protective effects and apparent absence of toxicity, no studies have evaluated its carcinogenic potential. In this study, we proposed a short-term carcinogenesis evaluation of C. sylvestris in Wistar rats, aiming to check the safety of this species to use it as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System. C. sylvestris leaves were obtained and the crude extract was prepared by maceration from methanol/water. Wistar rats were orally treated for 12 weeks with 50, 250 or 500 mg kg−1 of crude extract or vehicle. Body weight, daily morbidity and mortality were monitored. Blood and bone marrow samples were collect for micronucleus test, comet assay and tumor markers evaluation. Vital organs were removed to macro and histopathological analyses. The crude extract did not induce mutagenic and genotoxic effects and no alterations were observed in important tumor markers. Finally, no detectable signs of injury through gross pathology or histopathological examinations were observed. Our results certify the absence of the crude extract toxicity, indicating its safety, even at prolonged exposure as proposed by Brazilian Unified Health System.

  20. Dwarf mutations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): origin, morphology, inheritance and linkage studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2009-08-01

    Induction of mutation has been used to create additional genetic variability in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). During the ongoing investigations on different induced-morphological mutants, the author detected three types of dwarf mutants in grass pea. One mutant, designated as dwf1 type was earlier identified in colchicine-induced C2 generation of grass pea variety BioR-231 while the other two, designated as dwf2 and dwf3 were isolated in 250 Gy and 300 Gy gamma ray irradiated M2 progeny of variety 'BioR-231' and 'Hooghly Local', respectively. As compared to their parental varieties (controls), all the three mutants manifested stunted, erect and determinate stem, early maturity and tolerance to pod shattering habit. The mutants differed from each other, as well as with controls, in number of primary branches, nature of stipules and internodes, length of peduncle, leaflet and seed coat colour, seed yield and seed neurotoxin content. The three dwarf mutants were monogenically recessive and bred true in successive generations. F2 segregation pattern obtained from the crosses involving the three mutants indicated that dwarf mutation in grass pea was controlled by two independent non-allelic genes, assigned as df1 (for dwf1 type), df2 (for dwf2 type) and df3 (for dwf3 type), with the df1 locus being multiple allelic. Primary trisomic analyses revealed the presence of df1/df2 locus on the extra chromosome of trisomic type I, whereas df3 was located on the extra chromosome of type III. Linkage studies involving five other phenotypic markers suggested linked association of df1/df2 locus with lfc (leaflet colour) and wgn (winged internode) and df3 locus with cbl (seed coat colour). Both the loci; however, assorted independently with flower colour and stipule character. The dwarf types can be utilized as valuable tools for further cytogenetic research and breeding of grass pea.

  1. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients) of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors...

  2. NPR1 Protein Regulates Pathogenic and Symbiotic Interactions between Rhizobium and Legumes and Non-Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA)....

  3. Karyotype characterization and evolution in South American species of Lathyrus (Notolathyrus, Leguminosae) evidenced by heterochromatin and rDNA mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalup, Laura; Samoluk, Sergio Sebastián; Neffa, Viviana Solís; Seijo, Guillermo

    2015-11-01

    Notolathyrus is a section of South American endemic species of the genus Lathyrus. The origin, phylogenetic relationship and delimitation of some species are still controversial. The present study provides an exhaustive analysis of the karyotypes of approximately half (10) of the species recognized for section Notolathyrus and four outgroups (sections Lathyrus and Orobus) by cytogenetic mapping of heterochromatic bands and 45S and 5S rDNA loci. The bulk of the parameters analyzed here generated markers to identify most of the chromosomes in the complements of the analyzed species. Chromosome banding showed interspecific variation in the amount and distribution of heterochromatin, and together with the distribution of rDNA loci, allowed the characterization of all the species studied here. Additionally, some of the chromosome parameters described (st chromosomes and the 45S rDNA loci) constitute the first diagnostic characters for the Notolathyrus section. Evolutionary, chromosome data revealed that the South American species are a homogeneous group supporting the monophyly of the section. Variation in the amount of heterochromatin was not directly related to the variation in DNA content of the Notolathyrus species. However, the correlation observed between the amount of heterochromatin and some geographical and bioclimatic variables suggest that the variation in the heterochromatic fraction should have an adaptive value.

  4. Study of knowledge, attitude, and practice in participants with regular intake of lathyrus, but no spastic paraparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwar Nath Chaurasia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Neurolathyrism is now a disease of the past and also the causative agent, Lathyrus sativus (Khesari Pulse or keerai in Local Hindi and Bhojpuri language has now been proven to be harmless and has become part of the usual diet. Materials and Methods: The population at risk was screened and studied for demography, economic status, knowledge about Khesari pulse, awareness about so-called harmful effects of Khesari pulse intake in humans, and the effects of ban of Khesari pulse on the population which is using Lathyrus (Khesari as a major source of pulse since the past 4 years through a questionnaire of three pages. Results: Nearly 97% of total screened population totally fed on Khesari pulse as their major source of food and we did not found a single case of primary walking difficulty. We did find three cases of poststroke paralysis, a case of post-GBS lower limb weakness, and a case of recurrent myelitis as a part of questionnaire-based study and then followed by personally examining the patients to confirm the diagnosis. Conclusion: Khesari pulse if consumed in smaller quantities as a part of a normal mixed diet, its nutritional values can be optimally utilized.

  5. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  6. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  7. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  8. Legume proteomics: Progress, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A New ent-Labdane Diterpene Glycoside form the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestin (1), a new ent-labdane glycoside, was isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. The structure was determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and HR-ESI-MS analyses. The diterpenoid of ent-labdane type was isolated for the first time from C. sylvestris....

  10. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  11. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of during management

  12. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpei Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of

  13. Valorization of traditional foods: nutritional and bioactive properties of Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L. pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Alzira; Barros, Lillian; Fernandes, Ângela; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-01-01

    The use of traditional foods can enrich our diet, perpetuating important elements of local knowledge and cultural inheritance. Raw, soaked and cooked samples of two Fabaceae species (Cicer arietinum L. and Lathyrus sativus L.) were characterized regarding nutritional and bioactive properties. L. sativus gave the highest carbohydrate, protein, ash, saturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid content, and lowest fat and energy value. Furthermore, it also showed the highest concentration of flavonoids and antioxidant activity. Cicer arietinum gave the highest concentration of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The soaking process did not significantly affect macronutrients, but cooking (boiling) decreased protein, ash, sugars and organic acids, and increased carbohydrates, fat, tocopherols, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. No differences were obtained for fatty acid composition. The present study highlights the nutritional profile and bioactive properties of these agricultural varieties of C. arietinum and L. sativus pulses, and valorizes their traditional consumption and the use in modern diets. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Biological Nitrogen Fixation on Legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armiadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the major limiting factors for crop growth and is required in adequate amount, due to its function as protein and enzyme components. In general, plants need sufficient nitrogen supply at all levels of growth, especially at the beginning of growth phase. Therefore, the availability of less expensive N resources would reduce the production cost. The increasing use of chemical fertilizer would probably disturb soil microorganisms, reduce the physical and chemical characteristics of soil because not all of N based fertilizer applied can be absorbed by the plants. Approximately only 50% can be used by crops, while the rest will be altered by microorganism into unavailable N for crops or else dissappear in the form of gas. Leguminous crops have the capacity to immobilize N2 and convert into the available N if innoculated with Rhizobium. The amount of N2 fixed varies depending on legume species and their environment.

  15. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  16. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Antibothropic action of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae) extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintra-Francischinelli, M; Silva, M G; Andréo-Filho, N; Gerenutti, M; Cintra, A C O; Giglio, J R; Leite, G B; Cruz-Höfling, M A; Rodrigues-Simioni, L; Oshima-Franco, Y

    2008-06-01

    Casearia sylvestris Sw., popularly known in Brazil as 'guaçatonga', has been used as antitumor, antiseptic, antiulcer, local anaesthetic and healer in folk medicine. Snakebite envenomation by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu) constitutes a relevant public health hazard capable of inducing serious local damage in victims. This study examined the pharmacological action of apolar and polar C. sylvestris leaf extracts in reverting the neuromuscular blockade and myonecrosis, which is induced by Bjssu venom and its major toxin bothropstoxin-I on the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. The polar methanol extract (ME) was by far the most efficacious. ME not only prevented myonecrosis and abolished the blockade, but also increased ACh release. Such facilitation in neuromuscular transmission was observed with ME alone, but was accentuated in preparations incubated with ME plus venom or toxin. This established synergy opens an interesting point of investigation because the venom or toxin in contact with ME changes from a blocking to a facilitating effect. It is suggested that rutin, known to have potent antioxidant properties, and one of the components present in the ME, could have a role in the observed effects. Since commercial rutin did not reproduce the ME effects, it is likely that a rutin-containing phytocomplex is neutralizing the bothropic envenoming effects. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Origin and structure of Ubisch bodies in Pinus sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Rowley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Pinus sylvestris Ubisch bodies are produced repeatedly, and each crop is formed at a distinct phase in the secretory cycles of tapetal cells. While each production has a Ubisch body wall similar to the then current state of the exine with regard to thickening and ornamentation, the survivers of previous productions do not change. Examples of all the structurally different Ubisch body wall forms can be seen when terminally, at the time of pollen shedding, the relict Ubisch bodies become spatially concentrated on the minimal surface area of the senescent cells of the tapetum. In angiosperms after one or a few periods of initiation Ubisch bodies may remain in association with the surface of tapetal cells where the Ubisch body wall undergoes changes like those of the maturing pollen exine. We conclude that as a consequence of Ubisch body detachment from the plasma membrane of tapetal cells there is in Pinus sylvestris no updated information for modification of the wall and the Ubisch body wall remains static.

  19. Effect of Arsenic-induced Toxicity on Morphological Traits of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. and Lathyrus sativus L. During Germination and Early Seedling Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2011-01-01

    Effect of five different concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mg/L) of arsenic was studied on 11 different parameters of two important leguminous crops, namely Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (fenugreek) and Lathyrus sativus L. (grass pea) during germination and early seedling growth stage. Mean value of germination percentage, germination index and relative germination rate decreased with concomitant increase in arsenic-induced injury level in increasing concentration of arsenic in both plants ...

  20. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Cleary, Alan M; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E; Weeks, Nathan T; Wilkey, Andrew P; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-01-04

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Simple Detection Methods for Antinutritive Factor β-ODAP Present in Lathyrus sativus L. by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Bidisha; Mitra, Joy; Chakraborty, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Chakraborty, Anirban; Sen, Soumitra Kumar; Neerathilingam, Muniasamy

    2015-01-01

    Lathyrus sativus L. (Grass pea) is the source for cheap and nutritious food choice in drought and famine susceptible zones in greater part of North India and Africa. The non-protein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP) has been known for decades for its potent neurotoxic effect, causing irreversible neurodegenerative disease "neurolathyrism", present in both seed and leaf of Lathyrus sativus L. and other species in varying proportions. It is crucial to establish a rapid as well as reliable detection methodology for β-ODAP content in various Lathyrus plants. Currently available HPLC based methods involve multi-step derivatization of the sample. To overcome this, we have developed β-ODAP analysis method by HPLC without any prior derivatization. This method is statistically significant in the range of 2 to 100μg/ml and exhibited linear response with r2 > 0.99. Limit of detection and quantitation of the later method was determined to be 5.56 μg/ml and 16.86 μg/ml, respectively. In addition to this, a TLC based method has also been developed. The limit of detection of β-ODAP is 0.6μg and for its substrate, L-1,2-diaminopropionic acid is 5μg. Both HPLC and TLC methods were validated by conducting in-vitro bioconversion test to detect the presence of biocatalyst in plant extract. This method is economical, rapid and simple.

  2. Unlocking the potential of orphan legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Christopher; Kunert, Karl J

    2017-04-01

    Orphan, or underutilized, legumes are domesticated legumes with useful properties, but with less importance than major world crops due to use and supply constraints. However, they play a significant role in many developing countries, providing food security and nutrition to consumers, as well as income to resource-poor farmers. They have been largely neglected by both researchers and industry due to their limited economic importance in the global market. Orphan legumes are better adapted than the major legume crops to extreme soil and climatic conditions, with high tolerance to abiotic environmental stresses such as drought. As a stress response they can also produce compounds with pharmaceutical value. Orphan legumes are therefore a likely source of important traits for introduction into major crops to aid in combating the stresses associated with global climate change. Modern large-scale genomics techniques are now being applied to many of these previously understudied crops, with the first successes reported in the genomics area. However, greater investment of resources and manpower are necessary if the potential of orphan legumes is to be unlocked and applied in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. DESENVOLVIMENTO DO POTENCIAL TECNOLÓGICO DE Casearia sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Grasiela Alves Marques

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise prospectiva é uma importante ferramenta na identificação das oportunidades e das necessidades mais relevantes em Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (P & D bem como das intervenções planejadas em sistemas de inovação. Este trabalho escolheu o gênero Casearia, epíteto sylvestris conhecida como "guaçatonga", para estudar seu potencial tecnológico, fazendo uso do Software Vantage Point - tratamento bibliométrico, geração dos dados quantitativos e identificação de indicadores científicos. Observou-se que as quantidades de publicações no Brasil (135 artigos indexados são bastante relevantes, embora indiquem um gargalo nos registros das patentes.

  4. Antimicrobial potential of Casearia sylvestris against oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Henriques CAVALHEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to obtain Casearia sylvestris leave extracts by different extractive methods, including the obtention of essential oil, in order to compare their antimicrobial activities to conventional mouthwash chlorhexidine against oral bacteria. Material and method For this evaluation, extracts from the leaves were obtained by different methods of extraction (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation using different solvent systems: water 100%, ethanol 100%, methanol 100%, water: ethanol 3:7; water: ethanol 7:3; water: methanol 7:3 and water: methanol 3:7. The essential oil, which corresponds to a volatile fraction, was obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger modified apparatus. The microdilution broth method was used to determine the values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, S. mitis ATCC 49456, S. sanguinis ATCC 10556, S. salivarius ATCC 25975, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 11578 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC4082. Chlorhexidine gluconate was used as a positive control. Result All extracts evaluated in the used protocol displayed MIC values higher than 400 µg/mL and few showed bactericidal activity. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was higher than the activity of the extracts, and the best minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values were obtained against L. casei (MIC of 0.023 µg/mL and MBC of 0.046 µg/mL and S. mutans (MIC of 25 µg/mL and MBC of 50 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion The essential oil of Casearia sylvestris has significant antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms.

  5. Structures and cytotoxic activity relationship of casearins, new clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, H; Nakayama, M; Kojima, H; Takeya, K; Itokawa, H; Schenkel, E P; Motidome, M

    1991-03-01

    Casearins G-R, new cytotoxic clerodane diterpenes have been isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae). Their structures have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods and chemical conversions, and their structure-activity relationships have been discussed.

  6. Neutralization of proteases from Bothrops snake venoms by the aqueous extract from Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, M H; Soares, A M; Rodrigues, V M; Oliveira, F; Fransheschi, A M; Rucavado, A; Giglio, J R; Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I

    2001-12-01

    Aqueous extract from Casearia sylvestris leaves, a typical plant from Brazilian open pastures, was able to neutralize the hemorrhagic activity caused by Bothrops asper, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Bothrops neuwiedi and Bothrops pirajai venoms. It also neutralized two hemorrhagic metalloproteinases from Bothrops asper venom. Proteolytic activity on casein induced by bothropic venoms and by isolated proteases, including Bn2 metalloproteinase from B. neuwiedi venom, was also inhibited by the C. sylvestris extract in different levels. The alpha-fibrinogen chain was partially protected against degradation caused by B. jararacussu venom, when this venom was incubated with C. sylvestris extract. We also observed that this extract partially increased the time of plasma coagulation caused by B. jararacussu, B. moojeni and B. neuwiedi venoms. C. sylvestris extract did not induce proteolysis in any substrate assayed.

  7. Effects of ammonium and nitrate on mycorrhizal seedlings of Pinus sylvestris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Ket, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate on Pinus sylvestris seedlings inoculated with Paxillus involutus and Suillus bovinus were investigated. Weekly fertilization (26 weeks) positively affected the plant dry weight, but inhibited the mycorrhizal formation and decreased the root

  8. Catalytic Properties and Immobilization Studies of Catalase from Malva sylvestris L.

    OpenAIRE

    Arabaci, G.; Usluoglu, A.

    2013-01-01

    Catalase was partially purified from Malva sylvestris L. and immobilized onto chitosan. Then, its catalytic properties were investigated. (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and dialysis were performed in the extracted enzyme. Further purification was performed with sephadex G-200 column. Kinetic studies of the purified enzyme activity were measured and characterized. The inhibitory effects of KCN, NaN3, CuSO4, and EDTA on M. sylvestris L. catalase activity were observed except NaCl. Furthermore, M. sylv...

  9. Effect of Malva sylvestris cream on burn injury and wounds in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nasiri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Burn injury is one of the most health-threatening problems in the world. Malva sylvestris (M. sylvestris flowershave a high mucilage content and are used as a remedy for cut wound and dermal infected wounds in Iranian folklore Medicine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of M. sylvestris cream on the second degree burn injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of 10 rats per group were burned with hot metal plate. Animals were administrated divided as control, normal saline, standard silver sulfadiazine 1% (SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris into separate groups. Wound area, percentage of wound contraction, and histological and bacteriological assessments were evaluated. Results: Wound sizes were not significantly different among groups on 1st and 3rd days after burn injury, while they were significantly different among groups after 7th day post-burn injury. The average areas of wounds on the 15th day were 7.5±2.9, 6.7±2, 10.5±1.6, 4.7±2, and 4.5±2 cm2 for base cream, normal saline, SSD, 5% M. sylvestris, and 10% M. sylvestris, respectively. The results of histology exhibited well-formed horizontally-oriented collagen fibers in MS topical treatment groups. Microorganisms existed in the SSD group were most probably Staphilococcus epidermitis and for NS group were staphylococcus saprophiteccus. Conclusion: M. sylvestris cream improved histological changes of tissue components in the process of healing when compared with SSD cream. Therefore, it can be used as a topical treatment agent for burn wound.

  10. Evaluation of morpho-anatomical and chemical differences between varieties of the medicinal plant Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    OpenAIRE

    CLAUDINO,JOSIANE C.; SACRAMENTO,LUIS V.S. DO; KOCH,INGRID; SANTOS,HELEN A.; CAVALHEIRO,ALBERTO J.; TININIS,ARISTEU G.; SANTOS,ANDRE G. DOS

    2013-01-01

    Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae) has been used in traditional medicine and its leaf extracts have been exhibited important pharmacological activities. The species presents morphological, chemical and genetic variation. Two varieties are considered due external morphological differences: C. sylvestris var. sylvestris and var. lingua. There are difficulties in definition of these varieties. The objective of this work is to evaluate chemical and morpho-anatomical differences between C. sy...

  11. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  12. DPPH scavenging, PRAP activities and essential oil composition of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. (Cyprus Vetch, Luvana) from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polatoğlu, Kaan; Arsal, Seniha; Demirci, Betül; Başer, Kemal Hüsnü Can

    2015-01-01

    The essential oil of the aerial parts of edible Lathyrus ochrus L. was investigated by simultaneous GC, GC/MS analyses under the same conditions. Trace amount of oil (0.01> mL) obtained by hydro distillation of 200 g fresh plants was trapped in 1 mL n-hexane. Twenty components were detected representing 91.55 ± 0.56 % of the oil. The main components were phytol 49.39 ± 0.44 %, hexadecanoic acid 20.64 ± 0.89 % and pentacosane 4.20 ± 0.09 %. Essential oil solution (1% oil: n-hexane) afforded similar DPPH scavenging activity (9.28 ± 1.30 %) when compared with positive controls α-tocopherol (9.74 ± 0.21 %) and BHT (7.79 ± 0.26 %) at the same concentrations. Antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using a new HPTLC-PRAP assay. The oil afforded two fold higher reducing activity of phosphomolybdenum complex (594.85 ± 5.14 AU) when compared with positive controls α- tocopherol (271.10 ± 2.86 AU) and BHT (210.53 ± 1.81 AU) at the same concentration.

  13. Reciprocal translocations in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): pattern of transmission, detection of multiple interchanges and their independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2010-01-01

    Grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is a diploid crop having 2n = 14 chromosomes. Four different plant types, heterozygous for reciprocal translocation (RT), RT-1, RT-2, RT-3, and RT-4 showing pollen semisterility, were isolated in induced mutant population of three varieties of grass pea. Transmission rate of these 4 translocations was studied in advanced selfed and intercrossed progenies, whereas multiple chromosomal interchanges were detected by the pattern of chromosomal ring formation at meiosis I in the F(1) progeny of RTxRT. RT transmitted at an average of 48.89% in selfed progeny and along with normal plants, RT and translocation homozygotes produced some trisomic plants in the segregation progeny. RT-3 showing maximum frequency (68.20%) of zig-zag or alternate chromosome orientation exhibited highest transmission (55.20%). Presence of a ring of 6 or 2 rings of 4 chromosomes in F(1) double heterozygotes obtained from RTxRT suggested involvement of one common chromosome in translocations of RT-1, RT-2, and RT-4 but a different one in common between RT-2 and RT-3. No common chromosome, however, was shared by RT-3 and RT-4. Thus, 5 out of 7 chromosomes are involved in the present RTs, and one of the translocated chromosomes in RT-1 line was always associated with nucleolar organizing region.

  14. Grain legume protein quality: a hot subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes, also called pulses, play a key role in the nutritional improvement of food and feed. These legumes are important sources of protein as well as other nutritional compounds. Today, protein is one of the most sought after ingredients in the market and grain legumes represent one of the most sustainable protein sources. However, not all grain legume proteins are nutritionally equal. Their quality varies and depends on their amino acid composition and digestibility. In this article, we review concepts related to grain legume protein quality and discuss challenges regarding their genetic improvement. A comprehensive database of grain legume amino acid profiles and protein digestibility is needed to address the matter of protein quality in grain legume breeding. This database will be enhanced by quantitative information on digestibility-reducing bioactive compounds and the development of reliable screening tools. The achievement of higher protein quality grain legume varieties, better adjusted to animal and human requirements, will cut dietary protein content, associated costs and nitrogen excretion, thus reducing the environmental impact.Las leguminosas grano tienen un alto potencial en alimentación humana y animal siendo una importante fuente de proteínas así como de otros compuestos beneficiosos para la nutrición y salud. La proteína es uno de los ingredientes más demandados y las leguminosas grano son una delas fuentes más sostenible de proteína. Sin embargo, no todas las leguminosas grano son igual de nutritivas, variando la calidad con la composición de aminoácidos y su digestibilidad. En este artículo revisaremos los conceptos de calidad de la proteína y discutiremos las posibilidades de mejora genética. Para abordar con éxito la mejora de la calidad de la proteína será de gran ayuda disponer de bases de datos con los perfiles de aminoácidos y de digestibilidad, así como de información cuantitativa sobre los

  15. Studies on the effects of a flanking repetitive sequence on the expression of single-copy transgenes in Nicotiana sylvestris and in N. sylvestris-N. tomentosiformis hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, C.; Narangajavana, J.; Jakowitsch, J.; Park, Y.D.; Delon, T. R.; Kovařík, Aleš; Koukalová, Blažena; Van der Winden, J.; Moscone, E.; Aufsatz, W.; Mette, M. F.; Matzke, M.; Matzke, A. J. M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2003), s. 203-215 ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/01/0037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : DNA methylation * gene silencing * Nicotiana sylvestris Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.795, year: 2003

  16. Identification of companion legumes for Midmar Italian ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a preliminary investigation seven legumes were planted alone and in combination with Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar. The pure stands of legumes were harvested at either four, five of six week cutting intervals, while the pure stands of Lolium multiflorum and the ryegrass/legume mixtures received in addition to the cutting ...

  17. legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aimed at assessing legume-derived nutrient use efficiencies (NUE) by maize and quantifying the importance of these legumes ... replacement indices (N-FRI and P-FRI) by legumes, which express their importance as source of N and P for maize relative to .... associated nutrient stocks were measured at the dry pod stage, ...

  18. Local variations in microfungal populations on Pinus sylvestris needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourbière, François; Debouzie, Domitien

    2003-10-01

    We studied the fungal colonization of Pinus sylvestris needles in two neighbouring sites, comparing stands of isolated and grouped trees. We observed large variations among the proportions of needles bearing fruit bodies of Cyclaneusma minus, Lophodermium pinastri, Verticicladium trifidum and black lines characteristic of L. pinastri colonization. Variations between sites and within trees were greater than that between stands or between trees. The frequency of L. pinastri colonization was negatively correlated with C. minus fruit body frequency, while the frequency of V. trifidum conidiophores was positively correlated with L. pinastri colonization frequency without fruiting, and negatively correlated with C. minus apothecia frequency. Although L. pinastri black lines and C. minus apothecia were nearly randomly associated on individual needles in each sample, the two fungi occupied different segments when they occupied the same needle. These patterns at needle and sample scales do not explain the negative correlation between the frequencies of these two species observed at larger scales. In each sample, frequency of V. trifidum conidiophores was highest on needles colonized by L. pinastri without fruiting. On individual needles, V. trifidum conidiophores developed on segments colonized by L. pinastri without fruiting, but not on segments bearing fruit bodies of L. pinastri or C. minus. These patterns at needle and sample scales were consistent with the correlations between frequencies observed at larger scales. These results were compared to variations observed with stand age and climate in others studies. The observed variations might result from both microclimate variations and fungal interactions.

  19. Movement analyses of wood cricket ( Nemobius sylvestris) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, N C; Newton, A C

    2010-12-01

    Information on the dispersal ability of invertebrate species associated with woodland habitats is severely lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted examining the movement patterns of wood cricket (Nemobius sylvestris) (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) on the Isle of Wight, UK. Juvenile (i.e. nymphs) and adult wood crickets were released and observed over time within different ground surface substrates. Their movement paths were recorded and subsequently analysed using random walk models. Nymphs were found to move more slowly than adults did; and, when given a choice, both nymphs and adults showed a preference for moving through or over leaf litter compared to bare soil or grass. A correlated random walk (CRW) model accurately described the movement pattern of adult wood crickets through leaf litter, indicating a level of directional persistence in their movements. The estimated population spread through leaf litter for adults was 17.9 cm min-1. Movements of nymphs through leaf litter could not accurately be described by a random walk model, showing a change in their movement pattern over time from directed to more random movements. The estimated population spread through leaf litter for nymphs was 10.1 cm min-1. The results indicate that wood cricket adults can be considered as more powerful dispersers than nymphs; however, further analysis of how the insects move through natural heterogeneous environments at a range of spatio-temporal scales needs to be performed to provide a complete understanding of the dispersal ability of the species.

  20. Simple Detection Methods for Antinutritive Factor β-ODAP Present in Lathyrus sativus L. by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography and Thin Layer Chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidisha Ghosh

    Full Text Available Lathyrus sativus L. (Grass pea is the source for cheap and nutritious food choice in drought and famine susceptible zones in greater part of North India and Africa. The non-protein amino acid β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid (β-ODAP has been known for decades for its potent neurotoxic effect, causing irreversible neurodegenerative disease "neurolathyrism", present in both seed and leaf of Lathyrus sativus L. and other species in varying proportions. It is crucial to establish a rapid as well as reliable detection methodology for β-ODAP content in various Lathyrus plants. Currently available HPLC based methods involve multi-step derivatization of the sample. To overcome this, we have developed β-ODAP analysis method by HPLC without any prior derivatization. This method is statistically significant in the range of 2 to 100μg/ml and exhibited linear response with r2 > 0.99. Limit of detection and quantitation of the later method was determined to be 5.56 μg/ml and 16.86 μg/ml, respectively. In addition to this, a TLC based method has also been developed. The limit of detection of β-ODAP is 0.6μg and for its substrate, L-1,2-diaminopropionic acid is 5μg. Both HPLC and TLC methods were validated by conducting in-vitro bioconversion test to detect the presence of biocatalyst in plant extract. This method is economical, rapid and simple.

  1. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  2. Virus-induced gene silencing in Medicago truncatula and Lathyrus odorata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Mette; Kjær, Gabriela Didina Constantin; Piednoir, Elodie

    2008-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) has become an important reverse genetics tool for functional genomics. VIGS vectors based on Pea early browning virus (PEBV, genus Tobravirus) and Bean pod mottle virus (genus Comovirus) are available for the legume species Pisum sativum and Glycine max, respec...

  3. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  4. 7606 IMPROVEMENT OF DIABETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA BY LEGUMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotimi

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... motor and sensory function occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus [19]. This may contribute to decrease in food intake and faecal output as well as eventual loss in weight. The findings from this study indicate that consumption of legume-based diets by diabetic rats resulted in increase in both food intake and ...

  5. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    They were fertilized with South African rock phosphate (EPL 86) and 20 mg of readily soluble phosphate (SP). KH,PO, was also used as starter fertilizer and its effect on utilization of the rock phosphate-P for growth by the legumes was investigated. Shoot dry weight of cowpea was unaffected by mycorrhiza only treatment but ...

  6. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  7. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-12-21

    Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  8. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  9. Evaluation of morpho-anatomical and chemical differences between varieties of the medicinal plant Casearia sylvestris Swartz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Josiane C; Sacramento, Luis V S do; Koch, Ingrid; Santos, Helen A; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Tininis, Aristeu G; Santos, André G dos

    2013-01-01

    Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae) has been used in traditional medicine and its leaf extracts have been exhibited important pharmacological activities. The species presents morphological, chemical and genetic variation. Two varieties are considered due external morphological differences: C. sylvestris var. sylvestris and var. lingua. There are difficulties in definition of these varieties. The objective of this work is to evaluate chemical and morpho-anatomical differences between C. sylvestris varieties that can be applied in their distinction for pharmaceutical or botanical purposes. Transverse and paradermic sections of leaves were prepared for morpho-anatomical, histochemical and quantitative microscopy (stomatal and palisade index) analyses. Diterpene profiles of the specimens were obtained by HPLC-DAD and TLC. Morpho-anatomical analyses demonstrated significant differences between the varieties only in paradermic sections: var. sylvestris--polygonal epidermic cell walls and hypostomatic; var. lingua--rounded epidermic cell walls and amphistomatic. No differences were observed for stomatal index; palisade index was found 2.8 for var. lingua and 3.9 for var. sylvestris. Chromatographic analyses confirmed previous results demonstrating that diterpene profile in varieties differs, with predominance of these metabolites in var. sylvestris. In conclusion, this work indicates that chromatographic analysis besides morpho-anatomical analysis can be applied in distinction of C. sylvestris varieties.

  10. Evaluation of morpho-anatomical and chemical differences between varieties of the medicinal plant Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSIANE C. CLAUDINO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae has been used in traditional medicine and its leaf extracts have been exhibited important pharmacological activities. The species presents morphological, chemical and genetic variation. Two varieties are considered due external morphological differences: C. sylvestris var. sylvestris and var. lingua. There are difficulties in definition of these varieties. The objective of this work is to evaluate chemical and morpho-anatomical differences between C. sylvestris varieties that can be applied in their distinction for pharmaceutical or botanical purposes. Transverse and paradermic sections of leaves were prepared for morpho-anatomical, histochemical and quantitative microscopy (stomatal and palisade index analyses. Diterpene profiles of the specimens were obtained by HPLC-DAD and TLC. Morpho-anatomical analyses demonstrated significant differences between the varieties only in paradermic sections: var. sylvestris - polygonal epidermic cell walls and hypostomatic; var. lingua - rounded epidermic cell walls and amphistomatic. No differences were observed for stomatal index; palisade index was found 2.8 for var. lingua and 3.9 for var. sylvestris. Chromatographic analyses confirmed previous results demonstrating that diterpene profile in varieties differs, with predominance of these metabolites in var. sylvestris. In conclusion, this work indicates that chromatographic analysis besides morpho-anatomical analysis can be applied in distinction of C. sylvestris varieties.

  11. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras'kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V.

    2004-01-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute γ-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on time and techno

  12. Cytogenetic variability in pinus sylvestris L. populations experiencing anthropogenic influence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, A.; Geras' kin, S.; Vasiliev, D.; Dikarev, V. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Techno-genic pollution has become one of the most significant ecological factors determining biosphere existence and development. An analysis of genetic consequences of the radiation accidents in the South Urals and Chernobyl has shown that mutation and recombination processes are considerably accelerated in plant and animal's populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This implies that there are complicated adaptation processes leading to changes in genetic structure of populations and increasing genetic load. Pinus sylvestris L. populations growing at the territory of the 'radon' Leningrad regional radioactive waste reprocessing enterprise and Sosnovy Bor town were monitored 6 years (1997-2002) by a set of cyto-genetical and morphological tests. Cytogenetic damage levels within intercalary meristem of needle as well as in root meristem of seedlings were found to significantly exceed corresponding controls. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds analyzed was demonstrated with an acute {gamma}-radiation that also revealed a selection process directed at an enhancement of repair efficiency and resulting in a shift of mean values of radioresistance in populations towards higher values. An enlargement of variance of studied cytogenetic parameters was found in the populations experiencing techno-genic influence. This indicates, with an account of phenomenon of the enhanced radioresistance, that there are processes of cyto-genetical adaptation in the investigated regions. An analysis of the structure of ecological-genetical variability was carried out with the purpose of separating two components in the inter-population variability - the first is engaged to the genetically determined variability of biological characteristics intrinsic for this species, and the second is responsible for the variability originating from anthropogenic contamination of the natural habitat. Changes of these two types of variability were studied in dependence on

  13. IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF Casearia sylvestris SWARTZ (SALICACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Terezinha Paranhos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to do an in vitro propagation of Casearia sylvestris , a tree native to Brazilian forests, studies of in vitro seed germination were performed and aseptic seedlings obtained were used as explant donors for micropropagation. Mature and immature seeds, stored for 10 days at 10 or 25°C were inoculated in medium containing 10% of MS salts and kept in the light (a 16-hour photoperiod or continuous dark, at 25°C. For immature seeds, gibberellic acid (GA 3 was or was not tested at a concentration of 1.5 mg l -1 . From the seedlings obtained, the cotyledon and apical segments were removed and cultured in complete MS medium with five combinations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 0.0; 0025; 0.05; 0.1; 0.2 mg L-1, respectively. The aerial shoots formed in vitro were cultured in MS medium containing 0.0 or 1.5 mg L -1 indole-3-butyric acid (IBA for rooting. The highest percentage of germination (60% occurred in mature seeds exposed to light, regardless of other treatments, and may be considered positive photoblastic. The highest percentage of germination of immature seeds (27% occurred when previously stored at 10 ° C with or without GA 3 . The induction of aerial shoots was more efficient in apical segments in a medium containing the lowest combination of BAP and NAA or free of these growth regulators. The higher number of roots occurred in aerial shoots obtained from cotyledon segments, with or without IBA. After acclimatization, 83% of the plants survived.

  14. Anti-inflammatory action of ethanolic extract and clerodane diterpenes from Casearia sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaise G. Pierri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract from Casearia sylvestris Sw., Salicaceae, leaves and to identify the compounds responsible for this activity. The ethanolic extract from C. sylvestris leaves was fractionated by solid phase extraction and the chemical composition of extract and fractions were assessed by chromatographic techniques. Casearin-like clerodane diterpenes were quantified in ethanolic extract (27.4%, w/w and in fraction 2 of solid phase extraction (50.6%, w/w. Carrageenan-induced paw edema and carrageenan-induced pleurisy assays (rats were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract, its fractions and clerodane diterpenes from C. sylvestris – caseargrewiin F and casearin B. The ethanolic extract was tested in the rat paw edema model and the doses tested (10 and 100 mg/kg had no effect. In the pleurisy model, the extract doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg showed inhibitory effect. The fraction 2 of solid phase extraction (10 mg/kg, caseargrewiin F and casearin B (0.5 mg/kg showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05 of the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats compared to indomethacin. Gastric ulcers were not observed in animals treated with samples from C. sylvestris. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract from C. sylvestris, its enriched fraction of clerodane diterpenes, casearin B and caseargrewiin F exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on in vivo models in rats. Casearin-like clerodane diterpenes may be considered active chemical markers for C. sylvestris leaves. On the other hand, these diterpenes are promising compounds in the development of new drugs with anti-inflammatory action without gastric side effects.

  15. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae), a neotropical medicinal tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, M M; Billot, C; Bouvet, J-M; Favreau, B; Zucchi, M I; Palmieri, D A; Gimenes, M A

    2008-07-01

    Casearia sylvestris Sw. is a widespread neotropical tree utilized in popular medicine. Recent research ranked Casearia as one of the most promising genus in the search of drugs against cancer. Despite its wide distribution and pharmacological importance, no microsatellite markers have yet been developed for this genus. In this study, we provide 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci specifically designed for C. sylvestris, used to analyse 90 individuals distributed in two populations from São Paulo state, Brazil. On average, 12.3 alleles per locus were identified, showing the ability of the markers to detect microsatellite polymorphism in this species. © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Antiulcer activity of the crude extract from the leaves of casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertié, J A; Carvalho, J C; Panizza, S

    2000-01-01

    In rats, administration of Casearia sylvestris extract derived from fresh and dried leaves protects stomach mucosa without changing gastric pH. In stress-induced acute lesions, the preventive effect of extract from dried leaves is more effective than extract from fresh leaves. In acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer, both extracts reduce the size of ulceration and increase the number of collagen fibers after 5 days of treatment, and these effects are similar with both extracts. These antiulcer activities of Casearia sylvestris may be due to the presence of volatile oils, tannins and triterpenerelated compounds.

  17. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  18. Natural Rubber Latex: Study of a Novel Carrier for Casearia sylvestris Swartz Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo Borges, Felipe; Cesar Bolognesi, Luis Felipe; Trecco, Alberto; de Camargo Drago, Bruno; Baldo de Arruda, Larisa; Noronha Lisboa Filho, Paulo; Gonçalves Pierri, Elaise; de Oliveira Graeff, Carlos Frederico; Gonzaga dos Santos, André; Romeiro Miranda, Matheus Carlos; Donizetti Herculano, Rondinelli

    2014-01-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) from Hevea brasiliensis has showed interesting biomedical properties as improving wound healing, cell adherence, tissue formation, and angiogenesis. It is used for biosynthesis of nanoparticles, sensors and prosthesis and for drug delivery systems (for drugs, plant extracts, and nanoparticles). To enhance its wound healing properties was incorporated Casearia sylvestris Swartz extract, whose pharmacological activity includes anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiseptic,...

  19. Catalytic Properties and Immobilization Studies of Catalase from Malva sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Arabaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalase was partially purified from Malva sylvestris L. and immobilized onto chitosan. Then, its catalytic properties were investigated. (NH42SO4 precipitation and dialysis were performed in the extracted enzyme. Further purification was performed with sephadex G-200 column. Kinetic studies of the purified enzyme activity were measured and characterized. The inhibitory effects of KCN, NaN3, CuSO4, and EDTA on M. sylvestris L. catalase activity were observed except NaCl. Furthermore, M. sylvestris L. catalase was immobilized covalently with glutaraldehyde onto chitosan particles. The pH and temperature optima as well as the changes in the kinetics (Km, Vmax of the immobilized and free M. sylvestris L. catalase were determined. The Km value for immobilized catalase (23.4 mM was higher than that of free enzyme (17.6 mM. Optimum temperature was observed higher than that of the free enzyme. The optimum pH was the same for both free and immobilized catalases (pH 7.50. Immobilized catalase showed higher storage and thermal stabilities than free catalases. Free catalase lost all its activity within 60 days whereas immobilized catalase lost 45% of its activity during the same incubation period at 4°C. The remaining immobilized catalase activity was about 70% after 8 cycles of batch operations.

  20. Conditions of the occurrence of Anemone sylvestris in a kettle hole in north-eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Kwiatkowska-Falińska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research, in 2004, was focused on the whole population of Anemone sylvestris (Snowdrop Windflower present in the area of a kettle hole (0.8 km2 in north-eastern Poland (52°50’00’’N; 23°11’20’’E. The location of 56 clumps of generative specimens was surveyed. They numbered from several to approx. 1500 specimens. The number of generative specimens in this population exceeded 10 000. On account of this, it is a unique stand of A. sylvestris in Poland. The relationship between the occurrence of the Snowdrop Windflower and the presence of kame hills and ridges has been proven. Low slopes of kame with an inclination of 10-20o, and a north-eastern or eastern exposition has been found as the local ecological optimum for this species. Research carried out in 1970-2001 on 5 permanent plots (25 m2 each has shown that: 1 Anemone sylvestris is an essential element of xerothermic grasslands of the order Festucetalia valesiacae; 2 the species suddenly withdraws from the parts of land on which woody species have already reached the shrub layer; 3 the greatest danger for the population of A. sylvestris in this area is the process of secondary succession initiated by the discontinuation of grazing on the kame hills.

  1. Mechanical resistance by an ectorganic soil layer on roo development of seedling Pinus sylvestris.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den J.; Vogels, D.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated early root development of Pinus sylvestris seedlings in relation to bulk density and natural particle layering in an ectorganic soil layer from a bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) stand. Responses in root development to two levels of bulk density (0.07 and 0.15 g/cm3) in mixed bracken

  2. Influence of ammonia and ozone on growth and drought sensitivity of Pinus sylvestris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dueck, Th.A.; Zuin, A.; Elderson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Four-year-old Pinus sylvestris trees were exposed to ammonia (16, 55, 110 ppb for 24 h d-1)and ozone (0, 45 and 68 ppb, 9 h d-1) in a factorial design in open-top chambers for 15 months. Treatment effects on tree growth and architecture were assessed during two growing seasons; effects on

  3. New antitumor principles, casearins A-F, for Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, H; Totsuka, N; Morita, H; Takeya, K; Iitaka, Y; Schenkel, E P; Motidome, M

    1990-12-01

    New antitumor clerodane diterpenes, named casearins A-F, have been isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae). These structures have been completely elucidated by two dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, and chemical evidences.

  4. Clerodane and Ent-kaurane Diterpene Glycosyl and Glycoside Derivatives from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five new clerodane diterpene glycosides caseariasides A-E (1-4) and three new ent-kaurane diterpene glucosides sylvestrisides C-E (6-8) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic analyses....

  5. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akman, M.; Bhikharie, A.V.; McLean, E.H.; Boonman, A.; Visser, E.J.W.; Schranz, M.E.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well

  6. Ectomycorrhizal fungi and Pinus sylvestris: aluminium toxicity, base cation deficiencies and exudation of organic anions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schöll, van L.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: aluminium (Al), base cations, BC:Alratio, magnesium (Mg), organic anions, oxalate, malonate, ectomycorrhizal fungi, Paxillus involutus, Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine)The finding of microscopic-small tunnels in mineral grains

  7. Innovations in agronomy for food legumes. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Kadambot; Johansen,; Turner, Neil; Jeuffroy,; Hashem,; Sakar,; Gan,; Alghamdi, Salem

    2012-01-01

    Although there is increasing awareness of the importance of food legumes in human, animal and soil health, adoption of improved production technologies for food legume crops is not proceeding at the same pace as for cereal crops. Over the previous decade, the only food legumes to have shown significant production increases have been chickpea, lentil and faba bean in North America, chickpea in Australia, and faba bean in Europe. In smallholder farming in developing countries, production trends...

  8. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  9. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  10. Flavonoid-deficient mutants in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.): genetic control, linkage relationships, and mapping with aconitase and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase isozyme loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Dibyendu

    2012-01-01

    Two flavonoid-deficient mutants, designated as fldL-1 and fldL-2, were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 10 h) M(2) progeny of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Both the mutants contained total leaf flavonoid content only 20% of their mother varieties. Genetic analysis revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of the trait, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. The two mutants differed significantly in banding patterns of leaf aconitase (ACO) and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) isozymes, possessing unique bands in Aco 1, Aco 2, and Gsnor 2 loci. Isozyme loci inherited monogenically showing codominant expression in F(2) (1:2:1) and backcross (1:1) segregations. Linkage studies and primary trisomic analysis mapped Aco 1 and fld 1 loci on extra chromosome of trisomic-I and Aco 2, fld 2, and Gsnor 2 on extra chromosome of trisomic-IV in linked associations.

  11. Evaluation of the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.

    2015-01-01

    Information on genetic diversity and gene conservation activities were combined with climatic data to evaluate the present genetic conservation efforts in Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus spp., Fagus sylvatica, and Pinus pinaster. Combinations of climatic variables explained much of the

  12. Rotation effects of grain and herbaceous legumes on maize yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes and fallow has been known to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. This prompted an investigation into the effects of some legumes and fallow on some soil chemical properties and yield of maize. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 on an Alfisol to determine the effects of crop ...

  13. Assessing socio–economic factors influencing adoption of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the numerous benefits of legume-based multiple cropping systems in soil fertility management, most smallholder sorghum farmers have not adopted them. The aim of this study was to examine socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems among smallholder sorghum ...

  14. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial fertilizers are expensive for small-scale farmers who, as alternative, rely on legume crops for providing N for a subsequent maize crop. A legume-maize rotational experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Ferralsol at Mlingano Agricultural Research Institute in Muheza, Tanga, Tanzania, to evaluate the effects of ...

  15. Probing nod factor perception in legumes by fluorescence microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants of the family of legumes are capable of forming a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. These Gram-negative bacteria invade the root system of a host legume and fix nitrogen in a specialized organ, the so-called root nodule. In exchange for sugars, the bacteria convert atmospheric

  16. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic,

  17. Tree legumes: an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tree legumes are an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures. Perceived benefits of tree legumes include provisioning (browse/mast, timber, fuel, human food, natural medicines, and ornamentals, regulating (C sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, soil erosion control and riparian buffers, shade, windbreaks, and habitat for pollinators, supporting (biological N2-fixation, nutrient cycling, soil fertility and soil health, photosynthesis, and primary productivity, and cultural ecosystem services. Tree legumes, however, have not been assessed to the same extent as herbaceous legumes. Once tree legumes are established, they are often more persistent than most herbaceous legumes. There are limitations for extended research with tree legume silvopastures, but extensive research has been done in Africa and Australia and recent efforts have been reported in South America. Economic benefits must be demonstrated to land managers to increase adoption. These benefits are apparent in the research and successes already available, but more long-term research, including the livestock component is necessary. Other factors that reduce adoption include paucity of domesticated germplasm, lag in research/technology, challenges of multipurpose trees and management complexity, challenges to mechanization, dangers of invasive weeds, and social and cultural barriers. In the current scenario of climate change and the need to increase food security, tree legumes are a key component for the sustainable intensification of livestock systems in warm-climate regions.

  18. Glycaemic responses of some legumes in Nigeria using non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is established that legumes generally have a low glycaemic index (GI) which means that they raise blood glucose levels very little. However, the glycaemic responses to normal subjects and the GI of these local legumes are not yet established. Objective: This work determined the postprandial glycaemic ...

  19. Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... Studies were conducted in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya with the aim of evaluating farmers' perception about the impact of legume cover crops (LCC) on soil ...

  20. Testing forage legume technologies with smallholder dairy farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    on-station research, suggest the possibility of incorporating forage legumes in farming systems that could solve feed shortages during the ... This paper presents benefits and constraints identified by farmers as a result of integrating forage legumes in farming systems and lessons ..... stock Research Institute. Vol. 5. pp.10-11.

  1. Systematics, diversity and forage value of indigenous legumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A map representing the collection intensity for the study area showed that the majority of legumes species were collected in the Fynbos, Savanna and Grassland Biome. It is concluded that indigenous South African legumes are extremely diverse and this denotes the importance of further investigating their forage potential ...

  2. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume

  3. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of legumes with residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes can help reduce the inorganic nitrogen fertilizer need of the following maize as a result of increased nitrogen availability in the soil. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value (NFRV) method was used to estimate the nitrogen contribution of grain legumes (soybean, cowpea) and an herbaceous ...

  4. Effect of Intercropping Finger Millet with two Indigenous Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In phase one, an indigenous edible legume (Crotalaria brevidens) and a fodder legume (Trifolium quartinianum) were intercropped with finger millet. Each plot was supplied with three nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 Kg N/ha) in the form of Urea (46% N) in a completely randomized block design with three replicates.

  5. Crops, Nitrogen, Water: Are Legumes Friend, Foe, or Misunderstood Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark A; Buchmann, Nina; Sprent, Janet; Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L

    2018-03-17

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N. We propose that breeding grain legumes for reduced stomatal conductance can increase WUE without compromising production or BNF. Legume crops remain a better bet than relying on INF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  7. Partial Characterization of a Vicilin-Like Glycoprotein from Seeds of Flowering Tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q. Gerlach

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A vicilin-like glycoprotein from the seeds of Nicotiana sylvestris, flowering tobacco, has been identified using nanoLC/ESI-MS/MS. Sequences from a fragment of protein demonstrated homology with vicilins from other members of the Solanaceae family, notably potato (Solanum demissum. Reducing and nonreducing SDS-PAGE analyses of the identified protein indicated that fragments resulting from in situ proteolytic processing are joined by intrachain disulphide bonds. Staining with Con A lectin was specifically inhibited by mannose suggested the presence of -linked glycosylation which was confirmed by carbohydrate compositional analysis of PVDF-bound protein subunits. HPAEC-PAD analysis of the monosaccharides released from the glycoprotein by acid hydrolysis revealed glucosamine and mannose. -acetylglucosamine termination of attached oligosaccharides was further verified by inhibitable WGA lectin staining. Immunostaining of PVDF-bound N. sylvestris proteins with antibodies against G. max total protein demonstrated cross-staining at masses corresponding to fragments from the proteolytically processed protein subunits.

  8. Gastric antiulcer and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil from Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Iracema; Souza, Indira Ramos; Rodrigues, Marcelo; Cardoso, Luis Gustavo Vieira; Santos, Lourivaldo Silva; Sertie, Jayme Antonio Aboin; Perazzo, Fábio Ferreira; Lima, Leonardo Mandalho; Schneedorf, José Maurício; Bastos, Jairo Kennup; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2005-10-03

    To investigate the antiulcer and antiinflammatory activities of the essential oil from Casearia sylvestris leaves (EOCS) the following tests were used: rat paw edema, granulomatous tissue test, vascular permeability, writhing test, gastric ulcer stress-induced and evaluation of gastric secretion (pylorus ligation test). The total yield of EOCS was 2.5% with LD50 of 1100 mg/kg in mouse. The major compounds identified using gas chromatography were caryophyllene, thujopsene, alfa-humulene, beta-acoradiene, germacrene-d, bicyclogermacrene, calamenene, germacrene B, spathulenol and globulol. The EOCS orally administered to the rats at 125 mg/kg resulted 36% of inhibition in carrageenan-induced edema in the rat paw assay (pCasearia sylvestris beyond its anti-ulcer activity.

  9. Leaf Rolling and Stem Fasciation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) Mutant Are Mediated through Glutathione-Dependent Cellular and Metabolic Changes and Associated with a Metabolic Diversion through Cysteine during Phenotypic Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Talukdar, Dibyendu; Talukdar, Tulika

    2014-01-01

    A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cyste...

  10. The current state of Pinus sylvestris L. gene pool in Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. А. Ilyinov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Three native populations of P. sylvestris, ssp. lapponica (Alakurtti, Gridino, Pjaozero and six native populations of P. s., ssp. sylvestris (Voinitsa, Maslozero, Vodlozero, Zaonezshye, Kivach, Sortavala along with one artificial population – Petrozavodsk seed orchard have been studied using four nuclear microsatellite primers (Spac11.8, Spac12.5, PtTX2123, PtTX2146 to find out the peculiarities of Scotch pine intraspecific diversity in Karelia. In total, 66 alleles were found. All four loci turned out to be polymorphic in all populations. The observed heterozigocity level of all studied Karelian populations was lower than expected, which is evidence of heterozygotes deficiency in Karelian pine populations. Overall, the investigated P. sylvestris populations can be described as having a high level of the genetic variability especially compared to results obtained earlier by isozyme analyses. The Petrozavodsk seed orchard ought to be mentioned as having one of the highest levels of the genetic variability, which gives evidences in favor of good state regarding representativeness of Scotch pine gene pool here. No substantial differences in genetic structure and diversity levels have been found for ss. lapponica populations vs. ss. sylvestris ones. AMOVA analysis showed that despite the significant differences between pine populations, considering both the allele composition and the genetic diversity, the major part of the variety (90 % was allocated inside group. The investigated populations were subdivided into two clusters using UPGMA technique characterized by substantial Nei distance (DN = 0.273. The former one included the majority of Karelian pine populations (DN = 0.030–0.082 along with the Alakurtti population from Murmansk region. The latter cluster consisted ofthe most isolated «Kivach» and «Zaonezshye» populations, which had the lowest levels of genetic diversity, and the «Petrozavodsk seed orchard».

  11. Contrasting Pollination Efficiency and Effectiveness among Flower Visitors of Malva Sylvestris, Borago Officinalis and Onobrychis Viciifolia

    OpenAIRE

    Gorenflo, Anna; Diekötter, Tim; van Kleunen, Mark; Wolters, Volkmar; Jauker, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Biotic pollination is an important factor for ecosystem functioning and provides a substantial ecosystem service to human food security. Not all flower visitors are pollinators, however, and pollinators differ in their pollination performances. In this study, we determined the efficiencies of flower visitors to the plant species Malva sylvestris, Borago officinalis and Onobrychis viciifolia by analysing stigmatic pollen deposition. We further calculated pollinator effectiveness by scaling up ...

  12. Antileishmanial activity of some Brazilian plants, with particular reference to Casearia sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M.R. Antinarelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa which treatment is restricted to a limited number of drugs that exhibit high toxicity, collateral effects and are often costly. There are a variety of tropical plants distributed in Brazil, and for many poor people the therapy for several diseases is based mainly on the use of traditional herbal remedies. In this work, the cytotoxic activity of 17 plant methanol extracts was evaluated on several Leishmania species and murine macrophages. Among them, the extract of Casearia sylvestris, Piptocarpha macropoda, Trembleya parviflora, Samanea tubulosa and Plectranthus neochilus showed a promissing leishmanicidal activity, exhibiting IC50 values below of 20 µg/mL against at least one species of Leishmania. Casearia sylvestris showed the most expressive activity against all promastigote forms of Leishmania species (IC50 values of 5.4 µg/mL, 5.0 µg/mL, 8.5 µg/mL and 7.7 µg/mL for L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. chagasi and L. major, respectively, being more effective than the reference drug miltefosine. In spite of the cytotoxic effect on macrophages (CC50 value of 5.2 µg/mL, C. sylvestris exhibited a strong inhibition against intracellular amastigotes of L. braziliensis (IC50 value of 1.3 µg/mL. Further studies, including bio-guided fractionation will be conducted to identify the active compounds.

  13. Alelopatia de Joanesia princeps Vell. e Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Aguiar Capobiango

    Full Text Available Metabólitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de folhas de Joanesia princeps e Casearia sylvestris na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Brassica oleracea cv. capitata, Lactuca sativa cv. grand rapids e Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram testadas seis concentrações de cada extrato (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 e 100% além do controle água destilada. Os extratos aquosos de J. princeps e C. sylvestris reduziram e, ou inibiram significativamente o percentual de geminação das sementes, o crescimento inicial da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas as espécies cultivadas e causaram severas anormalidades nas plântulas. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de J. princeps e C. sylvestris.

  14. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of Casearia sylvestris and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, E S; Frederico, M J S; Colle, T D; de Pieri, D V; Peters, R R; Piovezan, A P

    2007-05-30

    The antinociceptive properties of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae) were investigated in various models of pain-related behavior in mice. The hydroalcoholic crude extract of the plant (30-300mg/kg, per os) clearly inhibited nocifensive responses induced by ovalbumin (hindpaw licking) or acetic acid (writhes) in graded fashion. At 300mg/kg, the extract reduced nocifensive behaviors (from 71.1+/-13.3 to 14.8+/-9.3s; from 31.3+/-4.5 to 3.3+/-1.2 writhes, respectively) to similar extents as indomethacin (5mg/kg; 5.7+/-1.1s and 3.3+/-1.2 writhes, respectively). Significant antinociceptive effects in the hot plate test were only detected following administration of the highest extract dose, but this analgesic action appeared to be specific as the extract failed to change motor and exploratory activities. The antinociceptive effect of Casearia sylvestris extract in the acetic acid test was prevented by prior treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (1mg/kg; 5.8+/-4.2 and 31.5+/-3.1 writhes in vehicle-treated and naloxone-treated groups, respectively), indicating that the endogenous opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action. Thus, our investigation suggests a potential therapeutic benefit of Casearia sylvestris Sw. in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  15. Antileishmanial activity of some Brazilian plants, with particular reference to Casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinarelli, Luciana M R; Pinto, Nícolas C; Scio, Elita; Coimbra, Elaine S

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex of diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa which treatment is restricted to a limited number of drugs that exhibit high toxicity, collateral effects and are often costly. There are a variety of tropical plants distributed in Brazil, and for many poor people the therapy for several diseases is based mainly on the use of traditional herbal remedies. In this work, the cytotoxic activity of 17 plant methanol extracts was evaluated on several Leishmania species and murine macrophages. Among them, the extract of Casearia sylvestris, Piptocarpha macropoda, Trembleya parviflora, Samanea tubulosa and Plectranthus neochilus showed a promissing leishmanicidal activity, exhibiting IC50 values below of 20 µg/mL against at least one species of Leishmania. Casearia sylvestris showed the most expressive activity against all promastigote forms of Leishmania species (IC50 values of 5.4 µg/mL, 5.0 µg/mL, 8.5 µg/mL and 7.7 µg/mL for L. amazonensis, L. braziliensis, L. chagasi and L. major, respectively), being more effective than the reference drug miltefosine. In spite of the cytotoxic effect on macrophages (CC50 value of 5.2 µg/mL), C. sylvestris exhibited a strong inhibition against intracellular amastigotes of L. braziliensis (IC50 value of 1.3 µg/mL). Further studies, including bio-guided fractionation will be conducted to identify the active compounds.

  16. Folk uses and pharmacological properties of Casearia sylvestris: a medicinal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo Michel P; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia V; Moraes, Manoel O; Barros, Francisco W A; Martins, Aline M A; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Santos, Andre G; Pessoa, Claudia

    2011-12-01

    Folk uses and scientific investigations have highlighted the importance of Casearia sylvestris extracts and their relevant bioactive potential. The aim of this work was to review the pharmacological properties of C. sylvestris, emphasizing its anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-ophidian and antitumor potentialities. Ethanolic extracts and essential oil of their leaves have antiulcerogenic activity and reduce gastric volume without altering the stomach pH, which corroborates their consumption on gastrointestinal disorders. Leaf water extracts show phospholipase A(2) inhibitory activity that prevents damage effects on the muscular tissue after toxin inoculation. This antiphospholipasic action is probably related to the use as an anti-inflammatory, proposing a pharmacological blockage similar to that obtained with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on arachidonic acid and cyclooxygenase pathways. Bioguided-assay fractionations lead to the identification of secondary metabolites, especially the clerodane diterpenes casearins (A-X) and casearvestrins (A-C), compounds with a remarkable cytotoxic and antitumor action. Therefore, the C. sylvestris shrub holds a known worldwide pharmacological arsenal by its extensive folk utilization, exciting searches for new molecules and a better comprehension about biological properties.

  17. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  18. Legume genetic resources and transcriptome dynamics under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Burritt, David J; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2018-01-04

    Grain legumes are an important source of nutrition and income for billions of consumers and farmers around the world. However, the low productivity of new legume varieties, due to the limited genetic diversity available for legume breeding programmes and poor policymaker support, combined with an increasingly unpredictable global climate is resulting in a large gap between current yields and the increasing demand for legumes as food. Hence, there is a need for novel approaches to develop new high-yielding legume cultivars that are able to cope with a range of environmental stressors. Next-generation technologies are providing the tools that could enable the more rapid and cost-effective genomic and transcriptomic studies for most major crops, allowing the identification of key functional and regulatory genes involved in abiotic stress resistance. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent achievements regarding abiotic stress resistance in a wide range of legume crops and highlight the transcriptomic and miRNA approaches that have been used. In addition, we critically evaluate the availability and importance of legume genetic resources with desirable abiotic stress resistance traits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  20. Comparative phylogenetic and expression analysis of small GTPases families in legume and non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ana Claudia; Via, Virginia Dalla; Savy, Virginia; Villagra, Ulises Mancini; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants. Phylogenetic analyses did not show clear differences in the organization of the different subfamilies of small GTPases between plants that engage or not in nodule symbiosis. Protein alignments revealed a strong conservation at the sequence level of small GTPases previously linked to nodulation by functional genetics. Interestingly, one Rab and three Rop proteins showed conserved amino acid substitutions in legumes, but these changes do not alter the predicted conformational structure of these proteins. Although the steady-state levels of most small GTPases do not change in response to rhizobia, we identified a subset of Rab, Rop and Arf genes whose transcript levels are modulated during the symbiotic interaction, including their spatial distribution along the indeterminate nodule. This study provides a comprehensive study of the small GTPase superfamily in several plant species. The genetic program associated to root nodule symbiosis includes small GTPases to fulfill specific functions during infection and formation of the symbiosomes. These GTPases seems to have been recruited from members that were already present in common ancestors with plants as distant as monocots

  1. Comparing EST-based genetic maps between Pinus sylvestris and Pinus taeda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komulainen, P; Brown, G R; Mikkonen, M; Karhu, A; García-Gil, M R; O'Malley, D; Lee, B; Neale, D B; Savolainen, O

    2003-08-01

    A genetic map of Pinus sylvestris was constructed using ESTP (expressed sequence tag polymorphism) markers and other gene-based markers, AFLP markers and microsatellites. Part of the ESTP markers (40) were developed and mapped earlier in Pinus taeda, and additional markers were generated based on P. sylvestris sequences or sequences from other pine species. The mapping in P. sylvestris was based on 94 F(1) progeny from a cross between plus-tree parents E635C and E1101. AFLP framework maps for the parent trees were first constructed. The ESTP and other gene sequence-based markers were added to the framework maps, as well as five published microsatellite loci. The separate maps were then integrated with the aid of AFLPs segregating in both trees (dominant segregation ratios 3:1) as well as gene markers and microsatellites segregating in both parent trees (segregation ratios 1:1:1:1 or 1:2:1). The integrated map consisted of 12 groups corresponding to the P. taeda linkage groups, and additionally three and six smaller groups for E1101 and E635C, respectively. The number of framework AFLP markers in the integrated map is altogether 194 and the number of gene markers 61. The total length of the integrated map was 1,314 cM. The set of markers developed for P. sylvestris was also added to existing maps of two P. taeda pedigrees. Starting with a mapped marker from one pedigree in the source species resulted in a mapped marker in a pedigree of the other species in more than 40% of the cases, with about equal success in both directions. The maps of the two species are largely colinear, even if the species have diverged more than 70 MYA. Most cases of different locations were probably due to problems in identifying the orthologous members of gene families. These data provide a first ESTP-containing map of P. sylvestris, which can also be used for comparing this species to additional species mapped with the same markers.

  2. Agronomic evaluation of herbaceous legumes in a subhumid zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , albeit their introduction into Uganda is recent. Keywords: agronomy; anthracnose; botany; evaluation; forage; herbage; legumes; Namulonge; reseeding; seed yield; Uganda African Journal of Range and Forage Science 1995, 12(2): 68–71 ...

  3. Effect of legume foliage supplementary feeding to dairy cattle offered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pennisetum purpureum) is the main basal diet offered, and is supplemented with legume forages among others. Recent observations indicate reduction in fodder yields of P. purpureum although farmers are applying cattle manure to improve soil fertility ...

  4. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  5. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...... to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve...

  6. Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under three grazing regimes in southern Mozambique. JP Muir. Abstract. Leucaena leucocephala, Clitoria ternatea, Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Cassia rotundifolia cv. Wynn, Macrotyloma axillare cv. Archer, Stylosanthes guianensis var. guianensis cv.

  7. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  8. Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Singla, Ranju; Geetanjali

    2004-02-01

    A large amount of energy is utilized by legume nodules for the fixation of nitrogen and assimilation of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) into organic compounds. The source of energy is provided in the form of photosynthates by the host plant. Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme, which is responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, has also been found to play an important role in carbon metabolism in legume root nodule. PEPC-mediated CO2 fixation in nodules results in the synthesis of C4 dicarboxylic acids, viz. aspartate, malate, fumarate etc. which can be transported into bacteroids with the intervention of dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) protein. PEPC has been purified from the root nodules of few legume species. Information on the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism through PEPC in leguminous plants is scanty and incoherent. This review summarizes the various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in legume root nodules.

  9. Neutralization of snake venom phospholipase A2 toxins by aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) in mouse neuromuscular preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Walter L G; Campos, Tayná O; Dal Pai-Silva, Maeli; Pereira, Paulo S; Oliveira, Clayton Z; Soares, Andreimar M; Gallacci, Márcia

    2007-07-25

    Aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) has been shown to inhibit enzymatic and biological properties of some Bothrops and Crotalus venoms and their purified phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) toxins. In this work we evaluated the influence of C. sylvestris aqueous extract upon neuromuscular blocking and muscle damaging activities of some PLA(2)s (crotoxin from C. durissus terrificus, bothropstoxin-I from B. jararacussu, piratoxin-I from B. pirajai and myotoxin-II from B. moojeni) in mouse phrenic-diaphragm preparations. Crotoxin (0.5 microM) and all other PLA(2) toxins (1.0 microM) induced irreversible and time-dependent blockade of twitches. Except for crotoxin, all PLA(2) toxins induced significant muscle damage indices, assessed by microscopic analysis. Preincubation of bothropstoxin-I, piratoxin-I or myotoxin-II with C. sylvestris extract (1:5 (w/w), 30 min, 37 degrees C) significantly prevented the neuromuscular blockade of preparations exposed to the mixtures for 90 min; the extent of protection ranged from 93% to 97%. The vegetal extract also neutralized the muscle damage (protection of 80-95%). Higher concentration of the C. sylvestris extract (1:10, w/w) was necessary to neutralize by 90% the neuromuscular blockade induced by crotoxin. These findings expanded the spectrum of C. sylvestris antivenom activities, evidencing that it may be a good source of potentially useful PLA(2) inhibitors.

  10. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  11. Legume root symbioses: Natural history and prospects for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtark Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM, rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that 'first' rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single 'evolutionary plant-microbial continuum'. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.

  12. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  13. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J

    2017-10-01

    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  14. Immunosuppression during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Lu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobium infects host legumes to elicit new plant organs, nodules where dinitrogen is fixed as ammonia that can be directly utilized by plants. The nodulation factor (NF) produced by Rhizobium is one of the determinant signals for rhizobial infection and nodule development. Recently, it was found to suppress the innate immunity on host and nonhost plants as well as its analogs, chitins. Therefore, NF can be recognized as a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern (M/PAMP) like chitin to induce the M/PAMP triggered susceptibility (M/PTS) of host plants to rhizobia. Whether the NF signaling pathway is directly associated with the innate immunity is not clear till now. In fact, other MAMPs such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and cyclic-β-glucan, together with type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors are also required for rhizobial infection or survival in leguminous nodule cells. Interestingly, most of them play similarly negative roles in the innate immunity of host plants, though their signaling is not completely elucidated. Taken together, we believe that the local immunosuppression on host plants induced by Rhizobium is essential for the establishment of their symbiosis.

  15. Pollen structure and function in caesalpinioid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J

    2016-03-01

    A diverse range of pollen morphologies occurs within the large, paraphyletic legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae, especially among early-branching lineages. Previous studies have hypothesized an association between surface ornamentation and pollination syndrome or other aspects of pollen function such as desiccation tolerance and adaptations to accommodate volume changes. We reviewed caesalpinioid pollen morphology using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with a literature survey of pollination vectors. Pollen structural diversity is greatest in the early-branching tribes Cercideae and Detarieae, whereas Cassieae and Caesalpinieae are relatively low in pollen diversity. Functional structures to counter desiccation include opercula (lids) covering apertures and reduced aperture size. Structures preventing wall rupture during dehydration and rehydration include different forms of colpi (syncolpi, parasyncolpi, pseudocolpi), striate supratectal ornamentation, and columellate or granular wall structures that resist tensile or compressive forces respectively. Specialized aperture structures (Zwischenkörper) may be advantageous for efficient germination of the pollen tube. In Detarieae and Cercideae in particular, there is potential to utilize pollen characters to estimate pollination systems where these are unknown. Supratectal verrucae and gemmae have apparently evolved iteratively in Cercideae and Detarieae. At the species level, there is a potential correlation between striate/verrucate patterns and vertebrate pollination. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Folk uses and pharmacological properties of Casearia sylvestris: a medicinal review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Michel P. Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Folk uses and scientific investigations have highlighted the importance of Casearia sylvestris extracts and their relevant bioactive potential. The aim of this work was to review the pharmacological properties of C. sylvestris, emphasizing its anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, anti-ophidian and antitumor potentialities. Ethanolic extracts and essential oil of their leaves have antiulcerogenic activity and reduce gastric volume without altering the stomach pH, which corroborates their consumption on gastrointestinal disorders. Leaf water extracts show phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity that prevents damage effects on the muscular tissue after toxin inoculation. This antiphospholipasic action is probably related to the use as an anti-inflammatory, proposing a pharmacological blockage similar to that obtained with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on arachidonic acid and cyclooxygenase pathways. Bioguided-assay fractionations lead to the identification of secondary metabolites, especially the clerodane diterpenes casearins (A-X and casearvestrins (A-C, compounds with a remarkable cytotoxic and antitumor action. Therefore, the C. sylvestris shrub holds a known worldwide pharmacological arsenal by its extensive folk utilization, exciting searches for new molecules and a better comprehension about biological properties.Usos populares e pesquisas científicas têm destacado a importância dos extratos da planta Casearia sylvestris e seu grande potencial bioativo. Neste trabalho, objetiva-se revisar as propriedades farmacológicas de C. sylvestris, enfatizando sua potencialidade antiulcerogênica, antiinflamatória, antiofídica e antitumoral. O extrato etanólico e o óleo essencial das folhas possuem atividade antiulcerogênica promissora, diminuindo o volume gástrico sem alterar o pH estomacal, corroborando sua aplicação contra dores gastrointestinais. Já os extratos aquosos das folhas têm atividade inibitória contra fosfolipase A2 presente

  18. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of the Casearia sylvestris extract on HTC and V79 cells by the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistro, E L; Carvalho, J C T; Mantovani, M S

    2004-06-01

    Casearia sylvestris is common in tropical America growing wild in Brazil in the states of Amazonas and São Paulo. Its leaves are used in Brazilian folk medicine for several diseases. The present investigation was carried out to examine the genotoxic effects of a C. sylvestris crude ethanolic extract on Hepatoma Tissue Culture (HTC cells) of Rattus norvegicus and Chinese hamster V79 cells in culture, using the comet assay. For the genotoxic evaluation the cells were treated with three different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml) of extract prepared from a 25 mg/ml aqueous solution. The positive control was cyclophosphamide for HTC cells and methyl methanesulfonate for V79 cells. The duration of the treatment was 2 h. The results showed that the extract of C. sylvestris presented no genotoxic effects and not modified effect inducing DNA damage by alkylating agents cyclophosphamide and methyl methanesulfonate in HTC and V 79 cells respectively.

  19. Experimental data of biomaterial derived from Malva sylvestris and charcoal tablet powder for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rahbar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experimental data article, a novel biomaterial was provided from Malva sylvestris and characterized its properties using various instrumental techniques. The operating parameters consisted of pH and adsorbent dose on Hg2+ adsorption from aqueous solution using M. sylvestris powder (MSP were compared with charcoal tablet powder (CTP, a medicinal drug. The data acquired showed that M. sylvestris is a viable and very promising alternative adsorbent for Hg2+ removal from aqueous solutions. The experimental data suggest that the MSP is a potential adsorbent to use in medicine for treatment of poisoning with heavy metals; however, the application in animal models is a necessary step before the eventual application of MSP in situations involving humans.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic crude extract from Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Micheline N; da Silveira, Márcia R; Danielski, Lucineia G; Florentino, Drielly; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Piovezan, Anna P

    2013-06-03

    Casearia sylvestris Sw. is widely used in popular medicine to treat inflammatory conditions. To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of hydroalcoholic crude extract (HCE) taken from Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Salicaceae). The effect of the HCE from this plant (3-300 mg/kg) on the reduction of inflammatory response to carrageenan was investigated in pleurisy in rats (intrapleural, 2% in 0.2 mL) or paw edema in mice (intraplantar, 300 μg/20 μL, right hind paw). The plant anti-inflammatory action was assessed by its capability in inhibiting cell migration, enzymatic activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and production of nitrite/nitrate or edema. The in vitro antioxidant activity of this extract against lipid peroxidation and damage to proteins was assessed as possible pathways to contribute as anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema (739.3 ± 11.9 μm) was reduced by HCE (30 mg/kg: 462.8 ± 28.38 μm) to similar extents as dexametasone (365.1 ± 16.7). In pleurisy, treatment of the animals with HCE (100mg/kg: 0.010 ± 0.001 mU/mg of protein) also reduced MPO activity augmented by carrageenan (0.020 ± 0.001 mU/mg of protein) as well as leukocytes migration (carrageenan: 17.8890 ± 2.3900 leukocytes/mL, HCE 100mg/kg: 7.0880 ± 9631 leukocytes/mL). Significant effects were also observed in animals treated with different doses of HCE in biochemical tests for oxidative stress analysis. The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of HCE from Casearia sylvestris Sw. suggests a potential therapeutic benefit of this plant in treatment of inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemotherapeutic potential of two gallic acid derivative compounds from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Saulo L; Chaar, Jamal da S; Yano, Tomomasa

    2009-04-17

    Casearia sylvestris is a plant used in the treatment of several diseases, including cancer. Studies have shown that C. sylvestris presents an interesting antitumoral potential, due to the presence of casearins and some sesquiterpens with antitumoral activity. In this work, we tested the potential chemotherapeutic of two gallic acid-derived compounds isolated from C. sylvestris leaves: isobutyl gallate-3,5-dimethyl ether (IGDE) and methyl gallate-3,5-dimethyl ether (MGDE). We utilized two tumoral models: Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EAT)/BALB/c mice and Lewis lung cancer cells (LLC1)/C57bl/6 mice. MGDE and IGDE increased the survival of mice inoculated with EAT cells and decreased the tumor volume in the LLC1 model, compared to control groups. Both compounds presented similar and low in vitro cytotoxicity against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and did not present any significant toxicity against Lewis lung cancer cells. Since the direct in vitro activity against Ehrlich tumor and Lewis lung cancer cells was low, we investigated the effects of MGDE or IGDE treatment on the activity of total natural killer cells from Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice, as a possible explanation for the mechanisms of these compounds in vivo. MGDE and IGDE improved NK cell cytotoxicity against Ehrlich ascites cells. As expected, tumor growth in non-treated mice markedly suppressed NK cell cytolysis while, IGDE completely reversed this effect, when mice were treated with 0.5 mg/kg dosages of these compounds for 4 days. The pharmacokinetic studies showed that IGDE remains in the organism for a long period of time, possibly explaining the higher compound efficiency.

  2. Ethanolic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw exhibitsin vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities andin vivo hypolipidemic effect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. ESPINOSA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:The Casearia sylvestris Sw (Flacourtiaceae is a shrub that occurs in forests of Southern Brazil; its leaves are widely used in folk medicine as a depurative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiulcerogenic agent. The objective of this study was to perform the phytochemical description and to evaluate the pharmacological activities (antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant and toxicity of the ethanolic extract (EE of C. sylvestris Sw. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of the EE ofC. sylvestris Sw on the glucose levels and lipid profile in blood serum of rats submitted to a model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Material and Methods: In vitro assay: the detection of chemical groups was done through chemical reactions with the development of color or precipitate and by chromatographic profile; the antioxidant activity was measured by the method of reduction of DPPH free radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl; the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was evaluated by the broth microdilution method, and the Minimum Bactericide Concentration and the Minimum Fungicide Concentration were performed in Petri dishes; the cytotoxic activity was measured by the Artemia salina test. In vivo assay: diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated with EE of C. sylvestris Sw (300 mg/kg for 45 days, and the glycaemia and lipid profile were analyzed. Results: The EE showed a Lethal Dose50 of 724.76 μg.mL-1 and important antioxidant, fungicide and fungistatic activities. The EE showed better antimicrobial activity regarding the microorganismsStaphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli andSalmonella setubal. Conclusion: The EE of C. sylvestris Sw produces a significant decrease in triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL levels without any significant alteration in the glycaemia. The EE of C. sylvestris Sw presents antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and it exhibits a potent hypolipidemic effect.

  3. Effect of years and origins into the seed production of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Díez Alonso, María

    2013-01-01

    Ocho áreas ocupadas de forma natural por Pinus sylvestris y localizadas a diferentes latitudes en Finlandia fueron seleccionadas y estudiadas desde 1997 hasta 2001para analizar las diferencias en el ratio de flores femeninas que desarrollan cono y el número de semillas por cono. Las condiciones climatológicas, las condiciones del lugar y el tiempo de floración son algunos de los factores que pueden afectar la producción de semilla. Los resultados muestran la posibilidad de existen...

  4. [Variability of the cytological parameters of Pinus sylvestris L. seeds from the unique Hrenovskoy pine forest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Cherkashina, O N; Chernodubov, A I; Avdeeva, I A

    2005-06-01

    Hrenovskoy pine forest is a unique island stand at the boundary of the species range of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. This object is of exceptional economic value, because it serves as a forest-seed base for the Voronezh oblast and some other regions of Russia; therefore, the stand and seed qualities have to be monitored constantly. The results of the first cytogenetic study of the seed progeny of P. sylvestris from the Morozov Grove, a high-quality stand in a reserved site within the Hrenovskoy pine forest, are reported. The studies have been performed in order to obtain a more correct assessment of seed quality based not only on their germination and energy of germination (traditionally used by forest breeders), but also on their genomic stability. The latter may be estimated by the stability of chromosome number in the somatic cells of seedlings and the regularity of mitotic divisions, because they also characterize the state of the generative system of parental forms and may serve as an integrated estimate of the stand development homeostasis. Therefore, the chromosome number, mitotic and nucleolar activities, and the number and spectrum of pathological mitoses (PMs) have been determined. Seedlings have been obtained from 240 seeds (collected from 12 trees) that resulted from free pollination. The cytological analysis of the rootlets of these seedlings has not detected any deviations from the chromosome number typical of the species P. sylvestris L. (2n = 24). However, considerable variation has been found in each family with respect to the mitotic index (MI) (from 4.2 +/- 0.36 to 8.1 +/- 0.39%) and the number of PMs (from 0.5 to 2.1%); micronuclei have also been found in each family (from 0.01 to 0.05%). In general, the phenotypic characteristics and the variation pattern of cytological parameters of the progeny of the trees studied in the Hrenovskoy pine forest, together with the high germination rate of seeds (90-98%), indicate that the current state of

  5. Alelopatia de Joanesia princeps Vell. e Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

    OpenAIRE

    Capobiango,Rafael Aguiar; Vestena,Silvane; Bittencourt,Alexandre Horácio Couto

    2009-01-01

    Metabólitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de folhas de Joanesia princeps e Casearia sylvestris na germinação e no desenvolvimento inicial de plântulas de Brassica oleracea cv. capitata, Lactuca sativa cv. grand rapids e Lycopersicum esculentum. Foram testadas seis concentrações de cada extrato (10, 30, 50, 70,...

  6. Novel bioactive clerodane diterpenoids from the leaves and twigs of Casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlies, Nicholas H; Burgess, Jason P; Navarro, Hernán A; Pinos, Rosa Elena; Fairchild, Craig R; Peterson, Russell W; Soejarto, Djaja D; Farnsworth, Norman R; Kinghorn, A Douglas; Wani, Mansukh C; Wall, Monroe E

    2002-02-01

    Fractionation of a methanol extract of the leaves and twigs of Casearia sylvestris, as directed by activity against KB cell cytotoxicity, led to the isolation of three novel clerodane diterpenoids, casearvestrins A-C (1-3). The structures of 1-3 were deduced from one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments, including relative stereochemical assignments based on ROESY correlations and COSY coupling constants. All three compounds displayed promising bioactivity, both in cytotoxicity assays against a panel of tumor cell lines and in antifungal assays via the growth inhibition of Aspergillus niger in a disk diffusion assay.

  7. Trypanocidal activity of a new diterpene from Casearia sylvestris var. lingua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espindola, Laila Salmen; Vasconcelos Júnior, José Rossy e; de Mesquita, Mariana Laundry; Marquié, Patrick; de Paula, José Elias; Mambu, Lengo; Santana, Jaime Martins

    2004-11-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the hexanic root bark extract of Casearia sylvestris var. lingua led to the isolation of a new clerodane diterpene, whose structure was elucidated as rel-(2 S,5 R,6 R,8 S,9 S,10 R,18 S,19 R)-19-acetoxy-18,19-epoxy-6-hydroxy-18-butanoyloxy-2-(2-methylbutanoyloxy)cleroda-3,13(16), 14-triene by spectroscopic means, including 1D and 2D NMR analyses. This compound showed pronounced activity on Trypanosoma cruzi, the casual agent of Chagas' disease, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 0.59 microg/mL.

  8. Two new C(13) nor-isoprenoids from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Xing-Cong; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas Ahmed

    2009-06-01

    Two new C(13) nor-isoprene glycosides, (6S,9S)-6,9-dihydroxymegastiman-4-en-9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and (6S,9S)-6,9-dihydroxymegastiman-4-en-9-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris, along with icariside B(5) (3), byzantionoside B (4), blumenol B (5), blumenol C (6) and loliolide (7). The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, MS and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic analyses, chemical methods and comparison with the literature data.

  9. Genetic processes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    As immobile organisms, plants have to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions and make use of different adaptive mechanisms to survive and reproduce successfully under stress. It is often difficult to detect the organism s or population s response to stress factors due to slow changes of environmental conditions or delayed reactions of plants. From this point of view, the investigation of reactions under extreme environmental change offer unique opportunities to study adaptation mechanisms. Areas with a strong anthropogenic impact on the environment represent ideal places for research on adaptation or selection processes. For many decades, ionizing radiation is well known as a strong damaging and stress factor. Radiation exposure causes heavy damages of the DNA. This leads to a decrease in fitness in the present generation and inheritable mutations which reveal their effects in later generations. On the other hand, radiation exposure activates adaptation processes to ensure survival. The investigation of the influence of radiation at different levels of life organization from the DNA level to the population level can help to elucidate response mechanisms to changing environments. After the accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the surrounding territories were contaminated with high amounts of radioactive material. The exclusion zone became a natural laboratory for the investigation of effects of radiation on the biocenosis. Pinus sylvestris is one of the most wildly used species in radiation research due to its very high sensitivity to radiation exposure and dominance in forest ecosystems of the exclusion zone. Nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLP markers were investigated in order to study mutation rates and selection processes under the influence of radiation in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) of different age and irradiation conditions collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and control areas. The results of this study show that a

  10. Heredity of flake- and stripe-variegated traits and their introduction into Japanese day-neutral winter-flowering sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagishita, Yoshimi; Hara, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sweet pea ( Lathyrus odoratus L.) is a major cut flower in Japan, generally grown in greenhouses in winter to spring. The wild-type sweet pea is a long-day summer-flowering plant. The day-neutral winter-flowering ability, which allows cut-flower production in Japan, is a recessive phenotype that emerged by spontaneous mutation. Although Japanese winter-flowering cultivars and additionally spring-flowering cultivars, which have semi-long-day flowering ability generated by crossing the winter- and summer-flowering cultivars, have superior phenotypes for cut flowers, they have limited variation in color and fragrance. In particular, variegated phenotypes do not appear in modern winter- and spring-flowering cultivars, only in summer-flowering cultivars. We try to expand the phenotypic diversity of Japanese cut flower cultivars. In the processes, we introduced the variegated phenotypes by crossing with summer-flowering cultivars, and succeeded in breeding some excellent cultivars. During breeding, we analyzed the segregation ratios and revealed the heredity of the phenotypes. Here we review the heredity of these variegated phenotypes and winter-flowering phenotypes and their related genes. We also describe how we introduced the trait into winter-flowering cultivars, tracing their pedigrees to show both phenotypes and genotypes of the progeny at each generation. This knowledge is useful for the efficient breeding of new variegated cultivars.

  11. Diamine Oxidase from White Pea (Lathyrus sativus) Combined with Catalase Protects the Human Intestinal Caco-2 Cell Line from Histamine Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, Catherine; Séïde, Marilyne; Marcocci, Lucia; Pietrangeli, Paola; Mateescu, Mircea Alexandru

    2017-07-01

    Diamine oxidase (DAO) administration has been proposed to treat certain gastrointestinal dysfunctions induced by histamine, an immunomodulator, signaling, and pro-inflammatory factor. However, H 2 O 2 resulting from the oxidative deamination of histamine by DAO may be toxic. The purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent DAO from white pea (Lathyrus sativus), alone or in combination with catalase, may modulate histamine toxicity in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. The results show that histamine at concentrations higher than 1 mM is toxic to the Caco-2 cells, independently of the cell differentiation status, with a LC 50 of ≅ 10 mM following a 24-h exposure. Depending on its concentration, DAO increased histamine toxicity to a greater extent in differentiated cells compared to undifferentiated cultures. In the presence of catalase, the DAO-induced increase in histamine toxicity was completely abolished in the undifferentiated cells and only partially decreased in differentiated cells, showing differences in the sensitivity of Caco-2 cells to the products resulting from histamine degradation by DAO (H 2 O 2 , NH 3 , or imidazole aldehyde). It appears that treatment of food histaminosis using a combination of vegetal DAO and catalase would protect against histamine toxicity and prevent H 2 O 2 -induced damage that may occur during histamine oxidative deamination.

  12. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal K. Panda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH3COO2 through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed (Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich and cationic Zn2+ from Zn(CH3COO2 were tested in a dose range of 0–100 mg·L−1 for their potency (i to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2•−, H2O2 and •OH, cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, guaiacol peroxidase (GPX, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX; and (iii to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn2+ alone.

  13. Flavonoid-Deficient Mutants in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.: Genetic Control, Linkage Relationships, and Mapping with Aconitase and S-Nitrosoglutathione Reductase Isozyme Loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two flavonoid-deficient mutants, designated as fldL-1 and fldL-2, were isolated in EMS-mutagenized (0.15%, 10 h M2 progeny of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.. Both the mutants contained total leaf flavonoid content only 20% of their mother varieties. Genetic analysis revealed monogenic recessive inheritance of the trait, controlled by two different nonallelic loci. The two mutants differed significantly in banding patterns of leaf aconitase (ACO and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR isozymes, possessing unique bands in Aco 1, Aco 2, and Gsnor 2 loci. Isozyme loci inherited monogenically showing codominant expression in F2 (1 : 2 : 1 and backcross (1 : 1 segregations. Linkage studies and primary trisomic analysis mapped Aco 1 and fld 1 loci on extra chromosome of trisomic-I and Aco 2, fld 2, and Gsnor 2 on extra chromosome of trisomic-IV in linked associations.

  14. Green Synthesized Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Induce Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Lathyrus sativus L. Root Bioassay System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Kamal K; Golari, Dambaru; Venugopal, A; Achary, V Mohan M; Phaomei, Ganngam; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Sahu, Hrushi K; Panda, Brahma B

    2017-05-18

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP-GS) were synthesised from the precursor zinc acetate (Zn(CH₃COO)₂) through the green route using the milky latex from milk weed ( Calotropis gigantea L. R. Br) by alkaline precipitation. Formation of the ZnONP-GS was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy followed by characterization and confirmation by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Both the ZnONP-GS and the commercially available ZnONP-S (Sigma-Aldrich) and cationic Zn 2+ from Zn(CH₃COO)₂ were tested in a dose range of 0-100 mg·L -1 for their potency (i) to induce oxidative stress as measured by the generation reactive oxygen species (ROS: O₂ •- , H₂O₂ and • OH), cell death, and lipid peroxidation; (ii) to modulate the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX); and (iii) to cause DNA damage as determined by Comet assay in Lathyrus sativus L. root bioassay system. Antioxidants such as Tiron and dimethylthiourea significantly attenuated the ZnONP-induced oxidative and DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of ROS therein. Our study demonstrated that both ZnONP-GS and ZnONP-S induced oxidative stress and DNA damage to a similar extent but were significantly less potent than Zn 2+ alone.

  15. Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Wikiera, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Tempeh is a food product obtained from legumes by means of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Our previous research proved that mixed-culture inoculum may also be successfully applied. The objective of present research was to study the proteolytic activity of R. microsporus var. chinensis and A. oryzae during tempeh-type fermentation of grass pea seeds, and the effect of inoculum composition on the protein level and in vitro protein bioavailability in products. Fermentation substrate were soaked and cooked grass pea seeds. Material was mixed with single- or mixed-culture inoculum, and incubated in perforated plastic bags at 30°C for 32 hrs. In the products, the proteolytic activity (pH 3, 5 and 7), glucosamine, total protein and free amino acids levels, as well as protein in vitro bioavailability and degree of protein hydrolysis were obtained. The significant correlation was found between glucosamine content and proteolytic activity in grass pea seeds fermented with Rhizopus or Aspergillus. The activities of Rhizopus proteases were higher than Aspergillus ones, which corresponded with the degree of seed protein hydrolysis. Both strains showed the highest activity of protease at pH 3. Tempeh made with pure culture of Rhizopus had 37% protein of 69% in-vitro bioavailability. Mixed-culture fermentation improved nutritional parameters of products only when the dose of Aspergillus spores in the inoculum was equal and lower than that of Rhizopus. This process resulted in higher in-vitro bioavailability of protein, slightly more efficient protein hydrolysis and higher level of free amino acids, as compared to standard tempeh. The activity of A. oryzae in tempeh-type fermentation is beneficial as long as it does not dominate the activity and/or growth of Rhizopus strain.

  16. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  17. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  18. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  19. Wait or escape? Contrasting submergence tolerance strategies of Rorippa amphibia, Rorippa sylvestris and their hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Melis; Bhikharie, Amit V.; McLean, Elizabeth H.; Boonman, Alex; Visser, Eric J. W.; Schranz, M. Eric; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differential responses of closely related species to submergence can provide insight into the evolution and mechanisms of submergence tolerance. Several traits of two wetland species from habitats with contrasting flooding regimes, Rorippa amphibia and Rorippa sylvestris, as well as F1 hybrid Rorippa × anceps were analysed to unravel mechanisms underlying submergence tolerance. Methods In the first submergence experiment (lasting 20 d) we analysed biomass, stem elongation and carbohydrate content. In the second submergence experiment (lasting 3 months) we analysed survival and the effect of re-establishment of air contact on biomass and carbohydrate content. In a separate experiment we analysed expression of two carbohydrate catabolism genes, ADH1 and SUS1, upon re-establishment of air contact following submergence. Key Results All plants had low mortality even after 3 months of submergence. Rorippa sylvestris was characterized by 100 % survival and higher carbohydrate levels coupled with lower ADH1 gene expression as well as reduced growth compared with R. amphibia. Rorippa amphibia and the hybrid elongated their stems but this did not pay-off in higher survival when plants remained submerged. Only R. amphibia and the hybrid benefited in terms of increased biomass and carbohydrate accumulation upon re-establishing air contact. Conclusions Results demonstrate contrasting ‘escape’ and ‘quiescence’ strategies between Rorippa species. Being a close relative of arabidopsis, Rorippa is an excellent model for future studies on the molecular mechanism(s) controlling these strategies. PMID:22499857

  20. Healing activity of Casearia sylvestris Sw. in second-degree scald burns in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Evandro Pedro; Trombini, Letícia Nava; Rodrigues, Rafaela; Portella, Décio Luis; Werner, Adriana Carolina; Ferraz, Miriele Cristina; de Oliveira, Robson Vicente Machado; Cogo, José Carlos; Oshima-Franco, Yoko; Aranha, Norberto; Gerenutti, Marli

    2015-06-26

    Every year thousands of people are victims of burns, mainly scald burns. Many of these victims have small size wounds and superficial partial thickness and do not seek specialized medical care. As in Brazil Casearia sylvestris Sw., popularly known as guaçatonga is widely used for its analgesic, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory activities, this study sought to evaluate the effects of its hydroalcoholic extract in healing process of burns injuries. The obtained extract was validated applying a thin layer chromatography and sophisticated validation method using Bothrops jararacussu snake venom that is necrotic and inflammatory, and by which guaçatonga extract was able to neutralize the irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by the venom. After induction of the scald injury, the animals were treated daily with saline solution spray; spray containing extract; biofilm; or biofilm impregnated with extract. Significant differences were observed between the four groups studied considering: extension of the healing area, neovascularization, fibroblast proliferation, and epithelialization. The anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effects of C. sylvestris Sw. suggests a potential therapeutic benefit in the treatment of inflammatory conditions in second-degree scald burn injuries, as well as, counteracting against the in vitro paralysis induced by B. jararacussu venom.

  1. Genetic diversity of Casearia sylvestris populations in remnants of the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, F L; Siqueira, M V B M; Grando, C; Viana, J P G; Pinheiro, J B; Alves-Pereira, A; Campos, J B; Brancalion, P H S; Zucchi, M I

    2017-01-23

    Guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris) is a native plant of the Atlantic Forest, with high medicinal potential and relevance for reforestation programs. The aim of this study was to characterize, with microsatellite markers, two populations of C. sylvestris from remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest in the State of São Paulo. High allelic variation was found in both populations (N A = 101 and 117; A R = 12.5 and 14.4), although with high endogamy coefficients (f = 0.640 and 0.363). Estimates of genetic structure suggested the presence of considerable genetic divergence between the populations (F ST = 0.103); however, there was no spatial genetic structure within the populations. Genetic divergence may have occurred due to decreased gene flow between the fragmented populations as the result of deforestation. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of genetic diversity and its characterization in native plants within remaining forest areas for the management and restoration of such areas.

  2. Development and Characterisation of Irap Markers From Expressed Retrotransposon-like sequences in Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronova Angelika

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Conifer genomes are large and stably diploid, in contrast to angiosperms, which are more variable both in genome size and ploidy. Conifer genomes are characterised by multiple gene families and pseudogenes, contain large inter-gene regions and a considerable proportion of repetitive sequences. All members of plant retrotransposon orders have been identified in gymnosperm genomes, however active elements have not been described. Investigation of transposable elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. could offer insights into transposon-mediated reorganisation under stress conditions in complex and ancient plant genomes. Nine Pinus sylvestris specific markers were developed to hypothetical long terminal repeats (LTRs from differentially expressed retrotransposon-like fragments after heat stress and insect damage. Genetic diversity of 150 trees from a naturally regenerated pine stand was investigated using the IRAP method. The developed markers revealed high levels of genetic diversity and were able to distinguish subpopulations growing in long-term differential environmental conditions. Somaclonal variation was also investigated using these markers and polymorphic fragments were identified between ramets of Scots pine clones growing in two different plantations, possibly indicating evidence of recent transposition events. Sequencing of the polymorphic fragments identified two groups of sequences containing LTR sequences of an unknown retrotransposon with homology to the LTRs of the Copia-17-PAb-I element.

  3. Biogeochemical assessment of environmental risk by the example of Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybakov Dmitry Sergeevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using annual rings of Pinus sylvestris L. to assess chemical pollution in the Republic of Karelia is discussed. With the help of principal component factor analysis the relationship between the contents of chemical elements and dendrological parameters – the width of annual rings and wood density - was revealed. The main factors contributing to the pollution of the northern part of the Republic of Karelia by the emission from iron-ore enterprise JSC «Karelsky Okatysh» are frequent ecologically significant wind directions, the distance from the source and the total mass of the emission. The value of radial growth (the average width of annual rings for five-years of Pinus sylvestris L. is connected negatively with the content of Cu, Cd, Ni and Fe. As an element of nutrition, Mn is positively correlated with the density of wood wherein it is an antagonist of Fe and partially of Cr in northern areas . Several peaks of Pb content coincide with the most intense tests of atomic weapons. Sharp maximums of Pb can also be due to a cross-border pollution and emission from regional sources.

  4. Impact of Experimentally Elevated Ozone on Seed Germination and Growth of Russian Pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Spruce (Picea spp.) Provenances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-01-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies X P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio,

  5. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  6. Responses to recent climate warming of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus cembra within their montane transition zone in the Swiss Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haettenschwiler, S.; Koerner, C. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland). Botanisches Inst.

    1995-06-01

    Altitudinal and latitudinal distribution limits of trees are mainly controlled by temperature. Therefore climate warming is expected to induce upslope or poleward migrations. In the Swiss Central Alps, summers in the period 1982-1991 were on average 0.8 deg C warmer than those of the period 30 yr before. We investigated whether populations of conifers at the montane Pinus sylvestris-Pinus cembra ecocline exhibit demographic trends in response to that warming. We found no evidence for this. Young seedlings of Pinus sylvestris, the species which is expected to expand its range upward in a warmer climate, were virtually absent from all sites, whereas large fractions of Pinus cembra populations were observed in the seedlings and juvenile categories even below the present lower distribution limit of adult trees. This suggests that there are no major altitudinal shifts in response to the recent sequence of warmer summers. Germination and seedling survival trials with Pinus sylvestris suggest that temperature per se would not exclude this species even from establishing at the current treeline in the Swiss Central Alps. Similar results were found at the polar treeline. Phytotron tests of seedling survival showed much less drought resistance in Pinus sylvestris than in Pinus cembra which is in contrast to their phytogeographic distributions. Thus, the montane pine ecocline in the Swiss Central Alps seems to be stabilized by species interactions and may not be directly responsive to moderate climatic change, which needs to be taken into account in predictive attempts. 56 refs, 5 figs, 8 tabs

  7. Identification of a mitochondrial external NADPH dehydrogenase by overexpression in transgenic ¤Nicotiana sylvestris¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalecka, A.M.; Agius, S.C.; Møller, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    (P)H dehydrogenases, was introduced into Nicotiana sylvestris. Transgenic lines with high transcript and protein levels for St-NDB1 had up to threefold increased activity of external NADPH dehydrogenase in isolated mitochondria as compared to the wild type (WT). In two lines, the external NADPH dehydrogenase activity...

  8. Inhibition of NTPDase, 5'-nucleotidase, Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase activities by subchronic treatment with Casearia sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, A C; Balz, D; de Souza, J B D'A; Morsch, V M; Corrêa, M C; Zanetti, G D; Manfron, M P; Schetinger, M R C

    2006-07-01

    The aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris was tested in cortical membrane preparations. C. sylvestris was obtained commercially from two different sources, designated as Sample A and Sample B. The enzymes studied in this work were NTPDase-like, 5'-Nucleotidase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Adult rats received aqueous extracts from C. sylvestris in a dose of 20mg/kg body wt. daily for a 75-day-period, by oral administration (gavage). Our study showed that this treatment caused an inhibition of NTPDase-like activity with both, ATP (19.41% with Sample A and 25.03% with Sample B) and ADP (41.57% with Sample A and 31.20% with Sample B) as substrates. This treatment also caused an inhibition of 5'-nucleotidase activity (28.34% with Sample A and 31.46% with Sample B) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (25.08% with Sample A and 24.81% with Sample B). The rate of acetylcholine degradation was reduced, as shown by the inhibition of AChE (31.65% and 26.74%, Samples A and B, respectively). These results suggest that extracts of C. sylvestris can cause neurochemical alterations in the purinergic and cholinergic systems of the central nervous system.

  9. Competition for nitrogen between Pinus sylvestris and ectomycorrhizal fungi generates potential for negative feedback under elevated CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberton, O.; Kuyper, T.W.; Gorissen, A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated fungal species-specific responses of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings on growth and nutrient acquisition together with mycelial development under ambient and elevated CO2. Each seedling was associated with one of the following ECM species: Hebeloma

  10. Nitrogen contributions of legume roots to cabbage nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of roots are generally not considered in studies assessing crop responses to green manure. However, measuring such effects can contribute to a better understanding of crop rotation. In two experiments, we evaluated the content of legume-N in crop tissue and the fertilizer value of the roots and shoots of two legume species. Roots, shoots, or whole plants of the legumes sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea and jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis were cropped as green manure to supply nitrogen to cabbage crops (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The principle of the A-value technique was applied to estimate the fertilizer value of each plant part. In a pot experiment, both the content of legume-N in cabbage and the fertilizer value of the whole plant was higher than the shoots, which was in turn higher than that of the roots. In field condition, roots had a decreasing effect on the N content of cabbage plants. Growing cabbage on legume root residue resulted in an increased absorption of 15N-urea, resulting in negative values ​​for legume-N content: -13.59 g kg-1 and -3.51 g kg-1 for sunhemp and jack beans, respectively. Suggesting both low N supply by roots and N immobilization in soil organic matter or microbial biomass. Future research should focus on estimating the net N acquisition by plants from root residues under field conditions, where rooting patterns and biomass distribution differ from those in pot experiments, therefore giving a more realistic quantitative estimate.

  11. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...... to neighbouring plants differed among nitrogen donors and nitrogen receivers and may depend on root characteristics and regrowth strategies of plant species in the multi-species grassland.......Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...

  12. [LEGUME-RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS PROTEOMICS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Iu Iu; Mamenko, P M; Kots, S Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present review contains results of proteomic researches of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The technical difficulties associated with the methods of obtaining protein extracts from symbiotic structures and ways of overcoming them were discussed. The changes of protein synthesis under formation and functioning of symbiotic structures were shown. Special attention has been given to the importance of proteomic studies of plant-microbe structures in the formation of adaptation strategies under adverse environmental conditions. The technical and conceptual perspectives of legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics were shown.

  13. Effects of alternative legume seeds on Barbaresca lamb meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pennisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a renewed interest towards the use of local legume seeds in animal nutrition was raising in Mediterranean areas. Conventional feedstuffs such as maize and soybean and animal by-products, the former widely diffused as genetically modified organisms (GMO and the latter related to “mad cow disease” produced significative changes in public perceptions, justifying a dramatic increase of the use of alternative protein and energy sources such as legume seeds (peas, faba beans, chickpeas (Hanbury et al., 2000...

  14. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of different cereal-legume blending ratios on nutritional quality and functional property of different blends. The legumes and steeped cereals were cleaned, minimally roasted, dehulled, milled and sifted separately. A single-factor experiment with three levels of the factor (cereal: legume ratio ...

  15. rotational effects of grain legumes on maize performance in the rift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-10-27

    Oct 27, 2000 ... The study has demonstrated that the use of grain legumes, particularly dolichos in rotation with maize, is a ... legume plant residues (Onim etal., 1990; Kwesiga and Coe, 1994; Wortmann et al., 1994; Peoples et ... It may be feasible to produce suitably adapted legumes during the shcrt rains to produce ...

  16. The Lathyrus excitotoxin β-N-oxalyl-L-α,β-diaminopropionic acid is a substrate of the L-cystine/L-glutamate exchanger system xc-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Brady A.; Patel, Sarjubhai A.; Nunn, Peter B.; Bridges, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    β-N-Oxalyl-L-α-β-diaminopropionic acid (β-L-ODAP) is an unusual amino acid present in seeds of plants from the Lathyrus genus that is generally accepted as the causative agent underlying the motor neuron degeneration and spastic paraparesis in human neurolathyrism. Much of the neuropathology produced by β-L-ODAP appears to be a direct consequence of its structural similarities to the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate and its ability to induce excitotoxicity as an agonist of non-NMDA receptors. Its actions within the CNS are, however, not limited to non-NMDA receptors, raising the likely possibility that the anatomical and cellular specificity of the neuronal damage observed in neurolathyrism may result from the cumulative activity of β-L-ODAP at multiple sites. Accumulating evidence suggests that system x c - , a transporter that mediates the exchange of L-cystine and L-glutamate, is one such site. In the present work, two distinct approaches were used to define the interactions of β-L-ODAP with system x c - : Traditional radiolabel-uptake assays were employed to quantify inhibitory activity, while fluorometrically coupled assays that follow the exchange-induced efflux of L-glutamate were used to assess substrate activity. In addition to confirming that β-L-ODAP is an effective competitive inhibitor of system x c - , we report that the compound exhibits a substrate activity comparable to that of the endogenous substrate L-cystine. The ability of system x c - to transport and accumulate β-L-ODAP identifies additional variables that could influence its toxicity within the CNS, including the ability to limit its access to EAA receptors by clearing the excitotoxin from the extracellular synaptic environment, as well as serving as a point of entry through which β-L-ODAP could have increased access to intracellular targets

  17. Evaluation of phosphorous biofertilizer and chemical phosphorous influence on fodder quality of corn (Zea mays L. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativa L. intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naghizadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping is considered as a method for increasing yield per unit and stability. In order to evaluate the effects of phosphorous biofertilizer and chemical phosphorous on fodder quality of corn (Zea mays L. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativa L. intercropping, two field experiments were conducted as factorial based on randomized complete block design with four replications at two places simultaneously in Kerman and Bardsir during growing season of 2009-2010. The investigated factors included four levels of phosphorous fertilizer (100 g.ha-1 of phosphorous biofertilizer, 150 kg.ha-1 of chemical fertilizer, %50 phosphorous biofertilizer+%50 chemical phosphorous and control and five replacement intercropping patterns consist of sole crop of corn and grass pea, various proportions of corn and grass pea (75:25, 50:50 and 25:75. The result showed that the location effect on dry matter digestibility, crude protein, ash percentage, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was significant but location effect on water soluble carbohydrate was not significant. Moreover, dry matter digestibility, crude protein, ash percentage, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and water soluble carbohydrate influenced by various proportions of intercropping, extremely. Also, phosphorous applying on all of mentioned traits was significant, unless ash percentage. Dry matter digestibility, water soluble carbohydrate and crude protein of fodder influenced by various proportions of intercropping×phosphorous fertilizer interaction. Various proportions of corn and grass pea intercropping had higher fodder quality than sole cop of them; because, they had higher values of dry Matter digestibility, crude protein, water soluble carbohydrate and ash Percentage and lower values of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Dabble application of phosphorous biofertilizer and chemical phosphorous promote fodder quality due to increase solubility of insoluble

  18. Efeitos benéficos e maléficos da malva sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Locatelli Ecker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Revisar os efeitos benéficos e maléficos da Malva sylvestris para a saúde humana. Materiais e métodos. Foi realizada uma busca na base de dados BIREME, em setembro de 2014, por meio das pala­vras chaves malva AND sylvestris. Foram incluídos os artigos na língua inglesa e portuguesa sem limite de tempo. Foram excluídos os estudos repetidos e aqueles que não abordavam o tema. Resultados. Atra­vés da busca realizada, foram encontrados 56 artigos, destes, foram excluídos dois repetidos, um por encontrar-se no idioma chinês e, 41 por estarem fora do tema (benefícios para animais e solo, proprie­dades químicas da erva, pesquisa em campo de determinadas regiões do mundo abrangendo índices de utilização de muitas espécies de plantas para fins medicinais. Assim, foram, incluídos 12 artigos. Com grande importância terapêutica, a erva tem sido utilizada na área da saúde em geral para inflamações internas e externas, fins quimio-preventivos e antissépticos. Também alivia secreções como catarros, congestionamento das vias respiratórias e age como calmante no sistema neurológico. Segundo pes­quisas, o chá de malva apresenta resultados mais vantajosos do que tratamentos medicamentosos e é uma das mais utilizadas como auto-medicação. Conclusão. A Malva sylvestris é utilizada para muitos fins benéficos para o ser humano desde tempos remotos, mas sua comprovação científica tem ocorrido atualmente, evidenciando a veracidade de suas vantagens na saúde e no tratamento de patologias.

  19. Malva sylvestris Inhibits Inflammatory Response in Oral Human Cells. An In Vitro Infection Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Benso

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Malva sylvestris extract (MSE and fractions in a co-culture model of cells infected by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. In addition, we evaluated the phytochemical content in the extract and fractions of M. sylvestris and demonstrated that polyphenols were the most frequent group in all samples studied. An in vitro dual-chamber model to mimic the periodontal structure was developed using a monolayer of epithelial keratinocytes (OBA-9 and a subepithelial layer of fibroblasts (HGF-1. The invasive periodontopathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans (D7S-1 was applied to migrate through the cell layers and induce the synthesis of immune factors and cytokines in the host cells. In an attempt to analyze the antimicrobial properties of MSE and fractions, a susceptibility test was carried out. The extract (MIC 175 μg/mL, MBC 500μg/mL and chloroform fraction (MIC 150 μg/mL, MBC 250 μg/mL were found to have inhibitory activity. The extract and all fractions were assessed using a cytotoxicity test and results showed that concentrations under 100 μg/mL did not significantly reduce cell viability compared to the control group (p > 0.05, viability > 90%. In order to analyze the inflammatory response, transcriptional factors and cytokines were quantified in the supernatant released from the cells. The chloroform fraction was the most effective in reducing the bacterial colonization (p< 0.05 and controlling inflammatory mediators, and promoted the down-regulation of genes including IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, CD14, PTGS, MMP-1 and FOS as well as the reduction of the IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and GM-CSF protein levels (p< 0.05. Malva sylvestris and its chloroform fraction minimized the A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and inflammation processes in oral human cells by a putative pathway that involves important cytokines and receptors. Therefore, this natural product may be considered

  20. Charting novel allergens from date palm pollen (Phoenix sylvestris) using homology driven proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta

    2017-08-08

    Pollen grains from Phoenix sylvestris (date palm), a commonly cultivated tree in India has been found to cause severe allergic diseases in an increasing percentage of hypersensitive individuals. To unearth its allergenic components, pollen protein were profiled by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with date palm pollen sensitive patient sera. Allergens were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF employing a layered proteomic approach combining conventional database dependent search and manual de novo sequencing followed by homology-based search as Phoenix sylvestris is unsequenced. Derivatization of tryptic peptides by acetylation has been demonstrated to differentiate the 'b' from the 'y' ions facilitating efficient de novo sequencing. Ten allergenic proteins were identified, out of which six showed homology with known allergens while others were reported for the first time. Amongst these, isoflavone reductase, beta-conglycinin, S-adenosyl methionine synthase, 1, 4 glucan synthase and beta-galactosidase were commonly reported as allergens from coconut pollen and presumably responsible for cross-reactivity. One of the allergens had IgE binding epitope recognized by its glycan moiety. The allergenic potency of date palm pollen has been demonstrated using in vitro tests. The identified allergens can be used to develop vaccines for immunotherapy against date palm pollen allergy. Identification of allergenic proteins from sources harboring them is essential in developing therapeutic interventions. This is the first comprehensive study on the identification of allergens from Phoenix sylvestris (date palm) pollen, one of the major aeroallergens in India using a proteomic approach. Proteomic methods are being increasingly used to identify allergens. However, since many of these proteins arise from species which are un-sequenced, it becomes difficult to interpret those using conventional proteomics. Date palm being an unsequenced species, the Ig

  1. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... Seed characteristics of legume species used in this study. Species. Cultivar. Collect location. Seed mass (mg). T. repens. -. Jilin Province. 0.58±0.002 .... The effects of depth (D), light (L), species (S) and their interaction on germination characteristics, morphological ..... Early seedling growth of pine (Pinus.

  2. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ..... and oil quality at UAS-D, while genotyping with 53 poly- morphic markers was generated at ...

  3. Assessment of Traditionally Produced Dakuwa (A Cereal/Legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dakuwa (a local legume/cereal snack) samples were collected from local producers cutting across seven local government areas in Niger State, central Nigeria and assessed on the basis of proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and mineral content, microbiological and sensory qualities. There were significant ...

  4. Progress with the legume bacteria in Rhodesia | HDL | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress during eight years of work in Rhodesia with Rhizobium is presented. 370 of the country's 507 known indigenous species of legumes have been examined for nodulation, and all but 13 found to form nodules. A collection of 573 isolates of Rhizobium, 221 of them from other countries, has been built up on a basis of ...

  5. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes (Trifolium repens L., Medicago falcata L., Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb, Medicago sativa L. and Lespedeza davurica Schindler) at five planting depths (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm) and two light levels (full light and shade) on the 21st day after ...

  6. Smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area under the crop, distance to local markets, knowledge of legume root nodules, education level, contacts with organisations promoting biological N fixation (BNF) technologies, group membership, soybean market and location of the farm based on agro-ecological zone were factors that determine the use of the ...

  7. Productivity and stability of various grass-legume mixtures with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were established at Cedara under dryland conditions to determine the production, persistence and value of Trifolium repens cv. Ladino, Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland red and Desmodium uncinatum cv. Silverleaf. These legumes were row-planted into Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu); Cynodon nlemfuensis ...

  8. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of macromineral concentration of Panicum/Stylosanthes mixtures was carried out at the Cattle Production Venture, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, in Southwest Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture grazed by the ...

  9. Manipulating legume/cereal mixtures to optimize the above and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of mixing legume and cereals in the cropping systems is to optimise the use of spatial, temporal, and physical resources both above- and below ground, by maximising positive interactions (facilitation) and minimising negative ones (competition) among the components. The complex interactions in ...

  10. Qualitative nutrient requirements of selected legume species on two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three perennial legumes (Macroptilium atropurpureum, Rhynchosia totta and Rhynchosia minima) were evaluated in a glass-house under uncontrolled environmental conditions for herbage, root and nodule yield on two soils and on river sand under six fertilizer treatments. Keywords: qualitative analyses|nutrient ...

  11. Perennial legumes on dry lands in the western Highveld region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a great need for perennial pasture legumes which are adapted to dryland production in the western Highveld. ... Averaged over two years, three selections yielded more than two tonnes dry material per ha: namely, Desmodium uncinatum 2,78, Medicago sativa 2,74 and Macroptilium atropurpureum 2,10.

  12. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ... soil plant analytical development; SSR, simple sequence repeats; TAC, transcript assembly contig; TE, transpiration efficiency; TUS, tentative unique sequences.

  13. evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    was found to be highest in N(1.10kg-1) and P(0.0597) than other legumes residues. Other essential nutrients like calcium, magnesium and potassium were also determined. Generally, crop residues and their ashes are ... to the integrated application of organic and inorganic fertilizer in tropical crop production. Despite the.

  14. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and ...

  15. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  16. Symbiotic specificity of tropical tree rhizobia for host legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The host range and specificity is reported of a genetically diverse group of rhizobia isolated from nodules of Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nodule number and nitrogen content was measured in seedlings of herbaceous and woody legume species

  17. Effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, in early 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients and performance of maize. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four levels of crop ...

  18. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  19. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  20. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  1. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  2. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  3. Annual legumes for improving soil fertility in the smallholder maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We need to screen new legumes for local adaptation to see if there are new species or accessions that do better on smallholder farms. Some green manures, especially ... More work with velvet beans is required on farms to establish the size and speed of yield gains for following maize crops. Also, more participatory work ...

  4. Legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentations included eight treatments in a RCB design (n=3): four herbaceous legume-maize successions and four continuous maize cropping with urea (U, 46% N, 50 kg ha-1), triple superphosphate (TSP, 45% P, 30 kg ha-1), urea+triple superphosphate (U+TSP) and a control. The NUE was estimated through ...

  5. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach. J. Sinja,ab*J. Karugia,b M. Waithakaac, D. Miano,c I. Baltenwecka; S. Franzeld ... informal methods of dissemination especially farmer-to-farmer extension. It is not known ... Results showed that farmers with positions in farmer groups, with.

  6. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    02001, African Crop Science Society. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF PIGEONPEA. IN SMALLHOLDER FARMING SYSTEMS OF ZIMBABWE. - P. MAPFUMO, B.M. CAMPBELL1, S. MPEPEREKI and P. MAFONGOYA2. Department of Soil Sclence and Agricultural Engineering, University of ...

  7. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soyabean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with 32 P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soyabean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding). (author)

  8. Profitability of sorghum-legume cropping practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    kilogram. Besides that, groundnut and sorghum-legume intercrops incurred the highest variable costs which could have negatively affected their gross margins. Corresponding gross margins from the different enterprises were generated as shown in table 2. Analysis of variance on the Gross margin of sorghum-cowpea ...

  9. Improvement of diabetic dyslipidemia by legumes in experimental rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain legumes are a valuable source of food proteins; hence, their exploitation is expected to grow in relation to a growing world's food needs. Apart from high level of dietary fibre, their protein composition makes them useful in managing diabetes. This paper reports a study conducted to evaluate the effects of four different ...

  10. Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors

  11. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... reduction in dietary protein intake of rabbits in the latter stages of growth where rabbits are raised up to 2.5-2.8 kg live weight. This study was designed therefore to evaluate the utilization of combinations of concentrate, grass and legume forages on performance and nutrient digestibility of grower rabbits.

  12. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  13. Optimisation of conditions for the extraction of casearins from Casearia sylvestris using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, Karin F; Tininis, Aristeu G; Da Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Cavalheiro, Alberto J

    2006-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction of casearins from Casearia sylvestris were determined using response surface methodology. The maceration and sonication extraction techniques were performed using a 3 x 3 x 3 full factorial design including three acidity conditions, three solvents of different polarities and three extraction times. The yields and selectivities of the extraction of casearins were significantly influenced by acidity conditions. Taking into account all variables tested, the optimal conditions for maceration extraction were estimated to involve treatment with dichloromethane saturated with ammonium hydroxide for 26 h. Similar yields and selectivities for casearins were determined for sonication extraction using the same solvent but for the much shorter time of 1 h. The best results for stabilisation of the fresh plant material were obtained using leaves that had been oven dried at 40 degrees C for 48 h.

  14. Early and late root formation in epicotyl cuttings of Pinus sylvestris after auxin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygh, G; Grönroos, R; Gulin, L; Von Arnold, S

    1993-01-01

    Auxin stimulated rooting of epicotyl cuttings of Pinus sylvestris irrespective of the physiological stage of the plant from which the cuttings were taken. The epicotyl cuttings were divided into two groups, those that differentiated roots early (within 6 weeks after cutting) and those that differentiated roots late (more than 6 weeks after cutting). Auxin treatment significantly stimulated the frequency of early rooting of epicotyl cuttings, whereas it had no effect on the frequency of late rooting of epicotyl cuttings. The number of roots per rooted cutting was significantly higher after auxin treatment both on early and late rooted cuttings. Anatomical studies showed that most of the roots on both early and late rooted cuttings developed from wound tissue. However some types of rooting were found only after auxin treatment of early rooted cuttings, e.g., roots that developed from resin duct wound tissue or from vascular tissue or in the pith.

  15. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  16. Early testing of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesson, Johan

    2000-01-01

    Long-term climate changes have been evident in the past. In the future an increase in the rate of climate change is predicted owing to man-made emissions. Studies of adaptedness to different climatic conditions are of great importance for the design of appropriate breeding and gene conservation programmes. This thesis presents studies of adaptedness to temperature and water availability in Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies and explores the possibilities of utilising differences in adaptedness to obtain juvenile-mature (J-M) correlations strong enough for efficient early testing. Offspring from clones in two Swedish Pinus sylvestris seed orchards and one Picea abies seed orchard were grown in growth chambers for one and two growth periods respectively. Two temperature regimes and two irrigation regimes were applied in a factorial design. Both species expressed high phenotypic plasticity and additive variance for height growth and biomass traits. This implies that these populations should be able to adapt both to short-term and to long-term climate changes. Genotype by environment (GxE) interaction indicated strong differences in adaptedness to temperature and low differences in adaptedness to water availability. Parent rank changes between treatments indicated that climate change could seriously alter the ranking of clones in breeding populations and thus decrease the genetic gain obtained in previous selections. Differences in stability among parents suggested that culling of unstable genotypes could be a way to reduce the negative effects of GxE interaction. Genetic correlations between growth chamber and 14-30 year old field progeny trials with the same parents were mainly weak for both species. The correlations were improved by the drought treatment in the Picea abies experiment suggesting that further development of early testing methods for this species should include treatments with limiting water availability

  17. The Effect of Inoculation with Azotobacter and Nitrogen Levels on Grain and Corn Yield Components at Simultaneous Cropping System with Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad mirzakhani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Corn has been regarded as one of the important crops from the view point of both human and animal feeding resource. Intercropping defined as cultivation of two or more species together. The advantages of intercropping can be included: efficient use of water and sunlight, exchange of nutrients, weed competition reduction, reduction of pathogens and the increase of soil fertility. Research shows that intercropping combinations of legume–grass will increase forage quality. Because, grasses Grains have a lot of carbohydrates and legumes are rich in protein and vitamins. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of inoculation with azotobacter and nitrogen levels on grain and corn yield components at simultaneous cropping system with legumes under the weather conditions of Markazi province. Materials and methods: This study was carried out at agricultural research field of Payame Noor University, Arak Branch during 2011. A factorial arrangement of treatment in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. Methods of plant nutrition (M0= inoculation with azotobacter, M1= inoculation with azotobacter + 37/5 Kg ha-1 of rare nitrogen with foliar application method, M2= inoculation with azotobacter + 150 Kg ha-1 of rare nitrogen mix with soil and simultaneous cropping treatment of legumes, [S1= corn + alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., S2= corn + bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus L., S3= corn + mung bean (Vigna radiata L., S4= corn + chickpea (Cicer arientinum L., S5= corn + vetch (Vicia ervillia L. ] were assigned in plots. Each sub plot consisted of 4 rows, 6 m long with 60 cm between rows space and 20 cm between plants on the rows and S.C Apex hybrid was used. In this study characteristics such as: plant height, earing height, the number of grains per m-2, the number of rows per ear, the number of grains per row, surface of ear leaf, grain yield of corn, 1000 grain weight, harvest index of corn, nitrogen use

  18. Phytoremediation of heavy and transition metals aided by legume-rhizobia symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, X.; Taghavi, S.; Xie, P.

    2014-01-01

    Legumes are important for nitrogen cycling in the environment and agriculture due to the ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. In this review, we introduce an important and potential role of legume-rhizobia symbiosis in aiding phytoremediation of some metal contaminated soils as various legumes...... nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, phytohormone synthesis, siderophore release, and production of ACC deaminase and the volatile compounds of acetoin and 2, 3-butanediol may facilitate legume growth while lessening metal toxicity. The benefits of using legumes inoculated with naturally resistant...

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p < 0.01). The release of histamine was decreased significantly when sensitized basophils were challenged with hydrolysates as compared to raw extracts. Significant reduction in the biopotency of hydrolysates was also observed in SPT where only 1/10 kidney bean-sensitive individuals, 2/6 black gram-sensitive individuals and 1/7 peanut-sensitive individuals were found positive to their respective hydrolysates. In conclusion, enzymatic hydrolysis is effective in attenuating allergenicity of legume proteins and may be employed for preparing hypoallergenic food extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  1. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Elana; Naudin, Christophe; Piva, Guillaume; Shirtliffe, Steven J; Fustec, Joëlle; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle

    2017-02-01

    Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N 2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N 2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N 2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N 2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  2. Contribution of legumes to the soil N pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustec, Joëlle; Malagoli, Philippe; Mahieu, Stéphanie

    2010-05-01

    Grain legumes can be used for nitrogen acquisition in different ways in sustainable agriculture (Fustec et al., 2009). They are seen as a tool to reduce mineral N fertilizers in cropping systems. However, estimates of biological N fixation, N balance and N benefit either for the following crop or in mixed crops, remain unclear. The contribution of legumes to the soil N pool is difficult to measure, especially N rhizodeposition, since it is a critical point for assessing N benefits for other crops and for soil biological activity, and for reducing water pollution (Mayer et al., 2003). We adapted and refined the cotton-wick 15N stem labeling method for measuring the amount of soil N derived from rhizodeposition by field peas (Mahieu et al., 2007, 2009). The method was tested in different conditions in the field and in the greenhouse with various pea varieties and isolines. In addition, we used the cotton-wick method for assessing N transfers from pea to neighbouring durum wheat. In the greenhouse, a positive relationship was found between the amount of N rhizodeposits and the legume N content. N rhizodeposition was about 15% of the plant N and 30% in the field. In field pea / durum wheat intercrops, plant-plant N transfers were quantified and found to be bidirectional. Such results should be taken into account when estimating N benefits from biological N fixation by a grain legume crop and for the prediction of N economies in legume-based cropping systems. More studies dealing with rhizodeposit compounds and soil biological activity would now be necessary. Fustec et al. 2009. Agron. Sustain. Dev., DOI 10.1051/agro/2009003, in press. Mahieu et al. 2007. Plant Soil 295, 193-205. Mahieu et al. 2009. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 2236-2243. Mayer et al. 2003. Soil Biol. Biochem. 35, 21-28.

  3. Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. STODDARD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important in world agriculture, providing biologically fixed nitrogen, breaking cereal disease cycles and contributing locally grown food and feed, including forage. Pea and faba bean were grown by early farmers in Finland, with remains dated to 500 BC. Landraces of pea and faba bean were gradually replaced by better adapted, higher quality materials for food use. While grain legumes have been restricted by their long growing seasons to the south of the country, red, white and alsike clovers are native throughout and have long been used in leys for grazing, hay and silage. Breeding programmes released many cultivars of these crops during the 1900s, particularly pea and red clover. A.I. Virtanen earned the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on both nitrogen fixation and silage preservation. Use of crop mixtures may appear modern, but farmers used them already in the early 1800s, when oat was used to support pea, and much effort has been devoted to improving the system and establishing its other benefits. Although international cultivars have been easily accessible since Finland’s 1995 entry into the European Union, the combination of feed quality and appropriate earliness is still needed, as < 1% of arable land is sown to grain legumes and an increase to 9–10% would allow replacement of imported protein feeds. Climate change will alter the stresses on legume crops, and investment in agronomy, physiology and breeding is needed so that farmers can gain from the many advantages of a legume-supported rotation.;

  4. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few...... studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume...

  5. SoyBase and the legume information system: accessing information about the soybean and other legume genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes two websites relevant for soybean research: SoyBase, and the Legume Information System (LIS). SoyBase and LIS have different objectives and areas of emphasis. SoyBase holds a wide range of specialized data in support of soybean breeding and research activities, with the primary...

  6. Xylem and Leaf Functional Adjustments to Drought in Pinus sylvestris and Quercus pyrenaica at Their Elevational Boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fernández-de-Uña

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Climatic scenarios for the Mediterranean region forecast increasing frequency and intensity of drought events. Consequently, a reduction in Pinus sylvestris L. distribution range is projected within the region, with this species being outcompeted at lower elevations by more drought-tolerant taxa such as Quercus pyrenaica Willd. The functional response of these species to the projected shifts in water availability will partially determine their performance and, thus, their competitive success under these changing climatic conditions. We studied how the cambial and leaf phenology and xylem anatomy of these two species responded to a 3-year rainfall exclusion experiment set at their elevational boundary in Central Spain. Additionally, P. sylvestris leaf gas exchange, water potential and carbon isotope content response to the treatment were measured. Likewise, we assessed inter-annual variability in the studied functional traits under control and rainfall exclusion conditions. Prolonged exposure to drier conditions did not affect the onset of xylogenesis in either of the studied species, whereas xylem formation ceased 1–3 weeks earlier in P. sylvestris. The rainfall exclusion had, however, no effect on leaf phenology on either species, which suggests that cambial phenology is more sensitive to drought than leaf phenology. P. sylvestris formed fewer, but larger tracheids under dry conditions and reduced the proportion of latewood in the tree ring. On the other hand, Q. pyrenaica did not suffer earlywood hydraulic diameter changes under rainfall exclusion, but experienced a cumulative reduction in latewood width, which could ultimately challenge its hydraulic performance. The phenological and anatomical response of the studied species to drought is consistent with a shift in resource allocation under drought stress from xylem to other sinks. Additionally, the tighter stomatal control and higher intrinsic water use efficiency observed in drought

  7. Ocorrência de Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil Occurrence of Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Dias

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The first occurrence of phyllostomid bat Glyphonycteris sylvestris Thomas, 1896 in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil is reported. An adult female was caught with mist net in the Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca, an AtlanticForest area in West Zone of Rio de Janeiro city, in July 9th, 1996. Morphological aspects of this species are discussed. Measurements obtained for the specimen are also provided.

  8. Radiation and genetic monitoring of populations of Pinus sylvestris L. within the zone of the Chernobyl power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kal'chenko, V.A.; Fedotov, I.S.; Igonina, E.V.; Rubanovich, A.V.; Shevchenko, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cytogenetic and genetic effects in populations of Pinus sylvestris L. (in forests of the external zone of the Chernobyl NPP) suffered weak, average strong and sublethal radiation damage after the accident in 1986 were studied. Absorbed doses for trees in these plantings were from 0.1 up to 20 Gy. It was shown that the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds of a crop of 1993, are comparable with the effects marked at once after accident in 1986. In 1997 and in 1998 the amount of cells with chromosome aberrations in sprouts of seeds in majority inspected plantings decreased to control values. Effect of adaptation was detected, when seeds of Pinus sylvestris L., gathered in 1997 from inspected trees, were exposed to additional 4 Gy γ-radiation [ru

  9. Predicting the probability of seed germination in Pinus sylvestris L. and four competitor shrub species after fire

    OpenAIRE

    Rosario Nuñez, M.; Bravo, Felipe; Calvo, Leonor

    2003-01-01

    International audience; Knowledge of the regeneration of competing shrub species after wildfire in Scots pine stands is essential for the regeneration of this tree species. The germination capability of seeds is modified by the temperature reached during a fire and the length of time that seeds are subjected to high temperatures. The probability of germination was studied in the laboratory for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and four shrub species characteristic of the understory in Scots pine ...

  10. Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA(2) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Saulo L; Calgarotto, Andrana K; Chaar, Jamal S; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2008-11-01

    The Casearia sylvestris SW (Flacourtiaceae) is utilized in folk medicine (Brazil and all Latin American) to treat several pathologic processes as inflammation, cancer, microbial infection and snake bites. Studies showed that C. sylvestris aqueous extract can inhibit many toxic effects caused by snake venoms (or caused by phospholipase A(2) isolated) from different species, mainly of Bothrops genus. Inhibition of enzymatic and myotoxic activities, decrease of edema formation and increase of the survival rate of rats injected with lethal doses of bothropic venoms are some toxic effects inhibited by C. sylvestris. In this study, four ellagic acid derivatives from aqueous extracts of C. sylvestris were isolated, characterized, and tested against effects from both total venom and PLA(2) (Asp 49 BthTX-II) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. The isolated compounds were as follows: ellagic acid (A), 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid (B), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (C), 3-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxy ellagic acid (D). The inhibition constant values (Ki) for enzymatic activity, as well the IC(50) values found in the edematogenic and myotoxic activities, indicate that the ellagic acid is the best inhibitor of these activities, while compounds C and D are the substances with lowest capacity on inhibiting these same effects. Our results show that the presence of hydroxyls at position 3 or 3' (compounds A and B) increases the capacity of these derivatives on inhibiting these toxic effects. However, the presence of methoxyl groups at position 3 or 3' reduced, but did not completely inhibit the capacity of compounds C and D on inhibiting all the toxic effects studied.

  11. Leaf extracts of Casearia sylvestris and Casearia decandra affect growth and production of ligninolytic enzymes in wood decay basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Thiara Siqueira; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Fialho, Mauricio Batista; Bononi, Vera Lúcia Ramos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT White-rot basidiomycetes are able to deteriorate wood products and be pathogenic to living trees, requiring, thus requiring control. The tropical flora is an important source of eco-friendly antifungal compounds; however, the knowledge on how leaf extracts affect the fungal physiology is limited. Therefore, in the present work we investigated the influence of ethanolic leaf extracts of Casearia sylvestris and C. decandra at 0.1 mg mL-1 on the production of ligninolytic enzymes by Tra...

  12. Effects of an orabase formulation with ethanolic extract of Malva sylvestris L. in oral wound healing in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalik, Ana Cristina; Bisetto, Paula; Pochapski, Márcia Thaís; Campagnoli, Eduardo Baulm; Pilatti, Gibson Luiz; Santos, Fábio André

    2014-05-01

    Malva sylvestris L. is widely used in medicine for treatment of inflammatory processes. The plant has anti-inflammatory properties due to substances such as mucilage, flavonoids, and tannins. A mouthwash with leaves from the plant can be used for the treatment of wounds in the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to assess the wound healing effect of Malva sylvestris L. on a palate mucosa wound in rats. After intraperitoneal anesthesia, a 4-mm-diameter excisional wound was made in the center of the palatal mucosa of 136 rats, using a punch-out biopsy tool. Eight animals were used as baseline wound. The remaining rats were divided into four groups: CO, control; OB, orabase vehicle; CX, 2% chlorhexidine; and MA, 20% Malva in orabase. At 24 h postoperatively, the animals were immobilized without anesthetic to apply 25 mg of each substance twice a day, totaling 50 mg daily. The wound areas were measured photographically and the reepithelialization rates were determined histologically (%) after 0, 3, 7, 15, and 21 days. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. Similar healing pattern was observed among the groups (P>.05; ANOVA). According to the methodology, Malva sylvestris L. extract had no effect on wound healing in the palatal mucosa of rats.

  13. Comparative Drought Responses of Quercus ilex L. and Pinus sylvestris L. in a Montane Forest Undergoing a Vegetation Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Aguadé

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Different functional and structural strategies to cope with water shortage exist both within and across plant communities. The current trend towards increasing drought in many regions could drive some species to their physiological limits of drought tolerance, potentially leading to mortality episodes and vegetation shifts. In this paper, we study the drought responses of Quercus ilex and Pinus sylvestris in a montane Mediterranean forest where the former species is replacing the latter in association with recent episodes of drought-induced mortality. Our aim was to compare the physiological responses to variations in soil water content (SWC and vapor pressure deficit (VPD of the two species when living together in a mixed stand or separately in pure stands, where the canopies of both species are completely exposed to high radiation and VPD. P. sylvestris showed typical isohydric behavior, with greater losses of stomatal conductance with declining SWC and greater reductions of stored non-structural carbohydrates during drought, consistent with carbon starvation being an important factor in the mortality of this species. On the other hand, Q. ilex trees showed a more anisohydric behavior, experiencing more negative water potentials and higher levels of xylem embolism under extreme drought, presumably putting them at higher risk of hydraulic failure. In addition, our results show relatively small changes in the physiological responses of Q. ilex in mixed vs. pure stands, suggesting that the current replacement of P. sylvestris by Q. ilex will continue.

  14. A Highly Polar Phytocomplex Involving Rutin is Responsible for the Neuromuscular Facilitation Caused by Casearia sylvestris (guaçatonga).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Edson H; Tribuiani, Natália; Foramiglio, Ameris L; Foramiglio, Caroline A; da Silva Tavares, Renata V; Bonomini, Tiago J; Bueno, Paula C P; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Hyslop, Stephen; Puebla, Pilar; Feliciano, Arturo S; Oshima-Franco, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Of the various biological activities ascribed to extracts from Casearia sylvestris (guaçatonga), its facilitatory activity, i.e., ability to increase skeletal muscle contractile amplitude, has promising therapeutic applications. In this work, we investigated the components responsible for the previously described neurofacilitation caused by C. sylvestris leaves. The methanolic fraction of C. sylvestris leaves was initially fractionated by column chromatography and partitioned in a MeOH:H2O gradient. The resulting fractions were analyzed by analytical HPLC and yielded fraction 5:5 (F55) that was subjected to solid phase extraction and preparative HPLC. Of the seven resulting subfractions, only F55-6 caused muscle facilitation. Subfractions F55-6 and F55-7 (similar in composition to F55-6 by TLC analysis, but inactive) were analyzed by 1H-NMR to identify their constituents. This analysis identified a rutin-glycoside phytocomplex that caused neurofacilitation, a property that commercial rutin alone did not exhibit. F55-6 apparently caused neurofacilitation by the same mechanism (presynaptic action) as the methanolic fraction since its activity was also inhibited in tetrodotoxin-pretreated preparations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...... as in Denmark using spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops. Intercropping involves simultaneously growing two or more crops in the same field for a significant period of time. The practice is ancient as early records from many human societies all over the world have shown. Intercropping systems...... are estimated to still provide as much as 15–20% of the world’s food supply. The practice was widespread in some European farming systems up until the 1950s – before the so-called fossilisation of agriculture. At that time as much as 50 % of all available nitrogen (N) may have originated from symbiotic N2...

  16. Rhizobium-legume symbioses: the crucial role of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, Benjamin; Berrabah, Fathi; Ratet, Pascal; Stacey, Gary

    2015-03-01

    New research results have significantly revised our understanding of the rhizobium-legume infection process. For example, Nod factors (NFs), previously thought to be absolutely essential for this symbiosis, were shown to be dispensable under particular conditions. Similarly, an NF receptor, previously considered to be solely involved in symbiosis, was shown to function during plant pathogen infections. Indeed, there is a growing realization that plant innate immunity is a crucial component in the establishment and maintenance of symbiosis. We review here the factors involved in the suppression of plant immunity during rhizobium-legume symbiosis, and we attempt to place this information into context with the most recent and sometimes surprising research results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Soil macrofauna in wooded pasture with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusimar Lamarte Gonzaga Galindo da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands afforestation aims at adding different soil uses in a way they become profitable for their owners. As such handling aims at minimizing impacts, the current study had as its goal the use of soil macrofauna in order to evaluate legume afforestation effects on the soil, regardless the depth. Thus, nitrogen fixing species were inserted onto grassland areas and the macrofauna collection was performed 6 years after their planting in the 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20.30cm layers, in winter and summer. Leguminous influence was different between depths and times of the year. It mostly favors communities under "Mimosa" Genus treetops. Besides, the effects from climatic seasonal variations on invertebrates were mitigated by the implementation of such legume trees

  18. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Efeito da Casearia sylvestris no reparo ósseo com matriz óssea bovina desvitalizada em ratos Effect of Casearia sylvestris on bone repair with devitalized bovine bone matrix in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pita Sassioto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar o efeito do decocto 5% de Casearia sylvestris no reparo de defeito femoral preenchido com matriz óssea bovina desvitalizada. Métodos: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar, machos e adultos foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos com 12 animais. Defeitos femorais bilaterais, com 2mm de diâmetro, foram produzidos na diáfise femoral e preenchidos com matriz óssea bovina desvitalizada. O grupo experimento recebeu 1mL de decocto 5% de Casearia sylvestris, por gavagem, durante o período de seguimento; o grupo controle recebeu 1mL de água destilada. Os animais foram sacrificados com 10, 20 ou 30 dias e o tecido ósseo presente na área operatória quantificado. Aplicou-se o teste "t" de Student para comparação das médias de formação óssea obtidas em cada período estudado (10, 20 e 30 dias, em nível de significância de 5% (p Purpose: To evaluate the use of devitalized bovine bone matrix with Casearia sylvestris decoct treatment to regenerate femoral defect in rats. Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. Bilateral femoral defects with 2mm diameter were surgically produced and fulfilled with particulate inorganic bovine bone. Casearia sylvestris decoct treatment was realized in the preoperative period. The animals were sacrificed 10, 20 and 30 postoperative days and specimens were submitted to histomorphometric evaluation. The data was submitted a statistical evaluation with Student t-test. Results: The bone formation was reduced in the experimental animals at 10 (p = 0,0000, 20 (p = 0,0049 and 30 (p = 0,0003 postoperative days. Conclusion: The association of Casearia sylvestris decoct treatment and the fulfillment of defect with particulate inorganic bovine bone seemed to decrease bone formation.

  20. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grljušić; M. Tucak; T. Čupić; S. Popović

    2008-01-01

    The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the fora...

  2. Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source of nutrients on cereal grain yield and fodder dry matter yields. ... La disposition en lignes a produit un rendement élévé en fourrages secs (5%) et en grains des céréales que les céréales plantés aux hazard. La valeur nutritive (CP, NDF et degradabilité de ...

  3. Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulter, D.; Evans, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  4. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marciano Marra; Silvia Maria de Oliveira; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB) were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T). Four of the str...

  5. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  6. Tropical forage legumes for environmental benefits: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schultze-Kraft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock production in the tropics, particularly when based on pastures, is frequently blamed for being detrimental to the environment, allegedly contributing to: (1 degradation and destruction of ecosystems, including degradation and loss of soil, water and biodiversity; and (2 climate change (global warming. In this paper we argue that, rather than being detrimental, tropical forage legumes can have a positive impact on the environment, mainly due to key attributes that characterize the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family: (1 symbiotic nitrogen fixation; (2 high nutritive value; (3 deep-reaching tap-root system; (4 wide taxonomic and genetic diversity; and (5 presence of particular secondary metabolites. Although there are also potential negative aspects, such as soil acidification and the risks of introduced legumes becoming invasive weeds, we submit that legumes have potential to contribute significantly to sustainable intensification of livestock production in the tropics, along with the provision of ecosystem services. To further assess, document and realize this potential, research for development needs in a range of areas are indicated.

  7. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  8. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  9. Xylem diameter changes during osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing in Pinus sylvestris and Populus tremula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Lindfors, Lauri; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hölttä, Teemu

    2017-04-01

    Trees experience low apoplastic water potential frequently in most environments. Low apoplastic water potential increases the risk of embolism formation in xylem conduits and creates dehydration stress for the living cells. We studied the magnitude and rate of xylem diameter change in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential and the role of living parenchyma cells in it to better understand xylem diameter changes in different environmental conditions. We compared responses of control and heat-injured xylem of Pinus sylvestris (L.) and Populus tremula (L.) branches to decreasing apoplastic water potential created by osmotic stress, desiccation and freezing. It was shown that xylem in control branches shrank more in response to decreasing apoplastic water potential in comparison with the samples that were preheated to damage living xylem parenchyma. By manipulating the osmotic pressure of the xylem sap, we observed xylem shrinkage due to decreasing apoplastic water potential even in the absence of water tension within the conduits. These results indicate that decreasing apoplastic water potential led to withdrawal of intracellular water from the xylem parenchyma, causing tissue shrinkage. The amount of xylem shrinkage per decrease in apoplastic water potential was higher during osmotic stress or desiccation compared with freezing. During desiccation, xylem diameter shrinkage involved both dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma and water tension-induced shrinkage of conduits, whereas dehydration-related shrinkage of xylem parenchyma was accompanied by swelling of apoplastic ice during freezing. It was also shown that the exchange of water between symplast and apoplast within xylem is clearly faster than previously reported between the phloem and the xylem. Time constant of xylem shrinkage was 40 and 2 times higher during osmotic stress than during freezing stress in P. sylvestris and P. tremula, respectively. Finally, it was concluded that the

  10. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marciano Marra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T. Four of the strains are used as inoculants for cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Bradyrhizobium sp. UFLA 03-84; Bradyrhizobium elkani INPA 03-11B and Bradyrhizobium japonicum BR3267 or for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris (Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Rhizobium etli UFLA 02-100 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 316C10a are also efficient nodulators of beans and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T nodulates on Mimosa pudica. Two experiments, with solid and liquid media, were performed to determine whether the strains were able to solubilise CaHPO4, Al(H2PO43 or FePO4.2H2O. On solid GELP medium none of the strains dissolved FePO4.2H2O, but LMG 1222, UFLA 03-84 and CIAT 899 solubilised CaHPO4 particularly well. These strains, along with LMG 19424 and BR 3267, were also able to increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. The strains CIAT 899 and UFLA 02-100 were the only legume nodulating bacteria able to solubilise the other phosphate sources in liquid media, dissolving both CaHPO4 and FePO4.2H2O. There was a negative correlation between the pH of the culture medium and the concentration of soluble phosphate when the phosphorus source was CaHPO4 or FePO4.2H2O. The contribution of these strains to increasing the phosphorus nutrition of legumes and non-legume plant species should be investigated further by in vivo experiments.

  11. Highly productive forage legume stands show no positive biodiversity effect on yield and N2-fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Eriksen, Jørgen; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims While N fixation in diversified grasslands including forage legumes and non-legumes has been widely studied, N fixation in swards containing only forage legumes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated N fixation in pure stands and mixtures of three forage legumes....... Methodology N fixation, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) yields were quantified in a field experiment for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) pure stands and mixtures using the isotope dilution method. Results All three forage legume species...... derived most (around 85%) of their N from atmospheric N fixation (%Ndfa). However, no positive effect of species diversity was found in any of the mixtures. Species composition of the forage legume mixtures affected the amount of N from N fixation by affecting DM production and N accumulation...

  12. Effect of Lathyrus sativus and vitamin C on the status of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase and dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-IV in the central and peripheral tissues and serum of guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.; Sarker, M.A.H.

    1992-05-01

    Studies on the effect of Lathyrus Sativus seeds (LLS) on aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) and on dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-IV (DAP-IV) were carried out in the central and peripheral tissues and serum of LSS-treated and LSS plus vitamin C-treated guinea pigs. The feeding of LSS for 35 days decreased the AADC activity significantly in the brain and peripheral tissues, but the activity was recovered to normal level in the most tissues when vitamin C was added with the LSS. DAP-IV activity decreased in the peripheral tissues when treated with LSS, but the vitamin C administration with LSS did not recover the enzyme activity. The DAP-IV activity did not decrease significantly in any of the brain tissues of the LSS-treated group. (author). 18 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Evidence for selection in response to radiation exposure: Pinus sylvestris in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra; Finkeldey, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    Changes of genetic structures due to viability selection are likely to occur in populations exposed to rapidly and extremely changing environmental conditions after catastrophic events. However, very little is known about the extent of selective responses and in particular the proportion of the genome involved in putatively adaptive reactions for non-model plants. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) in order to investigate genetic differences between pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees which were partially exposed to extreme environmental conditions. Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation in the Chernobyl exclusion zone with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees with a similar origin. Six percent of the investigated loci (15 of 222 loci) were identified as candidates for selective responses. Moderate differentiation was observed between groups of trees showing either weak or strong phenotypic responses to high radiation levels. - Highlights: → Genetic variation patterns of pines exposed to high radiation were investigated. → Pines with or without phenotypic stress symptoms were compared to control trees. → AFLP markers were used to reveal evidences of selection processes. → 15 of 222 loci are identified as candidates for selective responses. → Moderate differentiation is observed between irradiated and control trees. - Genetic responses to the exposure of trees to radiation in the Chernobyl zone may involve adaptive changes at a comparatively large part of the genome.

  14. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

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    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  15. Determination of Pb and Cd pollution in Pine tree (Pinus Sylvestris) by atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudovica, V.; Katkevic, J; Viksna, A.; Nulle, S.; Balcerbule, Z. . E-mai: wita@navigator.lv

    2004-01-01

    Forest is subordinate anthropogenic (carbon, petroleum, wood, waste incineration) and natural (climatic, biological, chemical) factors influencing. In current investigation pine tree as environmental indicator (Pinus Sylvestris L.) is selected. The aim of current investigations are to improve methods, that easy and unerring can establish threshold and critical toxic elements accumulation in the samples, such as pine needles, peels, trunk; the second - to find fact of pine reactions on pollution toxic elements concentrations in the soil, nutrition solutions. The reception efficiency of lead and cadmium from the solution with different concentrations of these toxic elements is estimated. The distribution of lead and cadmium in the different parts of pine trunk is edematous with some selective organic reagents. We find out that these toxic elements accumulate in pine trunk and peels and we cannot wash out from samples with water, so these elements are fixed in live tissue. The pollution of pine seedlings with Cd and Pb through the needles, peels, pulp, roots is connected with nutrition solutions, so with soil pollution

  16. Early field performance of drought-stressed scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulac, S.; Clcek, E.; Tasdemir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a large natural distribution throughout the world, including semi-arid areas of Turkey, where it is being used for afforestation. Determining the drought resistance of Scots pine provenances can increase the success of afforestation efforts in semi-arid regions. In the first stage of this study, water-stress treatments were applied to ten provenances of one-year-old Scots pine seedlings in their second vegetation period (between April and November). The diameter and height of the seedlings were evaluated in the nursery in order to determine their morphology. The four drought-stress treatments consisted of once-weekly irrigation (IR1), twice-weekly irrigation (IR2-Control), biweekly irrigation (IR3) and open field conditions (IR4). Later, the water-stressed seedlings were planted in a semi-arid district in Bayburt, Turkey, and their survival and growth performances were evaluated over a five-year period. The nursery study showed that drought stress and provenance as well as the interaction of the two significantly affected the morphological characteristics of the seedlings. Under water-stress conditions, the best growth performance was found in the Dokurcun, Degirmendere and Dirgine provenance seedlings. Water-stress and provenance factors and their interaction also affected the open field performance of the seedlings, where the Degirmendere, Dirgine and Dokurcun provenances again exhibited the best performance. Consequently, these Scots pine provenances can be recommended for afforestation sites having conditions similar to those of the study site. (author)

  17. Pinus sylvestris as a missing source of nitrous oxide and methane in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacova, Katerina; Bäck, Jaana; Vanhatalo, Anni; Halmeenmäki, Elisa; Kolari, Pasi; Mammarella, Ivan; Pumpanen, Jukka; Acosta, Manuel; Urban, Otmar; Pihlatie, Mari

    2016-03-21

    Boreal forests comprise 73% of the world's coniferous forests. Based on forest floor measurements, they have been considered a significant natural sink of methane (CH4) and a natural source of nitrous oxide (N2O), both of which are important greenhouse gases. However, the role of trees, especially conifers, in ecosystem N2O and CH4 exchange is only poorly understood. We show for the first time that mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees consistently emit N2O and CH4 from both stems and shoots. The shoot fluxes of N2O and CH4 exceeded the stem flux rates by 16 and 41 times, respectively. Moreover, higher stem N2O and CH4 fluxes were observed from wet than from dry areas of the forest. The N2O release from boreal pine forests may thus be underestimated and the uptake of CH4 may be overestimated when ecosystem flux calculations are based solely on forest floor measurements. The contribution of pine trees to the N2O and CH4 exchange of the boreal pine forest seems to increase considerably under high soil water content, thus highlighting the urgent need to include tree-emissions in greenhouse gas emission inventories.

  18. Assessment of the chemopreventive effect of casearin B, a clerodane diterpene extracted from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Aline M; dos Santos, André G; Oliveira, Ana Paula S; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Silva, Dulce H S; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Varanda, Eliana Ap; Soares, Christiane P

    2013-03-01

    Studies have shown that Casearia sylvestris compounds protect DNA from damage both in vitro and in vivo. Complementarily, the aim of the present study was to assess the chemopreventive effect of casearin B (CASB) against DNA damage using the Ames test, the comet assay and the DCFDA antioxidant assay. The genotoxicity was assessed by the comet assay in HepG2 cells. CASB was genotoxic at concentrations higher than 0.30 μM when incubated with the FPG (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) enzyme. For the antigenotoxicity comet assay, CASB protected the DNA from damage caused by H(2)O(2) in the HepG2 cell line in concentrations above 0.04 μM with post-treatment, and above 0.08 μM with pre-treatment. CASB was not mutagenic (Ames test) in TA 98 and TA 102. In the antimutagenicity assays, the compound was a strong inhibitor against aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in TA 98 (>88.8%), whereas it was moderate (42.7-59.4%) inhibitor against mytomicin C (MMC) in TA 102. Additionally, in the antioxidant assay using DCFDA, CASB reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by H(2)O(2). In conclusion, CASB was genotoxic to HepG2 cells at high concentrations; was protective of DNA at low concentrations, as shown by the Ames test and comet assay; and was also antioxidant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential of legume-based grassland–livestock systems in Europe: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-01-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil–plant–animal–atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30–50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland–livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future. PMID:26300574

  1. Potential of legume-based grassland-livestock systems in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-06-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil-plant-animal-atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30-50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland-livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future.

  2. Allelopathic effect of aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and of Casearia sylvestris Sw. on cropsEfeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e de Casearia sylvestris Sw. sobre espécies cultivadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is characterized by the harmful or benefic effects caused by secondary metabolites, that are produced by plants, microorganisms or fungi and are released in the environment, on the development of natural biological systems or implemented ones. This study aimed to evaluate the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. and wild coffee (Casearia sylvestris Sw. on the germination and initial development of mustard (Brassica campestris L., cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. cv. capitata, broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. cv. italica, kale (Brassica pekinensis L., lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. grand rapids, tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Miller, turnip (Brassica rapa L., rucola (Eruca sativa L. and radish (Raphanus sativus L.. Six concentrations of each aqueous extract were tested (10, 30, 50, 70, 90 and 100% and compared to control (distilled water, with five replicates of each concentration, being ten seeds of each crop distributed in each replicate. The aqueous extracts of E. globulus and C. sylvestris reduced significantly the percentage of seed germination, the index of germination speed and the initial growth of the above ground part and roots of all cultivated species, being the reduction of these parameters higher with the increment of the aqueous extracts concentration, which led to thicker and atrophied roots with a higher number of absorbent hairs. Therefore, the results indicate an existence of allelopathic potential of E. globulus and C. sylvestris.A alelopatia caracteriza-se pelos efeitos danosos ou benéficos que metabólitos secundários produzidos por plantas, microrganismos ou fungos liberados no ambiente exercem sobre o desenvolvimento de sistemas biológicos naturais ou implantados. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático de extratos aquosos de eucalipto (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. e guaçatonga (Casearia sylvestris Sw. na germinação e no crescimento inicial de

  3. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e. Medicago truncatula (Mt, Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv and Glycine max (Gm. Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the farthest distance between Mt and Pv in 6 legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reported some interesting observations e.g. no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

  4. Consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Caroline Diniz Brito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar o estado nutricional e os fatores associados ao consumo alimentar de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes atendidas em um serviço público de referência para assistência pré-natal. Métodos: Estudo transversal e analítico, com 73 gestantes adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, atendidas no Núcleo de Assistência ao Adolescente (NASA do Hospital Materno Infantil, em São Luís, Maranhão. Utilizou-se o Questionário de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar (QFCA, medidas antropométricas (peso, altura, índice de massa corporal - IMC - pré-gravídico e gravídico e questionário socioeconômico. As variáveis dependentes foram o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes, e as independentes foram escolaridade, estado civil, raça, renda, situação demográfica, dados gestacionais e antropométricos. Resultados: Observou-se que 39,7% apresentaram IMC pré-gestacional de desnutrição, 50,7% de eutrofia, e menos de 10% sobrepeso ou obesidade. Para o IMC gestacional, os valores se alteraram, com 27,4% das gestantes desnutridas, 57,5% eutróficas e 15,1% com sobrepeso. Observou-se que os maiores percentuais de adequação para o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foram em adolescentes casadas ou em união estável (65,4%, que não trabalhavam (92,3% e com renda familiar menor que 1 salário mínimo (84,62%. Entretanto, a única associação positiva encontrada com o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foi o início do pré-natal. Conclusão: A maior parte das gestantes avaliadas apresentou-se eutrófica, apesar de cerca de um quarto apresentar baixo peso durante a gestação. Além disso, elas não consumiam uma dieta balanceada, com uma ingestão abaixo do recomendado de FVL. Entre os fatores relacionados a um melhor consumo de FVL destaca-se o início do acompanhamento pré-natal no primeiro trimestre.

  5. [Genome editing technology and its application in forage legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Meng, Yingying; Niu, Lifang; Lin, Hao

    2017-10-25

    Genome editing is a novel targeted genome modification biotechnology, which could successfully mutate specific loci as well as generate gene replacement and insertion in various organisms. So far, genome editing technology has been widely applied in investigating gene function and developing valuable traits in both model plants and major crops. In this review, we briefly survey the historical development of genome editing technology, summarize recent progress using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for plant genome editing and explore the potential of the CRISPR/Cas technology in improving forage legumes.

  6. Aspectos toxicológicos da planta medicinal Casearia sylvestris Swartz: revisão de literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton José Ferreira de Araújo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available No Ocidente, o consumo de plantas medicinais vem aumentando substancialmente, onde cerca de 40% da população utiliza regularmente plantas medicinais e preparações fitoterápicas sob o rótulo de serem produtos inócuos ou seguros. Porém, na maioria das vezes, não há comprovação científica de suas propriedades farmacológicas e toxicológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento bibliográfico sobre as propriedades toxicológicas da Casearia sylvestris Swartz e coletar dados que fundamentem seu uso racional. Alguns estudos validam indicações terapêuticas clássicas da C. sylvestris como antidiarréico e no tratamento de ferimentos ofídicos, fundamentando seu uso empírico. Porém, poucos trabalhos relatam suas propriedades toxicológicas, havendo apenas abordagens limitadas em torno da Dose Letal 50% e da toxicidade aguda de seus constituintes. Até o presente momento, as pesquisas são insuficientes para garantir a segurança de preparações populares à base de C. sylvestris. Portanto, há necessidade de avaliar melhor seu perfil deletério, principalmente, no que diz respeito ao potencial tóxico de seus constituintes, assim como a sua capacidade lesiva sobre órgãos-alvos e sistemas orgânicos.

  7. Living on the edge: contrasted wood-formation dynamics in Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris under Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edurne eMartinez Del Castillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood formation in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was intra-annually monitored to examine plastic responses of the xylem phenology according to altitude in one of the southernmost areas of their distribution range, i.e. in the Moncayo Natural Park, Spain. The monitoring was done from 2011 to 2013 at 1180 and 1580 m a.s.l., corresponding to the lower and upper limits of European beech forest in this region. Microcores containing phloem, cambium and xylem were collected biweekly from twenty-four trees from the beginning of March to the end of November to assess the different phases of wood formation. The samples were prepared for light microscopy to observe the following phenological phases: onset and end of cell production, onset and end of secondary wall formation in xylem cells and onset of cell maturation. The temporal dynamics of wood formation widely differed among years, altitudes and tree species. For Fagus sylvatica, the onset of cambial activity varied between the first week of May and the third week of June. Cambial activity then slowed down and stopped in summer, resulting in a length of growing season of 48–75 days. In contrast, the growing season for Pinus sylvestris started earlier and cambium remained active in autumn, leading to a period of activity varying from 139-170 days. The intra-annual wood-formation pattern is site and species-specific. Comparison with other studies shows a clear latitudinal trend in the duration of wood formation, positive for Fagus sylvatica and negative for Pinus sylvestris.

  8. Pulsatilla patens (Ranunculaceae, a perennial herb, is ectomycorrhizal in northeastern Poland and likely shares ectomycorrhizal fungi with Pinus sylvestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hoeksema

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of species of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF among different co-occurring host plant species could allow the formation of common mycorrhizal networks, which can alter plant–plant interactions and succession. Such sharing of EMF among woody species is thought to be common in many forests, but very few herbaceous plants form EMF, so they are assumed to be excluded from EMF networks in forests. We studied the EMF on roots of a common coniferous tree, Pinus sylvestris, and a co-occurring rare herbaceous perennial plant, Pulsatilla patens (Ranunculaceae, in northeastern Poland. We examined roots from co-occuring P. sylvestris and P. patens, visually classified EMF into morphotypes, studied tissue sections of mycorrhizal structures using compound microscopy, and used DNA sequencing to identify the fungi. On both host plant species, we observed EMF colonization, with colonized root tips exhibiting a swollen appearance, as well as a variety of colors and textures of fungal mycelium covering and emanating from those swollen tips. Sectioning and microscopic examination of an EMF morphotype common on P. patens confirmed the presence of a mantle and Hartig net, indicating the likely presence of functional ectomycorrhizal structures. The two most frequent EMF were Cenococcum geophilum and Piloderma olivaceum, and the latter was found to associate with both host plant species. Several EMF found here only on P. patens, including C. geophilum and two Russula species, are known from previous studies to also associate with P. sylvestris and other tree species. The observation of shared EMF between a coniferous tree and an understory herb indicates the potential for common mycorrhizal networks to alter interactions between these two species and may also indicate a unique way in which the distribution and abundance of a rare herbaceous plant may be influenced by shared mutualisms with a common co-occurring woody plant.

  9. Hydrogen apparent fractionation between source water and epicuticular waxes of Pinus sylvestris in North East Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, S. L.; Grace, J.; Pedentchouk, N.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrogen isotopic composition of plant biomass provides crucial information about plant ecophysiology and local hydrology. Little is known about the apparent fractionation between hydrogen in source water and epicuticular leaf waxes of coniferous tree species that dominate the boreal forest ecosystem exposed to prolonged periods of sunlight during the growing season. In this study, single rope canopy access techniques were used to harvest needle and twig material from the upper, middle and lower crown of north and south facing branches of Pinus sylvestris within the subarctic forest of North East Finland. Samples were collected towards the beginning of the growing season in July and repeated in late September 2010. Leaf and twig waters were extracted cryogenically and analysed for D-enrichment. Individual n-alkanes are currently being quantified and analyzed for 13C/12C and D/H compositions. The molecular and isotopic data are supplemented by long-term in-situ cuvette photosynthetic assimilation measurements as well as relative humidity (RH), air temperature, precipitation and wind speed data collected by Helsinki University (SMEAR I). In addition RH, air temperature, wind speed and incoming solar radiation measurements were made at each individual sample point at the time of harvesting to quantify meteorological and microclimatological variation within individual trees. The outcome of this investigation will provide important insights into plant biochemistry and physiology of a crucial climate sensitive higher plant species subjected to continuous low light throughout the season. Furthermore, this work will expand our understanding of modern and palaeo-hydrology not only in northern Finland but also in other boreal forests around the world.

  10. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulcu, S.; Bilir, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  11. Split-root labelling to investigate15N rhizodeposition by Pinus sylvestris and Picea abies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, Liz; Kalbitz, Karsten; Schoorl, Jorien C; Tietema, Albert

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the transfer of 15 N into the soil via 15 N uptake and release by tree roots, which involves the principles of the split-root technique. One half of the root system received an injection of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and the other half equivalent amounts of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 15 N natural abundance level. 15 N was transferred from one side of the root system ( 15 N side) to the other side ( 14 N side) and released into the soil. The method was conducted with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst). Two concentration levels of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 were used, corresponding with annual N deposition in the Netherlands (30 kg N ha -1 ) and a twelfth of that (2.5 kg N ha -1 ). Samples were taken 3 and 6 weeks after labelling and divided into needles + stem, roots, rhizosphere and bulk soil. Already 3 weeks after labelling, Scots pine took up 23.7 % of the low and 9.1 % of the high amounts of 15 N, while Norway spruce took up 21.5 and 32.1 %, respectively. Both species transported proportions of 15 N to the rhizosphere (0.1-0.2 %) and bulk soil (0.3-0.9 %). The method is a useful tool to investigate the fate of root-derived N in soils, for example, for the formation of stable forms of soil organic matter.

  12. Meta-analysis for the volume of Pinus sylvestris in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Kitikidou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Las revisiones sistemáticas son herramientas importantes para la investigación de literatura objetiva, composición y análisis crítico de los resultados de estudios variantes, con una contribución excelente para aclarar temas y buscar nuevas direcciones de investigación. Este estudio tiene como objetivo la revisión sistemática de estudios independientes para la estimación del volumen de pino silvestre ( Pinus sylvestris en Europa. Para ello, se realizó un metanálisis de los modelos de estimación de volumen de árboles individuales. En este trabajo se describen las etapas del metanálisis, los métodos estadísticos, los posibles errores derivados y la heterogeneidad que se producen entre los estudios. Los resultados muestran que Italia se distingue claramente por tener volúmenes de árbol individual demasiado pequeños, mientras que Grecia y Suecia presentan grandes volúmenes. Existe una gran heterogeneidad entre los estudios, debido probablemente a las condiciones distintas de competencia suscitadas en los rodales de diferentes países de Europa, pero sin clima distinto. Más estudios podrían servir en el caso de Italia; en el caso de Grecia, un estudio con una muestra de mayor tamaño podría contribuir para fomentar la investigación.

  13. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolsunovsky, A.; Dementyev, D.

    2014-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011–2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg −1131 I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg −1134 Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg −1137 Cs. An important finding was the detection of 134 Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2–2.6), suggesting the presence of “older”, pre-Fukushima accident 137 Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two–three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident 137 Cs. - Highlights: • 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I were detected in samples of pine trees near Krasnoyarsk (Russia). • 134 Cs was transferred from old tree parts to the new (2012) shoots of pine trees. • The 137 Cs total / 134 Cs activity ratio for pine samples was greater than 1 due to the presence of pre-accident 137 Cs. • The accident 137 Cs activity in pine samples was higher than the pre-accident 137 Cs activity

  14. Uptake and translocation of 109Cd and stable Cd within tobacco plants (Nicotiana sylvestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosén, K.; Eriksson, J.; Vinichuk, M.

    2012-01-01

    The availability, uptake, and translocation of recently added ( 109 Cd) and naturally occurring (stable) soil Cd within tobacco plants were compared. 109 Cd was added to soil in two treatments, A (0.25 MBq kg soil −1 DW) and B (eight-fold dose): stable Cd was measured in both treatments. Both the added and the stable Cd were higher in leaves and reproductive structures of the plant than in stalks and roots. The uptake of 109 Cd was 5.3 kBq plant −1 for treatment A and 36.7 kBq plant −1 for treatment B, and about 26 μg plant −1 for stable Cd. Leaves of the tobacco plants accumulated 40–45% of the total 109 Cd and about 50% of total stable Cd taken up by the plant. Cadmium concentration in the plant was three times higher than in roots and two times higher than the concentration in soil: the concentration in roots was lower than in the soil. - Capsule: The availability, uptake, and translocation of recently added ( 109 Cd) and naturally occurring (stable) soil Cd within tobacco plants (Nicotiana sylvestris) were investigated. - Highlights: ► We compared uptake recently added and naturally occurring soil Cd by tobacco plant. ► Both added and stable Cd display similar uptake and translocation within the plant. ► Leaves of tobacco plants accumulate half of the total Cd taken up by the plant. ► Recently added 109 Cd to soil is more available than naturally occurring cadmium.

  15. Isolation and Purification of Mitochondrial Mn-Superoxide Dismutase from the Gymnosperm Pinus sylvestris L. : PROTEINS, ENZYMES AND METABOLISM

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Streller; Silke, Kromer; Gunnar, Wingsle; Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Department of Plant Physiology, University of Umea; Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Faculty of Forestry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

    1994-01-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) was purified from germinating seeds of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) 3 days after the start of imbibition. The purification schedule included (NH_4)_2SO_4 fractionation, anion-exchange and hydrophobic-interaction chromatographies and chromatofocusing. Purified Mn-SOD had an apparent specific activity of 4,130 McCord-Fridovich units (mg protein)^. The molecular mass of the holoenzyme was estimated to be 91 kDa by size-exclusion chromatogr...

  16. The Effect of Ozone Oxydans in Plastic of Polyethylene used for The Storage of Apple Manalagi (malus Sylvestris M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isyuniarto; Agus-Purwadi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ozone oxydans in plastic of polyethylene used for the storage of apple Manalagi (malus sylvestris M) have been done. Firstly, apple selected according to form and size then packed into storage of plastic polyethylene 3 and 5 mm in thickness and ozonization process is done from 0, 20, 40 and 60 seconds. The sample is monitored every 7, 14 and 21 days. Parameter perceived is texture of fruit, colour, smell and panelist option to this research. The result is thickly of plastic 3 mm and ozonization time 60 seconds. (author)

  17. Parâmetros para o controle da qualidade de folhas de Casearia sylvestris SW. - Guaçatonga

    OpenAIRE

    Luz,Sonia Francinl Boszczowski; Sato,Mayumi Eliza O.; Duarte,Márcia do Rocio; Santos,Cid Aimbiré de Moraes

    1998-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer parâmetros farmacognósticos de Casearia sylvestris Sw., Flacourtiaceae, conhecida na medicina popular como guacatonga, para melhorar o controle de qualidade da droga. A espécie é oficializada na Farmacopéia Brasileira I, onde estão descritas apenas as características macroscópicas e microscópicas. São sugeridos novos parâmetros para determinação de resíduo de incineração, extrato seco e doseamento de taninos, como também um perfil cromatográfico em ca...

  18. Allometric biomass equations for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings during the first years of establishment in dense natural regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Geudens, Guy; Staelens, Jeroen; Kint, Vincent; Goris, Robbie; Lust, Noël

    2004-01-01

    International audience; A dense natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) exhibits a considerable biomass build-up in the first four years, with amounts of 7.03 Mg ha-1 for aboveground biomass, and 0.88 Mg ha-1 for coarse root biomass (> 1 mm). Power equations were developed, which relate collar diameter (ranging from 0.3 to 2.7 cm) and height to total aboveground and coarse root biomass of two, three and four-year-old seedlings in a regeneration of 16 seedlings m-2 at one site...

  19. Actividad antiinflamatoria local de Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae) en el edema inducido por carragenina en ratas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiclana, Carlos F.; Enrique, Andrea; Consolini, Alicia E.

    2009-01-01

    La malva (Malva sylvestris L., Malvaceae) es una planta medicinal ampliamente utilizada en aplicación tópica como demulcente, cicatrizante, anti-hemorroidal, para mucosas o piel. Sin embargo su actividad antiinflamatoria tópica no ha sido reportada en ensayos preclínicos ni clínicos. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto inhibidor del edema inducido por carragenina en ratas de una crema con extracto de malva al 5, 10 y 20%. Se obtuvo una inhibición significativa del edema con la crema de malva...

  20. Distribution of native Legumes (Leguminoseae) in frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinaceae)-Wiregrass (Poaceae) ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Hainds; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Lindsay R. Boring; Dean H. Gjerstad

    1999-01-01

    Legume species distribution and abundance and selected environmental variables were quantified across a complex gradient (varying in both water-holding capacity and fertility) for frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Aristida stricta) ecosystems. Legumes were present in all months; however, abundance...

  1. Tropical pasture legumes in southern Africa: A review. | J.H. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clipping trials have indicated that the use of tropical legumes could possibly be extended into drier areas and areas experiencing extremes of temperature. More intensive plant introduction, breeding and evaluation programmes are needed if the full potential of tropical legumes is to be realised. Keywords: adaptation ...

  2. Effects of legume reinforcement of veld on the performance of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To measure the effect of legume reinforcement of veld on animal production, a 24 ha block of reverted granite sandveld dominated by Hyparrhenia filipendula was fenced into 8 equal-sized paddocks, 4 of which were seeded with legumes. Two paddocks were seeded in December 1971 with a mixture of Stylosanthes ...

  3. Some views on the potential for legume-based pastures in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of South Africa for legume-based pastures is discussed in the light of available information. It is concluded that the potential is considerable and that most of this potential can be exploited by legume species available at present. With regard to suitable species, it is considered that temperates warrant most ...

  4. Sucrose synthase and enolase expression in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa: comparison with legume nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghelue, van M.; Ribeiro, A.; Solheim, B.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Bisseling, T.; Pawlowski, K.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Two different types of nitrogen-fixing root nodules are known - actinorhizal nodules induced by Frankia and legume nodules induced by rhizobia. While legume nodules show a stem-like structure with peripheral vascular bundles, actinorhizal nodule lobes resemble modified lateral roots with a

  5. The effects of some raw tropical legume seeds on performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of some raw legumes (jack beans, bambara groundnut and benne seeds) on performance characteristics, serum metabolites and organ morphology of exotic adult cockerels of gold mine strain. Each of the raw legumes replaced full fat soybean meal at 25% and 50% ...

  6. Influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (11o38'N and 10o31'E) both in Bauchi state, during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 to determine the influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The treatments consist of two legumes (cowpea and soybean), nitrogen fertilizer applied at the rate ...

  7. Determination of N2 -fixation ability of legume trees using the 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemay, Johannis; Syaukat, Sriharti; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    A sequence field experiment has been conducted for determining the capability of N 2 -fixation by several legume trees. The experiment was designed using a randomize design with 4 replicates. Each replicate was planted with 100 legume trees and 100 non legume trees. The isotope plot, where 15 N was applied with 18 legume trees and 18 non legume trees. The planting distance was 1m x 1m. For the calculation of N 2 -fixation each legume and standard tree (Eucalypthus alba) was applied with 12.52g in the from of ammonium sulfate with 10.12% 15 N. The 15 N AS was applied in three splits 11 month earlier. Data obtained from this experiment showed that percentage of N derived from fixation (%N-dfF) of all legume trees was reasonable high. The legume trees used in this experiment were, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Caliandra tetragona, Flemengia congesta and Gliriciadia sepium with potential fixation from 62.31% to 90,68%. (author)

  8. Nonlegumes, legumes, and root nodules harbor different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Ridgway, K.P.; Young, J.P.W.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Legumes are an important plant functional group since they can form a tripartite symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, not much is known about AMF community composition in legumes and their root nodules. In this study,

  9. Harvesting management options for legumes intercropped in napier grass in the central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, D.M.; Cadisch, G.; Thorpe, W.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Ways of promoting integration of herbaceous forage legumes into a napier grass fodder system were evaluated with the aim of increasing forage quantity and quality on smallholder dairy farms in central Kenya. The herbaceous legumes Desmodium intortum cv. Greenleaf (ILRI 104), Macrotyloma axillare cv.

  10. Will Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Amplify the Benefits of Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence suggests there are three key features of the response of legumes to elevated [CO2]: (1) unlike other non-leguminous C3 plants, only legumes have the potential to maximize the benefit of elevated [CO2] by matching stimulated photosynthesis with increased N2 fixation; (2) this potenti...

  11. Subsoil Nitrogen Capture in Mixed Legume Stands as Assessed by Deep Nitrogen-15 Placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathumbi, S.M.; Cadisch, G.; Buresh, R.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation of crops with planted N2-fixing legumes (improved fallows) is a promising agroforestry innovation for replenishing soil fertility in the tropics. We postulated that woody and herbaceous legumes with different rooting and growth patterns could be mixed in improved fallows to maximize

  12. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the

  13. N2-fixing legumes are linked to enhanced mineral dissolution and microbiome modulations in Neotropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar; Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Saltonstall, Kristin; Hall, Jefferson; Leake, Jonathan; Beerling, David

    2017-04-01

    Legumes represent the dominant family of many tropical forests with estimates of 120 billion legume trees in the Amazon basin alone. Many rainforest legume trees form symbioses with N2-fixing bacteria. In the process of atmospheric N2-fixation large amounts of nitrogen-rich litter are generated, supplying half of all nitrogen required to support secondary rainforest succession. However, it is unclear how N2-fixers affect the biogeochemical cycling of other essential nutrients by affecting the rates of mineral dissolution and rock weathering. Here we show that N2-fixing legumes in young Panamanian rainforests promote acidification and enhance silicate rock weathering by a factor of 2 compared to non-fixing trees. We report that N2-fixers also associate with enhanced dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing secondary minerals native to tropical oxisols. In legume-rich neighbourhoods, non-fixers benefited from raised weathering rates relative to those of legume-free zones thus suggesting a positive community effect driven by N2-fixers. These changes in weathering potential were tracked by parallel functional and structural changes in the soil and rock microbiomes. Our findings support the view that N2-fixing legumes are central components of biogeochemical cycling, associated with enhanced release of Fe- and Al-bound P and primary mineral products (Mg, Mo). Rainforest legume services therefore bear important implications to short-term C cycling related to forest growth and the long-term C cycle related to marine carbonate deposition fuelled by silicate weathering.

  14. Characteristic elements of "Mediterranean Diet": the consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece (1950-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiou, K.Z.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Georgakopoulos, G.

    2012-01-01

    on).This paper describes the dietary consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece during the period 1950 to 2005. All dimensions of alimentary consumption patterns of vegetables and legumes are examined here with a specific focus on: a) their natural characteristics; b) technical features of the

  15. forage systems mixed with forage legumes grazed by lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluates productivity, stocking and nutritional rates of three forage systems with Elephant Grass (EG + Italian Ryegrass (IR + Spontaneous Growth Species (SGS, without forage legumes; EG + IR + SGS + Forage Peanut (FP, mixed with FP; and EG + IR + SGS + Red Clover (RC, mixed with RC, in rotational grazing method by lactating cows. IR developed between rows of EG. FP was maintained, whilst RC was sow to respective forage systems. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and two replication, subdivided into parcels over time. Mean rate for forage yield and average stocking rate were 10.6, 11.6 and 14.4 t ha-1; 3.0, 2.8 and 3.1 animal unit ha-1 day-1, for the respective systems. Levels of crude protein and total digestible nutrients were 17.8, 18.7 and 17.5%; 66.5, 66.8 and 64.8%, for the respective forage systems. The presence of RC results in better and higher forage yield in the mixture, whilst FP results in greater control of SGS. The inclusion of forage legumes in pasture systems provides better nutritional rates.

  16. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  17. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  18. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu Bahar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage. Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.47±3.84 kg/cm2 (no-tillage to 3.31±0.43 kg/cm2 (minimum tillage and 3.19±0.45 kg/cm2 (total tillage. Otherwise significant increasing on aeration porosity from 12.80±0.80% vol. (no-tillage to 21.70±0.95% vol. (minimum tillage and 20.70±0.35% vol. (total tillage. Total tillage gives increased dry matter yield. Also both total tillage and minimum tillage give yields with a higher percentage of legumes compared with no-tillage. It was concluded that total tillage and minimum tillage could be used for improving native grassland.

  19. TRUNCATULIX--a data warehouse for the legume community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, Kolja; Runte, Kai J; Bekel, Thomas; Dondrup, Michael; Jakobi, Tobias; Küster, Helge; Goesmann, Alexander

    2009-02-11

    Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database - hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  20. Signals exchanged between legumes and Rhizobium: agricultural uses and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, William J.; Perret, Xavier; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang Feng

    2001-01-01

    Legumes and rhizobia exchange at least three different, but sometimes complementary sets of signals. Amongst the variety of substances normally and continuously secreted into the rhizosphere by plants are phenolic compounds. Flavonoid components of these mixtures are especially active in inducing rhizobial nodulation genes. Many nodgenes exist. Some (e.g., nodD) serve as regulators of transcription, but most code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of a family of lipo-chito-oligosaccharides (LCOs) called Nod-factors. Nod-factors possess hormone-like properties, are key determinants in nodulation, and allow rhizobia to enter the plant. As Nod-factors also stimulate the synthesis and release of flavonoids from legume roots, the response to inoculation is amplified. Once the bacteria enter the plant, other sets of signals are exchanged between the symbionts. These include extra-cellular polysaccharides (EPSs) as well as proteins externalised via type-three secretion systems. These carbohydrates/proteins may be active in invasion of the root. At the time of writing, only flavonoids and Nodfactors have been chemically synthesised and of these only the former are available in large quantities. Field trials in North America show that seed application of flavonoids stimulates nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybeans grown at low soil temperatures. The biological basis to these responses is discussed. (author)

  1. Widespread fitness alignment in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Maren L

    2012-06-01

    Although 'cheaters' potentially destabilize the legume-rhizobium mutualism, we lack a comprehensive review of host-symbiont fitness correlations. Studies measuring rhizobium relative or absolute fitness and host benefit are surveyed. Mutant studies are tallied for evidence of pleiotropy; studies of natural strains are analyzed with meta-analysis. Of 80 rhizobium mutations, 19 decrease both partners' fitness, four increase both, two increase host fitness but decrease symbiont fitness and none increase symbiont fitness at the host's expense. The pooled correlation between rhizobium nodulation competitiveness and plant aboveground biomass is 0.65 across five experiments that compete natural strains against a reference, whereas, across 14 experiments that compete rhizobia against soil populations or each other, the pooled correlation is 0.24. Pooled correlations between aboveground biomass and nodule number and nodule biomass are 0.76 and 0.83. Positive correlations between legume and rhizobium fitness imply that most ineffective rhizobia are 'defective' rather than 'defectors'; this extends to natural variants, with only one significant fitness conflict. Most studies involve non-coevolved associations, indicating that fitness alignment is the default state. Rhizobium mutations that increase both host and symbiont fitness suggest that some plants maladaptively restrict symbiosis with novel strains. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Experimental evolution of a plant pathogen into a legume symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate alpha- and beta-proteobacteria that have achieved the environmentally essential function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. Ample evidence indicates that horizontal transfer of symbiotic plasmids/islands has played a crucial role in rhizobia evolution. However, adaptive mechanisms that allow the recipient genomes to express symbiotic traits are unknown. Here, we report on the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into Mimosa nodulating and infecting symbionts. Two types of adaptive mutations in the hrpG-controlled virulence pathway of R. solanacearum were identified that are crucial for the transition from pathogenicity towards mutualism. Inactivation of the hrcV structural gene of the type III secretion system allowed nodulation and early infection to take place, whereas inactivation of the master virulence regulator hrpG allowed intracellular infection of nodule cells. Our findings predict that natural selection of adaptive changes in the legume environment following horizontal transfer has been a major driving force in rhizobia evolution and diversification and show the potential of experimental evolution to decipher the mechanisms leading to symbiosis.

  3. Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Roe

    2004-02-27

    Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 Conference Report for the Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program provided $481,000 for the Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma. These funds were used to support our research that is aimed at determining the entire sequence of the gene rich regions of the genome of the legume, Medicago truncatula, by allowing us to obtain a greater degree of finished BAC sequences from the draft sequences we have already obtained through research funded by the Noble Foundation. During the funding period we increased the number of Medicago truncatula BACs with finished (Bermuda standard) sequences from 109 to 359, and the total number of BACs for which we collected sequence data from 584 to 842, 359 of which reached phase 2 (ordered and oriented contigs). We also sequenced a series of pooled BAC clones that cover additional euchromatic (gene rich) genomic regions. This work resulted in 6 refereed publications, see below. Genes whose sequence was determined during this study included multiple members of the plant disease resistance (R-gene) family as well as several genes involved in flavinoid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and plant-microbial symbosis. This work also served as a prelude to obtaining NSF funding for the international collaborative effort to complete the entire sequence of the Medicago truncatula genomic euchromatic regions using a BAC based approach.

  4. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  5. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    After an introduction on plant science research in Malaysia concerning crop breeding, 22 research reports are presented, 17 of which are analyzed individually and constitute separate INIS references. The remaining 5 were essentially concerned with only future applications of nuclear technology: a paper by V.L. Chopra (India) on mutation breeding for partial disease resistance of wheat; by H.H. Hoppe (Federal Republic of Germany) on mechanisms of resistance against Uromyces in Phaseolus vulgaris; by I.S. Santos (Philippines) on induction evaluation and utilization of beneficial mutations in the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), where gamma rays and fast neutrons will be used as well as other mutagens; by F. Saccardo (Italy) on breeding for disease resistance in peas and other vegetables (short communication only); and by E. Balazs and I. Sziraki (Hungary) on in vitro studies on virus resistance of legumes, including virus-host interaction studies involving gamma irradiation (short communication only). The conclusions and recommendations of the Regional Seminar on Induced Mutations for the Improvement of Grain Legumes in S.E. Asia 1975 (IAEA-203, 1977) were considered and generally endorsed, with some clarification. Conclusions and recommendations are given on p.121-126

  6. Legume integration as an agroecological intensification option for smallholders in uplands of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Von Yi

    that the initial performance of ricebean was affected by drought and grazing livestock. The results also demonstrated that the top-down Farming Systems Research & Extension intervention approach by the extension agents in promoting the innovation of legume integration into maize-based cropping systems without...... availability, the financial status of the household and access to extension services were the major factors influencing the decisions of resource-poor maize smallholders in legume adoption. The type of intervention approach by the extension agents needs to be considered to ensure sustained adoption of legume...... innovation. Since extreme weather events caused by climate change are becoming more common and unpredictable, it is imperative to find ways to reduce the risks that farmers may face upon integrating legumes under variable weather conditions. The assessment of the sustainability and resilience of legume...

  7. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC–UV–MS. The relationship between phytochemical

  8. Leveraging model legume information to find candidate genes for soybean sudden death syndrome using the legume information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Michael D; Gajendran, Kamal; Farmer, Andrew D; Archuleta, Eric; Beavis, William D

    2007-01-01

    Comparative genomics is an emerging and powerful approach to achieve crop improvement. Using comparative genomics, information from model plant species can accelerate the discovery of genes responsible for disease and pest resistance, tolerance to plant stresses such as drought, and enhanced nutritional value including production of anti-oxidants and anti-cancer compounds. We demonstrate here how to use the Legume Information System for a comparative genomics study, leveraging genomic information from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic), the model legume, to find candidate genes involved with sudden death syndrome (SDS) in Glycine max (soybean). Specifically, genetic maps, physical maps, and annotated tentative consensus and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from G. max and M. truncatula can be compared. In addition, the recently published M. truncatula genomic sequences can be used to identify M. truncatula candidate genes in a genomic region syntenic to a quantitative trait loci region for SDS in soybean. Genomic sequences of candidate genes from M. truncatula can then be used to identify ESTs with sequence similarities from soybean for primer design and cloning of potential soybean disease causing alleles.

  9. Warming Effects on Pinus sylvestris in the Cold–Dry Siberian Forest–Steppe: Positive or Negative Balance of Trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Shestakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding climate change impacts on drought-prone forests is a critical issue. We investigated ring-width and stable isotopes (Δ13C and δ18O in two Pinus sylvestris stands of the cold–dry Siberian forest–steppe growing under contrasting climatic trends over the last 75 years. Despite regional warming, there was increasing precipitation during the growing period at the southern site (MIN but increasing water deficit (WD at the northern site (BER. Intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi increased similarly (ca. 22% in response to warming and rising atmospheric CO2. However, the steady increase in WUEi was accompanied by divergent growth patterns since 1980: increasing basal area increment (BAI in MIN (slope = 0.102 cm2 year−2 and decreasing BAI in BER (slope = −0.129 cm2 year−2. This suggests that increased precipitation, mediated by CO2 effects, promoted growth in MIN, whereas intensified drought stress led to decreased carbon gain and productivity in BER. When compared to warm–dry stands of eastern Spain, the WUEi dependence on WD was three-fold greater in Siberia. Conversely, BAI was more affected by the relative impact of water stress within each region. These results indicate contrasting future trajectories of P. sylvestris forests, which challenge forecasting growth and carbon sequestration in cold–dry areas.

  10. Molecular identification and relative abundance of cryptic Lophodermium species in natural populations of Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reignoux, Sabrina N A; Green, Sarah; Ennos, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    The multi-locus phylogenetic species recognition approach and population genetic analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers were used to delineate Lophodermium taxa inhabiting needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in native pinewoods within Scotland. These analyses revealed three major lineages corresponding to the morphological species Lophodermium seditiosum and Lophodermium conigenum, fruiting on broken branches, and Lophodermium pinastri, fruiting on naturally fallen needles. Within L. pinastri three well supported sister clades were found representing cryptic taxa designated L. pinastri I, L. pinastri II, and L. pinastri III. Significant differences in mean growth rate in culture were found among the cryptic taxa. Taxon-specific primers based on ITS sequences were designed and used to classify over 500 Lophodermium isolates, derived from fallen needles of P. sylvestris in three Scottish and one French pinewood site, into the three L. pinastri cryptic taxa. Highly significant differences in the relative abundance of the three taxa were found among the Scottish pinewood sites, and between the French and all of the Scottish sites. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth response of drought-stressed Pinus sylvestris seedlings to single- and multi-species inoculation with ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Kipfer

    Full Text Available Many trees species form symbiotic associations with ectomycorrhizal (ECM fungi, which improve nutrient and water acquisition of their host. Until now it is unclear whether the species richness of ECM fungi is beneficial for tree seedling performance, be it during moist conditions or drought. We performed a pot experiment using Pinus sylvestris seedlings inoculated with four selected ECM fungi (Cenococcum geophilum, Paxillus involutus, Rhizopogon roseolus and Suillus granulatus to investigate (i whether these four ECM fungi, in monoculture or in species mixtures, affect growth of P. sylvestris seedlings, and (ii whether this effect can be attributed to species number per se or to species identity. Two different watering regimes (moist vs. dry were applied to examine the context-dependency of the results. Additionally, we assessed the activity of eight extracellular enzymes in the root tips. Shoot growth was enhanced in the presence of S. granulatus, but not by any other ECM fungal species. The positive effect of S. granulatus on shoot growth was more pronounced under moist (threefold increase than under dry conditions (twofold increase, indicating that the investigated ECM fungi did not provide additional support during drought stress. The activity of secreted extracellular enzymes was higher in S. granulatus than in any other species. In conclusion, our findings suggest that ECM fungal species composition may affect seedling performance in terms of aboveground biomass.

  12. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasante, A.; Laina, R.; Rojas, J. A. M.; Rojas, I. M.; Vignote, S.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strenght. Area of study: Spain. Material and methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601) and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492). 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative). Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative. Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product) presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole. The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment. The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies. Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending and parallel compression strength. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative. (Author)

  13. Impact Of Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. And Spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. Bark Extracts On Important Strawberry Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minova Sandra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Phytopathogenic fungi induced considerable economic losses in strawberry production industry; therefore, more attention should be paid to development and implementation of preventative treatment that is environmentally friendly. Coniferous trees produce a wide variety of compounds, such as terpenoids and phenolics. Several studies are known on fungicidal activity of different components of coniferous tree bark. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. bark ethanol extracts impact on pathogenous fungi causing diseases of strawberries. Products of processed pine (Pinus sylvestris and spruce (Picea abies bark were tested. During 2011 to 2013, several in vitro experiments were carried out to test the effectiveness of pine and spruce bark extracts against various phytopathogenic fungi isolated from strawberries: Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum acutatum, Phytophthora cactorum and Mycosphaerella fragariae. Radial growth tests showed that coniferous bark extracts inhibit mycelial growth of B. cinerea, C. acutatum, P. cactorum and M. fragariae. Extracts had the highest antifungal effect on B. cinerea two and five days after inoculation (p < 0.05. Bark extracts can reduce the sporulation of B. cinerea, C. acutatum and P. cactorum.

  14. Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flaviane G; Marquete, Ronaldo; Domingos, Levy T; Rocha, Marco E N; Ferreira-Pereira, Antonio; Mansur, Elisabeth; Moreira, Davyson L

    2017-01-01

    Casearia genus (Salicaceae) is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as "guaçatonga", "erva-de-tiú", "cafezinho-do-mato". In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds) volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%). These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8%) and α-copaene (8.5%) and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8%) were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

  15. Antifungal activities of the essential oil and its fractions rich in sesquiterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Sw.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIANE G. PEREIRA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Casearia genus (Salicaceae is found in sub-tropical and tropical regions of the world and comprises about 160-200 species. It is a medicinal plant used in South America, also known as “guaçatonga”, “erva-de-tiú”, “cafezinho-do-mato”. In Brazil, there are about 48 species and 12 are registered in the State of Rio de Janeiro, including Casearia sylvestris Sw. There are many studies related to the chemical profile and cytotoxic activities of extracts from these plants, although few studies about the antifungal potential of the essential oil have been reported. In this work, we have studied the antifungal properties of the essential oil of C. sylvestris leaves, as well as of their fractions, against four yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisae, Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei for the first time. The chemical analysis of the essential oil revealed a very diversified (n = 21 compounds volatile fraction composed mainly of non-oxygenated sesquiterpenes (72.1%. These sesquiterpenes included α-humulene (17.8% and α-copaene (8.5% and the oxygenated sesquiterpene spathulenol (11.8% were also identified. Monoterpenes were not identified. The fractions are mainly composed of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and the most active fraction is rich in the sesquiterpene 14-hydroxy -9-epi-β-caryophyllene. This fraction was the most effective in inhibiting the growth of three yeast strains.

  16. Population genetic relationships between Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties occurring sympatrically and allopatrically in different ecosystems in south-east Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallari, Marcelo Mattos; Gimenes, Marcos Aparecido; Billot, Claire; Torres, Roseli Buzanelli; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Species delimitation can be problematic, and recently diverged taxa are sometimes viewed as the extremes of a species' continuum in response to environmental conditions. Using population genetic approaches, this study assessed the relationship between two Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae) varieties, which occur sympatrically and allopatrically in the landscape of south-east Brazil, where intermediate types are also found. In total, 376 individuals from nine populations in four different ecosystems were sampled, and nine microsatellite markers were used to assess the relative effects of the ecosystems and varieties on the distribution of genetic diversity among populations of this species. As a by-product of this study, several PCR products with more than two alleles were observed. The possibility that extra bands represent non-specific amplification or PCR artefacts was discarded by sequencing a sample of these bands. We suggest that (partial) genome duplication in C. sylvestris most probably explains this phenomenon, which may be a key factor in the differentiation of the two taxa, as it was markedly more frequent in one of the varieties. AMOVA indicated that approx. 22 % of the total genetic diversity was found between the two varieties. Bayesian analysis identified varieties and ecosystems as evolutionary units, rather than the individual populations sampled. The results are in agreement with field observations and support the recognition of two varieties, as well as documenting the occurrence of hybridization between them.

  17. Yeast biodiversity from Vitis vinifera L., subsp. sylvestris (Gmelin Hegi to face up the oenological consequences of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig-Pujol Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change in the viticulture is affecting the quality of grapes and their wines. As consequence, climatic variations are producing a mismatch between technological and phenolic maturity and are affecting the microbiota's ecology, biodiversity and their metabolism in vineyard, grape, must and wine. However, there are natural resources that can help to mitigate the effects of global warming. It has been noticed that grapes from female plants of wild vines (Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris have very appropriate characteristics to face up this problem: later maturing, high acidity, high polyphenol content,…A molecular study of 819 strains isolated at the end of spontaneous fermentations of grapes of Vitis vinifera subsp. sylvestris grapevines from 30 locations in northern of Spain revealed 8 different genera and 18 different species. 71,5% of the yeasts were classified as non-Saccharomycesand 28,5% were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This latter specie was characterized at strain level, classifying 30 different groups, 6 of which as the majority from 2 up to 4 different locations. These findings demonstrate a wide diversity of yeast microbiota in wild grapes that will allow a yeast selection for the wine industry in a scenario of climate change.

  18. Growth, nutrient uptake and ectomycorrhizal function in Pinus sylvestris plants exposed to aluminium and heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Mycology and Pathology

    2000-07-01

    The potential role of aluminium (Al) toxicity to trees has been of particular concern to forest owners and scientists since the early 1980's when Ulrich hypothesised that both Al and heavy metals were involved in forest dieback because of their increased concentrations in soil due to acidification. Since then, numerous studies have examined the effects of metals upon nutrient uptake by plants. However, most of these investigations have been carried out in the absence of mycorrhizal fungi, which, in most ecosystems, are crucial components in nutrient uptake by plants. The present work focused on the effects of elevated concentrations of Al and heavy metals on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and the potential role of ectomycorrhiza in modifying these effects. Ectomycorrhizal colonisation enhanced the growth and nutrient uptake by seedlings. To some extent, colonisation also alleviated reduced nutrient uptake which was a feature of seedlings growing in the presence of the metals. This effect was particularly noticeable with respect to P uptake. In general, mycorrhizal seedlings grew better and had an improved P, K, Mg and S status compared with non-mycorrhizal seedlings. Significant differences were also found in nutrient uptake among seedlings colonised by different fungi. One fungus, Hebeloma cf. longicaudum, was more sensitive to the Al treatment than the pine seedlings. The use of the base cation / Al ratio as an indicator of the potential detrimental effects to trees to acidification and Al is discussed. The production of oxalic acid was found to increase when mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal seedlings were exposed to Al or Cu. Colonisation by Suillus variegatus or Rhizopogon roseolus, in particular, resulted in a marked increase. These results demonstrate that there is a capacity, especially by certain ectomycorrhizal fungi, for increased production of the metal-chelating oxalic acid when root systems are exposed to increased levels of metals. In a field

  19. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  20. Transfer Comparison Study Nitrogen on the Intact and Decapitated Legumes by Using the 15N Labeling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjayanto, Didik W.

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was done in order to evaluate the N transfer from the intact and decapitated legumes by using the 15 N labeling technique. Seven days after final labeling the above ground biomass from labeled legume species was removed and the remaining stalks capped to prevent regrowth. Twenty days after final labeling (fourteen days after capping) the all treatments were sample and analyzed. The decapitated legumes appeared to transfer more percentage N than the intact legumes. Although both decapitated and intact legumes transferred, the transfer of N did not incur a dry matter and N yield benefit

  1. Study and analysis of the legume crop market in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukhanyan Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous and sub-mountainous zones of the Republic of Armenia farmers mainly grow beans, chickpeas, and peas. In addition there are very small crop areas (mainly homestead lands of faba bean, soybean, mung bean, and grass pea. The village population does not know much about the cultivation of these plants. The data show that in 2007-2009 the specific weight of legume in overall cropland was approximately 94%, and about the 96% of the gross harvest. Local production needs appropriate marketing strategy. The research of local market showed that more attention should be paid to the consumption of goods produced by the farmer households, as well as to offer them to various consumer groups.

  2. Legume promotion in counselling: an e-mail survey of dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, N; Brauer, P M

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about dietitians current practice in counselling clients about the use of legumes in a low fat, high fibre diet. An exploratory e-mail questionnaire was sent to members of Dietitians of Canada to assess: dietitian use and preferences for legumes, dietitian practice, opinions about clients attitudes and preferences, and resource needs. Counsellors (n=256) had high personal use of legumes (64% > or = 1 serving/week) and frequently recommended legumes in counselling. The legumes most preferred by respondents and their clients were: peanuts, kidney beans, split peas, chickpeas, and lentils. Respondents often recommended canned bean products (76%) and tofu (61%), but other legume grocery products were less often recommended. The most common client issues identified were: flatulence (87% agreed), lack of familiarity (85%), and knowledge of preparation (82%). Dietitians were not satisfied with current resources to support practice, especially those respondents providing primarily clinical counselling services. The most requested resources were: recipes (90%), pamphlets (82%), food demonstrations (75%) and Internet sites (63%). Client level research is now needed to confirm the importance of the issues identified and to develop and test strategies for legume promotion in counselling.

  3. Isolation of Rhizobium Bacteria from Forage Legumes for the Development of Ruminant Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuskhah, E.; Purbajanti, E. D.; Anwar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The aimed of the study was to explore the presence of Rhizobium bacteria along the northern coast of Central Java, to develop a saline-resistant legumes. Rhizobium bacteria is a mutualistic bacterium capable of symbiosis with legumes so that legumes crop yields increase. The research begins with sampling of soil and root nodule of forage legumes along the Northern Coast of Central Java including Tegal, Pekalongan, Semarang, Demak, Pati. Soil samples were analysed for salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, and pH. Rhizobium bacteria were isolated from the acquired root nodule, then identified by biochemical test to ensure that the isolates obtained were Rhizobium bacteria. The results showed that the five districts/municipal sites sampled by the soil have very low salinity to very high levels. The highest level of soil salinity was found in Demak (Sayung) which has an electrical conductivity value (EC) of 17.77 mmhos/cm. The EC values of legumes overgrown soils showed a low salinity level while bare soils have high salinity levels. Feed crops legumes that could be found in the northern coast of Central Java were Centrosema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides, Leucaena leucocephala, and Sesbania grandiflora. The study obtained 6 kinds of isolates of rhizobium bacteria isolated from forage legumes, included 1) Centrosema pubescens isolated from Pekalongan, 2) Centrosema pubescens isolated from Tegal, 3) Calopogonium mucunoides isolated from Pekalongan, 4) Leucaenaleucocephala isolated from Tegal, 5) Leucaena leucocephala isolated from Semarang, 6) Sesbania grandiflora isolated from Tegal.

  4. Tree-ring analysis of crown competition and climatic sensitivity in Pinus strobus and P. sylvestris stands in the Elbe River Sandstone Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mácová, Marcela

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2001), s. 103-113 ISSN 1125-7865 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6005801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : dendroclimatology * Pinus strobus * Pinus sylvestris Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. Effects of continuous spectrum LEDs used in indoor cultivation of two coniferous species Pinus sylvestris L. and Abies borisii-regis Mattf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smirnakou, Sonia; Ouzounis, Theoharis; Radoglou, Kalliopi

    2017-01-01

    The effects of four different continuous spectrum LED light qualities on the growth characteristics of Pinus sylvestris L. (PS) and Abies borisii-regis Mattf. (AB) seedlings were studied. The seedlings were exposed for 35 days inside growth chambers to G2 (high in red and far-red), AP67 (high in

  6. A hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora x P. sylvestris hybrids inferred from sequence analysis of chloroplast DNA and morphological characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    To confirm a hybrid swarm population of Pinus densiflora × P. sylvestris in Jilin, China and to study whether shoot apex morphology of 4-year old seedlings can be correlated with the sequence of a chloroplast DNA simple sequence repeat marker (cpDNA SSR), needles and seeds from P. densiflora, P. syl...

  7. INDEKS GLISEMIK KACANG-KACANGAN [Glycemic Index of Selected Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional management for diabetic patients based on selection of low available carbohydrate foods has been criticized because the same availability of carbohydrate in different foods may result in different degree of glycemic response. This management is now being corrected by additional aid in selecting foods with the glycemic index (GI of foods. GI is a measure of the glycemic response to the carbohydrate component within a food relative to the response to an equal carbohydrate portion of reference food (glucose or white bread. In Indonesia, data of the glycemic index of foods is still very limited. The objectives of the research are to provide GI of selected legumes, including red bean (Vigna umbellata, Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus, cow pea (Vigna sinensis ENDL, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan MILLSPAUGH, edible podded peas (Pisum sativum LINN and soy bean (Glycine max MERR. Eleventh health and normal volunteers (not diabetic were provided. The volunteers took an overnight fasting, blood were drawn in the morning and analyzed for serum glucose. Then they were given the test legumes containing total carbohydrates equivalent to 25-g glucose to be consumed. Blood samples were drawn for glucose measurement every 30 minutes until 120 min after meal. Serum glucose was determined enzymatically and the glucose responses were drawn graphically. The GI of the beans studied was lowest for red bean (26 and highest for mung bean (76, Edible podded pea and soy bean had similar value of GI i.e. 30 and 31; whereas pigeon and cow pea had a higher value i.e. 35 and 51, respectively.

  8. TRUNCATULIX – a data warehouse for the legume community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runte Kai J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database – hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. Results The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. Conclusion The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  9. Classical and molecular genetics of the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Gresshoff, P M

    1997-01-01

    The model legume Lotus japonicus was demonstrated to be amenable to classical and molecular genetic analysis, providing the basis for the genetic dissection of the plant processes underlying nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have developed an efficient method for the sexual hybridization of L. japonicus and obtained F1 progeny derived from a cross of L. japonicus B-129-S9 Gifu x B-581 Funakura. Over half of the cross-pollinations resulted in fertile hybrid seed, which were confirmed morphologically and by single arbitrary primer DNA amplification polymorphisms using the DAF technique. Molecular and morphological markers segregated in true Mendelian fashion in a F2 population of 100 plants. Several DAF loci were linked using the MAPMAKER software to create the first molecular linkage groups of this model legume. The mapping population was advanced to generate a set of immortal recombinant inbred lines (F6; RILs), useful for sharing plant material fixed genetically at most genomic regions. Morphological loci for waved stem shape (Ssh), dark leaf color (Lco), and short flowering period (Fpe) were inherited as single dominant Mendelian loci. DAF markers were dominant and were detected between Gifu and Funakura at about one per primer, suggesting that the parents are closely related. One polymorphism (270G generated by single octomer primer 8.6m) was linked to a morphological locus controlling leaf coloration. The results demonstrate that (i) Lotus japonicus is amenable to diploid genetic analysis, (ii) morphological and molecular markers segregate in true diploid fashion, (iii) molecular polymorphisms can be obtained at a reasonable frequency between the related Gifu and Funakura lines, and iv) the possibility exists for map-based cloning, marker assisted selection and mapping of symbiotic mutations through a genetic and molecular map.

  10. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  11. Identificação de diterpenos clerodânicos em diferentes órgãos de Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Simões de Carvalho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae é uma espécie vegetal arbórea ou arbustiva, disseminada pelo território brasileiro e bastante utilizada em nossa medicina popular. Diversos diterpenos clerodânicos bioativos típicos do gênero Casearia foram isolados desta espécie (ex. casearinas e casearvestrinas. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de diterpenos clerodânicos em diferentes órgãos de C. sylvestris, utilizando técnicas analíticas cromatográficas e espectroscópicas. Os extratos dos diferentes órgãos foram analisados por cromatografia em camada delgada, cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos e ressonância magnética nuclear de 1H. Nas análises cromatográficas foram utilizados diterpenos clerodânicos isolados de C. sylvestris como padrões, incluindo rel-19S-acetóxi- 18R- butanoilóxi-18,19- epóxi -6S -hidróxi -2R- (2 metilbutanoilóxi -5S,8R, 9R, 10S -cleroda-3,13(16,14-trieno, isolado do caule pela primeira vez. Foram obtidos perfis fitoquímicos dos órgãos avaliados. Os resultados indicaram a presença de diterpenos clerodânicos em toda planta, prevalecendo em maior número nas folhas. Além disso, os resultados também indicam que em caules, flores e raízes há predomínio de diterpenos clerodânicos com padrão diênico diferente daqueles obtidos de folhas de C. sylvestris. Palavras-chave: Casearia sylvestris. Diterpenos clerodânicos. Salicaceae. Flacourtiaceae. Cromatografia. ABSTRACT Identification of clerodane diterpenes in different organs of Casearia sylvestris Swartz Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae is a tree or shrub distributed widely in Brazil, where it is used in popular medicine. Several bioactive clerodane diterpenes typical of Casearia have been isolated from this species (e.g. casearins and casearvestrins. The main objective of this study was to identify clerodane diterpenes in various organs of C. sylvestris

  12. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 degreesC or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ N-15 stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition....... In the experiment the turnover of C and N was compared in soils with and without previous growth of three legumes and with and without incorporation of crop residues. After 168 days, 21% (lupin), 26% (faba bean) and 27% (pea) of rhizodeposition N was mineralised in the treatments without crop residues. A smaller...

  13. Comparisonof physicochemical properties of selected locally available legume varieties (mung bean, cowpea and soybean)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulasooriyage Tharuka Gunathilake; Theja Herath; Jagath Wansapala

    2016-01-01

    Grain legumes are widely used as high-protein contained crops that play a secondary role to cereal or root crops. In Sri Lanka various legume species are cultivated and often utilised in the whole grain boiled form. The objective of present study was to analyse and compare locally grown legumes varieties; Mung bean (MI 5, MI 6), Cowpea (Bombay, Waruni, Dhawal, MICP1, ANKCP1) and soybean (pb1, MISB1) for their morphological characteristics, proximate and mineral composition (Fe, Ca, Zn, K, P)....

  14. Toxicity study about a medicinal plant Casearia sylvestris: A contribution to the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameni, A Z; Latorre, O A; Torres, L M B; Górniak, S L

    2015-12-04

    Casearia sylvestris S.w (Salicaceae) is catalogued by the Brazilian Unified Health System as a plant of interest for the Brazilian population with the purpose of treating inflammatory disorders, such as pain and gastrointestinal disorders based on the folk use and some literature about efficacy; however, no toxicological studies concerned the safety of extract fluid of this plant have been reported. The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute and subchronic toxicity of the hydroethanolic extract fluid (FE) obtained from leaves of C. sylvestris in Wistar rats. In the acute toxicity test three female Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of FE (2000 mg/kg) administered by oral gavage and observed for 14 days in order to identify signs of toxicity or death. In subchronic toxicity study animals received, by daily gavage three doses 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg of the FE of the plant for 28 and 90 days. The animals were observed daily for clinical signs and mortality. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly and at the end of treatment were analysed hematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters. Also was analysed the cellularity of bone marrow and spleen. Moreover, phytochemical analysis by HPLC-PDA-ESI(+)/MS and CG/MS/EI was carried out to qualify the constituents of the extract. The results of acute study indicated that the LD50 is higher than 2000 mg/kg and at 28 and 90 day oral toxicity showed that there were no toxic effects detected in any of the parameters evaluated: body weight and relative organ weight, general behavioral changes, haematological and biochemical parameters and histopathological examination. The analysis by HPLC-PDA-ESI(+)/MS and CG/MS/EI identified the flavonoids rutin, quercetin and luteolin and also chlorogenic on the extract. Based on this study the hydroethanolic fluid extract of C. sylvestris could be safe even when used over a long period for therapeutic uses proposed by the Brazilian Unified Health

  15. LC-MS/MS determination of the isomeric neurotoxins BMAA (beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine) and DAB (2,4-diaminobutyric acid) in cyanobacteria and seeds of Cycas revoluta and Lathyrus latifolius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Thomas; Mönch, Bettina; Oppenhäuser, Steven; Luckas, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Since diverse taxa of cyanobacteria has been linked to biosynthesis of BMAA, a controversy has arisen about the detection of neurotoxic amino acids in cyanobacteria. In this context, a novel LC-MS/MS method was developed for the unambiguous determination of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) in cyanobacteria and selected plant seeds. Both neurotoxic and non-proteinogenic amino acids were analyzed without derivatization considering the total concentration of the free and protein-bound form. The investigation of overall 62 cyanobacterial samples of worldwide origin by application of this method revealed the absence of BMAA, whereas seeds of Cycas revoluta contained 6.96 microg g(-1) of free BMAA. In contrast, the isomer DAB was confirmed in 16 cyanobacterial samples in concentrations of 0.07-0.83 microg g(-1),whereof one sample is distributed as nutritional supplement. In addition, seeds of Lathyrus latifolius contained 4.21 microg g(-1) of free DAB. Limits of detection were for BMAA<1.0 microg g(-1) in the cyanobacterial matrix and<0.14 microg g(-1) in angiosperm seeds. DAB exhibits higher sensitivities of <0.06 microg g(-1) in cyanobacteria and <0.008 microg g(-1) in angiosperm seeds. The highly specific analysis method with increased detection sensitivity eliminates the disadvantages of derivatization-based methods to be discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Leaf Rolling and Stem Fasciation in Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L. Mutant Are Mediated through Glutathione-Dependent Cellular and Metabolic Changes and Associated with a Metabolic Diversion through Cysteine during Phenotypic Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibyendu Talukdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Lathyrus sativus L. mutant isolated in ethylmethane sulfonate-treated M2 progeny of mother variety BioL-212 and designated as rlfL-1 was characterized by inwardly rolled-leaf and stem and bud fasciations. The mutant exhibited karyomorphological peculiarities in both mitosis and meiosis with origin of aneuploidy. The mitosis was vigorous with high frequency of divisional cells and their quick turnover presumably steered cell proliferations. Significant transcriptional upregulations of cysteine and glutathione synthesis and concomitant stimulations of glutathione-mediated antioxidant defense helped rlfL-1 mutant to maintain balanced reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolisms, as deduced by ROS-imaging study. Glutathione synthesis was shut down in buthionine sulfoximine- (BSO- treated mother plant and mutant, and leaf-rolling and stems/buds fasciations in the mutant were reversed, accompanied by normalization of mitotic cell division process. Antioxidant defense was downregulated under low glutathione-redox but cysteine-desulfurations and photorespiratory glycolate oxidase transcripts were markedly overexpressed, preventing cysteine overaccumulation but resulted in excess H2O2 in BSO-treated mutant. This led to oxidative damage in proliferating cells, manifested by severe necrosis in rolled-leaf and fasciated stems. Results indicated vital role of glutathione in maintaining abnormal proliferations in plant organs, and its deficiency triggered phenotypic reversal through metabolic diversions of cysteine and concomitant cellular and metabolic modulations.

  17. Economy of Fertilizer Nitrogen through Organic Sources in Rain-Fed Rice-Legume Cropping Systems in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Puste

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at a farmers’ plot adjacent to the Regional Research Station, red and laterite zone, Sub-center Sekhampur (Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, situated 23° 24' N latitude, 87° 24' E longitude, to study the effect of different bio- and organic sources of nutrients instead of total fertilizer N in terms of crop productivity in the sequence and building up of soil fertility. During the wet seasons of 1997 and 1998, 12 combinations of bio- and organic sources (crop residues, well decomposed cow dung, dhanicha as green manure were substituted for 25–50% of N fertilizer applied on transplanted rice (Cv. IR 36. Subsequently, during the winters of 1997–1998 and 1998–1999, leguminous pulse crops like lentil (Lens culinaris [L.] Medic., gram (Cicer arietinum L. and lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L. were grown with and without inoculation of Rhizobium. Results revealed that the application of inorganic N in combination with organic sources exhibited a significant increase in rice yield (3.60–3.84 t ha-1 compared to the yield from sole application of N (3.19–3.26 t ha-1. The study showed that about 25% of total applied N was saved without significant yield reduction with simultaneous improvement of soil physical properties (pH, organic matter, available N, P, K, and CEC. Seed yield of pulses (lentil, gram, and lathyrus were more pronounced in the treatment inoculated with Rhizobium, with a saving of 42.6–48.4 kg N ha-1. Therefore, the results suggest that the combined application of inorganic and organic N sources in a 75:25 ratio is a superior N-management practice with regards to crop yields as well as improvement of soil fertility.

  18. Economy of fertilizer nitrogen through organic sources in rain-fed rice-legume cropping systems in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puste, A M; Bandyopadhyay, S; Das, D K

    2001-12-11

    Field experiments were conducted at a farmers" plot adjacent to the Regional Research Station, red and laterite zone, Sub-center Sekhampur (Birbhum district) of West Bengal, India, situated 23 degrees 24' N latitude, 87 degrees 24' E longitude, to study the effect of different bio- and organic sources of nutrients instead of total fertilizer N in terms of crop productivity in the sequence and building up of soil fertility. During the wet seasons of 1997 and 1998, 12 combinations of bio- and organic sources (crop residues, well decomposed cow dung, dhanicha as green manure) were substituted for 25-50% of N fertilizer applied on transplanted rice (Cv. IR 36). Subsequently, during the winters of 1997-1998 and 1998-1999, leguminous pulse crops like lentil (Lens culinaris [L.] Medic.), gram ( Cicer arietinum L.) and lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L.) were grown with and without inoculation of Rhizobium. Results revealed that the application of inorganic N in combination with organic sources exhibited a significant increase in rice yield (3.60-3.84 t ha(-1) ) compared to the yield from sole application of N (3.19-3.26 t ha(-1) ). The study showed that about 25% of total applied N was saved without significant yield reduction with simultaneous improvement of soil physical properties (pH, organic matter, available N, P, K, and CEC). Seed yield of pulses (lentil, gram, and lathyrus) were more pronounced in the treatment inoculated with Rhizobium, with a saving of 42.6-48.4 kg N ha(-1). Therefore, the results suggest that the combined application of inorganic and organic N sources in a 75:25 ratio is a superior N-management practice with regards to crop yields as well as improvement of soil fertility.

  19. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  20. GeMprospector--online design of cross-species genetic marker candidates in legumes and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Madsen, Lene H; Hougaard, Birgit K; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Bertioli, David; Schauser, Leif

    2006-07-01

    The web program GeMprospector (URL: http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/GeMprospector/main) allows users to automatically design large sets of cross-species genetic marker candidates targeting either legumes or grasses. The user uploads a collection of ESTs from one or more legume or grass species, and they are compared with a database of clusters of homologous EST and genomic sequences from other legumes or grasses, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments between submitted ESTs and their homologues in the appropriate database form the basis of automated PCR primer design in conserved exons such that each primer set amplifies an intron. The only user input is a collection of ESTs, not necessarily from more than one species, and GeMprospector can boost the potential of such an EST collection by combining it with a large database to produce cross-species genetic marker candidates for legumes or grasses.

  1. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nacira; Liu, Ailin; Kan, Leo; Li, Man-Wah; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-02-04

    Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea) to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes.

  2. Phylogeny and Phylogeography of Rhizobial Symbionts Nodulating Legumes of the Tribe Genisteae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stępkowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The legume tribe Genisteae comprises 618, predominantly temperate species, showing an amphi-Atlantic distribution that was caused by several long-distance dispersal events. Seven out of the 16 authenticated rhizobial genera can nodulate particular Genisteae species. Bradyrhizobium predominates among rhizobia nodulating Genisteae legumes. Bradyrhizobium strains that infect Genisteae species belong to both the Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii superclades. In symbiotic gene phylogenies, Genisteae bradyrhizobia are scattered among several distinct clades, comprising strains that originate from phylogenetically distant legumes. This indicates that the capacity for nodulation of Genisteae spp. has evolved independently in various symbiotic gene clades, and that it has not been a long-multi-step process. The exception is Bradyrhizobium Clade II, which unlike other clades comprises strains that are specialized in nodulation of Genisteae, but also Loteae spp. Presumably, Clade II represents an example of long-lasting co-evolution of bradyrhizobial symbionts with their legume hosts.

  3. Deciphering composition and function of the root microbiome of a legume plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Kyle; van der Heijden, Marcel G A; Roussely-Provent, Valexia; Walser, Jean-Claude; Schlaeppi, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diverse assemblages of microbes colonize plant roots and collectively function as a microbiome. Earlier work has characterized the root microbiomes of numerous plant species, but little information is available for legumes despite their key role in numerous ecosystems including

  4. Heating and Soaking Influence in Vitro Hindgut Fermentation of Tropical Legume Grains in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Julieta; Muñoz, Luz S; Peters, Michael; Montoya, Carlos A

    2018-01-17

    The effects of different thermal (raw versus autoclaving or boiling for 5 and 20 min) and soaking (with or without) treatments on the in vitro hindgut fermentation in pigs of undigested residue collected after in vitro foregut digestion of tropical legumes' grains (Canavalia brasiliensis; Lablab purpureus; pink, red and white Vigna unguiculata) were investigated. The undigested residue was fermented with a pig fecal inoculum to determine fermentability, gas, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) productions. Soaked raw legumes increased the production of SCFAs (e.g., butyric acid) and fermentability, while autoclaving reduced them. The productions of butyric acid and energy derived from SCFAs differed between legumes, with canavalia and lablab having the lowest and highest values, respectively. SCFAs and energy productions were highly related to the predicted nutrients entering the hindgut. In conclusion, different heating and soaking treatments can be applied to legumes to modulate the production of target SCFAs.

  5. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF CERIUM DIOXIDE NANOPARTICLES ON GERMINATION OF SEEDS AND PLASTIC EXCHANGE OF PINE SEEDLINGS (Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Pinchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of cerium dioxide nanoparticles on the germination of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris seeds and the subsequent physiological changes in plastid pigments and phenolic compounds accumulation in the seedlings tissues. Brief soaking of pine seeds in solutions of cerium dioxide nanoparticles (2-4 nm increases the germinating power and seed germination by 1.3 times. In pine seedlings, germinated from six month old seeds, reduction in chlorophyll b, phenols and phenylalanine content is observed in 14 days after treatment. Simultaneously, concentration of carotenoids and flavonoids increased. This indicates the overall decrease in phenylpropanoid synthesis. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that cerium dioxide nanoparticles, having entered the cells of Scots pine seeds, are engaged in the regulation of phenol and terpenoid synthesis in seedlings, which greatly affects the intensity of their growth and development.

  7. Free radical generation in Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds primed with polyethylene glycol or potassium salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naglreiter, Christina; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Goodman, Bernard A; Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, Harald R

    2005-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of Pinus sylvestris and Larix decidua seeds show that priming with PEG+200 mg kg(-1) gibberelic acid (GA(3)) results in appreciably higher free radical contents than in unprimed control samples. Only relatively minor changes in the free radical levels were observed in seeds primed with K(+) salts. However, both priming treatments have been reported previously to result in faster germination rates compared to controls without changing the germination percentage. In measurements on individual seeds of L. decidua, there were no significant differences between the mean free radical levels in viable and non-viable seeds within each treatment group. Thus, the elevation in free radical levels in the PEG+GA(3) treatments appear to be a direct consequence of the priming treatment and do not correspond to the initiation of germination.

  8. The potential for using the needle litter of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a raw material for particleboard manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemli, Gökay; Yildiz, Sibel; Derya Gezer, E

    2008-09-01

    Particleboard panels were made from various wood particle/needle litter of Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) mixtures bonded with urea formaldehyde resin. Litter was characterized by having higher solubility's in alcohol-benzene, with diluting alkali and hot water, and resulted in lower pH values than those of wood particles. The mechanical properties (modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and internal bond strength) of boards containing up to 6.25% litter were lower than those of panels made from wood particles. However, needle litter usage improved the physical property (thickness swelling) and decay resistance of the panels, significantly. Panels consist of 6.25% and 12.50% needle litter met the minimum EN standard requirements of mechanical properties for general-purposes. Particleboards contain more than 50% needle litter had the required level of thickness swelling for 24 h immersion.

  9. EFFET HYPOUPIDEMIANT DE L'HUILE D'OLIVIER SAIWAGEOLEA EUROPAEA OLÉASTRE OU OLEA SYLVESTRIS.

    OpenAIRE

    BENDIMERAD, SORAYA

    2014-01-01

    L'Olivier sauvage (Olea europaea oléastre/sylvestris) est une espèce végétale ancêtre de l'olivier cultivé bordant le pourtourméditerranéen. L'extraction par un procédé triphasique de fruit de cet arbre donne une huile sacrée par ses multiples usages. La détermination des indices physico- chimiques a révélé que l'huile est vierge, nonsiccative, constituée de chaines moyenne d'acides gras. La composition en acides gras montre une instauration prépondérante due à la teneur élevée...

  10. Parâmetros para o controle da qualidade de folhas de Casearia sylvestris SW. - Guaçatonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Francinl Boszczowski Luz

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer parâmetros farmacognósticos de Casearia sylvestris Sw., Flacourtiaceae, conhecida na medicina popular como guacatonga, para melhorar o controle de qualidade da droga. A espécie é oficializada na Farmacopéia Brasileira I, onde estão descritas apenas as características macroscópicas e microscópicas. São sugeridos novos parâmetros para determinação de resíduo de incineração, extrato seco e doseamento de taninos, como também um perfil cromatográfico em camada delgada.

  11. Inhibition of tumor proliferation associated with cell cycle arrest caused by extract and fraction from Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe, Karina Bettega; Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; da Silva, Fabiana Ourique; Bücker, Nádia Falcão; Farias, Mirelle Sinfroni; Castro, Luiza Sheyla Evenni Porfirio Will; de Souza Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves; Motta, Nadia Sandrini; Correia, João Francisco Gomes; Rossi, Maria Helena; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2014-09-29

    Casearia sylvestris is a tree found in tropical America. In Brazil it is known mainly as Guaçatonga. Literature reports suggest that the leaves and other plant parts have been used by indigenous populations from South America in preparations, mainly aqueous or hydroethanolic macerations or decoctions, most times taken orally for the primary treatment of several diseases, including cancer. This article reports the results of an investigation about the antiproliferative effects of Casearia sylvestris on tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Aqueous ethanolic maceration and column chromatography were done to obtain a crude aqueous ethanolic extract (CAE) and a chloroform fraction (f-CHCl3). The human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 was used in culture. In vitro, non-cytotoxic concentrations were determined by MTT assay and the antiproliferative effect was assessed by the colony forming unit assay using non-cytotoxic concentrations. Effects on the cell cycle were observed through flow cytometry using a propidium iodide kit. Casearin C was identified in f-CHCl3 by chromatography and H(1) nuclear magnetic resonance. The effect on some key proteins of DNA damage (phosphorylation on the histone H2AX) and cell cycle control (p53, p16, cdk2) was evaluated through immunoblot. Antiproliferative effects in vivo were measured in tumor tissue from Ehrlich ascites-bearing mice through the (3)H-thymidine uptake assay and the trypan blue exclusion method. In vitro, EC50 values found at 24 h on MCF-7 cells were 141 µg/mL for CAE and 66 µg/mL for f-CHCl3. Inhibition on proliferation was recorded at concentrations as low as 4 µg/mL in the case of the f-CHCl3 (up to 40%) and up to 50% when CAE was added at 9 µg/mL. The cell cycle arrest was demonstrated by the reduction in terms of number of cells in phases G2/M and S, up to 38.9% and 51.9% when cells were treated with CAE, and 53.9% and 66.2%, respectively, when cells were treated with f-CHCl3. The number of cells in G1 was increased

  12. Infection and Invasion of Roots by Symbiotic, Nitrogen-Fixing Rhizobia during Nodulation of Temperate Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Gage, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genera Rhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium (collectively referred to as rhizobia) grow in the soil as free-living organisms but can also live as nitrogen-fixing symbionts inside root nodule cells of legume plants. The interactions between several rhizobial species and their host plants have become models for this type of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis. Temperate legumes such as alfalfa, pea, and vetch form indeterminate nodules that a...

  13. Contrasted nitrogen utilization in annual C 3 grass and legume crops: Physiological explorations and ecological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, Alejandro; Garnier, Eric; Aronson, James

    2000-01-01

    Although it is well known that legumes have unusually high levels of nitrogen in both reproductive and vegetative organs, the physiological implications of this pattern have been poorly assessed. We conducted a literature survey and used data from two (unpublished) experiments on annual legumes and C 3 grasses in order to test whether these high nitrogen concentrations in legumes are correlated to high rates of carbon gain. Three different temporal/spatial scales were considered: full growing season/stand, days to month/whole plant and seconds/leaf. At the stand level, and for plants grown under both extratropical and tropical settings, biomass per unit organic-nitrogen was lower in legume than in grass crops. At a shorter time scale, the relative growth rate per unit plant nitrogen (`nitrogen productivity') was lower in faba bean ( Vicia faba var. minor cv. Tina) than in wheat ( Triticum aestivum cv. Alexandria), and this was confirmed in a comparison of two wild, circum-Mediterranean annuals - Medicago minima, a legume, and Bromus madritensis, a grass. Finally, at the leaf level, a synthesis of published data comparing soybean ( Glycine max) and rice ( Oryza sativa) on the one hand, and our own data on faba bean and wheat on the other hand, demonstrates that the photosynthetic rate per unit leaf nitrogen (the photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency) is consistently lower in legumes than in grasses. These results demonstrate that, regardless of the scale considered and although the organic-nitrogen concentration in vegetative organs of legumes is higher than in grasses, this does not lead to higher rates of carbon gain in the former. Various physiological factors affecting the efficiency of nitrogen utilization at the three time scales considered are discussed. The suggestion is made that the ecological significance of the high nitrogen concentration in legumes may be related to a high nitrogen demand for high quality seed production at a time when nitrogen

  14. Legume breeding for rust resistance: Lessons to learn from the model Medicago truncatula

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales, Diego; Castillejo Sánchez, M. Ángeles; Madrid, Eva; Barilli, Eleonora; Rispail, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Rusts are major biotic constraints of legumes worldwide. Breeding for rust resistance is regarded as the most cost efficient method for rust control. However, in contrast to common bean for which complete monogenic resistance exists and is efficiently used, most of the rust resistance reactions described so far in cool season food legumes are incomplete and of complex inheritance. Incomplete resistance has been described in faba bean, pea, chickpea and lentil and several of their associated Q...

  15. Saturated salt method determination of hysteresis of Pinus sylvestris L. wood for 35 ºC isotherms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Esteban, L.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The saturated salts method was used in this study to quantify hysteresis in Pinus sylvestris L. wood, in an exercise that involved plotting the 35 ºC desorption and sorption isotherms. Nine salts were used, all of which establish stable and known relative humidity values when saturated in water The wood was kept at the relative humidity generated by each of these salts until the equilibrium moisture content (EMC was reached, both in the water loss or desorption, and the water uptake or sorption processes. The Guggenheim method was used to fit the values obtained to the respective curves. Hysteresis was evaluated in terms of the hysteresis coefficient, for which a mean value of 0.87 was found.

    Con este trabajo se ha cuantificado la histéresis de la madera de Pinus sylvestris L. Para ello, se han construido las isotermas de 35 ºC de adsorción y sorción, mediante el método de las sales saturadas. Se han utilizado nueve sales que cuando se saturan en agua dan lugar a unas humedades relativas estables y conocidas. La madera fue colocada bajo las distintas humedades relativas que confieren cada una de las sales hasta que alcanzaron las distintas humedades de equilibrio higroscópico, tanto en el proceso de pérdida de agua o desorción, como en el de adquisición de agua o de sorción. Los valores obtenidos fueron ajustados a las respectivas sigmoides, haciendo uso del método de Guggenheim. La valoración de la histéresis se determinó mediante el coeficiente de histéresis, obteniendo un valor medio de 0,87.

  16. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways modulate nitrate sensing and nitrogen-dependent regulation of plant architecture in Nicotiana sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellny, Till K; Van Aken, Olivier; Dutilleul, Christelle; Wolff, Tonja; Groten, Karin; Bor, Melike; De Paepe, Rosine; Reyss, Agnès; Van Breusegem, Frank; Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

    2008-06-01

    Mitochondrial electron transport pathways exert effects on carbon-nitrogen (C/N) relationships. To examine whether mitochondria-N interactions also influence plant growth and development, we explored the responses of roots and shoots to external N supply in wild-type (WT) Nicotiana sylvestris and the cytoplasmic male sterile II (CMSII) mutant, which has a N-rich phenotype. Root architecture in N. sylvestris seedlings showed classic responses to nitrate and sucrose availability. In contrast, CMSII showed an altered 'nitrate-sensing' phenotype with decreased sensitivity to C and N metabolites. The WT growth phenotype was restored in CMSII seedling roots by high nitrate plus sugars and in shoots by gibberellic acid (GA). Genome-wide cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of leaves from mature plants revealed that only a small subset of transcripts was altered in CMSII. Tissue abscisic acid content was similar in CMSII and WT roots and shoots, and growth responses to zeatin were comparable. However, the abundance of key transcripts associated with GA synthesis was modified both by the availability of N and by the CMSII mutation. The CMSII mutant maintained a much higher shoot/root ratio at low N than WT, whereas no difference was observed at high N. Shoot/root ratios were strikingly correlated with root amines/nitrate ratios, values of <1 being characteristic of high N status. We propose a model in which the amine/nitrate ratio interacts with GA signalling and respiratory pathways to regulate the partitioning of biomass between shoots and roots.

  17. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Villasante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strength.Area of study: SpainMaterial and Methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601 and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492. 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative. Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative.Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole . The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment.The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies.Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending  and parallel compression strength.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative.Keywords: Light Organic Solvent Preservative; MOE; parallel compression; static bending; waterborne Copper Azole; wood technology.

  18. Hydroalcoholic crude extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw. reduces chronic post-ischemic pain by activation of pro-resolving pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovezan, Anna P; Batisti, Ana P; Benevides, Maria L A C S; Turnes, Bruna L; Martins, Daniel F; Kanis, Luiz; Duarte, Elisa C W; Cavalheiro, Alberto J; Bueno, Paula C P; Seed, Michael P; Norling, Lucy V; Cooper, Dianne; Headland, Sarah; Souza, Patrícia R P S; Perretti, Mauro

    2017-05-23

    Casearia sylvestris Sw. is widely used in popular medicine to treat conditions associated with pain. The present study investigated the influence of hydroalcoholic crude extract of Casearia sylvestris (HCE-CS) and contribution of pro-resolving mediators on mechanical hyperalgesia in a mouse model of chronic post-ischemia pain (CPIP). Male Swiss mice were subjected to ischemia of the right hind paw (3h), then reperfusion was allowed. At 10min, 24h or 48h post-ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), different groups of animals were treated with HCE-CS (30mg/Kg, orally [p.o]), selected agonists at the pro-resolving receptor ALX/FPR2 (natural molecules like resolvin D1 and lipoxin A4 or the synthetic compound BML-111; 0.1-1µg/animal) or vehicle (saline, 10mL/Kg, s.c.), in the absence or presence of the antagonist WRW4 (10µg, s.c.). Mechanical hyperalgesia (paw withdrawal to von Frey filament) was asseseed together with histological and immunostainning analyses. In these settings, pro-resolving mediators reduced mechanical hyperalgesia and HCE-CS or BML-111 displayed anti-hyperalgesic effects which was markedly attenuated in animals treated with WRW4. ALX/FPR2 expression was raised in skeletal muscle or neutrophils after treatment with HCE-CS or BML-111. These results reveal significant antihyperalgesic effect of HCE-CS on CPIP, mediated at least in part, by the pathway of resolution of inflammation centred on the axis modulated by ALX/FPR2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Germination of Some Species Tropical Legume Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Poetri

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the seed germination of Leucaena pallida under climatic and soil conditions in Palu was conducted in village of Taipa, Sub district of North Palu, District of Palu. To compare with other species of legume trees however, this study involved Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba, Leucaena leucocephala cv Gumph and Gliricidia maculata. This experiment used completely randomized design with species of tropical tree legumes as treatment.  Each treatment was replicated five times.  Each experimental unit consisted of one tray (size 12.5 x 25 cm and planted by 20 seed.  Each tray was filled with soil while the seeds were planted one cm deep.  All seeds were immersed in warm water (600C for five minutes before planted.  The base of the trays were drilled to create some holes for water to drain out.  The trays were sprayed twice daily (07.00 am and 03.00 pm to keep the soil to be moist using a very smooth sprayer.  The variables recorded included the initiation time of germination, the range time of germination and the percentage of seed germination.  The data obtained were analyses using the Minitab 11. Least significance difference was used to test for possible differences between treatment means. The result revealed that initiation time of germination and the range of germination were not varied (P>0.05 among the seeds tested. The initiation time of germination ranged between 9 to 12 d after sowing.  Gliricidia maculata seed has the shortest period to germinate (12-16 d after sowing, meanwhile Leucaena leucocephala cv. Tarramba appear to be the longest (9-17 d after sowing. The highest seed viability was 60% in Leucaena leucocephala, cv Gump while the lowest was found in Gliricidia maculata (29%. In addition, both Leucaena pallida and Leucaena leucocephala cv Tarramba had medium seed germination (40% and 53% respectively. (Animal Production 7(3: 156-160 (2005Key Words: Seed, Germination, Tropical Leguminous

  20. The value of biodiversity in legume symbiotic nitrogen fixation and nodulation for biofuel and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresshoff, Peter M; Hayashi, Satomi; Biswas, Bandana; Mirzaei, Saeid; Indrasumunar, Arief; Reid, Dugald; Samuel, Sharon; Tollenaere, Alina; van Hameren, Bethany; Hastwell, April; Scott, Paul; Ferguson, Brett J

    2015-01-01

    Much of modern agriculture is based on immense populations of genetically identical or near-identical varieties, called cultivars. However, advancement of knowledge, and thus experimental utility, is found through biodiversity, whether naturally-found or induced by the experimenter. Globally we are confronted by ever-growing food and energy challenges. Here we demonstrate how such biodiversity from the food legume crop soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) and the bioenergy legume tree Pongamia (Millettia) pinnata is a great value. Legume plants are diverse and are represented by over 18,000 species on this planet. Some, such as soybean, pea and medics are used as food and animal feed crops. Others serve as ornamental (e.g., wisteria), timber (e.g., acacia/wattle) or biofuel (e.g., Pongamia pinnata) resources. Most legumes develop root organs (nodules) after microsymbiont induction that serve as their habitat for biological nitrogen fixation. Through this, nitrogen fertiliser demand is reduced by the efficient symbiosis between soil Rhizobium-type bacteria and the appropriate legume partner. Mechanistic research into the genetics, biochemistry and physiology of legumes is thus strategically essential for future global agriculture. Here we demonstrate how molecular plant science analysis of the genetics of an established food crop (soybean) and an emerging biofuel P. pinnata feedstock contributes to their utility by sustainable production aided by symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Soil oribatid mite communities under three species of legumes in an ultisol in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, M Adetola; Espindola, Jose Antonio Azevedo; Guerra, Jose Guilherme Marinho; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; Correa, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    Oribatid mite densities in the topsoil and their activity at the soil surface were monitored under three species of perennial legume cover crops namely, Arachis pintoi, Macroptilium atropupureum and Pueraria phaseoloides, grass (Panicum maximum) and bare plots on three occasions in 1998 and 1999 in a derived savanna zone in Brazil. Both densities and activity at the soil surface were higher in the early but cool dry season in April 1998 than in the early wet but warm season in November 1998 and 1999. Three taxonomic groups of macropyline oribatid mites, namely Nothrus, Archegozetes and Masthermannia as well as a brachypyline taxon, Scheloribates were suggested as possible indicators of effect of legumes on soil biota because their populations increased under the legumes and/or the irresidues. Nothrus in particular increased in abundance more than any other taxon in the presence of residues of A. pintoi. Each legume supported a unique oribatid mite community in terms of species composition and relative abundance. The large numbers of Archegozeres trapped from all the legume and grass plots in April and November 1998 were also attributed to highly conducive conditions provided by the vegetation cover and their residues. The results suggest that the oribatid mite community of the study area was numerically stable as the peak populations of different species were not synchronized. Many taxonomic groups of pycnonotic brachypyline mites were absent. Legume cover crops, especially A. pintoi, and their residues have potential in restoring oribatid mite populations to precultivation levels.

  2. Comprehensive comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the legume genes controlling the nodulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhen eQiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g. Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max and Phaseolous vulgaris to identify key regulatory genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  3. Physical, chemical and nutritional characteristics of premature-processed and matured green legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sila; Malleshi, N G

    2012-08-01

    Premature green legumes are good sources of nutraceuticals and antioxidants and are consumed as snacks as well as vegetables. They are seasonal and have limited shelf-life. Efforts are provided to prepare shelf-stable green legumes to extend their availability throughout the year. Green legumes from chick pea or Bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) and field bean (Dolichos lablab) have been processed to enhance their shelf-life, and determined their nutritional, physico-chemical and nutraceutical qualities. The shelf stable green legumes (SSGL) show higher water absorption capacity compared to matured dry legumes (MDL). The total colour change in the processed/dried SSGL and MDL samples increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the freshly harvested green samples. The carotenoid content of Bengal gram and field bean SSGLs are 8.0 and 3.2 mg/100 g, and chlorophyll contents are 12.5 and 0.5 mg/100 g, respectively, which are in negligible quantities in matured legumes; the corresponding polyphenol contents are 197.8 and 153.1 mg/100 g. These results indicate that SSGLs possess potential antioxidant activity.

  4. Health benefits of legumes and pulses with a focus on Australian sweet lupins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Belski, Regina

    2016-01-01

    The 68th United Nations General Assembly declared 2016 the International Year of Pulses. Therefore it is timely to review the current evidence of the benefits of legumes for human health with a focus on Australian sweet lupins. Medline, Pubmed, Cochrane library were searched to identify cross-sectional/epidemiological studies, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. The strongest evidence appears to be for links between eating legumes and reduced risk of colorectal cancer as well as eating soy foods and reduced LDL cholesterol. However, epidemiological studies and RCTs suggest that replacing several meat-based meals a week with legumes can have a positive impact on longevity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and weight management, potentially via favourable effects on the gut microbiome. Sweet lupins are unique among legumes with one of the highest combined amounts of digestible plant protein (38%) and dietary fibre (30%). Unlike other legumes, their low amount of anti-nutritional factors negates the need for soaking/cooking and they can therefore be eaten uncooked. Sweet lupins may lower blood pressure, improve blood lipids and insulin sensitivity and favourably alter the gut microbiome. There is growing interest in pulses, especially sweet lupins, as ingredients to improve the nutritional value of baked goods (particularly gluten free) and to create novel products to replace meat. Legumes form part of most traditional diets. They, including sweet lupins, can play a useful role in health maintenance.

  5. Legume intake and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Mao, Qi-Qi

    2017-07-04

    Previous studies regarding the relationship between legume intake and risk of prostate cancer have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize evidence on this association. A systematic literature search of articles published through June 2016 was performed using PubMed and Web of Science databases. The combined relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest intake of legumes was calculated with a random-effects model. Dose-response meta-analysis was also performed for the studies that provided at least three levels of legume consumption. Ten articles (eight cohorts) reporting 281,034 individuals and 10,234 incident cases were identified. The individuals with high consumption of legumes compared with the reference group experienced a significantly reduced risk for developing prostate cancer (RR: 0.85 [95% CI 0.75-0.96], P = 0.010). Moderate heterogeneity of RRs was observed across these studies (P = 0.064 for heterogeneity, I2 = 45.8 %). Dose-response meta-analysis indicated that the risk of prostate cancer reduced by 3.7% (95% CI 1.5%-5.8%) for each 20 grams per day increment of legume intake. In conclusion, the results from this meta-analysis suggest that a high intake of legumes is associated with a low incidence of prostate cancer.

  6. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew S; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity.

  7. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  8. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  9. Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Verstraete

    Full Text Available Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria not only occur in root nodules of legumes but are also found in leaves of certain Rubiaceae. The discovery of bacteria in plants formerly not implicated in endosymbiosis suggests a wider occurrence of plant-microbe interactions. Several ß-proteobacteria of the genus Burkholderia are detected in close association with tropical plants. This interaction has occurred three times independently, which suggest a recent and open plant-bacteria association. The presence or absence of Burkholderia endophytes is consistent on genus level and therefore implies a predictive value for the discovery of bacteria. Only a single Burkholderia species is found in association with a given plant species. However, the endophyte species are promiscuous and can be found in association with several plant species. Most of the endophytes are part of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental group, but others are closely related to B. glathei. This soil bacteria, together with related nodulating and non-nodulating endophytes, is therefore transferred to a newly defined and larger PBE group within the genus Burkholderia.

  10. Acylated flavonol glycosides from the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Nigel C; Regos, Ionela; Kite, Geoffrey C; Treutter, Dieter

    2011-04-01

    Ten acylated flavonol glycosides were isolated from aqueous acetone extracts of the aerial parts of the forage legume, Onobrychis viciifolia, and their structures determined using spectroscopic methods. Among these were eight previously unreported examples which comprised either feruloylated or sinapoylated derivatives of 3-O-di- and 3-O-triglycosides of kaempferol (3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone) or quercetin (3,5,7,3',4'-pentahydroxyflavone). The diglycosides were acylated at the primary Glc residue of O-α-Rhap(1→6)-β-Glcp (rutinose), whereas the triglycosides were acylated at the terminal Rha residues of the branched trisaccharides, O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Galp or O-α-Rhap(1→2)[α-Rhap(1→6)]-β-Glcp. Identification of the primary 3-O-linked hexose residues as either Gal or Glc was carried out by negative ion electrospray and serial MS, and cryoprobe NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of UV and MS spectra of the acylated flavonol glycosides provided additional diagnostic features relevant to direct characterisation of these compounds in hyphenated analyses. Quantitative analysis of the acylated flavonol glycosides present in different aerial parts of sainfoin revealed that the highest concentrations were in mature leaflets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Production and transcriptional regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Wei, Li; Sun, Zhanmin; Gao, Lihua; Meng, Yu; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2015-05-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA), also known as condensed tannins, contribute to important forage legumes traits including disease resistance and forage quality. PA in forage plants has both positive and negative effects on feed digestibility and animal performance. The analytical methods and their applicability in measuring the contents of PA in forage plants are essential to studies on their nutritional effects. In spite of important breakthroughs in our understanding of the PA biosynthesis, important questions still remain to be answered such as the PA polymerization and transport. Recent advances in the understanding of transcription factor-mediated gene regulation mechanisms in anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic pathway in model plants suggest new approaches for the metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. The present review will attempt to present the state-of-the-art of research in these areas and provide an update on the production and metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. We hope that this will contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which PA production to manipulate the content of PA for beneficial effects in forage plants.

  12. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS

  13. Phenolphthalein false-positive reactions from legume root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Daniel; Kovacs, Frank

    2014-03-01

    Presumptive tests for blood play a critical role in the examination of physical evidence and in the determination of subsequent analysis. The catalytic power of hemoglobin allows colorimetric reactions employing phenolphthalein (Kastle-Meyer test) to indicate "whether" blood is present. Consequently, DNA profiles extracted from phenolphthalein-positive stains are presumed to be from blood on the evidentiary item and can lead to the identification of "whose" blood is present. Crushed nodules from a variety of legumes yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactions that were indistinguishable from true bloodstains both in color quality and in developmental time frame. Clothing and other materials stained by nodules also yielded phenolphthalein false-positive reactivity for several years after nodule exposure. Nodules from leguminous plants contain a protein (leghemoglobin) which is structurally and functionally similar to hemoglobin. Testing of purified leghemoglobin confirmed this protein as a source of phenolphthalein reactivity. A scenario is presented showing how the presence of leghemoglobin from nodule staining can mislead investigators. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  14. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  15. [Free sugars, cyclitols and organic acids in the cambial sap of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea Abies Karst. and Abies alba Mill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretz, A

    1973-03-01

    Samples of cambial sap from each of the three coniferous species Pinus sylvestris L., Picea Abies Karst. and Abies alba Mill. were taken at the time the trees were coming into bud and analysed for low molecular weight carbohydrates, cyclitols and organic acids. They all contained the same free sugars and cyclitols, but in markedly different proportions. Quantitative analyses were carried out for glucose, fructose, sucrose, raffinose, myo-inositol, D-inositol, pinitol, sequoyitol and coniferin.The three main components of the organic acid fractions-quinic acid, shikimic acid and malic acid-were determined quantitatively. The amount of quinic acid greatly exceeded the amount of all the other acids in all three species. (14)C-labelled quinic acid applied to the cut ends of Pinus sylvestris needles was transported to the twig. There was no conversion of quinic acid to shikimic acid over short periods of time.

  16. The Effect of Irradiation Treatment on the Non-Enzymatic Browning Reaction in Legume Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation treatment, at room temperature, on the non-enzymatic browning reaction (Millerd reaction products, MRPs) generated in soybeans, broad beans and dried peas seeds at dose levels of 10, 30 and 60 kGy and their effects on the chemical constituents, soluble protein, available lysine and in vitro protein digestibility. The formation of MRPs in the studied legumes was assayed by monitoring the formation of brown pigments (browning intensity) by spectrophotometric method. The results revealed that the chemical composition of irradiated legumes showed non-significant differences relative to the raw one. A dose dependent decrease in soluble proteins and available lysine in the three legumes were observed. The non-enzymatic browning reaction was significantly increased with increasing the radiation dose, which was proved by changes in browning index tests. At the same time, the in vitro protein digestibility was increased after irradiation up to 60 kGy. Irradiation of dried peas with 60 kGy produced higher browning index than the other legumes. A positive correlation was observed between the radiation dose and the browning index for soybeans (R2= 0.96), broad beans (R2 = 0.81) and dried peas (R2 = 0.97) which means that 96%, 81% and 97 of the variation in the incidence of non-enzymatic browning reaction in soybean, broad bean and dried peas, respectively, are due to the effect of irradiation treatments. The present study suggests that the formation of non-enzymatic browning reaction did not impair the nutritional quality of legumes, therefore, the process of irradiation was helpful in increasing the in vitro protein digestibility of studied legumes. These results clearly indicated that gamma irradiation processing at the studied doses can add valuable effects to the studied legumes

  17. Semi-automated stand delineation in Mediterranean Pinus sylvestris plantations through segmentation of LiDAR data: The influence of pulse density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varo-Martínez, Mª Ángeles; Navarro-Cerrillo, Rafael M.; Hernández-Clemente, Rocío; Duque-Lazo, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally, forest-stand delineation has been assessed based on orthophotography. The application of LiDAR has improved forest management by providing high-spatial-resolution data on the vertical structure of the forest. The aim of this study was to develop and test a semi-automated algorithm for stands delineation in a plantation of Pinus sylvestris L. using LiDAR data. Three specific objectives were evaluated, i) to assess two complementary LiDAR metrics, Assmann dominant height and basal area, for the characterization of the structure of P. sylvestris Mediterranean forests based on object-oriented segmentation, ii) to evaluate the influence of the LiDAR pulse density on forest-stand delineation accuracy, and iii) to investigate the algorithmś effectiveness in the delineation of P. sylvestris stands for map prediction of Assmann dominant height and basal area. Our results show that it is possible to generate accurate P. sylvestris forest-stand segmentations using multiresolution or mean shift segmentation methods, even with low-pulse-density LiDAR - which is an important economic advantage for forest management. However, eCognition multiresolution methods provided better results than the OTB (Orfeo Tool Box) for stand delineation based on dominant height and basal area estimations. Furthermore, the influence of pulse density on the results was not statistically significant in the basal area calculations. However, there was a significant effect of pulse density on Assmann dominant height [F2,9595 = 5.69, p = 0.003].for low pulse density. We propose that the approach shown here should be considered for stand delineation in other large Pinus plantations in Mediterranean regions with similar characteristics.

  18. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in South-Eastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska; Stanisław Drozdowski; Zbigniew Wołczyk; Kamil Bielak; Henryk Żybura

    2017-01-01

    Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration) and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP); active plough (AP); and forest mill (FM)) on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in the first 4 yea...

  19. Differences in early dynamics and effects of slope aspect between naturally regenerated and planted Pinus sylvestris woodland on inland dunes in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Sewerniak P

    2016-01-01

    There is little knowledge of the effects of landform relief on early growth dynamics and competitive interactions of Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands on inland dunes, which could potentially be substantial. The goal of this study was to examine and compare early dynamics (based on growth parameters and properties of the understorey vegetation) and the effects of slope aspect in naturally regenerated and pine-planted woodland on inland dunes in northern Poland. Growth parameters, tree dens...

  20. RNA interference-based resistance against a legume mastrevirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Shahid

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference (RNAi is a homology-dependant gene silencing mechanism and has been widely used to engineer resistance in plants against RNA viruses. However, its usefulness in delivering resistance against plant DNA viruses belonging to family Geminiviridae is still being debated. Although the RNAi approach has been shown, using a transient assay, to be useful in countering monocotyledonous plant-infecting geminiviruses of the genus Mastrevirus, it has yet to be investigated as a means of delivering resistance to dicot-infecting mastreviruses. Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus (CpCDPKV is a legume-infecting mastrevirus that affects chickpea and other leguminous crops in Pakistan. Results Here a hairpin (hpRNAi construct containing sequences encompassing part of replication-associated protein gene, intergenic region and part of the movement protein gene of CpCDPKV under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter has been produced and stably transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana. Plants harboring the hairpin construct were challenged with CpCDPKV. All non-transgenic N. benthamiana plants developed symptoms of CpCDPKV infection within two weeks post-inoculation. In contrast, none of the inoculated transgenic plants showed symptoms of infection and no viral DNA could be detected by Southern hybridization. A real-time quantitative PCR analysis identified very low-level accumulation of viral DNA in the inoculated transgenic plants. Conclusions The results presented show that the RNAi-based resistance strategy is useful in protecting plants from a dicot-infecting mastrevirus. The very low levels of virus detected in plant tissue of transgenic plants distal to the inoculation site suggest that virus movement and/or viral replication was impaired leading to plants that showed no discernible signs of virus infection.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grljušić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the forage species involved in program and comparison of conventional and molecular marker efficiency in variability evaluation. RAPDs were used (i to estimate availability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. and Medicago falcata L. genetic variation and (ii to identify changes of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. variability after natural selection. SSRs were applied to evaluate diversity within and among field pea (Pisum sativum L. var. arvense and sativum groups/varieties. A total of 90 (alfalfa or 92 (red clover polymorphic bands was found by RAPDs. Total number of SSR alleles recorded was 118. The average Roger's distance per species/genus estimated was 0.29 (red clover, 0.33 (alfalfa and 0.51 (field pea. 2D PCo analysis of each species/genus separated materials into respective groups. A high degree of genetic variation within populations/varieties of each investigated species was found by AMOVA. The correspondence between pairs of matrices based on the morphological and molecular data was significant (p=0.95 only for red clover. RAPD and SSR data have given valuable information on genetic structure of materials and provided a description that determines heterogeneity. Further studies will be focused on identifying quantitative trait loci and marker assisted selection.

  2. Biochemical studies on weaning foods based legumes and carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabag, Fatima Omer

    1997-01-01

    Attempts were made to utilize available food sources in formulation of weaning foods. Common legumes (chick pea and pigeon pea ) were used as protein source. While dehydrated carrots powder were used as a vitamin A source. Addition of 25% chick pea increased the protein content of the weaning foods to 16.7% and 14.4%,respectively ,while Cerelac and Riri gave protein content of 15.3% and 7.3%,respectively. In corporation of carrots at 10% level gave a vitamin A content of 564 RE/100 g material. Weaning food containing chick pea recorded higher preference among panelists and significantly better (p≤0.05)than samples containing pigeon pea. The bulk density of newly developed based formulae CP 3 , PP 3 (0.7 g/ml, 0.8 g/ml, respectively ) was higher than the market weaning food Cerelac and Riri (0.6 g/ml and 0.5 g/ml,respectively )The formula CP 3 recorded lower hot paste viscosity (3500 cp.) than both values obtained for Cerelac (4500 cp.) and Riri (extremely viscous). The lysine content of CP 3 (3.9 g/100 g protein) was higher than respective values in market foods and for better when calculated per weaning material (0.65 g/100 g material) compared to the other products (0.57; 0.28 g/100 material of Cerelac and Riri, respectively). Chick pea-based formula (CP 3 ) was also found to possess higher in vitro protein didestibility (95.2%) compared to Cerelac (94.2%) and Riri (88.5%). The calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) of CP 3 (1.7) was higher than that of Riri (1.6) and lower than that of cerelac (2.7). (Author)

  3. Effects of aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) on actions of snake and bee venoms and on activity of phospholipases A2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, M H; Soares, A M; Rodrigues, V M; Andrião-Escarso, S H; Diniz, H; Hamaguchi, A; Quintero, A; Lizano, S; Gutiérrez, J M; Giglio, J R; Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I

    2000-09-01

    The crude aqueous extract from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris, a plant found in Brazilian open pastures, was assayed for its ability to inhibit phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and some biological activities of bee and several snake venoms, and of a number of isolated PLA2s. The extract induced partial inhibition of the PLA2 activity of venoms containing class I, II and III PLA2s. When tested against the purified toxins, it showed the highest efficacy against class II PLA2s from viperid venoms, being relatively ineffective against the class I PLA2 pseudexin. In addition, C. sylvestris extract significantly inhibited the myotoxic activity of four Bothrops crude venoms and nine purified myotoxic PLA2s, including Lys-49 and Asp-49 variants. The extract was able to inhibit the anticoagulant activity of several isolated PLA2s, with the exception of pseudexin. Moreover, it partially reduced the edema-inducing activity of B. moojeni and B. jararacussu venoms, as well as of myotoxins MjTX-II and BthTX-I. The extract also prolonged the survival time of mice injected with lethal doses of several snake venoms and neutralized the lethal effect induced by several purified PLA2 myotoxins. It is concluded that C. sylvestris constitutes a rich source of PLA2 inhibitors.

  4. Neutralization of the neuromuscular activity of bothropstoxin-i, a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, by a hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (guaçatonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Oshima-Franco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous plants are used as snakebite antidotes in Brazilian folk medicine, including Casearia sylvestris Swartz, popularly known as guaçatonga. In this study, we examined the action of a hydroalcoholic extract from C. sylvestris on the neuromuscular blockade caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I, a myotoxin from Bothrops jararacussu venom, in mouse isolated phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND preparations. Aqueous (8 and 12 mg/ml, n=4 and 5, respectively and hydroalcoholic (12 mg/ml, n=12 extracts of the leaves of C. sylvestris caused facilitation in PND preparations followed by partial neuromuscular blockade. BthTX-I (20 µg/ml, n=4 caused 50% paralysis after 65±15 min (mean ± S.E.M. Preincubation (30 min at 37° C of BthTX-I (20 µg/ml, n=4 with a concentration of the hydroalcoholic extract (4 mg/ml that had no neuromuscular activity, such as the control (n=5, prevented the neuromuscular blockade caused by the toxin. This protection may be mediated by compounds such as flavonoids and phenols identified by thin-layer chromatography and colorimetric assays.

  5. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  6. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of Sesamum indicum L. with application of cover crops of Lathyrus sp. and Persian clover (Trifolium resopinatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cover crops cultivation and application of plant growth rhizobacteria are the key factors to enhance agroecosystem health. A field experiment was conducted at the Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during growing season of 2009-2010. A split plot arrangement based on a complete randomized block design with three replications was used. Cultivation and no cultivation of Lathyrus sp. and Persian clover (Trifolium resopinatum in autumn assigned to the main plots. The sub plot factor consisted of three different types of biofertilizers plus control, including 1-nitroxin (containing of Azotobacter sp. and Azospirillum sp., 2- phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB (containing of Bacillus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., 3- biosulfur (containing of Thiobacillus ssp. and 4- control (no fertilizer. The results showed the effect of cover crops on seed number and seed weight per plant, biological and seed yield was significant, as the seed yield increased of 9 %. In general, biofertilizers showed superiority due to the most studied traits compared to control. Nitroxin, PSB and biosulfur increased biological yield of 44, 28 and 26 % compared to control, respectively. Cover crops and biofertilizers interactions, showed significant effect on all studied traits, as the highest and the lowest harvest index resulted in cover crop combined with biofertilizers (22.1% and cultivation and no cultivation of cover crops combined with control (15.3%, respectively. The highest seed oil and protein content resulted from cover crops plus biofertilizers (42.4% and cover crops plus PSB (22.5%, respectively. In general, the results showed cover crops cultivation in combination with biofertilizers application could be an ecological alternative for chemical fertilizers, in addition of achieving advantages of cover crops. According to the results, it should be possible to design an ecological cropping system and produce appropriate and healthy

  7. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics.

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    Pilar eBustos-Sanmamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small non coding RNAs (smRNA participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA that are cleaved into 20- to 24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL. One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179 and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence databases. In addition, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legumes. Functional significance of these variant isoforms may reflect peculiarities of smRNA biogenesis in

  8. Comparative recruitment success of pine provenances (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus nigra) under simulated climate change in the Swiss Rhone valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Sarah; Moser, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Low elevation Scots pine forests of European inner-alpine dry valleys may potentially disappear under continued climate warming, largely in response to increased warming and drought effects. In the upper Rhone valley, the driest region in Switzerland, increased Scots pine mortality in mature forest stands and sparse tree establishment after a large-scale forest fire already give evidence for ongoing climate change. Furthermore, vegetation models predict a decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Pubescent oak (Quercus pubescens) even under a moderate temperature increase of 2-3°C. A decline of tree species in the region may lead to a transition from forest to a steppe-like vegetation. Such a change is of considerable concern for both biodiversity and natural hazard protection. Although changing climate conditions affect all life stages of a tree, its most vulnerable stage is recruitment. We tested P. sylvestris and P. nigra seedlings to simulated temperature increase and water stress, using seeds from the upper Rhone valley, Switzerland (CH), and from Peñyagolosa, Spain (ES). The experiment was located outdoors at the bottom of the Rhone Valley. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of 3 precipitation regimes (‘wet spring-wet summer', ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer') and 3 soil heating levels (+0 °C, +2.5 °C, +5 °C). Automatically operated shelters intercepted natural rainfall and different precipitation regimes were simulated by manual irrigation. We found significantly lower germination rates under dry conditions compared to wet conditions, whereas soil temperature affected germination rates only for P. nigra and when elevated by 5°C. Contrastingly, an increase of soil temperatures by 2.5 °C already caused a substantial decrease of survival rates under both ‘dry spring-dry summer' and ‘wet spring-dry summer' conditions. Precipitation regime was more important for survival than temperature increase. Seasonality of

  9. Multiple use of legumes as green manure in rotation with corn and hay for milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Castro Rincón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry tropical livestock systems go through dramatic decrease in milk production during the dry season. This can be mitigated by including legumes as green manure in forage crops as silage and hay to feed cows. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate 1 the contribution of legumes to milk production in cows supplemented with Canavalia brasiliensis as hay and 2 the effect of the removal of legume (5 levels between 0-100 % on corn production as forage. A direct relationship between the level of legume biomass removal and reduced maize yield (r = 0.85 was observed. When levels of removal of C. brasiliensis were below 50 %, the forage yield of corn was not affected (MS 11,283 kg ha-1 compared to non-removal treatment (12,601 kg MS ha-1(p > 0.05. At the time of corn harvest, the total nitrogen decreased (15-20 %; NO3 varied between 8 and 26 mg/kg, with lower levels contained in the removal of 75 to 100 %; and 15 % organic C increased with the removal of 0, 25 and 50 % legume. Regarding the second experiment, it was found that cows supplemented with hay C. brasiliensis, increased their milk production by 17 % with supplementation of 1.5 % LW/day. The compositional quality of milk did not change due to the treatment of hay supplementation of C. brasiliensis

  10. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signalling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiatul Akmal Mohd-Radzman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  11. Emerging Genomic Tools for Legume Breeding: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K.; Roorkiwal, Manish; Singh, Vikas K.; Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Chitikineni, Anu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in ensuring global nutritional food security and improving soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Accelerated higher genetic gains is required to meet the demand of ever increasing global population. In recent years, speedy developments have been witnessed in legume genomics due to advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput genotyping technologies. Reference genome sequences for many legume crops have been reported in the last 5 years. The availability of the draft genome sequences and re-sequencing of elite genotypes for several important legume crops have made it possible to identify structural variations at large scale. Availability of large-scale genomic resources and low-cost and high-throughput genotyping technologies are enhancing the efficiency and resolution of genetic mapping and marker-trait association studies. Most importantly, deployment of molecular breeding approaches has resulted in development of improved lines in some legume crops such as chickpea and groundnut. In order to support genomics-driven crop improvement at a fast pace, the deployment of breeder-friendly genomics and decision support tools seems appear to be critical in breeding programs in developing countries. This review provides an overview of emerging genomics and informatics tools/approaches that will be the key driving force for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding and ultimately ensuring nutritional and food security in developing countries. PMID:27199998

  12. The Concentration of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se in Fiber Fractions of Legumes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitayani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate concentration of micro minerals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber/NDF and acid detergent fiber/ADF in West Sumatra during dry and rainy seasons. Four species of common legume namely Leucaena leucocephala, Centrocema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides and Acacia mangium were collected at native pasture during rainy and dry seasons. The results showed that micro minerals concentration of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction varied among species and season. In general, concentration of micro minerals was slightly higher in rainy season compared to dry season either in legumes forages. Data on legume forages showed that 75% of legumes were deficient in Zn and Mn, 62.5 % deficient in Cu and 50 % deficient in Se. There was no species of legume deficient in Fe. Distribution of micro minerals in NDF and ADF were also significantly affected by species and season and depends on the kinds of element measured. Generally, micro minerals were associated in fiber fractions and it yield much higher during dry season compared to rainy season. Iron (Fe and selenium (Se in forages were the highest elements associated in NDF and ADF, while the lowest was found in Copper (Cu. (Animal Production 12(2: 105-110 (2010Keywords: Seasons, forages, micro mineral distribution, fiber fraction

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-12

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  14. Effect of industrial dehydration on the soluble carbohydrates and dietary fiber fractions in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cabrejas, María A; Aguilera, Yolanda; Benítez, Vanesa; Molla, Esperanza; López-Andréu, Francisco J; Esteban, Rosa M

    2006-10-04

    The effects of soaking, cooking, and industrial dehydration treatments on soluble carbohydrates, including raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), and also on total dietary fiber (TDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), and soluble (SDF) dietary fiber fractions were studied in legumes (lentil and chickpea). Ciceritol and stachyose were the main alpha-galactosides for chickpea and lentil, respectively. The processing involved a drastic reduction of soluble carbohydrates of these legumes, 85% in the case of lentil and 57% in the case of chickpea. The processed legume flours presented low residual levels of alpha-galactosides, which are advisable for people with digestive problems. Processing of legumes involved changes in dietary fiber fractions. A general increase of IDF (27-36%) due to the increase of glucose and Klason lignin was observed. However, a different behavior of SDF was exhibited during thermal dehydration, this fraction increasing in the case of chickpea (32%) and decreasing in the case of lentil (27%). This is probably caused by the different structures and compositions of the cell wall networks of the legumes.

  15. Perennial Grain Legume Domestication Phase I: Criteria for Candidate Species Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Schlautman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual cereal and legume grain production is dependent on inorganic nitrogen (N and other fertilizers inputs to resupply nutrients lost as harvested grain, via soil erosion/runoff, and by other natural or anthropogenic causes. Temperate-adapted perennial grain legumes, though currently non-existent, might be uniquely situated as crop plants able to provide relief from reliance on synthetic nitrogen while supplying stable yields of highly nutritious seeds in low-input agricultural ecosystems. As such, perennial grain legume breeding and domestication programs are being initiated at The Land Institute (Salina, KS, USA and elsewhere. This review aims to facilitate the development of those programs by providing criteria for evaluating potential species and in choosing candidates most likely to be domesticated and adopted as herbaceous, perennial, temperate-adapted grain legumes. We outline specific morphological and ecophysiological traits that may influence each candidate’s agronomic potential, the quality of its seeds and the ecosystem services it can provide. Finally, we suggest that perennial grain legume breeders and domesticators should consider how a candidate’s reproductive biology, genome structure and availability of genetic resources will determine its ease of breeding and its domestication timeline.

  16. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.A.; Hussain, N.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  17. Flowers of the early-branching papilionoid legume Petaladenium urceoliferum display unique morphological and ontogenetic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Gerhard; Cardoso, Domingos; Zartman, Charles E; de Queiroz, Luciano P

    2015-11-01

    Floral development can help to shed light on puzzling features across flowering plants. The enigmatic Amazonian monospecific genus Petaladenium of the legume family (Leguminosae) had rarely been collected and only recently became available for ontogenetic studies. The fimbriate-glandular wing petals of P. urceoliferum are unique among the more than 19000 legume species. Ontogenetic data illuminate the systematic position of the genus and foster our understanding on floral evolution during the early diversification of the papilionoid legumes. Flower buds were collected in the field, fixed in 70% ethanol, and investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results were compared with existing material from early-diverging papilionoid legumes. Formation of sepals and petals shows bidirectional tendencies. Stamens arise in two whorls, and the single carpel arises concomitantly with the outer stamen whorl. Gland formation starts early on the edges of the wing petals. The carpel reopens for a short time when the initiation of ovules is visible. Stomata at the base of the hypanthium indicate that the flower functions like other standard flag blossoms. The floral ontogeny confirms the close affinity of P. urceoliferum with the florally heterogeneous, early-diverging papilionoid Amburaneae clade. The results strengthen the theory of a distinct experimental phase among early-branching papilionoid legumes during which a wider range of floral morphologies arose. Polysymmetry, monosymmetry, variable organ numbers, and a wide range of ontogenetic patterns laid the foundation for a successful canalization toward the more restricted but well-adapted dorsiventral papilionoid flag blossom. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  18. Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Sushama A; Rajalakshmi, V; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Sharma, Arun

    2011-09-01

    Legumes are rich source of proteins, dietary fiber, micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. Thirty different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India, were screened for phenolic content and antioxidant activity using, radical scavenging [(1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, (ABTS·⁺], Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and metal ion (Fe²⁺) chelation assays. Legumes varied largely in their antioxidant activity. Horse gram, common beans, cowpea (brown and red) and fenugreek showed high DPPH· radical scavenging activity (>400 units/g), while lablab bean (cream and white), chickpea (cream and green), butter bean and pea (white and green) showed low antioxidant activity (pea, lentils, cowpea (white) and common bean (maroon) showed intermediate activity. Similar trend was observed when the activity was assessed with ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays. Thus most of the varieties having light color seed coat, except soybean exhibited low antioxidant activity. While legumes having dark color seed coat did not always possessed high antioxidant activity (e.g. moth bean, black pea, black gram, lentils). Antioxidant activity showed positive correlation (r²>0.95) with phenolic contents, in DPPH·, ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays, whereas poor correlation (r²=0.297) was observed between Fe²⁺ chelating activity of the legumes and phenolic contents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Induction of acropetal (14)C-photosynthate transport and radial growth by indole-3-acetic acid in Pinus sylvestris shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, C H; Sundberg, B; Ericsson, A

    1990-06-01

    The relationship between radial growth and assimilate movement was determined in one-year-old Pinus sylvestris (L.) cuttings collected during the dormant period and reactivated for 1-27 days under environmental conditions favorable for growth. The cuttings were either left with buds intact, defoliated along the distal 8 cm, or debudded and treated apically with 0 or 1 mg g(-1) indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in lanolin. Radial growth was measured as tracheid production and bark radial width. The distribution of (14)C-photosynthate 1 or 5 days after exposure to (14)CO(2) was used to indicate assimilate movement. Debudding inhibited tracheid production and decreased acropetal (14)C-photosynthate transport, whereas applying IAA to debudded cuttings promoted both these processes and, in addition, induced vigorous callus growth within the bark immediately below the application point. Distal defoliation markedly increased the amount of (14)C-photosynthate transported toward the apex without altering how debudding and exogenous IAA affected tracheid production and the distribution of (14)C-photosynthate. The production of tracheids induced by apically applied IAA in debudded and distally defoliated cuttings increased progressively in material collected on September 9, October 14 and November 24, whereas bark radial width and acropetal (14)C-photosynthate movement increased only between the first two collection dates. Ringing midway between the IAA source and the bottom of the distally defoliated region with a lanolin mixture of 10 mg g(-1)N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), 1 mg g(-1) methyl-2-chloro-9-hydroxy-fluorene-9-carboxylic acid (CF) or 10 mg g(-1) phenylacetic acid (PAA) reduced radial growth and [1-(14)C]IAA transport below the ring and locally promoted radial growth and accumulated radioactivity above. (14)C-Photosynthate transport into the region above the ring either was not altered (CF, PAA) or was increased (NPA). The results indicate that apically applied IAA

  20. Estimation of Nitrogenase Enzyme Activities and Plant Growth of Legume and Non-legume Inoculated with Diazotrophic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwani S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF process benefits the agriculture sector especially for reducing cost of nitrogenfertilizer. In the process, the diazotrophs convert N2 into ammonia (NH3 which is useable by plants. The BNF process iscatalysed by nitrogenase enzyme that involved protons and electrons together with evolution of H2 therefore, theassessment of N2 fixation is also available via H2 production and electron allocation analysis. Thus, the aims of thisexperiment were to estimate the nitrogenase enzyme activities and observe the influence of diazothrophs on growth oflegume (soybean and non legume (rice plants. Host plants were inoculated with respective inocula; Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum (strain 532C for soybean while Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7 and locally isolated diazotroph (isolate 5 forrice. At harvest, the plants were observed for plant growth parameters, H2 evolution, N2 fixation and electron allocationcoefficient (EAC values. The experiment recorded N2 fixation activities of inoculated soybean plants at 141.2 μmol N2 h-1g-1 dry weight nodule, and the evolution of H2 at 144.4 μmol H2 h-1 g-1 dry weight nodule. The electron allocationcoefficient (EAC of soybean was recorded at 0.982. For inoculated rice plants, none of the observations was successfully recorded. However, results for chlorophyll contents and plant dry weight of both plants inoculated with respective inocula were similar to the control treatments supplied with full nitrogen fertilization (+N. The experiment clearly showed that inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria could enhance growth of the host plants similar to plants treated with nitrogenous fertilizer due to efficient N2 fixation process

  1. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  2. Transfer of biologically fixed nitrogen to the non-legume component of mixed pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haystead, A.

    1983-01-01

    Pasture ecosystems are extremely diverse, as are the management procedures imposed upon them by the pastoralist. In low input pasture enterprises in marginal areas, legume nitrogen fixation is frequently (but not invariably) crucial to continued productivity. Legumes usually do not dominate a pasture and their role in transferring fixed nitrogen to a non-legume, frequently graminaceous, species is important. Methods for measuring this transfer are critically assessed in terms of their usefulness in realistic pasture environments. Existing techniques all have serious disadvantages in this respect. Isotopic studies of individual processes within the transfer system are described and some new lines of investigation are proposed. The value of isotopic studies in improving pasture management is discussed. (author)

  3. A qualitative study of the nodulating ability of legumes of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis accumulates substantial amounts of mineralizable nitrogen which help in ecological rehabilitation of degraded soils and increase the soil fertility in agricultural ecosystem. Nodulation was studied in 72 legume species from various parts of Pakistan. All the species of Papilionoideae and Mimosoideae were nodulated whereas all the species examined in Caesalpinioideae were non-nodulated. Attempts to elicit nodulation in Caesalpinioid species by rhizobial inoculation were not successful and they were accepted as lacking nodulating ability. Nodulation is reported for the first time in 6 species within 3 genera of Mimosoideae and 9 species within 5 genera of Papilionoideae. Majority of the species were abundantly nodulated under natural soil conditions or when grown in uninoculated garden soil indicating distribution of wide range of naturalized rhizobia. The study shows that the wild legumes hold great promise for inclusion in revegetation of denuded and derelict ecosystems.

  4. PGPRs and nitrogen-fixing legumes: a perfect team for efficient Cd phytoremediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sagasti, María T; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, biologically non-essential and highly mobile metal that has become an increasingly important environmental hazard to both wildlife and humans. In contrast to conventional remediation technologies, phytoremediation based on legume-rhizobia symbiosis has emerged as an inexpensive decontamination alternative which also revitalize contaminated soils due to the role of legumes in nitrogen cycling. In recent years, there is a growing interest in understanding symbiotic legume-rhizobia relationship and its interactions with Cd. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive picture of the main effects of Cd in N2-fixing leguminous plants and the benefits of exploiting this symbiosis together with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to boost an efficient reclamation of Cd-contaminated soils.

  5. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  6. Proteome analysis of pod and seed development in the model legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nautrup-Pedersen, G.; Dam, S.; Laursen, B. S.

    2010-01-01

    of the pod and seed proteomes in five developmental stages, paves the way for comparative pathway analysis and provides new metabolic information. Proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem-mass spectrometry. These analyses lead to the identification of 604 pod proteins and 965......Legume pods serve important functions during seed development and are themselves sources of food and feed. Compared to seeds, the metabolism and development of pods are not well-defined. The present characterization of pods from the model legume Lotus japonicus, together with the detailed analyses...... and photosynthesis. Proteins detected only in pods included three enzymes participating in the urea cycle and four in nitrogen and amino group metabolism, highlighting the importance of nitrogen metabolism during pod development. Additionally, five legume seed proteins previously unassigned in the glutamate...

  7. Induced mutations for the improvement of grain legumes in South East Asia (1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report is divided into seven sections containing papers on the following subjects: regional cooperation for improving grain legume production in South-East Asia and the role of FAO in this connection; national reports on the production and consumption of grain legumes (mainly beans, soybeans, peas, peanuts) in various Asian countries (separate reports for Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Taiwan, and Australia). Specific papers are presented on the following: modifications of field pea; chickpea breeding at ICRISAT; mutation breeding in winged bean; mutation breeding in improving groundnut cultivars; and the consumption of grain legumes in Singapore. Finally, some conclusions and recommendations adopted by the participants of the meeting are presented

  8. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Full text: This Symposium organized in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF), Neuherberg near Munich, Federal Republic of Germany, was the culmination of the eight year FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme to Improve Protein Content and Quality of Crops by Nuclear Techniques The co-ordinated research programme has stimulated plant breeding in developing countries, assisted in the development of techniques for the identification and evaluation of nutritionally improved mutants and encouraged basic research on seed storage proteins. The Symposium comprised 90 scientific presentations plus equipment displays. Sixty-one scientific papers were orally presented and discussed in eight sessions. An additional 29 scientific contributions were presented as posters and were on display throughout the Symposium. One afternoon of the Symposium was devoted to examination and individual discussion of the poster displays. It was especially notable that this method of presentation and discussion of scientific results was very favourably received. Five items of scientific equipment demonstrated analytical systems in use for protein or amino acid assay in plant breeding programmes. The Symposium clearly demonstrated the reality of nutritional deficiencies in poor countries and outlined plant breeding strategies for overcoming these. Progress was reported in improving the nutritional quality of cereals (wheat, maize, rice, barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, oats), legumes (beans, peas, soybeans, field beans, chick peas, lentils, pigeon peas, cowpeas, grams, peanuts) and some other crops (cotton, buckwheat). Notable results have been achieved, but much of the work has been in progress less than 10 years, which is too short a time for the development, testing and release of commercial varieties. Chemical and nutritional assay methods, including some promising new methods were reviewed and assessed. Rapid developments in knowledge of the

  9. An analysis of the nutritive value of heat processed legume seeds for animal production using the DVE/OEB model : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, P.; Goelema, J.O.; Leury, B.J.; Tamminga, S.; Egan, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    Recently obtained information on structural and compositional effects of processing of legume seeds is reviewed, in relation to legume seed characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization. The emphasis is on (1) manipulation of digestive behavior by heat processing methods,

  10. In vitro evidence of mycoparasitism of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata against Mucor hiemalis in the rhizosphere of Pinus sylvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Antoni; Zadworny, Marcin

    2003-03-01

    Interactions between the ectomycorrhizal fungus Laccaria laccata and the soil fungus Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis in co-culture, and in the rhizosphere of in vitro-grown Pinus sylvestris seedlings were investigated by light- and scanning electron-microscopy. In co-culture, mycelial growth away from the L. laccata colony reduced the number of aerial hyphae at the contact zone and increased the density and compactness of the mycelium-characterized gross morphology of the saprobic fungus. Although the growth of M. hiemalis was suppressed, no penetration of M. hiemalis hyphae after the colony was entered by L. laccata was observed. Instead, dense coiling of L. laccata hyphae around sporangiophores, overpowering them and causing them to disappear, was quite common. On nonmycorrhizal roots, sporangiospores germinated heavily and formed long hyphae for 2 days post inoculation, whereas their germination was totally inhibited on mycorrhizal roots. At 3 days after inoculation, only sporangia were seen with mycelial mats firmly attached to the roots by the mantle hyphae, whereas some remnants of sporangiophores, ruptured sporangial walls and degraded hyphae of M. hiemalis were overgrown by the mantle hyphae. During the next 3 days, the mantle-hyphae-invading sporangia formed short, thin branches that grew directly towards individual spores, tapering off upon contact.

  11. Impact of experimentally elevated ozone on seed germination and growth of Russian pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea spp.) provenances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozherina, Nadezda; Nakvasina, Elena; Oksanen, Elina

    2009-12-01

    The impact of elevated ozone concentrations on early ontogenetic stages of pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies, Picea obovata, P. abies x P. obovata) seedlings originating from different provenances in Russia were studied in the open-field ozone fumigation system located in Kuopio, Finland, over a span of 2 y. The AOT40 value (accumulated ozone dose over the threshold 40 ppb during daylight hours) was 11 ppm hr per growing season, which was 1.4 times higher than the ambient air concentration. The plants were measured for germination rate; shoot increment; needle length; and dry mass of needles, shoots, and roots. Significant differences between pine and spruce provenance response to ozone were found in all parameters. Ozone stress immediately reduced the germination rate of Northern pine provenances, whereas biomass reductions became evident during the second year of the exposure in all pine provenances. Spruce species were more tolerant to elevated ozone concentrations. Our results indicate that seedling development is vulnerable to increasing ozone concentrations and that attention must be paid to the provenance selection.

  12. [Effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-simulated drought stress on Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seed germination on sandy land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Li, Zhihui; Kang, Hongzhang; Fan, Yezhan

    2005-05-01

    With introduced sandy land Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica) seeds as test material, this paper studied the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-simulated drought stress on their germination. The results showed that PEG could retard the germination of stressed seeds, and the germination rate, germination index, and germination potential were all decreased with increasing PEG concentration. The seeds treated with 30% PEG (about -1.20 MPa water potential) could not germinate at all throughout the experiment period, suggesting that 30% PEG or -1.20 MPa water potential was the threshold for the germination of Mongolian pine seeds. Under 10% PEG stress (about -0.20 MPa water potential), the lengths of radicle and hypocotyl were shorter, illustrating their growth be more sensitive to PEG-simulated drought stress, while the radicle/hypocotyl ratio was increased with increasing PEG concentration, indicating that Mongolian pine seeds had a stronger resistance to drought stress after germination. Drought stress might be a possible cause that inhibited the natural regeneration of Mongolian pine on sandy land.

  13. Effect of auxin (iaa upon the proteolytic system in differentiating secondary xylem of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof J. Rakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of decapitation and IAA on proteolytic activity were studied in main stem of 4-7 year-old Pinus sylvestris trees. Proteolytic activity in the extract from differentiating secondary xylem was found to be totally reduced in decapitated 2-3 year-old segments of the main stem after a few weeks. Simultaneous application of IAA in lanolin paste prevented this reduction. Proteolytic activity reduced totally after decapitation was restored within 2 days when auxin was applied. Analogous responses to decapitated and auxin application were observed in respect to cambial activity and protein level. The latter effects were not correlated in time with the effects upon the activity of proteases. The differences were especially visible when phloem continuity between the decapited stem segment and the rest of the tree crown was broken by ring-barking. The results suggest dependence of a proteolytic system on the shoot apical control. In this epigenetic system of control the role of auxin seems to be directly associated with the seasonal meristematic activity of the cambium, which was observed in earlier studies.

  14. The essential oil qualitative and quantitative composition in the needles of Pinus sylvestris L. growing along industrial transects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Stikliene, Aida; Judzentiene, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the areas affected by a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Volatile components of the needles were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The most heavily polluted CF stand had significantly higher concentration of γ-Terpinene, Caryophyllene oxide in the current-year needles, while higher concentration of δ-3-Carene, α-Terpinene, γ-Terpinene and Terpinolene was documented for 1-year-old needles. The most heavily polluted OR stand had a significantly higher concentration of Sabinene + β-Pinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the current-year needles and a significantly higher concentration of Camphene, Sabinene + β-Pinene, Myrcene, α-Cadinene, 1-epi-Cubenol in the 1-year-old needles than the least polluted site. Along transects an increase in the amount of some diterpenes and a decrease in the components of the shorter chain essential oils was observed. These effects could be at least partially attributed to SO 2 . - Quantities of components of essential oil in the needles of Scots pine growing around two factories are described in relation to pollution

  15. Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 promotes Pinus sylvestris reforestation of lead-contaminated mine tailing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, A Giridhar; Shea, Patrick J; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2014-04-01

    Vegetation is critical to stabilize and remediate mine tailing sites, but plant growth is often poor due to toxicity from heavy metal(loid)s (HMs). A non-symbiotic endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7, isolated from Pb-contaminated mine tailing soil, exhibited both high tolerance to HMs and desirable plant growth-promoting characteristics. PDR1-7 promoted HM solubilization in mine tailing soil and removed significant amounts of Pb and other HMs from liquid media containing single and multiple metals. Pb removal efficiency increased with initial pH from 4 to 6 and with Pb concentration from 100 to 125 mg L(-1). Inoculating soil with PDR1-7 significantly increased nutrient availability and seedling growth, chlorophyll and protein contents, as well as antioxidative enzyme (superoxide dismutase) activity. A decrease in malondialdehyde indicated less oxidative stress. HM concentrations were much higher in Pinus sylvestris roots when PDR1-7 was present. These observations suggest the utility of Trichoderma sp. PDR1-7 for pine reforestation and phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated mine soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. INHIBITION OF Malus sylvestris Mill. PEELEXTRACT USING ETANOL SOLVENT ON THE GROWTH OF Streptococcus agalactiae AND Escherichia coli CAUSING MASTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanzul Kamal Putra

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find the resistibility of Manalagi apple peel extract, using etanol, to the growth of was to determine the antibacterial activity of Manalagi apple peel (Malus sylvestris Mill extract in various solvent using ethanol concentration against the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli bacteria that causing mastitis.The research methodwas experimental using Completely Randomized Design with 4 treatments and 6 replication. The treatments consisted of P1 (10%, P2 (20%, P3 (50% concentrations and P0 (10% iodips as the control. The variable measured was diameter of inhibition zone. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DMRT test if there was significantly difference result. The result of the inhibition zone of Manalagi apple peel extract using etanol in preventing the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli bacteria was different (P<0,01. In P2 (30% concentration, the extract resistibility to the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria was equivalent to P0 (iodips and in P3 (50% concentration, the extract resistibility to Escherichia coli bacteria was greater than P0 (iodips. Manalagi apple peel extract using etanol can be used as a natural antiseptic solution for teat dipping on dairy cows. The recommendation from the research was using extract Manalagi apple peel with etanol solvent concentration of 30% as a solution of teat dipping.   Keywords : Manalagi apple peel, Teat dipping, Mastitis, Streptococcus agalactiaeand Escherichia coli

  17. Natural Regeneration in a Multi-Layered Pinus sylvestris-Picea abies Forest after Target Diameter Harvest and Soil Scarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Drössler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest management in Sweden can be characterized by even-aged silviculture heavily relying on three established harvest regimes: clearcutting, the seed-tree method, and the shelterwood system. Less intense, small-scale retention harvest systems such as single tree and group selection harvest are rarely used. In addition, natural regeneration dynamics without enrichment planting have barely been studied. Consequently, this study examined natural regeneration establishment in a multi-layered Pinus sylvestris-Picea abies forest stand in southwest Sweden after target diameter harvesting and soil scarification. The creation of forest canopy gaps had a positive effect on total seedling density five years after harvest, mainly due to a significantly higher number of Betula pendula individuals. Seedling density of more desirable tree species suitable for continuous cover forestry such as Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea and Picea abies also increased substantially in gaps when compared to pre-harvest conditions or the unharvested plots. In contrast, soil scarification did not increase the number of seedlings of desired tree species due to a significant decrease in Picea abies abundance. Soil moisture and gap size significantly improved Betula pendula seedling establishment while a larger number of Quercus petraea seedlings were observed in Vaccinium myrtillus patches. We conclude that canopy gaps are beneficial under the encountered stand conditions to initiate forest regeneration, and that soil scarification without the timely occurrence of a mast year of desired tree species is not effective in the type of forest studied.

  18. Pharmacological assay of Casearia sylvestris. I: Preventive anti-ulcer activity and toxicity of the leaf crude extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, A C; Sertié, J A; Panizza, S; Oshiro, T T; Azzolini, C A

    1990-09-01

    An ethanol extract of the leaves of Brazilian Casearia sylvestris, given orally, inhibited gastric secretion in pylorus-ligated rats. At a prophylactic dose of 57.5 mg/kg, the extract showed a reduction of gastric juice more effective than misoprostol (500 micrograms/kg). In reducing hydrochloric acid output, the extract was less effective than misoprostol, cimetidine (32.0 mg/kg) and atropine (5.3 mg/kg). With the extract, the pH of the stomach contents was not significantly different from that of controls. Stress-induced lesions produced by restraint and water immersion were significantly prevented by the extract for all levels of severity when compared with the controls. The extract appeared more effective than misoprostol in suppressing light lesions, was equivalent to cimetidine and misoprostol for moderate lesions, and less effective than cimetidine and misoprostol for severe lesions. Toxicological experiments indicated a low acute toxicity, confirmed by subchronic daily testing. The oral LD50 value of greater than 1840 mg/kg was over 32 times higher than the antiulcerogenic ED50 (57.5 mg/kg).

  19. Changes in turnover rather than production regulate biomass of ectomycorrhizal fungal mycelium across a Pinus sylvestris chronosequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenbo, Andreas; Clemmensen, Karina E; Finlay, Roger D; Kyaschenko, Julia; Lindahl, Björn D; Fransson, Petra; Ekblad, Alf

    2017-04-01

    In boreal forest soils, ectomycorrhizal fungi are fundamentally important for carbon (C) dynamics and nutrient cycling. Although their extraradical mycelium (ERM) is pivotal for processes such as soil organic matter build-up and nitrogen cycling, very little is known about its dynamics and regulation. In this study, we quantified ERM production and turnover, and examined how these two processes together regulated standing ERM biomass in seven sites forming a chronosequence of 12- to 100-yr-old managed Pinus sylvestris forests. This was done by determining ERM biomass, using ergosterol as a proxy, in sequentially harvested in-growth mesh bags and by applying mathematical models. Although ERM production declined with increasing forest age from 1.2 to 0.5 kg ha -1  d -1 , the standing biomass increased from 50 to 112 kg ha -1 . This was explained by a drastic decline in mycelial turnover from seven times to one time per year with increasing forest age, corresponding to mean residence times from 25 d up to 1 yr. Our results demonstrate that ERM turnover is the main factor regulating biomass across differently aged forest stands. Explicit inclusion of ERM parameters in forest ecosystem C models may significantly improve their capacity to predict responses of mycorrhiza-mediated processes to management and environmental changes. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Influence of the Irradiance on Carbohydrate Content and Rooting of Cuttings of Pine Seedlings (Pinus sylvestris L.) 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jürgen; Strömquist, Lars-Helge; Ericsson, Anders

    1978-01-01

    Seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. were grown for 6 weeks at an irradiance of either 8 or 40 watts per square meter in a controlled environment room. Cuttings from these plants were rooted in tap water for 75 days at either 8 or 40 watts per square meter. The photoperiod was 17 hours. During the first 30 days of the rooting period quantitative changes in carbohydrates were recorded in cuttings from the different treatments. The carbohydrate contents of the cuttings were mainly regulated by the irradiance during the stock plant stage and generally a higher carbohydrate level was found in cuttings from stock plants grown at 40 watts per square meter. The irradiance during the rooting period had only minor effects on the time course of root formation, whereas the irradiance during the stock plant stage did influence the subsequent root formation. Cuttings from stock plants grown at 8 watts per square meter rooted faster and with higher frequency than those from stock plants grown at 40 watts per square meter. These results are discussed in relation to the mentioned irradiance effects on carbohydrate content. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:16660437

  1. Influence of the Irradiance on Carbohydrate Content and Rooting of Cuttings of Pine Seedlings (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J; Strömquist, L H; Ericsson, A

    1978-06-01

    Seedlings of Pinus sylvestris L. were grown for 6 weeks at an irradiance of either 8 or 40 watts per square meter in a controlled environment room. Cuttings from these plants were rooted in tap water for 75 days at either 8 or 40 watts per square meter. The photoperiod was 17 hours.During the first 30 days of the rooting period quantitative changes in carbohydrates were recorded in cuttings from the different treatments. The carbohydrate contents of the cuttings were mainly regulated by the irradiance during the stock plant stage and generally a higher carbohydrate level was found in cuttings from stock plants grown at 40 watts per square meter.The irradiance during the rooting period had only minor effects on the time course of root formation, whereas the irradiance during the stock plant stage did influence the subsequent root formation. Cuttings from stock plants grown at 8 watts per square meter rooted faster and with higher frequency than those from stock plants grown at 40 watts per square meter. These results are discussed in relation to the mentioned irradiance effects on carbohydrate content.

  2. Responses of legumes to rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: A meta-analysis of potential photosynthate limitation of symbioses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaschuk, G.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.; Alberton, O.; Hungria, M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    Legumes are prized for their seed protein and lipid mass fractions. Since legumes spend up to 4–16% of photosynthesis on each of the rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal symbioses, it might be expected that positive responses in yield due to rhizobial and AM symbioses are accompanied by

  3. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  4. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C.; Adjei-nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D.K.; Abaidoo, Robert C.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of

  5. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  6. Productivity and residual benefits of grain legumes to sorghum under semi-arid conditions in southwestern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.; Twomlow, S.J.; Wijk, van M.T.; Dimes, J.P.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The productivity and residual benefits of four grain legumes to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grown in rotation were measured under semi-arid conditions over three cropping seasons. Two varieties of each of the grain legumes; cowpea (Vigna unguiculata); groundnut (Arachis hypogaea); pigeon pea (Cajanus

  7. Protease inhibitors from processed legumes effectively inhibit superoxide generation in response to TPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavelow, J; Gidlund, M; Troll, W

    1982-01-01

    Crude extracts containing protease inhibitors from edible legumes (canned chick-peas, canned kidney beans and bean curd) were capable of blocking the superoxide response to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes produced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Protease inhibitors purified from crude extracts more effectively blocked the superoxide response produced by TPA. Bowman-Birk soybean inhibitor was more effective in blocking this effect of the tumor promoter than Kunitz soybean inhibitor. The significance of protease inhibitors in edible legumes and the possible role of free oxygen radicals in tumor promotion are discussed.

  8. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  9. Kidney bean: a major sensitizer among legumes in asthma and rhinitis patients from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrashan Kasera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of IgE mediated food allergies has increased over the last two decades. Food allergy has been reported to be fatal in highly sensitive individuals. Legumes are important food allergens but their prevalence may vary among different populations. The present study identifies sensitization to common legumes among Indian population, characterizes allergens of kidney bean and establishes its cross reactivity with other legumes. METHODOLOGY: Patients (n = 355 with history of legume allergy were skin prick tested (SPT with 10 legumes. Specific IgE (sIgE and total IgE were estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Characterization of kidney bean allergens and their cross reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of major allergens of kidney bean was carried out by mass spectrometry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kidney bean exhibited sensitization in 78 (22.0% patients followed by chickpea 65 (18.0% and peanut 53 (15%. SPT positive patients depicted significantly elevated sIgE levels against different legumes (r = 0.85, p<0.0001. Sera from 30 kidney bean sensitive individuals exhibited basophil histamine release (16-54% which significantly correlated with their SPT (r = 0.83, p<0.0001 and sIgE (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Kidney bean showed eight major allergens of 58, 50, 45, 42, 40, 37, 34 and 18 kDa on immunoblot and required 67.3±2.51 ng of homologous protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Inhibition assays revealed extensive cross reactivity among kidney bean, peanut, black gram and pigeon pea. nLC-MS/MS analysis identified four allergens of kidney bean showing significant matches with known proteins namely lectin (phytohemagglutinin, phaseolin, alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor and group 3 late embryogenesis abundant protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Among legumes, kidney bean followed by chick pea and peanut are the major allergic triggers in asthma and rhinitis patients in India

  10. Changes in nutritive value and herbage yield during extended growth intervals in grass-legume mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, Anjo; Søegaard, Karen

    2018-01-01

    . Perennial ryegrass was sown with each of four legumes: red clover, white clover, lucerne and birdsfoot trefoil, and white clover was sown with hybrid ryegrass, meadow fescue and timothy. Effects of species composition on herbage yield, contents of N, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF......There is a lack of information on the effects of companion species in grass–legume mixtures on herbage yield and quality changes during prolonged growth. Such information is relevant for harvest planning and estimation of consequences for feeding value of conserved feed when harvesting is delayed...

  11. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerreman; Pedersen, Mona H; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    protein extracts of seeds and sprouts (comprising cotelydons and hypocotyls/epicotyls) of peanut, soybean, green pea, blue lupine, mung bean, alfalfa, broad bean, and azuki bean were prepared. The reactivity of sera from 10 peanut-allergic patients to these extracts was analysed by indirect histamine......BACKGROUND: Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to identify immunoreactivity to seeds and sprouts of legumes other than peanut in sera from peanut-allergic patients. METHODS: Crude...

  12. Development of a comprehensive method for analyzing clerodane-type diterpenes and phenolic compounds from Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae) based on ultra high performance liquid chromatography combined with chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; Pereira, Fabiola Manhas Verbi; Torres, Roseli Buzanelli; Cavalheiro, Alberto José

    2015-05-01

    This work describes the development and optimization of an analytical method utilizing liquid chromatography and chemometrics to evaluate and differentiate two varieties of Casearia sylvestris Swartz (Salicaceae) from São Paulo State (Brazil) based on their secondary metabolite profiles. Previously, analytical studies only concerned the analysis of clerodane-type diterpenes. Therefore, considering the importance of including phenolic compounds in such analysis, we used design of experiments to simultaneously extract and detect the largest number of compounds from both chemical classes. This new strategy allowed a comprehensive chromatographic analysis of C. sylvestris, and the results for the two varieties exhibited an interesting distribution according to their original ecosystems, suggesting a strong correlation to the main metabolites found in each species group. Besides their inherent morphological differences, C. sylvestris variety lingua, mainly found in Cerrado areas, predominantly contains phenolic compounds, while C. sylvestris variety sylvestris, mainly found in Atlantic Forest areas, contains mostly clerodane-type diterpenes. Finally, it was also possible to observe differences in the secondary metabolite composition within each group depending on the place where samples were collected. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Casearia sylvestris na permeabilidade gástrica à sacarose em equinos submetidos a protocolo de indução de úlcera gástrica Casearia sylvestris on gastric permeability to sucrose in horses submitted to gastric ulcer induction protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio da Silva Fialho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos em animais de laboratório sugerem um efeito antiulcerogênico do extrato de Casearia sylvestris. Esse extrato ainda não foi estudado para a profilaxia e/ou o tratamento de úlceras gástricas em equinos. Para avaliar a influência do extrato de C. sylvestris na permeabilidade gástrica à sacarose, seis equinos adultos foram submetidos a modelo de indução de úlceras gástricas. Os animais foram submetidos ao teste de permeabilidade à sacarose antes e ao término do protocolo de restrição alimentar intermitente, para detecção de ulceração gástrica. Durante os sete dias da indução, os animais foram submetidos a tratamentos diários via sondagem nasogástrica com extrato de C. sylvestris (9mg kg-1 de peso corpóreo ou veículo (ágar. Após intervalo de 32 dias em piquete, para permitir a cicatrização das úlceras induzidas, cada animal foi submetido novamente ao protocolo de indução de úlcera gástrica, e os tratamentos foram alternados. Dessa forma, cada animal foi submetido a ambos os tratamentos em períodos distintos. A concentração de sacarose na urina foi determinada para cada amostra obtida, por cromatografia líquida de alto desempenho e detecção amperométrica pulsátil. Não foram observadas alterações nos exames clínicos e hemogramas. O tratamento com o extrato de C. sylvestris evitou o aumento da concentração de sacarose urinária (PStudies on laboratory animals suggest an antiulcergonic effect of Casearia sylvestris extract. This extract has not yet been tested for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of gastric ulcers in horses. In order to evaluate the influence of C. sylvestris extract on gastric sucrose permeability, six adult horses underwent a protocol of gastric ulcer induction. All animals were submitted to sucrose permeability testing before and at the end of gastric ulcers induction by intermittent feed deprivation, for detection of gastric ulcers. During the seven days of induction, the

  14. Isoflavone rumen metabolites: A missing link in the benefits of legumes on grazing animal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clovers are widely used to add protein to ruminant diets. Clovers and other legumes also produce a class of small molecules called isoflavones. Isoflavones have estrogenic properties, which can interfere with reproduction in grazing ruminants, but they also have benefits. We identified potential b...

  15. Self-reseeding annual legumes for cover cropping in rainfed managed olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ângelo Rodrigues, M.; Ferreira, I. Q.; Freitas, S.L.; Pires, J.M.; Arrobas, M.P.

    2015-07-01

    Given the environmental impact of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer manufacture and use, the sustainable management of agro-systems should be sought by growing N-fixing legumes. In this work, eleven self-reseeding annual legumes were grown in pure stands as mulching cover crops in a rainfed olive orchard managed without grazing animals. Dry matter yield, N content in above-ground biomass, groundcover percentage and persistence of the sown species were assessed during four growing seasons. All covers provided enough soil protection over the year, with living plants during the autumn/winter period and a mulch of dead residues during the summer. The legumes overcame a false break observed in the third year recovering the dominance of the covers in the fourth growing season. This means that the seed bank established in previous seasons ensured the persistence of the sown legume even when a gap in seed production occurred. The early-maturing cultivars produced less biomass and fixed less N (approx. 50 kg N/ha/yr present in the above-ground biomass) than the late-maturing ones, but would compete less for water since the growing cycle finished earlier in the spring. They seem best suited to being grown in dry farmed olive orchards with low N demand in drought prone regions. (Author)

  16. Draft genome sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan), an orphan legume crop of resource-poor farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varshney, Rajeev K.; Chen, Wenbin; Li, Yupeng

    2012-01-01

    Pigeonpea is an important legume food crop grown primarily by smallholder farmers in many semi-arid tropical regions of the world. We used the Illumina next-generation sequencing platform to generate 237.2 Gb of sequence, which along with Sanger-based bacterial artificial chromosome end sequences...

  17. Exploring socio-ecological niches for legumes in western Kenya smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojiem, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: adaptability, agro-ecosystems, biophysical and socio-economic heterogeneity, economic benefits, N2-fixation, productivity.This thesis explores the potential of using herbaceous and grain legume species to improve soil fertility and farm productivity in the heterogeneous

  18. N2 Fixation by Grain Legume Varieties as Affected By Rhizobia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Rhizobium – legume symbiotic association contributes considerable amount of N in tropical soils. However, low rainfall and high temperature in Sudano-Sahelian region of Northeastern. Nigeria may affect the Rhizobial population in the soil. Therefore, the influence of Rhizobia inoculation on N2 fixation by ...

  19. Plastid Genome Evolution in the Early-Diverging Legume Subfamily Cercidoideae (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Huan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Cercidoideae is an early-branching legume lineage, which consists of 13 genera distributed in the tropical and warm temperate Northern Hemisphere. A previous study detected two plastid genomic variations in this subfamily, but the limited taxon sampling left the overall plastid genome (plastome diversification across the subfamily unaddressed, and phylogenetic relationships within this clade remained unresolved. Here, we assembled eight plastomes from seven Cercidoideae genera and conducted phylogenomic-comparative analyses in a broad evolutionary framework across legumes. The plastomes of Cercidoideae all exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with a conserved gene content typical of most angiosperm plastomes. Plastome size ranged from 151,705 to 165,416 bp, mainly due to the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat (IR regions. The order of genes varied due to the occurrence of several inversions. In Tylosema species, a plastome with a 29-bp IR-mediated inversion was found to coexist with a canonical-type plastome, and the abundance of the two arrangements of isomeric molecules differed between individuals. Complete plastome data were much more efficient at resolving intergeneric relationships of Cercidoideae than the previously used selection of only a few plastid or nuclear loci. In sum, our study revealed novel insights into the structural diversification of plastomes in an early-branching legume lineage, and, thus, into the evolutionary trajectories of legume plastomes in general.

  20. The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on mild yield and composition in lactating. BZ Mugweni, M titterton, BV Maasdorp, JF Mupangwa, F Gandiya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Improving food and agricultural production. Thailand. Mutation breeding of food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oram, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The objectives of the present mission were to assist and advise mutation breeders on the induction, selection, utilization and maintenance of useful mutants in grain legumes, especially in soybean, mungbean, red kidney bean, sugar pea, cowpea and yard-long bean, and to provide consultation to plant breeders

  2. Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the Sudan savannah zone Kano state, Nigeria. ... Results of the study indicated that Sorghum almum-Lablab purpureus mixture recorded numerically higher dry matter yield (7806 kg dm/hectare) compared to other mixtures, similarly leaf area for grass (46.4) ...

  3. Superparamagnetic adsorbents for high-gradient magnetic fishing of lectins out of legume extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Dalkiær, M.; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    culinaris agglutinin (greater than or equal to 250 mg g(-1)) with dissociation constants in the micromolar range, though neither of these systems showed any selectivity for lectins in leguminous extracts. When the affinity supports were applied to carbohydrate containing legume extracts only the dextran...

  4. Content of amino acids and minerals in selected sorts of legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kráčmar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was to determine amino acid composition and mineral content in selected legume samples. All analyses were carried out at the laboratory temperature of 21±2 °C in triplicate. Amino acid composition was determined using the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA 400 with post-column derivatization. To assess the nutritional value of protein, index of essential amino acids (EAAI was calculated. Minerals were determined using the atomic absorption spectrometer AA 30. All results were statistically evaluated. The highest content of Cys, Glu, Asp, Leu, Lys and Arg was determined in seeds of G. max; only the content of Cys and His was lower than 10 g kg-1. The greatest total content of essential amino acids (EAA was discovered in soybeans, almost 128 g kg-1. The majority (Na, K, Mg, and Ca, trace (Fe, Zn, and Cr and toxic elements (Pb, Cd were determined. Legumes were rich in Mg and Ca-mainly G. max and Ph. vulgaris. The content of Mg was 2.1 g/1000g in soybeans and 1.6 g/1000g in common beans. Also in these two legumes the greatest concentration of toxic Pb was found. Values obtained during the determination of the chemical composition in samples of legumes and buckwheat products can be influenced by many factors, e.g. climatic conditions, location etc.

  5. Processing of legume seeds : effects on digestive behaviour in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goelema, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, effects of toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in situ rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of legume seeds are described. Toasting decreases protein degradability of peas, lupins, faba beans and soybeans and starch degradability of peas and faba beans,

  6. Tree legumes in medium-term fallows: Nz fixation, nitrate recovery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Legume effects on the fixation of atmospheric N and nitrate recovery were determined in a sub-humid, bi-modal rainfall system. Fallows improved with sesbania (Sesbania sesban) and tephrosia (Tephrosia vogellii) produced more biomass and fixed more N than those fallows improved with pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) or ...

  7. The potential of legume pods as supplements to low quality roughages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of legume pods as supplements to low quality roughages. A.T. Ngwa, I.V. Nsahlai, M.L.K. Bonsi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 107-108). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  8. Studies on legume root hair development : correlations with the infection process by Rhizobium bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylona, P.

    1996-01-01


    Rhizobia-legume interaction leading to the formation of specific organs, namely root nodules, starts at the epidermis of the root. Bacteria interfere with the develomental programme of the epidermal cells by inducing a number of responses, as new root hair growth, root hair deformation

  9. Soil chemical properties and legume-cereal rotation benefits in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was conducted at the Department of Soil Science, University of Nigeria Teaching and Research Farm in 2008 and 2009 growing seasons. The objective was to evaluate the effects of edible grain legumes (cowpea and soybean) and velvet-bean/maize rotations on soil chemical properties and the contribution ...

  10. Exploratory trials on reinforcement of veld with legumes in the south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In all, 17 legumes were involved, including the genera Coronilla, Desmodium, Glycine, Lespedeza, Lotus, Macroptillium, Medicago, Neotononia, Trifolium and Vigna. Only Coronilla varia (crownvetch) showed a satisfactory degree of persistence. However, crownvetch is slow to establish, is intolerant of waterlogging and has ...

  11. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  12. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes for extending the grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss how clovers and warm-season legumes, such as alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil, in mixture with grasses can enhance the overall nutritive value of the overall forage, increase dry matter yield, and contribute nitrogen to the soil via the nitrogen fixing Rhizobia bacteria ...

  13. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  14. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This

  15. Estimation of extractable protein in botanical fractions of legume and grass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    With a globally strong interest in bio-based products such as fuels and chemicals, a feasible source of protein for the industry with positive economic impacts could be from leaves. However, more knowledge is needed on how to improve the content of extractable protein. Grasses and legumes have a ...

  16. Evaluating shade effects on crop productivity in sorghum-legume intercropping systems using support vector machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum-legume intercropping has the potential to improve forage productivity, resource use efficiency, and forage quality under irrigation in the Southern High Plains of the United States. Crop production is conversion of solar radiation into biomass and solar radiation is wasted early in the seaso...

  17. Mineral composition of legumes forages cultivated under different levels of shade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos de Carvalho Almeida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the composition of calcium, phosphorus and potassium, and the leaf: stem ratio of four tropical forage legumes: Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo, Pueraria phaseoloides (puero, Macrotyloma axillare (archer and Neonotonia wightii (perennial soybean, under different levels of artificial shade (0, 30, 50 and 70% in the summer and autumn seasons of 2006 and 2007, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in factorial 4x4 design with four replications. Was used SNK test at 5% probability to evaluate the effect of the legume species and regression analysis to test the effect of the level of shading. There was a trend of increase in the concentration of 3 independent minerals examined the season. In contrast, there was a reduction in the leaf: stem ratio and a slight increase in specific leaf area archer, perennial soybean and puero (R2 ? 40%, which suggests small effect of shading on the morphology of leaves of 3 forage legumes, which in turn have little effect concentrating minerals, besides these finding is confirmed the annual calopo behavior, which prevents their use as legume forage for the autumn season.

  18. Future prospects for ascochyta blight resistance breeding in cool season food legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego eRubiales

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfil breeding programmes needs. However, the complex inheritance controlled quantitatively by multiple genes, have been difficult to manipulate. Successful application of biotechnology to ascochyta blight resistance breeding in legume crops will facilitate both a good biological knowledge of the crops and of the mechanisms underlying resistance. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The limited saturation of the genomic regions bearing putative QTLs in legume crops makes difficult to identify the most tightly-linked markers

  19. Nodulation of tree legumes and the ecology of their native rhizobial populations in tropical soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Murphy, P.J.; Osunde, A.O.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    A legume introduced into a new area will only form nodules and fix nitrogen if compatible rhizobia are present in the soil. Using 25 (60 in the case of Sesbania sesban) soils sampled from tropical areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America, we examined the nodulation of four agroforestry tree species

  20. Condensed tannins in some forage legumes: their role in the prevention of ruminant pasture bloat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, G L

    1992-01-01

    For the past 20 years, the focus in our laboratory has been on finding the causes of ruminant pasture bloat and eventually breeding a bloat-safe alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.); i.e., with bloat potential reduced to the economic threshold. In the mid-seventies, the mechanisms of bloat were explored and found to be more physical than chemical. Characteristic of all bloating legumes after ingestion was a very rapid initial rate of ingestion by rumen microbes. Through the study of bloating and non-bloating legumes, factors were elucidated in the plant that would slow this process. One of these factors was the presence of condensed tannins in the herbage. Some of the non-bloating legumes contained these secondary metabolites, but no condensed tannins were found in any of the bloating legumes. Therefore, species containing an appreciable amount of condensed tannins in their leaves and stems are considered to be non-bloating. Conventional breeding methods have not been successful in producing an alfalfa with condensed tannins in its herbage. New approaches using tissue culture techniques are being attempted, but genetic engineering has the greatest potential for success.