WorldWideScience

Sample records for legume competition garden

  1. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  2. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, Liesje; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This

  3. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Root interactions between neighbour plants represent a fundamental aspect of the competitive dynamics in pure stand and mixed cropping systems. The comprehension of such phenomena places big methodological challenges, and still needs clarification. The objectives of this work were (i) to test if ...... for deep root growth and (iv) to compare the effect of intraspecific and interspecific competition on root development and biomass growth.......Root interactions between neighbour plants represent a fundamental aspect of the competitive dynamics in pure stand and mixed cropping systems. The comprehension of such phenomena places big methodological challenges, and still needs clarification. The objectives of this work were (i) to test...

  4. Nitrogen deposition, competition and the decline of a regionally threatened legume, Desmodium cuspidatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogen, Krissa A; Holsinger, Kent E; Cardon, Zoe G

    2011-01-01

    Increased nitrogen (N) deposition, resulting from the combustion of fossil fuels, production of synthetic fertilizers, growth of N(2)-fixing crops and high-intensity agriculture, is one of the anthropogenic factors most likely to cause global biodiversity changes over the next century. This influence may be especially large in temperate zone forests, which are highly N limited and occur in regions with the highest levels of N deposition. Within these ecosystems, N(2)-fixing plants, including legumes, may be more sensitive to N deposition than other plant species. Though it has long been recognized that the competitive edge conferred by N(2)-fixation diminishes with increasing soil N availability, the conservation implications of increased N deposition on native N(2)-fixers have received less attention. We focus on Desmodium cuspidatum, which has experienced dramatic population losses in the last 30-40 years in the northeastern United States. We explore competition between this regionally threatened legume and a common non-N(2)-fixing neighbor, Solidago canadensis, across a gradient of N deposition. Our data show that increased N deposition may be detrimental to N(2)-fixers such as D. cuspidatum in two ways: (1) biomass accumulation in the non-N(2)-fixer, S. canadensis, responds more strongly to increasing N deposition, and (2) S. canadensis competes strongly for available mineral nitrogen and can assimilate N previously fixed by D. cuspidatum, resulting in D. cuspidatum relying more heavily on energetically expensive N(2)-fixation when grown with S. canadensis. N deposition may thus reduce or eliminate the competitive advantage of N(2)-fixing species growing in N-limited ecosystems.

  5. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.

    2008-01-01

    Intercropping is the simultaneous cultivation of more than one crop species on the same piece of land and is regarded as the practical application of basic ecological principles such as diversity, competition and facilitation. Field experiments were carried out on a sandy loam soil and a sandy soil......-270 g m-2). Nitrogen fixation was very constant in grain legume SC over species and location, varying from 13.2 to 15.8 g N m-2, being lowest in peas and highest in faba bean and lupin. The intercropped grain legumes increased the proportion of plant N derived from N2-fixation by on average 10...... was comparable; however, it tended to be the highest in sole cropped faba bean, lupin and unfertilized barley, where the application of urea to barley reduced the weed infestation by around 50%. Reduction in disease was observed in all IC systems compared to the corresponding SC, with a general disease reduction...

  6. Male antenna morphology and its effect on scramble competition in false garden mantids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Anuradhi; Barry, Katherine L.

    2017-10-01

    Well-developed antennae are crucial for many insects, but especially for scramble competitors, who race to find their mates using female sex cues. In these systems, the ability of males to locate females quickly is thought to be under strong selection. A rarely tested assumption is that males with more sensory structures are able to locate females faster. In the present study, we used the false garden mantid Pseudomantis albofimbriata to investigate male antennal morphology and its effect on male efficiency in finding a mate. We used scanning electron microscopy to describe the major sensilla types and their arrangement along the length of male antennae. We also conducted field enclosure trials relating male antennal morphology to scramble competition in this system. We identified six different types of antennal sensilla (cheatic, trichoid, basiconic, grooved peg, ceolocapitular and campaniform) on male P. albofimbriata antennae. As expected, males who had more trichoid sensilla located females quicker than did males with fewer sensilla. Results of the current study suggest that antenna morphology plays a significant role in mate location and hence scramble competition in the P. albofimbriata mating system.

  7. The impact of soil organism composition and activated carbon on grass-legume competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurst, S.; Van Beersum, S.

    2009-01-01

    Belowground mechanisms involved in plant competition are still poorly understood. Since plant species are differently affected by soil organisms, changes in soil community composition might affect interspecific competition with consequences for plant community structure. We studied whether soil

  8. Combined effects of temperature and interspecific competition on the mortality of the invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus: A laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzi, Filippo; Bartalesi, Viola; Santini, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    The invasive garden ant, Lasius neglectus, is a dominant species due to its capacity to form large supercolonies. This species was assumed to possess a wide thermal niche since it is able to adapt to cold climates, which is a factor that boosted its rapid expansion from south to many central-northern European Countries. However, the effect of variations in environmental temperatures on its competitive ability against other species has still not been investigated. In this paper, we analyzed the change in survival ability of Lasius neglectus during encounters with two Mediterranean dominant ants (Crematogaster scutellaris and Tapinoma nigerrimum) at four different temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30°C). Firstly, control tests were performed to provide the baseline survival ability of the three species at different temperatures. Secondly, competition tests were carried out at the same temperatures. Lasius neglectus survival was negatively affected by high temperature (30°C) in control tests, and this impairment was much more pronounced in competition tests. On the contrary, the two opponent species were only marginally affected by temperatures in control tests. Crematogaster scutellaris was a better competitor than L. neglectus, particularly at high temperatures. Tapinoma nigerrimum was a weaker competitor and was always outcompeted by L. neglectus, particularly at low temperatures. This result could suggest that L. neglectus is at a disadvantage during interspecific encounters when temperatures are high and that the predicted future increase in environmental temperatures may potentially enhance this handicap. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape reduces weed competition, insect damage, and improves nitrogen use efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadoux Stéphane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mixing plant species in agroecosystems is highlighted as an agroecological solution to reduce pesticides and fertilizers while maintaining profitability. In the French context, intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is potentially interesting and began to be implemented by farmers. In this study we aimed at measuring the services and disservices of this intercrop with three different legume mixtures, in terms of growth and yield for rapeseed, ground cover of weeds in autumn and damage caused by rape winter stem weevil. The experiment was carried out at four sites from 2011 to 2014. We showed higher total aerial dry weights and total aerial nitrogen contents in the intercrops compared to sole winter oilseed rape in November. The companion plants contributed to the control of weeds and the mitigation of rape winter stem weevil damage, notably through the increase in the total aerial weight. In spring, after destruction of the companion plants, the intercrops had partially compensated a reduction in the N fertilization rate (–30 kg per hectare in terms of aerial nitrogen content in rapeseed, with no consequences on the yield which was maintained or even increased. There were probably other interactions such as an improvement in rapeseed root exploration. The consequences were an increase in the nitrogen use efficiency in intercrops. The intercrop with faba bean and lentil showed the best results in terms of autumn growth, weed control, reduction in rape winter stem weevil damage, and rapeseed N content in spring and yield. Intercropping frost-sensitive legume crops with winter oilseed rape is thus a promising way to reconcile yield and reduction in pesticides and fertilizer use and perhaps to benefit more widely to the cropping system.

  10. Therapeutic Gardening

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Phyllis; Fox, Laurie; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)

    2013-01-01

    Gardening can be therapeutic for anyone and has been used as therapy for those with physical, emotional and social disabilities, for children, and for those who are elderly. Through careful adaptations to the garden, the gardener and the plants, almost anyone can benefit from the activity of gardening

  11. Garden Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a gardener, you have the potential to contribute to nutrient pollution, but you also have the power to help prevent it. There are several easy things you can do to reduce nutrient pollution from your yards and gardens.

  12. Browses (legume-legume mixture) as dry season feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing competition between man and animals(monogasters, polygasters, microlivestock and wild/feral) for high quality feed(proteinaceous and carbonaceous concentrate) excessive pressure on land from urbanisation , hence the need of multipurpose browse-legumes (Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium and ...

  13. The Garden

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Claudia; Andrade, Paula Simas de

    2014-01-01

    Following the motto “community and government, a partnership for success”, Sheila Souza dos Santos, 34, a secretary, transformed a community garden project into a true space for the exercise of citizenship. The revival of a community-based project for the production of garden vegetables in Itapoã – a city located in the outskirts of Brasília, Brazil’s national capital – resulted not only in access to healthier food by the local community, school and families engaged in the project, but also i...

  14. Kitchen gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Numeracy is the practical application of mathematics in context. In schools, contexts such as kitchen gardens can provide a real world and exciting environment for engaging students in mathematical thinking and discussion associated with situations of proportion. This article presents examples fr...

  15. Hydroponic Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julinor, Helmut

    1976-01-01

    In addition to being an actual source of foodstuffs in inhospitable climates and a potential source of a large portion of the world's food supply, hydroponic gardening is a useful technique in the classroom for illustrating the role of plant life in the world's food chain. (MB)

  16. The geographical patterns of symbiont diversity in the invasive legume Mimosa pudica can be explained by the competitiveness of its symbionts and by the host genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkonian, Rémy; Moulin, Lionel; Béna, Gilles; Tisseyre, Pierre; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Heulin, Karine; Rezkallah, Naïma; Klonowska, Agnieszka; Gonzalez, Sophie; Simon, Marcelo; Chen, Wen-Ming; James, Euan K; Laguerre, Gisèle

    2014-07-01

    Variations in the patterns of diversity of symbionts have been described worldwide on Mimosa pudica, a pan-tropical invasive species that interacts with both α and β-rhizobia. In this study, we investigated if symbiont competitiveness can explain these variations and the apparent prevalence of β- over α-rhizobia. We developed an indirect method to measure the proportion of nodulation against a GFP reference strain and tested its reproducibility and efficiency. We estimated the competitiveness of 54 strains belonging to four species of β-rhizobia and four of α-rhizobia, and the influence of the host genotype on their competitiveness. Our results were compared with biogeographical patterns of symbionts and host varieties. We found: (i) a strong strain effect on competitiveness largely explained by the rhizobial species, with Burkholderia phymatum being the most competitive species, followed by B. tuberum, whereas all other species shared similar and reduced levels of competitiveness; (ii) plant genotype can increase the competitiveness of Cupriavidus taiwanensis. The latter data support the likelihood of the strong adaptation of C. taiwanensis with the M. pudica var. unijuga and help explain its prevalence as a symbiont of this variety over Burkholderia species in some environments, most notably in Taiwan. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume

  18. Allergy-Friendly Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergy Library ▸ Allergy-friendly gardening Share | Allergy-Friendly Gardening This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, ... rhinitis (hay fever), getting hands dirty in the garden has consequences. Sneezing, itchy eyes, congestion and other ...

  19. Gardening from a Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Gardening from a wheelchair Gardening from a wheelchair ☷ ▾ Page contents Tips from community ... resources Tips from community members to start your garden Being able to plant your favorite flowers, pick ...

  20. Measuring your Garden Footprint

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Gareth; Schmutz, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The work reports on a Garden Organic (working name of Henry Doubleday Research Association, Coventry UK) members experiment in 2007. Garden Organic members were surveyed with a detailed paper questionnaire to calculate an average gardening footprint of committed (self-selected) organic gardeners in the UK. This was used to develop a garden footprinting methodology and to create a benchmark of committed organic gardening in the UK. This was then compared to commerical orangic growing and to ot...

  1. Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  2. Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  3. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  4. Monoculture of leafcutter ant gardens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich G Mueller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Leafcutter ants depend on the cultivation of symbiotic Attamyces fungi for food, which are thought to be grown by the ants in single-strain, clonal monoculture throughout the hundreds to thousands of gardens within a leafcutter nest. Monoculture eliminates cultivar-cultivar competition that would select for competitive fungal traits that are detrimental to the ants, whereas polyculture of several fungi could increase nutritional diversity and disease resistance of genetically variable gardens.Using three experimental approaches, we assessed cultivar diversity within nests of Atta leafcutter ants, which are most likely among all fungus-growing ants to cultivate distinct cultivar genotypes per nest because of the nests' enormous sizes (up to 5000 gardens and extended lifespans (10-20 years. In Atta texana and in A. cephalotes, we resampled nests over a 5-year period to test for persistence of resident cultivar genotypes within each nest, and we tested for genetic differences between fungi from different nest sectors accessed through excavation. In A. texana, we also determined the number of Attamyces cells carried as a starter inoculum by a dispersing queens (minimally several thousand Attamyces cells, and we tested for genetic differences between Attamyces carried by sister queens dispersing from the same nest. Except for mutational variation arising during clonal Attamyces propagation, DNA fingerprinting revealed no evidence for fungal polyculture and no genotype turnover during the 5-year surveys.Atta leafcutter ants can achieve stable, fungal monoculture over many years. Mutational variation emerging within an Attamyces monoculture could provide genetic diversity for symbiont choice (gardening biases of the ants favoring specific mutational variants, an analog of artificial selection.

  5. School gardens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that school gardening helps children enhance their understanding of science and promotes their interaction with the environment gaining historical, cultural and ecological understandings (Dyg 2014; Chenhall 2010; Green 2013; Johnson 2012; Sloan 2013; McCarty 2010; Hess & Trexler 2011......). School gardens are sprouting in rural and urban areas across Denmark. This case study research sheds new light on various school garden models under the Gardens for Bellies program in Denmark, including school-, community-based and central school gardens. This study aims to document the organization...... of school gardens, which is not studied in international research. It also analyses immediate effects according to pupils and other stakeholders. The research is based on five explorative case studies, involving observations and interviews. The findings show that school gardens open up opportunities...

  6. Mimosoid legume plastome evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugas, D.V.; Hernandez, David; Koenen, Erik J.M.; Schwarz, Erika; Straub, Shannon; Hughes, C.E.; Jansen, R.K.; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Staats, Martijn; Trujillo, J.T.; Hajrah, N.H.; Alharbi, N.S.; Al-Malki, A.L.; Sabir, J.S.M.; Bailey, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    The Leguminosae has emerged as a model for studying angiosperm plastome evolution because of its striking diversity of structural rearrangements and sequence variation. However, most of what is known about legume plastomes comes from few genera representing a subset of lineages in subfamily

  7. Manipulating legume/cereal mixtures to optimize the above and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of mixing legume and cereals in the cropping systems is to optimise the use of spatial, temporal, and physical resources both above- and below ground, by maximising positive interactions (facilitation) and minimising negative ones (competition) among the components. The complex interactions in ...

  8. The Garden of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a garden that grows more than vegetables. The grounds of McKinley Elementary School in San Diego, California, was a neglected area for years, until recently when an organic garden was planted to revive and brighten the dreary area behind the school's bungalow classrooms. Each grade now has its own wood-bordered plot where a…

  9. GARDENING IN OTTOMAN TURKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız AKSOY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Within this study, the art of gardening in Ottoman Turks has been examined in four periods: 1. The period starting with the establishment of the Ottoman Empire till the conquest of the Byzantine capital of Constantinople by the Turks (1300-1453 2. The period starting with the conquest of Istanbul till the Tulip Era (1706 3. The Tulip Era (1703-1730 4. The period starting with the Tulip Era (1730 till the establishment of the Republic (1923 In the first period, Ottoman Turks remained under the influence of Seljuk art and were partly in contact with the Byzantine works. When miniatures showing the palace life are examined, often the importance given to the atrium garden could be seen. A significant development in the art of gardening was experienced during the period starting with the conquest of Istanbul till the Tulip Era. The Tulip Era has been a very productive period in terms of fine art in Ottoman history. Major improvements and innovations in poetry, literature, music, civil architecture and especially in the art of gardening has emerged. Till the Tulip Era, the unique natural landscape of Istanbul was equipped with the top works of art of Ottoman Turks. The art of gardening in Ottoman Turks has entered a new period with the end of the Tulip Era in 1730. This period, has been the period in which foreign influence started to affect Ottoman gardens. The most important works of the second period; the Topkapı Palace Garden and the Yıldız Palace garden, which was mostly established in a natural layout and has been the latest example of Ottoman palace gardening, were examined within this study. The structuring of the Ottoman gardens has changed and developed during the historical process depending on various effects such as life styles of the period and the artistic-cultural structure of the period.

  10. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes are large, fleshy, colorful plant seeds. Beans, peas, and lentils are all types of legumes. Vegetables such as beans and other legumes are an important source of protein. They are a key food in healthy ...

  11. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  12. Education Function of Botanical Gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Ruhugül Özge Ocak; Banu Öztürk Kurtaslan

    2015-01-01

    Botanical gardens are very significant organizations which protect the environment against the increasing environmental problems, provide environmental education for people, offer recreation possibilities, etc. This article describes botanical gardens and their functions. The most important function of botanical garden is to provide environmental education for people and improve environmental awareness. Considering this function, some botanical gardens were examined and o...

  13. Fostering Children's Interests in Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames

    2007-01-01

    Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…

  14. Garden of cosmic speculation

    CERN Document Server

    Jencks, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This book tells the story of one of the most important gardens in Europe, created by the architectural critic and designer Charles Jencks and his late wife, the landscape architect and author Maggie Keswick. The Garden of Cosmic Speculation is a landscape that celebrates the new sciences of complexity and chaos theory and consists of a series of metaphors exploring the origins, the destiny and the substance of the Universe. The book is illustrated with year-round photography, bringing the garden's many dimensions vividly to life.

  15. Potential of legume-based grassland–livestock systems in Europe: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-01-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil–plant–animal–atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30–50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland–livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future. PMID:26300574

  16. Potential of legume-based grassland-livestock systems in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-06-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil-plant-animal-atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30-50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO 2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland-livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future.

  17. Lawn and Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    The most effective strategy for controlling pests in your lawn and garden may be to combine methods in an approach known as Integrated Pest Management. See videos and find tips for implementing IPM at your residence.

  18. The Slate Garden

    CERN Multimedia

    Alexandre Pelletier and Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    On the patio of the Main Building, a new garden has been unveiled. Inspired by physicists themselves, the garden uses a clever combination of flower arrangements and slate slabs to create the shape of the CMS particle tracker.   Scribbling, crossing out, and writing over it again. In an age of digital "tablets", scientists have remained faithful to the traditional blackboard... the inspiration for the Slate Garden. Completed just a few days ago on the Main Building patio (Building 500), the garden was designed by landscape architect Laurent Essig – who also created the InGRID installation outside Building 33 – and is the perfect combination of organic and mineral materials. Composed of 100 pieces of slate laid across three concentric circles, the work recalls the elegant lines of the CMS particle tracker. The project was completed thanks to the collaboration of a number of CERN technical services, in particular the Green Spaces Service, the Transport Serv...

  19. Cultivating the Glocal Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs Hisschemoller

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question under which conditions small-scale urban agriculture (UA initiatives can accelerate a sustainability transition of the global food system. It develops the notion of a glocal garden, a large number of likeminded local initiatives with a global impact and forms of worldwide collaboration. Taking a transition perspective, the glocal garden, producing vegetables and fruits, is a niche that has to overcome barriers to compete with the dominant food regime. Since a sustainability transition restructures (policy sectors, institutional domains including knowledge systems, the paper explores which innovations are needed for the glocal garden to succeed. It discusses the glocal garden as an environmental, a social, an economic and a global project. As an environmental project, the glocal garden will link sustainable production of food with renewable energy production. As a social project, it will be organized into a consumers’ cooperative. As an economic project, it will strive for profit, increasing the yield in a sustainable manner. As a global project, it will enhance collaboration between local cooperatives in the North and the South, as well as with rural agriculture. Under these conditions, the glocal garden can develop into a power, able to resist a possible future food regime that splits societies, in terms of quality standards and food products, into haves and have-nots.

  20. Biofertilizer for food legumes: Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In Bangladesh grain legumes are the protein meat substitute of the poor, and an integral part of the daily diet. Yet present yields cannot meet demand and every year about 25% of the country's grain legumes' requirements have to be imported at a cost of about US $23 million in hard-earned foreign exchange. This money could easily be saved by increasing production in the country. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, in Bangladesh to find ways of increasing yields of grain legumes using efficient strains of biofertilizers. (IAEA)

  1. A qualitative study of the nodulating ability of legumes of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume-Rhizobium symbiosis accumulates substantial amounts of mineralizable nitrogen which help in ecological rehabilitation of degraded soils and increase the soil fertility in agricultural ecosystem. Nodulation was studied in 72 legume species from various parts of Pakistan. All the species of Papilionoideae and Mimosoideae were nodulated whereas all the species examined in Caesalpinioideae were non-nodulated. Attempts to elicit nodulation in Caesalpinioid species by rhizobial inoculation were not successful and they were accepted as lacking nodulating ability. Nodulation is reported for the first time in 6 species within 3 genera of Mimosoideae and 9 species within 5 genera of Papilionoideae. Majority of the species were abundantly nodulated under natural soil conditions or when grown in uninoculated garden soil indicating distribution of wide range of naturalized rhizobia. The study shows that the wild legumes hold great promise for inclusion in revegetation of denuded and derelict ecosystems.

  2. Consumer Statistics: Who Gardens? Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ivan

    1995-01-01

    According to a recent study, gardening is America's most popular outdoor leisure-time activity. Examines this trend and identifies growth areas in the gardening market and consumer spending habits. (LZ)

  3. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  4. Pythagoras' Garden, Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhart, Frank R.; Price, H. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Mack and Czernezkyj (2010) have given an interesting account of primitive Pythagorean triples (PPTs) from a geometrical perspective. In this article, the authors wish to enlarge on the role of the equicircles (incircle and three excircles), and show there is yet another family tree in Pythagoras' garden. Where Mack and Czernezkyj (2010) begin with…

  5. Gardening with Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  6. School Gardens and Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiemensma, Britt Due

    2015-01-01

    they are not only regarded as a source of health and fresh food for the students and their families, but also as an alternative arena for learning to cope with issues like sustainability, innovation and democracy. The success of school gardening was always based on dedicated teachers who saw the added value...

  7. Herbaria, gardens, organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1995-01-01

    Herbarium, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKMB) — 25,569 accessions are computerized on Dbase 3/Foxpro; about 12,000 more are expected to be added in 1995. An International Meeting sponsored by the Wye College, University of London, the Linnean Society of London, and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,

  8. Herbaria, gardens, organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1985-01-01

    Herbarium Bogoriense. A fourth floor has been added to the building. Bogor Botanic Gardens. Two heavy storms occurred, one in October, which uprooted 161 trees, among which some of the famous kalong trees, and another one in November, 1984, which blew down or so damaged about 130 trees that they had

  9. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  10. [Healing garden: Primary concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringuey-Criou, F

    2015-10-01

    Since ancient times the relationship between mankind and plants occupies medicine and philosophy. From the first tablets of herbal medicine to Asclepius gardens, those of cloisters and bimaristans to cosmological gardens in Asia, from the largest public park to asylum institutions of the nineteenth century, the garden is proposed as a place of care, a promoter of restoration of the human being. If the advent of technology and drugs have for a time relegated it to the level of empirical care, results in neuroscience ultimately provide it on a scientific basis. The early evolutionary theories, the Savanah theory from Orians, the biophilia hypothesis from Wilson, are relayed by the famous Ulrich' study showing the positive influence of a view of nature through the window on the recovery of in patients. Mechanisms leading stress regulation, level of attention and organisation, focus and fascination, are recognized at the origin of restoration processes. Human capacities to respond to the recuperating function of a natural environment connect to grounded behaviour for adaptation to natural selection process and survival. The mechanisms of our immune system are essential to maintain our vitality. Phyto-resonance, felt or unconsciously perceived in appearance, according to Shepard is an emotion that structures well beyond the archaic behaviour. Recovery, in terms of phenomenological experience of the presence, is a philosophical demonstration of the environmental i.e. multisensory, spatial and temporal approach. Its emotional and affective experience connects to the vitality and creativity. The phyto-resonance hypothesis according to the Konrad Neuberger's point of view induces strategies catering to all levels of the organisation of the human being. It confirms the multidisciplinary nature of hortitherapy and places the mechanism of relationships between man and plant at the centre of discipline. It is also a source of inspiration and inexhaustible work for caregivers

  11. Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Kuhlman, T.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Oudendag, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe (Legume Futures) is an international research project funded by the European Union through the Framework 7 Programme (FP7) under grant agreement number 245216 (FP7-KBBE-2009-3). The Legume Futures research consortium comprises 20 partners in 13 countries.

  12. A Garden of Possibilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Renowned landscape architect and designer Charles Jencks recently visited CERN along with the architect of the Globe, Hervé Dessimoz, to investigate the possibility of creating a cosmic-inspired garden at the entrance to the Laboratory.   Left to right: Charles Jencks, Peter Higgs, Rolf Heuer in the garden of cosmic speculation. Photo credit: University of Edinburgh/Maverick photo agency Charles Jencks is a master at designing whimsical, intriguing outdoor spaces that hold a much deeper meaning than just an interesting view. His Garden of Cosmic Speculation at his home in Scotland uses designs recalling cosmic forces, DNA, organic cells, spirals of time, black holes and the Universe, made with landform, plants, sculpture and water to re-shape the natural landscape. One of the possible symbols for CERN that came to his mind was the cosmic uroborus, an ancient Egyptian symbol of a snake eating its own tail dating back to 1600 BC. “Many scientists have discussed this as a poss...

  13. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  14. Climate Museum and Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Jay; Bille, Dorthe

    2017-04-01

    The Climate Museum and Garden is conceived as a cross-disciplinary experience, where the arts and sciences link together to increase understanding of the Earth's climate and its relevance to our fate as a species. This would be a place of inspiration. The Climate Museum and Garden would merge concepts of modern art museums and modern science museums, with exhibitions, live music and theater performances, visitor interaction, unique discoveries and reflection. It would be a place where visitors are immersed in experiences, lingering indoors and out in quiet consideration and gratitude for our planet's atmosphere. The story of climate change is compelling in its own right; theories of the greenhouse effect go back over century and climate policy has stretched back a few decades. Whereas scientific researchers have been contributing to understanding the mechanisms and impacts of climate change for many decades; whereas researchers have participated in climate summits and informed policy makers; whereas researchers have taught classes of gifted students; in all of this, the public has mostly missed out. This public relations gap has been unfortunately filled by those that would seek to politicize and mislead the public, leading to an engagement gap among the general public. Now we stand on a precipice. Therefore we see a ripe opportunity to reach out and inspire the population. We build off of current pedagogic research that shows that experienced-based learning is more impactful when it engages the senses and elicits an emotional response. People understand what they experience, what they feel, and this serves as the basis for personal reflection. In this sense the visitor experience is generative, in that it promotes further personal investigation and interaction. The Climate Museum and Garden would be a start. In the future, we envisage a future network of climate museums in all major cities. It would be a flagship attraction for any city, along with their art

  15. THE GARDEN AND THE MACHINE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape as infrastructure...

  16. The Garden and the Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape ‘as’ infrastructure...

  17. Rain Gardens: Stormwater Infiltrating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  18. [The eternal gardener].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Veit

    2009-01-01

    The German master gardener Georg Meister (1653-1713) is one of the main characters responsible for a change in the European perception of Japan in the late 17th and early 18th century. Meister gained direct personal experience of the country during two short stays in the 1680s at the Dejima Island in Nagasaki while being employed by the Dutch VOC. Whilst an impression of Meister's earlier years can be gained, in part, from his masterpiece "Der orientalisch-indianische Kunst- und Lust-Gärtner" of 1692, this information is of only relatively small assistance in the further development of an understanding of Meister's later life in the Saxon city of Dresden, where he was employed as a gardener at the "Grosse Garten" after his return to Europe in 1689. In 1973 it was Friedemann Berger who first paid attention to the importance of Meister's later period. In his short biography are some valuable sources mentioned but unfortunately not quoted. This current paper documents some of the main sources relating to Georg Meister and his life in Dresden, including facts on his work and research, housing and death.

  19. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets: Children’s Perspectives on School Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C.; Dedding, Christine

    2017-01-01

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children’s vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children’s perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school gardening in order to better understand and increase its potential for health promotion. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we provided 45 primary schoolchildren (9–10 years) from Amsterdam, who participated in a comprehensive year-round school gardening programme, the opportunity to share their experiences and ideas on school gardening. Children particularly expressed enjoyment of the outdoor gardening portion of the programme as it enabled them to be physically active and independently nurture their gardens. Harvesting was the children’s favourite activity, followed by planting and sowing. In contrast, insufficient gardening time and long explanations or instructions were especially disliked. Experiencing fun and enjoyment appeared to play a vital role in children’s motivation to actively participate. Children’s suggestions for programme improvements included more autonomy and opportunities for experimentation, and competition elements to increase fun and variety. Our results indicate that gaining insight into children’s perspectives allows matching school gardening programmes more to children’s wishes and expectations, thereby potentially enhancing their intrinsic motivation for gardening and vegetable consumption. PMID:28672836

  20. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients) of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors...

  1. NPR1 Protein Regulates Pathogenic and Symbiotic Interactions between Rhizobium and Legumes and Non-Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA)....

  2. Gardens of paradise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Wille, S

    2001-06-01

    Two hundred and fifty years ago, the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) published his Philosophia botanica. This textbook in botanical science was widely read well into the 19th century. Today it is remembered mainly for two things: the introduction of binomial nomenclature and the formulation of a fixist and creationist species concept. While the former achievement is seen as a practical tool, still applicable for purposes of identification and information retrieval, the latter is usually deemed to have been one of the main obstacles to scientific progress in biology. That both achievements were not independent of each other, but interlocked theoretically and grounded in a specific scientific practice still thriving today--the collection of plant specimens in botanical gardens--is usually overlooked. The following article tries to uncover these connections and to demonstrate the significance that Linnaeus' achievements had for modern biology.

  3. The Child in the Garden: An Evaluative Review of the Benefits of School Gardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Dorothy

    2009-01-01

    Although educators widely use school gardens for experiential education, researchers have not systematically examined the evaluative literature on school-gardening outcomes. The author reviewed the U.S. literature on children's gardening, taking into account potential effects, school-gardening outcomes, teacher evaluations of gardens as learning…

  4. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  5. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  6. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  7. Legume proteomics: Progress, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Garden of Eden – Paradise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, Jacques van; Collins/ John J.,; Harlow/Daniel C.,

    2010-01-01

    Jacques van Ruiten, “Garden of Eden – Paradise,” in The Eerdmans Dictionary of Early Judaism (ed. John J. Collins and Daniel C. Harlow; Grand Rapids, Mich., and Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2010), 658-661.

  9. EPA Helps Botanic Garden Blossom

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the keys to the continued transformation of abandoned mine lands into a world-class botanic garden near Pittsburgh is an innovative rainwater system financed by EPA’s Clean Water State Revolving Fund.

  10. The graveyard and the Garden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulla; Bildsøe, Helle Schulz

    2017-01-01

    and conflate into one overarching web that is the metropolis: there is a systemic network of control materialized in Montparnasse graveyard and an organic network out of control manifested in a community garden where people congregate to tell stories. Indeed, Dasgupta revisits Benjaminian storytelling...... as a global networking practice which, while locally contextualized in an impromptu garden in Paris, hints at an awareness of worldwide connectivity....

  11. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  12. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanpei; Yang, Xian; Schöb, Christian; Jiang, Youxu; Tang, Zhiyao

    2017-01-01

    Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of during management

  13. Legume Shrubs Are More Nitrogen-Homeostatic than Non-legume Shrubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpei Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation. N concentrations and N:P ratios were higher in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated between the plants and soil for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not for legume shrubs, indicating a stronger stoichiometric homeostasis in legume shrubs than in non-N2-fixing shrubs. N concentrations were positively correlated among three tissue types for non-N2-fixing shrubs, but not between leaves and non-leaf tissues for legume shrubs, demonstrating that N concentrations were more dependent among tissues for non-N2-fixing shrubs than for legume shrubs. N and P concentrations were correlated within all tissues for both functional groups, but the regression slopes were flatter for legume shrubs than non-N2-fixing shrubs, implying that legume shrubs were more P limited than non-N2-fixing shrubs. These results address significant differences in stoichiometry between legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs, and indicate the influence of symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF on plant stoichiometry. Overall, N2-fixing legume shrubs are higher and more stoichiometrically homeostatic in N concentrations. However, due to excess uptake of N, legumes may suffer from potential P limitation. With their N advantage, legume shrubs could be good nurse plants in restoration sites with degraded soil, but their P supply should be taken care of

  14. No Panacea Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigmund Tobias

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available NEW!  Postscript (pp. 17-19 Three of the seven distinguished researchers whose autobiographical chapters (Berliner, 2016; Sternberg, 2016; Sweller, 2016 I edited, and one that is in process (Gordon, in press, indicate that they were poor or indifferent students early in their academic careers. That is also true of me; so five of the first seven scholars in the Acquired Wisdom series were poor students. I did not explicitly mention my studying difficulties in this chapter because they had already been described in my memoir about how my family found safe haven from the Holocaust in Shanghai, China, during World War II (Tobias, 2009. It may be useful to examine my difficulties and how they relate to educational practice and concepts in the contemporary educational psychology literature. Essay Excerpt The late Dick Snow, a friend and colleague at Stanford, once commented that research on instructional innovations seemed to him like a random walk through the panacea garden. I have become sceptical of any instructional development, theory, or instructional method that is expected to improve learning for all students in all subjects. I have lived through prior panaceas like programmed and computer assisted instruction, multimedia education, computer games, and educational movements such as progressive, competency based, open corridor, and inquiry education, and the current panacea - constructivist instruction - from all of which I learned something. There are no panaceas that will easily improve learning for everyone, because good instruction is hard work and difficult to do. [Download the PDF

  15. Biological Nitrogen Fixation on Legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armiadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the major limiting factors for crop growth and is required in adequate amount, due to its function as protein and enzyme components. In general, plants need sufficient nitrogen supply at all levels of growth, especially at the beginning of growth phase. Therefore, the availability of less expensive N resources would reduce the production cost. The increasing use of chemical fertilizer would probably disturb soil microorganisms, reduce the physical and chemical characteristics of soil because not all of N based fertilizer applied can be absorbed by the plants. Approximately only 50% can be used by crops, while the rest will be altered by microorganism into unavailable N for crops or else dissappear in the form of gas. Leguminous crops have the capacity to immobilize N2 and convert into the available N if innoculated with Rhizobium. The amount of N2 fixed varies depending on legume species and their environment.

  16. Legume bioactive compounds: influence of rhizobial inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Legumes consumption has been recognized as beneficial for human health, due to their content in proteins, fiber, minerals and vitamins, and their cultivation as beneficial for sustainable agriculture due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with soil bacteria known as rhizobia. The inoculation with these baceria induces metabolic changes in the plant, from which the more studied to date are the increases in the nitrogen and protein contents, and has been exploited in agriculture to improve the crop yield of several legumes. Nevertheless, legumes also contain several bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides, bioactive peptides, isoflavones and other phenolic compounds, carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids, which makes them functional foods included into the nutraceutical products. Therefore, the study of the effect of the rhizobial inoculation in the legume bioactive compounds content is gaining interest in the last decade. Several works reported that the inoculation of different genera and species of rhizobia in several grain legumes, such as soybean, cowpea, chickpea, faba bean or peanut, produced increases in the antioxidant potential and in the content of some bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, organic acids, proteins and fatty acids. Therefore, the rhizobial inoculation is a good tool to enhance the yield and quality of legumes and further studies on this field will allow us to have plant probiotic bacteria that promote the plant growth of legumes improving their functionality.

  17. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Inoculation and inter-cropping of legumes in established grass for increasing biomass of fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, M.A.; Hussain, N.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock sector has become very important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied under rainfed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) Islamabad, Pakistan. Intercropping significantly increased tillering of grass. Seed inoculation of legumes also gave maximum tillers. The grass and legumes biomass without any treatment were recorded as 7.09 and -18.17 t ha, respectively, during two years of study. Mixed fodder -1 production increased to 11.62, 13.6 and 14.13 t ha with 33%, 50% and 67% intercropping, respectively. Respective values of biomass were -1 observed as 13.18, 13.70 and 17.87 t ha when combined with inoculation. Intercropping of grass and legumes 67% with inoculation was assessed as the best treatment. The increases were computed as 304%, 230%, 132%, and 60% over grass alone in the first, second, third and fourth crops while respective increases were 101%, 151%, 165% and 74% over monoculture legumes. (author)

  19. Use of school gardens in academic instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Beall, Deborah Lane; Lussier, Mary; McLaughlin, Peggy; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    To determine the status of gardens in California schools. A self-administered Internet and mailed survey was sent to all California principals (N = 9805). 4194 California school principals. School garden practices, attitudes associated with the use of gardens in schools, and perceptions of barriers to having and using school gardens in academic instruction. Descriptive statistics and chi-square; P garden was for enhancement of academic instruction. Gardens were most commonly used for teaching science, environmental studies, and nutrition. Principals strongly agreed that resources such as curriculum materials linked to academic instruction and lessons on teaching nutrition in the garden would assist in the school garden being used for academic instruction. Principals deemed the garden as being not to slightly effective at enhancing the school meal program. School gardens appear to be predominantly used by most schools to enhance academic instruction. There is a need for curriculum materials and teacher training for gardening and nutrition. The link between the garden and the school meal program is an area that clearly requires attention. School lunch would be a logical setting for provision of edible produce, in addition to taste-testing of fresh produce in the garden or classroom setting.

  20. The benefits of a therapeutic garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-20

    Can an indoor garden room reduce patients' physical and verbal aggression? Elaine Cole, writing in Nursing Older People, discusses how an indoor sensory garden (and a coloured toilet door) led to a reduction in incidents of verbal aggression by 59%.

  1. Legume information system (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sudhansu; Campbell, Jacqueline D; Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Cleary, Alan M; Huang, Wei; Kalberer, Scott R; Karingula, Vijay; Rice, Alex G; Singh, Jugpreet; Umale, Pooja E; Weeks, Nathan T; Wilkey, Andrew P; Farmer, Andrew D; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-01-04

    Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working on particular species, and also numerous GDPs for these species. LIS has been redesigned in the last three years both to better integrate data sets across the crop and model legumes, and to better accommodate specialized GDPs that serve particular legume species. To integrate data sets, LIS provides genome and map viewers, holds synteny mappings among all sequenced legume species and provides a set of gene families to allow traversal among orthologous and paralogous sequences across the legumes. To better accommodate other specialized GDPs, LIS uses open-source GMOD components where possible, and advocates use of common data templates, formats, schemas and interfaces so that data collected by one legume research community are accessible across all legume GDPs, through similar interfaces and using common APIs. This federated model for the legumes is managed as part of the 'Legume Federation' project (accessible via http://legumefederation.org), which can be thought of as an umbrella project encompassing LIS and other legume GDPs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Gardens on the Arid Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Saputra, Weldy

    2017-12-01

    Bahrain is located in the climate of the arid zone which rainfall is low and irregular. This paper discusses the approaches which response to the local context that has been implemented by the government of Bahrain to sustain the quality of the public garden in the arid climate, turning to green. Generally, the approach is an improvement in the central treatment of waste water system plant that used to irrigate the landscaping, agriculture as well as for industry use. These approaches are not the only technologically, but also involves the participation of community to achieve sustainable garden in this country.

  3. The Garden and the Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore how the concepts of garden and machine might inform our understanding of the complex relationship between infrastructure and nature. The garden is introduced as a third nature and used to shed a critical light on the promotion of landscape ‘as’ infrastructure......, which has been developed within the current discourses on landscape urbanism and ecological urbanism. It will be argued that the emphasis of performance, functionality and horizontality, which seems to follow the promotion of landscape as infrastructure, in some cases could be counterproductive...

  4. Metropolitan gardens : Gardens in the interstices of the metropolitan tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneity of the contemporary metropolitan landscape has led to a multiplicity of intermediate spaces, in between and within the different tissues of the metropolitan landscape. These interstices can provide favourable conditions to be transformed into gardens. What design instruments can be

  5. Unlocking the potential of orphan legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, Christopher; Kunert, Karl J

    2017-04-01

    Orphan, or underutilized, legumes are domesticated legumes with useful properties, but with less importance than major world crops due to use and supply constraints. However, they play a significant role in many developing countries, providing food security and nutrition to consumers, as well as income to resource-poor farmers. They have been largely neglected by both researchers and industry due to their limited economic importance in the global market. Orphan legumes are better adapted than the major legume crops to extreme soil and climatic conditions, with high tolerance to abiotic environmental stresses such as drought. As a stress response they can also produce compounds with pharmaceutical value. Orphan legumes are therefore a likely source of important traits for introduction into major crops to aid in combating the stresses associated with global climate change. Modern large-scale genomics techniques are now being applied to many of these previously understudied crops, with the first successes reported in the genomics area. However, greater investment of resources and manpower are necessary if the potential of orphan legumes is to be unlocked and applied in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Penstemons are for Great Basin gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidi Kratsch

    2013-01-01

    Penstemons are flowering perennials much loved by the gardening public. Gardeners appreciate their diversity of flower colors that are at peak bloom in June and July, their many shapes and sizes, and their attractiveness to hummingbirds and other native pollinators. You may even have planted some in your own garden. Most people don't realize there are about 280...

  7. Rain garden guidelines for southwest Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rain gardens are a unique and practical landscape feature that can enhance the beauty of home gardens. When properly installed, they are one method of limiting the negative effects of rainfall runoff in urban areas. Indeed, rain gardens turn a "negative" into a "positive" by capt...

  8. Wellbeing and Social Relations in School Gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    2017-01-01

    garden program promotes students’ wellbeing through their positive emotions about being outside in the outdoor environment. Garden activities and their relations with peers, garden educators, and teachers seemed to positively affect the students’ self-esteem. Over and above the positive social...

  9. Our Friendship Gardens: Healing Our Mother, Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Madhu Suri

    2015-01-01

    Embracing the best ideals of Victory Gardens, this essay celebrates Friendship Gardens. The latter go further: collapsing the dualisms separating victors from losers. Friendships that transcend differences and honor diversity are among the many fruits and organic gifts harvested and shared in the commons created by Friendship Gardens. This essay…

  10. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  11. Urban domestic gardens: the effects of human interventions on garden composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, Alison; Warren, Philip; Thompson, Ken; Gaston, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    Private domestic gardens contribute substantially to the biodiversity of urban areas and benefit human health and well-being. We previously reported a study of 267 gardens across five cities in the United Kingdom in which variation in geographical and climatic factors had little bearing on the richness, diversity and composition of plant species. We therefore hypothesise that garden management is an important factor in determining garden characteristics. Here, from the same sample of gardens, we investigate potential associations between the uses to which people put their gardens, the types of management activities they undertake, and the characteristics of those gardens. Householders (n = 265) completed a questionnaire detailing various aspects of garden use and management activities. The majority of respondents used their gardens chiefly for relaxation, recreation, and eating. Fewer than one fifth included "gardening" amongst their garden uses even though all performed some garden management, suggesting that not all management activity resulted from an interest in gardening. Garden-watering and lawn-mowing were the most prevalent activities and were predictors of other types of management including weeding, vegetation-cutting, leaf-collection, and dead-heading flowers. A number of these activities were associated with one another, the richness and composition of plant species, and the number of land uses in gardens. However, relationships between management activities and the amount of tall vegetation were less consistent, and garden management appeared to be independent of garden area. More species of amphibians, birds, and mammals were observed in gardens with ponds and in which efforts were made to attract wildlife, particularly by providing drinking water. This study supports the hypothesis that garden use and management is associated with garden characteristics.

  12. An Experience in Froebel's Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth S.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the activities of a classroom teacher and her students at Addison Gardens British Nursery School in London, England, which was influenced by, and incorporated the tenets of, Friedrich Froebel's educational philosophy of children's learning. Discusses the application of Froebel's principles to art education. (BB)

  13. Biosecurity protocols for heritage gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian Wright; David Slawson

    2010-01-01

    This project aims to protect The National Trust (NT) from the increasing number of harmful plant pests and diseases that slip though official controls and threaten our gardens, plant collections and landscapes. During 2008, the National Trust (NT) with the seconded help of Dr. David Slawson, Head of Pest and Disease Identification Programme, Food and Environment...

  14. Widespread fitness alignment in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Maren L

    2012-06-01

    Although 'cheaters' potentially destabilize the legume-rhizobium mutualism, we lack a comprehensive review of host-symbiont fitness correlations. Studies measuring rhizobium relative or absolute fitness and host benefit are surveyed. Mutant studies are tallied for evidence of pleiotropy; studies of natural strains are analyzed with meta-analysis. Of 80 rhizobium mutations, 19 decrease both partners' fitness, four increase both, two increase host fitness but decrease symbiont fitness and none increase symbiont fitness at the host's expense. The pooled correlation between rhizobium nodulation competitiveness and plant aboveground biomass is 0.65 across five experiments that compete natural strains against a reference, whereas, across 14 experiments that compete rhizobia against soil populations or each other, the pooled correlation is 0.24. Pooled correlations between aboveground biomass and nodule number and nodule biomass are 0.76 and 0.83. Positive correlations between legume and rhizobium fitness imply that most ineffective rhizobia are 'defective' rather than 'defectors'; this extends to natural variants, with only one significant fitness conflict. Most studies involve non-coevolved associations, indicating that fitness alignment is the default state. Rhizobium mutations that increase both host and symbiont fitness suggest that some plants maladaptively restrict symbiosis with novel strains. © 2012 The Author. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. A meta-analysis of relative crop yields in cereal/legume mixtures suggests options for management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Yang; Stomph, Tjeerd-Jan; Makowski, David; Zhang, Lizhen; Werf, van der Wopke

    2016-01-01

    Intercrops of cereals and legumes are grown worldwide, both in smallholder agriculture in developing countries and in organic farming systems in developed countries. The competitive balance between species is a key factor determining productivity in mixtures. Management factors, e.g. sowing time,

  16. A comparative analysis of transcriptomic, biochemical, and physiological responses to elevated ozone identifies species-specific mechanisms of resilience in legume crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendrek, Craig R; Koester, Robert P; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Current concentrations of tropospheric ozone ([O3]) pollution negatively impact plant metabolism, which can result in decreased crop yields. Interspecific variation in the physiological response of plants to elevated [O3] exists; however, the underlying cellular responses explaining species-specific differences are largely unknown. Here, a physiological screen has been performed on multiple varieties of legume species. Three varieties of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) were resilient to elevated [O3]. Garden pea showed no change in photosynthetic capacity or leaf longevity when exposed to elevated [O3], in contrast to varieties of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Global transcriptomic and targeted biochemical analyses were then done to examine the mechanistic differences in legume responses to elevated [O3]. In all three species, there was an O3-mediated reduction in specific leaf weight and total non-structural carbohydrate content, as well as increased abundance of respiration-related transcripts. Differences specific to garden pea included a pronounced increase in the abundance of GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE transcript, as well as greater contents of foliar glutathione, apoplastic ascorbate, and sucrose in elevated [O3]. These results suggest that garden pea may have had greater capacity for detoxification, which prevented net losses in CO2 fixation in an elevated [O3] environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  17. Historic Gardens Chorbog In The Islamic Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustayev Bahrom Bahodirovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In principle any garden reminds us of beauty and unity of nature. But there exist gardens arranged in accordance with the traditional principles of the Islamic Chorbog or architecturally -organized a Four-sides garden which possesses as it seems to me considerably more potential than the gardens planned without such principles. At the present paper an attempt has been made to prove it and it is noted that the Koran is sacred for Moslem people and its references to nature as well as the description of paradise gardens deserves the careful study when considering the meaning of the Islamic gardens. Types and peculiarities of the Islamic countries gardens are also considered in the given paper.

  18. Edinburgh doctors and their physic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D

    2008-12-01

    Edinburgh has had eight physic gardens on different sites since its first one was created by the Incorporation of Barbers and Surgeons in 1656. As the gardens grew in size, they evolved from herb gardens to botanic gardens with small herbaria for the supply of medical herbs. They were intended for the instruction of medical, surgical and apothecary students and, in the case of the physicians, to demonstrate the need for a physicians' college and a pharmacopoeia. Some of the doctors in charge of them were equally famous and influential in botany as in medicine, and while Edinburgh Town Council enjoyed the fame the gardens brought to the city it was parsimonious and slow to support its botanical pioneers. The gardens are celebrated today in the Sibbald Garden within the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh.

  19. Neglecting legumes has compromised human health and sustainable food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyer, Christine H; Lam, Hon-Ming; Nguyen, Henry T; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Varshney, Rajeev K; Colmer, Timothy D; Cowling, Wallace; Bramley, Helen; Mori, Trevor A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Cooper, James W; Miller, Anthony J; Kunert, Karl; Vorster, Juan; Cullis, Christopher; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Liang, Yan; Shou, Huixia; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jingquan; Fodor, Nandor; Kaiser, Brent N; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Valliyodan, Babu; Considine, Michael J

    2016-08-02

    The United Nations declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (grain legumes) under the banner 'nutritious seeds for a sustainable future'. A second green revolution is required to ensure food and nutritional security in the face of global climate change. Grain legumes provide an unparalleled solution to this problem because of their inherent capacity for symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation, which provides economically sustainable advantages for farming. In addition, a legume-rich diet has health benefits for humans and livestock alike. However, grain legumes form only a minor part of most current human diets, and legume crops are greatly under-used. Food security and soil fertility could be significantly improved by greater grain legume usage and increased improvement of a range of grain legumes. The current lack of coordinated focus on grain legumes has compromised human health, nutritional security and sustainable food production.

  20. Grain legume protein quality: a hot subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes, also called pulses, play a key role in the nutritional improvement of food and feed. These legumes are important sources of protein as well as other nutritional compounds. Today, protein is one of the most sought after ingredients in the market and grain legumes represent one of the most sustainable protein sources. However, not all grain legume proteins are nutritionally equal. Their quality varies and depends on their amino acid composition and digestibility. In this article, we review concepts related to grain legume protein quality and discuss challenges regarding their genetic improvement. A comprehensive database of grain legume amino acid profiles and protein digestibility is needed to address the matter of protein quality in grain legume breeding. This database will be enhanced by quantitative information on digestibility-reducing bioactive compounds and the development of reliable screening tools. The achievement of higher protein quality grain legume varieties, better adjusted to animal and human requirements, will cut dietary protein content, associated costs and nitrogen excretion, thus reducing the environmental impact.Las leguminosas grano tienen un alto potencial en alimentación humana y animal siendo una importante fuente de proteínas así como de otros compuestos beneficiosos para la nutrición y salud. La proteína es uno de los ingredientes más demandados y las leguminosas grano son una delas fuentes más sostenible de proteína. Sin embargo, no todas las leguminosas grano son igual de nutritivas, variando la calidad con la composición de aminoácidos y su digestibilidad. En este artículo revisaremos los conceptos de calidad de la proteína y discutiremos las posibilidades de mejora genética. Para abordar con éxito la mejora de la calidad de la proteína será de gran ayuda disponer de bases de datos con los perfiles de aminoácidos y de digestibilidad, así como de información cuantitativa sobre los

  1. PERSIAN GARDENS IN COLD AND DRY CLIMATE: A CASE STUDY OF TABRIZ’S HISTORICAL GARDENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahad Nejad Ebrahimi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, gardens and garden designing has been in the attention of Persian architects who had special expertise in the construction of gardens. The appearance of Islam and allegories of paradise taken from that in Koran and Saints’ sayings gave spirituality to garden construction. Climate conditions have also had an important role in this respect but little research has been done about it and most of the investigations have referred to spiritual aspects and forms of garden. The cold and dry climate that has enveloped parts of West and North West of Iran has many gardens with different forms and functions, which have not been paid much attention to by studies done so far. The aim of this paper is to identify the features and specifications of cold and dry climate gardens with an emphasis on Tabriz’s Gardens.  Due to its natural and strategic situation, Tabriz has always been in the attention of governments throughout history; travellers and tourists have mentioned Tabriz as a city that has beautiful gardens. But, the earthquakes and wars have left no remains of those beautiful gardens. This investigation, by a comparative study of the climates in Iran and the effect of those climates on the formation of gardens and garden design, tries to identify the features and characteristics of gardens in cold and dry climate. The method of study is interpretive-historical on the basis of written documents and historic features and field study of existing gardens in this climate. The results show that, with respect to natural substrate, vegetation, the form of water supply, and the general form of the garden; gardens in dry and cold climate are different from gardens in other climates.

  2. The changing role of botanic gardens and the experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia is trying to establish botanic gardens with the first one in place being the recently inaugurated Gullele Botanic Garden in Addis Abeba. In order to develop this newly established garden as well as any other future botanic garden, Ethiopia needs to gather information from the experience of other botanic gardens that ...

  3. Identification of companion legumes for Midmar Italian ryegrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a preliminary investigation seven legumes were planted alone and in combination with Lolium multiflorum cv. Midmar. The pure stands of legumes were harvested at either four, five of six week cutting intervals, while the pure stands of Lolium multiflorum and the ryegrass/legume mixtures received in addition to the cutting ...

  4. legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It aimed at assessing legume-derived nutrient use efficiencies (NUE) by maize and quantifying the importance of these legumes ... replacement indices (N-FRI and P-FRI) by legumes, which express their importance as source of N and P for maize relative to .... associated nutrient stocks were measured at the dry pod stage, ...

  5. Soil characteristics under legume and non-legume tree canopies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %, 100% and 150% the distance from tree trunk to canopy edge of leguminous sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth.) and espinheiro (Machaerium aculeatum Raddi) and non-legume cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L.) and jaqueira ...

  6. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  7. 7606 IMPROVEMENT OF DIABETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA BY LEGUMES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotimi

    2013-04-02

    Apr 2, 2013 ... motor and sensory function occurs frequently in diabetes mellitus [19]. This may contribute to decrease in food intake and faecal output as well as eventual loss in weight. The findings from this study indicate that consumption of legume-based diets by diabetic rats resulted in increase in both food intake and ...

  8. Phosphorus Uptake of Three Tropical Legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    They were fertilized with South African rock phosphate (EPL 86) and 20 mg of readily soluble phosphate (SP). KH,PO, was also used as starter fertilizer and its effect on utilization of the rock phosphate-P for growth by the legumes was investigated. Shoot dry weight of cowpea was unaffected by mycorrhiza only treatment but ...

  9. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  10. Multicultural School Gardens: Creating Engaging Garden Spaces in Learning about Language, Culture, and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Children's gardening programs have enjoyed increasing popularity in recent years. An Australian environmental education non-profit organization implemented a program, entitled Multicultural Schools Gardens, in disadvantaged (low-income) schools that used food gardening as a focus for implementing a culturally-focused environmental education…

  11. The Force of Gardening: Investigating Children's Learning in a Food Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Monica; Duhn, Iris

    2015-01-01

    School gardens are becoming increasingly recognised as important sites for learning and for bringing children into relationship with food. Despite the well-known educational and health benefits of gardening, children's interactions with the non-human entities and forces within garden surroundings are less understood and examined in the wider…

  12. Introducing a longitudinal study of community gardeners and gardens in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Nancy Falxa-Raymond; Jessica Northridge; Edie. Stone

    2012-01-01

    For almost a decade, the NYC Department of Parks and Recreation GreenThumb program has collected data about hundreds of New York City community gardens citywide to understand how these gardens function. Building on a data set that includes surveys and interviews conducted periodically with garden representatives since 2003, GreenThumb and USDA Forest Service...

  13. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Grossman, Smadar; Golani, Yael; Kaye, Yuval; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Levine, Alex

    2009-12-21

    Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs) produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA). SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  14. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  15. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysoula Spanou

    Full Text Available Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC(50 values range from 40-135 µg/mL and 55-260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their K(i values ranged from 13-767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action.

  16. Flavonoid glycosides isolated from unique legume plant extracts as novel inhibitors of xanthine oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanou, Chrysoula; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Kerasioti, Thalia; Kontou, Maria; Angelis, Apostolos; Aligiannis, Nektarios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Legumes and the polyphenolic compounds present in them have gained a lot of interest due to their beneficial health implications. Dietary polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, exert antioxidant properties and are potent inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. XO is the main contributor of free radicals during exercise but it is also involved in pathogenesis of several diseases such as vascular disorders, cancer and gout. In order to discover new natural, dietary XO inhibitors, some polyphenolic fractions and pure compounds isolated from two legume plant extracts were tested for their effects on XO activity. The fractions isolated from both Vicia faba and Lotus edulis plant extracts were potent inhibitors of XO with IC(50) values range from 40-135 µg/mL and 55-260 µg/mL, respectively. All the pure polyphenolic compounds inhibited XO and their K(i) values ranged from 13-767 µM. Ten of the compounds followed the non competitive inhibitory model whereas one of them was a competitive inhibitor. These findings indicate that flavonoid isolates from legume plant extracts are novel, natural XO inhibitors. Their mode of action is under investigation in order to examine their potential in drug design for diseases related to overwhelming XO action.

  17. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  18. Integrate the Arts. Monet's Garden Pops Up!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Mary

    1996-01-01

    This article outlines the steps in an art activity on the elements of landscapes and touches on the topic of perspective. In the activity students create three-dimensional secret gardens of their own out of construction paper. The activity is based on Claude Monet's painting and his garden in Giverny (Normandy, France). (SM)

  19. "The Secret Garden": A Literary Journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the life of Frances Hodgson Burnett, author of "The Secret Garden." Argues that it not only tells an enthralling tale, but takes readers on a journey through the history of English literature. Discusses the gothic tradition and romanticism of "The Secret Garden." Lists classic elements in the book and offers five ideas…

  20. Growing Healing One Garden at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashman, Julann

    2016-01-01

    Evidence exists regarding the effect of horticultural therapy on improving human well-being, including promotion of overall health and quality of life, physical strength, and cardiac function. This article shares how a nurse created a healing garden at Lourdes Hospital, where she works. Resource information about therapeutic gardens is included.

  1. School Food Gardens: Fertile Ground for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Moira; Adatia, Rachel; Segantin, Orsola; Skaer, Chantal-Fleur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to respond to food insecurity and environmental sustainability through school food gardens in Johannesburg, South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Permaculture is a method of organic agriculture where the garden design maintains a stable and productive ecosystem, mimicking natural processes and thereby…

  2. Roots and Research in Urban School Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylie, Veronica

    2011-01-01

    This book explores the urban school garden as a bridge between environmental action and thought. As a small-scale response to global issues around access to food and land, urban school gardens promote practical knowledge of farming as well as help renew cultural ideals of shared space and mutual support for the organic, built environment. Through…

  3. Havens tider / The Times of the Garden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual text (English and Danish) for exhibition catalogue. ARoS Triennal: The Garden - End of Times, Beginning of Times.......Bilingual text (English and Danish) for exhibition catalogue. ARoS Triennal: The Garden - End of Times, Beginning of Times....

  4. Invasive plants often emanate from southern gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.H. Miller; A. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Did you know that heavenly bamboo, thorny olive, English ivy, Boston fern, privets and many garden favorites are invading forests to their and thus our detriment? Garden clubs should band together to protect our natural vegetation against invasive plants that take over the habitat of the native flora. Often called non-native, exotic, or noxious weeds, they...

  5. BIBLICAL METAPHOR: THE COSMIC GARDEN HERITAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    garden estate, found throughout biblical texts – and trust learning can be transferred. Pentateuchal .... agents are appointed to wreak devastation, and the dwelling place becomes bereft of fruitfulness and joy. .... ourselves living – on commodity real estate or in the cosmic garden – and it will affect our behavior. The role of ...

  6. Creating a Schoolyard Mini-Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ruiz, Francisca

    2009-01-01

    The creation of schoolyard gardens is a growing movement in the United States and around the world (Ballard, Tong, and Usher 1998; Pope 1998; Lewis 2004). It brings together all of the features of authentic hands-on science: Students can collect data on plant growth, observe the plant and animal interactions in the garden, and acquire a sense of…

  7. Ozone Gardens for the Citizen Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Margaret; Reilly, Gay; Rodjom, Abbey; Malick, Emily

    2016-01-01

    NASA Langley partnered with the Virginia Living Museum and two schools to create ozone bio-indicator gardens for citizen scientists of all ages. The garden at the Marshall Learning Center is part of a community vegetable garden designed to teach young children where food comes from and pollution in their area, since most of the children have asthma. The Mt. Carmel garden is located at a K-8 school. Different ozone sensitive and ozone tolerant species are growing and being monitored for leaf injury. In addition, CairClip ozone monitors were placed in the gardens and data are compared to ozone levels at the NASA Langley Chemistry and Physics Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (CAPABLE) site in Hampton, VA. Leaf observations and plant measurements are made two to three times a week throughout the growing season.

  8. Growing community : rooftop gardens for affordable housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, K.N. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviewed the processes used in recently designed affordable housing roof garden projects in California, Montana and Georgia. Gardens create a sense of community through shared space and social interactions. As such, roof gardens can give residents of affordable housing the opportunity to experience the community-fostering benefits of gardening, with the added advantages of potentially lower energy bills and wastewater fees. The factors that should be considered in planning, design, construction and maintenance of roof gardens for affordable housing were also outlined. As places of refuge, gardens help people relax and promote healing, which is particularly important for physical, emotional, social and economic well-being. For the many residents of affordable housing who earn less than 50 per cent of the area median income, gardens offer a venue for establishing relationships with neighbours, many of whom they might otherwise never meet. They also offer a means to improved nutrition and food security, education and positive recreation for youth, and better aesthetic surroundings. While motivations for choosing green roofs varied widely across the projects, affordability was linked to 3 main areas, namely saving costs in design, construction and operations; getting the roof to generate funding; and, improving the quality of life in affordable housing. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Study Of Lampungnese Traditional Home Garden Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, R. A.; Gunawan

    2017-10-01

    Lampung is one area in Indonesia which has a traditional culture that comes from two groups of descents, they are ulun Lampung Pepadun and ulun Lampung Saibatin. Lampungnese traditional culture has been well-known by Indonesian people for its traditional dances, traditional clothing, or traditional home architecture. However, Lampungnese traditional home garden recently may not yet been described. Information related to Lampungnese traditional home garden is still very limited and it does not yet represented the culture based design concept. This research was directed to identify the elements of the home garden and map it into design concept of the Lampungnese traditional home garden based on information of Lampungnese traditional culture. The study was conducted by using descriptive approach through literature review, interviews and cultural exploration, as well as field observation. The study was able to identify the elements forming the Lampungnese traditional home garden, namely gakhang hadap, walai, outdoor kitchenette, firewood place, outdoor kitchen, livestock barns, as well as plants. Space layout of the home garden comprises front yard (tengahbah/terambah/beruan), side yard (kebik/kakebik), and backyard (kudan/juyu/kebon). Each element of the garden is located in the right place of the space layout.

  10. Distribution and uses of legume DNA clone resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990, my lab has developed and distributed various DNA clone resources for the legumes. In the first several years, the focus was on members of the tropical genus, Vigna, including the widely cultivated species, mungbean (V. radiata) and cowpea (V. unguiculata). Both of these grain legumes play key roles in agriculture in developing countries of Asia (mungbean) and Africa (cowpea). Moreover, because there is substantial genome conservation among legumes, these genetic resources have also been utilized by a wide range of researchers in other crop species. In 1997, my lab began to focus on the development and distribution of a new generation of DNA clone resources; Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC). A library of these clones was constructed in soybean (Glycine max) the most important legume species worldwide in terms of economic value. Again, the library has become a valuable resource for the legume research community and has been widely used in studies of legume genomics. (author)

  11. Fundamental phenomenological categories of garden and landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Zgarbová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current scientific methods describing gardens and landscapes all over the world are not always sufficient for the purpose of deep understanding of specific and close relations between landscape/garden and its inhabitants/visitors. A new dimension of qualitative investigation of these phenomena and relations between humans and the environment, as distinguished from the common mechanistic methods, has to be acquired. While a systematic anti-mechanistic research on the interaction of humans and living space is carried out especially in the United Kingdom and the United States, Continental Europe persist mechanistic in its core.In Continental Europe phenomenology as well as hermeneutics are regarded mostly as the particular areas of abstract philosophical studies that do not refer enough to practical sciences such as, for example, garden and landscape architecture. However, there are some especially transatlantic centres of applied phenomenological research. This article examines the phenomenological and hermeneutical approach as it might be used to explore the specific field of garden and landscape issues. In the first step, the nature of hermeneutics and phenomenology as compared to the common mechanistic scientific methods is discussed and the parallels between hermeneutics and phenomenology are outlined. Then, using the phenomenological method helps we give evidence on the fundamental categories of garden and landscape. These categories, in contrast to mechanistic constructions, represent garden and landscape as they are intimately experienced by humans. The focus of this research is both methodological (it is an effort to articulate a method alternative to the objectivity and abstraction of strict science, to be used in the field of garden and landscape architecture and related areas and hermeneutical (it is an effort to achieve a deeper and profound understanding of garden and landscape as the irreplaceable base for every responsible

  12. Botanic gardens, herbaria and research: The UK experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution of botanic gardens in the United Kingdom is outlined, with special regard to the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The modern role of such gardens is discussed and particular attention is given to Kew‟s Breathing Planet Programme. Key words/phrases: Botanic gardens, Breathing Planet Programme, Kew, United ...

  13. Grow Science Achievement in Your Library with School Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Bonnie; Stewart, Jeniffer Mackey

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade or so, gardens have been blossoming in schools all across the United States. These gardens are as varied as their schools and are as unique as each child who tends to them. Some are bountiful vegetable gardens, and others are arid natural habitat gardens. Some are acres of land with entire classes devoted to their teachings…

  14. Use of Demonstration Gardens in Extension: Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Charlotte D.; Moore, Gary E.; Jayaratne, K. S. U.; Bradley, Lucy K.

    2014-01-01

    Extension agents' use of demonstration gardens was studied to determine how gardens are employed in horticultural programming, perceived benefits and challenges of using gardens for Extension programming, and desired competencies. Gardens are primarily used to enhance educational efforts by providing hands-on learning experiences. Greatest…

  15. Evaluating the effect of therapeutic gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Yuko

    2004-01-01

    Sometimes the visitors to therapeutic gardens do not necessarily experience the garden the way the designers intended. A postoccupancy evaluation (POE) can reveal discrepancies between the designer's intentions and use of the environment by the actual visitors. A POE is a user-oriented assessment that elicits the opinions of the visitors to a building, facility, or environment. This paper describes a POE of therapeutic gardens at a multilevel care facility for the aged. The population included patients at various stages of Alzheimer's disease progression.

  16. Visual structure of a Japanese Zen garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tonder, Gert J; Lyons, Michael J; Ejima, Yoshimichi

    2002-09-26

    The dry landscape garden at Ryoanji Temple in Kyoto, Japan, a UNESCO world heritage site, intrigues hundreds of thousands of visitors every year with its abstract, sparse and seemingly random composition of rocks and moss on an otherwise empty rectangle of raked gravel. Here we apply a model of shape analysis in early visual processing to show that the 'empty' space of the garden is implicitly structured and critically aligned with the temple's architecture. We propose that this invisible design creates the visual appeal of the garden and was probably intended as an inherent feature of the composition.

  17. Innovations in agronomy for food legumes. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Kadambot; Johansen,; Turner, Neil; Jeuffroy,; Hashem,; Sakar,; Gan,; Alghamdi, Salem

    2012-01-01

    Although there is increasing awareness of the importance of food legumes in human, animal and soil health, adoption of improved production technologies for food legume crops is not proceeding at the same pace as for cereal crops. Over the previous decade, the only food legumes to have shown significant production increases have been chickpea, lentil and faba bean in North America, chickpea in Australia, and faba bean in Europe. In smallholder farming in developing countries, production trends...

  18. Maize-grain legume intercropping for enhanced resource use efficiency and crop productivity in the Guinea savanna of northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Kermah, Michael; Franke, Angelinus C.; Adjei-Nsiah, Samuel; Ahiabor, Benjamin D.K.; Abaidoo, Robert C.; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights • Productivity of different intercropping patterns was tested in Guinea savanna of northern Ghana. • Land Equivalent Ratios in intercropping systems are greater under low soil fertility conditions. • Competitive balance between intercrops in poor fields leads to greater Land Equivalent Ratios. • Within-row maize-legume intercropping is more productive than distinct row systems. • Radiation use efficiency is higher in intercrops than in sole crops.

  19. Beans (Phaseolus spp.) - model food legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, W.J.; Hemandez, H.; Blair, M.; Beebe, S.; Gepts, P.; Vanderleyden, J.

    2001-01-01

    Globally, 800 million people are malnourished. Heavily subsidised farmers in rich countries produce sufficient surplus food to feed the hungry, but not at a price the poor can afford. Even donating the rich world's surplus to the poor would not solve the problem. Most poor people earn their living from agriculture, so a deluge of free food would destroy their livelihoods. Thus, the only answer to world hunger is to safeguard and improve the productivity of farmers in poor countries. Diets of subsistence level farmers in Africa and Latin America often contain sufficient carbohydrates (through cassava, corn/maize, rice, wheat, etc.), but are poor in proteins. Dietary proteins can take the form of scarce animal products (eggs, milk, meat, etc.), but are usually derived from legumes (plants of the bean and pea family). Legumes are vital in agriculture as they form associations with bacteria that 'fix-nitrogen' from the air. Effectively this amounts to internal fertilisation and is the main reason that legumes are richer in proteins than all other plants. Thousands of legume species exist but more common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are eaten than any other. In some countries such as Mexico and Brazil, beans are the primary source of protein in human diets. As half the grain legumes consumed worldwide are common beans, they represent the species of choice for the study of grain legume nutrition. Unfortunately, the yields of common beans are low even by the standards of legumes, and the quality of their seed proteins is sub-optimal. Most probably this results from millennia of selection for stable rather than high yield, and as such, is a problem that can be redressed by modem genetic techniques. We have formed an international consortium called 'Phaseomics' to establish the necessary framework of knowledge and materials that will result in disease-resistant, stress-tolerant, high-quality protein and high-yielding beans. Phaseomics will be instrumental in improving

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaac, M.E., E-mail: marney.isaac@utoronto.ca [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); University of Toronto, Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Canada M1C 1A4 (Canada); Hinsinger, P. [INRA, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France); Harmand, J.M. [CIRAD, UMR Eco and Sols, 34060 Montpellier (France)

    2012-09-15

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N{sub 2}-fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N{sub 2}-fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature ({delta}{sup 15}N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems

  1. Nitrogen and phosphorus economy of a legume tree-cereal intercropping system under controlled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaac, M.E.; Hinsinger, P.; Harmand, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Considerable amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizers have been mis-used in agroecosystems, with profound alteration to the biogeochemical cycles of these two major nutrients. To reduce excess fertilizer use, plant-mediated nutrient supply through N 2 -fixation, transfer of fixed N and mobilization of soil P may be important processes for the nutrient economy of low-input tree-based intercropping systems. In this study, we quantified plant performance, P acquisition and belowground N transfer from the N 2 -fixing tree to the cereal crop under varying root contact intensity and P supplies. We cultivated Acacia senegal var senegal in pot-culture containing 90% sand and 10% vermiculite under 3 levels of exponentially supplied P. Acacia plants were then intercropped with durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum) in the same pots with variable levels of adsorbed P or transplanted and intercropped with durum wheat in rhizoboxes excluding direct root contact on P-poor red Mediterranean soils. In pot-culture, wheat biomass and P content increased in relation to the P gradient. Strong isotopic evidence of belowground N transfer, based on the isotopic signature (δ 15 N) of tree foliage and wheat shoots, was systematically found under high P in pot-culture, with an average N transfer value of 14.0% of wheat total N after 21 days of contact between the two species. In the rhizoboxes, we observed limitations on growth and P uptake of intercropped wheat due to competitive effects on soil resources and minimal evidence of belowground N transfer of N from acacia to wheat. In this intercrop, specifically in pot-culture, facilitation for N transfer from the legume tree to the crop showed to be effective especially when crop N uptake was increased (or stimulated) as occurred under high P conditions and when competition was low. Understanding these processes is important to the nutrient economy and appropriate management of legume-based agroforestry systems. -- Highlights

  2. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  3. Abnormal ''Contamination' Levels On Garden Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, U.; Levinson, S.; Elmelech, V.; Pelled, O.; Tshuva, A.; Laichter, Y.

    1999-01-01

    During routine contamination checks we encountered an abnormal high level of Alpha and Beta emitting radioisotopes on working gloves of employees of the gardening department. It came out that the source was due to ''contamination'' levels on steering wheels of some gardening machines. In order to ensure that no real contamination of these workers was involved , a series of checks was started to identity the source of the abnormal levels found during monitoring

  4. Urban exterior graphical design in botanical garden

    OpenAIRE

    Despot, Katerina; Sandeva, Vaska

    2013-01-01

    Botanical Garden as an art picture and all the content is a strong source of inspiration for the creation of advertising graphics, which is an important segment for the garden, attracting tourists and description of contents. Graphic design is an activity in which a quantity of information gives a comfortable and aesthetic form. This often involves the use of typography, images, colors, and others. Graphic design incorporates in-depth knowledge of the composition and shape, color, color...

  5. A Garden City in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neill, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    Not long after Ebenezer Howard’s Tomorrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform, the English ‘garden city’ became an aspirational urban model for places in colonial Malaya like Kuala Lumpur, Kuching and Singapore. What originally responded to nineteenth century industrial expansion was in this context a reaction to early twentieth century laissez-faire urbanism, aiming to beautify cities, improve health, and boost commerce. From the 1950s, private developers announced their ‘garden cities’, which c...

  6. School Gardens in the Distrito Federal, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardon, Renata; Schmitz, Bethsáida De Abreu Soares; Recine, Elisabetta Gioconda Iole; Rodrigues, Maria De Lourdes Carlos Ferreirinha; Gabriel, Cristine Garcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to identify experiences with gardens in public schools in the Distrito Federal, Brazil, and to analyze factors involved in their use to promote healthy eating habits. METHODS: This is an analytical cross-sectional study with data collection in two phases: (1) telephone contact with all public schools in the Distrito Federal; (2) interviews conducted with a sample of schools with a garden (n=105). RESULTS: Of the 582 schools in the Distrito Fed...

  7. Floating / Travelling Gardens of (Postcolonial Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay on travelling gardens of (postcolonial time opens with two iconic images of floating gardens in contemporary postcolonial literature: Will Phantom’s bio-garbage rafter, which saves him in the midst of a cyclone in Carpentaria (2008, by the Aboriginal author Alexis Wright, and Pi’s carnivore island-organism in Life of Pi (2001, which cannot save him from his shipwreck, by Canadian writer Yan Martel. These floating, hybrid gardens of the Anthropocene precede the real travelling gardens of both Michael Ondaatje’s The Cat’s Table (2011 and Amitav Ghosh’s Ibis Trilogy (2008-2015, two authors who both indirectly and directly tell the story of botanical gardens in Asia, and of plant and seed smuggling and transplantation (“displacement” also hinting at their historical and economic colonial implications. For, after all, botanical gardens imply a very specific version of care, Cura (Robert Pogue Harrison 2009, while embodying a precise, imperial scientific and economic project (Brockway 2002; Johnson 2011.

  8. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Agnes E; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke; de Vries, Sjerp; van Dillen, Sonja M E

    2010-11-23

    The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP), four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends) and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening and being active, and less towards passive relaxation

  9. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Winsum-Westra Marijke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and physical activity of older and younger allotment gardeners was compared to that of controls without an allotment. Methods A survey was conducted among 121 members of 12 allotment sites in the Netherlands and a control group of 63 respondents without an allotment garden living next to the home addresses of allotment gardeners. The survey included five self-reported health measures (perceived general health, acute health complaints, physical constraints, chronic illnesses, and consultations with GP, four self-reported well-being measures (stress, life satisfaction, loneliness, and social contacts with friends and one measure assessing self-reported levels of physical activity in summer. Respondents were divided into a younger and older group at the median of 62 years which equals the average retirement age in the Netherlands. Results After adjusting for income, education level, gender, stressful life events, physical activity in winter, and access to a garden at home as covariates, both younger and older allotment gardeners reported higher levels of physical activity during the summer than neighbors in corresponding age categories. The impacts of allotment gardening on health and well-being were moderated by age. Allotment gardeners of 62 years and older scored significantly or marginally better on all measures of health and well-being than neighbors in the same age category. Health and well-being of younger allotment gardeners did not differ from younger neighbors. The greater health and well-being benefits of allotment gardening for older gardeners may be related to the finding that older allotment gardeners were more oriented towards gardening

  10. Gardening in the desert: a spatial optimization approach to locating gardens in rapidly expanding urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Elizabeth A; Tong, Daoqin; Credit, Kevin

    2017-10-16

    Food access is a global issue, and for this reason, a wealth of studies are dedicated to understanding the location of food deserts and the benefits of urban gardens. However, few studies have linked these two strands of research together to analyze whether urban gardening activity may be a step forward in addressing issues of access for food desert residents. The Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area is used as a case to demonstrate the utility of spatial optimization models for siting urban gardens near food deserts and on vacant land. The locations of urban gardens are derived from a list obtained from the Maricopa County Cooperative Extension office at the University of Arizona which were geo located and aggregated to Census tracts. Census tracts were then assigned to one of three categories: tracts that contain a garden, tracts that are immediately adjacent to a tract with a garden, and all other non-garden/non-adjacent census tracts. Analysis of variance is first used to ascertain whether there are statistical differences in the demographic, socio-economic, and land use profiles of these three categories of tracts. A maximal covering spatial optimization model is then used to identify potential locations for future gardening activities. A constraint of these models is that gardens be located on vacant land, which is a growing problem in rapidly urbanizing environments worldwide. The spatial analysis of garden locations reveals that they are centrally located in tracts with good food access. Thus, the current distribution of gardens does not provide an alternative food source to occupants of food deserts. The maximal covering spatial optimization model reveals that gardens could be sited in alternative locations to better serve food desert residents. In fact, 53 gardens may be located to cover 96.4% of all food deserts. This is an improvement over the current distribution of gardens where 68 active garden sites provide coverage to a scant 8.4% of food desert

  11. Cappuccino Bars and Fragrance Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jack Alan

    1994-01-01

    Examines the effects of bookstores on public libraries. Topics discussed include the role of libraries as organizers of information; bookstores as competition; reading trends; library collections; libraries' emphasis on user services, including interlibrary loans; partnership programs; marketing strategies; user needs; hours of operation; and…

  12. Rotation effects of grain and herbaceous legumes on maize yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes and fallow has been known to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. This prompted an investigation into the effects of some legumes and fallow on some soil chemical properties and yield of maize. The study was conducted in 2001 and 2002 on an Alfisol to determine the effects of crop ...

  13. Assessing socio–economic factors influencing adoption of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the numerous benefits of legume-based multiple cropping systems in soil fertility management, most smallholder sorghum farmers have not adopted them. The aim of this study was to examine socio-economic factors influencing adoption of legume-based multiple cropping systems among smallholder sorghum ...

  14. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial fertilizers are expensive for small-scale farmers who, as alternative, rely on legume crops for providing N for a subsequent maize crop. A legume-maize rotational experiment was carried out on a Rhodic Ferralsol at Mlingano Agricultural Research Institute in Muheza, Tanga, Tanzania, to evaluate the effects of ...

  15. Probing nod factor perception in legumes by fluorescence microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants of the family of legumes are capable of forming a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. These Gram-negative bacteria invade the root system of a host legume and fix nitrogen in a specialized organ, the so-called root nodule. In exchange for sugars, the bacteria convert atmospheric

  16. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic,

  17. Tree legumes: an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Batista Dubeux Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Tree legumes are an underexploited resource in warm-climate silvopastures. Perceived benefits of tree legumes include provisioning (browse/mast, timber, fuel, human food, natural medicines, and ornamentals, regulating (C sequestration, greenhouse gas mitigation, soil erosion control and riparian buffers, shade, windbreaks, and habitat for pollinators, supporting (biological N2-fixation, nutrient cycling, soil fertility and soil health, photosynthesis, and primary productivity, and cultural ecosystem services. Tree legumes, however, have not been assessed to the same extent as herbaceous legumes. Once tree legumes are established, they are often more persistent than most herbaceous legumes. There are limitations for extended research with tree legume silvopastures, but extensive research has been done in Africa and Australia and recent efforts have been reported in South America. Economic benefits must be demonstrated to land managers to increase adoption. These benefits are apparent in the research and successes already available, but more long-term research, including the livestock component is necessary. Other factors that reduce adoption include paucity of domesticated germplasm, lag in research/technology, challenges of multipurpose trees and management complexity, challenges to mechanization, dangers of invasive weeds, and social and cultural barriers. In the current scenario of climate change and the need to increase food security, tree legumes are a key component for the sustainable intensification of livestock systems in warm-climate regions.

  18. Glycaemic responses of some legumes in Nigeria using non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It is established that legumes generally have a low glycaemic index (GI) which means that they raise blood glucose levels very little. However, the glycaemic responses to normal subjects and the GI of these local legumes are not yet established. Objective: This work determined the postprandial glycaemic ...

  19. Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' evaluation of legume cover crops for erosion control in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya. ... International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development ... Studies were conducted in Gathwariga catchment, Kenya with the aim of evaluating farmers' perception about the impact of legume cover crops (LCC) on soil ...

  20. Testing forage legume technologies with smallholder dairy farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    on-station research, suggest the possibility of incorporating forage legumes in farming systems that could solve feed shortages during the ... This paper presents benefits and constraints identified by farmers as a result of integrating forage legumes in farming systems and lessons ..... stock Research Institute. Vol. 5. pp.10-11.

  1. Systematics, diversity and forage value of indigenous legumes of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A map representing the collection intensity for the study area showed that the majority of legumes species were collected in the Fynbos, Savanna and Grassland Biome. It is concluded that indigenous South African legumes are extremely diverse and this denotes the importance of further investigating their forage potential ...

  2. Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of legumes with residues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation with legumes can help reduce the inorganic nitrogen fertilizer need of the following maize as a result of increased nitrogen availability in the soil. The Nitrogen Fertilizer Replacement Value (NFRV) method was used to estimate the nitrogen contribution of grain legumes (soybean, cowpea) and an herbaceous ...

  3. Effect of Intercropping Finger Millet with two Indigenous Legumes at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In phase one, an indigenous edible legume (Crotalaria brevidens) and a fodder legume (Trifolium quartinianum) were intercropped with finger millet. Each plot was supplied with three nitrogen fertilizer rates (0, 20, and 40 Kg N/ha) in the form of Urea (46% N) in a completely randomized block design with three replicates.

  4. Allotment gardening and health: a comparative survey among allotment gardeners and their neighbors without an allotment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Winsum-Westra, van M.; Vries, de S.; Dillen, van S.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Background - The potential contribution of allotment gardens to a healthy and active life-style is increasingly recognized, especially for elderly populations. However, few studies have empirically examined beneficial effects of allotment gardening. In the present study the health, well-being and

  5. Up the Garden Path: A Chemical Trail through the Cambridge University Botanic Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Gary M.; Kyd, Gwenda O.; Groom, Colin R.; Allen, Frank H.; Day, Juliet; Upson, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    The living world is a rich source of chemicals with many medicines, dyes, flavorings, and foodstuffs having their origins in compounds produced by plants. We describe a chemical trail through the plant holdings of the Cambridge University Botanic Gardens. Visitors to the gardens are provided with a laminated trail guide with 22 stopping points…

  6. Crops, Nitrogen, Water: Are Legumes Friend, Foe, or Misunderstood Ally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark A; Buchmann, Nina; Sprent, Janet; Buckley, Thomas N; Turnbull, Tarryn L

    2018-03-17

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by crop legumes reduces demand for industrial nitrogen fixation (INF). Nonetheless, rates of BNF in agriculture remain low, with strong negative feedback to BNF from reactive soil nitrogen (N) and drought. We show that breeding for yield has resulted in strong relationships between photosynthesis and leaf N in non-leguminous crops, whereas grain legumes show strong relations between leaf N and water use efficiency (WUE). We contrast these understandings with other studies that draw attention to the water costs of grain legume crops, and their potential for polluting the biosphere with N. We propose that breeding grain legumes for reduced stomatal conductance can increase WUE without compromising production or BNF. Legume crops remain a better bet than relying on INF. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Healing gardens: recommendations and criteria for design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivasseau-Jonveaux, Thérèse; Pop, Alina; Fescharek, Reinhard; Chuzeville, Stanislas Bah; Jacob, Christel; Demarche, Laëtitia; Soulon, Laure; Malerba, Gabriel

    2012-09-01

    The French Alzheimer plan anticipates new specialized structures for cognitive rehabilitation and psycho-behavioural therapy of Alzheimer's patients: the cognitive-behavioural units as follow-care units, the units of reinforced hospitalization inside the long term care units and the adapted activities units. this plan indicates the need to make healing gardens integral parts of these units. The benefits of green space in urban environments has been demonstrated with regards to physical, psychological and sociological effects and similarly studies in hospitals have revealed objective and measurable improvements of patients well being. Although green spaces and gardens are available in many French care units, they are rarely specifically adapted to the needs of Alzheimer's patients. For the garden "art, memory and life" a specific concept guided by a neuropsychological approach was developed, complemented by an artistic vision based on cultural invariants. It is already used in the frame of non-pharmacological therapies to improve symptoms such as deambulation, sleep disorders, apathy and aggressive behaviors. Based on the literature, and our experience and research, recommendations for the design of such gardens dedicated to Alzheimer's patients can be proposed. Beyond taking into account obvious aspects relating to security, allowing for free access, a careful design of walk-ways and a conscious choice of plants is needed. A systematic analysis of the existing green spaces or garden must be conducted in order to pinpoint the weakness of the space and identify the potential for developing it into a real healing garden. Evaluation of adapted questionnaires for users and professionals allow to establish a list of requirements combining both user requests and therapeutic needs as basis for the design of the garden as well as to evaluate during the course of the project, whether the needs of the various stakeholders have been met or if adjustments are necessary.

  8. Global Synthesis of Drought Effects on Food Legume Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2015-01-01

    Food legume crops play important roles in conservation farming systems and contribute to food security in the developing world. However, in many regions of the world, their production has been adversely affected by drought. Although water scarcity is a severe abiotic constraint of legume crops productivity, it remains unclear how the effects of drought co-vary with legume species, soil texture, agroclimatic region, and drought timing. To address these uncertainties, we collected literature data between 1980 and 2014 that reported monoculture legume yield responses to drought under field conditions, and analyzed this data set using meta-analysis techniques. Our results showed that the amount of water reduction was positively related with yield reduction, but the extent of the impact varied with legume species and the phenological state during which drought occurred. Overall, lentil (Lens culinaris), groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) were found to experience lower drought-induced yield reduction compared to legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and green gram (Vigna radiate). Yield reduction was generally greater when legumes experienced drought during their reproductive stage compared to during their vegetative stage. Legumes grown in soil with medium texture also exhibited greater yield reduction compared to those planted on soil of either coarse or fine texture. In contrast, regions and their associated climatic factors did not significantly affect legume yield reduction. In the face of changing climate, our study provides useful information for agricultural planning and research directions for development of drought-resistant legume species to improve adaptation and resilience of agricultural systems in the drought-prone regions of the world.

  9. Iglesia en Garden Grove, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1964-04-01

    Full Text Available The Community Church, in Garden Grove has a ground area of 1067 m2 and provides 672 seats for the congregation. Its total planned capacity is 1000 people. The total project involves halls for cultural and social activities, church office, kitchen, as well as secondary annexes; also a Sunday school, with a nursery and schoolrooms for children of various ages. Outdoors, there is an ample parking space, where the motorcars—the Americans' second home—can be orientated facing the altar. Thus their occupants can follow the Mass visually, when the large sliding doors are opened, at the beginning of the service; then, at the end of the service these doors are slowly and solemnly closed. Furthermore, these automobile owners can also follow the service by listening to it through individual loudspeakers, which are supplied to each vehicle. Once more Mr. Neutra has designed thinking of man as a human being, and finding room for the women the children and the men who go to church not only inside the church, but also within the more intimate atmosphere of their own cars. He feels that religion must be something living, evolving with the times. The modern congregation is not that of the primitive Christians, living in their sombre catacombs, nor is it similar to the picturesque and intense believers of the Middle Ages. He has therefore created a happy solution, very apt to the anxious and hopeful people of today.La iglesia de la Comunidad de Garden Grove ocupa una superficie de 1.067,45 m2, y dispone de 672 asientos y capacidad total para 1.000 feligreses. El complejo parroquial consta, además, de una serie de dependencias anexas: salas para actividades culturales, sociales, oficinas de la parroquia, cocina..., etc., y una escuela dominical; esta última, con guardería infantil y aulas para grupos de diferentes edades. En el exterior ha sido dispuesta una zona de aparcamiento, en la que los coches familiares—segunda casa de los norteamericanos

  10. A strategy for the survey of urban garden soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.; Chenot, E. D.; Cortet, J.; Douay, F.; Dumat, C.; Pernin, C.; Pourrut, B.

    2012-04-01

    In France and all over the world, there is no systematic data available on the quality (fertility and contamination) of garden soils. Nevertheless, there is a growing need for a typology and for a method dedicated to national and international garden soil survey. This inventory is much needed in the context of environmental risk assessment, to predict the potential impact on human health of the direct contact with garden soils and of the consumption of vegetables from gardens. The state of the art on the international knowledge on garden soils, gardening practices and food production, shows that gardens remain poorly known and very complex ecological, economical and social systems. Their global quality is the result of a wide number of factors including environment, history, specific characteristics of the gardens, gardeners and their practices, plant and/or animal productions and socio-economic context. The aim is then to better know the determinism of the agronomic, environmental and sanitary properties of gardens as a function of gardening practices and their impact on the quality of soils and plants. We propose a definition of "garden" and more generally of all the field "garden". The system "garden" is represented by attributes (soil and plant characteristics) and factors with various impacts (e.g. environment > soil parent material > former land uses > age and sex of gardener > gardening practices > socio-professional group > type and proportion of productions > climate > age of the garden > size of the garden > education, information > cultural origin > functions of the garden > regulations). A typology of gardens including 7 selected factors and associated categories and a method for describing, sampling and characterizing a population of gardens representative (for a country) are proposed. Based on the statistical analysis on regional databases, we have determined and proposed an optimum size for the collected population of garden soils. The discussion of

  11. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  12. Legume genetic resources and transcriptome dynamics under abiotic stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Burritt, David J; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2018-01-04

    Grain legumes are an important source of nutrition and income for billions of consumers and farmers around the world. However, the low productivity of new legume varieties, due to the limited genetic diversity available for legume breeding programmes and poor policymaker support, combined with an increasingly unpredictable global climate is resulting in a large gap between current yields and the increasing demand for legumes as food. Hence, there is a need for novel approaches to develop new high-yielding legume cultivars that are able to cope with a range of environmental stressors. Next-generation technologies are providing the tools that could enable the more rapid and cost-effective genomic and transcriptomic studies for most major crops, allowing the identification of key functional and regulatory genes involved in abiotic stress resistance. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent achievements regarding abiotic stress resistance in a wide range of legume crops and highlight the transcriptomic and miRNA approaches that have been used. In addition, we critically evaluate the availability and importance of legume genetic resources with desirable abiotic stress resistance traits. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  14. The Therapy Garden Nacadia®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Ulrik

    collaborative process that used state-of-the-art evidence and expert knowledge on therapy gardens and NBT. This PhD project is an exploratory study that examines the relationship between the design of a therapy garden, a nature-based therapy program and citizens with severe stress. The overall aim is to gain......The therapy garden Nacadia® is designed to provide a setting and framework for a nature-based therapy (NBT) program for people suffering from stress-related illnesses. It was established through an evidence-based health design in landscape architecture (EBHDL) process, an interdisciplinary...... a deeper understanding of and develop more knowledge about landscape architecture in a therapeutic intervention under Danish conditions. Data were collected from 42 severely stress citizens during a 10 week NBT program in Nacadia. Several data collection and data processing methods were used: Landscape...

  15. ROOF GARDENS AS LANDSCAPING IN MODERN TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaska Sandeva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available As we know we live in a process of industrialization and massive building of residential buildings, both individually and as a collective housing. Given all that happens even with the procedural other things to come up with all this, the country remains less green space that is required for a single environment, so the roof gardens are the best choice for all of this to get a beautiful country. For roof gardens should be given the explanation that, roof gardens, call it beautiful, flat roofs, and with gentle slope, with rich composition intensively maintained and often impose a constructive adaptation of the building and benefits by the architectural beauty, insulation, absorption. Commonly found in urban areas and almost always are placed foliage with not very high growth.

  16. Scholar garden: Educational strategy for life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Rodríguez Haros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available About five years ago, and worried about the erosion of knowledge related to the process of food production, access and safety, anagroenvironmental vegetable garden was established and named “Un pasito en grande” (A large baby step, where the use of agrochemicals (fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, etc. are forbidden. Everything takes place with the participation of boys, girls, fathers and mothers of the Colegio Ateneo nursery school of Tezoyuca, State of Mexico. Childrens' participation has helpedspread the word about the experience and little by little, the strategy has spread to other educational spaces. The school garden has become a space to raise ecological and environmental awareness that is strengthened with daily activities and specific activities that are implemented. The school garden is based on a series of philosophical principles that help reflect upon our learning-doing; in methodological terms, its implementation is based on ethics and on the principles of permaculture.

  17. A New Look for the Globe Gardens

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Designs to develop the grounds of the Globe of Science and Innovation have recently been unveiled. The plan is to extend the visitor activities on offer, transforming the area into a public arena for scientific exploration.   Design for the new Globe Gardens. © Jencks Squared and Groupe H. After months of conceptual development, plans to develop the site around the Globe are taking shape. The innovative designs were drawn up for CERN by a unique collaboration consisting of landscape architects Charles and Lily Jencks, and "Groupe H", a group of architects headed by Globe designer Hervé Dessimoz. They comprise new venues, covered walkways, a café and gift shop, a separate VIP entrance and a physics-inspired garden for visitors. The landscape itself becomes a feature – dramatically altered to create a cosmic garden formed by shaped mounds, ponds, and a natural amphitheatre for public events. “The new exhibition in the G...

  18. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure after Gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljko Vucicevic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute nontraumatic exertional rhabdomyolysis may arise when the energy supply to muscle is insufficient to meet demands, particularly in physically untrained individuals. We report on a psychiatric patient who developed large bruises and hemorrhagic blisters on both hands and arms, rhabdomyolysis of both forearm muscles with a moderate compartment syndrome, and consecutive acute renal failure following excessive work in the garden. Although specifically asked, the patient denied any hard physical work or gardening, and heteroanamnestic data were not available. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was easy to establish, but until reliable anamnestic data were obtained, the etiology remained uncertain. Four days after arrival, the patient recalled working hard in the garden. The etiology of rhabdomyolysis was finally reached, and the importance of anamnestic data was once more confirmed.

  19. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  20. Reflexions on Urban Gardening in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Gustedt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany. The focus is on forms of gardening, that take place in spaces subject to land lease agreements and similar forms of tenancy or of illegal land take or squatting. The author examines various definitions taking into account the variety of practices, the development of urban gardening over time, and the respective backgrounds or values that users relate to such gardening activities. The examination of definitions led to the drawing up of a timeline of traditional and contemporary gardening movements in Germany and to the tentative approaching of this issue from a semantic perspective. The latter is due to the usage of many different terms mostly as yet undefined in a legal sense. Translation into English or, most likely, to any other language, further blurs the common understanding of the terms used. The author concludes with some considerations on these gardening movements in relation to urban sustainable developments. A presentation at the 5th Rencontres Internationals de Reims on Sustainability Studies, dedicated to Urban Agriculture – Fostering the Urban-Rural Continuum, which took place in October 2015 in Reims/France was the starting point of this article. The basis of this article is a literature review, nourished to a certain extent by observations randomly made over many years and complemented through talks with competent young colleagues. Special thanks go to Martin Sondermann, Leibniz University Hannover, who shared his research experience in various discussions with the author, as well as to Friederike Stelter, internship student at the author’s place of work, who gave highly appreciated support to the preparation of the presentation.

  1. Influence of tree canopy on N₂ fixation by pasture legumes and soil rhizobial abundance in Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranca, C; Castro, I V; Figueiredo, N; Redondo, R; Rodrigues, A R F; Saraiva, I; Maricato, R; Madeira, M A V

    2015-02-15

    Symbiotic N2 fixation is of primordial significance in sustainable agro-forestry management as it allows reducing the use of mineral N in the production of mixed stands and by protecting the soils from degradation. Thereby, on a 2-year basis, N2 fixation was evaluated in four oak woodlands under Mediterranean conditions using a split-plot design and three replicates. (15)N technique was used for determination of N2 fixation rate. Variations in environmental conditions (temperature, rainfall, radiation) by the cork tree canopy as well as the age of stands and pasture management can cause great differences in vegetation growth, legume N2 fixation, and soil rhizobial abundance. In the present study, non-legumes dominated the swards, in particular beneath the tree canopy, and legumes represented only 42% of total herbage. A 2-fold biomass reduction was observed in the oldest sown pasture in relation to the medium-age sward (6 t DW ha(-1)yr(-1)). Overall, competition of pasture growth for light was negligible, but soil rhizobial abundance and symbiotic N2 fixation capacity were highly favored by this environmental factor in the spring and outside the influence of tree canopy. Nitrogen derived from the atmosphere was moderate to high (54-72%) in unsown and sown swards. Inputs of fixed N2 increased from winter to spring due to more favorable climatic conditions (temperature and light intensity) for both rhizobia and vegetation growths. Assuming a constant fixation rate at each seasonal period, N2 fixation capacity increased from about 0.10 kg N ha(-1) per day in the autumn-winter period to 0.15 kg N ha(-1) per day in spring. Belowground plant material contributed to 11% of accumulated N in pasture legumes and was not affected by canopy. Size of soil fixing bacteria contributed little to explain pasture legumes N. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of Garden Size and Floral Cover on Pollen Deposition in Urban Community Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C. Matteson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many cucurbits, such as cucumbers, squashes and pumpkins, depend on pollinating bees in order to set fruit. However, fruit yield and progeny vigor in these plants generally decreases as heterospecific pollen deposition increases. We studied how the spatial area dedicated to cucumbers (Cucumis sativis, versus other flowering plants, influenced the deposition of conspecific and heterospecific pollen on cucumber plants in New York City community gardens. We also examined the effect of garden size on conspecific and heterospecific pollen deposition on cucumber plants. Female flowers were collected from potted cucumber plants that had been experimentally placed into the gardens, specifically for this study, or that were established in raised beds by members of the community garden. In the laboratory, pollen grains were isolated from the flower by acetolysis, and the number of heterospecific and conspecific cucumber pollen grains were quantified. Conspecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly associated with the size of a community garden, as well as with the area of each garden dedicated to non-cucumber, flowering plants (i.e. floral cover and the area of each garden dedicated to cucumber plants (i.e. cucumber cover. Although floral cover explained a greater proportion of the variance, cucumber cover had the strongest effect on conspecific pollen deposition. Heterospecific pollen deposition was positively and significantly related to garden area. However, no significant relationship was found between heterospecific pollen deposition and floral cover, or cucumber cover. Based upon these results, we hypothesize that floral cover positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition by attracting a greater number of pollinators into an urban garden, and that total cucumber area positively impacts conspecific pollen deposition when pollinators are locally foraging within a garden. We suggest that the arrangement of plants within a garden can

  3. Comparative phylogenetic and expression analysis of small GTPases families in legume and non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Ana Claudia; Via, Virginia Dalla; Savy, Virginia; Villagra, Ulises Mancini; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2018-02-01

    Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair. To get insight into the evolution of small GTPases associated with this process, we use a comparative genomic approach to establish differences in the Ras GTPase superfamily between legume and non-legume plants. Phylogenetic analyses did not show clear differences in the organization of the different subfamilies of small GTPases between plants that engage or not in nodule symbiosis. Protein alignments revealed a strong conservation at the sequence level of small GTPases previously linked to nodulation by functional genetics. Interestingly, one Rab and three Rop proteins showed conserved amino acid substitutions in legumes, but these changes do not alter the predicted conformational structure of these proteins. Although the steady-state levels of most small GTPases do not change in response to rhizobia, we identified a subset of Rab, Rop and Arf genes whose transcript levels are modulated during the symbiotic interaction, including their spatial distribution along the indeterminate nodule. This study provides a comprehensive study of the small GTPase superfamily in several plant species. The genetic program associated to root nodule symbiosis includes small GTPases to fulfill specific functions during infection and formation of the symbiosomes. These GTPases seems to have been recruited from members that were already present in common ancestors with plants as distant as monocots

  4. The centenary of the School Botanical Garden from Blaj

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Sorin MUNTEAN

    1982-01-01

    The development of the first school-botanical garden from Blaj is strongly connected with the development of botanical research at the University and Agronomy Insitute from Cluj-Napoca. The first curators of the garden A. Uilacan, A. Cheteanu, Al. Borza and I. Popu-Cimpeanu studied in Cluj. Prof. Al. Borza developed the medicinal and crop plant collections in collaboration with B. Pater, former head of our agrobotanical garden. Later the botanical garden of the University, became famous under...

  5. IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF KITCHEN GARDENING TRAINING UNDER WATERSHED PROGRAMME

    OpenAIRE

    Tabinda Qaiser; Hassnain Shah; Sajida Taj; Murad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Kitchen Gardening Project is the revolutionary step to increase vegetables production as well as provision of cheap vegetables to the consumers. The main focus of the study was to assess the impact of kitchen gardening training given by Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI) under watershed project in Arokas and Ghoragali. Capacity building of rural women in Kitchen Gardening was the focus and twenty trainees of kitchen gardening were selected randomly from each location to assess the impa...

  6. Relating Social Inclusion and Environmental Issues in Botanic Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergou, Asimina; Willison, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Botanic gardens have been evolving, responding to the changing needs of society, from their outset as medicinal gardens of monasteries and university gardens to more recently as organizations that contribute to the conservation of plant genetic resources. Considering that social and environmental issues are deeply intertwined and cannot be tackled…

  7. Elementary School Garden Programs Enhance Science Education for All Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rye, James A.; Selmer, Sarah J.; Pennington, Sara; Vanhorn, Laura; Fox, Sarah; Kane, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A national movement is underway to establish elementary school gardens, which can serve both academic and social purposes. These gardens can positively impact students' science achievement and provide the thematic and hands-on approach especially conducive to learning for students with disabilities. Garden-based learning (GBL) broadens the scope…

  8. School-Community Gardening: Learning, Living, Earning, and Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Bowles, Freddie A.

    2012-01-01

    Elementary teacher Ms. Huff realized that her third grade students were limited in their knowledge and experiences related to gardening. Most of today's young learners in the United States do not live on farms, and few families maintain gardens. Only a few of Ms. Huff's students could say they had a family garden. In schools, students learn about…

  9. Gardening Promotes Neuroendocrine and Affective Restoration from Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Agnes E.; Custers, Mariette H. G.

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and

  10. Gardening promotes neuroendocrine and affective restoration from stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.E.; Custers, M.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Stress-relieving effects of gardening were hypothesized and tested in a field experiment. Thirty allotment gardeners performed a stressful Stroop task and were then randomly assigned to 30 minutes of outdoor gardening or indoor reading on their own allotment plot. Salivary cortisol levels and

  11. Rural life in the city: the chalet garden in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Damin; James F. Palmer

    2003-01-01

    Allotment gardens with small cottages make a rural lifestyle partially available in urban areas. Temporary living quarters, combined with the tending of annual and perennial plants, let urbanites coexist with nature for a few months out of the year. This paper investigates the history and social life these gardens play in Denmark. A particular garden, Sano near...

  12. School Gardens: Teaching and Learning outside the Front Door

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, Rowena

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on two projects: one that investigated the impact of school gardens on primary children's learning and one that is currently exploring the pedagogies involved in teaching children in the garden. The evidence presented suggests that school gardens can be an interesting and effective way of engaging children with learning, but…

  13. Demography of Zoo Animals in Four Zoological Gardens in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted between October and December 2012 to determine the demography of animals in Zoological gardens in South-western Nigeria, using questionnaires and records of the Zoological gardens. A total of 250 animals were in the four Zoological gardens in the zone with the avians, reptiles and primates ...

  14. Urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of soil contaminant risks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent F Kim

    Full Text Available Although urban community gardening can offer health, social, environmental, and economic benefits, these benefits must be weighed against the potential health risks stemming from exposure to contaminants such as heavy metals and organic chemicals that may be present in urban soils. Individuals who garden at or eat food grown in contaminated urban garden sites may be at risk of exposure to such contaminants. Gardeners may be unaware of these risks and how to manage them. We used a mixed quantitative/qualitative research approach to characterize urban community gardeners' knowledge and perceptions of risks related to soil contaminant exposure. We conducted surveys with 70 gardeners from 15 community gardens in Baltimore, Maryland, and semi-structured interviews with 18 key informants knowledgeable about community gardening and soil contamination in Baltimore. We identified a range of factors, challenges, and needs related to Baltimore community gardeners' perceptions of risk related to soil contamination, including low levels of concern and inconsistent levels of knowledge about heavy metal and organic chemical contaminants, barriers to investigating a garden site's history and conducting soil tests, limited knowledge of best practices for reducing exposure, and a need for clear and concise information on how best to prevent and manage soil contamination. Key informants discussed various strategies for developing and disseminating educational materials to gardeners. For some challenges, such as barriers to conducting site history and soil tests, some informants recommended city-wide interventions that bypass the need for gardener knowledge altogether.

  15. Weed Garden: An Effective Tool for Extension Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Leslie; Patton, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    A weed garden was constructed to quantify and improve identification skills among clientele. The garden was planted with over 100 weed species based on surveys on problematic weeds. The weed garden proved useful for introducing additional hands-on learning activities into traditional lecture-based seminars. Through seminar and field day attendee…

  16. Differences for traits associated with early N acquisition in a grain legume and early complementarity in grain legume-triticale mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Nicolas; Naudin, Christophe; Piva, Guillaume; Baccar, Rim; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle

    2018-02-01

    Early strategies of crop growth and N acquisition can be critical for determining competitive interactions between weeds and crops. Grain legumes and especially lupins are known to be poor competitors against weeds. Grain legumes are known to have low mineral soil N uptake abilities. However, inter- and intraspecific differences in N uptake ability in relation to below-ground traits have received little attention. Our objectives were (i) to measure differences among lupins for a set of traits associated with early growth and N acquisition; (ii) to examine how this variation compares to differences between lupin and a cereal, triticale, and (iii) to assess if mixing lupin with triticale provides a higher potential than does pure lupin regarding plant biomass and mineral soil N acquisition early in the crop cycle. Lupin (12 genotypes) and triticale plants were grown separately and in mixed species pairs in a replacement design for 1 and 2 months in three rhizotron experiments. Shoot and root biomass, root length, root expansion dynamics, N 2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. Differences among lupin species and genotypes regarding traits related to early growth and to mineral soil N uptake were observed, but all lupins demonstrated slow early growth and low ability to absorb mineral soil N compared to triticale. In lupin-triticale mixture, a contrast in early growth strategies between species induced a higher total soil mineral N uptake compared with pure lupin. Complementarity between lupin and triticale persisted during the second month, when interactions began. This complementarity may allow for reduced competition between species, favouring higher triticale biomass production than in pure triticale, without compromising lupin growth.

  17. Potential of fodder tree/shrub legumes as a feed resource for dry season supplementation of smallholder ruminant animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simbaya, J.

    2002-01-01

    Fodder tree/shrub legumes have the potential for alleviating some of the feed shortages and nutritional deficiencies experienced in the dry season on smallholder farms. Zambia has a wide range of naturally occurring tree/shrub species that can be used as fodder for ruminants. Over the years a number of trees have been selected for their agronomic qualities and are currently being used in arable farming systems to promote soil fertility and erosion control. There is a need to evaluate them for use as fodder for ruminants in the dry season. Because of their high content of protein, minerals and vitamins and availability in the dry season, fodder tree/shrub legumes have the capacity to complement the feeding of crop-residues and natural pastures. Tree/shrub legumes also have other advantages in that they are available on-farm and can also be used as a source of food, timber and medicines at village level. Being deep rooted, fodder trees are rarely affected by seasonal climatic changes. The main limitation to their use as a feed resource for ruminants is the high tannin content which may have detrimental effects on the performance of animals. A number of techniques including, wilting, sun-drying, treatment with chemicals and ammoniation have been developed to minimize their adverse effects. Controlled intake through stall feeding or mixing of tree/shrub fodder with basal diets could also be used to mitigate their toxic effects. Research is currently under way to establish rumen microbes that have capacity to detoxify tannins. To promote increased use of fodder trees on smallholder farms, farmers must be provided with information on the good quality fodder trees and the approaches to effectively utilise them. They should also be encouraged to start planting fodder trees in their food crop farming systems or establishing fodder gardens on fallow lands. (author)

  18. Political Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui

    2006-01-01

    Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...

  19. Predictors of School Garden Integration: Factors Critical to Gardening Success in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Kate Gardner; Burgermaster, Marissa; Jacquez, Raquel

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of integration of school gardens and identify factors that predict integration. 211 New York City schools completed a survey that collected demographic information and utilized the School Garden Integration Scale. A mean garden integration score was calculated, and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of integration and assess relationships between individual integration characteristics and budget. The average integration score was 34.1 (of 57 points) and ranged from 8 to 53. Operating budget had significant influence on integration score, controlling for all other factors ( p integrated, as budget is a modifiable factor. When adequate funding is secured, a well-integrated garden may be established with proper planning and sound implementation.

  20. Agronomic evaluation of herbaceous legumes in a subhumid zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , albeit their introduction into Uganda is recent. Keywords: agronomy; anthracnose; botany; evaluation; forage; herbage; legumes; Namulonge; reseeding; seed yield; Uganda African Journal of Range and Forage Science 1995, 12(2): 68–71 ...

  1. Effect of legume foliage supplementary feeding to dairy cattle offered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pennisetum purpureum) is the main basal diet offered, and is supplemented with legume forages among others. Recent observations indicate reduction in fodder yields of P. purpureum although farmers are applying cattle manure to improve soil fertility ...

  2. [Germinated or fermented legumes: food or ingredients of functional food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Marbelly A; Sangronis, Elba; Granito, Marisela

    2003-12-01

    Epidemiological research has shown a positive association between certain diseases and dietary intake of food components found in fruits, grains, legumes, fish oil among others. Food that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients that it contains, are named functional food. In addition to the varied nutrients, legumes contain compounds such as polyphenols, soluble fiber, alpha-galactosides and isoflavones which confer propierties of functional foods. Do to the cuse of flatus production in some people, long cooking periods, or anti-nutritional factors, legume consumption levels are limited. In this review, germination and fermentation processes will be presented as alternatives that are able to reduce or inactivate anti-nutritional factors, preserve and even improve the content of the isoflavones, or better the potencial of the legumes as functional food or as ingredients for the formulation of functional foods.

  3. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    The seed is the carrier of the genetic improvements brought about by modern plant breeding, and seed production is carried out in accordance with certification systems to guarantee consistent high quality. In forage legumes, breeding efforts are primarily related to the vegetative development......-pollinated forage legumes it is further highly influenced by environmental conditions and crop management factors. Further investigations into the use of plant growth regulators and an improved understanding of the interaction between pollinators and the seed crop might improve future seed yields. There is likely...... to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve...

  4. Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and early persistence of ten forage legumes under three grazing regimes in southern Mozambique. JP Muir. Abstract. Leucaena leucocephala, Clitoria ternatea, Macroptilium atropurpureum cv. Siratro, Cassia rotundifolia cv. Wynn, Macrotyloma axillare cv. Archer, Stylosanthes guianensis var. guianensis cv.

  5. Pasture improvement in Malawi: the introduction of legumes into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ; S. guyanensis cv. Schofield, S. humilis cv. Queensland Grown, S. humilis cv. Costal Early, S. humilis (BPI 404) and Lotononis bainessi cv. Miles. Eleven principles of legume introduction into grazing systems are discussed. Keywords: pasture ...

  6. Nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism in legume nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neera; Singla, Ranju; Geetanjali

    2004-02-01

    A large amount of energy is utilized by legume nodules for the fixation of nitrogen and assimilation of fixed nitrogen (ammonia) into organic compounds. The source of energy is provided in the form of photosynthates by the host plant. Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) enzyme, which is responsible for carbon dioxide fixation in C4 and crassulacean acid metabolism plants, has also been found to play an important role in carbon metabolism in legume root nodule. PEPC-mediated CO2 fixation in nodules results in the synthesis of C4 dicarboxylic acids, viz. aspartate, malate, fumarate etc. which can be transported into bacteroids with the intervention of dicarboxylate transporter (DCT) protein. PEPC has been purified from the root nodules of few legume species. Information on the relationship between nitrogen fixation and carbon metabolism through PEPC in leguminous plants is scanty and incoherent. This review summarizes the various aspects of carbon and nitrogen metabolism in legume root nodules.

  7. Contested claims to gardens and land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obika, Julaina; Adol, Ben Otto; Babiiha, Sulayman Mpisi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores how, in a patrilineal and patriarchal society recovering from two decades of war, women and men frame arguments about entitlement. Here claims to gardens (plots of land for cultivation) become a contested conversation about women’s rights of belonging to family and community...

  8. Garden walking for depression: a research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Hanson, Claire; McCaffrey, William

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of garden walking and reflective journaling on adults who are 65 years old and older with depression. The Geriatric Depression Scale measured depression. Four themes emerged from the interview data collected from each participant.

  9. Students Dig for Real School Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Lacey; Emeagwali, N. Susan

    2010-01-01

    There's a lot of talk about saving the environment and going green these days. But the challenge is to turn the words into action, and that includes getting young students to become part of the discussion about sustainability. The Texas-based Rainwater Environmental Alliance for Learning (REAL) School Gardens is cultivating success by providing…

  10. Integrated Curriculum in a Tiny Texas Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Sarah K.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade class in East Texas learned to garden in a project that allows children to plant seeds and watch their plants mature while developing skills in mathematics, science, reading and writing, and interpreting a calendar. (SW)

  11. Gardening takes root in Governador Valadares

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC

    port the gardeners receive from municipal staff emanated from a research project in 2003, supported by ... recent Health Department survey that included data on what people were growing in their backyards. ... sizes data from maps, aerial views, and databases — to identify vacant plots that were suitable for urban agricul-.

  12. Business plan for a Zen garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žibrat Maja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The placement of a theme park in the form of a Zen garden, as a business opportunity in the Slovenian rural area, is discussed. The design of the garden, with all the major points of a standard business plan, is accurately presented, with a description of the business, branch, and services, market analysis, marketing strategy, financial projections, and a plan of the work and activities. The financial aspect is presented as the amount of investment, net present value, and internal rate of return. The amount of investment is estimated at € 14.891, which should be reimbursed within 4 years of operations. The estimated internal rate of return is estimated at 16.86%. Part of the study is the market analysis - conduction of a survey into knowledge of, and interest in, Zen and Zen gardens. The principles of landscape ecology are respected, as the Zen garden would be set in the woods and will blend seamlessly into the landscape.

  13. Raising Butterflies from Your Own Garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley-Pfeifer, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Describes how raising monarch, black swallowtail, and mourning cloak butterflies in a kindergarten class garden can provide opportunities for observation experiences. Includes detailed steps for instruction and describes stages of growth. Excerpts children's journal dictations to illustrate ways to support the discovery process. Describes related…

  14. Cultivating Bakhtin in the garden: Children's ecological narratives on becoming community gardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Annie H.

    2009-12-01

    This dissertation illustrates how a children's community garden, designed specifically to promote intergenerational, multi-sociocultural relationships, is an "ideological environment" linking individuals and their community and connecting people with nature, in order to promote feelings of belonging, social connection, and encourage a sense of stewardship and identification with the environment (Bakhtin, 1978). By spending time in a community garden, responding to the natural ecosystems which exist on this land, and reflecting, through image and story about our childhood experience, the participants and I engaged in the dialogic process of what Thomashow (1996) refers to as "doing ecological identity work." Throughout this study I question how our past experiences with nature in ideological environments shape our ecological epistemologies, and how the dialogic process of becoming a gardener within the context of a community garden shapes a person's ecological identity. To frame this exploration of ecological identity work as a dialogic process and its role in the development of an ecological identity, I draw from sociocultural theory (Holland, et al., 1998), Bakhtin's theory of dialogism, and ecological identity studies (Clayton and Opotow, 2003; Cobb, 1993; Orr, 1994, 2006; Sobel, 1996, 2008; Thomashow, 1996). A large body of scholarly writing done by environmental researchers is devoted to examining and describing how adults, who self-identify as environmentalists, developed an ecological worldview. However, only a fraction of research is devoted to theorizing how children develop an environmental epistemology. In this study, I focus on how community gardens are dialogic spaces that provide a place for elementary-aged children to "experience" the discourse of gardening. Here, I describe the discourses that shape the garden and describe how gardeners, as a result of their collaborative experiences between human and non-human actors, take up social and dialogical

  15. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stougaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The combination of favourable biological features, stable transformation procedures, application of genetics and genome-based global approaches has established Lotus japonicus as a model legume and provided a platform for addressing important biological questions often, but not exclusively......, focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  16. Gray and green revisited: a multidisciplinary perspective of gardens, gardening, and the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Scott D; Wadsworth, Amy Maida

    2014-01-01

    Over fourteen years ago, the concept of "gray and green" was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000) to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities) examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion.

  17. Gray and Green Revisited: A Multidisciplinary Perspective of Gardens, Gardening, and the Aging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. Wright

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over fourteen years ago, the concept of “gray and green” was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000 to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activity in the lives of older adults in a variety of residential settings. Yet, there has been a lack of any comprehensive and multidisciplinary (science and humanities examination of the nexus between gardening and the aging experience, and in particular with research connections to stewardship and caring. In this paper, we review contemporary articles demonstrating the multidisciplinarity of gardening and the aging process. First, we will focus on the beneficial psychological effects resulting from the cultivation of caring, including personal contentment and artistic expression. Second, we will focus on stewardship and how gardening increases health, community awareness, and a connection to future generations. On the surface, this may demonstrate a separation between the humanities and science, but we will clarify a symbiotic relationship between the two disciplines in our conclusion.

  18. Legume root symbioses: Natural history and prospects for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtark Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM, rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that 'first' rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single 'evolutionary plant-microbial continuum'. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.

  19. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  20. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J

    2017-10-01

    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  1. ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF COMMUNITY GARDEN IN ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zivenge E.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe has experienced an unprecedented decline of nearly all human development indicators for the past ten years. Despite the introduction of community gardens in drought-prone areas of Zimbabwe, poverty persists amongst the vulnerable groups. The potential to improve household, community and national food and nutrition security through garden activities is high if issues of water availability cost and availability of inputs, marketing and farmer empowerment can be addressed. This paper seeks to assess the community garden's cost structure to sales volume and profitability and the land use efficiency. Primary data were collected through structured questionnaire. A two stage sampling techniques was used to select respondents. The study was conducted in Zaka district. Three major crops namely tomatoes, covo and onion were chosen for the study basing on size of land under that particular crop. Cost-Volume-Profit analysis employed for analysis of cost structure to sales volume and profitability. Land use efficiency was also employed to measure the ratio yield per acre of farm to average yield of locality. The results showed that although the farmers are able to break even the margin of safety is small especially for cove and onion. The study recommends farmers to increase the size of acreage under onion production whilst reduce acreage under production of covo. Farmers should adopt technology that would improve land use efficiency of onion. There is a need for the intervention by the Government and other stakeholders to improve the profitability and efficiency of the community gardeners. Stakeholders' collaboration especially, in terms of farmer training which can improve garden activities as participants lack knowhow.

  2. Gardens, knowledge and the sciences in the early modern period

    CERN Document Server

    Remmert, Volker; Wolschke-Bulmahn, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    This volume focuses on the outstanding contributions made by botany and the mathematical sciences to the genesis and development of early modern garden art and garden culture. The many facets of the mathematical sciences and botany point to the increasingly “scientific” approach that was being adopted in and applied to garden art and garden culture in the early modern period. This development was deeply embedded in the philosophical, religious, political, cultural and social contexts, running parallel to the beginning of processes of scientization so characteristic for modern European history. This volume strikingly shows how these various developments are intertwined in gardens for various purposes.

  3. "Beautiful garden made of garbage" – Beijing Garden Expo Park as an example of a modern approach to creating public botanical gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Kirill

    2016-12-01

    A new park in Beijing is a unique project implemented at a former city waste area. The project was started in 2010. In 2013, the park was opened for its first visitors. Today, it has 69 gardens representing different Chinese provinces and major cities, as well as other countries whose designers wanted to demonstrate their class. The created gardens of 1-2 to 10-12 hectares represent both traditional styles of Chinese gardens and the latest trends in the field of garden art. The Museum of Chinese Gardens and Landscape Architecture (MCGALA is a part of the park’s vast territory of 513 hectares. The park also has the necessary infrastructure for its visitors with disabilities. Today, it has become a home for many educational institutions training specialists in the field of landscape design, as well as for the employees of the country’s parks, agronomists and gardeners.

  4. Pop competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Cellino; Anna Soci

    2002-01-01

    Very few economic terms are used as much as competitiveness in economics. This article deals with the different meanings of competitiveness, at the level of a firm, at the level of the local area, and at the level of the country. It analyzes the problems of consistency among the available definitions and among the indicators used to measurecompetitiveness.

  5. Competitiveness factors

    OpenAIRE

    Popa Liliana-Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Porter's theory supports the idea that, despite the globalization of production and trade, the competitive advantage is created in a national framework, nations, through their institutional, natural, cultural, economic characteristics ultimately determining the development of certain economic activities. The factors considered by Porter as determinants for the competitive advantage are grouped in four categories, the linkages between them being important as well

  6. Spa Garden in Daruvar – Methods of Renewal and Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šćitaroci Mladen Obad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Spa garden in Daruvar ‘Julius’s Park’ is the oldest spa garden in continental Croatia. The counts Jankovich and their successors created the garden during the 18th and 20th century. The garden resumed its nowadays form and surface in the time of count Julius Jankovich in the mid-19th century and it was named after him. The garden is protected as a cultural heritage. The garden’s renovation is seen as an urban, architectural and landscape unity and it attempts to affirm the missing and neglected parts of the garden, to provide technological and municipal space modernization and to make a pleasant urban garden ambiance with new facilities and high space arrangement qualities, contributing to the economic development of the local community.

  7. Immunosuppression during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Lu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobium infects host legumes to elicit new plant organs, nodules where dinitrogen is fixed as ammonia that can be directly utilized by plants. The nodulation factor (NF) produced by Rhizobium is one of the determinant signals for rhizobial infection and nodule development. Recently, it was found to suppress the innate immunity on host and nonhost plants as well as its analogs, chitins. Therefore, NF can be recognized as a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern (M/PAMP) like chitin to induce the M/PAMP triggered susceptibility (M/PTS) of host plants to rhizobia. Whether the NF signaling pathway is directly associated with the innate immunity is not clear till now. In fact, other MAMPs such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and cyclic-β-glucan, together with type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors are also required for rhizobial infection or survival in leguminous nodule cells. Interestingly, most of them play similarly negative roles in the innate immunity of host plants, though their signaling is not completely elucidated. Taken together, we believe that the local immunosuppression on host plants induced by Rhizobium is essential for the establishment of their symbiosis.

  8. Pollen structure and function in caesalpinioid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J

    2016-03-01

    A diverse range of pollen morphologies occurs within the large, paraphyletic legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae, especially among early-branching lineages. Previous studies have hypothesized an association between surface ornamentation and pollination syndrome or other aspects of pollen function such as desiccation tolerance and adaptations to accommodate volume changes. We reviewed caesalpinioid pollen morphology using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with a literature survey of pollination vectors. Pollen structural diversity is greatest in the early-branching tribes Cercideae and Detarieae, whereas Cassieae and Caesalpinieae are relatively low in pollen diversity. Functional structures to counter desiccation include opercula (lids) covering apertures and reduced aperture size. Structures preventing wall rupture during dehydration and rehydration include different forms of colpi (syncolpi, parasyncolpi, pseudocolpi), striate supratectal ornamentation, and columellate or granular wall structures that resist tensile or compressive forces respectively. Specialized aperture structures (Zwischenkörper) may be advantageous for efficient germination of the pollen tube. In Detarieae and Cercideae in particular, there is potential to utilize pollen characters to estimate pollination systems where these are unknown. Supratectal verrucae and gemmae have apparently evolved iteratively in Cercideae and Detarieae. At the species level, there is a potential correlation between striate/verrucate patterns and vertebrate pollination. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Examining the gardens of the preschool education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Orçan Kaçan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the study, it is aimed to reveal current features and practices of the gardens of the preschool education institutions, the obstacles to being qualified gardens in the schools and professional trainings related to the gardens which the teachers want to participate in. The population of the study consists of the teachers working in preschool education institutions in 2014-2015 academic years. The sample of the study consists of 56 preschool teachers who have been willing to participate in the study in the preschool education institutions under the Ministry of National Education which have been selected randomly from the population. The study is a survey study, and a questionnaire form has been prepared by the researchers by investigating related domestic and foreign literature to analyze the views of the teachers related to gardens. The questionnaire form consisted of sections like general information, garden features and applications of the schools, obstacles to gardens in the schools, professional trainings related to garden that the teachers want to participate in. In the analysis of the data obtained in the direction of the goals of the study, frequency and percentage distribution from descriptive statistical techniques have been used. As a result of the research, it was determined that half of the schools had the garden and the other half did not have the garden. Teachers have stated that the majority of school gardens use grasses, wild habitats and ornamental plants, use more than half of the school gardens for activities, and that these activities are mostly play, movement, science and field trips. The majority of teachers reported budget deficiencies and inadequate space as obstacles to the quality gardening of schools. In addition, they reported that the majority of them want to participate in professional training fields related to garden-based teaching such as outdoor classroom management, language and math, nutrition, science and

  11. Development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool: An Evidence-Based Model for School Garden Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Kate Gardner; Koch, Pamela; Contento, Isobel

    2017-10-01

    Researchers have established the benefits of school gardens on students' academic achievement, dietary outcomes, physical activity, and psychosocial skills, yet limited research has been conducted about how school gardens become institutionalized and sustained. Our aim was to develop a tool that captures how gardens are effectively established, integrated, and sustained in schools. We conducted a sequential, exploratory, mixed-methods study. Participants were identified with the help of Grow To Learn, the organization coordinating the New York City school garden initiative, and recruited via e-mail. A stratified, purposeful sample of 21 New York City elementary and middle schools participated in this study throughout the 2013/2014 school year. The sample was stratified in their garden budgets and purposeful in that each of the schools' gardens were determined to be well integrated and sustained. The processes and strategies used by school gardeners to establish well-integrated school gardens were assessed via data collected from surveys, interviews, observations, and concept mapping. Descriptive statistics as well as multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to examine the survey and concept mapping data. Qualitative data analysis consisted of thematic coding, pattern matching, explanation building and cross-case synthesis. Nineteen components within four domains of school garden integration were found through the mixed-methods concept mapping analysis. When the analyses of other data were combined, relationships between domains and components emerged. These data resulted in the development of the GREEN (Garden Resources, Education, and Environment Nexus) Tool. When schools with integrated and sustained gardens were studied, patterns emerged about how gardeners achieve institutionalization through different combinations of critical components. These patterns are best described by the GREEN Tool, the first framework to identify how to

  12. Community Gardens as Environmental Health Interventions: Benefits Versus Potential Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, W K; Webb, M

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to summarize current findings on community gardens relevant to three specific areas of interest as follows: (1) health benefits, (2) garden interventions in developing versus developed countries, and (3) the concerns and risks of community gardening. Community gardens are a reemerging phenomenon in many low- and high-income urban neighborhoods to address the common risk factors of modern lifestyle. Community gardens are not limited to developed countries. They also exist in developing low-income countries but usually serve a different purpose of food security. Despite their benefits, community gardens can become a source of environmental toxicants from the soil of mostly empty lands that might have been contaminated by toxicants in the past. Therefore, caution should be taken about gardening practices and the types of foods to be grown on such soil if there was evidence of contamination. We present community gardens as additional solutions to the epidemic of chronic diseases in low-income urban communities and how it can have a positive physical, mental and social impact among participants. On balance, the benefits of engaging in community gardens are likely to outweigh the potential risk that can be remedied. Quantitative population studies are needed to provide evidence of the benefits and health impacts versus potential harms from community gardens.

  13. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  14. Coal competitiveness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogeaux, B.

    2006-01-01

    Will coal electrical plants be more competitive in the coming years? Answering this one cannot be limited to merely comparing estimates based on reference electricity production costs. The competitiveness of coal will indeed depend on the final product marketed, as the MWhs are not equal: is the purpose to produce base, half-base MWh? Does the electrical equipment structure require flexible MWh (for instance in the event of significant intermittent renewable energy amounts), and therefore plants able to adjust their power rapidly? But the competitiveness of coal will also depend on many factors that will correct reference cost estimates: uncertainties, risks, externalities. These factors will need to be appreciated on a case by case basis. We introduce some of the reasoning used to better appreciate the future competitiveness of coal, and the main factors conditioning it in three contrasting regions of the world: Europe, USA, china. (author)

  15. Study protocol: effects of school gardens on children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nancy M; Myers, Beth M; Henderson, Charles R

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is an epidemic. Strategies are needed to promote children's healthy habits related to diet and physical activity. School gardens have the potential to bolster children's physical activity and reduce time spent in sedentary activity; however little research has examined the effect of gardens on children's physical activity. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examines the effect of school gardens on children's overall physical activity and sedentary behavior; and on children's physical activity during the school day. In addition, physical activity levels and postures are compared using direct observation, outdoors, in the garden and indoors, in the classroom. Twelve New York State schools are randomly assigned to receive the school garden intervention or to serve in the wait-list control group that receives gardens and lessons at the end of the study. The intervention consists of a raised bed garden; access to a curriculum focused on nutrition, horticulture, and plant science and including activities and snack suggestions; resources for the school including information about food safety in the garden and related topics; a garden implementation guide provided guidance regarding planning, planting and maintaining the garden throughout the year; gardening during the summer; engaging volunteers; building community capacity, and sustaining the program. Data are collected at baseline and 3 post-intervention follow-up waves at 6, 12, and 18 months. Physical activity (PA) "usually" and "yesterday" is measured using surveys at each wave. In addition, at-school PA is measured using accelerometry for 3 days at each wave. Direct observation (PARAGON) is used to compare PA during an indoor classroom lesson versus outdoor, garden-based lesson. Results of this study will provide insight regarding the potential for school gardens to increase children's physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviors. Clinicaltrial.gov # NCT02148315.

  16. Pattern formation in confined chemical gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wit, Anne; Haudin, Florence; Brau, Fabian; Cartwright, Julyan

    2014-05-01

    Chemical gardens are plant-like mineral structures first described in the seventeenth century and popularly known from chemistry sets for children. They are classically grown in three-dimensional containers by placing a solid metal-salt seed into a silicate solution. When the metal salt starts dissolving in the silicate solution, a semi-permeable membrane forms by precipitation across which water is pumped by osmosis from the silicate solution into the metal salt solution, further dissolving the salt. Above a given pressure, the membrane breaks. The dissolved metal salt solution being generally less dense than the reservoir silicate solution, it rises as a buoyant jet through the broken membrane and further precipitates in contact with the silicate solution, producing a collection of mineral forms that resemble a garden. Such gardens are the subject of increased interest as a model system to understand pattern formation in sea-ice brinicles and hydrothermal vents on the seafloor, among others. All these self-organized precipitation structures at the interface between chemistry, fluid dynamics and mechanics share indeed common chemical, mechanical and electrical properties. In this framework, we study experimentally spatial patterns resulting from the growth of chemical gardens in confined quasi-two-dimensional (2D) geometries upon radial injection of a metallic salt solution into a silicate solution in a horizontal Hele-Shaw cell. We find a large variety of patterns including spirals, fingers, worms, filiform tubes, and flower-like patterns. By exploring the phase space of reactant concentrations and injection flow rates, we observe transitions between these spatio-temporal structures resulting from a coupling between the precipitation reaction, mechanical effects and hydrodynamic instabilities.

  17. What’s that you say? ‘Le Jardin des Particules’ (The Particle Garden)?

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    A few weeks ago, the Staff Association launched a competition to find a new name for the Staff Association Nursery and School, currently known under the acronym EVEE (‘Espace de Vie Enfantine et École’). The goal of the competition was to find a memorable, well-liked name, which also defines the professional, dynamic and playful identity of the establishment. Many thanks to the many who took part in the competition. The jury, which was composed of seven people (Members of the staff association, the Headmistress of the school and representatives of teaching members of staff as well as a representative of parents) initially selected four entries. On 21 March, the jury met for a second time and unanimously selected the winning name ‘Le Jardin de Particules’ (The Particle Garden) Why was this the winner? * ‘Jardin’ or garden refers to the historical name of the establishment, formerly known as ‘le jardin d’enfants&rsquo...

  18. Understanding competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    CRESPO, Aranzazu; SEGURA-CAYUELA, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    Using firm level data, we analyze the factors that drive the evolution of the aggregate Unit Labor Costs – the main European competitiveness indicator – in France, Germany, Italy and Spain. The evolution of the aggregate Unit Labor Cost is not driven by the evolution of the firm level Unit Labor Costs, but rather by an important factor for the competitiveness of a country: the reallocation of resources among the firms of the economy. Using the methodology of Hsieh and Klenow (...

  19. REGIONAL COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Krželj-Čolović, Zorica

    2015-01-01

    Individual city and regional authorities in many countries have themselves taken up the issue of “competitiveness” as part of their own economic development agendas: competitiveness has come to be regarded as critical for understanding and promoting local economic performance. Like their national counterparts, regional and city policy-makers have become preoccupied with knowing the relative competitive standing of their local economies compared with others, not just other regions and cities w...

  20. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  1. [Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Marisela; Ascanio, Vanesa

    2009-03-01

    Development and technological transfer of functional pastas extended with legumes. Semolina pasta is a highly consumed foodstuff, the biological value of which is low because its protein is deficient in lysine. However, if the semolina is extended with legumes rich in this essential aminoacid, not only and aminoacid supplementation is produced, but also the dietary fibre and minerals are increased. In this work, pastas extended in 10% with a white variety of Phaseolus vulgaris and with Cajanus cajan were produced on a pilot plant scale, and this technology was transferred to a cooperative producing artisanal pastas. The cooking qualities and the physical, chemical, and nutritional characteristics of the pastas were evaluated, as well as the sensorial acceptability in institutionalized elderly people. The extension of the pastas with legume flours increased the optimum cooking time (15 to 20%), the weight (20% and 25%), and the loss of solids by cooking. Similarly, the functional value of the pastas increased by increasing the contents of minerals and dietary fibre. The protein content, as well as the protein digestibility in vitro also increased; however, the parameters of colour L, a and b, and the total starch content of the pastas decreased. At consumer level, the pastas extended with legumes had a good acceptability, for what it was concluded that the extension of the semolina with legume flours in the manufacture of pastas is technologically feasible.

  2. Ripe for Change: Garden-Based Learning in Schools. Harvard Education Letter Impact Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Jane S.

    2015-01-01

    "Ripe for Change: Garden-Based Learning in Schools" takes a big-picture view of the school garden movement and the state of garden-based learning in public K--8 education. The book frames the garden movement for educators and shows how school gardens have the potential to be a significant resource for teaching and learning. In this…

  3. Teaching Material Culture and Chinese Gardens at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Han

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper reflects on the experience of designing and teaching a course on material culture and Chinese gardens. Involving traditional philosophy, ethics, religion, painting, calligraphy, craft, literature, architecture and horticulture, a classical Chinese garden can be considered a microcosm of Chinese culture. This essay discusses the textbooks and general organization of the course, particularly focusing on how students study the key elements (rocks, water, plants and architecture in building a Chinese garden. Some Chinese literature with representations of gardens that can be used for this class is also introduced. In addition, this essay uses two classical Chinese gardens built in the United States (the Astor Court and the Garden of Flowing Fragrance to discuss the appropriation of “Chinese-ness” in different geographical, physical and cultural environments. Finally, some available online resources and technologies that have enhanced student understanding of the subject matter are introduced.

  4. The interrelationship between subject matter and school gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jacob Højgaard; Wistoft, Karen

    2018-01-01

    This article maps out existing research regarding the effectiveness of integrated teaching in school gardens, i.e. including the math, languages and science subjects with their related objectives and curricula in school garden teaching and vice versa. The article is based on a literature review...... that concludes that school gardens have a predominantly positive influence on students’ learning outcome. However, there are a few school garden programmes that have the same or even a less beneficial influence on students’ learning outcome than traditional teaching. Thus, school gardens do not have...... an unequivocally positive academic learning effect. The review extracts and discusses some of the factors that are consistently emphasized in the research literature as central to ensuring successful subject integration in school gardens. Taking these as a point of departure, it is concluded that developing...

  5. Smell and Anosmia in the Aesthetic Appreciation of Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Tafalla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his Critique of the Power of Judgment, Kant defined the garden as a visual art and considered that smell plays no role in its aesthetic appreciation. If the Kantian thesis were right, then a person who has no sense of smell (who suffers from anosmia would not be impaired in his or her aesthetic appreciation of gardens. At the same time, a visually impaired person could not appreciate the beauty of gardens, although he or she could perceive them through hearing, smell, taste, and touch. In this paper I discuss the role of smell and anosmia in the aesthetic appreciation of gardens. I accept the Kantian idea that the appreciation of a garden is the appreciation of its form, but I also defend that, at least in some cases, smell can belong to the form of gardens and, consequently, the ability or inability to smell influences their aesthetic appreciation.

  6. Refugees connecting with a new country through community food gardening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Neil; Minniss, Fiona Rowe; Somerset, Shawn

    2014-09-05

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population who undergo nutrition transition as a result of forced migration. This paper explores how involvement in a community food garden supports African humanitarian migrant connectedness with their new country. A cross-sectional study of a purposive sample of African refugees participating in a campus-based community food garden was conducted. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with twelve African humanitarian migrants who tended established garden plots within the garden. Interview data were thematically analysed revealing three factors which participants identified as important benefits in relation to community garden participation: land tenure, reconnecting with agri-culture, and community belonging. Community food gardens offer a tangible means for African refugees, and other vulnerable or marginalised populations, to build community and community connections. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of social connectedness for wellbeing.

  7. Productive Urban Landscape In Developing Home Garden In Yogyakarta City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan, S. N. R.; Sarwadi, A.

    2017-10-01

    Home garden is one type of agroecosystem that supports ecosystem services even in the urban settlement. The studies involved literature references and field survey along with a framework of the productive urban landscape that support ecosystem services in home garden. Productive urban landscape provided environmentally, socially and economically benefits that contained in ecosystem services. Problems on limited space in the urban settlement have to be managed by modified home garden system in order to work for ecosystem service in developing productive landscape. This study aimed to assess home garden (Pekarangan) system in a cluster of high density settlement in Yogyakarta City. Structured interview and vegetation identification of home garden have been conducted on 80 samples in Rejowinangun Kotagede District, Yogyakarta City. People showed enthusiasm in ecosystem services provided by home garden “Pekarangan Produktif” through developing productive urban landscape. Some benefits on ecosystem services of home garden were revealed on this study consisted of food production for sale (4.7%), home industry (7.69%), aesthetics (22.65%), food (14.10%), biodiversity (10.68%), ecosystem (12.82%), education (2.56), social interaction (11.54%), recreation (4.70%), and others (8.55%). Nevertheless, vegetation and other elements of home gardens have been managed irregularly and in particularly, the planned home gardens were only 17.07%. Actually, home gardens provided a large set of ecosystem services including being cultural services those are the category most valued. The urban people almost hided the understanding of the cultural benefit of ecosystem services of home garden, even though Yogyakarta has known the cultural city. Thus, urban home garden, as way as “Pekarangan Produktif” in the limited space that managed and planned sustainably, provide many benefits of ecosystem services in a productive urban landscape.

  8. Recycling urban waste as possible use for rooftop vegetable garden

    OpenAIRE

    Grard, baptiste; Bel, N.; Marchal, N.; Madre, N.; Castell, Jean-François; Cambier, Philippe; Houot, Sabine; Manouchehri, Nastaran; Besancon, S.; Michel , J.C.; Chenu, Claire; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Aubry, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Urban authorities in Europe are confronted with increasing demands by urban dwellers for allotment gardens, but vacant urban soil tends to be scarce and/or polluted by past industrial activities. A possible solution for local authorities could therefore be to promote rooftop gardening. However little technical information exists on certain forms of rooftop urban agriculture, called Z-Farming. In 2012, a pilot experiment was run in Paris (France). Simple and cheap systems of rooftop gardening ...

  9. Nitrogen contributions of legume roots to cabbage nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Oliveira Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of roots are generally not considered in studies assessing crop responses to green manure. However, measuring such effects can contribute to a better understanding of crop rotation. In two experiments, we evaluated the content of legume-N in crop tissue and the fertilizer value of the roots and shoots of two legume species. Roots, shoots, or whole plants of the legumes sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea and jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis were cropped as green manure to supply nitrogen to cabbage crops (Brassica oleracea var. capitata. The principle of the A-value technique was applied to estimate the fertilizer value of each plant part. In a pot experiment, both the content of legume-N in cabbage and the fertilizer value of the whole plant was higher than the shoots, which was in turn higher than that of the roots. In field condition, roots had a decreasing effect on the N content of cabbage plants. Growing cabbage on legume root residue resulted in an increased absorption of 15N-urea, resulting in negative values ​​for legume-N content: -13.59 g kg-1 and -3.51 g kg-1 for sunhemp and jack beans, respectively. Suggesting both low N supply by roots and N immobilization in soil organic matter or microbial biomass. Future research should focus on estimating the net N acquisition by plants from root residues under field conditions, where rooting patterns and biomass distribution differ from those in pot experiments, therefore giving a more realistic quantitative estimate.

  10. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  11. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Rasmussen, Jim; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    2012-01-01

    amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...... to neighbouring plants differed among nitrogen donors and nitrogen receivers and may depend on root characteristics and regrowth strategies of plant species in the multi-species grassland.......Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...

  12. School Gardens: A Qualitative Study on Implementation Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nele Huys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available School gardens have beneficial effects on children’s dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10–13 years old in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium. We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden, but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves. In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children’s health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.

  13. School Gardens: A Qualitative Study on Implementation Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Nele; De Cocker, Katrien; De Craemer, Marieke; Roesbeke, Marleen; Cardon, Greet; De Lepeleere, Sara

    2017-11-25

    School gardens have beneficial effects on children's dietary behaviors but information on its implementation is scarce. The current study aimed to gain insight in implementation practices of school gardens and in perceptions of key members and children towards a school garden. We conducted twelve interviews involving 14 key members and five focus groups with 38 children from fifth to sixth grade (10-13 years old) in four primary schools in Ghent (Flanders, Belgium). We analyzed the interviews and focus groups in NVivo, using thematic analysis. School gardens were mainly initiated to involve children in nature, not to improve vegetable consumption. Participants were positive about having a school garden, experienced facilitating factors (e.g., adaptability of the garden, having a person responsible for the garden), but also various barriers (e.g., difficulties with startup, maintenance during summer holidays and integration in the school curriculum) and suggested some solutions (e.g., involving external organizations and parents, expanding the garden) and motivating factors for children (e.g., colorful plants, use of gloves). In order to improve implementation and to contribute to children's health, future school gardening projects should take the recommendations of key members and children into account.

  14. Determining Barriers to Use of Edible School Gardens in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Lucy; Spaulding, Aslihan D; Steffen, Richard; Kopsell, Dave; Nnakwe, Nweze

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to gather data regarding the awareness, perceived benefits, interest in, and barriers to establishment of edible school gardens in Illinois public schools. Setting/Design: This study used an online survey design. Participants included Illinois public elementary school principals and superintendents. Region and community population, current edible garden use, perception (Likert scale) of garden benefits, interest in establishment of a school edible garden, and barriers to establishment of a school edible garden were the variables of interest. Logit regression and Kruskal-Wallis with follow-up where p school principals and superintendents are aware of gardens and their potential benefits to students, but many barriers exist that make their use challenging. Funding, staff and volunteer support, and class time were identified as the major barriers. Region affected likelihood of garden use, and community population size also affected the odds of having an edible school garden. Data suggest that edible garden use would increase with provision of resources and organization of dedicated supporters.

  15. The Study of Bogor Botanical Garden Ecotourism Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Yusri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study were : 1 to improve development of Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, 2 to recommend strategies of development for Bogor Botanical Garden ecotourism value chain, and 3 to formulate programs that increase value added for Bogor Botanical Garden value chain, especially for involved SME’s. Data collected from survey, in depth interview, and literature was analyzed using descriptive analysis, value chain analysis, SWOT analysis. The results of SWOT analysis indicated that the strength of The Bogor Botanical Garden value chain was the well known Bogor Botanical Garden, the weakness was lack of investment to improve the Bogor Botanical Garden, the opportunity was the support of government, and the threat was the growing of ecotourism competitor. Recommended strategies were : 1 relying on the strenghts of Bogor Botanical Garden as a focal point of the plus ecoedutourism programs, 2 improving quality of human resources at each value chain, 3 increasing investment for the development of value chain, and 4 marketing Bogor Botanical Garden as past of various integrated packages with other tourism objective in Indonesia.Keywords: Bogor Botanical Garden, Ecotourism Value Chain, SWOT Analysis

  16. Architectural Programme On Formation Of The Uzbek National Garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustayev Bahrom Bahodirovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available in the present paper an attempt has been made to base the actuality of creating national Uzbek gardens and the search of its roots out of gardens of the period of Timur and the Timurids and as well as Baburids gardens in the style of Chorbog. In this connection for the first time from the scientific point of view the architectural Program of a new national garden of Uzbekistan based on the style of Chorbog was formed. It was proved that this problem is an urgent one for construction of modern landscape architecture in Uzbekistan.

  17. [LEGUME-RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS PROTEOMICS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Iu Iu; Mamenko, P M; Kots, S Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present review contains results of proteomic researches of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The technical difficulties associated with the methods of obtaining protein extracts from symbiotic structures and ways of overcoming them were discussed. The changes of protein synthesis under formation and functioning of symbiotic structures were shown. Special attention has been given to the importance of proteomic studies of plant-microbe structures in the formation of adaptation strategies under adverse environmental conditions. The technical and conceptual perspectives of legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics were shown.

  18. Effects of alternative legume seeds on Barbaresca lamb meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pennisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a renewed interest towards the use of local legume seeds in animal nutrition was raising in Mediterranean areas. Conventional feedstuffs such as maize and soybean and animal by-products, the former widely diffused as genetically modified organisms (GMO and the latter related to “mad cow disease” produced significative changes in public perceptions, justifying a dramatic increase of the use of alternative protein and energy sources such as legume seeds (peas, faba beans, chickpeas (Hanbury et al., 2000...

  19. Design of evidence-based gardens and garden therapy for neurodisability in Scandinavia: data from 14 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Josephine Anne

    2016-04-01

    A total of 14 Scandinavian therapy gardens were visited and data collected on plantings, therapeutic activities and assessment of effectiveness in Spring 2014. Data were gathered by a questionnaire and by interviewing staff in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The data collection structured proforma used the post-occupation assessment method. Gardening promoted physical movement, presented cognitive challenges and provided opportunities for social participation. Half the gardens were enclosed with sensory plants and 85% were adapted for wheelchairs. A total of 57% of gardens visited had simple designs with flowers, shrubs, lawns and trees. A social center was important especially for dementia clients. Planted pots were used in 79% of gardens. The effectiveness of therapy gardens was assessed at 71% of sites.

  20. Subcontract Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    DRCPM- ROL USA Missile Command, ATTN: DRCPM-VI Armor Training Devices, ATTN: DRCPM-AR 3 APRO 82-11 FINAL SUBCONTRACT COMPETITION by Wayne V. Zabel Charles...A. Correia "I S The pronouns "he," "his," and "him," when used in this publication, represent both the masculine and feminine genders unless... advertising or by negotiation, shall be made on a competitive basis to the maximum practicable extent." Armed Services Procurement Regul-tion Manual

  1. Optimization of cereal-legume blend ratio to enhance the nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of different cereal-legume blending ratios on nutritional quality and functional property of different blends. The legumes and steeped cereals were cleaned, minimally roasted, dehulled, milled and sifted separately. A single-factor experiment with three levels of the factor (cereal: legume ratio ...

  2. rotational effects of grain legumes on maize performance in the rift

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-10-27

    Oct 27, 2000 ... The study has demonstrated that the use of grain legumes, particularly dolichos in rotation with maize, is a ... legume plant residues (Onim etal., 1990; Kwesiga and Coe, 1994; Wortmann et al., 1994; Peoples et ... It may be feasible to produce suitably adapted legumes during the shcrt rains to produce ...

  3. "Otherways" into the Garden: Re-Visioning the Feminine in "The Secret Garden."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Linda T.

    2002-01-01

    Documents the author's interpretation of Frances Hodgson Burnett's "The Secret Garden." Explores a series of questions dealing with issues such as sight, speech, power, gender construction, and symbolism. Reveals the positive and potent ways women subvert the hegemony of patriarchal society and the celebration of the divine feminine…

  4. A Garden of Stories: An English Lesson in a Botanical Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Five middle school teachers are among the few people wandering around the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, squinting at labels describing the plants that will bloom soon. The author and her colleagues are on a reconnaissance mission, trying to plan an interdisciplinary field trip for the seventh grade. They represent different departments--science, math,…

  5. Farmer's market, demonstration gardens, and research projects expand outreach of Extension Master Gardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Bennett; Ellen M. Bauske; Alison Stoven O' Connor; Jean Reeder; Carol Busch; Heidi A. Kratsch; Elizabeth Leger; Angela O' Callaghan; Peter J. Nitzche; Jim Downer

    2013-01-01

    Extension Master Gardener (EMG) volunteers are central to expanding the outreach and engagement of extension staff. A workshop format was used at the Annual Conference of the American Society for Horticultural Science on 31 July 2012 in Miami, FL to identify successful management techniques and projects that expand EMG volunteer outreach, leading to increased extension...

  6. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  7. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  8. Mass Spectrometry in the Home and Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Christopher J.; Bain, Ryan M.; Wiley, Joshua S.; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R. Graham

    2015-02-01

    Identification of active components in a variety of chemical products used directly by consumers is described at both trace and bulk levels using mass spectrometry. The combination of external ambient ionization with a portable mass spectrometer capable of tandem mass spectrometry provides high chemical specificity and sensitivity as well as allowing on-site monitoring. These experiments were done using a custom-built portable ion trap mass spectrometer in combination with the ambient ionization methods of paper spray, leaf spray, and low temperature plasma ionization. Bactericides, garden chemicals, air fresheners, and other products were examined. Herbicide applied to suburban lawns was detected in situ on single leaves 5 d after application.

  9. Botanic gardens should lead the way to create a “Garden Earth” in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H. Cannon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strength and expertise that botanic gardens bring to conservation are based on their detailed knowledge and understanding of the care, management, and biology of a diversity of plant species. This emphasis on the organism has led to many ex-situ and in-situ conservation programs aimed at protecting endangered species, restoring threatened populations, and establishing living plant and seed collections of endangered species. In China, the scale and pace of change in land and resource use, often leading to environmental degradation, has created a strong emphasis on improving environmental conditions. If done properly, being “green” can be a surprisingly complex issue, because it should encompass and exploit the whole of plant diversity and function. Unfortunately, ‘green’ often includes a small portion of this whole. Earth's rich plant diversity presents considerable opportunity but requires expertise and knowledge for stable and beneficial management. With the dawning of the Anthropocene, we should strive to live on a “Garden Earth”, where we design and manage our environments, both built and natural, to create a healthy, beneficial living landscape for people and other organisms. The staff of botanic gardens worldwide and the living collections they maintain embody the best examples of sustainable, beautiful, and beneficial environments that thrive on plant diversity. This expertise should be a fundamental resource for agencies in all sectors responsible for managing and designing “green” infrastructure. Botanic gardens should actively engage and contribute to these opportunities, from large public infrastructure projects to small private conservation efforts. Here, we discuss several ongoing conservation efforts, primarily in China, and attempt to identify areas where botanic gardens could make a significant and meaningful difference.

  10. Front gardens to car parks: changes in garden permeability and effects on flood regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, Jennifer R; Parks, Katherine E; McCulloch, Lindsay; Hudson, Malcolm D

    2014-07-01

    This study addresses the consequences of widespread conversion of permeable front gardens to hard standing car parking surfaces, and the potential consequences in high-risk urban flooding hotspots, in the city of Southampton. The last two decades has seen a trend for domestic front gardens in urban areas to be converted for parking, driven by the lack of space and increased car ownership. Despite media and political attention, the effects of this change are unknown, but increased and more intense rainfall, potentially linked to climate change, could generate negative consequences as runoff from impermeable surfaces increases. Information is limited on garden permeability change, despite the consequences for ecosystem services, especially flood regulation. We focused on eight flooding hotspots identified by the local council as part of a wider urban flooding policy response. Aerial photographs from 1991, 2004 and 2011 were used to estimate changes in surface cover and to analyse permeability change within a digital surface model in a GIS environment. The 1, 30 and 100 year required attenuation storage volumes were estimated, which are the temporary storage required to reduce the peak flow rate given surface permeability. Within our study areas, impermeable cover in domestic front gardens increased by 22.47% over the 20-year study period (1991-2011) and required attenuation storage volumes increased by 26.23% on average. These increases suggest that a consequence of the conversion of gardens to parking areas will be a potential increase in flooding frequency and severity - a situation which is likely to occur in urban locations worldwide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... Seed characteristics of legume species used in this study. Species. Cultivar. Collect location. Seed mass (mg). T. repens. -. Jilin Province. 0.58±0.002 .... The effects of depth (D), light (L), species (S) and their interaction on germination characteristics, morphological ..... Early seedling growth of pine (Pinus.

  12. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ..... and oil quality at UAS-D, while genotyping with 53 poly- morphic markers was generated at ...

  13. Assessment of Traditionally Produced Dakuwa (A Cereal/Legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dakuwa (a local legume/cereal snack) samples were collected from local producers cutting across seven local government areas in Niger State, central Nigeria and assessed on the basis of proximate composition, anti-nutritional factors and mineral content, microbiological and sensory qualities. There were significant ...

  14. Progress with the legume bacteria in Rhodesia | HDL | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Progress during eight years of work in Rhodesia with Rhizobium is presented. 370 of the country's 507 known indigenous species of legumes have been examined for nodulation, and all but 13 found to form nodules. A collection of 573 isolates of Rhizobium, 221 of them from other countries, has been built up on a basis of ...

  15. Emergence and seedling growth of five forage legume species at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field study compared the seedling emergence and structure of five forage legumes (Trifolium repens L., Medicago falcata L., Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb, Medicago sativa L. and Lespedeza davurica Schindler) at five planting depths (1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 cm) and two light levels (full light and shade) on the 21st day after ...

  16. Smallholder farmers' use and profitability of legume inoculants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The area under the crop, distance to local markets, knowledge of legume root nodules, education level, contacts with organisations promoting biological N fixation (BNF) technologies, group membership, soybean market and location of the farm based on agro-ecological zone were factors that determine the use of the ...

  17. Productivity and stability of various grass-legume mixtures with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three trials were established at Cedara under dryland conditions to determine the production, persistence and value of Trifolium repens cv. Ladino, Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland red and Desmodium uncinatum cv. Silverleaf. These legumes were row-planted into Pennisetum clandestinum (kikuyu); Cynodon nlemfuensis ...

  18. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assessment of macromineral concentration of Panicum/Stylosanthes mixtures was carried out at the Cattle Production Venture, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, in Southwest Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture grazed by the ...

  19. Qualitative nutrient requirements of selected legume species on two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three perennial legumes (Macroptilium atropurpureum, Rhynchosia totta and Rhynchosia minima) were evaluated in a glass-house under uncontrolled environmental conditions for herbage, root and nodule yield on two soils and on river sand under six fertilizer treatments. Keywords: qualitative analyses|nutrient ...

  20. Perennial legumes on dry lands in the western Highveld region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a great need for perennial pasture legumes which are adapted to dryland production in the western Highveld. ... Averaged over two years, three selections yielded more than two tonnes dry material per ha: namely, Desmodium uncinatum 2,78, Medicago sativa 2,74 and Macroptilium atropurpureum 2,10.

  1. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-15

    Oct 15, 2012 ... genetic maps and genomic resources will certainly accelerate crop improvement programmes in the SAT legumes. http://www.ias.ac.in/jbiosci ... soil plant analytical development; SSR, simple sequence repeats; TAC, transcript assembly contig; TE, transpiration efficiency; TUS, tentative unique sequences.

  2. evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    was found to be highest in N(1.10kg-1) and P(0.0597) than other legumes residues. Other essential nutrients like calcium, magnesium and potassium were also determined. Generally, crop residues and their ashes are ... to the integrated application of organic and inorganic fertilizer in tropical crop production. Despite the.

  3. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and ...

  4. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  5. Symbiotic specificity of tropical tree rhizobia for host legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The host range and specificity is reported of a genetically diverse group of rhizobia isolated from nodules of Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nodule number and nitrogen content was measured in seedlings of herbaceous and woody legume species

  6. Effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Ibadan, in early 2004 and 2005 to evaluate the effects of interplanted legumes with maize on major soil nutrients and performance of maize. The experiment laid out in a randomized complete block design, with four levels of crop ...

  7. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  8. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Germinated Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Tan Khang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive compounds, which are naturally produced in plants, have been concerned with the food and pharmaceutical industries because of the pharmacological effects on humans. In this study, the individual phenolics of six legumes during germination and antioxidant capacity from sprout extracts were determined. It was found that the phenolic content significantly increased during germination in all legumes. Peanuts showed the strongest antioxidant capacity in both the DPPH• (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method and the reducing power assay (32.51% and 84.48%, respectively. A total of 13 phenolic acids were detected and quantified. There were 11 phenolic constituents identified in adzuki beans; 10 in soybeans; 9 in black beans, mung beans, and white cowpeas; and 7 compounds in peanuts. Sinapic acid and cinnamic acid were detected in all six legume sprouts, and their quantities in germinated peanuts were the highest (247.9 µg·g−1 and 62.9 µg·g−1, respectively. The study reveals that, among the investigated legumes, germinated peanuts and soybeans obtained maximum phenolics and antioxidant capacity.

  9. Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predicting the Chemical composition of herbaceous legumes using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. J F Mupangwa, N Berardo, N T Ngongoni, J H Topps, H Hamudikuwanda, M Ordoardi. Abstract. (Journal of Applied Science in Southern Africa: 2000 6(2): 107-114). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jassa.v6i2.16844.

  10. Evaluation of nutrient composition of some cereals and legumes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of compost for horticultural crops production in Nigeria is beginning to gain some attention, since it has been reported to improve plant growth and yield. Some cereals and legumes crops residues with potentials of being used as compost materials such as Sorghum Stovers, Rice Straws, Maize Stovers, Millet ...

  11. Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in the improvement of legume productivity under stressed environments. R Serraj, J Adu-Gyamfi. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wajae.v6i1.45613.

  12. Annual legumes for improving soil fertility in the smallholder maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We need to screen new legumes for local adaptation to see if there are new species or accessions that do better on smallholder farms. Some green manures, especially ... More work with velvet beans is required on farms to establish the size and speed of yield gains for following maize crops. Also, more participatory work ...

  13. Legume and mineral fertilizer derived nutrient use efficiencies by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimentations included eight treatments in a RCB design (n=3): four herbaceous legume-maize successions and four continuous maize cropping with urea (U, 46% N, 50 kg ha-1), triple superphosphate (TSP, 45% P, 30 kg ha-1), urea+triple superphosphate (U+TSP) and a control. The NUE was estimated through ...

  14. Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Adoption of fodder legumes technology through farmer-to-farmer extension approach. J. Sinja,ab*J. Karugia,b M. Waithakaac, D. Miano,c I. Baltenwecka; S. Franzeld ... informal methods of dissemination especially farmer-to-farmer extension. It is not known ... Results showed that farmers with positions in farmer groups, with.

  15. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    02001, African Crop Science Society. LEGUMES IN SOIL FERTILITY MANAGEMENT: THE CASE OF PIGEONPEA. IN SMALLHOLDER FARMING SYSTEMS OF ZIMBABWE. - P. MAPFUMO, B.M. CAMPBELL1, S. MPEPEREKI and P. MAFONGOYA2. Department of Soil Sclence and Agricultural Engineering, University of ...

  16. Relative efficiency of legumes in utilizing soil and fertilizer phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, O.P.; Prasad, R.; Subbiah, B.V.

    1977-01-01

    A pot-culture study was made at Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to study the native P feeding power of six rainy season legumes (green gram, black gram, cowpea, pigeon pea, soyabean and groundnut). Ordinary superphosphate tagged with 32 P was used in the study. At the first harvest (30 days after seeding) soybean and cowpea and at the second harvest (45 days after sowing) cowpea and groundnut removed more P than the other legumes. Pigeon pea removed the least P due to its slow growth. The tracer studies showed that during the first 30 days, groundnut, pigeon pea and soyabean were relatively better feeders of native soil P than the other legumes. Some varietal differences with respect to their capacity to feed on native soil P were also observed and in groundnut the varieties AK-12-24 and Jyoti removed more soil P than the variety NG-268. Differences between the legumes with respect to feeding on native soil P were much less at the second harvest (45 days after seeding). (author)

  17. Profitability of sorghum-legume cropping practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    kilogram. Besides that, groundnut and sorghum-legume intercrops incurred the highest variable costs which could have negatively affected their gross margins. Corresponding gross margins from the different enterprises were generated as shown in table 2. Analysis of variance on the Gross margin of sorghum-cowpea ...

  18. Improvement of diabetic dyslipidemia by legumes in experimental rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain legumes are a valuable source of food proteins; hence, their exploitation is expected to grow in relation to a growing world's food needs. Apart from high level of dietary fibre, their protein composition makes them useful in managing diabetes. This paper reports a study conducted to evaluate the effects of four different ...

  19. Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors

  20. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... reduction in dietary protein intake of rabbits in the latter stages of growth where rabbits are raised up to 2.5-2.8 kg live weight. This study was designed therefore to evaluate the utilization of combinations of concentrate, grass and legume forages on performance and nutrient digestibility of grower rabbits.

  1. Children Gardening: First Steps Towards a Sustainable Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robin C.

    1995-01-01

    Children's gardening is introduced within the broader frame of reference of sustainable development, regenerative design, and biodesign. Gardening in the primary grades is proposed as one of the most feasible pedagogical approaches for ensuring a daily learning experience that provides contact with nature. Presents a case study of children's…

  2. Development and pilot study findings of the Delta Garden Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to explore how school–based gardening programs can affect health and related behaviors and to assess how such programs can be sustainable over time and replicated to more settings. Across the world, there has been a recent revitalization and reinvention of gardening eff...

  3. Predicting Teacher Likelihood to Use School Gardens: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincy, Natalie; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Navarro, Maria; Knauft, David

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative survey, built around the theory of planned behavior, was used to investigate elementary teachers' attitudes, school norms, perceived behavioral control, and intent in both current and ideal teaching situations toward using gardens in their curriculum. With positive school norms and teachers who garden in their personal time, 77% of…

  4. Measurement of farm level efficiency of home gardens in Uyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the farm level efficiency of home vegetable gardens in Uyo, a stochastic production function which incorporates a model for the technical inefficiency effects was used. Using farm-level data from 80 home gardeners obtained through structured questionnaire, the parameters were estimated simultaneously with ...

  5. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  6. From Garden to Recipient: A Direct Approach to Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Maine Harvest for Hunger (MHH) involves Master Gardeners in food security through participation in gleaning and gardening projects that benefit food pantries. A statewide survey (Murphy, 2011a) indicates many food pantries face increased demand but are unable to distribute all of the donated produce. The MHH program in Oxford County is designed to…

  7. Society News: Astronomy in the garden wins RHS prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    The Spaced Out garden, sponsored by the RAS, won a Gold Medal from the Royal Horticultural Society at the Tatton Park Garden Show in August. It also provided a showcase for a model of the Philae Lander, part of ESA's Rosetta mission to comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and an unusual occasion for astronomy outreach.

  8. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semenova, Tatyana; Hughes, David Peter; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2011-01-01

    of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles...

  9. An all-inorganic polyoxometalate-polyoxocation chemical garden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Points, Laurie J; Cooper, Geoffrey J T; Dolbecq, Anne; Mialane, Pierre; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-01-31

    Herein, we show it is possible to produce wholly inorganic chemical gardens from a cationic polyoxometalate (POM) seed in an anionic POM solution, demonstrating a wholly POM-based chemical garden system that produces architectures over a wide concentration range. Six concentration dependent growth regimes have been discovered and characterized: clouds, membranes, slugs, tubes, jetting and budding.

  10. A Rain Garden for Our School: Becoming Environmental Stewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Joy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a rain garden project at Hampton Elementary School in Bay City, Michigan. The goal of the project was to slow and filter silt-laden runoff (from parking lots, sidewalks, and playground) on its path to Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron. In addition, doing so, the rain gardens would demonstrate to the township, city,…

  11. Community and School Gardens as Spaces for Learning Social Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Kimberley; Ferreira, Jo-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Can community and school gardens help people learn to build social resilience to potential food shortages? We seek to address this question through an examination of the ways in which gardens can teach individual and community resiliency in times of emergency, pockets of food insecurity, and the challenges presented by climate change. We focus on…

  12. School Gardens: Cultivating Food Security in Nova Scotia Public Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Liesel; Williams, Patricia L; Hayes-Conroy, Jessica S; Lordly, Daphne; Callaghan, Edith

    2016-09-01

    A small but growing body of peer-reviewed research suggests that school gardens can play a role in building community food security (CFS); however, to date little research exploring the role of school gardens in supporting CFS is available. This paper begins to address this gap in the literature. A qualitative, exploratory, single-case study design was used. The focus of this case study was the school food garden at an elementary school in the River Valley, Nova Scotia, school community. Results provide useful information about potential CFS effects of school gardens in addition to the environmental effects on school gardens important to their effectiveness as CFS tools. Findings suggest children gained food-related knowledge, skills, and values that support long-term CFS. A local social and political landscape at the community, provincial, and school board level were key to strengthening this garden's contributions to CFS. We support Dietitians of Canada's nomination of school gardens as an indicator of CFS with theoretical and practical evidence, underscore the importance of a supportive environment, and need for further research in this area. Health professionals and community organizations provide critical support, helping to weave gardens into a greater movement towards building CFS.

  13. School Gardens: Situating Students within a Global Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolsey, Thomas DeVere; Lapp, Diane

    2014-01-01

    School-based gardens are increasingly common. The benefits to students reflect principles of global education by modeling sustainability through responsible ecological planning and service to the community, the environment, and humanity. The authors propose a pedagogical framework for planning school gardens and related experiences that…

  14. Bauran Pemasaran Yang Mempengaruhi Loyalitas Konsumen Di Hotel Garden Palace

    OpenAIRE

    Wijaya, Adeline; Cynthia, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Bauran Pemasaran yang Mempengaruhi Loyalitas Konsumen di Hotel Garden Palace Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bauran pemasaran terhadap loyalitas konsumen dengan kepuasan konsumen sebagai variabel perantara di hotel Garden Palace Surabaya. Indikator-indikator yang terdapat dalam bauran pemasaran berperan dalam membentuk kepuasan konsumen sehingga menghasilkan loyalitas konsumen. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Partial Least Square (PLS). Hasil penelitian menunjukk...

  15. Flow Dynamics and Nutrient Reduction in Rain Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  16. Nutritive potentials and utilization of garden snail (Limicolaria aurora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possibility of using garden snail (Limicolaria aurora) meat meal as a protein source in fish feeds was tested in Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous (43% crude protein) diets in which garden snail meat meal was used to replace fish meal at 0%, (control diet), 25, 50, 75 and 100% inclusion levels were used ...

  17. Herbal gardens of India: A statistical analysis report | Rao | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A knowledge system of the herbal garden in India was developed and these herbal gardens' information was statistically classified for efficient data processing, sharing and retrieving of information, which could act as a decision tool to the farmers, researchers, decision makers and policy makers in the field of medicinal ...

  18. Engaging Urban Students in a Schoolyard Beautification and Gardening Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Community gardening provides many benefits for students like outdoor physical activity, an understanding of plant life cycles, food production and healthy eating (Blair, 2009; Whiren, 1995). Gardening also provides hands-on learning opportunities to draw parallels between what is needed for plants to grow and what students need to be healthy. When…

  19. Indicators to support healthy urban gardening in urban management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke; Otte, Piet; Dirven, Liesbet; Breure, Anton M

    2018-01-01

    Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to

  20. Phytoremediation of heavy and transition metals aided by legume-rhizobia symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, X.; Taghavi, S.; Xie, P.

    2014-01-01

    Legumes are important for nitrogen cycling in the environment and agriculture due to the ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. In this review, we introduce an important and potential role of legume-rhizobia symbiosis in aiding phytoremediation of some metal contaminated soils as various legumes...... nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, phytohormone synthesis, siderophore release, and production of ACC deaminase and the volatile compounds of acetoin and 2, 3-butanediol may facilitate legume growth while lessening metal toxicity. The benefits of using legumes inoculated with naturally resistant...

  1. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p < 0.01). The release of histamine was decreased significantly when sensitized basophils were challenged with hydrolysates as compared to raw extracts. Significant reduction in the biopotency of hydrolysates was also observed in SPT where only 1/10 kidney bean-sensitive individuals, 2/6 black gram-sensitive individuals and 1/7 peanut-sensitive individuals were found positive to their respective hydrolysates. In conclusion, enzymatic hydrolysis is effective in attenuating allergenicity of legume proteins and may be employed for preparing hypoallergenic food extracts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  3. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayoub, Elana; Naudin, Christophe; Piva, Guillaume; Shirtliffe, Steven J; Fustec, Joëlle; Corre-Hellou, Guénaëlle

    2017-02-01

    Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N 2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N 2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N 2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N 2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  4. Contribution of legumes to the soil N pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustec, Joëlle; Malagoli, Philippe; Mahieu, Stéphanie

    2010-05-01

    Grain legumes can be used for nitrogen acquisition in different ways in sustainable agriculture (Fustec et al., 2009). They are seen as a tool to reduce mineral N fertilizers in cropping systems. However, estimates of biological N fixation, N balance and N benefit either for the following crop or in mixed crops, remain unclear. The contribution of legumes to the soil N pool is difficult to measure, especially N rhizodeposition, since it is a critical point for assessing N benefits for other crops and for soil biological activity, and for reducing water pollution (Mayer et al., 2003). We adapted and refined the cotton-wick 15N stem labeling method for measuring the amount of soil N derived from rhizodeposition by field peas (Mahieu et al., 2007, 2009). The method was tested in different conditions in the field and in the greenhouse with various pea varieties and isolines. In addition, we used the cotton-wick method for assessing N transfers from pea to neighbouring durum wheat. In the greenhouse, a positive relationship was found between the amount of N rhizodeposits and the legume N content. N rhizodeposition was about 15% of the plant N and 30% in the field. In field pea / durum wheat intercrops, plant-plant N transfers were quantified and found to be bidirectional. Such results should be taken into account when estimating N benefits from biological N fixation by a grain legume crop and for the prediction of N economies in legume-based cropping systems. More studies dealing with rhizodeposit compounds and soil biological activity would now be necessary. Fustec et al. 2009. Agron. Sustain. Dev., DOI 10.1051/agro/2009003, in press. Mahieu et al. 2007. Plant Soil 295, 193-205. Mahieu et al. 2009. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 2236-2243. Mayer et al. 2003. Soil Biol. Biochem. 35, 21-28.

  5. Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. STODDARD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important in world agriculture, providing biologically fixed nitrogen, breaking cereal disease cycles and contributing locally grown food and feed, including forage. Pea and faba bean were grown by early farmers in Finland, with remains dated to 500 BC. Landraces of pea and faba bean were gradually replaced by better adapted, higher quality materials for food use. While grain legumes have been restricted by their long growing seasons to the south of the country, red, white and alsike clovers are native throughout and have long been used in leys for grazing, hay and silage. Breeding programmes released many cultivars of these crops during the 1900s, particularly pea and red clover. A.I. Virtanen earned the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on both nitrogen fixation and silage preservation. Use of crop mixtures may appear modern, but farmers used them already in the early 1800s, when oat was used to support pea, and much effort has been devoted to improving the system and establishing its other benefits. Although international cultivars have been easily accessible since Finland’s 1995 entry into the European Union, the combination of feed quality and appropriate earliness is still needed, as < 1% of arable land is sown to grain legumes and an increase to 9–10% would allow replacement of imported protein feeds. Climate change will alter the stresses on legume crops, and investment in agronomy, physiology and breeding is needed so that farmers can gain from the many advantages of a legume-supported rotation.;

  6. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  7. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few...... studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume...

  8. EVOLUTIONARY TRANSITIONS IN ENZYME ACTIVITY OF ANT FUNGUS GARDENS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Fine Licht, Henrik H; Schiøtt, Morten; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2010-01-01

    an association with a monophyletic clade of specialized symbionts. In conjunction with the transition to specialized symbionts, the ants advanced in colony size and social complexity. Here we provide a comparative study of the functional specialization in extracellular enzyme activities in fungus gardens across...... the attine phylogeny. We show that, relative to sister clades, gardens of higher-attine ants have enhanced activity of protein-digesting enzymes, whereas gardens of leaf-cutting ants also have increased activity of starch-digesting enzymes. However, the enzyme activities of lower-attine fungus gardens...... are targeted primarily towards partial degradation of plant cell walls, reflecting a plesiomorphic state of non-domesticated fungi. The enzyme profiles of the higher-attine and leaf-cutting gardens appear particularly suited to digest fresh plant materials and to access nutrients from live cells without major...

  9. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  10. SoyBase and the legume information system: accessing information about the soybean and other legume genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes two websites relevant for soybean research: SoyBase, and the Legume Information System (LIS). SoyBase and LIS have different objectives and areas of emphasis. SoyBase holds a wide range of specialized data in support of soybean breeding and research activities, with the primary...

  11. Measuring competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    J. Peter Neary

    2005-01-01

    An earlier version was presented at the Conference on Macroeconomic Perspectives in Honour of Brendan M. Walsh, held at University College Dublin on 7 October, 2005 This paper reviews alternative approaches to measuring an economy?s cost competitiveness and proposes some new measures inspired by the economic theory of index numbers. The indices provide a theoretical benchmark for estimated real effective exchange rates, but differ from standard measures in that they are based on marginal r...

  12. Optimal Competition : A Benchmark for Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces optimal competition: the best form of competition in an industry that a competition authority can achieve under the information constraint that it cannot observe firms' effciency levels.We show that the optimal competition outcome in an industry becomes more competitive as more

  13. Perceived Benefits of Participation and Risks of Soil Contamination in St. Louis Urban Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Roger; Gable, Leah; Rivera-Núñez, Zorimar

    2017-12-23

    Community gardens are credited for promoting health within neighborhoods, by increasing healthy food intake and exercise frequency. These benefits, however, are potentially undermined as urban soils are often contaminated from industrial legacies. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceived benefits of participation and risks of soil contamination within urban community gardens, and factors associated with soil contamination concerns. Ninety-three gardeners were interviewed across 20 community gardens in St. Louis, Missouri between June and August 2015. Surveys included questions on demographics, gardening practices, and perceptions of community gardening. Multilevel logistic models assessed how gardener demographics, gardening practices, and garden characteristics were associated with soil contamination concerns. Common perceived benefits of community gardening were community building (68.8%), healthy and fresh food (35.5%), and gardening education (18.3%). Most gardeners (62.4%) were not concerned about soil contamination, but nearly half (48.4%) stated concerns about heavy metals. Black race was significantly associated with soil contamination concerns (OR 5.47, 95% CI 1.00-30.15, p = .04). Community gardens offer numerous social and health benefits. Although most gardeners were not concerned about soil contamination, black gardeners were more likely to have concerns. Garden leaders should provide resources to gardeners to learn about soil contamination and methods to manage their risk, particularly in minority neighborhoods.

  14. Influence of tree canopy on N{sub 2} fixation by pasture legumes and soil rhizobial abundance in Mediterranean oak woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranca, C., E-mail: corina.carranca@iniav.pt [INIAV, Qta Marquês, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Castro, I.V.; Figueiredo, N. [INIAV, Qta Marquês, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Redondo, R. [Laboratorio de Isotopos Estables, Universidade Autonoma, Madrid (Spain); Rodrigues, A.R.F. [Centro de Estudos Florestais, ISA/UL, Tapada Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal); Saraiva, I.; Maricato, R. [INIAV, Qta Marquês, 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Madeira, M.A.V. [Centro de Estudos Florestais, ISA/UL, Tapada Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation is of primordial significance in sustainable agro-forestry management as it allows reducing the use of mineral N in the production of mixed stands and by protecting the soils from degradation. Thereby, on a 2-year basis, N{sub 2} fixation was evaluated in four oak woodlands under Mediterranean conditions using a split-plot design and three replicates. {sup 15}N technique was used for determination of N{sub 2} fixation rate. Variations in environmental conditions (temperature, rainfall, radiation) by the cork tree canopy as well as the age of stands and pasture management can cause great differences in vegetation growth, legume N{sub 2} fixation, and soil rhizobial abundance. In the present study, non-legumes dominated the swards, in particular beneath the tree canopy, and legumes represented only 42% of total herbage. A 2-fold biomass reduction was observed in the oldest sown pasture in relation to the medium-age sward (6 t DW ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}). Overall, competition of pasture growth for light was negligible, but soil rhizobial abundance and symbiotic N{sub 2} fixation capacity were highly favored by this environmental factor in the spring and outside the influence of tree canopy. Nitrogen derived from the atmosphere was moderate to high (54–72%) in unsown and sown swards. Inputs of fixed N2 increased from winter to spring due to more favorable climatic conditions (temperature and light intensity) for both rhizobia and vegetation growths. Assuming a constant fixation rate at each seasonal period, N{sub 2} fixation capacity increased from about 0.10 kg N ha{sup −1} per day in the autumn–winter period to 0.15 kg N ha{sup −1} per day in spring. Belowground plant material contributed to 11% of accumulated N in pasture legumes and was not affected by canopy. Size of soil fixing bacteria contributed little to explain pasture legumes N. - Highlights: • Legumes fixation in oak woodlands was quantified in terms of biomass and N

  15. International Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Fagerberg

    1988-01-01

    This paper develops and tests a model of differing trends in international competitiveness and economic growth across countries. The model relates the development of market shares at home and abroad to three sets of factors: the ability to compete in technology, the ability to compete in delivery(capacity) and the ability to compete in price. The test, using data for 15 OECD countries for the period 1961-1983, shows that in the medium and long run, factors related to technology and capacity a...

  16. Garden of Ambivalence The Topology of the Mother-child Dyad in Grey Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defne Tüzün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Maysles brothers’ 1975 documentary, Grey Gardens, portrays the lives of Edith Bouvier Beale and her daughter, Edith, known as Little Edie, the aunt and first cousin, respectively, of Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. The mother and daughter live together in their East Hampton house that is literally falling apart. As their identical names imply, the Beales share a symbiotic relationship which is reflected in every aspect of their life. I argue that Grey Gardens calls for Julia Kristeva’s insistence on abjection as a crucial struggle with “spatial ambivalence (inside/outside uncertainty” and an attempt to mark out a space in the undifferentiated field of the mother-child symbiosis. In Powers of Horror, Kristeva (1982 states, “abjection preserves what existed in the archaism of pre-objectal relationship” (p. 10. Grey Gardens portrays the topology of the mother-child dyad, which pertains to a particular spatio-temporality: where this primordial relationship is concerned, object and subject crumble, and the distinction between past and present is irrelevant.

  17. Paving the way for space gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Patricia

    1990-01-01

    The Ecological Life Support System, a plant growth experiment now in its third year of closed chamber production at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, is discussed. Possible spin-off applications of hydrophonics experiments are noted. It is projected that long-term goals will include the integration of this garden system into the process of waste recycling for fertilization, air refreshment, and potable water recovery in a closed environment. The Biomass Production Chamber, a two-story bubble-shape steel biosphere modified from a Mercury/Gemini program attitude chamber provides a usable volume of 7.3 m x 3.6 m in diameter containing growing racks, piping for nutrient solutions, specialized lighting and sensors that provide information to the computers controlling the chamber and its functions. Computer programs provide highly sensitive monitoring and regulation of the system. Crops successfully harvested to date include dwarf wheat, lettuce, and soybeans.

  18. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  19. Experimental Study on the Health Benefits of Garden Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juyoung

    2017-07-24

    To mitigate the negative effects of modern cities on health, scientists are focusing on the diverse benefits of natural environments; a conceptual approach to use gardens for promoting human health is being attempted. In this study, the effects of the visual landscape of a traditional garden on psychological and physiological activities were investigated. Eighteen male and female adults participated in this indoor experiment (mean age, 26.7 years). Twelve different landscape images for city and garden were presented continuously for 90 s. In the time series changes of oxygenated hemoglobin (O₂Hb), different patterns of changes were observed between the city and garden. The mean O₂Hb values increased for the city landscapes, whereas they decreased for the garden landscapes both in the left and right prefrontal cortices. Significant differences in the negative psychological states of tension, fatigue, confusion, and anxiety were observed between the city and garden landscapes. Important differences in the physiological and psychological responses to the two different landscapes were also detected between male and female participants, providing valuable clues to individual differences in the health benefits of natural landscapes. To validate the use of gardens as a resource for promoting health in urban dwellers, further scientific evidence, active communication, and collaboration among experts in the relevant field are necessary.

  20. Ant-gardens of tropical Asian rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Eva; Maschwitz, Ulrich

    2006-05-01

    Ant-garden (AG) associations are systems of epiphytic plants and arboricolous (i.e., tree-living) ants, in which the ants build fragile carton nests containing organic material. They collect and incorporate seeds or fruits of epiphytes that then germinate and grow on the nest [sensu Corbara et al. (1999) 38:73-89]. The plant roots stabilize the nest carton. AGs have been well-known in the neotropics for more than 100 years. In contrast, reports on similar associations in the paleotropics are scarce so far. After discovering a first common AG system on giant bamboo [Kaufmann et al. (2001) 48:125-133], we started a large-scale survey for AGs in Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo, Java, and southern Thailand. A great variety of AG systems (altogether including 18 ant species and 51 plant species) was discovered and is described in the present paper. The high number of species participating in AG associations was reflected by a great variability in the specific appearances of the nest gardens. Frequently, further groups of organisms (e.g., hemipteran trophobionts, fungi) were also involved. Preference patterns of particular ant and epiphyte species for each other and for particular phorophytes (carrier trees) were detected. We integrate domatia-producing, so-called ant-house epiphytes in our study and compare their phases of establishment, as well as other characteristics, to “classical” AGs, coming to the conclusion that they should be regarded only as a special type of AG epiphyte and not as a separate ecological category.

  1. Indicators to support healthy urban gardening in urban management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke; Otte, Piet; Dirven, Liesbet; Breure, Anton M

    2018-04-15

    Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to consume homegrown fruit and vegetables. Urban gardens may also reduce stress levels of gardeners and improve social cohesion. In this way, they can help to prevent health problems. Good quality of urban soil and the functioning of soil ecosystems are indispensable prerequisites for these. We developed a framework that shows how ecosystem health and human health are interconnected in urban gardening, by placing it in the context of urban green space management and valuation. This study yields a set of indicators, which can be used to assess soil ecosystem services and health impacts. They may provide a basis for the evolving dialogue in decision-making processes and partnership activities in urban management. Recognizing the potential effects and discussing what is important to whom, might be enough to find synergies. Importantly, the initiators of urban gardens are often citizens, who seek support from other stakeholders. The social network established by gardens may contribute to health-enabling, cohesive communities involved with their living environment. To maximize health benefits, it is useful to make the urban gardens accessible to many people. This study suggests that urban gardens deserve a position in urban green space management as they may help to address societal challenges like urbanization, health and well-being in aging populations and climate adaptation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Local and landscape drivers of predation services in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2017-04-01

    In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness, are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e., herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i.e., landscape diversity and surrounding land use types) characteristics on predation services provided by naturally occurring predators in 19 urban gardens in the California central coast. We introduced sentinel pests (moth eggs and larvae and pea aphids) onto greenhouse-raised plants taken to gardens and assigned to open or bagged (predator exclosure) treatments. We found high predation rates with between 40% and 90% of prey items removed in open treatments. Predation services varied with local and landscape factors, but significant predictors differed by prey species. Predation of eggs and aphids increased with vegetation complexity in gardens, but larvae predation declined with vegetation complexity. Smaller gardens experienced higher predation services, likely due to increases in predator abundance in smaller gardens. Several ground cover features influenced predation services. In contrast to patterns in rural agricultural landscapes, predation on aphids declined with increases in landscape diversity. In sum, we report the relationships between several local management factors, as well as landscape surroundings, and implications for garden management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  3. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    distribution, the impact of pests and diseases, as well as vulnerability to poor soils, drought and other effects of climate change. This chapter summarises data from over 50 field experiments undertaken since 2001 on cereal-grain legume intercropping in 13 sites in southern and western France as well...... as in Denmark using spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops. Intercropping involves simultaneously growing two or more crops in the same field for a significant period of time. The practice is ancient as early records from many human societies all over the world have shown. Intercropping systems...... are estimated to still provide as much as 15–20% of the world’s food supply. The practice was widespread in some European farming systems up until the 1950s – before the so-called fossilisation of agriculture. At that time as much as 50 % of all available nitrogen (N) may have originated from symbiotic N2...

  4. Rhizobium-legume symbioses: the crucial role of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, Benjamin; Berrabah, Fathi; Ratet, Pascal; Stacey, Gary

    2015-03-01

    New research results have significantly revised our understanding of the rhizobium-legume infection process. For example, Nod factors (NFs), previously thought to be absolutely essential for this symbiosis, were shown to be dispensable under particular conditions. Similarly, an NF receptor, previously considered to be solely involved in symbiosis, was shown to function during plant pathogen infections. Indeed, there is a growing realization that plant innate immunity is a crucial component in the establishment and maintenance of symbiosis. We review here the factors involved in the suppression of plant immunity during rhizobium-legume symbiosis, and we attempt to place this information into context with the most recent and sometimes surprising research results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil macrofauna in wooded pasture with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusimar Lamarte Gonzaga Galindo da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands afforestation aims at adding different soil uses in a way they become profitable for their owners. As such handling aims at minimizing impacts, the current study had as its goal the use of soil macrofauna in order to evaluate legume afforestation effects on the soil, regardless the depth. Thus, nitrogen fixing species were inserted onto grassland areas and the macrofauna collection was performed 6 years after their planting in the 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20.30cm layers, in winter and summer. Leguminous influence was different between depths and times of the year. It mostly favors communities under "Mimosa" Genus treetops. Besides, the effects from climatic seasonal variations on invertebrates were mitigated by the implementation of such legume trees

  6. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 76 FR 62756 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request-People's Garden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ...: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--People's Garden Initiative Evaluation of Healthy Gardens Healthy... on proposed information collections. This is a new information for the ``Healthy Gardens, Healthy Youth Study,'' part of the USDA's People's Garden program. This study will use the network of...

  8. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in sons of gardeners and farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidner, I S; Møller, H; Jensen, Tina Kold

    1998-01-01

    Cryptorchidism and hypospadias have been related to prenatal estrogen exposure in animal models. Some chemicals used in farming and gardening have been shown to possess estrogenic and other hormone-disrupting effects. Earlier studies have indicated increased risks of urogenital malformations...... in the sons of pesticide appliers. In the present study, parental occupation in the farming and gardening industry among 6,177 cases of cryptorchidism, 1,345 cases of hypospadias, and 23,273 controls, born live from 1983 to 1992 in Denmark, was investigated in a register-based case-control study...... of female gardeners could suggest an association with prenatal exposure to occupationally related chemicals....

  9. Cryptorchidism and hypospadias in sons of gardeners and farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weidner, I S; Møller, H; Jensen, Tina Kold

    1998-01-01

    in the sons of pesticide appliers. In the present study, parental occupation in the farming and gardening industry among 6,177 cases of cryptorchidism, 1,345 cases of hypospadias, and 23,273 controls, born live from 1983 to 1992 in Denmark, was investigated in a register-based case-control study....... A significantly increased risk of cryptorchidism but not hypospadias was found in sons of women working in gardening (adjusted odds ratio = 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.47). The risks were not increased in sons of men working in farming or gardening. The increased risk of cryptorchidism among sons...

  10. Green Team Hosts Plant Swap to Encourage Gardening | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer What started out as a way for Howard Young, Ph.D., to thin out his garden last fall turned into the NCI at Frederick Green Team’s Plant Swap. The group held its Fall Plant Swap on October 24, encouraging all members of the Fort Detrick community to pick up a free plant or swap a plant of theirs for another. “Those who love to garden introduce others to the joy of gardening,” said Dolores Winterstein, a member of the Green Team and the coordinator of the Fall Plant Swap.

  11. Adapting the botanical landscape of Melbourne Gardens (Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria in response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Entwisle

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Botanic gardens around the world maintain collections of living plants for science, conservation, education, beauty and more. These collections change over time – in scope and content – but the predicted impacts of climate change will require a more strategic approach to the succession of plant species and their landscapes. Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria has recently published a ‘Landscape Succession Strategy’ for its Melbourne Gardens, a spectacular botanical landscape established in 1846. The strategy recognizes that with 1.6 million visitors each year, responsibility for a heritage-listed landscape and the need to care for a collection of 8500 plant species of conservation and scientific importance, planting and planning must take into account anticipated changes to rainfall and temperature. The trees we plant today must be suitable for the climate of the twenty-second century. Specifically, the Strategy sets out the steps needed over the next twenty years to transition the botanic garden to one resilient to the climate modelled for 2090. The document includes a range of practical measures and achievable (and at times somewhat aspirational targets. Climate analogues will be used to identify places in Australia and elsewhere with conditions today similar to those predicted for Melbourne in 2090, to help select new species for the collection. Modelling of the natural and cultivated distribution of species will be used to help select suitable growth forms to replace existing species of high value or interest. Improved understanding of temperature gradients within the botanic garden, water holding capacity of soils and plant water use behaviour is already resulting in better targeted planting and irrigation. The goal is to retain a similar diversity of species but transition the collection so that by 2036 at least 75% of the species are suitable for the climate in 2090. Over the next few years we hope to provide 100% of irrigation water

  12. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  13. IMPLEMENTATION OF DNA MARKERS TO IMPROVE BREEDING OF FORAGE LEGUMES

    OpenAIRE

    S. Grljušić; M. Tucak; T. Čupić; S. Popović

    2008-01-01

    The low rates of estimated genetic gains in forage legumes breeding have emphasized the need for new breeding methods that would increase efficiency in forage selection and provide reliable improvement. Information on application of molecular methodologies and tools for the enhancement of the current empirical phenotype-based selection moved us toward implementation of DNA markers to our breeding activities. Firstly, attention was given to identification of genetic variability within the fora...

  14. Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of intercropping cereal crops with forage legumes and source of nutrients on cereal grain yield and fodder dry matter yields. ... La disposition en lignes a produit un rendement élévé en fourrages secs (5%) et en grains des céréales que les céréales plantés aux hazard. La valeur nutritive (CP, NDF et degradabilité de ...

  15. Legume proteins, their nutritional improvement and screening techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulter, D.; Evans, I.M.

    1976-01-01

    In assessing the nutritional limitation of legume proteins it is essential to consider both sulphur amino acids, methionine and cysteine. The possibility of using total seed sulphur as a criteria for screening for improved protein quality is discussed. In some species when relatively large amounts of S-methyl-cysteine are present, total sulphur determinations would be invalid unless that amino acid were extracted with ethanol before the sulphur determination. Methods for sulphur determination are discussed and evaluated. (author)

  16. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Leandro Marciano Marra; Silvia Maria de Oliveira; Cláudio Roberto Fonsêca Sousa Soares; Fatima Maria de Souza Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB) were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T). Four of the str...

  17. The future of competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Gary; Jensen, Boris Brorman; Miessen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition.......We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition....

  18. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  19. Tropical forage legumes for environmental benefits: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schultze-Kraft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminant livestock production in the tropics, particularly when based on pastures, is frequently blamed for being detrimental to the environment, allegedly contributing to: (1 degradation and destruction of ecosystems, including degradation and loss of soil, water and biodiversity; and (2 climate change (global warming. In this paper we argue that, rather than being detrimental, tropical forage legumes can have a positive impact on the environment, mainly due to key attributes that characterize the Leguminosae (Fabaceae family: (1 symbiotic nitrogen fixation; (2 high nutritive value; (3 deep-reaching tap-root system; (4 wide taxonomic and genetic diversity; and (5 presence of particular secondary metabolites. Although there are also potential negative aspects, such as soil acidification and the risks of introduced legumes becoming invasive weeds, we submit that legumes have potential to contribute significantly to sustainable intensification of livestock production in the tropics, along with the provision of ecosystem services. To further assess, document and realize this potential, research for development needs in a range of areas are indicated.

  20. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  1. Effect of Radiation Processing on Protein Quality of Certain Legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niely, H.F.G

    2007-01-01

    The Effects of irradiation (dose levels of 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) on nutritive characteristics of peas (Pisum satinum L), cow peas (Vigna unguiculata L.Walp), lentils (Lens culinaris Med), kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L), and chickpeas (Cicer arietinurn L) were examined. Analyses included proximate composition, levels of anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tannins), available lysine (AL), in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) in the growing rat. The results showed that moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash were unchanged by the irradiation. Radiation processing significantly (p<0.05) reduced the levels of phytic acid (PA), tannins (TN), and available lysine (AE). IVPD and PER were significantly enhanced in a dose-dependent manner, relative to unirradiated control samples, for all legumes. The data sets for each legume exhibited high correlation coefficients between radiation dose and PA, TN, AE, IVPD, and PER. These results demonstrate the benefits of irradiation on the nutritional properties of these legumes

  2. Environmental protection: private vegetable gardens on water protected areas in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Strajnar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The areas of allotment gardens and private vegetable gardens are two types of ‘small-scale agriculture’ on water protected areas in Ljubljana and surroundings. From the environmental protection point of view, these gardens are important for the intensity of production and large number of gardeners. In author’s graduation thesis the gardening habits have been investigated in detail. We combined data from fi eld work with numerous measurements of phytopharmaceutical products and nutrients in soil and vegetables.

  3. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marciano Marra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T. Four of the strains are used as inoculants for cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Bradyrhizobium sp. UFLA 03-84; Bradyrhizobium elkani INPA 03-11B and Bradyrhizobium japonicum BR3267 or for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris (Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Rhizobium etli UFLA 02-100 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 316C10a are also efficient nodulators of beans and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T nodulates on Mimosa pudica. Two experiments, with solid and liquid media, were performed to determine whether the strains were able to solubilise CaHPO4, Al(H2PO43 or FePO4.2H2O. On solid GELP medium none of the strains dissolved FePO4.2H2O, but LMG 1222, UFLA 03-84 and CIAT 899 solubilised CaHPO4 particularly well. These strains, along with LMG 19424 and BR 3267, were also able to increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. The strains CIAT 899 and UFLA 02-100 were the only legume nodulating bacteria able to solubilise the other phosphate sources in liquid media, dissolving both CaHPO4 and FePO4.2H2O. There was a negative correlation between the pH of the culture medium and the concentration of soluble phosphate when the phosphorus source was CaHPO4 or FePO4.2H2O. The contribution of these strains to increasing the phosphorus nutrition of legumes and non-legume plant species should be investigated further by in vivo experiments.

  4. A generic individual-based model to simulate morphogenesis, C-N acquisition and population dynamics in contrasting forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Faverjon, Lucas

    2017-12-29

    Individual-based models (IBMs) are promising tools to disentangle plant interactions in multi-species grasslands and foster innovative species mixtures. This study describes an IBM dealing with the morphogenesis, growth and C-N acquisition of forage legumes that integrates plastic responses from functional-structural plant models. A generic model was developed to account for herbaceous legume species with contrasting above- and below-ground morphogenetic syndromes and to integrate the responses of plants to light, water and N. Through coupling with a radiative transfer model and a three-dimensional virtual soil, the model allows dynamic resolution of competition for multiple resources at individual plant level within a plant community. The behaviour of the model was assessed on a range of monospecific stands grown along gradients of light, water and N availability. The model proved able to capture the diversity of morphologies encountered among the forage legumes. The main density-dependent features known about even-age plant populations were correctly anticipated. The model predicted (1) the 'reciprocal yield' law relating average plant mass to density, (2) a self-thinning pattern close to that measured for herbaceous species and (3) consistent changes in the size structure of plant populations with time and pedo-climatic conditions. In addition, plastic changes in the partitioning of dry matter, the N acquisition mode and in the architecture of shoots and roots emerged from the integration of plant responses to their local environment. This resulted in taller plants and thinner roots when competition was dominated by light, and shorter plants with relatively more developed root systems when competition was dominated by soil resources. A population dynamic model considering growth and morphogenesis responses to multiple resources heterogeneously distributed in the environment was presented. It should allow scaling plant-plant interactions from individual to

  5. Ühe aia saamislugu - Savills Garden / Merilen Mentaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mentaal, Merilen, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    Marcus Barnetti ja Philip Nixoni kujundatud Savills Garden pälvis 2007.a. Chelsea Flower Show'l tähelepanu. Range ja lihtsa joonega veepinnad ning müüripingid loovad aiale selge struktuuri. Intervjuu aiakujundajatega

  6. A Botanical Garden Data Base Implemented in SAS Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward A.; Lewis, Bruce R.

    1985-01-01

    A database had been developed for the Phoenix Desert Botanical Garden's Living Plant Collection using Statistical Analysis System software. Implementation procedures, data dictionary maintenance, data entry, updating, and reporting are described. (JN)

  7. Passive therapeutic gardens. A study on an inpatient geriatric ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachana, Nancy A; McWha, J Lindsay; Arathoon, Maureen

    2003-05-01

    A brief history of the link between horticultural activities and care of patients, particularly psychiatric patients, is reviewed in this article. Past research on both passive and active garden activities is examined in terms of physical and psychological benefits to patients. A passive garden intervention on an inpatient geriatric ward is described. Participants in this study were patients on a geriatric inpatient ward in a mid-sized regional hospital in New Zealand. Behavioral observations of patient movement on the ward were used to demonstrate the effects on patient behavior in response to the presence of the conservatory garden. Results showed a positive reaction to the conservatory, which was maintained 6 months after the initial plants were installed. The benefits of such garden installations are discussed, and areas for further research are outlined. Procedures, ethical concerns, and practical considerations of setting up such a conservatory on an inpatient ward are discussed.

  8. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  9. Compatibility and economic assessment of sweetpotato and garden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecological zone of Nigeria, to determine the compatibility and economic viability of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) and garden egg (Solanum gelio) intercrop during 2011 and 2012 cropping seasons. Two sweetpotato varieties; NR05/022 and ...

  10. Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets : Children's Perspectives on School Gardening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nury, Edris; Sarti, Asia; Dijkstra, Coosje; Seidell, Jacob C; Dedding, Christine

    2017-01-01

    School gardening programmes are among the most promising interventions to improve children's vegetable intake. Yet, low vegetable intake among children remains a persistent public health challenge. This study aimed to explore children's perspectives, experiences, and motivations concerning school

  11. Actinomycetes in garden soils of the city of Kirov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokikh, I. G.; Solov'eva, E. S.; Ashikhmina, T. Ya.

    2013-05-01

    The population density, diversity, and structure of the actinomycetic complexes were studied in garden soils of the city of Kirov. The relationships between the structure of the complexes and the acidity, the concentrations of the mobile forms of heavy metals, and the soil humus content were analyzed. The specific features of the actinomycetic population in the garden soils of the city in comparison with the transport ecotopes and suburban territories were revealed. It was demonstrated that the actinomycetic complexes in the garden soils preserve their structural similarity with the actinomycetic complexes of the suburban forest parks despite certain changes in the composition of the dominant species and the relative abundance of the separate taxa. The obtained data indicate that the garden plots in the city contribute to the preservation of ecologically balanced ecosystems.

  12. Seeding Social Capital? Urban Community Gardening and Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    , it is demonstrated that several studies substantiate that urban community gardens create social capital, both bonding and bridging, and exhibit indications of linking. It is moreover identified how there is much to be learned from future research, illuminating how urban community gardens can foster social capital...... focus on the structural dimensions of social capital, in addition to the cognitive dimensions, as this would yield a more nuanced depiction of social advantages of urban community gardening.......There is a continuing debate regarding urban community gardening’s benefits to local communities, and a particularly interesting branch of this debate has focused on community gardens capacity to encourage and facilitate social interaction, which may generate social capital. Social capital...

  13. Highly productive forage legume stands show no positive biodiversity effect on yield and N2-fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Eriksen, Jørgen; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims While N fixation in diversified grasslands including forage legumes and non-legumes has been widely studied, N fixation in swards containing only forage legumes remains unclear. In this study, we investigated N fixation in pure stands and mixtures of three forage legumes....... Methodology N fixation, dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) yields were quantified in a field experiment for red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) pure stands and mixtures using the isotope dilution method. Results All three forage legume species...... derived most (around 85%) of their N from atmospheric N fixation (%Ndfa). However, no positive effect of species diversity was found in any of the mixtures. Species composition of the forage legume mixtures affected the amount of N from N fixation by affecting DM production and N accumulation...

  14. Leptospira Exposure and Gardeners: A Case-Control Seroprevalence Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospira can be found in soil. However, it is unclear whether occupational exposure to soil may represent a risk for Leptospira infection in humans. Therefore, we sought to determine the association of Leptospira IgG seroprevalence with the occupation of gardener, and to determine the epidemiological characteristics of gardeners associated with Leptospira exposure. Methods We performed a case-control study in 168 gardeners and 168 age- and gender-matched control subjects without gardening occupation in Durango City, Mexico. The seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies in cases and controls was determined using an enzyme immunoassay. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of Leptospira exposure and the characteristics of the gardeners. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 10 (6%) of 168 gardeners and in 15 (8.9%) of 168 control subjects (odds ratio (OR): 0.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28 - 1.48; P = 0.40). Multivariate analysis showed that Leptospira seropositivity was positively associated with female gender (OR: 5.82; 95% CI: 1.11 - 30.46; P = 0.03), and negatively associated with eating while working (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.05 - 0.87; P = 0.03). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that high anti-Leptospira levels were associated with consumption of boar meat (OR: 28.00; 95% CI: 1.20 - 648.80; P = 0.03). Conclusions This is the first case-control study of Leptospira exposure in gardeners. Results do not support an association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of gardener. However, further studies to confirm the lack of this association are needed. The potential role of consumption of boar meat in Leptospira infection deserves further investigation. PMID:26668679

  15. Local habitats recreation in gardening as an environmental education tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Lopez, F.; Victoria-Cos, I. M.; Cos, J.; Sotomayor, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    A garden has been implanted at IMIDA facilities in La Alberca (Murcia) which recreates different habitats of Murcia Region, with two main objective: 1) to be used as a tool for environmental education, encouraging social awareness in habitats and flora species protection, and 2) to obtain relevant information for the use of regional wild flora in gardening, both for the ornamental interest of not extensively spread species, and its low eater irrigation needs. (Author)

  16. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged.

  17. Designing of Genow Botanical Garden with Sustainable Architecture Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Hassan Doost Asl Barkoosaraei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, botanical gardens are considered as the most important and influential public green spaces in most countries of the world. These complexes on one hand have scientific and research applications in the fields of botany, gardening, conservation and plant ecology, and on the other hand they play an important role in public education and tourism. So it can be said that botanical gardens have been converted from merely research environments to multi-functional green spaces. The purpose of this study is designing the Botanical Gardens in Genow ecotourism region, located in of north of Bandar Abbas as a research-tourism complex that has been welcomed by citizens and tourists and respond to the various of their users. Selecting Genow region was due to its vicinity to the Protected Area and Reserve Biosphere of Genow (in terms of life value of diverse plants of protected area. In the process of designing the relevance of botanical garden with Genow echo tourist area, in performance dimension have been considered by the use of Persian garden pattern, and in terms of relationship with nature, with the benefit of recreational spaces and enjoyment of sustainable architecture components (green roofs, living walls the biological filter in the interior parts, that due to having these features will be considered by non-researcher tourists in Genow ecotourism region.

  18. An evaluation of the California Instructional School Garden Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Eric L; Moreno, Elizabeth; Beall, Deborah L; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2012-02-01

    California Assembly Bill 1535 awarded $US 15 million to California public schools to promote, develop and sustain instructional school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Program (CISGP). The present study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the CISGP at assisting schools in implementing, maintaining and sustaining an academic school garden programme, determine how schools utilized the funding they received and assess the impact of the California state budget crisis on the CISGP. A mid-term evaluation was used to assess the degree to which schools achieved their instructional garden-related goals. California. Only schools that applied for the CIGSP grant as part of a school district and also provided a contact email and had a unique contact person were included in the study (n 3103, 80·6 %). In general, many schools reported not achieving their predicted goals with regard to the CISGP grant. Only 39·4 % of schools reported accomplishing all of their garden-related goals. Over one-third (37·8 %) of schools reported that their school gardens were negatively affected by the California budget deficit. The difference between predicted and actual utilization of the CISGP grants may be due to a combination of the effects of budget shortfall and insufficiency of the grant award amount.

  19. Improved Gradation for Rain Garden of Low Impact Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sandra; Chang, Fu-Ming

    2016-04-01

    With rapid urban and economic development, living standard improves in urban areas but urban ecological environments deteriorate rapidly. Urban waterlogging and flooding have become a serious problem for urban water security. As urbanization continues, sustainability is the key to balance between urban development and healthy environment. Rain garden is recommended to be one of the best ways to reduce urban pollutants. It not only diminishes runoff flooding but also purify water in the urban area. The studies on rain gardens are mainly about how to incorporate rain garden to purify water quality, but lack of researches on runoff control. This project focuses on rain garden under Low Impact Development using indoor laboratory to test and quantify the water holding capacities of two different Taiwan indigenous rain garden plants, Taiwan Cyclosorus and Sour Grass. The results show that the water holding capacity of Sour Grass (10%-37%) is better than that of Taiwan Cyclosorus (6.8%-17.3%). The results could be a helpful reference for Low Impact Development in urban flood prevention and urban planning. Keywords: Low Impact Development; rain garden; indoor laboratory experiments; water holding capacity; porosity

  20. Facilitating Fresh: State Laws Supporting School Gardens Are Associated With Use of Garden-Grown Produce in School Nutrition Services Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Leider, Julien; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Schermbeck, Rebecca M; Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Chriqui, Jamie F

    2017-06-01

    To examine whether state laws are associated with the presence of school gardens and the use of garden-grown produce in school nutrition services programs. Nationally representative data from the School Health Policies and Practices Study 2014 were combined with objectively coded state law data regarding school gardens. Outcomes were: (1) the presence of a school garden at each school (n = 419 schools), and (2) the use of garden-grown items in the school nutrition services program. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine each outcome. Contextual covariates included school level, size, locale, US Census region, student race/ethnic composition, and percentage of students eligible for free and reduced-priced meals. State law was not significantly associated with whether schools had a garden, but it was associated with whether schools used garden-grown items in nutrition services programs (odds ratio, 4.21; P garden-grown items in nutrition services programs was 15.4% among schools in states with a supportive law, vs 4.4% among schools in states with no law. State laws that support school gardens may facilitate the use of garden-grown items in school nutrition service programs. Additional research is needed regarding the types of messaging that might be most effective for motivating school administrators to appreciate the value of school gardens. In addition, another area for further research pertains to scaling garden programs for broader reach. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.

  1. Historical gardens of the Banat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegedűs Noémi Melitta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of a frequently seen phenomenon, which is the loss of value as far as some buildings and their surroundings are concerned, which, at the moment of their construction, held great historical and architectural value, but in time they have gradually lost their value due to political, social, and cultural changes. In the Banat region of the first half of the 19th century, we can remark the dominance of the neoclassical style. The parks of the Banat region, apart from their role of satisfying the visual aesthetic appearances, are very well adapted to the place. They are unique, but the pattern after which they were conceived is common, according to the fashion of the era in which they were created. The subject of the research develops around the historical gardens belonging to certain historical monuments. The aim of researching these landscape arrangements is the investigation of the present-day situation and their evolution that has led to their actual transformation.

  2. COMMUNITY GARDENS AND FOOD SECURITY IN RURAL LIVELIHOOD DEVELOPMENT: THE CASE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL AND MARKET GARDENS IN MBERENGWA, ZIMBABWE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Chazovachii

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to assess the contribution of community gardens on food security in rural livelihoods development in Mberengwa ward 27. Despite the introduction of community gardens in ward 27, poverty persisted amongst the vulnerable groups in the district. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in collection of data through questionnaires, interviews and focused group discussions (FGDs. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics and content analysis. This study revealed that the vulnerable people of Mberengwa derived income, basic horticultural skills, enriching their garden soils and food commodities from the Imbahuru community garden. Factors like all year-round production of crops, intensiveness of the activity, monitoring and evaluation by extension workers, field days in all seasons and demand of the crop varieties grown influence food security in the district. However challenges persisted due to their seclusion of these gardeners from credit facilicities, lack of irrigation equipment, unstable power relations among leaders and the project was associated with the weak in society. The research concludes that the gardening project should be done not in isolation with the Zimbabwe's agrarian reform programme which would provide all forms of capital which capacitated the vulnerable rural dwellers.

  3. [The origin and development of the herbal gardens of the Owari clan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, S

    1996-12-01

    The early herbal garden of the Owari Clan was called Ofuke-Oyakuen. By careful reading of the "Illustration of the Honorable Herb Garden (OYakuen no Zu), it is pointed out that this garden might have been opened around 1562 when 39 species of herbs granted by Shogun Iemitsu were planted. This garden was enlarged in about 1684. We found that the well-known "Honorable Illustration of Former Herb Garden (Moto-oyakuen On-ezu)" was a drawing of a part of this enlarged herbal garden. On the other hand, in 1735 a new herbal garden, Oshitayashiki-oyakuen was opened for cultivation of Panax Shinseng. While this garden produced fair results at Panax cultivation, it was closed in 1869 at the Meiji Restoration. In the last days of the Tokugawa regime, herbalists of this garden had made original advances in natural history.

  4. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  5. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  6. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  7. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e. Medicago truncatula (Mt, Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv and Glycine max (Gm. Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the farthest distance between Mt and Pv in 6 legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reported some interesting observations e.g. no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

  8. Consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônia Caroline Diniz Brito

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar o estado nutricional e os fatores associados ao consumo alimentar de frutas, verduras e legumes por gestantes adolescentes atendidas em um serviço público de referência para assistência pré-natal. Métodos: Estudo transversal e analítico, com 73 gestantes adolescentes de 10 a 19 anos, atendidas no Núcleo de Assistência ao Adolescente (NASA do Hospital Materno Infantil, em São Luís, Maranhão. Utilizou-se o Questionário de Frequência de Consumo Alimentar (QFCA, medidas antropométricas (peso, altura, índice de massa corporal - IMC - pré-gravídico e gravídico e questionário socioeconômico. As variáveis dependentes foram o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes, e as independentes foram escolaridade, estado civil, raça, renda, situação demográfica, dados gestacionais e antropométricos. Resultados: Observou-se que 39,7% apresentaram IMC pré-gestacional de desnutrição, 50,7% de eutrofia, e menos de 10% sobrepeso ou obesidade. Para o IMC gestacional, os valores se alteraram, com 27,4% das gestantes desnutridas, 57,5% eutróficas e 15,1% com sobrepeso. Observou-se que os maiores percentuais de adequação para o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foram em adolescentes casadas ou em união estável (65,4%, que não trabalhavam (92,3% e com renda familiar menor que 1 salário mínimo (84,62%. Entretanto, a única associação positiva encontrada com o consumo de frutas, verduras e legumes foi o início do pré-natal. Conclusão: A maior parte das gestantes avaliadas apresentou-se eutrófica, apesar de cerca de um quarto apresentar baixo peso durante a gestação. Além disso, elas não consumiam uma dieta balanceada, com uma ingestão abaixo do recomendado de FVL. Entre os fatores relacionados a um melhor consumo de FVL destaca-se o início do acompanhamento pré-natal no primeiro trimestre.

  9. [Genome editing technology and its application in forage legumes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Meng, Yingying; Niu, Lifang; Lin, Hao

    2017-10-25

    Genome editing is a novel targeted genome modification biotechnology, which could successfully mutate specific loci as well as generate gene replacement and insertion in various organisms. So far, genome editing technology has been widely applied in investigating gene function and developing valuable traits in both model plants and major crops. In this review, we briefly survey the historical development of genome editing technology, summarize recent progress using the CRISPR/Cas9 system for plant genome editing and explore the potential of the CRISPR/Cas technology in improving forage legumes.

  10. Role of the environmental factor in the competitiveness of the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kalyuzhnova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the role of environmental factor in the competitiveness of the region. The issue of the country's image and the region is considered according to ecology and touristic appeal. We consider the modern role of botanical gardens and their transformation from scientific horticultural organizations to the objects of multi-use facilities type, for a regional multi-utility. The experience of an innovative project of creation of Russia's first environmental technological park and tourist-recreational zone on the basis of the university botanical garden in Irkutsk using the public-private partnership is stated.

  11. The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Clare

    2014-06-01

    Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper - the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter's Earl's Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner's house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces.

  12. Distribution of native Legumes (Leguminoseae) in frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinaceae)-Wiregrass (Poaceae) ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Hainds; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Lindsay R. Boring; Dean H. Gjerstad

    1999-01-01

    Legume species distribution and abundance and selected environmental variables were quantified across a complex gradient (varying in both water-holding capacity and fertility) for frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Aristida stricta) ecosystems. Legumes were present in all months; however, abundance...

  13. Tropical pasture legumes in southern Africa: A review. | J.H. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clipping trials have indicated that the use of tropical legumes could possibly be extended into drier areas and areas experiencing extremes of temperature. More intensive plant introduction, breeding and evaluation programmes are needed if the full potential of tropical legumes is to be realised. Keywords: adaptation ...

  14. Effects of legume reinforcement of veld on the performance of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To measure the effect of legume reinforcement of veld on animal production, a 24 ha block of reverted granite sandveld dominated by Hyparrhenia filipendula was fenced into 8 equal-sized paddocks, 4 of which were seeded with legumes. Two paddocks were seeded in December 1971 with a mixture of Stylosanthes ...

  15. Some views on the potential for legume-based pastures in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of South Africa for legume-based pastures is discussed in the light of available information. It is concluded that the potential is considerable and that most of this potential can be exploited by legume species available at present. With regard to suitable species, it is considered that temperates warrant most ...

  16. Sucrose synthase and enolase expression in actinorhizal nodules of Alnus glutinosa: comparison with legume nodules.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghelue, van M.; Ribeiro, A.; Solheim, B.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Bisseling, T.; Pawlowski, K.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Two different types of nitrogen-fixing root nodules are known - actinorhizal nodules induced by Frankia and legume nodules induced by rhizobia. While legume nodules show a stem-like structure with peripheral vascular bundles, actinorhizal nodule lobes resemble modified lateral roots with a

  17. The effects of some raw tropical legume seeds on performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of some raw legumes (jack beans, bambara groundnut and benne seeds) on performance characteristics, serum metabolites and organ morphology of exotic adult cockerels of gold mine strain. Each of the raw legumes replaced full fat soybean meal at 25% and 50% ...

  18. Influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (11o38'N and 10o31'E) both in Bauchi state, during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 to determine the influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The treatments consist of two legumes (cowpea and soybean), nitrogen fertilizer applied at the rate ...

  19. Determination of N2 -fixation ability of legume trees using the 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wemay, Johannis; Syaukat, Sriharti; Sisworo, Elsje L

    1998-01-01

    A sequence field experiment has been conducted for determining the capability of N 2 -fixation by several legume trees. The experiment was designed using a randomize design with 4 replicates. Each replicate was planted with 100 legume trees and 100 non legume trees. The isotope plot, where 15 N was applied with 18 legume trees and 18 non legume trees. The planting distance was 1m x 1m. For the calculation of N 2 -fixation each legume and standard tree (Eucalypthus alba) was applied with 12.52g in the from of ammonium sulfate with 10.12% 15 N. The 15 N AS was applied in three splits 11 month earlier. Data obtained from this experiment showed that percentage of N derived from fixation (%N-dfF) of all legume trees was reasonable high. The legume trees used in this experiment were, Leucaena leucocephala, Acacia mangium, Caliandra tetragona, Flemengia congesta and Gliriciadia sepium with potential fixation from 62.31% to 90,68%. (author)

  20. Nonlegumes, legumes, and root nodules harbor different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheublin, T.R.; Ridgway, K.P.; Young, J.P.W.; van der Heijden, M.G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Legumes are an important plant functional group since they can form a tripartite symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria and phosphorus-acquiring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, not much is known about AMF community composition in legumes and their root nodules. In this study,

  1. Harvesting management options for legumes intercropped in napier grass in the central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, D.M.; Cadisch, G.; Thorpe, W.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Ways of promoting integration of herbaceous forage legumes into a napier grass fodder system were evaluated with the aim of increasing forage quantity and quality on smallholder dairy farms in central Kenya. The herbaceous legumes Desmodium intortum cv. Greenleaf (ILRI 104), Macrotyloma axillare cv.

  2. Will Elevated Carbon Dioxide Concentration Amplify the Benefits of Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence suggests there are three key features of the response of legumes to elevated [CO2]: (1) unlike other non-leguminous C3 plants, only legumes have the potential to maximize the benefit of elevated [CO2] by matching stimulated photosynthesis with increased N2 fixation; (2) this potenti...

  3. Subsoil Nitrogen Capture in Mixed Legume Stands as Assessed by Deep Nitrogen-15 Placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathumbi, S.M.; Cadisch, G.; Buresh, R.J.; Giller, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    The rotation of crops with planted N2-fixing legumes (improved fallows) is a promising agroforestry innovation for replenishing soil fertility in the tropics. We postulated that woody and herbaceous legumes with different rooting and growth patterns could be mixed in improved fallows to maximize

  4. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the

  5. N2-fixing legumes are linked to enhanced mineral dissolution and microbiome modulations in Neotropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar; Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Saltonstall, Kristin; Hall, Jefferson; Leake, Jonathan; Beerling, David

    2017-04-01

    Legumes represent the dominant family of many tropical forests with estimates of 120 billion legume trees in the Amazon basin alone. Many rainforest legume trees form symbioses with N2-fixing bacteria. In the process of atmospheric N2-fixation large amounts of nitrogen-rich litter are generated, supplying half of all nitrogen required to support secondary rainforest succession. However, it is unclear how N2-fixers affect the biogeochemical cycling of other essential nutrients by affecting the rates of mineral dissolution and rock weathering. Here we show that N2-fixing legumes in young Panamanian rainforests promote acidification and enhance silicate rock weathering by a factor of 2 compared to non-fixing trees. We report that N2-fixers also associate with enhanced dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing secondary minerals native to tropical oxisols. In legume-rich neighbourhoods, non-fixers benefited from raised weathering rates relative to those of legume-free zones thus suggesting a positive community effect driven by N2-fixers. These changes in weathering potential were tracked by parallel functional and structural changes in the soil and rock microbiomes. Our findings support the view that N2-fixing legumes are central components of biogeochemical cycling, associated with enhanced release of Fe- and Al-bound P and primary mineral products (Mg, Mo). Rainforest legume services therefore bear important implications to short-term C cycling related to forest growth and the long-term C cycle related to marine carbonate deposition fuelled by silicate weathering.

  6. Characteristic elements of "Mediterranean Diet": the consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece (1950-2005)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasileiou, K.Z.; Sotiropoulos, I.; Georgakopoulos, G.

    2012-01-01

    on).This paper describes the dietary consumption of vegetables and legumes in Greece during the period 1950 to 2005. All dimensions of alimentary consumption patterns of vegetables and legumes are examined here with a specific focus on: a) their natural characteristics; b) technical features of the

  7. Study protocol: can a school gardening intervention improve children's diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Meaghan S; El Evans, Charlotte; Conner, Mark; Ransley, Joan K; Cade, Janet E

    2012-04-26

    The current academic literature suggests there is a potential for using gardening as a tool to improve children's fruit and vegetable intake. This study is two parallel randomised controlled trials (RCT) devised to evaluate the school gardening programme of the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) Campaign for School Gardening, to determine if it has an effect on children's fruit and vegetable intake. Trial One will consist of 26 schools; these schools will be randomised into two groups, one to receive the intensive intervention as "Partner Schools" and the other to receive the less intensive intervention as "Associate Schools". Trial Two will consist of 32 schools; these schools will be randomised into either the less intensive intervention "Associate Schools" or a comparison group with delayed intervention. Baseline data collection will be collected using a 24-hour food diary (CADET) to collect data on dietary intake and a questionnaire exploring children's knowledge and attitudes towards fruit and vegetables. A process measures questionnaire will be used to assess each school's gardening activities. The results from these trials will provide information on the impact of the RHS Campaign for School Gardening on children's fruit and vegetable intake. The evaluation will provide valuable information for designing future research in primary school children's diets and school based interventions. ISRCTN11396528.

  8. Heavy metal contamination in a school vegetable garden in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootbodien, T; Mathee, A; Naicker, N; Moodley, N

    2012-03-07

    Feeding schemes based on school garden produce have been proposed as an effective solution to food insecurity and hunger among learners in South Africa. However, few studies have looked at the potential contamination of school food gardens when situated near mine tailing dams. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential heavy metal contamination in a school vegetable garden in Johannesburg. Twenty soil samples were collected from the study school and a comparison school. Surface and deep (±10 cm beneath the surface) soil samples were analysed using X-ray fluorescence for levels of arsenic, chromium, copper, lead and zinc. Thirteen vegetables samples were collected from the school garden, and compared with six samples from a national retailer and four obtained from a private organic garden. The heavy metal concentrations of the vegetable samples were analysed in the laboratories of the South African Agricultural Research Council. High levels of arsenic were found in the school soil samples, and elevated concentrations of lead and mercury in the school vegetables. Calculation of the estimated daily intake for a child of 30 kg however, indicated that levels of lead, mercury and arsenic in vegetables were within acceptable limits. However, the levels of lead in the vegetable samples were high across all three sites. Further investigation and research should be undertaken to assess the source/s and extent of public exposure to heavy metals in vegetables in South Africa.

  9. Gardening for the mental well-being of homeless women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Linda; Ball, Janell; Goldstein, Allison

    2013-12-01

    To explore the perceptions of homeless women regarding their experience in a shelter-based garden project to promote mental wellness. Participants planted and tended the vegetable garden and prepared and ate the fruits of their labor. A qualitative descriptive design with a conventional content analysis of narrative data. Data were gathered in semistructured interviews. Participants were homeless daytime shelter guests who had participated in at least eight gardening sessions over 4 weeks. The project was started in the fall of 2010 and the interviews were conducted over 2 months in the summer of 2011. Two polarized themes were identified in the narratives, clustering around negative and positive thoughts. The "dark" theme centered on marginalization and the oppressiveness of shelter life. The "light" theme centered on stress relief, feeling socially included, and personal change. The gardening experience interrupted the participants' negative ruminations, offering stress relief and elements of social inclusion and self-actualization. Gardening is an inexpensive and positive intervention for a population with a high incidence of mental illness and distress.

  10. forage systems mixed with forage legumes grazed by lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Jorge Olivo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research evaluates productivity, stocking and nutritional rates of three forage systems with Elephant Grass (EG + Italian Ryegrass (IR + Spontaneous Growth Species (SGS, without forage legumes; EG + IR + SGS + Forage Peanut (FP, mixed with FP; and EG + IR + SGS + Red Clover (RC, mixed with RC, in rotational grazing method by lactating cows. IR developed between rows of EG. FP was maintained, whilst RC was sow to respective forage systems. The experimental design was completely randomized, with three treatments and two replication, subdivided into parcels over time. Mean rate for forage yield and average stocking rate were 10.6, 11.6 and 14.4 t ha-1; 3.0, 2.8 and 3.1 animal unit ha-1 day-1, for the respective systems. Levels of crude protein and total digestible nutrients were 17.8, 18.7 and 17.5%; 66.5, 66.8 and 64.8%, for the respective forage systems. The presence of RC results in better and higher forage yield in the mixture, whilst FP results in greater control of SGS. The inclusion of forage legumes in pasture systems provides better nutritional rates.

  11. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  12. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Plant breeders, molecular biologists, analytical chemists and nutritionists report on progress and achievements to date. High-lysine genotypes of maize, barley and sorghum have been produced. One high-protein variety of wheat is reported available for commercial use. Grain legumes already have high seed protein content but, compared to cereals, less of the total biological yield is available as seed, and intensive efforts are being made to produce genotypes with higher seed yield. Genetic variability is available from world germplasm collections and from induced-mutation programmes. In the basic sciences considerable advances are reported. Putative structural genes determining protein quality and quantity have been located on various chromosomes. In vitro synthesis of legume and cereal storage proteins and the isolation of some mRNA and the preparation and cloning of cDNA have been reported. Uptake and incorporation of N into amino acids, their synthesis into proteins, and interaction between protein and carbohydrate biosynthesis during seed development are discussed. Future prospects are considered including potential selection at the cellular rather than the whole plant level. In only a minority of the 64 papers is the use of nuclear techniques indicated specifically enough to justify individual entries in INIS

  13. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu Bahar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage. Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.47±3.84 kg/cm2 (no-tillage to 3.31±0.43 kg/cm2 (minimum tillage and 3.19±0.45 kg/cm2 (total tillage. Otherwise significant increasing on aeration porosity from 12.80±0.80% vol. (no-tillage to 21.70±0.95% vol. (minimum tillage and 20.70±0.35% vol. (total tillage. Total tillage gives increased dry matter yield. Also both total tillage and minimum tillage give yields with a higher percentage of legumes compared with no-tillage. It was concluded that total tillage and minimum tillage could be used for improving native grassland.

  14. TRUNCATULIX--a data warehouse for the legume community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, Kolja; Runte, Kai J; Bekel, Thomas; Dondrup, Michael; Jakobi, Tobias; Küster, Helge; Goesmann, Alexander

    2009-02-11

    Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database - hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  15. Signals exchanged between legumes and Rhizobium: agricultural uses and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broughton, William J.; Perret, Xavier; Staehelin, Christian; Zhang Feng

    2001-01-01

    Legumes and rhizobia exchange at least three different, but sometimes complementary sets of signals. Amongst the variety of substances normally and continuously secreted into the rhizosphere by plants are phenolic compounds. Flavonoid components of these mixtures are especially active in inducing rhizobial nodulation genes. Many nodgenes exist. Some (e.g., nodD) serve as regulators of transcription, but most code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of a family of lipo-chito-oligosaccharides (LCOs) called Nod-factors. Nod-factors possess hormone-like properties, are key determinants in nodulation, and allow rhizobia to enter the plant. As Nod-factors also stimulate the synthesis and release of flavonoids from legume roots, the response to inoculation is amplified. Once the bacteria enter the plant, other sets of signals are exchanged between the symbionts. These include extra-cellular polysaccharides (EPSs) as well as proteins externalised via type-three secretion systems. These carbohydrates/proteins may be active in invasion of the root. At the time of writing, only flavonoids and Nodfactors have been chemically synthesised and of these only the former are available in large quantities. Field trials in North America show that seed application of flavonoids stimulates nodulation and nitrogen fixation in soybeans grown at low soil temperatures. The biological basis to these responses is discussed. (author)

  16. Experimental evolution of a plant pathogen into a legume symbiont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Marchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizobia are phylogenetically disparate alpha- and beta-proteobacteria that have achieved the environmentally essential function of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes. Ample evidence indicates that horizontal transfer of symbiotic plasmids/islands has played a crucial role in rhizobia evolution. However, adaptive mechanisms that allow the recipient genomes to express symbiotic traits are unknown. Here, we report on the experimental evolution of a pathogenic Ralstonia solanacearum chimera carrying the symbiotic plasmid of the rhizobium Cupriavidus taiwanensis into Mimosa nodulating and infecting symbionts. Two types of adaptive mutations in the hrpG-controlled virulence pathway of R. solanacearum were identified that are crucial for the transition from pathogenicity towards mutualism. Inactivation of the hrcV structural gene of the type III secretion system allowed nodulation and early infection to take place, whereas inactivation of the master virulence regulator hrpG allowed intracellular infection of nodule cells. Our findings predict that natural selection of adaptive changes in the legume environment following horizontal transfer has been a major driving force in rhizobia evolution and diversification and show the potential of experimental evolution to decipher the mechanisms leading to symbiosis.

  17. Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Roe

    2004-02-27

    Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 Conference Report for the Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program provided $481,000 for the Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma. These funds were used to support our research that is aimed at determining the entire sequence of the gene rich regions of the genome of the legume, Medicago truncatula, by allowing us to obtain a greater degree of finished BAC sequences from the draft sequences we have already obtained through research funded by the Noble Foundation. During the funding period we increased the number of Medicago truncatula BACs with finished (Bermuda standard) sequences from 109 to 359, and the total number of BACs for which we collected sequence data from 584 to 842, 359 of which reached phase 2 (ordered and oriented contigs). We also sequenced a series of pooled BAC clones that cover additional euchromatic (gene rich) genomic regions. This work resulted in 6 refereed publications, see below. Genes whose sequence was determined during this study included multiple members of the plant disease resistance (R-gene) family as well as several genes involved in flavinoid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and plant-microbial symbosis. This work also served as a prelude to obtaining NSF funding for the international collaborative effort to complete the entire sequence of the Medicago truncatula genomic euchromatic regions using a BAC based approach.

  18. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  19. Induced mutations for improvement of grain legume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    After an introduction on plant science research in Malaysia concerning crop breeding, 22 research reports are presented, 17 of which are analyzed individually and constitute separate INIS references. The remaining 5 were essentially concerned with only future applications of nuclear technology: a paper by V.L. Chopra (India) on mutation breeding for partial disease resistance of wheat; by H.H. Hoppe (Federal Republic of Germany) on mechanisms of resistance against Uromyces in Phaseolus vulgaris; by I.S. Santos (Philippines) on induction evaluation and utilization of beneficial mutations in the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), where gamma rays and fast neutrons will be used as well as other mutagens; by F. Saccardo (Italy) on breeding for disease resistance in peas and other vegetables (short communication only); and by E. Balazs and I. Sziraki (Hungary) on in vitro studies on virus resistance of legumes, including virus-host interaction studies involving gamma irradiation (short communication only). The conclusions and recommendations of the Regional Seminar on Induced Mutations for the Improvement of Grain Legumes in S.E. Asia 1975 (IAEA-203, 1977) were considered and generally endorsed, with some clarification. Conclusions and recommendations are given on p.121-126

  20. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Jacob; Paz, Ytzhak; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240–10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture. PMID:28542358

  1. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracuta, Valentina; Vardi, Jacob; Paz, Ytzhak; Boaretto, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.

  2. Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Caracuta

    Full Text Available New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean, V. ervilia (bitter vetch, V. narbonensis (narbon vetch, Lens sp. (lentil, Pisum sp. (pea, Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling. Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.

  3. Legume integration as an agroecological intensification option for smallholders in uplands of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Von Yi

    that the initial performance of ricebean was affected by drought and grazing livestock. The results also demonstrated that the top-down Farming Systems Research & Extension intervention approach by the extension agents in promoting the innovation of legume integration into maize-based cropping systems without...... availability, the financial status of the household and access to extension services were the major factors influencing the decisions of resource-poor maize smallholders in legume adoption. The type of intervention approach by the extension agents needs to be considered to ensure sustained adoption of legume...... innovation. Since extreme weather events caused by climate change are becoming more common and unpredictable, it is imperative to find ways to reduce the risks that farmers may face upon integrating legumes under variable weather conditions. The assessment of the sustainability and resilience of legume...

  4. Functional diversity of home gardens and their agrobiodiversity conservation benefits in Benin, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbedomon, Rodrigue Castro; Salako, Valère Kolawolé; Fandohan, Adandé Belarmain; Idohou, Alix Frank Rodrigue; Glèlè Kakaї, Romain; Assogbadjo, Achille Ephrem

    2017-11-25

    Understanding the functional diversity of home gardens and their socio-ecological determinants is essential for mainstreaming these agroforestry practices into agrobiodiversity conservation strategies. This paper analyzed functional diversity of home gardens, identified the socio-ecological drivers of functions assigned to them, and assessed the agrobiodiversity benefits of home gardens functions. Using data on occurring species in home garden (HG) and functions assigned to each species by the gardeners, the study combined clustering and discriminant canonical analyses to explore the functional diversity of 360 home gardens in Benin, West Africa. Next, multinomial logistic models and chi-square tests were used to analyze the effect of socio-demographic characteristics of gardeners (age, gender, and education level), agro-ecological zones (humid, sub-humid, and semi-arid), and management regime (single and multiple managers) on the possession of a functional type of home gardens. Generalized linear models were used to assess the effect of the functions of home gardens and the determinant factor on their potential in conserving agrobiodiversity. Seven functional groups of home gardens, four with specific functions (food, medicinal, or both food and medicinal) and three with multiple functions (more than two main functions), were found. Women owned most of home gardens with primarily food plant production purpose while men owned most of home gardens with primarily medicinal plant production purposes. Finding also showed that multifunctional home gardens had higher plant species diversity. Specifically, crops and crop wild relatives occurred mainly in home gardens with food function while wild plant species were mostly found in home gardens with mainly medicinal function. Home gardening is driven by functions beyond food production. These functions are mostly related to direct and extractive values of home gardens. Functions of home gardens were gendered, with women

  5. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC–UV–MS. The relationship between phytochemical

  6. Expositions of the Botanic Garden of Petrozavodsk State University: "Round Garden"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirilkina Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The exhibition "Round Garden" founded in 2005 by curator of fruit department Tatyana Kirilkina, Ph.D. Landings made in the regular style with radiation (rotary symmetry. This allowed a small area to place more than 70 taxa of traditional and new for Karelia fruit and berry crops. In the center of the exhibition - decorative Malus prunifolia 'Hyvingiensis' with an umbrella form crown. Among the new crop of Karelia - raspberry ( Rubus xanthocarpus Bur et Franch., Tibetan raspberries ( Rubus rosifolius Sm., blackberry ( Rubus fruticosus L., variety selection of Finnish Arctic raspberry ( Rubus arcticus L. and currants, columnar apple trees, apple trees in semi-dwarf rootstocks, ornamental varieties of fruit and others.

  7. No effect of ploidy level in plant response to competition in a common garden experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 92, - (2007), s. 211-219 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6111303 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : adaptation * Asteraceae * Bromus erectus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.368, year: 2007

  8. Gardening and urban landscaping: significant players in global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep

    2008-02-01

    Global warming leads to shifts in vegetation types in given temperate environments. The fastest species movement is due to the globalized supply and use of exotic plants in gardening and urban landscaping. These standard practices circumvent dispersal limitations and biological and environmental stresses; they have three major global impacts: (i) the enhancement of biological invasions, (ii) the elevation of volatile organic compound emissions and the resulting increase in photochemical smog formation, and (iii) the enhancement of CO(2) fixation and water use by gardened plants. These global effects, none of which are currently considered in global-change scenarios, are increasingly amplified with further warming and urbanization. We urge for quantitative assessment of the global effects of gardening and urban landscaping.

  9. [Dutch Zoological Gardens (until 1940) in historical context].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, P

    2009-01-01

    The history of the zoological gardens is an example of transformation through the ages; it is one of the ways men are dealing with their enviroment. Through the ages there were six reasons to keep wild animals: (1) Religion; 2. Power and Richness; (3) To get acquainted with animals (from tropical regions); (4) Study and Education; (5) Amusement and (6) Preservation of the species. The first Dutch "zoos", of the Dukes of Guelders in the 14th and of the stadholders in the 19th century, can serve as examples of the will to demonstrate power and richness. The Amsterdam Zoological Garden, "Artis", the zoological gardens of Rotterdam and of The Hague were founded for reasons of study and/ or education. Burgers' Dierenpark (Arnhem), Ouwehand's Dierenpark (Rhenen), Dierenpark Emmen en Dierenpark Wassenaar originated as leisure activities of their owners.

  10. Constraints Perceived by Students in School Vegetable Gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip S

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala to identify the constraints experienced by students in the course of engaging in school vegetable gardening programme. Ten schools were selected for data enumeration. A total of 130 respondents with 100 students comprising ten students each and 30 teachers comprising three each, from each school were selected for meeting the objectives of the study. The reaction to each constraint was obtained on a four-point continuum namely most important, important, less important and least important with the score 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. Mean rank cumulative index for each constraint was worked out and the constraints were ranked and catalogued. The major constraints as perceived by students in school vegetable garden projects were, high input cost followed by lack of student’s participation, lack of teacher’s involvement, non-availability of implements, high labour cost, poor storage facilities and lack of knowledge about gardening.

  11. Energy recovery from garden waste in a LCA perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    According to the common strategies regarding waste management and energy supply in EU countries, more efficient utilization of organic waste resources (including garden waste) with both nutrient and energy recovery is desired. Each of the most common treatments applied today – composting, direct...... treatment alternatives (AD, composting, direct use on land and incineration) was conducted. The results showed that none of the scenarios assessed was best in all impact categories simultaneously, i.e. an overall ranking of the technologies was not possible. Moreover, many trade-offs between nutrient...... use on land and incineration – only provides one of the two services. A technology ensuring both nutrient and energy utilization is anaerobic digestion (AD) that has become applicable for treatment of garden waste recently. In this study, life cycle assessment aimed to compare four garden waste...

  12. Garden ponds as potential introduction pathway of ornamental crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patoka J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The private stocking of ornamental crayfish in garden ponds was discussed in previous studies, but there is a lack of detailed analysis for better understanding of this introduction pathway. The Czech Republic is one of leading EU countries in trade with ornamental crayfish and private garden ponds are popular among people. The crayfish keepers in the country were interviewed by self-administered questionnaire to gather data about principal characteristics of the keepers and detailed information about crayfish breeding that are of interest for conservation managers. Besides of releasing crayfish into garden ponds, alarming illegal behavior such as releasing of juvenile crayfish into the wild, and capturing of indigenous crayfish from wild populations, were registered. Therefore focusing on public education to increase awareness of possible unwanted consequences of crayfish release and introduction of an obligation to inform customers about hazardousness of non-indigenous crayfish species for retailers and wholesalers is recommended.

  13. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  14. Leveraging model legume information to find candidate genes for soybean sudden death syndrome using the legume information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Michael D; Gajendran, Kamal; Farmer, Andrew D; Archuleta, Eric; Beavis, William D

    2007-01-01

    Comparative genomics is an emerging and powerful approach to achieve crop improvement. Using comparative genomics, information from model plant species can accelerate the discovery of genes responsible for disease and pest resistance, tolerance to plant stresses such as drought, and enhanced nutritional value including production of anti-oxidants and anti-cancer compounds. We demonstrate here how to use the Legume Information System for a comparative genomics study, leveraging genomic information from Medicago truncatula (barrel medic), the model legume, to find candidate genes involved with sudden death syndrome (SDS) in Glycine max (soybean). Specifically, genetic maps, physical maps, and annotated tentative consensus and expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences from G. max and M. truncatula can be compared. In addition, the recently published M. truncatula genomic sequences can be used to identify M. truncatula candidate genes in a genomic region syntenic to a quantitative trait loci region for SDS in soybean. Genomic sequences of candidate genes from M. truncatula can then be used to identify ESTs with sequence similarities from soybean for primer design and cloning of potential soybean disease causing alleles.

  15. California teachers perceive school gardens as an effective nutritional tool to promote healthful eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Heather; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2005-11-01

    This study assessed elementary school teachers' perceived attitudes and barriers associated with school gardens, as well as the purpose and use of gardens in schools, specifically in relation to the link between gardens and nutrition. The questionnaire was mailed to California fourth-grade teachers at schools with gardens (N = 1,665). The response rate was 36% (n = 592). Teachers perceived the garden to be somewhat to very effective at enhancing academic performance, physical activity, language arts, and healthful eating habits. Nutrition was taught with the use of the garden by 47% of responding teachers. This research provides evidence for needed standards-based curricula materials and teacher training in relation to gardening and nutrition. The results from this study will contribute to development of needed resources and methods by which to encourage the use of gardens and nutrition education in schools.

  16. Manicured, romantic, or wild? The relation between need for structure and preferences for garden styles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Agnes E.; van Winsum-Westra, Marijke

    2010-01-01

    The present research examined individual differences in preferences for three basic garden styles: manicured, romantic, and wild. Building on theoretical insights from landscape preference research, it was hypothesized that preferences for garden styles are guided by psychological needs. This

  17. Therapeutic experiences of community gardens: putting flow in its place.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Hannah

    2014-05-01

    This paper develops the concept of therapeutic place experiences by considering the role of activity. Research of community gardening finds that particular tasks are therapeutic and exhibit the characteristics of flow, but those who lack influence over their community gardening are less likely to benefit from flow as their sense of control is reduced. The notion of emplaced flow is proposed to locate individual experiences amongst socio-spatial factors which limit self-determinacy and therefore affect wellbeing. Emplacing flow prompts critical reflection on who is excluded from therapeutic place experiences, and whether sites offering momentary escape have an enduring impact on wellbeing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The false gardener in Lope de Vega's plays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Trambaioli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic mask of the false gardener, one of the many types of noble disguised as a peasant, is specially frequent in Lope de Vega’s urban comedy; if in the main plot the love gardener courts his lover taking profit of the disguise, in the comic plot the dramatic type is parodied thanks to his links with real peasants; about 1615, Lope, already masked as Belardo in the Romancero, makes use of this dramatic type as a spokesman of his personal courtly ambitions.

  19. STUDY ON QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS OF ORGANIC SEEDS IN GARDEN PEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kalapchieva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in the Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv during the period 2008-2009. Four garden pea varieties were grown in the conditions of organic and conventional production. The purpose of the experiment was to study the quantitative characters of seeds obtained in organic production. It was established that the organic garden pea seeds differ with lower absolute weight compared to the seeds obtained in conventional system but they kept high germination (89,5-96,5 close to the control variant. The late variety Vyatovo grown with organic fertilizers and biopesticides are with the lowest percentage of injuries by Bruchus pisi l.

  20. Soil use in gardens as chance to socially promote the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuber, Sandra; Kühn, Peter; Scholten, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Gardening is a form for citizens to use the ecosystem functions of soils, while simultaneously contributing to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 11, 12 and 15 of the UN. In 2016, 8.4 million people in Germany gardened several times a week and 14.2 million people worked in their garden several times a month*. Furthermore, the "Bundesverband Deutscher Gartenfreunde e.V.", an allotment gardening association, has 947.137 members that use an area of 460 km2 for gardening**. This shows that gardening is a frequent pastime for many people and thus can help achieve the SDG's. Interdisciplinary research in six gardening associations was conducted to investigate soil knowledge and soil use in Southern Germany. Questionnaires and interviews with people that chose gardening as a pastime took place in 2015 and 2016. The respondents were interviewed in the respective garden plot to also observe on-site garden management practices. The combination of sociological and ethnological approaches for investigating the soil scientific research question of soil management practices in leisure gardens is useful to start a public discourse on the importance of soil for society. The evaluation showed that soil use in gardens could contribute to the SDG's 11, 12 and 15. Goal 11 is to make cities resilient and sustainable. Soil use in form of gardening is a bottom-up approach that conserves knowledge on small-scale food production. This is important for the resilience of cities in times of crises, as has been the case during the Great Depression or the World Wars. It is closely connected to Goal 12, the sustainable consumption and production patterns. If gardening activities are sustainable in the use of fertilizers, small-scale sustainability and a resilient soil use that also protects the soil and ground water can be achieved. However, this necessitates cooperation between scientists, gardening societies and the individual gardeners on equal terms. Gardening also affects the

  1. A Bunker Garden: Mindfulness-Based Landscape Design to Restore Physicians from Burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Philen, Melissa Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Landscape architects design healing gardens at healthcare facilities to support patients, visitors, caregivers, and staff. Many acknowledge that medical staff regularly visit healing gardens to escape work-related stress (Marcus and Sachs, 2014). Rarely, however, are healing gardens on medical campuses designed specifically to support physicians' well-being. There is a void in healing garden design theory. Reports on the prevalence of physician burnout, warn of a widespread crisis and dismal...

  2. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  3. Best Practices Models for Implementing, Sustaining, and Using Instructional School Gardens in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Eric L.; Moreno, Elizabeth; Beall, Deborah L.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    To ascertain best practices for schools implementing or sustaining instructional school gardens by interviewing key members in 10 schools with exemplary instructional school gardens programs in California. Practices of schools with exemplary instructional school gardens programs were analyzed by constant comparative analysis using qualitative data…

  4. The Effects of School Gardens on Students and Schools: Conceptualization and Considerations for Maximizing Healthy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Emily J.

    2007-01-01

    There are thousands of school gardens in the United States, and there is anecdotal evidence that school garden programs can enhance students' learning in academic, social, and health-related domains. There has been little rigorous research, however, on the effects of school gardens or on the factors that promote the sustainability of these…

  5. Learning Spaces in School: Comparing Math Instruction and Learning in School Gardens and Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, Christine Mary

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the California legislature released $14 million to the schools of California to create school gardens through the California Instructional School Garden Bill (CA Assembly Bill 1535, 2006). This study examined the differences and similarities of school gardens as learning spaces by exploring a fifth grade school standards-based mathematics…

  6. Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens: A Descriptive View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Melissa; Fox, Janet; Fletcher, Bobby Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Louisiana 4-H Seeds of Service School Gardens, a K-12 Learn and Serve Grant program, provides a descriptive view of how school gardens along with classroom instruction link curriculum to outdoor classrooms. The purpose of the process evaluation was to describe curriculum implementation fidelity, reach of the gardening program to participants, use…

  7. Learning in and beyond School Gardens with Cyber-Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiker, Steven J.; Wright, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This design-based research study considers the learner-generated design and refinement of a school garden. We report one enactment of the Connected Gardening project in order to illuminate and understand how a fourth-grade class organizes and refines its garden plot using observations of the physical environment and evaluations of data from a…

  8. Using Historic Parks and Gardens: A Teachers Guide. Education on Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Susanna; Barker, Rosie

    This book is about using parks and gardens as a study of the historic built environment. Parks and gardens have been laid out for utility and enjoyment for centuries. The ideas presented may be adapted to use in any park - public or municipal parks or those part of historic house estates, or any smaller-scale garden. The chapter titles include:…

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United States from Kenya only under the following conditions and in accordance with all other applicable...

  10. Direct Marketing Alternatives in an Urban Setting: A Case Study of Seattle Youth Garden Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mykel; Young, Doug; Miles, Carol

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is direct marketing of produce from an urban market garden. Rather than discussing broad issues of direct marketing, we use a case study to frame the decisions a market gardener is likely to face in developing both production and marketing plans. The garden featured in this study is located in Seattle, Washington, a city…

  11. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flower Garden Banks National Marine... Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 922—Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates This appendix contains a second...

  12. 76 FR 71080 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Requests: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, National... initiative. The intent of the collection: Develop a list of museums and gardens that are interested in... gardens into the Let's Move effort and enable them to share information about their activities that...

  13. Best Practices in Community Garden Management to Address Participation, Water Access, and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Luke; Lawson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    As community gardens expand across the U.S., Extension professionals can support them not only in horticultural education but also in planning and organization. Knowledge of community garden management is helpful in this regard. Existing research focuses on outcomes and criteria for successful gardens, but is less clear about how community gardens…

  14. What's Growing on Here? Garden-Based Pedagogy in a Concrete Jungle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagger, Susan; Sperling, Erin; Inwood, Hilary

    2016-01-01

    This study explores experiences of a learning garden project at an urban faculty of education. The project opens a space for the theoretical and practical consideration of garden-based pedagogies and their influence on university students, educators, and the community as a whole. The learning garden was created by a small group of initial teacher…

  15. 78 FR 2957 - Availability of Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine... applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory..., NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700 Avenue U, Bldg. 216, Galveston, TX 77551 or...

  16. The Impacts of a School Garden Program on Urban Middle School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dennis W.; Collins, Ashley; Fuhrman, Nicholas E.; Knauft, David Alan; Berle, David C.

    2016-01-01

    School gardens have been an active part of United States schools since 1890, when the first school garden was established in Roxbury, Massachusetts. Since the turn of the 20th century school gardens have greatly expanded to include inner city schools in some of the largest metropolitan areas of the country. Since the early 1990s, school gardens…

  17. 33 CFR 110.190 - Tortugas Harbor, in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. 110.190 Section 110.190 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD..., in vicinity of Garden Key, Dry Tortugas, Fla. (a) The anchorage grounds. All of Bird Key Harbor, southwest of Garden Key, bounded by the surrounding reefs and shoals and, on the northeast, by a line...

  18. 75 FR 16074 - Availability of Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Conservation Seat for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of... ONMS is seeking applications for the following vacant seat on the Flower Garden Banks National Marine... 28, 2010. ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOA- Flower Garden Banks...

  19. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  20. COMPETITION ADVOCACY: CHALLENGE FOR COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolie CARAGANCIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A large variety of different countries conditions requires a modernization of criteria, norms and standards of competition regulation and methods of enforcement. Competition advocacy is a type of complementary activity exercised by antimonopoly authorities additional to enforcement measures, through active cooperation with market, government and civil society actors and increasing the understanding of the benefits of competition. Relevance of article is determined by summarizing the theoretical studies and the present practice of advocacy in the USA and the EU. Originality and practical applications of research are based on empirical studies completed by Moldovan Competition Board.

  1. Advancing family health through the Garden of Eatin': on-site food gardens in early childhood education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia; Yeh, Jarmin; Sigal, Byron

    2015-04-01

    Nutritional practices develop over the life course. Developing healthy habits at an early age can contribute to combating increasing child obesity rates. Through a range of activities that rely on the presence of an on-site food garden, North Bay Children's Center (NBCC), an early childhood education program, has enacted a "culture of health" into all aspects of the curriculum to promote healthy eating practices among children, families, teachers and staff. NBCC's garden program serves as a model in early childhood education and as a community-based intervention to improve family health and prevent child obesity.

  2. Transfer Comparison Study Nitrogen on the Intact and Decapitated Legumes by Using the 15N Labeling Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widjayanto, Didik W.

    1998-01-01

    The experiment was done in order to evaluate the N transfer from the intact and decapitated legumes by using the 15 N labeling technique. Seven days after final labeling the above ground biomass from labeled legume species was removed and the remaining stalks capped to prevent regrowth. Twenty days after final labeling (fourteen days after capping) the all treatments were sample and analyzed. The decapitated legumes appeared to transfer more percentage N than the intact legumes. Although both decapitated and intact legumes transferred, the transfer of N did not incur a dry matter and N yield benefit

  3. Study and analysis of the legume crop market in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukhanyan Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous and sub-mountainous zones of the Republic of Armenia farmers mainly grow beans, chickpeas, and peas. In addition there are very small crop areas (mainly homestead lands of faba bean, soybean, mung bean, and grass pea. The village population does not know much about the cultivation of these plants. The data show that in 2007-2009 the specific weight of legume in overall cropland was approximately 94%, and about the 96% of the gross harvest. Local production needs appropriate marketing strategy. The research of local market showed that more attention should be paid to the consumption of goods produced by the farmer households, as well as to offer them to various consumer groups.

  4. Legume promotion in counselling: an e-mail survey of dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrochers, N; Brauer, P M

    2001-01-01

    Little is known about dietitians current practice in counselling clients about the use of legumes in a low fat, high fibre diet. An exploratory e-mail questionnaire was sent to members of Dietitians of Canada to assess: dietitian use and preferences for legumes, dietitian practice, opinions about clients attitudes and preferences, and resource needs. Counsellors (n=256) had high personal use of legumes (64% > or = 1 serving/week) and frequently recommended legumes in counselling. The legumes most preferred by respondents and their clients were: peanuts, kidney beans, split peas, chickpeas, and lentils. Respondents often recommended canned bean products (76%) and tofu (61%), but other legume grocery products were less often recommended. The most common client issues identified were: flatulence (87% agreed), lack of familiarity (85%), and knowledge of preparation (82%). Dietitians were not satisfied with current resources to support practice, especially those respondents providing primarily clinical counselling services. The most requested resources were: recipes (90%), pamphlets (82%), food demonstrations (75%) and Internet sites (63%). Client level research is now needed to confirm the importance of the issues identified and to develop and test strategies for legume promotion in counselling.

  5. Isolation of Rhizobium Bacteria from Forage Legumes for the Development of Ruminant Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuskhah, E.; Purbajanti, E. D.; Anwar, S.

    2018-02-01

    The aimed of the study was to explore the presence of Rhizobium bacteria along the northern coast of Central Java, to develop a saline-resistant legumes. Rhizobium bacteria is a mutualistic bacterium capable of symbiosis with legumes so that legumes crop yields increase. The research begins with sampling of soil and root nodule of forage legumes along the Northern Coast of Central Java including Tegal, Pekalongan, Semarang, Demak, Pati. Soil samples were analysed for salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, and pH. Rhizobium bacteria were isolated from the acquired root nodule, then identified by biochemical test to ensure that the isolates obtained were Rhizobium bacteria. The results showed that the five districts/municipal sites sampled by the soil have very low salinity to very high levels. The highest level of soil salinity was found in Demak (Sayung) which has an electrical conductivity value (EC) of 17.77 mmhos/cm. The EC values of legumes overgrown soils showed a low salinity level while bare soils have high salinity levels. Feed crops legumes that could be found in the northern coast of Central Java were Centrosema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides, Leucaena leucocephala, and Sesbania grandiflora. The study obtained 6 kinds of isolates of rhizobium bacteria isolated from forage legumes, included 1) Centrosema pubescens isolated from Pekalongan, 2) Centrosema pubescens isolated from Tegal, 3) Calopogonium mucunoides isolated from Pekalongan, 4) Leucaenaleucocephala isolated from Tegal, 5) Leucaena leucocephala isolated from Semarang, 6) Sesbania grandiflora isolated from Tegal.

  6. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  7. INDEKS GLISEMIK KACANG-KACANGAN [Glycemic Index of Selected Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Marsono 1

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional management for diabetic patients based on selection of low available carbohydrate foods has been criticized because the same availability of carbohydrate in different foods may result in different degree of glycemic response. This management is now being corrected by additional aid in selecting foods with the glycemic index (GI of foods. GI is a measure of the glycemic response to the carbohydrate component within a food relative to the response to an equal carbohydrate portion of reference food (glucose or white bread. In Indonesia, data of the glycemic index of foods is still very limited. The objectives of the research are to provide GI of selected legumes, including red bean (Vigna umbellata, Mung bean (Phaseolus aureus, cow pea (Vigna sinensis ENDL, pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan MILLSPAUGH, edible podded peas (Pisum sativum LINN and soy bean (Glycine max MERR. Eleventh health and normal volunteers (not diabetic were provided. The volunteers took an overnight fasting, blood were drawn in the morning and analyzed for serum glucose. Then they were given the test legumes containing total carbohydrates equivalent to 25-g glucose to be consumed. Blood samples were drawn for glucose measurement every 30 minutes until 120 min after meal. Serum glucose was determined enzymatically and the glucose responses were drawn graphically. The GI of the beans studied was lowest for red bean (26 and highest for mung bean (76, Edible podded pea and soy bean had similar value of GI i.e. 30 and 31; whereas pigeon and cow pea had a higher value i.e. 35 and 51, respectively.

  8. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  9. TRUNCATULIX – a data warehouse for the legume community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runte Kai J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database – hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. Results The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. Conclusion The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  10. Classical and molecular genetics of the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Q; Gresshoff, P M

    1997-01-01

    The model legume Lotus japonicus was demonstrated to be amenable to classical and molecular genetic analysis, providing the basis for the genetic dissection of the plant processes underlying nodulation and nitrogen fixation. We have developed an efficient method for the sexual hybridization of L. japonicus and obtained F1 progeny derived from a cross of L. japonicus B-129-S9 Gifu x B-581 Funakura. Over half of the cross-pollinations resulted in fertile hybrid seed, which were confirmed morphologically and by single arbitrary primer DNA amplification polymorphisms using the DAF technique. Molecular and morphological markers segregated in true Mendelian fashion in a F2 population of 100 plants. Several DAF loci were linked using the MAPMAKER software to create the first molecular linkage groups of this model legume. The mapping population was advanced to generate a set of immortal recombinant inbred lines (F6; RILs), useful for sharing plant material fixed genetically at most genomic regions. Morphological loci for waved stem shape (Ssh), dark leaf color (Lco), and short flowering period (Fpe) were inherited as single dominant Mendelian loci. DAF markers were dominant and were detected between Gifu and Funakura at about one per primer, suggesting that the parents are closely related. One polymorphism (270G generated by single octomer primer 8.6m) was linked to a morphological locus controlling leaf coloration. The results demonstrate that (i) Lotus japonicus is amenable to diploid genetic analysis, (ii) morphological and molecular markers segregate in true diploid fashion, (iii) molecular polymorphisms can be obtained at a reasonable frequency between the related Gifu and Funakura lines, and iv) the possibility exists for map-based cloning, marker assisted selection and mapping of symbiotic mutations through a genetic and molecular map.

  11. Earthworm and belowground competition effects on plant productivity in a plant diversity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Milcu, Alexandru; Nitschke, Norma; Sabais, Alexander C W; Scherber, Christoph; Scheu, Stefan

    2009-08-01

    Diversity is one major factor driving plant productivity in temperate grasslands. Although decomposers like earthworms are known to affect plant productivity, interacting effects of plant diversity and earthworms on plant productivity have been neglected in field studies. We investigated in the field the effects of earthworms on plant productivity, their interaction with plant species and functional group richness, and their effects on belowground plant competition. In the framework of the Jena Experiment we determined plant community productivity (in 2004 and 2007) and performance of two phytometer plant species [Centaurea jacea (herb) and Lolium perenne (grass); in 2007 and 2008] in a plant species (from one to 16) and functional group richness gradient (from one to four). We sampled earthworm subplots and subplots with decreased earthworm density and reduced aboveground competition of phytometer plants by removing the shoot biomass of the resident plant community. Earthworms increased total plant community productivity (+11%), legume shoot biomass (+35%) and shoot biomass of the phytometer C. jacea (+21%). Further, phytometer performance decreased, i.e. belowground competition increased, with increasing plant species and functional group richness. Although single plant functional groups benefited from higher earthworm numbers, the effects did not vary with plant species and functional group richness. The present study indicates that earthworms indeed affect the productivity of semi-natural grasslands irrespective of the diversity of the plant community. Belowground competition increased with increasing plant species diversity. However, belowground competition was modified by earthworms as reflected by increased productivity of the phytometer C. jacea. Moreover, particularly legumes benefited from earthworm presence. Considering also previous studies, we suggest that earthworms and legumes form a loose mutualistic relationship affecting essential ecosystem

  12. Effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Gogoi, Nirmali; Hussain, Mubshar; Barthakur, Sharmistha; Paul, Sreyashi; Bharadwaj, Nandita; Migdadi, Hussein M; Alghamdi, Salem S; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2017-09-01

    Salt stress is an ever-present threat to crop yields, especially in countries with irrigated agriculture. Efforts to improve salt tolerance in crop plants are vital for sustainable crop production on marginal lands to ensure future food supplies. Grain legumes are a fascinating group of plants due to their high grain protein contents and ability to fix biological nitrogen. However, the accumulation of excessive salts in soil and the use of saline groundwater are threatening legume production worldwide. Salt stress disturbs photosynthesis and hormonal regulation and causes nutritional imbalance, specific ion toxicity and osmotic effects in legumes to reduce grain yield and quality. Understanding the responses of grain legumes to salt stress and the associated tolerance mechanisms, as well as assessing management options, may help in the development of strategies to improve the performance of grain legumes under salt stress. In this manuscript, we discuss the effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of salt stress in grain legumes. The principal inferences of the review are: (i) salt stress reduces seed germination (by up to more than 50%) either by inhibiting water uptake and/or the toxic effect of ions in the embryo, (ii) salt stress reduces growth (by more than 70%), mineral uptake, and yield (by 12-100%) due to ion toxicity and reduced photosynthesis, (iii) apoplastic acidification is a good indicator of salt stress tolerance, (iv) tolerance to salt stress in grain legumes may develop through excretion and/or compartmentalization of toxic ions, increased antioxidant capacity, accumulation of compatible osmolytes, and/or hormonal regulation, (v) seed priming and nutrient management may improve salt tolerance in grain legumes, (vi) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi may help to improve salt tolerance due to better plant nutrient availability, and (vii) the integration of screening, innovative breeding, and the development of

  13. A Monet Garden Installation: A Momentary Gift of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonigle, Kathleen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses art lessons where students created a three-dimensional rendering of Claude Monet's gardens using the Impressionist style. Focused on teaching students about art history, Impressionistic art, and installation of art. Addresses the goals of the lesson and the process of creating the art. (CMK)

  14. Viewpoint Botanic Gardens and Place Identity: Informing a more ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... explored through the Garden Window Project. However, this project requires a new approach for actively and meaningfully engaging with people-plant relationships; one that relies on place associations, narratives and the manner in which plants and place identity provide meaningful learning opportunities for people.

  15. The richness of plants in Art Nouveau gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Pudelska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The turn of the 19th and the 20th centuries signified the appearance of a new trend in art called Art Nouveau in England, Stile floreale in Italy, and in Poland – secesja. It was an attempt to escape from the style that copied historical forms and set a new direction of development. The main inspiration for the creators of this period became nature, its asymmetry, variety of textures, subtle colors or smooth, and wavy lines. Artistic motifs were drawn from the richness of native flora and fauna. Flowering shrubs, perennials and creepers were especially inseparable decorative and compositional elements of a garden.  Secession had a significant impact on painting, sculpture, architecture, and garden design. The space surrounding people was treated comprehensively by blurring the boundaries between different arts. A multitude of shrubs – especially roses and lots of perennials such as Lilium, Iris, and Phlox, gave the impression of architecture immersing in the surrounding garden. The aim of the paper was to briefly analyze the Art Nouveau style and present the diversity of species used in the gardens of that period.

  16. Conceptualising Childhood: Robert Louis Stevenson's "A Child's Garden of Verses."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the construct of childhood in Robert Louis Stevenson's collection of poems, "A Child's Garden of Verses," by employing notions of child development drawn from Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky. Finds, from a literary perspective, Stevenson's collection located on the boundaries of romanticism and modernism. (BT)

  17. Impact of Flood on the Biodiversity of Agodi Gardens, Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study of flood effect on the species diversity in Agodi Biological Gardens was carried out to determine the rate of devastation that the catastrophes of 30 August 2011 flood disaster caused on the ex-situ environment. Both physicochemical parameters and structured questionnaire were used to assess the rate of ...

  18. Spatial behaviour and food choice of the Garden Warbler Sylvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, we investigated the 50% and 95% kernel density home-range size and overlap as well as food choice of 10 radio-tracked Garden Warblers at Amurum, central Nigeria and Obudu, south-eastern Nigeria. Home-range overlap was estimated using the kernelUD function within the package adehabitat in R. The ...

  19. Gardening and landscaping practices for nesting native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees have two primary needs in life: pollen and nectar to feed themselves and their offspring, and a suitable place to nest. Guidance is increasingly available about garden flowers to plant for native bees. We know far less about accommodating the nesting needs of our native bees, but there are cer...

  20. Hidden landscapes : The metropolitan garden and the genius loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De wit, S.I.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims at the landscape architecture of the enclosed garden as an expression of the genius loci: definition, analysis, typology and transformation. The process of metropolisation tends to eliminate, or at least hide, the underlying landscape. The research addresses the question of how the

  1. Math Garden: A new educational and scientific instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatemeier, M.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation describes the research concerning the construction of a new educational and scientific instrument. This instrument, Math Garden, is a web application in which children can practice arithmetic by playing math games in which items are tailored to their ability level. At the same

  2. El nuevo Madison Square Garden – (EE.UU.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luckman, Ch.

    1971-05-01

    Full Text Available The Madison Square Garden Sports and Amusements Center comprises the following. 1. A circular building, 129.54 m in diameter and 45.72 m high, which houses the New Madison Square Garden and many other facilities. The arena sits 20.250 spectators, who can watch hockey, basketball, cycling, boxing, circus shows, ice skating, special displays, variety shows, meetings and other kinds of performance. 2. An office block on Seventh Avenue, with a useful floor area for office use amounting to 111,500 m2 and a further 4,800 m2 of floor area on the first two floors for commercial and banking activities.Forman parte del Centro Deportivo y de Atracciones Madison Square Garden: 1 Un edificio circular, de 129,54 m de diámetro y 45,72 m de altura, que aloja el Nuevo Madison Square Garden y otras muchas instalaciones. Tiene capacidad para 20.250 asientos, y en él se pueden celebrar espectáculos de: hockey, baloncesto, ciclismo, boxeo, circo, patinaje sobre hielo, acontecimientos especiales, variedades, asambleas y otros deportes de masas, etc. 2 Un edificio de oficinas que se alza contiguo a la Séptima Avenida, con una superficie útil de 111.500 m2 destinada a oficinas, y otra de 4.800 m2, en las plantas primera y segunda, dedicada a actividades comerciales y bancarias.

  3. Teaching with Documents: Victory Gardens in World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Patricia, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Covers the Victory Garden campaign of the early 1940s begun by the Office of War Information and the Office of Civil Defense. Provides a facsimile of a poster designed to publicize the program in addition to seven teaching activities. (JDH)

  4. Rosemary, the beneficial chemistry of a garden herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James R

    2016-01-01

    The major natural products that are present in the garden herb, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) including the mono di- and triterpenoid, flavonoid and phenolic constituents together with their biological activity as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, memory-enhancing and tumour-inhibitory agents, are reviewed.

  5. Perception Of Farmers About Profitability Of Vegetable Gardening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed perception of farmers about profitability of vegetable gardening enterprise in Ahiazu Mbaise local government area of Imo state, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was administered to 60 randomly selected farmers in the study area. Data collected were analysed using frequencies, percentages and ...

  6. Food-gardens and nutrition: Three Southern African case studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    5254 Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en ... of the works advocating food-gardens (in rural and urban environments) use the need for improved nutri- ..... culture in the open spaces of Nairobi, Kenya. Montreal and. Kingston: McGill-Queens University ...

  7. Managing infestation levels of major insect pests of garden eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ha) was evaluated on Legon I variety of local garden egg in the field. The effect of ANSE was compared with a registered Bacillus thuringiensis Berl. (Biobit), a synthetic insecticide (Karate 2.5 EC) and an untreated control (water only). Karate ...

  8. Travel motives of visitors to the National Zoological Gardens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating tourists' travel motives will assist the management of attractions to better cater for the needs of the tourists and will also help them to improve the development of their products. The purpose of this study was to identify the travel motives of tourists to the National Zoological Gardens of South Africa (NZG).

  9. [A therapeutic garden, a tool to share with patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Éric; Joulié Morand, Nathalie

    2016-02-01

    The garden is a place of peace and nature. It draws on all our senses and makes us move our body. It is also an innovative therapeutic tool which can boost the wellbeing of frail or disabled elderly people, as the experience of a nursing home described in this article demonstrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of Hardy Garden Mums in WholeTree Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    A substrate component (WholeTree) made from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) was evaluated along with supplemental supplemental fertilizer rates in container-grown hardy garden chrysanthemum. Loblolly pine were harvested at ground level, chipped and further processed through a hammer mill to pass a 0.25 ...

  11. Amsterdam in Bloom: An Inner City School Garden Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen, Elen

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the educational potential of a garden project. When the opportunity to visit a school in Amsterdam arose as part of her primary science PGCE course, the author jumped at the chance to experience science learning in another country. The majority of teaching that took place was topic-based, and science was…

  12. School Gardens Enhance Academic Performance and Dietary Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezowitz, Claire K.; Bontrager Yoder, Andrea B.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schools face increasing demands to provide education on healthy living and improve core academic performance. Although these appear to be competing concerns, they may interact beneficially. This article focuses on school garden programs and their effects on students' academic and dietary outcomes. Methods: Database searches in CABI,…

  13. SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL SURVEY OF PARKS AND GARDENS IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jerome Ihuma

    for not using parks, willingness to pay for re-vegetation, participation in parks community services and awareness of publications by ... Keywords: Urban ecosystem, Natural ecosystem, Green Area, Recreational Parks, Gardens, Ecology. INTRODUCTION ... by which to assess the sustainability of the natural ecosystems that.

  14. Building an Outdoor Classroom for Field Geology: The Geoscience Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, John W. F.; Locock, Andrew J.; Pujadas-Botey, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Many geoscience educators have noted the difficulty that students experience in transferring their classroom knowledge to the field environment. The Geoscience Garden, on the University of Alberta North Campus, provides a simulated field environment in which Earth Science students can develop field observation skills, interpret features of Earth's…

  15. Gardens Blessed By Grey Drops | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Dec 10, 2010 ... In a country where Muslims wash five times a day for prayer, Yemen has brought a unique model for making the best out of its often wasted ablution water. It has reused it for a green purpose: watering traditional Yemeni gardens. Through the Regional Water Demand Initiative's (WaDImena) programme in ...

  16. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  17. Biblical Metaphor: The Cosmic Garden Heritage | Green | Acta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An inquiry into the nature of metaphor, as it has evolved since Aristotle and particularly in the late twentieth century, allows fresh consideration of biblical texts. Using as a sample trope the ancient Near Eastern and biblical figure of the cosmic garden where humans live with the gods until they are exiled, the article works out ...

  18. Theorising Community Gardens as Pedagogical Sites in the Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Community gardens are rich non-school sites of informal adult learning and education in the North American food movement. To date, however, they have seldom been the subject of research in environmental education. This paper argues that theorising on public pedagogy and social movement learning from the field of Adult Education might effectively…

  19. Analyzing Teacher Narratives in Early Childhood Garden-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Christopher Daniel; Su-Russell, Chang; Manfra, Louis

    2018-01-01

    Learning gardens can provide dynamic learning and developmental experiences for young children. This case study of 12 early childhood teachers explores how teachers describe (1) learning across numerous school readiness domains and (2) how to support this learning by promoting opportunities for autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Participants…

  20. Factorial study of rain garden design for nitrogen removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Nitrate (〖NO〗_3^--N ) removal studies in bioretention systems showed great variability in removal rates and in some cases 〖NO〗_3^--N was exported. A 3-way factorial design (2 x 2 x 4) was devised for eight outdoor un-vegetated rain gardens to evaluate the effects of ...