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Sample records for legume anchor markers

  1. A general pipeline for the development of anchor markers for comparative genomics in plants

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    Stougaard Jens

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete or near-complete genomic sequence information is presently only available for a few plant species representing a large phylogenetic diversity among plants. In order to effectively transfer this information to species lacking sequence information, comparative genomic tools need to be developed. Molecular markers permitting cross-species mapping along co-linear genomic regions are central to comparative genomics. These "anchor" markers, defining unique loci in genetic linkage maps of multiple species, are gene-based and possess a number of features that make them relatively sparse. To identify potential anchor marker sequences more efficiently, we have established an automated bioinformatic pipeline that combines multi-species Expressed Sequence Tags (EST and genome sequence data. Results Taking advantage of sequence data from related species, the pipeline identifies evolutionarily conserved sequences that are likely to define unique orthologous loci in most species of the same phylogenetic clade. The key features are the identification of evolutionarily conserved sequences followed by automated design of intron-flanking Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR primer pairs. Polymorphisms can subsequently be identified by size- or sequence variation of PCR products, amplified from mapping parents or populations. We illustrate our procedure in legumes and grasses and exemplify its application in legumes, where model plant studies and the genome- and EST-sequence data available have a potential impact on the breeding of crop species and on our understanding of the evolution of this large and diverse family. Conclusion We provide a database of 459 candidate anchor loci which have the potential to serve as map anchors in more than 18,000 legume species, a number of which are of agricultural importance. For grasses, the database contains 1335 candidate anchor loci. Based on this database, we have evaluated 76 candidate anchor loci

  2. Construction of a marker system for the evaluation of competitiveness for legume nodulation in Rhizobium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cañizares, Carmen; Palacios, Jose

    2013-03-01

    A marker system has been set up for the analysis of competitiveness of Rhizobium leguminosarum strains for legume nodulation. The strains generated incorporate gusA and celB marker genes at identical positions and allow efficient scoring of single and double infections. Based on this system, we have found that strain UPM791 outcompetes 3841 for nodulation in pea. This technique will be useful to determine the effect of different traits on competitiveness.

  3. Consumption of legumes improves certain bone markers in ovariectomized rats.

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    Lee, Sun Hee; Jin, Na; Paik, Doo-Jin; Kim, Deog-Yoon; Chung, Ill-Min; Park, Yongsoon

    2011-05-01

    Soybeans are known to protect against osteoporosis, but other legumes frequently consumed in Asia have not been studied to learn if they have a similar protective effect. This study investigated the hypothesis that consumption of soybean, mung bean, cowpea, and adzuki bean has beneficial effects on bone biomarkers in ovariectomized rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were either sham operated (sham; n = 7) or surgically ovariectomized and then fed a regular AIN-93M diet (OVX; n = 7) or AIN-93M containing soybean (n = 7), mung bean (n = 7), cowpea (n = 7), or adzuki beans (n = 7) for 10 weeks. No bean consumption significantly altered the body, subcutaneous fat, or uterus weight; however, consumption significantly increased the serum calcium/phosphorous ratio and decreased urinary calcium excretion compared with those of the OVX group. Serum concentration of 17β-estradiol was significantly lower in the OVX group compared with that of the sham group and was lowest in the group fed OVX diet containing soybean. Serum osteocalcin concentration was significantly higher in all OVX rats given a diet with beans compared with the same diet without, but urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was lowest in the group fed OVX diet containing cowpea. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density or bone mineral content of the right femur, tibia, or lumbar spine or in the trabecular bone volume of the tibia among the diet groups. In conclusion, the consumption of soybean, mung bean, cowpea, and adzuki bean in OVX rats improved osteocalcin, but only those fed cowpea showed decreased bone resorption biomarker, suggesting that cowpea may have the most protective effect on bone in OVX rats.

  4. Use of EST database markers from M. truncatula in the transferability to other forage legumes.

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    Chandra, Amaresh

    2011-05-01

    In general tropical forage legumes lack microsatellites or simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Development of genic SSR markers from expressed sequence tagged (EST) database is an alternate and efficient approach to generate the standard DNA markers for genome analysis of such crop species. In the present paper a total of 816 EST-SSRs containing perfect repeats of mono (33.5%), di (14.7%), tri (39.3%), tetra (2.7%), penta (0.7%) and hexa (0.4%) nucleotides were identified from 1,87,763 ESTs of Medicago truncatula. Along with, 70 (8.5%) SSRs of a compound type were also observed. Seven primer pairs of tri repeats were tested for cross transferability in 19 accessions of forage legumes comprising 11 genera. At two different annealing temperatures (55 and 60 degreesC) all primer pairs except AJ410087 reacted with many accessions of forage legumes. Atotal of 51 alleles were detected with six M. truncatula EST-SSRs primer-pairs against DNAfrom 19 accessions representing 11 genera where number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13. The cross-transferability of these EST-SSRs was 40.6% at 55 degreesC and 32.3% at 60 degreesC annealing temperature. 24 alleles of the total 50 (48%) at 55 degreesC and 27 of 51 (53%) at 60 degreesC were polymorphic among the accessions. These 27 polymorphic amplicons identified could be used as DNA markers. This study demonstrates the developed SSR markers from M. truncatula ESTs as a valuable genetic markers and also proposes the possibility of transferring these markers between species of different genera of the legumes of forage importance. It was evident from the results obtained with a set of Desmanthus virgatus accessions where SequentialAgglomerative Hierarchical and Nested (SAHN) cluster analysis based on Dice similarity and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean Algorithm (UPGMA) revealed significant variability (24 to 74%) among the accessions. High bootstrap values (>30) supported the nodes generated by dendrogram analysis of

  5. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

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    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  6. Conversion of chromosome-specific RAPDs into SCAR-based anchor markers for onion linkage maps and its application to genetic analyses inother Allium species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masuzaki, S.; Miyazaki, T.; McCallum, J.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kik, C.; Yamashita, K.; Tashiro, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Integration of previously developed Allium cepa linkage maps requires the availability of anchor markers for each of the eight chromosomes of shallot (A. cepa L. common group Aggregatum). To this end, eight RAPD markers originating from our previous research were converted into SCAR markers via clon

  7. Transcriptome sequencing, and rapid development and application of SNP markers for the legume pod borer Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

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    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is an insect pest species that is destructive to crops grown by subsistence farmers in tropical regions of West Africa. We present the de novo assembly of 3729 contigs from 454- and Sanger-derived sequencing reads for midgut, salivary, ...

  8. Large-scale development of cost-effective SNP marker assays for diversity assessment and genetic mapping in chickpea and comparative mapping in legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Pavana J; Kumar, Ashish; Penmetsa, Ramachandra Varma; Farmer, Andrew; Schlueter, Jessica A; Chamarthi, Siva K; Whaley, Adam M; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Gaur, Pooran M; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Kavi Kishor, Polavarapu B; Shah, Trushar M; Cook, Douglas R; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2012-01-01

    A set of 2486 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were compiled in chickpea using four approaches, namely (i) Solexa/Illumina sequencing (1409), (ii) amplicon sequencing of tentative orthologous genes (TOGs) (604), (iii) mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) (286) and (iv) sequencing of candidate genes (187). Conversion of these SNPs to the cost-effective and flexible throughput Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays generated successful assays for 2005 SNPs. These marker assays have been designated as Chickpea KASPar Assay Markers (CKAMs). Screening of 70 genotypes including 58 diverse chickpea accessions and 12 BC3F2 lines showed 1341 CKAMs as being polymorphic. Genetic analysis of these data clustered chickpea accessions based on geographical origin. Genotyping data generated for 671 CKAMs on the reference mapping population (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × Cicer reticulatum PI 489777) were compiled with 317 unpublished TOG-SNPs and 396 published markers for developing the genetic map. As a result, a second-generation genetic map comprising 1328 marker loci including novel 625 CKAMs, 314 TOG-SNPs and 389 published marker loci with an average inter-marker distance of 0.59 cM was constructed. Detailed analyses of 1064 mapped loci of this second-generation chickpea genetic map showed a higher degree of synteny with genome of Medicago truncatula, followed by Glycine max, Lotus japonicus and least with Vigna unguiculata. Development of these cost-effective CKAMs for SNP genotyping will be useful not only for genetics research and breeding applications in chickpea, but also for utilizing genome information from other sequenced or model legumes. PMID:22703242

  9. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.

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    Studer Bruno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR markers has been assigned to map positions using eight different ryegrass mapping populations. Marker properties of a subset of 64 EST-SSRs were assessed in six to eight individuals of each mapping population and revealed 83% of the markers to be polymorphic in at least one population and an average number of alleles of 4.88. EST-SSR markers polymorphic in multiple populations served as anchor markers and allowed the construction of the first comprehensive consensus map for ryegrass. The integrated map was complemented with 97 SSRs from previously published linkage maps and finally contained 284 EST-derived and genomic SSR markers. The total map length was 742 centiMorgan (cM, ranging for individual chromosomes from 70 cM of linkage group (LG 6 to 171 cM of LG 2. Conclusions The consensus linkage map for ryegrass based on eight mapping populations and constructed using a large set of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well as comparative genetics and genomics within grass species.

  10. A high-resolution InDel (insertion-deletion markers-anchored consensus genetic map identifies major QTLs governing pod number and seed yield in chickpea

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    Rishi Srivastava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Development and large-scale genotyping of user-friendly informative genome/gene-derived InDel markers in natural and mapping populations is vital for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding applications of chickpea with minimal resource expenses. The present investigation employed a high-throughput whole genome NGS (next-generation sequencing resequencing strategy in low and high pod number parental accessions and homozygous individuals constituting the bulks from each of two inter-specific mapping populations [(Pusa 1103 x ILWC 46 and (Pusa 256 x ILWC 46] to develop non-erroneous InDel markers at a genome-wide scale. Comparing these high-quality genomic sequences, 82360 InDel markers with reference to kabuli genome and 13891 InDel markers exhibiting differentiation between low and high pod number parental accessions and bulks of aforementioned mapping populations were developed. These informative markers were structurally and functionally annotated in diverse coding and non-coding sequence components of genome/genes of kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of regulatory and coding (frameshift and large-effect mutations InDel markers for establishing marker-trait linkages through association/genetic mapping was apparent. The markers detected a greater amplification (97% and intra-specific polymorphic potential (58-87% among a diverse panel of cultivated desi, kabuli and wild accessions even by using a simpler cost-efficient agarose gel-based assay implicating their utility in large-scale genetic analysis especially in domesticated chickpea with narrow genetic base. Two high-density inter-specific genetic linkage maps generated using aforesaid mapping populations were integrated to construct a consensus 1479 InDel markers-anchored high-resolution (inter-marker distance: 0.66 cM genetic map for efficient molecular mapping of major QTLs governing pod number and seed yield per plant in chickpea. Utilizing these high-density genetic maps as

  11. Legume and Lotus japonicus Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirakawa, Hideki; Mun, Terry; Sato, Shusei

    2014-01-01

    Since the genome sequence of Lotus japonicus, a model plant of family Fabaceae, was determined in 2008 (Sato et al. 2008), the genomes of other members of the Fabaceae family, soybean (Glycine max) (Schmutz et al. 2010) and Medicago truncatula (Young et al. 2011), have been sequenced. In this sec....... In this section, we introduce representative, publicly accessible online resources related to plant materials, integrated databases containing legume genome information, and databases for genome sequence and derived marker information of legume species including L. japonicus...

  12. Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome

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    Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jüngling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is

  13. Development of a set of PCR-based anchor markers encompassing the tomato genome and evaluation of their usefulness for genetics and breeding experiments.

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    Frary, Anne; Xu, Yimin; Liu, Jiping; Mitchell, Sharon; Tedeschi, Eloisa; Tanksley, Steven

    2005-07-01

    Tomato and potato expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences contained in the solanaceae genomics network (SGN) database were screened for simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs. A total of 609 SSRs were identified and assayed on Solanum lycopersicum LA925 (formerly Lycopersicon esculentum) and S. pennellii LA716 (formerly L. pennellii). The SSRs that did not amplify, gave multiple band products, or did not exhibit a polymorphism that could be readily detected on standard agarose gels in either of these species were eliminated. A set of 76 SSRs meeting these criteria was then placed on the S. lycopersicum (LA925) x S. pennellii (LA716) high-density map. A set of 76 selected cleaved amplified polymorphism (CAP) markers was also developed and mapped onto the same population. These 152 PCR-based anchor markers are uniformly distributed and encompass 95% of the genome with an average spacing of 10.0 cM. These PCR-based markers were further used to characterize S. pennellii introgression lines (Eshed and Zamir, Genetics 141:1147-1162, 1995) and should prove helpful in utilizing these stocks for high-resolution mapping experiments. The majority of these anchor markers also exhibit polymorphism between S. lycopersicum and two wild species commonly used as parents for mapping experiments, S. pimpinellifolium (formerly L. pimpinellifolium) and S. habrochaites (formerly L. hirsutum), indicating that they will be useful for mapping in other interspecific populations. Sixty of the mapped SSRs plus another 49 microsatellites were tested for polymorphism in seven tomato cultivars, four S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions and eight accessions of five different wild tomato species. Polymorphism information content values were highest among the wild accessions, with as many as 13 alleles detected per locus over all accessions. Most of the SSRs (90%) had accession-specific alleles, with the most unique alleles and heterozygotes usually found in accessions of self

  14. A High-Resolution InDel (Insertion–Deletion) Markers-Anchored Consensus Genetic Map Identifies Major QTLs Governing Pod Number and Seed Yield in Chickpea

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    Srivastava, Rishi; Singh, Mohar; Bajaj, Deepak; Parida, Swarup K.

    2016-01-01

    Development and large-scale genotyping of user-friendly informative genome/gene-derived InDel markers in natural and mapping populations is vital for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding applications of chickpea with minimal resource expenses. The present investigation employed a high-throughput whole genome next-generation resequencing strategy in low and high pod number parental accessions and homozygous individuals constituting the bulks from each of two inter-specific mapping populations [(Pusa 1103 × ILWC 46) and (Pusa 256 × ILWC 46)] to develop non-erroneous InDel markers at a genome-wide scale. Comparing these high-quality genomic sequences, 82,360 InDel markers with reference to kabuli genome and 13,891 InDel markers exhibiting differentiation between low and high pod number parental accessions and bulks of aforementioned mapping populations were developed. These informative markers were structurally and functionally annotated in diverse coding and non-coding sequence components of genome/genes of kabuli chickpea. The functional significance of regulatory and coding (frameshift and large-effect mutations) InDel markers for establishing marker-trait linkages through association/genetic mapping was apparent. The markers detected a greater amplification (97%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (58–87%) among a diverse panel of cultivated desi, kabuli, and wild accessions even by using a simpler cost-efficient agarose gel-based assay implicating their utility in large-scale genetic analysis especially in domesticated chickpea with narrow genetic base. Two high-density inter-specific genetic linkage maps generated using aforesaid mapping populations were integrated to construct a consensus 1479 InDel markers-anchored high-resolution (inter-marker distance: 0.66 cM) genetic map for efficient molecular mapping of major QTLs governing pod number and seed yield per plant in chickpea. Utilizing these high-density genetic maps as anchors, three major

  15. Anchor Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Olle; Rönnbäck, Lars; Bergholtz, Maria; Johannesson, Paul; Wohed, Petia

    Maintaining and evolving data warehouses is a complex, error prone, and time consuming activity. The main reason for this state of affairs is that the environment of a data warehouse is in constant change, while the warehouse itself needs to provide a stable and consistent interface to information spanning extended periods of time. In this paper, we propose a modeling technique for data warehousing, called anchor modeling, that offers non-destructive extensibility mechanisms, thereby enabling robust and flexible management of changes in source systems. A key benefit of anchor modeling is that changes in a data warehouse environment only require extensions, not modifications, to the data warehouse. This ensures that existing data warehouse applications will remain unaffected by the evolution of the data warehouse, i.e. existing views and functions will not have to be modified as a result of changes in the warehouse model.

  16. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchero, Wellington; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2011-01-05

    Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs), accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2), were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max) and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection. Effective sources of host resistance were

  17. Genic SNP markers and legume synteny reveal candidate genes underlying QTL for Macrophomina phaseolina resistance and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.

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    Ehlers Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophomina phaseolina is an emerging and devastating fungal pathogen that causes significant losses in crop production under high temperatures and drought stress. An increasing number of disease incidence reports highlight the wide prevalence of the pathogen around the world and its contribution toward crop yield suppression. In cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L Walp.], limited sources of low-level host resistance have been identified, the genetic basis of which is unknown. In this study we report on the identification of strong sources of host resistance to M. phaseolina and the genetic mapping of putative resistance loci on a cowpea genetic map comprised of gene-derived single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. Results Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs, accounting for between 6.1 and 40.0% of the phenotypic variance (R2, were identified using plant mortality data taken over three years in field experiments and disease severity scores taken from two greenhouse experiments. Based on annotated genic SNPs as well as synteny with soybean (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula, candidate resistance genes were found within mapped QTL intervals. QTL Mac-2 explained the largest percent R2 and was identified in three field and one greenhouse experiments where the QTL peak co-located with a SNP marker derived from a pectin esterase inhibitor encoding gene. Maturity effects on the expression of resistance were indicated by the co-location of Mac-6 and Mac-7 QTLs with maturity-related senescence QTLs Mat-2 and Mat-1, respectively. Homologs of the ELF4 and FLK flowering genes were found in corresponding syntenic soybean regions. Only three Macrophomina resistance QTLs co-located with delayed drought-induced premature senescence QTLs previously mapped in the same population, suggesting that largely different genetic mechanisms mediate cowpea response to drought stress and Macrophomina infection

  18. Remnants of the Legume Ancestral Genome Preserved in Gene-Rich Regions: Insights from Lupinus angustifolius Physical, Genetic, and Comparative Mapping.

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    Książkiewicz, Michał; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Wyrwa, Katarzyna; Szczepaniak, Anna; Rychel, Sandra; Karlowski, Wojciech; Wolko, Bogdan; Naganowska, Barbara

    The narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) was recently considered as a legume reference species. Genetic resources have been developed, including a draft genome sequence, linkage maps, nuclear DNA libraries, and cytogenetic chromosome-specific landmarks. Here, we used a complex approach, involving DNA fingerprinting, sequencing, genetic mapping, and molecular cytogenetics, to localize and analyze L. angustifolius gene-rich regions (GRRs). A L. angustifolius genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with short sequence repeat (SSR)-based probes. Selected BACs were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs. BAC-end sequence (BES) annotation allowed us to choose clones for sequencing, targeting GRRs. Additionally, BESs were aligned to the scaffolds of the genome sequence. The genetic map was supplemented with 35 BES-derived markers, distributed in 14 linkage groups and tagging 37 scaffolds. The identified GRRs had an average gene density of 19.6 genes/100 kb and physical-to-genetic distance ratios of 11 to 109 kb/cM. Physical and genetic mapping was supported by multi-BAC-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and five new linkage groups were assigned to the chromosomes. Syntenic links to the genome sequences of five legume species (Medicago truncatula, Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Cajanus cajan) were identified. The comparative mapping of the two largest lupin GRRs provides novel evidence for ancient duplications in all of the studied species. These regions are conserved among representatives of the main clades of Papilionoideae. Furthermore, despite the complex evolution of legumes, some segments of the nuclear genome were not substantially modified and retained their quasi-ancestral structures. Cytogenetic markers anchored in these regions constitute a platform for heterologous mapping of legume genomes.

  19. EST-derived SSR markers used as anchor loci for the construction of a consensus linkage map in ryegrass (Lolium spp.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Bruno; Kölliker, Roland; Muylle, Hilde;

    2010-01-01

    of publicly available Lolium EST-SSRs mapped for the first time together with previously mapped SSR markers will allow for consolidating existing mapping and QTL information in ryegrass. Map and markers presented here will prove to be an asset in the development for both molecular breeding of ryegrass as well......Background Genetic markers and linkage mapping are basic prerequisites for marker-assisted selection and map-based cloning. In the case of the key grassland species Lolium spp., numerous mapping populations have been developed and characterised for various traits. Although some genetic linkage maps...... of these populations have been aligned with each other using publicly available DNA markers, the number of common markers among genetic maps is still low, limiting the ability to compare candidate gene and QTL locations across germplasm. Results A set of 204 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived simple sequence repeat...

  20. Grain legumes and human health

    OpenAIRE

    Lambein, Fernand; Kuo, Yu-Haey; Ikegami, Fumio; Kusama-Eguchi, Kuniko; Enneking, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Since early civilisation in different continents, grain legumes have been a part of balanced diets together with cereals. In general the seeds from those two plant families give together a good source of essential amino acids and may have given an evolutionary advantage. A sustainable diet for vegetarians may not be possible without the protein-rich legumes. Consumed alone, legumes can be a mixed blessing because of their deficiency of some essential amino acids. This deficiency can be balanc...

  1. Healthy food trends -- beans and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy food trends - pulses; Healthy eating - beans and legumes; Weight loss - beans and legumes; Healthy diet - beans and legumes; ... My Plate.gov. Beans and Peas Are Unique Foods. Updated January 12, 2016. www.choosemyplate.gov/vegetables- ...

  2. How legumes recognize rhizobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Via, Virginia Dalla; Zanetti, María Eugenia; Blanco, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Legume plants have developed the capacity to establish symbiotic interactions with soil bacteria (known as rhizobia) that can convert N2 to molecular forms that are incorporated into the plant metabolism. The first step of this relationship is the recognition of bacteria by the plant, which allows to distinguish potentially harmful species from symbiotic partners. The main molecular determinant of this symbiotic interaction is the Nod Factor, a diffusible lipochitooligosaccharide molecule produced by rhizobia and perceived by LysM receptor kinases; however, other important molecules involved in the specific recognition have emerged over the years. Secreted exopolysaccharides and the lipopolysaccharides present in the bacterial cell wall have been proposed to act as signaling molecules, triggering the expression of specific genes related to the symbiotic process. In this review we will briefly discuss how transcriptomic analysis are helping to understand how multiple signaling pathways, triggered by the perception of different molecules produced by rhizobia, control the genetic programs of root nodule organogenesis and bacterial infection. This knowledge can help to understand how legumes have evolved to recognize and establish complex ecological relationships with particular species and strains of rhizobia, adjusting gene expression in response to identity determinants of bacteria.

  3. Food legume production in China

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    Ling Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Food legumes comprise all legumes grown for human food in China as either dry grains or vegetables, except for soybean and groundnut. China has a vast territory with complex ecological conditions. Rotation, intercropping, and mixed cropping involving pulses are normal cropping systems in China. Whether indigenous or introduced crops, pulses have played an important role in Chinese cropping systems and made an important contribution to food resources for humans since ancient times. The six major food legume species (pea, faba bean, common bean, mung bean, adzuki bean, and cowpea are the most well-known pulses in China, as well as those with more local distributions; runner bean, lima bean, chickpea, lentil, grass pea, lupine, rice bean, black gram, hyacinth bean, pigeon pea, velvet bean, winged bean, guar bean, sword bean, and jack bean. China has remained the world's leading producer of peas, faba beans, mung beans, and adzuki beans in recent decades, as documented by FAO statistics and China Agriculture Statistical Reports. The demand for food legumes as a healthy food will markedly increase with the improvement of living standards in China. Since China officially joined the World Trade Organization (WTO in 2001, imports of pea from Canada and Australia have rapidly increased, resulting in reduced prices for dry pea and other food legumes. With reduced profits for food legume crops, their sowing area and total production has decreased within China. At the same time, the rising consumer demand for vegetable food legumes as a healthy food has led to attractive market prices and sharp production increases in China. Vegetable food legumes have reduced growing duration and enable flexibility in cropping systems. In the future, production of dry food legumes will range from stable to slowly decreasing, while production of vegetable food legumes will continue to increase.

  4. Linking Biomarker and Comparative Omics to Pathogens in Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diapari, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    It is envisioned that a more precise study of the association between the traits and biomarkers will dramatically decrease the time and costs required to bring new improved disease resistance lines to market. The field of omics has an enormous potential to assess diseases more precise, including the identification and understanding of pathogenic mechanisms in legume crops, and have been exemplified by a relatively large number of studies. Recently, molecular genetic studies have accumulated a huge amount of genotypic data, through a more affordable next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, causing the omics approaches to fall behind. In this paper I provide an overview of genomics and proteomics and their use in legume crops, including the use of comparative genomics to identify homologous markers within legume crops.

  5. Resistance of cool season food legumes to Ascochyta blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiales Diego

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of Ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes have been achieved. In the present paper we present and re-evaluate some recent developments in control in the light of recent developments in crop breeding and molecular genetics. The current focus in applied breeding is leveraging biotechnological tools to develop more and better markers to speed up the delivery of improved cultivars to the farmer. To date, however, progress in marker development and delivery of useful markers has been slow. The application of knowledge gained from basic genomic research and genetic engineering will contribute to more rapid crop legume improvement for resistance against Ascochyta blight.

  6. Hypersensitivity to Suture Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Goto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypersensitivity to suture anchor is extremely rare. Herein, we present a case in which hypersensitivity to suture anchor was strongly suspected. The right rotator cuff of a 50-year-old woman was repaired with a metal suture anchor. Three weeks after the surgery, she developed erythema around her face, trunk, and hands, accompanied by itching. Infection was unlikely because no abnormalities were detected by blood testing or by medical examination. Suspicious of a metallic allergy, a dermatologist performed a patch testing 6 months after the first surgery. The patient had negative reactions to tests for titanium, aluminum, and vanadium, which were the principal components of the suture anchor. The anchor was removed 7 months after the first surgery, and the erythema disappeared immediately. When allergic symptoms occur and persist after the use of a metal anchor, removal should be considered as a treatment option even if the patch test result is negative.

  7. Anchor Loads on Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. Anchor loads on pipelines is in general a rarely occurring event, however, the severity when it occurs could easily jeopardize the integrity of any pipeline. It is considered as an accidental load in the design of pipelines. Pipeline Loads, limit state criteria and anchor categories are defined by the DNV standards. For pipeline, DNV-OS-F101 (08.2012), Submarine Pipeline Systems is adopted. Offshore standard DNV-RP...

  8. Susceptibility to anchoring effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anchoring has shown this heuristic to be a very robust psychological phenomenon ubiquitous across many domains of human judgment and decision-making. Despite the prevalence of anchoring effects, researchers have only recently begun to investigate the underlying factors responsible for how and in what ways a person is susceptible to them. This paper examines how one such factor, the Big-Five personality trait of openness-to-experience, influences the effect of previously presented anchors on participants' judgments. Our findings indicate that participants high in openness-to-experience were significantly more influenced by anchoring cues relative to participants low in this trait. These findings were consistent across two different types of anchoring tasks providing convergent evidence for our hypothesis.

  9. THE POSSIBILITY OF LEGUMES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinushkin A.P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Primary receptacles improve profitability legumes are limiting demonstrations and acts of plant diseases and pests. Pathogens are 25-50% lower yield of soybean, chickpea, beans, peas. Pests focally up to 87% of viable seeds sown reduce the number of plants per 1 ha. Only effective protection against disease and estimates of crop production can increase the average profitability of legume crops by 15-30%. Livestock is very important, but in the Southern Urals requires real support for its production with a positive balance (in the calculations with a deviation of 5%. The most important resource in our opinion may be a reduction in price of fodder. Thus, legumes are sought for animal protein. Soybeans, chickpeas, beans, peas universal culture and the possibility of their use in the food balance for a healthy diet of ordinary people engaged in recreational and other sports niche expands further improve the profitability of their production. Regulation of the balance of the distribution of food and feed produced grain legumes allows fine regulation of the cost of fodder for a particular type of livestock activities. Phytosanitary capabilities , the balance of influence of legumes on arable land, also requires a fine regulation of these processes. Obtaining long-term public support for this production is unlikely in the WTO because actual search for ways to improve the profitability of production of agricultural technologies. In our view, a comprehensive approach taking into account the capacity of local markets for crop production. Such activity can act as a guaranteed quality of agro-technology and animal products from local resources specific zonal conditions of production.

  10. Anchor Trial Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  11. Water-tolerant legume nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoen, Ward; Goormachtig, Sofie; Holsters, Marcelle

    2010-03-01

    Water-tolerant nodulation is an adaptation of legumes that grow in wet or temporarily flooded habitats. This nodulation mode takes place at lateral root bases via intercellular bacterial invasion in cortical infection pockets. The tropical legume Sesbania rostrata has become a model for the study of the molecular basis of crack entry nodulation compared with root hair curl nodulation. For intercellular invasion, Nodulation Factor (NF) signalling recruits an ethylene-dependent, common Sym gene-independent pathway, leading to local cell death. The NF structure requirements are less stringent than for intracellular invasion in root hairs, which is correlated with a very specific NF-induced calcium spiking signature, presumably necessary for correct gene expression to assemble a functional entry complex in the epidermis.

  12. Novel SSR markers from BAC-end sequences, DArT arrays and a comprehensive genetic map with 1,291 marker loci for chickpea (Cicer arietinum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is the third most important cool season food legume, cultivated in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The goal of this study was to develop novel molecular markers such as microsatellite or simple sequence repeat (SSR markers from bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC-end sequences (BESs and diversity arrays technology (DArT markers, and to construct a high-density genetic map based on recombinant inbred line (RIL population ICC 4958 (C. arietinum×PI 489777 (C. reticulatum. A BAC-library comprising 55,680 clones was constructed and 46,270 BESs were generated. Mining of these BESs provided 6,845 SSRs, and primer pairs were designed for 1,344 SSRs. In parallel, DArT arrays with ca. 15,000 clones were developed, and 5,397 clones were found polymorphic among 94 genotypes tested. Screening of newly developed BES-SSR markers and DArT arrays on the parental genotypes of the RIL mapping population showed polymorphism with 253 BES-SSR markers and 675 DArT markers. Segregation data obtained for these polymorphic markers and 494 markers data compiled from published reports or collaborators were used for constructing the genetic map. As a result, a comprehensive genetic map comprising 1,291 markers on eight linkage groups (LGs spanning a total of 845.56 cM distance was developed (http://cmap.icrisat.ac.in/cmap/sm/cp/thudi/. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 68 (LG 8 to 218 (LG 3 with an average inter-marker distance of 0.65 cM. While the developed resource of molecular markers will be useful for genetic diversity, genetic mapping and molecular breeding applications, the comprehensive genetic map with integrated BES-SSR markers will facilitate its anchoring to the physical map (under construction to accelerate map-based cloning of genes in chickpea and comparative genome evolution studies in legumes.

  13. Grain legumes in organic cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Dr. Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Grain legumes are valuable protein and energy sources in animal feeds and in human diets low in meat. Furthermore, grain legumes strongly benefit the cropping system, via biological fixation of atmospheric N2 - a fundamental process for maintaining soil fertility in organic farming systems. Other positive effects in the crop rotations are recycled N-rich crop residues and the break-crop effect in cereals-rich rotations. However, yield variability in grain legumes is well known and related to...

  14. Legume Information System (LegumeInfo.org): a key component of a set of federated data resources for the legume family

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Legume Information System (LIS), at http://legumeinfo.org, is a genomic data portal (GDP) for the legume family. LIS provides access to genetic and genomic information for major crop and model legumes. With more than two-dozen domesticated legume species, there are numerous specialists working o...

  15. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume—cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield and subsequent energy yield. S...

  16. Cycling of grain legume residue nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1995-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes is the main input of nitrogen in ecological agriculture. The cycling of N-15-labelled mature pea (Pisum sativum L.) residues was studied during three years in small field plots and lysimeters. The residual organic labelled N declined rapidly during the initial...... management methods in order to conserve grain legume residue N sources within the soil-plant system....

  17. Legume proteomics: Progress, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture.

  18. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied.

  19. The legume manifesto: (Networkers on Fabaceae, unite!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes have been an important part of cropping systems since the dawn of agriculture. The shift in Europe from draught animals to meat animals coincided with the increasing availability of soybean meal from North and South America, and the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union promoted the growing of cereals and oilseeds at the expense of other crops so legumes fell out of favour with farmers and decision-makers. Continental concerns about food and feed security, high prices of oil and soybean meal and advances in the application of fundamental molecular genetics to crop species, all mean that now is a good opportunity to promote the return of legumes to European cropping systems by enhancing the efficiency of research and development on this family. Hence we propose the establishment of a Legume Society that will promote information exchange and scientific productivity by uniting the various legume research communities.

  20. LegumeIP: an integrative database for comparative genomics and transcriptomics of model legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Liu, Tingsong; Zhao, Patrick Xuechun

    2012-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in maintaining the nitrogen cycle of the biosphere. They conduct symbiotic nitrogen fixation through endosymbiotic relationships with bacteria in root nodules. However, this and other characteristics of legumes, including mycorrhization, compound leaf development and profuse secondary metabolism, are absent in the typical model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We present LegumeIP (http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/), an integrative database for comparative genomics and transcriptomics of model legumes, for studying gene function and genome evolution in legumes. LegumeIP compiles gene and gene family information, syntenic and phylogenetic context and tissue-specific transcriptomic profiles. The database holds the genomic sequences of three model legumes, Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus plus two reference plant species, A. thaliana and Populus trichocarpa, with annotations based on UniProt, InterProScan, Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. LegumeIP also contains large-scale microarray and RNA-Seq-based gene expression data. Our new database is capable of systematic synteny analysis across M. truncatula, G. max, L. japonicas and A. thaliana, as well as construction and phylogenetic analysis of gene families across the five hosted species. Finally, LegumeIP provides comprehensive search and visualization tools that enable flexible queries based on gene annotation, gene family, synteny and relative gene expression.

  1. Differential effectiveness of novel and old legume-rhizobia mutualisms: implications for invasion by exotic legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Fajardo, Susana; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    The degree of specialization in the legume-rhizobium mutualism and the variation in the response to different potential symbionts are crucial factors for understanding the process of invasion by exotic legumes and the consequences for the native resident plants and bacteria. The enhanced novel mutualism hypothesis predicts that exotic invasive legumes would take advantage of native rhizobia present in the invaded soils. However, recent studies have shown that exotic legumes might become invasive by using exotic introduced microsymbionts, and that they could be a source of exotic bacteria for native legumes. To unravel the role of novel and old symbioses in the progress of invasion, nodulation and symbiotic effectiveness were analyzed for exotic invasive plants and native co-occurring legumes in a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem. Although most of the studied species nodulated with bacteria from distant origins these novel mutualisms were less effective in terms of nodulation, nitrogenase activity and plant growth than the interactions of plants and bacteria from the same origin. The relative effect of exotic bradyrhizobia was strongly positive for exotic invasive legumes and detrimental for native shrubs. We conclude that (1) the studied invasive legumes do not rely on novel mutualisms but rather need the co-introduction of compatible symbionts, and (2) since exotic rhizobia colonize native legumes in invaded areas, the lack of effectiveness of these novel symbiosis demonstrated here suggests that invasion can disrupt native belowground mutualisms and reduce native legumes fitness.

  2. Anchored paired comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, E. N.; Handley, J. C.; Wu, W.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is often used in image quality evaluations. Psychometric scale values for quality judgments are modeled using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which distance in a psychometric scale space is a function of the probability of preference. The transformation from psychometric space to probability is a cumulative probability distribution. The major drawback of a complete paired comparison experiment is that every treatment is compared to every other, thus the number of comparisons grows quadratically. We ameliorate this difficulty by performing paired comparisons in two stages, by precisely estimating anchors in the psychometric scale space which are spaced apart to cover the range of scale values and comparing treatments against those anchors. In this model, we employ a generalized linear model where the regression equation has a constant offset vector determined by the anchors. The result of this formulation is a straightforward statistical model easily analyzed using any modern statistics package. This enables model fitting and diagnostics. This method was applied to overall preference evaluations of color pictorial hardcopy images. The results were found to be compatible with complete paired comparison experiments, but with significantly less effort.

  3. NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtom Gebrelibanos*, Dinka Tesfaye, Y. Raghavendra and Biruk Sintayeyu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Legumes are plants in the family Fabaceae characterized by seeds in pods that are often edible though sometimes poisonous. The nutrient content (protein, carbohydrate and micronutrients of legumes contribute to address under-nutrition, especially protein-calorie malnutrition among children and nursing mothers in developing countries where supplementing cereal-based diets with legumes is suggested as one of the best solutions to protein calorie malnutrition. Anti-nutritional factors, in legumes, may limit their biological value and acceptance as a regular food item, yet they are readily removable and recent research has shown potential health benefits of some of these compounds; and hence, manipulation of processing conditions may be required to remove or reduce only those unwanted components. Moreover, legumes play a role in prevention, improvement and/or treatment of disease conditions such as, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, cancer diseases (e.g breast and prostate cancers and lowers blood cholesterol level. Most of these disease conditions are associated with over-nutrition and obesity and are considered as diseases of the rich. It is, therefore, claimed that including legumes in a health-promoting diet is important in meeting the major dietary recommendations to improve the nutritional status of undernourished as well as over-nourished individuals, and to reduce risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer. In this review, some of the scientific viewpoints that attempt to justify the nutritional contributions, anti-nutritional considerations and health implications of legumes are discussed.

  4. Impact of thermal processing on legume allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sandeep; Das, Mukul; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2012-12-01

    Food induced allergic manifestations are reported from several parts of the world. Food proteins exert their allergenic potential by absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and can even induce life threatening anaphylaxis reactions. Among all food allergens, legume allergens play an important role in induction of allergy because legumes are a major source of protein for vegetarians. Most of the legumes are cooked either by boiling, roasting or frying before consumption, which can be considered a form of thermal treatment. Thermal processing may also include autoclaving, microwave heating, blanching, pasteurization, canning, or steaming. Thermal processing of legumes may reduce, eliminate or enhance the allergenic potential of a respective legume. In most of the cases, minimization of allergenic potential on thermal treatment has generally been reported. Thus, thermal processing can be considered an important tool by indirectly prevent allergenicity in susceptible individuals, thereby reducing treatment costs and reducing industry/office/school absence in case of working population/school going children. The present review attempts to explore various possibilities of reducing or eliminating allergenicity of leguminous food using different methods of thermal processing. Further, this review summarizes different methods of food processing, major legumes and their predominant allergenic proteins, thermal treatment and its relation with antigenicity, effect of thermal processing on legume allergens; also suggests a path that may be taken for future research to reduce the allergenicity using conventional/nonconventional methods.

  5. Flooding tolerance of forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D

    2016-06-20

    We review waterlogging and submergence tolerances of forage (pasture) legumes. Growth reductions from waterlogging in perennial species ranged from >50% for Medicago sativa and Trifolium pratense to Lotus corniculatus, L. tenuis, and T. fragiferum For annual species, waterlogging reduced Medicago truncatula by ~50%, whereas Melilotus siculus and T. michelianum were not reduced. Tolerant species have higher root porosity (gas-filled volume in tissues) owing to aerenchyma formation. Plant dry mass (waterlogged relative to control) had a positive (hyperbolic) relationship to root porosity across eight species. Metabolism in hypoxic roots was influenced by internal aeration. Sugars accumulate in M. sativa due to growth inhibition from limited respiration and low energy in roots of low porosity (i.e. 4.5%). In contrast, L. corniculatus, with higher root porosity (i.e. 17.2%) and O2 supply allowing respiration, maintained growth better and sugars did not accumulate. Tolerant legumes form nodules, and internal O2 diffusion along roots can sustain metabolism, including N2 fixation, in submerged nodules. Shoot physiology depends on species tolerance. In M. sativa, photosynthesis soon declines and in the longer term (>10 d) leaves suffer chlorophyll degradation, damage, and N, P, and K deficiencies. In tolerant L corniculatus and L. tenuis, photosynthesis is maintained longer, shoot N is less affected, and shoot P can even increase during waterlogging. Species also differ in tolerance of partial and complete shoot submergence. Gaps in knowledge include anoxia tolerance of roots, N2 fixation during field waterlogging, and identification of traits conferring the ability to recover after water subsides.

  6. Emerging Genomic Tools for Legume Breeding: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manish K; Roorkiwal, Manish; Singh, Vikas K; Ramalingam, Abirami; Kudapa, Himabindu; Thudi, Mahendar; Chitikineni, Anu; Rathore, Abhishek; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2016-01-01

    Legumes play a vital role in ensuring global nutritional food security and improving soil quality through nitrogen fixation. Accelerated higher genetic gains is required to meet the demand of ever increasing global population. In recent years, speedy developments have been witnessed in legume genomics due to advancements in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput genotyping technologies. Reference genome sequences for many legume crops have been reported in the last 5 years. The availability of the draft genome sequences and re-sequencing of elite genotypes for several important legume crops have made it possible to identify structural variations at large scale. Availability of large-scale genomic resources and low-cost and high-throughput genotyping technologies are enhancing the efficiency and resolution of genetic mapping and marker-trait association studies. Most importantly, deployment of molecular breeding approaches has resulted in development of improved lines in some legume crops such as chickpea and groundnut. In order to support genomics-driven crop improvement at a fast pace, the deployment of breeder-friendly genomics and decision support tools seems appear to be critical in breeding programs in developing countries. This review provides an overview of emerging genomics and informatics tools/approaches that will be the key driving force for accelerating genomics-assisted breeding and ultimately ensuring nutritional and food security in developing countries.

  7. Molecular mechanisms controlling legume autoregulation of nodulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dugald E. Reid; Brett J. Ferguson; Satomi Hayashi; Yu-Hsiang Lin; Peter M. Gresshoff

    2011-01-01

    .... • Scope Understanding how legume plants maintain control of nodulation to balance the nitrogen gains with their energy needs and developmental costs will assist in increasing their productivity and relative advantage...

  8. Anchoring visions in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...

  9. Using coloured roots to study root interaction and competition in intercropped legumes and non-legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    if a species with coloured roots can be used to examine the interaction in a legume-non-legume intercropping system; (ii) to verify the importance of initial root growth on the successive root development of mixture component plants; (iii) to test if the root interaction in the shallow layers has consequences...

  10. Development and mapping of SSR markers linked to resistance-gene homologue clusters in common bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luz; Nayibe; Garzon; Matthew; Wohlgemuth; Blair

    2014-01-01

    Common bean is an important but often a disease-susceptible legume crop of temperate,subtropical and tropical regions worldwide. The crop is affected by bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. The strategy of resistance-gene homologue(RGH) cloning has proven to be an efficient tool for identifying markers and R(resistance) genes associated with resistances to diseases. Microsatellite or SSR markers can be identified by physical association with RGH clones on large-insert DNA clones such as bacterial artificial chromosomes(BACs). Our objectives in this work were to identify RGH-SSR in a BAC library from the Andean genotype G19833 and to test and map any polymorphic markers to identify associations with known positions of disease resistance genes. We developed a set of specific probes designed for clades of common bean RGH genes and then identified positive BAC clones and developed microsatellites from BACs having SSR loci in their end sequences. A total of 629 new RGH-SSRs were identified and named BMr(bean microsatellite RGH-associated markers). A subset of these markers was screened for detecting polymorphism in the genetic mapping population DOR364 × G19833. A genetic map was constructed with a total of 264 markers,among which were 80 RGH loci anchored to single-copy RFLP and SSR markers. Clusters of RGH-SSRs were observed on most of the linkage groups of common bean and in positions associated with R-genes and QTL. The use of these new markers to select for disease resistance is discussed.

  11. Epstein on Anchors and Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guala Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between anchors and grounds is one of the most innovative contributions of The Ant Trap. In this commentary I will argue that the distinction suffers from an ambiguity between tokens and types. This leads Epstein to endorse pluralism about anchors and grounds, a position that is not justified in the book and to which there are plausible alternatives.

  12. Intelligent Educational Systems for Anchored Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the potential for using Intelligent Educational Systems (IES) for anchoring instruction in macro contexts in science education. Topics include anchored instruction; situated cognition; problem solving; cognitivism; interactive video environments; and examples of combining IES and anchored instruction. (LRW)

  13. Intelligent Educational Systems for Anchored Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, David D.

    1995-01-01

    Explores the potential for using Intelligent Educational Systems (IES) for anchoring instruction in macro contexts in science education. Topics include anchored instruction; situated cognition; problem solving; cognitivism; interactive video environments; and examples of combining IES and anchored instruction. (LRW)

  14. Legume consumption and its association with fasting glucose, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in the Indian Migration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Preet K; Bowen, Liza; Kinra, Sanjay; Bharathi, Ankalmadugu Venkatsubbareddy; Agrawal, Sutapa; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Ebrahim, Shah

    2016-11-01

    Legume consumption is associated with lower fasting glucose (FG) and insulin levels in nutrition trials and lower CVD mortality in large-scale epidemiological studies. In India, legumes are widely consumed in various preparations, yet no epidemiological study has evaluated the association of legumes with FG levels, insulin resistance and diabetes risk. The present study aimed to fill this gap. Fasting blood samples, in-person interviews to obtain information on demographic/socio-economic factors, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco use, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Dietary intakes were assessed by an interviewer-administered, validated, semi-quantitative FFQ. Lucknow, Nagpur, Hyderabad and Bangalore, India. Men and women (n 6367) aged 15-76 years - urban residents, urban migrants and their rural siblings. In multivariate random-effects models adjusted for age, BMI, total energy intake, macronutrients, physical activity and rural/migration status, daily legume consumption was not associated with FG (P-for-trend=0·78), insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment score; P-for-trend=0·73) or the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (P-for-trend=0·41). Stratified analyses by vegetarian diet and migration status did not change the findings. Inverse associations between legumes and FG emerged for participants with lower BMI and higher carbohydrate, protein, fat and sugar intakes. Although legumes are essential in traditional Indian diets, as well as in prudent and Mediterranean diets in the West, we did not find an association between legumes and markers of glycaemic control, insulin resistance or diabetes, except for subgroups based on BMI and macronutrient intake. The ubiquitous presence and complexity of legume preparations in Indian diets may contribute to these findings.

  15. Annual legumes for improving soil fertility in the smallholder maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition to providing food, these crops are widely recognised to help maintain soil fertility. ... Most of our knowledge about the soil fertility benefits from annual legumes has ... Smallholder farmers already rotate grain legumes with maize.

  16. Experiences of soil fertility management through legume based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    either sandy soils or sandy loam soils to compare soil rehabilitation benefits of ... to incorporate the legume crop residues in order to maximize the residual nitrogen benefit to the cereal crop. ... different legume technologies either in rotation or.

  17. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Lim Chee; Singh, Mohan B; Bhalla, Prem L

    2014-08-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  18. Unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lim Chee Liew; Mohan B.Singh; Prem L.Bhalla

    2014-01-01

    Legumes, with their unique ability to fix atmo-spheric nitrogen, play a vital role in ensuring future food security and mitigating the effects of climate change because they use less fossil energy and produce less greenhouse gases compared with N-fertilized systems. Grain legumes are second only to cereal crops as a source of human and animal food, and they contribute approximately one third of the protein consumed by the human population. The productivity of seed crops, such as grain legumes, is dependent on flowering. Despite the genetic variation and importance of flowering in legume production, studies of the molecular pathways that control flowering in legumes are limited. Recent advances in genomics have revealed that legume flowering pathways are divergent from those of such model species as Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we discuss the current understanding of flowering time regulation in legumes and highlight the unique and conserved features of floral evocation in legumes.

  19. Specificity in Legume-Rhizobia Symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Mitchell; Andrews, Morag E

    2017-03-26

    Most species in the Leguminosae (legume family) can fix atmospheric nitrogen (N₂) via symbiotic bacteria (rhizobia) in root nodules. Here, the literature on legume-rhizobia symbioses in field soils was reviewed and genotypically characterised rhizobia related to the taxonomy of the legumes from which they were isolated. The Leguminosae was divided into three sub-families, the Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae. Bradyrhizobium spp. were the exclusive rhizobial symbionts of species in the Caesalpinioideae, but data are limited. Generally, a range of rhizobia genera nodulated legume species across the two Mimosoideae tribes Ingeae and Mimoseae, but Mimosa spp. show specificity towards Burkholderia in central and southern Brazil, Rhizobium/Ensifer in central Mexico and Cupriavidus in southern Uruguay. These specific symbioses are likely to be at least in part related to the relative occurrence of the potential symbionts in soils of the different regions. Generally, Papilionoideae species were promiscuous in relation to rhizobial symbionts, but specificity for rhizobial genus appears to hold at the tribe level for the Fabeae (Rhizobium), the genus level for Cytisus (Bradyrhizobium), Lupinus (Bradyrhizobium) and the New Zealand native Sophora spp. (Mesorhizobium) and species level for Cicer arietinum (Mesorhizobium), Listia bainesii (Methylobacterium) and Listia angolensis (Microvirga). Specificity for rhizobial species/symbiovar appears to hold for Galega officinalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. officinalis), Galega orientalis (Neorhizobium galegeae sv. orientalis), Hedysarum coronarium (Rhizobium sullae), Medicago laciniata (Ensifer meliloti sv. medicaginis), Medicago rigiduloides (Ensifer meliloti sv. rigiduloides) and Trifolium ambiguum (Rhizobium leguminosarum sv. trifolii). Lateral gene transfer of specific symbiosis genes within rhizobial genera is an important mechanism allowing legumes to form symbioses with rhizobia adapted to particular soils

  20. Nitrogen Fixing Legumes in the Plant Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A.A. Al-Fredan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems statement: Numerous authors have used energetic to explain the ecological success of N-fixing plants. Legume biodiversity assessment, species dynamics, nitrogen fixation monitoring and environment impact assessment of these ecological events in Al-Hassa Oasis, Saudi Arabia are rare and need to be continuous and more frequent. Approach: Thus the objectives of this study were to analyze legume abundance within and outside Al-Hassa Oasis and relate it to the distribution of the different genera. Results: Thirty two legume plant species from 20 genera have been recorded within and outside the Oasis. The largest genera were Cassia (4 species, Indigofera (4 and Acacia (3. Annual herbs were the dominant growth form (34% of species recorded, followed by shrubs (28%, perennial herbs (19% and trees (19%. Eighteen alien plant species were recorded (maybe an underestimated number. The nitrogen fixation of the legume plant species in Al-Hassa Oasis was estimated/analyzing the fixing potentiality of these species and nonfixing reference species (Panicum turgidum using the 15N natural abundance method. Species with great nitrogen fixing capacity in Al-Hassa include: Medicago sativa, Vicia faba, Vicia sativa, Melitotus indicus, Dolicus lablab, Melitotus alba and Cliforia ternate. The mean biological fixation contribution of most of the recorded legume plants were high, varying from 3.9% (Indigofera argentea to 64.6% (Medicago sativa. Conclusion: Al-Hassa Oasis is richer than expected based on its location within the desert zone. This study confirms the importance of the Oasis for national flora conservation in the Kingdom. results showed a good potential for use of the 15N natural abundance methodology for evaluating the nitrogen fixation ability of the legume plants under field conditions as well as for the estimation of %Ndfa.

  1. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González, Javier; Andrés, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  2. Grain legume protein quality: a hot subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Patto, Maria Carlota

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grain legumes, also called pulses, play a key role in the nutritional improvement of food and feed. These legumes are important sources of protein as well as other nutritional compounds. Today, protein is one of the most sought after ingredients in the market and grain legumes represent one of the most sustainable protein sources. However, not all grain legume proteins are nutritionally equal. Their quality varies and depends on their amino acid composition and digestibility. In this article, we review concepts related to grain legume protein quality and discuss challenges regarding their genetic improvement. A comprehensive database of grain legume amino acid profiles and protein digestibility is needed to address the matter of protein quality in grain legume breeding. This database will be enhanced by quantitative information on digestibility-reducing bioactive compounds and the development of reliable screening tools. The achievement of higher protein quality grain legume varieties, better adjusted to animal and human requirements, will cut dietary protein content, associated costs and nitrogen excretion, thus reducing the environmental impact.Las leguminosas grano tienen un alto potencial en alimentación humana y animal siendo una importante fuente de proteínas así como de otros compuestos beneficiosos para la nutrición y salud. La proteína es uno de los ingredientes más demandados y las leguminosas grano son una delas fuentes más sostenible de proteína. Sin embargo, no todas las leguminosas grano son igual de nutritivas, variando la calidad con la composición de aminoácidos y su digestibilidad. En este artículo revisaremos los conceptos de calidad de la proteína y discutiremos las posibilidades de mejora genética. Para abordar con éxito la mejora de la calidad de la proteína será de gran ayuda disponer de bases de datos con los perfiles de aminoácidos y de digestibilidad, así como de información cuantitativa sobre los

  3. Responses of Legumes to Phosphorus Deficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency is a universal problem in most world soils. Furthermore, of all nutrients, shortage of phosphorus has the biggest impact on legumes, therefore, lots of studies were carried out for identifying responses of legumes to shortage of phosphorus. They concluded that to maintain improved growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions plants develop two major mechanisms: (i) Phosphorus acquisition (root morphology, root exudation and phosphorus uptake mechanisms), (ii) Phosphorus utilization (internal mechanisms associated with better use of absorbed phosphorus at cellular level). The aim of this brief review is to elucidate root morphological changes and rhizophere acidification to phosphorus deficiency.

  4. Legume crops phylogeny and genetic diversity for science and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economically, legumes (Fabaceae) represent the second most important family of crop plants after the grass family, Poaceae. Grain legumes account for 27% of world crop production and provide 33% of the dietary protein consumed by humans, while pasture and forage legumes provide vital part of animal ...

  5. Anchored Instruction and Situated Cognition Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Technology, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Reviews theories of anchored instruction and addresses issues related to learning, transfer, and assessment. Highlights include video-based macrocontexts; videodisc anchors versus computer-based simulations; cooperative learning; transfer outside the classroom; authenticity; visual anchors versus verbal anchors; situated cognition; and using…

  6. LEGUMES UTILISED IN TRADITIONAL FOODS IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalaram S. Ismael

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Iraq is famous in the traditional food from legumes, especially chickpea, lentil, and beans are fresh and dry seeds and as well as for peas, beans and the seeds of faba, cowpea and chickpeas boiled with salt eaten in the form of Lablabe, or make soup from fresh cowpea, fresh faba bean, fresh fasoulia, as well as lentil soup (shorbat adas and different kinds of salad. Turshi, pickled vegetables and fresh pea, fresh fasoulia in the cuisine of many Balkan and Middle East countries. It is a traditional appetizer, meze. Chickpea is eaten on form falafel . The cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influence from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Persia, Turkey and the Syria region area. Meals begin with appetizers and salads known as Mezza. Some popular dishes include kebab (often marinated with garlic, lemon and spices, then grilled. It can be challenging to help people adjust their diet to meet their nutrient needs and promote weight loss, while at the same time still keeping them satiated. Nutrient rich legumes can be a valuable part of such a diet. They contain soluble fibre and protein and are low glycemic index, all of which may help promote satiety. Legumes are one of the most sustainable sources of protein in the world. Legumes are also significant sources of resistant starch, which is fermented by colonic bacteria to short chain fatty acids.

  7. Grain legume genetic resources for allele mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequencing capacities for higher throughput at significantly lower costs have enabled larger scale genotyping of plant genetic resources. One challenge to sequencing the USDA grain legume collections of pea, chickpea and lentil core accessions is the amount of heterogeneity in the landrace accessio...

  8. Utilization of summer legumes as bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Keri B.; Bauer, Philip J.; Ro, Kyoung S. [United States Department of Agriculture, ARS, Coastal Plains Soil, Water, and Plant Research Center, 2611 W. Lucas St. Florence, SC 29501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Sunn hemp (Crotolaria juncea), is a fast growing, high biomass yielding tropical legume that may be a possible southeastern bioenergy crop. When comparing this legume to a commonly grown summer legume - cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), sunn hemp was superior in biomass yield (kg ha{sup -1}) and subsequent energy yield (GJ ha{sup -1}). In one year of the study after 12 weeks of growth, sunn hemp had 10.7 Mg ha{sup -1} of biomass with an energy content of 19.0 Mg ha{sup -1}. This resulted in an energy yield of 204 GJ ha{sup -1}. The energy content was 6% greater than that of cowpeas. Eventhough sunn hemp had a greater amount of ash, plant mineral concentrations were lower in some cases of minerals (K, Ca, Mg, S) known to reduce thermochemical conversion process efficiency. Pyrolytic degradation of both legumes revealed that sunn hemp began to degrade at higher temperatures as well as release greater amounts of volatile matter at a faster rate. (author)

  9. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smadar Peleg-Grossman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Legumes are unique in their ability to establish symbiotic interaction with rhizobacteria from Rhizobium genus, which provide them with available nitrogen. Nodulation factors (NFs produced by Rhizobium initiate legume root hair deformation and curling that entrap the bacteria, and allow it to grow inside the plant. In contrast, legumes and non-legumes activate defense responses when inoculated with pathogenic bacteria. One major defense pathway is mediated by salicylic acid (SA. SA is sensed and transduced to downstream defense components by a redox-regulated protein called NPR1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Arabidopsis mutants in SA defense pathway to test the role of NPR1 in symbiotic interactions. Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins. Application of S. meliloti or NF on M. truncatula or A. thaliana roots also induced a strong oxidative burst that lasted much longer than in plants inoculated with pathogenic or mutualistic bacteria. Transient overexpression of NPR1 in M. truncatula suppressed root hair curling, while inhibition of NPR1 expression by RNAi accelerated curling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that, while NPR1 has a positive effect on pathogen resistance, it has a negative effect on symbiotic interactions, by inhibiting root hair deformation and nodulin expression. Our results also show that basic plant responses to Rhizobium inoculation are conserved in legumes and non-legumes.

  10. Development of Functional SNP Markers Anchored PpKO Gene in Pear%基于梨贝壳杉烯氧化酶基因PpKO序列的功能性SNP标记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田义轲; 王彩虹; 白牡丹; 殷豪; 李节法

    2012-01-01

    The functional markers based on gene sequences are ideal markers for genotyping,gene mapping and marker assistant selection for associated traits. In this research,5 PCR primer pairs were designed according to the cDNA sequence of PpKO gene in pear which codes the protein of ent-kaurene oxidase(KO),one of the key enzymes in the path of gibberellin synthesis. These primer pairs were tested in the population derived from the cross of‘Aishengli’בChili’by high resolution melting(HRM) ananlysis,and one of them was selected for genotyping. Furthermore,the fine genotyping function of this primer pair was confirmed by 9 cultivars. Sequencing and comparison of amplicons from the progenies and the 9 cultivars showed that the primer pair could amplified a fragment of 200 bp in length,which located in the eighth exon of PpKO gene,with 2 non-synonymous SNPs(single nucleotide polymor- phisms)detected. The two SNPs are genetic markers suitable for high resolution analysis,which are useful tools for genetic mapping,gene location and germplasm identification.%基于基因序列的功能性标记是基因分型、图谱定位和相关性状标记辅助选择的理想标记。以'矮生梨'×'茌梨'的梨杂交分离群体和9个梨栽培品种为试材,以梨赤霉素合成代谢途径的关键酶基因--贝壳杉烯氧化酶基因(PpKO)的cDNA序列为基础,设计5对PCR引物,通过高通量熔解曲线(high resolution melting,HRM)分析,筛选到可对基因进行良好分型的1对引物。通过对杂种后代和测试品种的测序分析表明,此对引物的扩增子是一个位于PpKO第8外显子上的长度为200bp的序列,从中共检测到两处单核苷酸多态性(single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)变化,且均为非同义cSNP。这两处SNP标记均可以作为适合高通量分析的遗传标记在遗传作图、基因定位或资源鉴定中加以利用。

  11. An expression database for roots of the model legume Medicago truncatula under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Jiangli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicago truncatula is a model legume whose genome is currently being sequenced by an international consortium. Abiotic stresses such as salt stress limit plant growth and crop productivity, including those of legumes. We anticipate that studies on M. truncatula will shed light on other economically important legumes across the world. Here, we report the development of a database called MtED that contains gene expression profiles of the roots of M. truncatula based on time-course salt stress experiments using the Affymetrix Medicago GeneChip. Our hope is that MtED will provide information to assist in improving abiotic stress resistance in legumes. Description The results of our microarray experiment with roots of M. truncatula under 180 mM sodium chloride were deposited in the MtED database. Additionally, sequence and annotation information regarding microarray probe sets were included. MtED provides functional category analysis based on Gene and GeneBins Ontology, and other Web-based tools for querying and retrieving query results, browsing pathways and transcription factor families, showing metabolic maps, and comparing and visualizing expression profiles. Utilities like mapping probe sets to genome of M. truncatula and In-Silico PCR were implemented by BLAT software suite, which were also available through MtED database. Conclusion MtED was built in the PHP script language and as a MySQL relational database system on a Linux server. It has an integrated Web interface, which facilitates ready examination and interpretation of the results of microarray experiments. It is intended to help in selecting gene markers to improve abiotic stress resistance in legumes. MtED is available at http://bioinformatics.cau.edu.cn/MtED/.

  12. Genotype delimitation in the Nod-independent model legume Aeschynomene evenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Brown, Spencer; Boursot, Marc; Giraud, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Research on the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis has been so far focused on two model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, which use a sophisticated infection process involving infection thread formation. However, in 25% of the legumes, the bacterial entry occurs more simply in an intercellular fashion. Among them, some semi-aquatic Aeschynomene species present the distinctive feature to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on both roots and stems following elicitation by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia that do not produce Nod factors. This interaction is believed to represent a living testimony of the ancestral state of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. To decipher the molecular mechanisms of this unique Nod-independent nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, we previously identified A. evenia C. Wright as an appropriate model legume, because it displays all the requisites for molecular and genetic approaches. To advance the use of this new model legume species, here we characterized the intraspecific diversity found in A. evenia. For this, the accessions available in germplasm banks were collected and subjected to morphological investigations, genotyping with RAPD and SSR markers, molecular phylogenies using ITS and single nuclear gene sequences, and cross-compatibility tests. These combined analyses revealed an important intraspecific differentiation that led us to propose a new taxonomic classification for A. evenia comprising two subspecies and four varieties. The A. evenia ssp. evenia contains var. evenia and var. pauciciliata whereas A. evenia ssp. serrulata comprises var. serrulata and var. major. This study provides information to exploit efficiently the diversity encountered in A. evenia and proposes subsp. evenia as the most appropriate subspecies for future projects aimed at identifying plant determinants of the Nod-independent symbiotic process.

  13. Genotype delimitation in the Nod-independent model legume Aeschynomene evenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Arrighi

    Full Text Available Research on the nitrogen-fixing symbiosis has been so far focused on two model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, which use a sophisticated infection process involving infection thread formation. However, in 25% of the legumes, the bacterial entry occurs more simply in an intercellular fashion. Among them, some semi-aquatic Aeschynomene species present the distinctive feature to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on both roots and stems following elicitation by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia that do not produce Nod factors. This interaction is believed to represent a living testimony of the ancestral state of the rhizobium-legume symbiosis. To decipher the molecular mechanisms of this unique Nod-independent nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, we previously identified A. evenia C. Wright as an appropriate model legume, because it displays all the requisites for molecular and genetic approaches. To advance the use of this new model legume species, here we characterized the intraspecific diversity found in A. evenia. For this, the accessions available in germplasm banks were collected and subjected to morphological investigations, genotyping with RAPD and SSR markers, molecular phylogenies using ITS and single nuclear gene sequences, and cross-compatibility tests. These combined analyses revealed an important intraspecific differentiation that led us to propose a new taxonomic classification for A. evenia comprising two subspecies and four varieties. The A. evenia ssp. evenia contains var. evenia and var. pauciciliata whereas A. evenia ssp. serrulata comprises var. serrulata and var. major. This study provides information to exploit efficiently the diversity encountered in A. evenia and proposes subsp. evenia as the most appropriate subspecies for future projects aimed at identifying plant determinants of the Nod-independent symbiotic process.

  14. Association Studies and Legume Synteny Reveal Haplotypes Determining Seed Size in Vigna unguiculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Mitchell R; Huynh, Bao-Lam; da Silva Vinholes, Patricia; Cisse, Ndiaga; Drabo, Issa; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Roberts, Philip A; Close, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exist because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large seeded lines. In this work we applied 1,536-plex SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker-based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For 804 individuals derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to 10 trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total 10 QTLs were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  15. Association studies and legume synteny reveal haplotypes determining seed size in Vigna unguiculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell R Lucas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Highly specific seed market classes for cowpea and other grain legumes exists because grain is most commonly cooked and consumed whole. Size, shape, color, and texture are critical features of these market classes and breeders target development of cultivars for market acceptance. Resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses that are absent from elite breeding material are often introgressed through crosses to landraces or wild relatives. When crosses are made between parents with different grain quality characteristics, recovery of progeny with acceptable or enhanced grain quality is problematic. Thus genetic markers for grain quality traits can help in pyramiding genes needed for specific market classes. Allelic variation dictating the inheritance of seed size can be tagged and used to assist the selection of large-seeded lines. In this work we applied SNP genotyping and knowledge of legume synteny to characterize regions of the cowpea genome associated with seed size. These marker-trait associations will enable breeders to use marker based selection approaches to increase the frequency of progeny with large seed. For ~800 samples derived from eight bi-parental populations, QTL analysis was used to identify markers linked to ten trait determinants. In addition, the population structure of 171 samples from the USDA core collection was identified and incorporated into a genome-wide association study which supported more than half of the trait-associated regions important in the bi-parental populations. Seven of the total ten QTL were supported based on synteny to seed size associated regions identified in the related legume soybean. In addition to delivering markers linked to major trait determinants in the context of modern breeding, we provide an analysis of the diversity of the USDA core collection of cowpea to identify genepools, migrants, admixture, and duplicates.

  16. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  17. A comprehensive resource of drought- and salinity- responsive ESTs for gene discovery and marker development in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Hiremath, Pavana J; Lekha, Pazhamala; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Balaji, Jayashree; Deokar, Amit A; Vadez, Vincent; Xiao, Yongli; Srinivasan, Ramamurthy; Gaur, Pooran M; Siddique, Kadambot Hm; Town, Christopher D; Hoisington, David A

    2009-11-15

    gene-based markers in chickpea will also add more anchoring points to align genomes of chickpea and other legume species.

  18. Legume Lectins: Proteins with Diverse Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarda-Diaz, Irlanda; Guzman-Partida, Ana Maria; Vazquez-Moreno, Luz

    2017-01-01

    Lectins are a diverse class of proteins distributed extensively in nature. Among these proteins; legume lectins display a variety of interesting features including antimicrobial; insecticidal and antitumor activities. Because lectins recognize and bind to specific glycoconjugates present on the surface of cells and intracellular structures; they can serve as potential target molecules for developing practical applications in the fields of food; agriculture; health and pharmaceutical research. This review presents the current knowledge of the main structural characteristics of legume lectins and the relationship of structure to the exhibited specificities; provides an overview of their particular antimicrobial; insecticidal and antitumor biological activities and describes possible applications based on the pattern of recognized glyco-targets. PMID:28604616

  19. Mechanistic action of gibberellins in legume nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Satomi; Gresshoff, Peter M; Ferguson, Brett J

    2014-10-01

    Legume plants are capable of entering into a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria. This results in the formation of novel organs on their roots, called nodules, in which the bacteria capture atmospheric nitrogen and provide it as ammonium to the host plant. Complex molecular and physiological changes are involved in the formation and establishment of such nodules. Several phytohormones are known to play key roles in this process. Gibberellins (gibberellic acids; GAs), a class of phytohormones known to be involved in a wide range of biological processes (i.e., cell elongation, germination) are reported to be involved in the formation and maturation of legume nodules, highlighted by recent transcriptional analyses of early soybean symbiotic steps. Here, we summarize what is currently known about GAs in legume nodulation and propose a model of GA action during nodule development. Results from a wide range of studies, including GA application, mutant phenotyping, and gene expression studies, indicate that GAs are required at different stages, with an optimum, tightly regulated level being key to achieve successful nodulation. Gibberellic acids appear to be required at two distinct stages of nodulation: (i) early stages of rhizobia infection and nodule primordium establishment; and (ii) later stages of nodule maturation.

  20. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina eBattaglia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are exposed to different external conditions that affect growth, development, and productivity. Water deficit is one of these adverse conditions caused by drought, salinity, and extreme temperatures. Plants have developed different responses to prevent, ameliorate or repair the damage inflicted by these stressful environments. One of these responses is the activation of a set of genes encoding a group of hydrophilic proteins that typically accumulate to high levels during seed dehydration, at the last stage of embryogenesis, hence named Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins. LEA proteins also accumulate in response to water limitation in vegetative tissues, and have been classified in seven groups based on their amino acid sequence similarity and on the presence of distinctive conserved motifs. These proteins are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, from ferns to angiosperms, suggesting a relevant role in the plant response to this unfavorable environmental condition. In this review, we analyzed the LEA proteins from those legumes whose complete genomes have been sequenced such as Phaseolus vulgaris, Glycine max, Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan and Cicer arietinum. Considering their distinctive motifs, LEA proteins from the different groups were identified, and their sequence analysis allowed the recognition of novel legume specific motifs. Moreover, we compile their transcript accumulation patterns based on publicly available data. In spite of the limited information on these proteins in legumes, the analysis and data compiled here confirms the high correlation between their accumulation and water deficit, reinforcing their functional relevance under this detrimental conditions.

  1. Molecular mechanisms controlling legume autoregulation of nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Dugald E; Ferguson, Brett J; Hayashi, Satomi; Lin, Yu-Hsiang; Gresshoff, Peter M

    2011-10-01

    High input costs and environmental pressures to reduce nitrogen use in agriculture have increased the competitive advantage of legume crops. The symbiotic relationship that legumes form with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria in root nodules is central to this advantage. Understanding how legume plants maintain control of nodulation to balance the nitrogen gains with their energy needs and developmental costs will assist in increasing their productivity and relative advantage. For this reason, the regulation of nodulation has been extensively studied since the first mutants exhibiting increased nodulation were isolated almost three decades ago. Nodulation is regulated primarily via a systemic mechanism known as the autoregulation of nodulation (AON), which is controlled by a CLAVATA1-like receptor kinase. Multiple components sharing homology with the CLAVATA signalling pathway that maintains control of the shoot apical meristem in arabidopsis have now been identified in AON. This includes the recent identification of several CLE peptides capable of activating nodule inhibition responses, a low molecular weight shoot signal and a role for CLAVATA2 in AON. Efforts are now being focused on directly identifying the interactions of these components and to identify the form that long-distance transport molecules take.

  2. Mechanistic action of gibberellins in legume nodulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Satomi Hayashi; Peter MGresshoff; Brett J.Ferguson

    2014-01-01

    Legume plants are capable of entering into a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia bacteria. This results in the formation of novel organs on their roots, cal ed nodules, in which the bacteria capture atmospheric nitrogen and provide it as ammonium to the host plant. Complex molecular and physiological changes are involved in the formation and establishment of such nodules. Several phytohormones are known to play key roles in this process. Gibberel ins (gibberel ic acids;GAs), a class of phytohormones known to be involved in a wide range of biological processes (i.e., cellelongation, germination) are reported to be involved in the formation and maturation of legume nodules, highlighted by recent tran-scriptional analyses of early soybean symbiotic steps. Here, we summarize what is currently known about GAs in legume nodulation and propose a model of GA action during nodule development. Results from a wide range of studies, including GA application, mutant phenotyping, and gene expression studies, indicate that GAs are required at different stages, with an optimum, tightly regulated level being key to achieve successful nodulation. Gibberel ic acids appear to be required at two distinct stages of nodulation:(i) early stages of rhizobia infection and nodule primordium establishment;and (i ) later stages of nodule maturation.

  3. Legume genomes: more than peas in a pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nevin Dale; Mudge, Joann; Ellis, T H Noel

    2003-04-01

    A growing array of sequence-based tools is helping to reveal the organization, evolution and syntenic relationships of legume genomes. The results indicate that legumes form a coherent taxonomic group with frequent and widespread macro- and microsynteny. This is good news for two model legume systems, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus. Indeed, both models have recently been used to clone and characterize genes for nodulation-related receptors that were originally described in legumes with more complex genomes. Studies of legume genomes have also provided insight into genome size, gene clustering, genome duplications and repetitive elements. To understand legume genomes better, it will be necessary to develop tools for studying under-represented taxa beyond the relatively small group of economically important species that have been examined so far.

  4. Seals, Concrete Anchors, and Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    the system the cable sizes can be changed even after concreting work _ is finished. i W The structure is also suitable for modern concrete formwork ...1 ruiinn 0i all 3up-H-Stud is a heavy-duty, all steel, expansion wedge anchor types of equipment. Typical applications: tunnel liner panels, air

  5. How anchoring proteins shape pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael J M; McNaughton, Peter A

    2014-09-01

    Cellular responsiveness to external stimuli can be altered by extracellular mediators which activate membrane receptors, in turn signalling to the intracellular space via calcium, cyclic nucleotides, membrane lipids or enzyme activity. These signalling events trigger a cascade leading to an effector which can be a channel, an enzyme or a transcription factor. The effectiveness of these intracellular events is enhanced when they are maintained in close proximity by anchoring proteins, which assemble complexes of signalling molecules such as kinases together with their targets, and in this way enhance both the speed and the precision of intracellular signalling. The A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) family are adaptor proteins originally named for their ability to associate Protein Kinase A and its targets, but several other enzymes bound by AKAPs have now been found and a wide variety of target structures has been described. This review provides an overview of anchoring proteins involved in pain signalling. The key anchoring proteins and their ion channel targets in primary sensory neurons responding to painful stimuli (nociceptors) are discussed.

  6. High-Throughput Development of SSR Markers from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Next Generation Sequencing of a Purified Chinese Commercial Variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Fang, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jinguo; Bao, Shiying; Hao, Junjie; Li, Ling; He, Yuhua; Jiang, Junye; Wang, Fang; Tian, Shufang; Zong, Xuxiao

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lagged behind many other crops. Development of a large number of novel and reliable SSR (simple sequence repeat) or microsatellite markers will help both basic and applied genomics research of this crop. The Illumina HiSeq 2500 System was used to uncover 8,899 putative SSR containing sequences, and 3,275 non-redundant primers were designed to amplify these SSRs. Among the 1,644 SSRs that were randomly selected for primer validation, 841 yielded reliable amplifications of detectable polymorphisms among 24 genotypes of cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wild relatives (P. fulvum Sm.) originated from diverse geographical locations. The dataset indicated that the allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 10, and that the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.38. These 1,644 novel SSR markers were also tested for polymorphism between genotypes G0003973 and G0005527. Finally, 33 polymorphic SSR markers were anchored on the genetic linkage map of G0003973 × G0005527 F2 population.

  7. Legume presence reduces the decomposition rate of non-legume roots, role of plant traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B.; Saar, Sirgi; Barel, Janna; Semchenko, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Plant litter traits are known to play an important role in the rate of litter decomposition and mineralization, both for aboveground and belowground litter. However also the biotic and abiotic environment in which the litter decomposes plays a significant role in the rate of decomposition. The presence of living plants may accelerate litter decomposition rates via a priming effects. The size of this effect is expected to be related to the traits of the litter. In this study we focus on root litter, given that roots and their link to ecosystem processes have received relatively little attention in trait-based research. To test the effect of a growing legume plant on root decomposition and the role of root traits in this we used dead roots of 7 different grassland species (comprising grasses, a forb and legumes), determined their C, N, P content and quantified litter mass loss after eight weeks of incubation in soil with and without white clover. We expected faster root decomposition with white clover, especially for root litter with low N content. In contrast we found slower decomposition of grass and forb roots which were poor in N (negative priming) in presence of white clover, while decomposition rates of legume roots were not affected by the presence of white clover. Overall we found that root decomposition can be slowed down in the presence of a living plant and that this effect depends on the traits of the decomposing roots, with a pronounced reduction in root litter poor in N and P, but not in the relatively nutrient-rich legume root litters. The negative priming effect of legume plants on non-legume litter decomposition may have resulted from preferential substrate utilisation by soil microbes.

  8. Innovations in agronomy for food legumes. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Johansen, Chris; Turner, Neil C.; Jeuffroy, Marie-Helene,; Hashem, Abul; Dogan SAKAR; Gan, Yantai; Alghamdi, Salem S.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is increasing awareness of the importance of food legumes in human, animal and soil health, adoption of improved production technologies for food legume crops is not proceeding at the same pace as for cereal crops. Over the previous decade, the only food legumes to have shown significant production increases have been chickpea, lentil and faba bean in North America, chickpea in Australia, and faba bean in Europe. In smallholder farming in developing countries, production trends...

  9. 24 CFR 3285.401 - Anchoring instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wind by use of anchor assembly type installations or by connecting the home to an alternative foundation system. See § 3285.301. (b) For anchor assembly type installations, the installation instructions... instructions and design for anchor type assemblies must be prepared by a registered professional engineer...

  10. 33 CFR 401.15 - Stern anchors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stern anchors. 401.15 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Condition of Vessels § 401.15 Stern anchors. (a) Every... equipped with a stern anchor. (b) Every integrated tug and barge or articulated tug and barge unit greater...

  11. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  12. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah E Oliver

    Full Text Available A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42 has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.

  13. The Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor: A Complex Membrane-Anchoring Structure for Proteins†

    OpenAIRE

    Paulick, Margot G.; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2008-01-01

    Positioned at the C-terminus of many eukaryotic proteins, the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a posttranslational modification that anchors the modified protein in the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. The GPI anchor is a complex structure comprising a phosphoethanolamine linker, glycan core, and phospholipid tail. GPI-anchored proteins are structurally and functionally diverse and play vital roles in numerous biological processes. While several GPI-anchored proteins have been ...

  14. Towards a new classification system for legumes: Progress report from the 6th International Legume Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontes Coelho Borges, L.M.; Bruneau, A.; Cardoso, D.; Crisp, M.; Delgado-Salinas, A.; Doyle, J.J.; Egan, A.; Herendeen, P.S.; Hughes, C.; Kenicer, G.; Klitgaard, B.; Koenen, E.; Lavin, M.; Lewis, G.; Luckow, M.; Mackinder, B.; Malecot, V.; Miller, J.T.; Pennington, R.T.; Queiroz, de L.P.; Schrire, B.; Simon, M.F.; Steele, K.; Torke, B.; Wieringa, J.J.; Wojciechowski, M.F.; Boatwright, S.; Estrella, de la M.; Mansano, V.D.; Prado, D.E.; Stirton, C.; Wink, M.

    2013-01-01

    Legume systematists have been making great progress in understanding evolutionary relationships within the Leguminosae (Fabaceae), the third largest family of flowering plants. As the phylogenetic picture has become clearer, so too has the need for a revised classification of the family. The

  15. Phytohormone regulation of legume-rhizobia interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brett J; Mathesius, Ulrike

    2014-07-01

    The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen fixing bacteria called rhizobia leads to the formation of root nodules. Nodules are highly organized root organs that form in response to Nod factors produced by rhizobia, and they provide rhizobia with a specialized niche to optimize nutrient exchange and nitrogen fixation. Nodule development and invasion by rhizobia is locally controlled by feedback between rhizobia and the plant host. In addition, the total number of nodules on a root system is controlled by a systemic mechanism termed 'autoregulation of nodulation'. Both the local and the systemic control of nodulation are regulated by phytohormones. There are two mechanisms by which phytohormone signalling is altered during nodulation: through direct synthesis by rhizobia and through indirect manipulation of the phytohormone balance in the plant, triggered by bacterial Nod factors. Recent genetic and physiological evidence points to a crucial role of Nod factor-induced changes in the host phytohormone balance as a prerequisite for successful nodule formation. Phytohormones synthesized by rhizobia enhance symbiosis effectiveness but do not appear to be necessary for nodule formation. This review provides an overview of recent advances in our understanding of the roles and interactions of phytohormones and signalling peptides in the regulation of nodule infection, initiation, positioning, development, and autoregulation. Future challenges remain to unify hormone-related findings across different legumes and to test whether hormone perception, response, or transport differences among different legumes could explain the variety of nodules types and the predisposition for nodule formation in this plant family. In addition, the molecular studies carried out under controlled conditions will need to be extended into the field to test whether and how phytohormone contributions by host and rhizobial partners affect the long term fitness of the host and the survival and

  16. Policing the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis: a critical test of partner choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoek, Annet; Field, Elsa; Rehling, Finn; Mulley, Geraldine; Webb, Isabel; Poole, Philip S; Turnbull, Lindsay A

    2017-05-03

    In legume-Rhizobium symbioses, specialised soil bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen in return for carbon. However, ineffective strains can arise, making discrimination essential. Discrimination can occur via partner choice, where legumes prevent ineffective strains from entering, or via sanctioning, where plants provide fewer resources. Several studies have inferred that legumes exercise partner choice, but the rhizobia compared were not otherwise isogenic. To test when and how plants discriminate ineffective strains we developed sets of fixing and non-fixing strains that differed only in the expression of nifH - essential for nitrogen fixation - and could be visualised using marker genes. We show that the plant is unable to select against the non-fixing strain at the point of entry, but that non-fixing nodules are sanctioned. We also used the technique to characterise mixed nodules (containing both a fixing and a non-fixing strain), whose frequency could be predicted using a simple diffusion model. We discuss that sanctioning is likely to evolve in preference to partner choice in any symbiosis where partner quality cannot be adequately assessed until goods or services are actively exchanged.

  17. Quantitative trait locus analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Akiyoshi; Gondo, Takahiro; Akashi, Ryo; Zheng, Shao-Hui; Arima, Susumu; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2012-05-01

    Many legumes form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. An elevation of nitrogen fixation in such legumes would have significant implications for plant growth and biomass production in agriculture. To identify the genetic basis for the regulation of nitrogen fixation, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross Miyakojima MG-20 × Gifu B-129 in the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was inoculated with Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 and grown for 14 days in pods containing vermiculite. Phenotypic data were collected for acetylene reduction activity (ARA) per plant (ARA/P), ARA per nodule weight (ARA/NW), ARA per nodule number (ARA/NN), NN per plant, NW per plant, stem length (SL), SL without inoculation (SLbac-), shoot dry weight without inoculation (SWbac-), root length without inoculation (RLbac-), and root dry weight (RWbac-), and finally 34 QTLs were identified. ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL showed strong correlations and QTL co-localization, suggesting that several plant characteristics important for symbiotic nitrogen fixation are controlled by the same locus. QTLs for ARA/P, ARA/NN, NW, and SL, co-localized around marker TM0832 on chromosome 4, were also co-localized with previously reported QTLs for seed mass. This is the first report of QTL analysis for symbiotic nitrogen fixation activity traits.

  18. Identification of nutrient and physical seed trait QTL in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Melinda A; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-08-01

    Legume seeds have the potential to provide a significant portion of essential micronutrients to the human diet. To identify the genetic basis for seed nutrient density, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted with the Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129 recombinant inbred population from the model legume Lotus japonicus. This population was grown to seed under greenhouse conditions in 2006 and 2007. Phenotypic data were collected for seed calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn) concentrations and content. Data for physical seed traits (average seed mass and seed-pod allocation values) were also collected. Based on these phenotypic data, QTL analyses identified 103 QTL linked to 55 different molecular markers. Transgressive segregation, identified within this recombinant inbred population for both seed nutrient and physical traits, suggests new allelic combinations are available for agronomic trait improvement. QTL co-localization was also seen, suggesting that common transport processes might contribute to seed nutrient loading. Identification of loci involved in seed mineral density can be an important first step in identifying the genetic factors and, consequently, the physiological processes involved in mineral distribution to developing seeds. Longer term research efforts will focus on facilitating agronomic breeding efforts through ortholog identification in related crop legumes.

  19. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  20. Anchoring Bias in Online Voting

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zimo; Zhou, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Voting online with explicit ratings could largely reflect people's preferences and objects' qualities, but ratings are always irrational, because they may be affected by many unpredictable factors like mood, weather, as well as other people's votes. By analyzing two real systems, this paper reveals a systematic bias embedding in the individual decision-making processes, namely people tend to give a low rating after a low rating, as well as a high rating following a high rating. This so-called \\emph{anchoring bias} is validated via extensive comparisons with null models, and numerically speaking, the extent of bias decays with interval voting number in a logarithmic form. Our findings could be applied in the design of recommender systems and considered as important complementary materials to previous knowledge about anchoring effects on financial trades, performance judgements, auctions, and so on.

  1. Inconspicuous anchoring effects generated by false information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qu; Jun Wang; Yuejia Luo

    2008-01-01

    The impact of false information on numerical judgments was examined on young normal subjects by an event-related potential (ERP) experiment. To imitate the judgments in real world, we ensured the subjects acknowledged of the target task. The behavioral results found that both uncertain information and false information assimilated the final estimates: higher after higher anchors and lower after lower anchors; and false information caused a weaker anchoring bias than uncertain information. ERP results provided further electrophysiological evidence for the mechanism of anchoring. In the early phrase, it was an accessibility-dominated process in which two kinds of anchors elicited an N300 component related to the accessibility of anchors propositions. The knowledge relevant to targets joined the process in the late phrase, which caused a larger amplitude of late positive component (LPC) for implausible lower anchors than that for plausible higher anchors. Source analysis showed that medial frontal gyrus, whose activity was suggested to signal the need of adjustment, was more reliable to explain the LPC elicited by implausible lower anchors. Therefore, we suggest that accessibility is facilitated when the external anchor is consistent with the world knowledge, and adjustment is initiated when the external anchor is inconsistent.

  2. Anchoring in Numeric Judgments of Visual Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeborg, Linda; Eriksson, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates effects of anchoring in age estimation and estimation of quantities, two tasks which to different extents are based on visual stimuli. The results are compared to anchoring in answers to classic general knowledge questions that rely on semantic knowledge. Cognitive load was manipulated to explore possible differences between domains. Effects of source credibility, manipulated by differing instructions regarding the selection of anchor values (no information regarding anchor selection, information that the anchors are randomly generated or information that the anchors are answers from an expert) on anchoring were also investigated. Effects of anchoring were large for all types of judgments but were not affected by cognitive load or by source credibility in either one of the researched domains. A main effect of cognitive load on quantity estimations and main effects of source credibility in the two visually based domains indicate that the manipulations were efficient. Implications for theoretical explanations of anchoring are discussed. In particular, because anchoring did not interact with cognitive load, the results imply that the process behind anchoring in visual tasks is predominantly automatic and unconscious.

  3. Upper section for anchor timbering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirokov, A.P.; Isachenko, V.M.; Kuntsevich, V.I.; Pishulin, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to exclude rotation of the fixing device around the anchor with screwing of the tightening nut and simplification of the fixing device design. The support fixing device is made of a section of pipe and is equipped with a rotation delimiter made in the form of a female fixing device of the projection arranged on it at an angle to the longitudinal axis.

  4. Holding Capacity of Plate Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    Engineering Laboratory, Technical Note N-1545. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1979. 4 safe arm device gun barrel reaction vessel Figure 1-2. CEL 20K propell...anchors in cohesive soils, Civil Engineering Laboratory, Technical Note N-1545. Port Hueneme, Calif., Jan 1979. Berger, W. H., and E. L. Winterer...NORTHWESTERN UNIV Z.P. Bazant Evanston IL NY CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE BROOKLYN, NY (LIBRARY) NYS ENERGY OFFICE Library, Albany NY OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (CE

  5. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to nine neighbouring plants in a multi-species grassland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirhofer-Walzl, Karin; Høgh Jensen, Henning; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Legumes play a crucial role in nitrogen supply to grass-legume mixtures for ruminant fodder. To quantify N transfer from legumes to neighbouring plants in multi-species grasslands we established a grass-legume-herb mixture on a loamy-sandy site in Denmark. White clover (Trifolium repens L.), red...... amounts of N from legumes than dicotyledonous plants which generally have taproots. Slurry application mainly increased N transfer from legumes to grasses. During the growing season the three legumes transferred approximately 40 kg N ha-1 to neighbouring plants. Below-ground N transfer from legumes...

  6. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic, abiotic

  7. Nitrogen fertilizer response of cotton in rotation with summer legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential of using summer legumes as N sources in corn and vegetable rotations has recently been documented. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of using summer legumes [Crotolaria juncea and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata)] as an N source for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) pro...

  8. Legume-rhizobia signal exchange: promiscuity and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Mario A; Nascimento, Luciana R S; Fracetto, Giselle G M

    2015-01-01

    Although signal exchange between legumes and their rhizobia is among the best-known examples of this biological process, most of the more characterized data comes from just a few legume species and environmental stresses. Although a relative wealth of information is available for some model legumes and some of the major pulses such as soybean, little is known about tropical legumes. This relative disparity in current knowledge is also apparent in the research on the effects of environmental stress on signal exchange; cool-climate stresses, such as low-soil temperature, comprise a relatively large body of research, whereas high-temperature stresses and drought are not nearly as well understood. Both tropical legumes and their environmental stress-induced effects are increasingly important due to global population growth (the demand for protein), climate change (increasing temperatures and more extreme climate behavior), and urbanization (and thus heavy metals). This knowledge gap for both legumes and their environmental stresses is compounded because whereas most temperate legume-rhizobia symbioses are relatively specific and cultivated under relatively stable environments, the converse is true for tropical legumes, which tend to be promiscuous, and grow in highly variable conditions. This review will clarify some of this missing information and highlight fields in which further research would benefit our current knowledge.

  9. Improving germination and establishment of Great Basin legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Great Basin Native Plant Selection and Increase Project, we have collected and evaluated several native western legumes. Germplasm releases were made, but much work remains to be done concerning how to establish these legumes for seed production and on rangelands. We report herein h...

  10. Legumes affect alpine tundra community composition via multiple biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aksenova, A.A.; Makarov, M.I.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Logvinenko, O.A.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The soil engineering function of legumes in natural ecosystems is paramount but associated solely with soil nitrogen (N) subsidies, ignoring concomitant biotic interactions such as competitive or inhibitory effects and exchange between mycorrhizas and rhizobia. We aim to (1) disentangle legume effec

  11. Induction of prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids in legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, S.

    2015-01-01

    The germination of legume seeds in the presence or absence of stress factors was studied with respect to compositional changes in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids. Different strategies were applied using (i) different types of legume seed, (ii) different stress factors i.e. biotic, abiotic a

  12. Probing nod factor perception in legumes by fluorescence microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, J.

    2001-01-01

    Plants of the family of legumes are capable of forming a symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. These Gram-negative bacteria invade the root system of a host legume and fix nitrogen in a specialized organ, the so-called root nodule. In exchange for sugars, the bacteria convert atmospheric

  13. [Examination and composition of some legume seeds (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierle, W; el Wahab el Bayâ, A

    1977-05-26

    The chemical composition of some legume seeds is reviewed. It was found that soy (Glycine soja), field beans (Vicia faba), Vicia sativa and Lens culingris (red seeds) have the highest protein content. There were only minor differences in amino acid composition except for glutamic acid. The lysine content of legume seeds was high. Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid in cereal proteins, therefore cereal products can be improved nutritionally by addition of legume seed flour. Examination of polar lipids by thin layer chromatography revealed that lecithin, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl inositol were the major components. However, Lupinus angustifolius contained two unknown polar lipid classes.--In contrary to previous literature the ripe legume seeds contained only a very small amount of galactosyl diglycerides; however legume seeds contain higher amounts of the compounds. The conection between biosynthesis of linolenic acid and the presence of galactosyl diglycerides in higher plants is discussed.

  14. Legumes steam allergy in childhood: Update of the reported cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliti, G; Pavone, P; Spataro, G; Giunta, L; Guglielmo, F; Falsaperla, R

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the prevalence of allergic diseases has deeply increased, with a key role played by food allergies. Legumes seem to play a major role towards the overall increase in the scenario of food allergy, since they are an appreciated source, consumed worldwide, due to their high protein content, variable amounts of lipids and for the presence of vitamins. In literature there are numerous descriptions of adverse reactions after ingestion of uncooked and cooked legumes. Nevertheless, cases of allergic reactions induced by inhaling vapours from cooking legumes have rarely been described. Herein the authors report an update of the literature data on allergic reactions caused by legume steam inhalation, underlying the possible pathogenic mechanism of these atopic events and the knowledge of literature data in paediatric age. The importance of this review is the focus on the clinical aspects concerning legume vapour allergy, referring to literature data in childhood.

  15. LegumeIP 2.0--a platform for the study of gene function and genome evolution in legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Dai, Xinbin; Zhuang, Zhaohong; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-01-04

    The LegumeIP 2.0 database hosts large-scale genomics and transcriptomics data and provides integrative bioinformatics tools for the study of gene function and evolution in legumes. Our recent updates in LegumeIP 2.0 include gene and protein sequences, gene models and annotations, syntenic regions, protein families and phylogenetic trees for six legume species: Medicago truncatula, Glycine max (soybean), Lotus japonicus, Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Cicer arietinum (chickpea) and Cajanus cajan (pigeon pea) and two outgroup reference species: Arabidopsis thaliana and Poplar trichocarpa. Moreover, the LegumeIP 2.0 features the following new data resources and bioinformatics tools: (i) an integrative gene expression atlas for four model legumes that include 550 array hybridizations from M. truncatula, 962 gene expression profiles of G. max, 276 array hybridizations from L. japonicas and 56 RNA-Seq-based gene expression profiles for C. arietinum. These datasets were manually curated and hierarchically organized based on Experimental Ontology and Plant Ontology so that users can browse, search, and retrieve data for their selected experiments. (ii) New functions/analytical tools to query, mine and visualize large-scale gene sequences, annotations and transcriptome profiles. Users may select a subset of expression experiments and visualize and compare expression profiles for multiple genes. The LegumeIP 2.0 database is freely available to the public at http://plantgrn.noble.org/LegumeIP/.

  16. Career anchors and planning education (part III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article (AS, Vol. 13, No. 1, 2006 identifies eight different career anchors and  establishes important correlation with some professions and occupations. The second part of the article (AS, No.2, 2006 focuses on considerable impact career anchors have at planning education and learning routes. The last part draws special attention to the relationship between different career anchors and career objectives. Not only career objectives expressed and dreamt of, but also those, which have actually been achieved in practice. We are also going to survey the impact of education and training for achieving career objectives. We will also make some comparison and analyses among career anchors and vertical vs. horizontal promotion and try to find out whether the career anchors influence also the direction of promotion in the organization. Finally we will show how the results of the survey about career anchors can be a useful tool for individuals and organizations at career planning.

  17. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  18. Load Transfer Mechanisms in Anchored Geosynthetic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-20

    TITLE (Include Security Classitcation) (U) Load Transfer Mechanisms in Anchored Geosynthetic Systems 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Hrvciw, Roman D. 13a... Geosynthetics 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse it necessary and identity by block number) The success of an anchored geosynthetic system (AGS) depends on...the satisfactory transfer of load between the surface-deployed geosynthetic and anchors (typically ribbed reinforcing rods) driven into the slope

  19. Legumes are valuable sources of tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschin, Giovanna; Arnoldi, Anna

    2011-08-01

    Grain legumes contain numerous phytochemicals useful for their nutritional or nutraceutical properties, such as tocopherols, involved in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and eye pathologies. In this work, tocopherols were quantified in soybean, chickpea, lentil, pea, common bean, broad bean, and three lupin species. In all samples, the gamma congener was the most abundant tocopherol, followed by minor quantities of alpha-tocopherol (with the exception of common bean lacking in this congener) and delta-tocopherol (with the exception of Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus mutabilis). Beta-tocopherol and tocotrienols were never detected. Some samples of soybean, pea, white lupin and chickpea contained over 10mg/100g seeds of total tocopherols. In order to estimate the nutritional value, the vitamin E activity was calculated. Chickpea, soybean and, to a lesser extent, lupin, broad bean and pea may contribute in a relevant way to the daily intake of this vitamin.

  20. Energy use in legume cultivation in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertekin, C.; Canakci, M.; Yaldiz, O. [Akdeniz Univ., Antalya (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery; Kulcu, R. [Suleyman Demirel Univ., Isparta (Turkey). Faculty of Agriculture, Dept. of Farm Machinery

    2010-07-01

    A study was conducted to analyze the energy required to produce different legumes in 11 different regions of Turkey. The objective was to improve energy efficiency. Data was collected for the production of dry bean, chickpea and soybean under rainfed and irrigated conditions, as well as for the production of lentil under rainfed conditions. The data was evaluated in terms of energy use efficiency, energy productivity and specific energy for different regions of Turkey. The main energy sources are human, diesel, fertilizer, seed, machine, chemicals and water. The main agricultural operations are seedbed preparation, seeding, fertilization, hoeing, irrigation, spraying, harvesting, threshing and transporting. The total energy input ranged between 3361.5 and 25229.7 MJ/ha. Based on product yields, the energy use efficiency varied between 0.96 and 4.32.

  1. Anchored Lagrangian submanifolds and their Floer theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the notion of (graded) anchored Lagrangian submanifolds and use it to study the filtration of Floer' s chain complex. We then obtain an anchored version of Lagrangian Floer homology and its (higher) product structures. They are somewhat different from the more standard non-anchored version. The anchored version discussed in this paper is more naturally related to the variational picture of Lagrangian Floer theory and so to the likes of spectral invariants. We also discuss rationality of Lagrangian submanifold and reduction of the coefficient ring of Lagrangian Floer cohomology of thereof.

  2. Anchor handling tug operations: a practical guide to the operation of modern anchor handling tugs engaged in anchor handling and towing operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clark, I.C; Hancox, M

    2012-01-01

    ... --Turning and manoeuvring modern anchor handling vessels --The AHTS design and towing operations --The dangers of very high speed loads during deep water anchor handling operations --The dangers...

  3. Anchored Instruction and Anchored Assessment: An Ecological Approach to Measuring Situated Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael F.; Kulikowich, Jonna M.

    Anchored instruction and anchored assessment are described and illustrated through a mathematics problem from the Jasper problem solving series developed at Vanderbilt University in Nashville (Tennessee). Anchored instruction is instruction situated in a context complex enough to provide meaning and reasons for why information is useful. Problems…

  4. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.) is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST) libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205 Mb and 530 Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers) and L2 (immature seeds) EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2) yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7%) and 113 (30%) SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64 L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep transcriptome

  5. Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. transcriptome sequencing: molecular marker development and comparative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra-González Lorena B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L. is a minor legume crop characterized by its high seed protein content. Although grown in several temperate countries, its orphan condition has limited the generation of genomic tools to aid breeding efforts to improve yield and nutritional quality. In this study, we report the construction of 454-expresed sequence tag (EST libraries, carried out comparative studies between L. luteus and model legume species, developed a comprehensive set of EST-simple sequence repeat (SSR markers, and validated their utility on diversity studies and transferability to related species. Results Two runs of 454 pyrosequencing yielded 205 Mb and 530 Mb of sequence data for L1 (young leaves, buds and flowers and L2 (immature seeds EST- libraries. A combined assembly (L1L2 yielded 71,655 contigs with an average contig length of 632 nucleotides. L1L2 contigs were clustered into 55,309 isotigs. 38,200 isotigs translated into proteins and 8,741 of them were full length. Around 57% of L. luteus sequences had significant similarity with at least one sequence of Medicago, Lotus, Arabidopsis, or Glycine, and 40.17% showed positive matches with all of these species. L. luteus isotigs were also screened for the presence of SSR sequences. A total of 2,572 isotigs contained at least one EST-SSR, with a frequency of one SSR per 17.75 kbp. Empirical evaluation of the EST-SSR candidate markers resulted in 222 polymorphic EST-SSRs. Two hundred and fifty four (65.7% and 113 (30% SSR primer pairs were able to amplify fragments from L. hispanicus and L. mutabilis DNA, respectively. Fifty polymorphic EST-SSRs were used to genotype a sample of 64 L. luteus accessions. Neighbor-joining distance analysis detected the existence of several clusters among L. luteus accessions, strongly suggesting the existence of population subdivisions. However, no clear clustering patterns followed the accession’s origin. Conclusion L. luteus deep

  6. Anchor Bolt Position in Base Plate In Terms Of T and J Anchor Bolt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    b Osman Mohamad Hairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, L anchor bolt system has been used for a long period of time in construction industry as one of the distributing load structures. However, there are some weaknesses in L anchor bolt which may straighten and pullup when charged with tensile load. Current practices prefer to use other types of anchor bolt systems, such as headed studs anchor bolt system to replace the L anchor bolt design. There has been lack of studies to prove that it is more effective in terms of performance. A new T anchor bolt which was basically modified from headed studs anchor bolt was proposed in this study to compare its performance of tensile loading in concrete failure to typical L design. This study aims to determine whether the T anchor bolt system gives better performance as compared to an L anchor bolt system. The performance was rated based on tensile loading on concrete failure pattern. A pullout test was conducted on two different anchor bolt systems, namely L and T. The anchor bolt embedded depth, h in concrete were varied according to their hook or bend radius. Each sample was repeated twice. There were totally eight samples. The hook or bend radius used were 50 mm and 57.5 mm for sample L1 and L2, respectively. 90-degree bend were used on sample T1 and T2. Based on test results, it can be seen that the performance of concrete failure pattern under tensile load on both L and T anchor bolt design samples with 200 mm embedment depth was better than deeper embedment depth of 230 mm. But the L anchor bolt design gives the best results as compared to T design. Although T anchor bolt design shows higher resistance before first bond failure to the concrete sample. T anchor bolt was analysed and needed deeper embedment depth to allow formation of cone pull-out shape to acquire better performance.

  7. Ensuring sustainable grain legume-cereal cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedoussac, Laurent; Journet, E-P; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    health makes them a key rotation crop in the sustainable intensification and diversification of smallholder farming. This makes grain legumes a key food security crop. However, yields in developing countries are low as a result of such factors as the need for improved varieties of seed, poor seed......Grain legumes are widely cultivated, particularly for their dry seeds (known as pulses). Grain legumes are an important crop for a number of reasons. They are a rich source of protein and fibre, minerals and vitamins. In addition, their rapid growth and ability to fix nitrogen and improve soil...... as in Denmark using spring and winter cereal-grain legume intercrops. Intercropping involves simultaneously growing two or more crops in the same field for a significant period of time. The practice is ancient as early records from many human societies all over the world have shown. Intercropping systems...

  8. mechanisms of drought resistance in grain legumes i: osmotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    in grain legumes, namely Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) faba bean (Vicia faba), pea (Pisum sativum), and chickpea (Cicer ... accumulated as a response to water loss and ... At harvesting, fresh weight was determined and ... The whole.

  9. Observed Score Equating Using a Mini-Version Anchor and an Anchor with Less Spread of Difficulty: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Sinharay, Sandip; Holland, Paul; Feigenbaum, Miriam; Curley, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Two different types of anchors are investigated in this study: a mini-version anchor and an anchor that has a less spread of difficulty than the tests to be equated. The latter is referred to as a midi anchor. The impact of these two different types of anchors on observed score equating are evaluated and compared with respect to systematic error…

  10. Anchoring and Publicity Effects in Clinical Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Stockman, Susan J.

    1983-01-01

    Tested anchoring and publicity effects in clinicians' (N=46) successive judgments of detailed interview notes. Results indicated significant anchoring in one case suggesting a clinical bias. Public justification was related neither to subjects' ratings, to reported confidence in their ratings, nor differentially by case. (JAC)

  11. Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, K; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The anchoring of proteins to the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using genetic techniques is an exciting and emerging research area that holds great promise for a wide variety of biotechnological applications. This paper reviews five different types of anchoring domains that have been exp

  12. Method of fabrication of anchored nanostructure materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2013-11-26

    Methods for fabricating anchored nanostructure materials are described. The methods include heating a nano-catalyst under a protective atmosphere to a temperature ranging from about 450.degree. C. to about 1500.degree. C. and contacting the heated nano-catalysts with an organic vapor to affix carbon nanostructures to the nano-catalysts and form the anchored nanostructure material.

  13. Anchored Instruction in a Situated Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miwha

    The purpose of this study was to design and develop a multimedia-based anchored program and to examine the effects of students' and group characteristics on the problem-solving process in anchored instruction with the multimedia program in a situated learning environment. Sixty-eight students were assigned to small groups via a stratified random…

  14. DSSC anchoring groups: a surface dependent decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, C; Bowler, D R

    2014-05-14

    Electrodes in dye sensitised solar cells are typically nanocrystalline anatase TiO2 with a majority (1 0 1) surface exposed. Generally the sensitising dye employs a carboxylic anchoring moiety through which it adheres to the TiO₂ surface. Recent interest in exploiting the properties of differing TiO₂ electrode morphologies, such as rutile nanorods exposing the (1 1 0) surface and anatase electrodes with high percentages of the (0 0 1) surface exposed, begs the question of whether this anchoring strategy is best, irrespective of the majority surface exposed. Here we address this question by presenting density functional theory calculations contrasting the binding properties of two promising anchoring groups, phosphonic acid and boronic acid, to that of carboxylic acid. Anchor-electrode interactions are studied for the prototypical anatase (1 0 1) surface, along with the anatase (0 0 1) and rutile (1 1 0) surfaces. Finally the effect of using these alternative anchoring groups to bind a typical coumarin dye (NKX-2311) to these TiO₂ substrates is examined. Significant differences in the binding properties are found depending on both the anchor and surface, illustrating that the choice of anchor is necessarily dependent upon the surface exposed in the electrode. In particular the boronic acid is found to show the potential to be an excellent anchor choice for electrodes exposing the anatase (0 0 1) surface.

  15. Anchoring of proteins to lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, K; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The anchoring of proteins to the cell surface of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using genetic techniques is an exciting and emerging research area that holds great promise for a wide variety of biotechnological applications. This paper reviews five different types of anchoring domains that have been exp

  16. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iannetta, Pietro P M; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume......–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions...... of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32 to 115 kg ha−1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc.) was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over...

  17. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Gemell; Elizabeth Hartley; Rosalind Deaker

    2012-01-01

    Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival...

  18. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  19. Legume root symbioses: Natural history and prospects for improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shtark Oksana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Legumes develop different mutually beneficial microbial-root symbioses such as arbuscular mysorrhiza (AM, rhizobium-legume symbiosis (RLS and epiphytic or endophytic associations with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB which are distinguished in level of integration of the partners. Evidences of the role of AM as ancestral form of symbiosis which might be a source of the legume pre-adaptation to form some RLS are demonstrated. The RLS is supposed to evolve for a few times in ancient legumes in parallel ways based on the universal organization and regulatory mechanisms of the plant genetic material. Associations of plant roots with PGPB probably are the vestige of the early stages of evolution in morphologically differentiated RLS. Also, it is quite possible that 'first' rhizobia have originated from bacterial endosymbionts of AM fungi; then AM fungi might operate as effective vectors for introducing bacteria into the plants. Thus, the legume root symbioses may be considered as a single 'evolutionary plant-microbial continuum'. The acquired knowledge about evolution of plantmicrobe symbioses would contribute to the creation of new commercial varieties of plants with the use of both bio-engineered methods and traditional plant breeding. An original conception of legume breeding to improve their symbiotic effectiveness is proposed.

  20. Legumes can increase cadmium contamination in neighboring crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhang, Qian; Hu, Liangliang; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Yang, Xiantian; Yong, Jean W H; Chen, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Legumes are widely used in many cropping systems because they share their nitrogen fixation products and phosphorus mobilization activities with their neighbors. In the current study, however, we showed that co-cultivation with legumes increased cadmium (Cd) contamination in the adjacent crops. Both field and mesocosm experiments indicated that legumes increased Cd levels in edible parts and shoots of four neighboring crops and five maize varieties tested, regardless of the Cd levels in the soil. This enhanced Cd accumulation in crops was attributed to root interactions that alter the rhizosphere environment. Co-cultivation with legumes reduced soil pH, which somewhat increased the exchangeable forms of Cd. Our results have demonstrated the inevitable increases in Cd levels of crops as a direct result of co-cultivation with legumes even under situations when these levels are below the permissible threshold. With this new revelation, we need to consider carefully the current cropping systems involving legumes and perhaps to re-design the current and future cropping systems in view of avoiding food contamination by Cd.

  1. Growing tropical forage legumes in full sun and silvopastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Alberto do Carmo Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth was evaluated three tropical forage legumes in two cropping systems: silvopastoral system (SSP and full sun. A completely randomized design was adopted in factorial three legumes (estilosanthes cv. Campo Grande (Stylozanthes macrocephala x Stylozanthes capitata, tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth and macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare cv. Java x two farming systems, with 4 repetitions. A eucalyptus SSP already deployed, with spatial arrangement of 12 x 2 m between trees was used. Legumes were planted in January 2014 a uniform cut being made in May 2014. The court assessment was carried out 125 days after the uniformity cut. There was difference for mass production of dry legumes (PMMSL between cultivation systems, evidencing increased productivity in the farming full sun. The macrotiloma showed higher PMSL (5.29 kg DM ha-1 cut-1, while the kudzu obtained the lowest yield (3.42 kg DM ha-1 cut-1 in the sun growing full. The cultivation of legumes in SSP increased the levels of mineral matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber. The shade provided by the SSP caused a reduction in the mass of dry matter production, but also altered the chemical composition of the studied legumes.

  2. A global experimental dataset for assessing grain legume production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernay, Charles; Pelzer, Elise; Makowski, David

    2016-09-01

    Grain legume crops are a significant component of the human diet and animal feed and have an important role in the environment, but the global diversity of agricultural legume species is currently underexploited. Experimental assessments of grain legume performances are required, to identify potential species with high yields. Here, we introduce a dataset including results of field experiments published in 173 articles. The selected experiments were carried out over five continents on 39 grain legume species. The dataset includes measurements of grain yield, aerial biomass, crop nitrogen content, residual soil nitrogen content and water use. When available, yields for cereals and oilseeds grown after grain legumes in the crop sequence are also included. The dataset is arranged into a relational database with nine structured tables and 198 standardized attributes. Tillage, fertilization, pest and irrigation management are systematically recorded for each of the 8,581 crop*field site*growing season*treatment combinations. The dataset is freely reusable and easy to update. We anticipate that it will provide valuable information for assessing grain legume production worldwide.

  3. Oil body biogenesis and biotechnology in legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youhong; Wang, Xin-Ding; Rose, Ray J

    2017-09-02

    The seeds of many legume species including soybean, Pongamia pinnata and the model legume Medicago truncatula store considerable oil, apart from protein, in their cotyledons. However, as a group, legume storage strategies are quite variable and provide opportunities for better understanding of carbon partitioning into different storage products. Legumes with their ability to fix nitrogen can also increase the sustainability of agricultural systems. This review integrates the cell biology, biochemistry and molecular biology of oil body biogenesis before considering biotechnology strategies to enhance oil body biosynthesis. Cellular aspects of packaging triacylglycerol (TAG) into oil bodies are emphasized. Enhancing seed oil content has successfully focused on the up-regulation of the TAG biosynthesis pathways using overexpression of enzymes such as diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 and transcription factors such as WRINKLE1 and LEAFY COTYLEDON1. While these strategies are central, decreasing carbon flow into other storage products and maximizing the packaging of oil bodies into the cytoplasm are other strategies that need further examination. Overall there is much potential for integrating carbon partitioning, up-regulation of fatty acid and TAG synthesis and oil body packaging, for enhancing oil levels. In addition to the potential for integrated strategies to improving oil yields, the capacity to modify fatty acid composition and use of oil bodies as platforms for the production of recombinant proteins in seed of transgenic legumes provide other opportunities for legume biotechnology.

  4. Proteolytic modification of selected legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Baraniak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pepsin (EC 3.4.1.1 and trypsin (EC 3.4.4.4 action on the chemical composition of legume flours was the aim of this study. The level of proteins and lipids in hydrolysed flours was changed significantly. In comparison to the raw flours also fatty acid composition in treated flours was altered. In the lentil flours both trypsin and pepsin digestion conditions have decreased the level of unsaturated fatty acid. It is noteworthy that in all investigated, hydrolysed flours ratio linoleic: oleic fatty acid was significantly decreased in comparison to unhydrolysed flours (about 40%-pea; 60%- -lentil. Our investigations were also focused on the potential implementations of IMAC method in the separation and purification of peptides. Generally, peptides separation profiles, performed on immobilized Zn (II, were dependent on the kind of flour and enzyme used in the hydrolysis process. In the lights of our results is clearly visible that investigated peptides had a weak affinity to the chelated metal ions. It is noteworthy, that in some cases the influences of chelating factor on separation profiles were noticeable.

  5. Biological Potential of Sixteen Legumes in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixing Ren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic acids have been identified in a variety of legumes including lima bean, broad bean, common bean, pea, jack bean, goa bean, adzuki bean, hyacinth bean, chicking vetch, garbanzo bean, dral, cow bean, rice bean, mung bean and soybean. The present study was carried out with the following aims: (1 to identify and quantify the individual phenolic acid and determine the total phenolic content (TPC; (2 to assess their antioxidant activity, inhibition activities of α-glucosidase, tyrosinase, and formation of advanced glycation endproducts; and (3 to investigate correlations among the phytochemicals and biological activity. Common bean possesses the highest antioxidant activity and advanced glycation endproducts formation inhibition activity. Adzuki bean has the highest α-glucosidase inhibition activity, and mung bean has the highest tyrosinase inhibition activity. There are significant differences in phytochemical content and functional activities among the bean species investigated. Selecting beans can help treat diseases such as dermatological hyperpigmentation illness, type 2 diabetes and associated cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Immunosuppression during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Lu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Rhizobium infects host legumes to elicit new plant organs, nodules where dinitrogen is fixed as ammonia that can be directly utilized by plants. The nodulation factor (NF) produced by Rhizobium is one of the determinant signals for rhizobial infection and nodule development. Recently, it was found to suppress the innate immunity on host and nonhost plants as well as its analogs, chitins. Therefore, NF can be recognized as a microbe/pathogen-associated molecular pattern (M/PAMP) like chitin to induce the M/PAMP triggered susceptibility (M/PTS) of host plants to rhizobia. Whether the NF signaling pathway is directly associated with the innate immunity is not clear till now. In fact, other MAMPs such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and cyclic-β-glucan, together with type III secretion system (T3SS) effectors are also required for rhizobial infection or survival in leguminous nodule cells. Interestingly, most of them play similarly negative roles in the innate immunity of host plants, though their signaling is not completely elucidated. Taken together, we believe that the local immunosuppression on host plants induced by Rhizobium is essential for the establishment of their symbiosis.

  7. Pollen structure and function in caesalpinioid legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Hannah; Rudall, Paula J

    2016-03-01

    A diverse range of pollen morphologies occurs within the large, paraphyletic legume subfamily Caesalpinioideae, especially among early-branching lineages. Previous studies have hypothesized an association between surface ornamentation and pollination syndrome or other aspects of pollen function such as desiccation tolerance and adaptations to accommodate volume changes. We reviewed caesalpinioid pollen morphology using light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, in combination with a literature survey of pollination vectors. Pollen structural diversity is greatest in the early-branching tribes Cercideae and Detarieae, whereas Cassieae and Caesalpinieae are relatively low in pollen diversity. Functional structures to counter desiccation include opercula (lids) covering apertures and reduced aperture size. Structures preventing wall rupture during dehydration and rehydration include different forms of colpi (syncolpi, parasyncolpi, pseudocolpi), striate supratectal ornamentation, and columellate or granular wall structures that resist tensile or compressive forces respectively. Specialized aperture structures (Zwischenkörper) may be advantageous for efficient germination of the pollen tube. In Detarieae and Cercideae in particular, there is potential to utilize pollen characters to estimate pollination systems where these are unknown. Supratectal verrucae and gemmae have apparently evolved iteratively in Cercideae and Detarieae. At the species level, there is a potential correlation between striate/verrucate patterns and vertebrate pollination. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  8. Estimating variability in grain legume yields across Europe and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernay, Charles; Ben-Ari, Tamara; Pelzer, Elise; Meynard, Jean-Marc; Makowski, David

    2015-01-01

    Grain legume production in Europe has recently come under scrutiny. Although legume crops are often promoted to provide environmental services, European farmers tend to turn to non-legume crops. It is assumed that high variability in legume yields explains this aversion, but so far this hypothesis has not been tested. Here, we estimate the variability of major grain legume and non-legume yields in Europe and the Americas from yield time series over 1961–2013. Results show that grain legume yields are significantly more variable than non-legume yields in Europe. These differences are smaller in the Americas. Our results are robust at the level of the statistical methods. In all regions, crops with high yield variability are allocated to less than 1% of cultivated areas. Although the expansion of grain legumes in Europe may be hindered by high yield variability, some species display risk levels compatible with the development of specialized supply chains. PMID:26054055

  9. Achievements and prospects of genomics-assisted breeding in three legume crops of the semi-arid tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Mohan, S Murali; Gaur, Pooran M; Gangarao, N V P R; Pandey, Manish K; Bohra, Abhishek; Sawargaonkar, Shrikant L; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Kimurto, Paul K; Janila, Pasupuleti; Saxena, K B; Fikre, Asnake; Sharma, Mamta; Rathore, Abhishek; Pratap, Aditya; Tripathi, Shailesh; Datta, Subhojit; Chaturvedi, S K; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Anuradha, G; Babbar, Anita; Choudhary, Arbind K; Mhase, M B; Bharadwaj, Ch; Mannur, D M; Harer, P N; Guo, Baozhu; Liang, Xuanqiang; Nadarajan, N; Gowda, C L L

    2013-12-01

    Advances in next-generation sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled generation of large-scale genomic resources such as molecular markers, transcript reads and BAC-end sequences (BESs) in chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut, three major legume crops of the semi-arid tropics. Comprehensive transcriptome assemblies and genome sequences have either been developed or underway in these crops. Based on these resources, dense genetic maps, QTL maps as well as physical maps for these legume species have also been developed. As a result, these crops have graduated from 'orphan' or 'less-studied' crops to 'genomic resources rich' crops. This article summarizes the above-mentioned advances in genomics and genomics-assisted breeding applications in the form of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for hybrid purity assessment in pigeonpea; marker-assisted backcrossing (MABC) for introgressing QTL region for drought-tolerance related traits, Fusarium wilt (FW) resistance and Ascochyta blight (AB) resistance in chickpea; late leaf spot (LLS), leaf rust and nematode resistance in groundnut. We critically present the case of use of other modern breeding approaches like marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) and genomic selection (GS) to utilize the full potential of genomics-assisted breeding for developing superior cultivars with enhanced tolerance to various environmental stresses. In addition, this article recommends the use of advanced-backcross (AB-backcross) breeding and development of specialized populations such as multi-parents advanced generation intercross (MAGIC) for creating new variations that will help in developing superior lines with broadened genetic base. In summary, we propose the use of integrated genomics and breeding approach in these legume crops to enhance crop productivity in marginal environments ensuring food security in developing countries.

  10. Genetic mapping and legume synteny of aphid resistance in African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) grown in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Ndeve, Arsenio; Wanamaker, Steve; Lucas, Mitchell R; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    The cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch (CPA) is a destructive insect pest of cowpea, a staple legume crop in Sub-Saharan Africa and other semiarid warm tropics and subtropics. In California, CPA causes damage on all local cultivars from early vegetative to pod development growth stages. Sources of CPA resistance are available in African cowpea germplasm. However, their utilization in breeding is limited by the lack of information on inheritance, genomic location and marker linkage associations of the resistance determinants. In the research reported here, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between a susceptible California blackeye cultivar (CB27) and a resistant African breeding line (IT97K-556-6) was genotyped with 1,536 SNP markers. The RILs and parents were phenotyped for CPA resistance using field-based screenings during two main crop seasons in a 'hotspot' location for this pest within the primary growing region of the Central Valley of California. One minor and one major quantitative trait locus (QTL) were consistently mapped on linkage groups 1 and 7, respectively, both with favorable alleles contributed from IT97K-556-6. The major QTL appeared dominant based on a validation test in a related F2 population. SNP markers flanking each QTL were positioned in physical contigs carrying genes involved in plant defense based on synteny with related legumes. These markers could be used to introgress resistance alleles from IT97K-556-6 into susceptible local blackeye varieties by backcrossing.

  11. Azimuthal anchoring of a nematic liquid crystal on a grooved interface with anisotropic polar anchoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xuan; Zhang Zhi-Dong; Ye Wen-Jiang; Xuan Li

    2012-01-01

    Zhang Y Jet al.[Zhang Y J,Zhang Z D,Zhu L Z and Xuan L 2011 Liquid Cryst.38 355] investigated the effects of finite polar anchoring on the azimuthal anchoring energy at a grooved interface,in which polar anchoring was isotropic in the local tangent plane of the surface.In this paper,we investigate the effects of both isotropic and anisotropic polar anchoring on the surface anchoring energy in the frame of Fukuda et al.'s theory.The results show that anisotropic polar anchoring strengthens the azimuthal anchoring of grooved surfaces.In the one-elastic-constant approximation (K11 =K22 =K33 =K),the surface-groove-induced azimuthal anchoring energy is entirely consistent with the result of Faetti,and it reduces to the original result of Berreman with an increase in polar anchoring.Moreover,the contribution of the surface-like elastic term to the Rapini-Papoular anchoring energy is zero.

  12. Anchored nanostructure materials and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-27

    Anchored nanostructure materials and methods for their fabrication are described. The anchored nanostructure materials may utilize nano-catalysts that include powder-based or solid-based support materials. The support material may comprise metal, such as NiAl, ceramic, a cermet, or silicon or other metalloid. Typically, nanoparticles are disposed adjacent a surface of the support material. Nanostructures may be formed as anchored to nanoparticles that are adjacent the surface of the support material by heating the nano-catalysts and then exposing the nano-catalysts to an organic vapor. The nanostructures are typically single wall or multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

  13. Call for papers--Legume Genomics and Genetics (ISSN 1925-1580)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Legume Genomics and Genetics (LGG) (IS SN 1925-1580 online, http://lgg, sophiapublisher.com) propscd by legume geneticist Dr. Da Luo from Sun Yat-Sen University in China, is an open access and peer-reviewed journal publishing original research papers relevant to genomics and genetics in legume plants. It is committed to serving for legume genomics and genetics, especially featuring innovative research findings in the basic and applied fields of structural genomics, functional genomics, proteomics, epigenomics within the field of Legume sciences, as well as legume genetics from the molecular level to whole plant level.

  14. Transport processes of the legume symbiosome membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C Clarke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The symbiosome membrane (SM is a physical barrier between the host plant and nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, and represents a regulated interface for the movement of solutes between the symbionts that is under plant control. The primary nutrient exchange across the SM is the transport of a carbon energy source from plant to bacteroid in exchange for fixed nitrogen. At a biochemical level two channels have been implicated in movement of fixed nitrogen across the SM and a uniporter that transports monovalent dicarboxylate ions has been characterized that would transport fixed carbon. The aquaporin NOD26 may provide a channel for ammonia, but the genes encoding the other transporters have not been identified. Transport of several other solutes, including calcium and potassium, have been demonstrated in isolated symbiosomes, and genes encoding transport systems for the movement of iron, nitrate, sulfate and zinc in nodules have been identified. However, definitively matching transport activities with these genes has proved difficult and many further transport processes are expected on the SM to facilitate the movement of nutrients between the symbionts. Recently, work detailing the SM proteome in soybean has been completed, contributing significantly to the database of known SM proteins. This represents a valuable resource for the identification of transporter protein candidates, some of which may correspond to transport processes previously described, or to novel transport systems in the symbiosis. Putative transporters identified from the proteome include homologues of transporters of sulfate, calcium, peptides and various metal ions. Here we review current knowledge of transport processes of the SM and discuss the requirements for additional transport routes of other nutrients exchanged in the symbiosis, with a focus on transport systems identified through the soybean SM proteome.

  15. Proteomics and Metabolomics: two emerging areas for legume improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eRamalingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The crop legumes such as chickpea, common bean, cowpea, peanut, pigeonpea, soybean, etc. are important source of nutrition and contribute to a significant amount of biological nitrogen fixation (>20 million tons of fixed nitrogen in agriculture. However, the production of legumes is constrained due to abiotic and biotic stresses. It is therefore imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant response to different stresses and identify key candidate genes regulating tolerance which can be deployed in breeding programs. The information obtained from transcriptomics has facilitated the identification of candidate genes for the given trait of interest and utilizing them in crop breeding programs to improve stress tolerance. However, the mechanisms of stress tolerance are complex due to the influence of multi-genes and post-transcriptional regulations. Furthermore, stress conditions greatly affect gene expression which in turn causes modifications in the composition of plant proteomes and metabolomes. Therefore, functional genomics involving various proteomics and metabolomics approaches have been obligatory for understanding plant stress tolerance. These approaches have also been found useful to unravel different pathways related to plant and seed development as well as symbiosis. Proteome and metabolome profiling using high-throughput based systems have been extensively applied in the model legume species Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, as well as in the model crop legume, soybean, to examine stress signalling pathways, cellular and developmental processes and nodule symbiosis. Moreover, the availability of protein reference maps as well as proteomics and metabolomics databases greatly support research and understanding of various biological processes in legumes. Protein-protein interaction techniques, particularly the yeast two-hybrid system have been advantageous for studying symbiosis and stress signalling in legumes. In

  16. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  17. Starting point anchoring effects in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    of preferences in Choice Experiments resembles the Dichotomous Choice format, there is reason to suspect that Choice Experiments are equally vulnerable to anchoring bias. Employing different sets of price levels in a so-called Instruction Choice Set presented prior to the actual choice sets, the present study......Anchoring is acknowledged as a potential source of considerable bias in Dichotomous Choice Contingent Valuation studies. Recently, another stated preference method known as Choice Experiments has gained in popularity as well as the number of applied studies. However, as the elicitation...... finds that preferences elicited by Choice Experiments can be subject to starting point anchoring bias. Different price levels provoked significantly different distributions of choice in two otherwise identical choice set designs. On a more specific level, the results indicate that the anchoring...

  18. Are Vicilins Another Major Class of Legume Lectins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Legume lectins comprise a structurally related, Ca/Mn-dependent, widespread, abundant and well characterized lectin family when compared to the large number of lectins from other sources described in the literature. Strangely enough, no specific function has been assigned to them aside from a possible role in storage and/or defense. Using a recent and fine-tuned methodology capable of specific lectin identification, β-conglutin, Vicia faba vicilin and β-lathyrin, the vicilin storage globulins from Lupinus albus, V. faba and Lathyrus sativus, respectively, were shown to be capable of affinity binding to thoroughly washed erythrocyte membranes and of specific elution with appropriate sugars. Based on this evidence and on sparse data published in the literature, a second family of legume lectins is proposed: the 7S family of storage proteins from leguminous seeds, or family II of legume lectins. These lectins are also structurally related, widespread and well characterized. In addition, they self-aggregate in a Ca/Mg, electrostatic dependent manner and are even more abundant than the family I of legume lectins. Using the same evidence, reserve and defense roles may be attributed to family II of legume lectins.

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis: a method in alleviating legume allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasera, Ramkrashan; Singh, A B; Lavasa, S; Prasad, Komarla Nagendra; Arora, Naveen

    2015-02-01

    Legumes are involved in IgE mediated food allergy in many countries. Avoidance of allergenic food is the only way to avoid symptomatic reaction. The present study investigated the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on the allergenicity of three legumes - kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), black gram (Vigna mungo) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Soluble protein extracts of the study legumes were sequentially treated by Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®). Allergenicity of hydrolysates was then determined by ELISA, immunoblot, stripped basophil histamine release and skin prick test (SPT). Hydrolysis resulted in the loss of all IgE binding fractions determined by immunoblot in the three legumes. Specific IgE binding in ELISA was reduced by 62.2 ± 7.7%, 87.1 ± 9.6% and 91.8 ± 7.2% in the hydrolysates of kidney bean, black gram and peanut, respectively (p release of histamine was decreased significantly when sensitized basophils were challenged with hydrolysates as compared to raw extracts. Significant reduction in the biopotency of hydrolysates was also observed in SPT where only 1/10 kidney bean-sensitive individuals, 2/6 black gram-sensitive individuals and 1/7 peanut-sensitive individuals were found positive to their respective hydrolysates. In conclusion, enzymatic hydrolysis is effective in attenuating allergenicity of legume proteins and may be employed for preparing hypoallergenic food extracts.

  20. Biogenic amines in rhizobia and legume root nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Shinsuke

    2009-01-01

    Root-nodule bacteria (rhizobia) are of great importance for nitrogen acquisition through symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a wide variety of leguminous plants. These bacteria differ from most other soil microorganisms by taking dual forms, i.e. a free-living form in soils and a symbiotic form inside of host legumes. Therefore, they should have a versatile strategy for survival, whether inhabiting soils or root nodules formed through rhizobia-legume interactions. Rhizobia generally contain large amounts of the biogenic amine homospermidine, an analog of spermidine which is an essential cellular component in most living systems. The external pH, salinity and a rapid change in osmolarity are thought to be significant environmental factors affecting the persistence of rhizobia. The present review describes the regulation of homospermidine biosynthesis in response to environmental stress and its possible functional role in rhizobia. Legume root nodules, an alternative habitat of rhizobia, usually contain a variety of biogenic amines besides homospermidine and the occurrence of some of these amines is closely associated with rhizobial infections. In the second half of this review, novel biogenic amines found in certain legume root nodules and the mechanism of their synthesis involving cooperation between the rhizobia and host legume cells are also described.

  1. Diurnal Leaf Starch Content: An Orphan Trait in Forage Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Ruckle

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forage legumes have a relatively high biomass yield and crude protein content, but their grazed and harvested biomass lacks the high-energy carbohydrates required to meet the productivity potential of modern livestock breeds. Because of their low carbohydrate content, forage legume diets are typically supplemented with starch rich cereal grains or maize (Zea mays, leading to the disruption of local nutrient cycles. Although plant leaves were first reported to accumulate starch in a diurnal pattern over a century ago, leaf starch content has yet to be exploited as an agronomic trait in forage crops. Forage legumes such as red clover (Trifolium pratense have the genetic potential to accumulate up to one third of their leaf dry mass as starch, but this starch is typically degraded at night to support nighttime growth and respiration. Even when diurnal accumulation is considered with regard to the time the crop is harvested, only limited gains are realized due to environmental effects and post-harvest losses from respiration. Here we present original data for starch metabolism in red clover and place it in the broader context of other forage legumes such as, white clover (T. repens, and alfalfa (Medicago sativa. We review the application of recent advances in molecular breeding, plant biology, and crop phenotyping, to forage legumes to improve and exploit a potentially valuable trait for sustainable ruminant livestock production.

  2. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Glenn; Barona, Elizabeth; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Guevara, Edward; Dixon, John; Beebe, Steve; Castano, Silvia Elena; Alabi, Tunrayo; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Sivasankar, Shoba; Rivera, Ovidio; Espinosa, Herlin; Cardona, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes. PMID:27303632

  3. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  4. The Use of Comics-Based Cases in Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Matthew F.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to understand how comics fulfill the role of anchor in an anchored instruction learning environment. Anchored instruction addresses the inert knowledge problem through the use of realistic multimedia stories, or "anchors," that embed a problem and the necessary data to solve it within the narrative. In the…

  5. Physiological role of calcium in legume-rhizobium symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasil’eva G.G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature data on the physiological role of calcium (Ca2+ in legume-rhizobium symbiosis development on initial stages - the infection and symbiotic structures formation, are generalized. The questions about the Ca2+ function in plants, special feature the formation of legume-rhizobium symbiosis and role of calcium in the interaction of two organisms are considered. Data on the interaction of ROS and Ca2+ in the development of the legume-rhizobium symbiosis and the relationship of NADPH-oxidase activity with the calcium signaling system are analyzed. The special attention is given to the role of Ca22+-spiking and calcium and calmodulin-like kinase in the initiation of plant symbiotic ways operation leads to infection and the formation of symbiotic structures.

  6. Transport and metabolism in legume-rhizobia symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Poole, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in legume root nodules injects approximately 40 million tonnes of nitrogen into agricultural systems each year. In exchange for reduced nitrogen from the bacteria, the plant provides rhizobia with reduced carbon and all the essential nutrients required for bacterial metabolism. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation requires exquisite integration of plant and bacterial metabolism. Central to this integration are transporters of both the plant and the rhizobia, which transfer elements and compounds across various plant membranes and the two bacterial membranes. Here we review current knowledge of legume and rhizobial transport and metabolism as they relate to symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Although all legume-rhizobia symbioses have many metabolic features in common, there are also interesting differences between them, which show that evolution has solved metabolic problems in different ways to achieve effective symbiosis in different systems.

  7. Peanut cross-reacting allergens in seeds and sprouts of a range of legumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.B.; Pedersen, M.H.; Skov, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes.......Recently, peanut-allergic patients have reported symptoms upon ingestion of bean sprouts produced from various legumes....

  8. The First Attested Extraction of Ancient DNA in Legumes (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikić, Aleksandar M

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae) are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analyzing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350-1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl(-1) of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK, and rbcL) among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighboring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide.

  9. Marker development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  10. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  11. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Li, Diandian; Shen, Qiang; Qiu, Wenwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA) for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  12. Chloroplast Genome Sequence of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh and Cajanus scarabaeoides: Genome organization and Comparison with other legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Kaila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L. Millspaugh, a diploid (2n = 22 legume crop with a genome size of 852 Mbp, serves as an important source of human dietary protein especially in South East Asian and African regions. In this study, the draft chloroplast genomes of Cajanus cajan and Cajanus scarabaeoides were sequenced. Cajanus scarabaeoides is an important species of the Cajanus gene pool and has also been used for developing promising CMS system by different groups. A male sterile genotype harbouring the Cajanus scarabaeoides cytoplasm was used for sequencing the plastid genome. The cp genome of Cajanus cajan is 152,242bp long, having a quadripartite structure with LSC of 83,455 bp and SSC of 17,871 bp separated by IRs of 25,398 bp. Similarly, the cp genome of Cajanus scarabaeoides is 152,201bp long, having a quadripartite structure in which IRs of 25,402 bp length separates 83,423 bp of LSC and 17,854 bp of SSC. The pigeonpea cp genome contains 116 unique genes, including 30 tRNA, 4 rRNA, 78 predicted protein coding genes and 5 pseudogenes. A 50kb inversion was observed in the LSC region of pigeonpea cp genome, consistent with other legumes. Comparison of cp genome with other legumes revealed the contraction of IR boundaries due to the absence of rps19 gene in the IR region. Chloroplast SSRs were mined and a total of 280 and 292 cpSSRs were identified in Cajanus scarabaeoides and Cajanus cajan respectively. RNA editing was observed at 37 sites in both Cajanus scarabaeoides and Cajanus cajan, with maximum occurrence in the ndh genes. The pigeonpea cp genome sequence would be beneficial in providing informative molecular markers which can be utilized for genetic diversity analysis and aid in understanding the plant systematics studies among major grain legumes.

  13. A mechanistic molecular test of the plant-sanction hypothesis in legume-rhizobia mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Diana E.; Pérez-Arnedo, Rebeca; Hidalgo-Perea, Ángeles; Olivares, José; Ruiz-Sainz, José E.; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-09-01

    The origin and persistence of mutualism is difficult to explain because of the widespread occurrence of exploitative, 'cheating' partners. As a policing strategy stabilising intraspecific cooperation, host sanctions against non-N 2 fixing, cheating symbionts have been proposed to stabilise mutualism in legume-rhizobium symbiosis. Mechanism of penalisations would include decreased nodular rhizobial viability and/or early nodule senescence. We tested these potential mechanisms of penalisations in split-root experiments using two soybean varieties and two rhizobial strains, a cooperative, normal N 2-fixing strain and an isogenic non-fixing derivative. We found no differences in the number of viable rhizobia recovered from nodules and no differential expression of a nodular senescence molecular marker. Thus, our results do not support the hypothesis of plant sanctions acting against cheating rhizobia in our experimental conditions.

  14. [LEGUME-RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS PROTEOMICS: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PERSPECTIVES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Iu Iu; Mamenko, P M; Kots, S Ya

    2015-01-01

    The present review contains results of proteomic researches of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The technical difficulties associated with the methods of obtaining protein extracts from symbiotic structures and ways of overcoming them were discussed. The changes of protein synthesis under formation and functioning of symbiotic structures were shown. Special attention has been given to the importance of proteomic studies of plant-microbe structures in the formation of adaptation strategies under adverse environmental conditions. The technical and conceptual perspectives of legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics were shown.

  15. Rhizobium-legume symbioses: the crucial role of plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourion, Benjamin; Berrabah, Fathi; Ratet, Pascal; Stacey, Gary

    2015-03-01

    New research results have significantly revised our understanding of the rhizobium-legume infection process. For example, Nod factors (NFs), previously thought to be absolutely essential for this symbiosis, were shown to be dispensable under particular conditions. Similarly, an NF receptor, previously considered to be solely involved in symbiosis, was shown to function during plant pathogen infections. Indeed, there is a growing realization that plant innate immunity is a crucial component in the establishment and maintenance of symbiosis. We review here the factors involved in the suppression of plant immunity during rhizobium-legume symbiosis, and we attempt to place this information into context with the most recent and sometimes surprising research results.

  16. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    L.), crop management techniques are applied to stimulate reproductive development in order to obtain high seed yields. These include a low plant density, manipulation of canopy size to avoid lodging and shading of fruiting organs, synchronization of flowering with pollinating insects as well...... to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve...

  17. Effects of alternative legume seeds on Barbaresca lamb meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pennisi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years a renewed interest towards the use of local legume seeds in animal nutrition was raising in Mediterranean areas. Conventional feedstuffs such as maize and soybean and animal by-products, the former widely diffused as genetically modified organisms (GMO and the latter related to “mad cow disease” produced significative changes in public perceptions, justifying a dramatic increase of the use of alternative protein and energy sources such as legume seeds (peas, faba beans, chickpeas (Hanbury et al., 2000...

  18. Anchor cell invasion into the vulval epithelium in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, David R; Sternberg, Paul W

    2003-07-01

    An understanding of cell-invasive behavior has been limited by the lack of in vivo models where this activity can be clearly visualized and manipulated. We show that a single cell in the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad, the anchor cell (AC), initiates uterine-vulval contact through a cell invasion event. Using genetic analysis, laser ablations, and cell-specific markers, we demonstrate that AC invasion is predominantly stimulated by the 1 degrees vulval lineage cells, which generate a diffusible signal that promotes AC invasive behavior toward these cells and further targets invasive processes between the two central 1 degrees vulval lineage cells. We also show that AC invasion is regulated by the AC response to this cue, as well as a vulval-independent mechanism that weakly drives invasion. These studies dissect the regulatory mechanisms that underlie a simple cell-invasive behavior in vivo, and introduce AC invasion as a model for understanding key checkpoints controlling cell invasion.

  19. Group II intron-anchored gene deletion in Clostridium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaizhi Jia

    Full Text Available Clostridium plays an important role in commercial and medical use, for which targeted gene deletion is difficult. We proposed an intron-anchored gene deletion approach for Clostridium, which combines the advantage of the group II intron "ClosTron" system and homologous recombination. In this approach, an intron carrying a fragment homologous to upstream or downstream of the target site was first inserted into the genome by retrotransposition, followed by homologous recombination, resulting in gene deletion. A functional unknown operon CAC1493-1494 located in the chromosome, and an operon ctfAB located in the megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731 were successfully deleted by using this approach, without leaving antibiotic marker in the genome. We therefore propose this approach can be used for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium. This approach might also be applicable for gene deletion in other bacterial species if group II intron retrotransposition system is established.

  20. Career anchors and learning plan (part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Brečko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is divided into three parts. The first part concentrates on how important career is for an individual, organization and society. The author establishes that understanding of career has changed dramatically and does not only refer to climbing up the career ladder, but also moving off or even down the career ladder. The notion of career, as a lifelong and professional path, encompasses all aspects of human personality and their roles acquired through one's life. On basis of vast and longitudinal research, where the author has studied career anchors of individuals, it is the objective of the author to find out on basis of what grounds do the individuals decide to take certain directions in their careers and how learning contributes to such decisions. As a source the author has used Shein's theory of career anchors. Part one describes in greater detail 8 different career anchors and introduces their main features with the findings of the research, which refer to the analysis of professions (work positions and established career anchors. The author thus verifies the hypothesis that career anchors do exist in our area.

  1. Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, P.

    1980-01-01

    Uses of tree legumes in semi-arid and arid regions are reviewed. This review is divided into sections according to the following general use categories: fuels; human food; livestock food; to increase yields of crops grown beneath their canopies;and control of desertification. (MHR)

  2. Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2010-02-01

    Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body.

  3. Antinutritional effects of legume seeds in piglets, rats and chickens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a growing interest in Europe to be self-supporting with regard to the protein supply for animal diets. Peas and beans growing well under European climatic conditions could provide alternatives to soya. However, these legume seeds contain the same classes of antinutritional factors (ANFs) as

  4. Ensilage of tropical grasses mixed with legumes and molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjandraatmadja, M; Norton, B W; Mac Rae, I C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of adding two legumes, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala, cv. Cunningham, and molasses on the fermentation characteristics of silages made from two tropical grasses (Pangola grass, Digitaria decumbens, and Setaria sphacelata cv. Kazungula) were investigated. Pangola grass silages contained significantly higher contents of water-soluble carbohydrates and lactic acid than did setaria silages after 100 days fermentation, but there were no significant differences between the two silages in populations of lactic acid bacteria and contents of total N and NH3-N. Addition of either species of legume had no significant effect on fermentation acids and NH3-N contents, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria. Addition of both legumes reduced NH3-N production in the silages by 59% after 5 days' fermentation. Numbers of lactic acid bacteria were not significantly affected by the different treatments. Enterococcus faecalis represented 60% of the lactic acid bacteria isolated from the treated herbages prior to ensiling. By 100 days of fermentation, only lactobacilli were isolated: 82% homo-fermenters and 18% hetero-fermenters. Lactobacillus mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was found only in the silage supplemented with 33% (w/w) legume. It was concluded that the low quality of tropical grasses used as feeds for ruminants may be significantly improved by ensiling these grasses with small amounts of molasses and with high-protein tree leaves.

  5. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-05-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume-rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops.

  6. Quality of buffalo meat burger containing legume flours as binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, V K; Mahendrakar, N S; Narasimha Rao, D; Sachindra, N M

    2004-01-01

    The effect of addition of different decorticated legume flours, viz., soya bean, bengal gram, green gram and black gram, on the quality of buffalo meat burger was studied. The burgers consisted of optimized quantities of roasted or unroasted legume flour, spices and common salt. Inclusion of roasted black gram flour registered the highest yield of 95.7%, lowest shrinkage of 5% and lowest fat absorption of 26.6% on frying. Protein content of 18-20% was highest in the soya flour formulation. Free fatty acid (FFA) values (as% oleic) increased from 14.3 to 17.3 in freshly prepared samples (before frying) to 16.0-19.4 in 4 m frozen (-16±2 °C) stored samples and fried samples had about 25% lower FFA values. Formulations with roasted flours registered lower thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values (mg malonaldehyde/kg sample) of 0.6-1.5 as against 0.6-2.1 for unroasted flours before frying. The burgers prepared with any of these binders were organoleptically acceptable even after storage at -16±2 °C for 4 months., However, the burger with black gram dhal (dehulled split legume) flour had better sensory quality attributes compared to other legumes.

  7. Background and History of the Lotus japonicus Model Legume System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    , focusing on endosymbiosis. Several important discoveries have been made, and the Lotus community has contributed novel results, promoting our understanding of plant biology as well as our understanding of properties and characteristics typical for plants belonging to the legume family. Progress has been...

  8. Symbiotic specificity of tropical tree rhizobia for host legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bala, A.; Giller, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    The host range and specificity is reported of a genetically diverse group of rhizobia isolated from nodules of Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nodule number and nitrogen content was measured in seedlings of herbaceous and woody legume species aft

  9. Contribution of Legume Rotations to the Nitrogen Requirements of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of legumes rotation in meeting the N fertilizer requirements of maize. The experimental site ... This study was carried out on a Rhodic Ferralsol at. Mlingano Agricultural .... different according to Duncan's New Multiple Range Test. *, ** and *** indicate .... and 16 kg N ha-1 in the case of the cowpea, pigeonpea and greengram ...

  10. Nod factor signal transduction in the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, E.H.M.; Bisseling, T.

    2008-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium bacteria and most legume plants is initiated by the perception of bacterial signal molecules, the nodulation (Nod) factors, at the root hairs of the plant. This induces responses both in the root hairs, leading to infection by the bacteria, as well as at a

  11. Genetic considerations in developing germplasm sources of native legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great need for biological diversity in reseeding efforts on western rangelands. Legumes provide a crucial component of reseedings, by allowing for higher forage quality, soil nitrogen fixation, pollinator sustenance, and wildlife and wild-fowl feed. In efforts to collect and produce see...

  12. Converting perennial legumes to organic cropland without tillage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic producers are interested in developing a no-till system for crop production. In this study, we examined management tactics to convert perennial legumes to annual crops without tillage. Our hypothesis was that reducing carbohydrate production in the fall by mowing would favor winterkill. M...

  13. Biomedical applications of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Susanne; Dangerfield, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) use a unique posttranslational modification to link proteins to lipid bilayer membranes. The anchoring structure consists of both a lipid and carbohydrate portion and is highly conserved in eukaryotic organisms regarding its basic characteristics, yet highly variable in its molecular details. The strong membrane targeting property has made the anchors an interesting tool for biotechnological modification of lipid membrane-covered entities from cells through extracellular vesicles to enveloped virus particles. In this review, we will take a closer look at the mechanisms and fields of application for GPI-APs in lipid bilayer membrane engineering and discuss their advantages and disadvantages for biomedicine. PMID:27542385

  14. Synthesis of Anchored Bimetallic Catalysts via Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxin Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of thermodynamically stable supported bimetallic catalysts for high-temperature reaction is significant and highly desirable but remains a grand challenge. In this work, we report a novel approach that relies on the interaction of metal nanoparticles with the support material to form unique bimetallic nanoparticles, which epitaxially anchor onto the support surface. Such unique nanostructured systems are catalytically active and ultrastable during selected catalytic reactions. In this paper, we describe the synthesis processes of ultrastable PtZn nanoparticles epitaxially anchored onto ZnO nanowires, which primarily consist of {10−10} nanoscale facets. Such anchored PtZn nanoparticles demonstrated good stability during high temperature treatments and selected catalytic reactions. The synthesis approach reported in this work provides a new strategy to develop thermodynamically stable supported bimetallic catalysts.

  15. A sequence-based genetic map of Medicago truncatula and comparison of marker colinearity with M. sativa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, H.K.; Kim, D.; Uhm, T.; Limpens, E.H.M.; Lim, H.; Mun, J.H.; Kalo, P.; Penmetsa, R.V.; Seres, A.; Kulikova, O.; Roe, B.A.; Bisseling, T.; Kiss, G.B.; Cook, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    A core genetic map of the legume Medicago truncatula has been established by analyzing the segregation of 288 sequence-characterized genetic markers in an E, population composed of 93 individuals. These molecular markers correspond to 141 ESTs, 80 BAC end sequence tags, and 67 resistance gene analog

  16. Traits affecting early season nitrogen uptake in nine legume species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Dayoub

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Legume crops are known to have low soil N uptake early in their life cycle, which can weaken their ability to compete with other species, such as weeds or other crops in intercropping systems. However, there is limited knowledge on the main traits involved in soil N uptake during early growth and for a range of species. The objective of this research was to identify the main traits explaining the variability among legume species in soil N uptake and to study the effect of the soil mineral N supply on the legume strategy for the use of available N sources during early growth. Nine legume species were grown in rhizotrons with or without N supply. Root expansion, shoot and root biomass, nodule establishment, N2 fixation and mineral soil N uptake were measured. A large interspecific variability was observed for all traits affecting soil N uptake. Root lateral expansion and early biomass in relation to seed mass were the major traits influencing soil N uptake regardless of the level of soil N availability. Fenugreek, lentil, alfalfa, and common vetch could be considered weak competitors for soil N due to their low plant biomass and low lateral root expansion. Conversely, peanut, pea, chickpea and soybean had a greater soil N uptake. Faba bean was separated from other species having a higher nodule biomass, a higher N2 fixation and a lower seed reserve depletion. Faba bean was able to simultaneously fix N2 and take up soil N. This work has identified traits of seed mass, shoot and root biomass, root lateral expansion, N2 fixation and seed reserve depletion that allowing classification of legume species regarding their soil N uptake ability during early growth.

  17. Legumes in Finnish agriculture: history, present status and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. L. STODDARD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Legumes are important in world agriculture, providing biologically fixed nitrogen, breaking cereal disease cycles and contributing locally grown food and feed, including forage. Pea and faba bean were grown by early farmers in Finland, with remains dated to 500 BC. Landraces of pea and faba bean were gradually replaced by better adapted, higher quality materials for food use. While grain legumes have been restricted by their long growing seasons to the south of the country, red, white and alsike clovers are native throughout and have long been used in leys for grazing, hay and silage. Breeding programmes released many cultivars of these crops during the 1900s, particularly pea and red clover. A.I. Virtanen earned the 1945 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work on both nitrogen fixation and silage preservation. Use of crop mixtures may appear modern, but farmers used them already in the early 1800s, when oat was used to support pea, and much effort has been devoted to improving the system and establishing its other benefits. Although international cultivars have been easily accessible since Finland’s 1995 entry into the European Union, the combination of feed quality and appropriate earliness is still needed, as < 1% of arable land is sown to grain legumes and an increase to 9–10% would allow replacement of imported protein feeds. Climate change will alter the stresses on legume crops, and investment in agronomy, physiology and breeding is needed so that farmers can gain from the many advantages of a legume-supported rotation.;

  18. Contribution of legumes to the soil N pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustec, Joëlle; Malagoli, Philippe; Mahieu, Stéphanie

    2010-05-01

    Grain legumes can be used for nitrogen acquisition in different ways in sustainable agriculture (Fustec et al., 2009). They are seen as a tool to reduce mineral N fertilizers in cropping systems. However, estimates of biological N fixation, N balance and N benefit either for the following crop or in mixed crops, remain unclear. The contribution of legumes to the soil N pool is difficult to measure, especially N rhizodeposition, since it is a critical point for assessing N benefits for other crops and for soil biological activity, and for reducing water pollution (Mayer et al., 2003). We adapted and refined the cotton-wick 15N stem labeling method for measuring the amount of soil N derived from rhizodeposition by field peas (Mahieu et al., 2007, 2009). The method was tested in different conditions in the field and in the greenhouse with various pea varieties and isolines. In addition, we used the cotton-wick method for assessing N transfers from pea to neighbouring durum wheat. In the greenhouse, a positive relationship was found between the amount of N rhizodeposits and the legume N content. N rhizodeposition was about 15% of the plant N and 30% in the field. In field pea / durum wheat intercrops, plant-plant N transfers were quantified and found to be bidirectional. Such results should be taken into account when estimating N benefits from biological N fixation by a grain legume crop and for the prediction of N economies in legume-based cropping systems. More studies dealing with rhizodeposit compounds and soil biological activity would now be necessary. Fustec et al. 2009. Agron. Sustain. Dev., DOI 10.1051/agro/2009003, in press. Mahieu et al. 2007. Plant Soil 295, 193-205. Mahieu et al. 2009. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 2236-2243. Mayer et al. 2003. Soil Biol. Biochem. 35, 21-28.

  19. A comparative nitrogen balance and productivity analysis of legume and non-legume supported cropping systems: the potential role of biological nitrogen fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro P M Iannetta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF to provide sufficient N for production have encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertiliser, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimising the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimise production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new, legume–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g. grains, forages and intercrops across pedoclimatic regions of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32-115 kg ha-1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc. was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years. BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6-0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping systems in this range were dominated by mixtures of legume and non-legume forages to which inorganic N as fertiliser was normally applied. Forage (e.g. grass and clover, as opposed to grain crops in this range maintained high outputs of biomass and N. In conclusion, BNF through grain and forage legumes have the potential to generate major benefit in terms of reducing or dispensing with the need for mineral N without loss of total output.

  20. A Comparative Nitrogen Balance and Productivity Analysis of Legume and Non-legume Supported Cropping Systems: The Potential Role of Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannetta, Pietro P. M.; Young, Mark; Bachinger, Johann; Bergkvist, Göran; Doltra, Jordi; Lopez-Bellido, Rafael J.; Monti, Michele; Pappa, Valentini A.; Reckling, Moritz; Topp, Cairistiona F. E.; Walker, Robin L.; Rees, Robert M.; Watson, Christine A.; James, Euan K.; Squire, Geoffrey R.; Begg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) to provide sufficient N for production has encouraged re-appraisal of cropping systems that deploy legumes. It has been argued that legume-derived N can maintain productivity as an alternative to the application of mineral fertilizer, although few studies have systematically evaluated the effect of optimizing the balance between legumes and non N-fixing crops to optimize production. In addition, the shortage, or even absence in some regions, of measurements of BNF in crops and forages severely limits the ability to design and evaluate new legume–based agroecosystems. To provide an indication of the magnitude of BNF in European agriculture, a soil-surface N-balance approach was applied to historical data from 8 experimental cropping systems that compared legume and non-legume crop types (e.g., grains, forages and intercrops) across pedoclimatic regions of Europe. Mean BNF for different legume types ranged from 32 to 115 kg ha−1 annually. Output in terms of total biomass (grain, forage, etc.) was 30% greater in non-legumes, which used N to produce dry matter more efficiently than legumes, whereas output of N was greater from legumes. When examined over the crop sequence, the contribution of BNF to the N-balance increased to reach a maximum when the legume fraction was around 0.5 (legume crops were present in half the years). BNF was lower when the legume fraction increased to 0.6–0.8, not because of any feature of the legume, but because the cropping systems in this range were dominated by mixtures of legume and non-legume forages to which inorganic N as fertilizer was normally applied. Forage (e.g., grass and clover), as opposed to grain crops in this range maintained high outputs of biomass and N. In conclusion, BNF through grain and forage legumes has the potential to generate major benefit in terms of reducing or dispensing with the need for mineral N without loss of total output. PMID:27917178

  1. Lash Transported Anchor for a Tanker Mooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    including additional model tests, is needed. The anchor configurations presented in Figures llb and llc will function adequately for the ATTF on all...causeways at sea) and offshore oil companies (mating jacket type structures at sea). 4. A suitable anchor for rock would be twice as heavy (4,000 kips) as the...NIARINF FNVIRON. LAW .. IIAIVl’RN): Seattle "A (E. ianger): Sceittle. %%A.’ Itransportation, ( oust rUCtIo & CO1m IN %IR(.IN IA INST. OF- MARINE SOI

  2. Marker chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Kiran Prabhaker; Belogolovkin, Victoria

    2013-04-01

    Marker chromosomes are a morphologically heterogeneous group of structurally abnormal chromosomes that pose a significant challenge in prenatal diagnosis. Phenotypes associated with marker chromosomes are highly variable and range from normal to severely abnormal. Clinical outcomes are very difficult to predict when marker chromosomes are detected prenatally. In this review, we outline the classification, etiology, cytogenetic characterization, and clinical consequences of marker chromosomes, as well as practical approaches to prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling.

  3. Phytoremediation of heavy and transition metals aided by legume-rhizobia symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, X.; Taghavi, S.; Xie, P.

    2014-01-01

    nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, phytohormone synthesis, siderophore release, and production of ACC deaminase and the volatile compounds of acetoin and 2, 3-butanediol may facilitate legume growth while lessening metal toxicity. The benefits of using legumes inoculated with naturally resistant...... rhizobia or recombinant rhizobia with enhanced resistance, as well as co-inoculation with other plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are discussed. However, the legume-rhizobia symbiosis appears to be sensitive to metals, and the effect of metal toxicity on the interaction between legumes and rhizobia......Legumes are important for nitrogen cycling in the environment and agriculture due to the ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. In this review, we introduce an important and potential role of legume-rhizobia symbiosis in aiding phytoremediation of some metal contaminated soils as various legumes...

  4. The molecular genetic linkage map of the model legume Medicago truncatula: an essential tool for comparative legume genomics and the isolation of agronomically important genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ané Jean-Michel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The legume Medicago truncatula has emerged as a model plant for the molecular and genetic dissection of various plant processes involved in rhizobial, mycorrhizal and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. Aiming to develop essential tools for such genetic approaches, we have established the first genetic map of this species. Two parental homozygous lines were selected from the cultivar Jemalong and from the Algerian natural population (DZA315 on the basis of their molecular and phenotypic polymorphism. Results An F2 segregating population of 124 individuals between these two lines was obtained using an efficient manual crossing technique established for M. truncatula and was used to construct a genetic map. This map spans 1225 cM (average 470 kb/cM and comprises 289 markers including RAPD, AFLP, known genes and isoenzymes arranged in 8 linkage groups (2n = 16. Markers are uniformly distributed throughout the map and segregation distortion is limited to only 3 linkage groups. By mapping a number of common markers, the eight linkage groups are shown to be homologous to those of diploid alfalfa (M. sativa, implying a good level of macrosynteny between the two genomes. Using this M. truncatula map and the derived F3 populations, we were able to map the Mtsym6 symbiotic gene on linkage group 8 and the SPC gene, responsible for the direction of pod coiling, on linkage group 7. Conclusions These results demonstrate that Medicago truncatula is amenable to diploid genetic analysis and they open the way to map-based cloning of symbiotic or other agronomically-important genes using this model plant.

  5. Anchoring the Panic Disorder Severity Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Meghan E.; Porter, Eliora; Kredlow, M. Alexandra; Worthington, John J.; Hoge, Elizabeth A.; Pollack, Mark H.; Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi M.

    2012-01-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) is a clinician-administered measure of panic disorder symptom severity widely used in clinical research. This investigation sought to provide clinically meaningful anchor points for the PDSS both in terms of clinical severity as measured by the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) and to extend…

  6. 30 CFR 57.7032 - Anchoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Underground Only § 57.7032 Anchoring. Columns and the drills mounted on them shall be...

  7. Predicting Anchor Links between Heterogeneous Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadmanesh, Sina; Khodadadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    People usually get involved in multiple social networks to enjoy new services or to fulfill their needs. Many new social networks try to attract users of other existing networks to increase the number of their users. Once a user (called source user) of a social network (called source network) joins a new social network (called target network), a new inter-network link (called anchor link) is formed between the source and target networks. In this paper, we concentrated on predicting the formation of such anchor links between heterogeneous social networks. Unlike conventional link prediction problems in which the formation of a link between two existing users within a single network is predicted, in anchor link prediction, the target user is missing and will be added to the target network once the anchor link is created. To solve this problem, we use meta-paths as a powerful tool for utilizing heterogeneous information in both the source and target networks. To this end, we propose an effective general meta-pat...

  8. Fouled Anchors: The CONSTELLATION Question Answered

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    1711804 87AU 73 89-1-3401 11. TITLE (kcn e S.cE) Caut,.cawn) Fouled Anchors: The Constellation Question Answered IL. PERSONA .. AUTHOPS) Wegner, Dana M...was familia , with the unaltered Constellation in Newport and, unknown to the Committee, had indeed visited the ship once in Baltimore (see p. 45). It is

  9. The "Anchor" Method: Principle and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selgin, Paul

    This report discusses the "anchor" language learning method that is based upon derivation rather than construction, using Italian as an example of a language to be learned. This method borrows from the natural process of language learning as it asks the student to remember whole expressions that serve as vehicles for learning both words and rules,…

  10. Multimodality of Learning Through Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Mary Susan

    2004-01-01

    Multimodality of learning results from the intertextual relationship between multimodal design and other meaning-making modes. Meaning making is becoming more multimodal because language is continually reshaped by new forms of communication media. This article examines anchored instruction from a multimodal perspective. The first section includes…

  11. Effects of Media Attributes in Anchored Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the effects of computer-assisted video-based anchored instruction on promoting students' attitudes toward mathematical instruction and problem-solving skills. Examines the effects of different media attributes on students' mathematical achievement and attitudes in a situated learning environment. Findings suggest that anchored…

  12. The bone-anchored hearing aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    The bone-anchored hearing aid (Baha) was introduced in 1977 by Tjellström and colleagues and has now been used clinically for over 30 years. Generally, the outcomes are good, and several studies have shown improved audiological- and quality of life outcomes. The principle of the Baha is, that sound...

  13. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  14. Anchor Stress Checking of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the calculating is to check the anchor stresses of the security injection tank to know whether the stress is satisfied the code requirements on the basis of all the reaction forces gained in the static, seismic and thermal stress results.

  15. Finding Chemical Anchors in the Kitchen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haim, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    ''The Chemistry Kitchen'', a unit composed of five activities with kitchen elements for elementary students ages 9-11, introduces the children to the skills and chemical working ideas to be used later as anchors for chemical concepts. These activities include kitchen elements, determining the relative mass and so on.

  16. A gene-based map of the Nod factor-independent Aeschynomene evenia sheds new light on the evolution of nodulation and legume genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaintreuil, Clémence; Rivallan, Ronan; Bertioli, David J; Klopp, Christophe; Gouzy, Jérôme; Courtois, Brigitte; Leleux, Philippe; Martin, Guillaume; Rami, Jean-François; Gully, Djamel; Parrinello, Hugues; Séverac, Dany; Patrel, Delphine; Fardoux, Joël; Ribière, William; Boursot, Marc; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Czernic, Pierre; Ratet, Pascal; Mournet, Pierre; Giraud, Eric; Arrighi, Jean-François

    2016-08-01

    Aeschynomene evenia has emerged as a new model legume for the deciphering of the molecular mechanisms of an alternative symbiotic process that is independent of the Nod factors. Whereas most of the research on nitrogen-fixing symbiosis, legume genetics and genomics has so far focused on Galegoid and Phaseolid legumes, A. evenia falls in the more basal and understudied Dalbergioid clade along with peanut (Arachis hypogaea). To provide insights into the symbiotic genes content and the structure of the A. evenia genome, we established a gene-based genetic map for this species. Firstly, an RNAseq analysis was performed on the two parental lines selected to generate a F2 mapping population. The transcriptomic data were used to develop molecular markers and they allowed the identification of most symbiotic genes. The resulting map comprised 364 markers arranged in 10 linkage groups (2n = 20). A comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of Arachis duranensis and A. ipaensis, the diploid ancestors of peanut, indicated blocks of conserved macrosynteny. Altogether, these results provided important clues regarding the evolution of symbiotic genes in a Nod factor-independent context. They provide a basis for a genome sequencing project and pave the way for forward genetic analysis of symbiosis in A. evenia.

  17. The first attested extraction of ancient DNA in legumes (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar M. Mikić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analysing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350 - 1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl-1 of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK and rbcL among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighbouring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide.

  18. Stone anchors from the Okhamandal region, Gujarat Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Gudigar, P.; Tripati, S.; Vora, K.H.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    During marine archaeological explorations since 1983, off Dwarka, a large number of stone anchors were discovered and dated to 1400 BC, comparing with anchors found in Mediterranean waters. In recent archaeological explorations off Dwarka, Bet...

  19. New polypyridine anchoring ligands for coordination complexes and surface functionalization

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    This PhD thesis focuses on the synthesis of new polypyridine anchoring ligands and several dfferent applications. The ligands consist of a coordinating part, a flexible linker and an anchoring group. Due to the fact that different anchoring groups were used, the ligands can be applied for several types of surface-materials. Using these anchoring ligands, several coordination complexes were synthesized. Ruthenium-based complexes, bearing an ion-sensitive ligand, were tested towards...

  20. An experimental and modelling exploration of the host-sanction hypothesis in legume-rhizobia mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Diana E; Carbajal, Juan P; Cannas, Sergio; Pérez-Arnedo, Rebeca; Hidalgo-Perea, Angeles; Olivares, José; Ruiz-Sainz, José E; Sanjuán, Juan

    2009-08-07

    Despite the importance of mutualism as a key ecological process, its persistence in nature is difficult to explain since the existence of exploitative, "cheating" partners that could erode the interaction is common. By analogy with the proposed policing strategy stabilizing intraspecific cooperation, host sanctions against non-N(2) fixing, cheating symbionts have been proposed as a force stabilizing mutualism in legume-Rhizobium symbiosis. Following this proposal, penalizations would include decreased nodular rhizobial viability and/or early nodule senescence in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. In this work, we analyse the stability of Rhizobium-legume symbiosis when non-fixing, cheating strains are present, using an experimental and modelling approach. We used split-root experiments with soybean plants inoculated with two rhizobial strains, a cooperative, normal N(2) fixing strain and an isogenic non-fixing, "perfect" cheating mutant derivative that lacks nitrogenase activity but has the same nodulation abilities inoculated to split-root plants. We found no experimental evidence of functioning plant host sanctions to cheater rhizobia based on nodular rhizobia viability and nodule senescence and maturity molecular markers. Based on these experiments, we developed a population dynamic model with and without the inclusion of plant host sanctions. We show that plant populations persist in spite of the presence of cheating rhizobia without the need of incorporating any sanction against the cheater populations in the model, under the realistic assumption that plants can at least get some amount of fixed N(2) from the effectively mutualistic rhizobia occupying some nodules. Inclusion of plant sanctions leads to the unrealistic effect of ultimate extinction of cheater strains in soil. Our simulation results are in agreement with increasing experimental evidence and theoretical work showing that mutualisms can persist in presence of cheating partners.

  1. Students' Anchoring Predisposition: An Illustration from Spring Training Baseball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrweis, Lawrence C.

    2014-01-01

    The anchoring tendency results when decision makers anchor on initial values and then make final assessments that are adjusted insufficiently away from the initial values. The professional literature recognizes that auditors often risk falling into the judgment trap of anchoring and adjusting (Ranzilla et al., 2011). Students may also be unaware…

  2. Anchored Instruction and Its Relationship to Situated Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Discusses anchored instruction, a teaching technique using videodisc-based problem-solving environments, and describes two research projects involving anchored instruction. Argues that anchored instruction provides a way to recreate and improve upon some of the advantages of situated cognition. (FMW)

  3. Anchored Instruction for Chinese Students: Enhancing Attitudes toward Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyu, Hsin-Yih

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a videodisc-based computer-aided multimedia-anchored instruction for Chinese students and to examine its effects on student attitudes toward mathematics and anchored instruction. Participants were 74 fifth graders. Results indicated that anchored instruction improved students' attitudes toward mathematics…

  4. Legume LysM receptors mediate symbiotic and pathogenic signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Simon; Radutoiu, Simona; Stougaard, Jens

    2017-10-01

    Legume-rhizobia symbiosis is coordinated through the production and perception of signal molecules by both partners with legume LysM receptor kinases performing a central role in this process. Receptor complex formation and signalling outputs derived from these are regulated through ligand binding and further modulated by a diverse variety of interactors. The challenge now is to understand the molecular mechanisms of these reported interactors. Recently attributed roles of LysM receptors in the perception of rhizobial exopolysaccharide, distinguishing between pathogens and symbionts, and assembly of root and rhizosphere communities expand on the importance of these receptors. These studies also highlight challenges, such as identification of cognate ligands, formation of responsive receptor complexes and separation of downstream signal transduction pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. UAV-based high-throughput phenotyping in legume crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Sindhuja; Khot, Lav R.; Quirós, Juan; Vandemark, George J.; McGee, Rebecca J.

    2016-05-01

    In plant breeding, one of the biggest obstacles in genetic improvement is the lack of proven rapid methods for measuring plant responses in field conditions. Therefore, the major objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing high-throughput remote sensing technology for rapid measurement of phenotyping traits in legume crops. The plant responses of several chickpea and peas varieties to the environment were assessed with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) integrated with multispectral imaging sensors. Our preliminary assessment showed that the vegetation indices are strongly correlated (p<0.05) with seed yield of legume crops. Results endorse the potential of UAS-based sensing technology to rapidly measure those phenotyping traits.

  6. Soil macrofauna in wooded pasture with legume trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusimar Lamarte Gonzaga Galindo da Silva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands afforestation aims at adding different soil uses in a way they become profitable for their owners. As such handling aims at minimizing impacts, the current study had as its goal the use of soil macrofauna in order to evaluate legume afforestation effects on the soil, regardless the depth. Thus, nitrogen fixing species were inserted onto grassland areas and the macrofauna collection was performed 6 years after their planting in the 0-10cm, 10-20cm and 20.30cm layers, in winter and summer. Leguminous influence was different between depths and times of the year. It mostly favors communities under "Mimosa" Genus treetops. Besides, the effects from climatic seasonal variations on invertebrates were mitigated by the implementation of such legume trees

  7. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose.

  8. Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigi, Philippe; Zhu, Jun; Young, J Peter W; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomics-assisted characterization of a breeding collection of Apios americana, an edible tuberous legume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belamkar, Vikas; Farmer, Andrew D.; Weeks, Nathan T.; Kalberer, Scott R.; Blackmon, William J.; Cannon, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    For species with potential as new crops, rapid improvement may be facilitated by new genomic methods. Apios (Apios americana Medik.), once a staple food source of Native American Indians, produces protein-rich tubers, tolerates a wide range of soils, and symbiotically fixes nitrogen. We report the first high-quality de novo transcriptome assembly, an expression atlas, and a set of 58,154 SNP and 39,609 gene expression markers (GEMs) for characterization of a breeding collection. Both SNPs and GEMs identify six genotypic clusters in the collection. Transcripts mapped to the Phaseolus vulgaris genome–another phaseoloid legume with the same chromosome number–provide provisional genetic locations for 46,852 SNPs. Linkage disequilibrium decays within 10 kb (based on the provisional genetic locations), consistent with outcrossing reproduction. SNPs and GEMs identify more than 21 marker-trait associations for at least 11 traits. This study demonstrates a holistic approach for mining plant collections to accelerate crop improvement. PMID:27721469

  10. Physicochemical and organoleptic properties of cookies incorporated with legume flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Thongram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries like India, with increasing urbanization, the demand for processed food and bakery products particularly cookies command wide popularity in both urban and rural mass. Hence, an attempt was made to develop functionally and nutritionally improved cookies and the influence of the partial replacement of the wheat flour by legume on the quality characteristic of cookies was analyzed. Six blends were prepared by homogenously mixing chickpea flour, pigeon pea, moong bean flour, and cowpea flour with wheat flour in the percentage proportions: 100, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, 25:75, and 10:10:10:10:60 (CPF:WWF, PF:WWF, MF:WWF, CF:WWF, and CPF:PF:MF:CF:WWF and later used to make cookies. Chemical and functional properties of the composite flours and chemical as well as sensory characteristics of cookies made from the above combinations were determined. The incorporation of legume flour significantly affected the physical, chemical, and phytonutrient parameters of the cookies. The results revealed that functional properties, viz. water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, and swelling property, increased with addition of legume flours. The physical analysis revealed that the diameter and height increased with the incorporation of legume flour. The results of the proximate composition showed that the A6 possesses highest percentage of proteins (13.42% and crude fat (22.90%, A5 contains maximum value of crude fiber (2.10% and DPPH radical scavenging activity (55.47%, A1 showed maximum moisture (10.60%, A2 total phenolic content (6.14 TAE mg/100 g, and A3 showed maximum ash (3.66%. Statistical results revealed that the addition of selected pulse flours and a combination of these whole flours do not have a significant effect (p > 0.05 on the sensory characteristics of cookies.

  11. Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legume Nodules: Metabolism and Regulatory Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Saad Sulieman; Lam-Son Phan Tran

    2014-01-01

    The special issue “Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Legume Nodules: Metabolism and Regulatory Mechanisms” aims to investigate the physiological and biochemical advances in the symbiotic process with an emphasis on nodule establishment, development and functioning. The original research articles included in this issue provide important information regarding novel aspects of nodule metabolism and various regulatory pathways, which could have important future implications. This issue also included...

  12. Beneficial Effects of Temperate Forage Legumes that Contain Condensed Tannins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer W. MacAdam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.

  13. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-09

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity.

  14. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  15. Geochemical Characterization of Copper Tailings after Legume Revegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Perry T. Domingo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the geochemistry of mine tailings is important in understanding the challenges in establishing vegetation cover on tailings dumps and mined out areas. In this study, the mineralogy and trace element composition of copper tailings were examined. Two legume species, Calopogonium mucunoides and Centrosema molle, were utilized to investigate the possible effects of these plants in the geochemical development of mine tailings into soil-like material. The initial mineralogical and chemical analysis of the tailings samples indicated poor conditions for plant growth—minimal levels of major nutrients and organic matter as well as elevated copper concentrations. Despite these conditions, the two legume species exhibited good growth rates. Both legumes have likewise signif icantly reduced heavy metal concentrations in the tailings, indicating the possibility of metal hyperaccumulation in the plant tissue. The mineral composition has been retained even after revegetation; nevertheless, breakdown of primary minerals and subsequent formation of clay minerals were detected. These results provide insights on the transformation of toxic materials into habitable substrates for sustained plant growth.

  16. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  17. Antidiabetic potential of commonly consumed legumes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Poonam; Kaushik, Geetanjali; Mathur, Pulkit

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few decades, lifestyle changes have resulted in a drastic increase in the incidence of diabetes all over the world, especially in the developing countries. Oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin form the mainstay in controlling diabetes, but they have prominent side effects and fail to significantly alter the course of diabetic complications. Appropriate diet and exercise programs that form a part of lifestyle modifications have proven to be greatly effective in the management of this disease. Dietary therapy is showing a bright future in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. Legumes, owing to their high nutritive value, are increasingly being used in dietetic formulations in the treatment and prevention of diabetes on account of their antidiabetic potential. Given this background, this paper reviews the glucose- and lipid-lowering action possessed by various commonly consumed legumes through several animal and human studies. It is concluded that the various legumes not only have varying degrees of antidiabetic potential but are also beneficial in decreasing the risk factors for cardiovascular and renal disease.

  18. A Proteomic View on the Role of Legume Symbiotic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estíbaliz Larrainzar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Legume plants are key elements in sustainable agriculture and represent a significant source of plant-based protein for humans and animal feed worldwide. One specific feature of the family is the ability to establish nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. Additionally, like most vascular flowering plants, legumes are able to form a mutualistic endosymbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. These beneficial associations can enhance the plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Understanding how symbiotic interactions influence and increase plant stress tolerance are relevant questions toward maintaining crop yield and food safety in the scope of climate change. Proteomics offers numerous tools for the identification of proteins involved in such responses, allowing the study of sub-cellular localization and turnover regulation, as well as the discovery of post-translational modifications (PTMs. The current work reviews the progress made during the last decades in the field of proteomics applied to the study of the legume-Rhizobium and -AM symbioses, and highlights their influence on the plant responses to pathogens and abiotic stresses. We further discuss future perspectives and new experimental approaches that are likely to have a significant impact on the field including peptidomics, mass spectrometric imaging, and quantitative proteomics.

  19. Biological nitrogen fixation in non-legume plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Carole; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitrogen is an essential nutrient in plant growth. The ability of a plant to supply all or part of its requirements from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) thanks to interactions with endosymbiotic, associative and endophytic symbionts, confers a great competitive advantage over non-nitrogen-fixing plants. Scope Because BNF in legumes is well documented, this review focuses on BNF in non-legume plants. Despite the phylogenic and ecological diversity among diazotrophic bacteria and their hosts, tightly regulated communication is always necessary between the microorganisms and the host plant to achieve a successful interaction. Ongoing research efforts to improve knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying these original relationships and some common strategies leading to a successful relationship between the nitrogen-fixing microorganisms and their hosts are presented. Conclusions Understanding the molecular mechanism of BNF outside the legume–rhizobium symbiosis could have important agronomic implications and enable the use of N-fertilizers to be reduced or even avoided. Indeed, in the short term, improved understanding could lead to more sustainable exploitation of the biodiversity of nitrogen-fixing organisms and, in the longer term, to the transfer of endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixation capacities to major non-legume crops. PMID:23478942

  20. Protein contamination on Klason lignin contents in tropical grasses and legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the extent of protein contamination on Klason lignin (KL in tropical grasses and legumes, and to propose an equation to estimate the protein-free content of Klason lignin (KLp. Five grass (30 samples and 12 legume species (31 samples were evaluated. Legumes had higher KL contents. Protein contamination was significant in both grasses and legumes, but greater in legume samples. The model to predict KLp was based on KL and crude protein (CP contents, as follows: KLp = 0.8807KL - 0.0938KL x D - 0.00338CP (R2=0.935, in which D=0, for grasses, and D=1 for legumes.

  1. How many peas in a pod? Legume genes responsible for mutualistic symbioses underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchi, Hiroshi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Hayashi, Makoto; Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Umehara, Yosuke; Suganuma, Norio; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2010-09-01

    The nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legume plants and Rhizobium bacteria is the most prominent plant-microbe endosymbiotic system and, together with mycorrhizal fungi, has critical importance in agriculture. The introduction of two model legume species, Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula, has enabled us to identify a number of host legume genes required for symbiosis. A total of 26 genes have so far been cloned from various symbiotic mutants of these model legumes, which are involved in recognition of rhizobial nodulation signals, early symbiotic signaling cascades, infection and nodulation processes, and regulation of nitrogen fixation. These accomplishments during the past decade provide important clues to understanding not only the molecular mechanisms underlying plant-microbe endosymbiotic associations but also the evolutionary aspects of nitrogen-fixing symbiosis between legume plants and Rhizobium bacteria. In this review we survey recent progress in molecular genetic studies using these model legumes.

  2. Solubilisation of inorganic phosphates by inoculant strains from tropical legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Marciano Marra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial solubilisation of low soluble inorganic phosphates is an important process contributing for the phosphorus available to plants in tropical soils. This study evaluates the ability of inoculant strains for tropical legumes to solubilise inorganic phosphates of low solubility that are found in tropical soils. Seven strains of Leguminosae nodulating bacteria (LNB were compared with one another and with a non-nodulating positive control, Burkholderia cepacia (LMG 1222T. Four of the strains are used as inoculants for cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (Bradyrhizobium sp. UFLA 03-84; Bradyrhizobium elkani INPA 03-11B and Bradyrhizobium japonicum BR3267 or for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris (Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899T. Rhizobium etli UFLA 02-100 and Rhizobium leguminosarum 316C10a are also efficient nodulators of beans and Cupriavidus taiwanensis LMG 19424T nodulates on Mimosa pudica. Two experiments, with solid and liquid media, were performed to determine whether the strains were able to solubilise CaHPO4, Al(H2PO43 or FePO4.2H2O. On solid GELP medium none of the strains dissolved FePO4.2H2O, but LMG 1222, UFLA 03-84 and CIAT 899 solubilised CaHPO4 particularly well. These strains, along with LMG 19424 and BR 3267, were also able to increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. In liquid GELP medium, LMG 1222 solubilised all phosphate sources, but no legume nodulating strain could increase the solubility of Al(H2PO43. The strains CIAT 899 and UFLA 02-100 were the only legume nodulating bacteria able to solubilise the other phosphate sources in liquid media, dissolving both CaHPO4 and FePO4.2H2O. There was a negative correlation between the pH of the culture medium and the concentration of soluble phosphate when the phosphorus source was CaHPO4 or FePO4.2H2O. The contribution of these strains to increasing the phosphorus nutrition of legumes and non-legume plant species should be investigated further by in vivo experiments.

  3. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  4. Electrochromic mirror using viologen-anchored nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Han Na [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong M.; Ah, Chil Seong; Song, Juhee; Ryu, Hojun; Kim, Yong Hae [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae-Youb, E-mail: youby@etri.re.kr [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Nature-mimic I/O interface Research Section, 218 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-700 (Korea, Republic of); University of Science and Technology, Advanced Device Technology, 217 Gajeong-roYuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Three types of ECM device were fabricated using viologen-anchored ECDs. • The devices were investigated according to their optical structures. • The anti-reflection material affects the reflectance and the coloration efficiency. • The device design of ECMs is a crucial factor for clear reflected images. - Abstract: Electrochromic mirrors (ECMs) that are used in automobile mirrors need to have high reflectance, a high contrast ratio, and a clear image. In particular, it is critical that distortions of clear images are minimized for safety. Therefore, an ECM is fabricated using viologen-anchored nanoparticles and a magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) layer with an anti-reflection function. The ECM has approximately 30.42% in the reflectance dynamic range and 125 cm{sup 2}/C high coloration efficiency.

  5. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-30

    Jul 30, 2014 ... Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the most widely used marker system for plant variety characterization and ... gene tagging in marker assisted breeding and gene cloning in .... PLS-2 and PAU Selection Long) to 1.00 (between PC. 2062 and .... Comparative analyses of genetic diversities within tomato.

  6. (SSR) markers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-03

    Apr 3, 2012 ... seeded and black-seeded cultivars and breeding lines. The group B included 70 ... maize, rice and tomatoes (Reif et al., 2006; Vigouroux et al., 2005; Warburton et ..... development of molecular markers for marker-assisted breeding. .... Selection under domestication: evidence for a sweep in the rice Waxy ...

  7. An Analytical Method for Positioning Drag Anchors in Seabed Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 刘海笑; 李新仲; 李清平; 曹静

    2015-01-01

    Positioning drag anchors in seabed soils are strongly influenced not only by the properties of the anchor and soil, but also by the characteristics of the installation line. The investigation on the previous prediction methods related to anchor positioning demonstrates that the prediction of the anchor position during dragging has inevitably introduced some key and unsubstantiated hypotheses and the applicability of these methods is limited. In the present study, the interactional system between the drag anchor and installation line is firstly introduced for the analysis of anchor positioning. Based on the two mechanical models for embedded lines and drag anchors, the positioning equations for drag anchors have been derived both for cohesive and noncohesive soils. Since the drag angle at the shackle is the most important parameter in the positioning equations, a novel analytical method that can predict both the variation and the exact value of the drag angle at the shackle is proposed. The analytical method for positioning drag anchors which combines the interactional system between the drag anchor and the installation line has provided a reasonable theoretic approach to investigate the anchor behaviors in soils. By comparing with the model flume experiments, the sensitivity, effectiveness and veracity of the positioning method are well verified.

  8. Anchored Instruction: Situiertes Lernen in multimedialen Lernumgebungen

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    «Anchored Instruction» ist ein konstruktivistischer Ansatz aus den USA, dessen Vertreter technologisch unterstützte, situierte Lernumgebungen für verschiedene schulische Fächer und Altersstufen entwickeln, implementieren und erforschen. Wichtige Ziele, Gestaltungsprinzipien und Merkmale solcher Lernumgebungen sowie ihre Implementation im Unterricht werden anhand von zwei Anwendungen näher dargestellt: (1) «The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury», eine Serie von Video-Geschichten und Zusatzmaterial...

  9. Developing an "anchor" system to enhance postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauerberg-deCastro, Eliane

    2004-07-01

    This article uses an anchor metaphor to explain the dynamic interplay between the human body's active uses of nonrigid tools to mediate information about its adjacent environment to enhance postural control. The author used an "anchor" system (ropes attached to varying weights resting on the floor) to test blindfolded adults who performed a restricted-balance task (30 s one-foot standing). Participants were tested while holding the anchors under a variety of weight conditions (125 g, 250 g, 500 g, and 1 kg) and again during a baseline condition (no anchors). When compared with the baseline condition, there was a significant reduction in the amount of body sway across the anchor conditions. The author found that mechanical support provided by the anchor system was secondary to its haptic exploratory function and that an individual can use the anchoring strategy with a dual purpose: for resting and for reorientation after intrinsic disruptions.

  10. Anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Wen-Jiang; Xing Hong-Yu; Yang Guo-Chen

    2007-01-01

    The anchoring properties of substrate with a grating surface are investigated analytically. The alignment of nematic liquid crystal (NLC) in a grating surface originates from two mechanisms, thus the anchoring energy consists of two parts. One originates from the interaction potential between NLC molecules and the molecules on the substrate surface,and the other stems from the increased elastic strain energy. Based on the two mechanisms, the expression of anchoring energy per unit area of a projected plane of this grating surface is deduced and called the equivalent anchoring energy formula. Both the strength and the easy direction of equivalent anchoring energy are a function of the geometrical parameters (amplitude and pitch) of a grating surface. By using this formula, the grating surface can be replaced by its projected plane and its anchoring properties can be described by the equivalent anchoring energy formula.

  11. Objectives and approaches in the breeding of perennial legumes for use in temporary pasturelands

    OpenAIRE

    Naydenova G.; Hristova Ts.; Aleksiev Y.

    2013-01-01

    Legumes are the major element of grassland ecosystem, on which the forage quality depends. Breeding of pasture varieties in perennial legumes firstly aims at achieving tolerance and persistence of the legume component in the pasture. In species having low natural grazing tolerance (lucerne and red clover) it is necessary to conduct breeding for biological, morphological and physiological characteristics, directly related to grazing tolerance. In the species...

  12. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-30

    The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30 - 50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3 - 4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large.

  13. Anchored design of protein-protein interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M Lewis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few existing protein-protein interface design methods allow for extensive backbone rearrangements during the design process. There is also a dichotomy between redesign methods, which take advantage of the native interface, and de novo methods, which produce novel binders. METHODOLOGY: Here, we propose a new method for designing novel protein reagents that combines advantages of redesign and de novo methods and allows for extensive backbone motion. This method requires a bound structure of a target and one of its natural binding partners. A key interaction in this interface, the anchor, is computationally grafted out of the partner and into a surface loop on the design scaffold. The design scaffold's surface is then redesigned with backbone flexibility to create a new binding partner for the target. Careful choice of a scaffold will bring experimentally desirable characteristics into the new complex. The use of an anchor both expedites the design process and ensures that binding proceeds against a known location on the target. The use of surface loops on the scaffold allows for flexible-backbone redesign to properly search conformational space. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: This protocol was implemented within the Rosetta3 software suite. To demonstrate and evaluate this protocol, we have developed a benchmarking set of structures from the PDB with loop-mediated interfaces. This protocol can recover the correct loop-mediated interface in 15 out of 16 tested structures, using only a single residue as an anchor.

  14. Potential of legume-based grassland-livestock systems in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, A; Mueller-Harvey, I; Soussana, J F; Rees, R M; Peyraud, J L

    2014-06-01

    European grassland-based livestock production systems face the challenge of producing more meat and milk to meet increasing world demands and to achieve this using fewer resources. Legumes offer great potential for achieving these objectives. They have numerous features that can act together at different stages in the soil-plant-animal-atmosphere system, and these are most effective in mixed swards with a legume proportion of 30-50%. The resulting benefits include reduced dependence on fossil energy and industrial N-fertilizer, lower quantities of harmful emissions to the environment (greenhouse gases and nitrate), lower production costs, higher productivity and increased protein self-sufficiency. Some legume species offer opportunities for improving animal health with less medication, due to the presence of bioactive secondary metabolites. In addition, legumes may offer an adaptation option to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate change. Legumes generate these benefits at the level of the managed land-area unit and also at the level of the final product unit. However, legumes suffer from some limitations, and suggestions are made for future research to exploit more fully the opportunities that legumes can offer. In conclusion, the development of legume-based grassland-livestock systems undoubtedly constitutes one of the pillars for more sustainable and competitive ruminant production systems, and it can be expected that forage legumes will become more important in the future.

  15. FragAnchor: A Large-Scale Predictor of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchors in Eukaryote Protein Sequences by Qualitative Scoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor is a common but complex C-terminal post-translational modification of extracellular proteins in eukaryotes. Here we investigate the problem of correctly annotating GPI-anchored proteins for the growing number of sequences in public databases. We developed a computational system, called FragAnchor, based on the tandem use of a neural network (NN) and a hidden Markov model (HMM). Firstly, NN selects potential GPI-anchored proteins in a dataset, then HMM parses these potential GPI signals and refines the prediction by qualitative scoring. FragAnchor correctly predicted 91% of all the GPI-anchored proteins annotated in the Swiss-Prot database.In a large-scale analysis of 29 eukaryote proteomes, FragAnchor predicted that the percentage of highly probable GPI-anchored proteins is between 0.21% and 2.01%. The distinctive feature of FragAnchor, compared with other systems,is that it targets only the C-terminus of a protein, making it less sensitive to the background noise found in databases and possible incomplete protein sequences. Moreover, FragAnchor can be used to predict GPI-anchored proteins in all eukaryotes. Finally, by using qualitative scoring, the predictions combine both sensitivity and information content. The predictor is publicly available at http: // navet. ics. hawaii.edu/~fraganchor/NNHMM/NNHMM.html.

  16. Robotic Ankle for Omnidirectional Rock Anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; Thatte, Nitish

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the vertical and inverted rock walls of lava caves and cliff faces on Mars and other planetary bodies would require a method of gripping their rocky surfaces to allow mobility without gravitational assistance. In order to successfully navigate this terrain and drill for samples, the grippers must be able to produce anchoring forces in excess of 100 N. Additionally, the grippers must be able to support the inertial forces of a moving robot, as well gravitational forces for demonstrations on Earth. One possible solution would be to use microspine arrays to anchor to rock surfaces and provide the necessary load-bearing abilities for robotic exploration of asteroids. Microspine arrays comprise dozens of small steel hooks supported on individual suspensions. When these arrays are dragged along a rock surface, the steel hooks engage with asperities and holes on the surface. The suspensions allow for individual hooks to engage with asperities while the remaining hooks continue to drag along the surface. This ensures that the maximum possible number of hooks engage with the surface, thereby increasing the load-bearing abilities of the gripper. Using the microspine array grippers described above as the end-effectors of a robot would allow it to traverse terrain previously unreachable by traditional wheeled robots. Furthermore, microspine-gripping robots that can perch on cliffs or rocky walls could enable a new class of persistent surveillance devices for military applications. In order to interface these microspine grippers with a legged robot, an ankle is needed that can robotically actuate the gripper, as well as allow it to conform to the large-scale irregularities in the rock. The anchor serves three main purposes: deploy and release the anchor, conform to roughness or misalignment with the surface, and cancel out any moments about the anchor that could cause unintentional detachment. The ankle design contains a

  17. Unexpectedly Diverse Mesorhizobium Strains and Rhizobium leguminosarum Nodulate Native Legume Genera of New Zealand, while Introduced Legume Weeds Are Nodulated by Bradyrhizobium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Bevan S.; Turner, Susan J.; Silvester, Warwick B.; Park, Duck-Chul; Young, John M.

    2004-01-01

    The New Zealand native legume flora are represented by four genera, Sophora, Carmichaelia, Clianthus, and Montigena. The adventive flora of New Zealand contains several legume species introduced in the 19th century and now established as serious invasive weeds. Until now, nothing has been reported on the identification of the associated rhizobia of native or introduced legumes in New Zealand. The success of the introduced species may be due, at least in part, to the nature of their rhizobial symbioses. This study set out to address this issue by identifying rhizobial strains isolated from species of the four native legume genera and from the introduced weeds: Acacia spp. (wattles), Cytisus scoparius (broom), and Ulex europaeus (gorse). The identities of the isolates and their relationship to known rhizobia were established by comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA, atpD, glnII, and recA gene sequences. Maximum-likelihood analysis of the resultant data partitioned the bacteria into three genera. Most isolates from native legumes aligned with the genus Mesorhizobium, either as members of named species or as putative novel species. The widespread distribution of strains from individual native legume genera across Mesorhizobium spp. contrasts with previous reports implying that bacterial species are specific to limited numbers of legume genera. In addition, four isolates were identified as Rhizobium leguminosarum. In contrast, all sequences from isolates from introduced weeds aligned with Bradyrhizobium species but formed clusters distinct from existing named species. These results show that native legume genera and these introduced legume genera do not have the same rhizobial populations. PMID:15466541

  18. Histologic and morphologic evaluation of explanted bone anchors from bone-anchored hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynski, Robert; Goldberg, Eva; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Scheich, Matthias; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Schwager, Konrad; Hagen, Rudolf; Shehata-Dieler, Wafaa

    2009-05-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a standard option in rehabilitation of patients with conductive or mixed hearing loss, and also CROS fitting. However, the skin-penetrating bone anchor repeatedly gives reason for discussion about the risk of infection of surrounding tissues as a major cause of malfunction. In the present study, explanted bone anchors with surrounding bone and soft tissue were examined and compared with the morphology of lost implants. The anchors originated from five patients. Two needed explantation due to deafness with the need of cochlea implantation. A third patient underwent explantation due to meningeal irritation by the bone anchor. Another patient lost the implant due to mechanical stress shortly after implantation. The last implant was lost in a child without apparent reason. All implants were clinically free of infection and had been stable for a median implantation period of 12 months. During the explantation procedure, the fixtures were recovered together with the attached soft tissue and bone. The specimens were examined by light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sectioning for light microscopy was performed with a diamond-coated saw microtome. Histopathologic examination of the surrounding skin and subcutaneous soft tissue showed slight inflammation in one case only. The bone was regularly vital, presenting no signs of inflammation. The threads of the fixtures were filled with bone, with particularly strong attachment to the flank of traction. The SEM investigation exposed the ultrastructural interaction of bone with the implant surface. Filiform- and podocyte-like processes of osteocytes attach to the implant; lost implants did not reflect these features. Implant integration involves both osseointegration as well as soft tissue integration. Titanium oxide as the active implant surface promotes this integration even in unstable implants. The morphologic analysis exposed structural areas of the implant with weak bone

  19. Dynamic performance of concrete undercut anchors for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrenholtz, Christoph, E-mail: christoph@mahrenholtz.net; Eligehausen, Rolf

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Behavior of undercut anchors under dynamic actions simulating earthquakes. • First high frequency load and crack cycling tests on installed concrete anchors ever. • Comprehensive review of anchor qualification for Nuclear Power Plants. - Abstract: Post-installed anchors are widely used for structural and nonstructural connections to concrete. In many countries, concrete anchors used for Nuclear Power Plants have to be qualified to ensure reliable behavior even under extreme conditions. The tests required for qualification of concrete anchors are carried out at quasi-static loading rates well below the rates to be expected for dynamic actions deriving from earthquakes, airplane impacts or explosions. To investigate potentially beneficial effects of high loading rates and cycling frequencies, performance tests on installed undercut anchors were conducted. After introductory notes on anchor technology and a comprehensive literature review, this paper discusses the qualification of anchors for Nuclear Power Plants and the testing carried out to quantify experimentally the effects of dynamic actions on the load–displacement behavior of undercut anchors.

  20. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... markers may be seen in conditions such as: Osteoporosis Paget disease Cancer that has spread to the bone (metastatic bone disease) Hyperparathyroidism Hyperthyroidism Osteomalacia in adults and rickets in children—lack of bone mineralization, ...

  1. Analysis of Glenoid Inter-anchor Distance with an All-Suture Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Jonathan; Robinson, Sean; Dutton, Pascual; Dickinson, Ephraim; Rodriguez, John Paul; Camisa, William; Leasure, Jeremi M.; Montgomery, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Arthroscopic shoulder stabilization using suture anchors are commonly used techniques. More recently developed all-suture systems employ smaller diameter anchors, which increase repair contact area and allow greater placement density on narrow surfaces such as the glenoid. Our goal is investigate the strength characteristics of various inter-anchor distances in a human glenoid model. Methods: Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric glenoids were potted after the labrum was excised. The glenoids were then implanted with 1.4 mm all-suture anchors (Juggerknot, Biomet, Warsaw, IN) at varying inter-anchor distances. Anchors were implanted adjacent to one another or at 2 mm, 3 mm, or 5 mm distances using a template with pre-drilled holes. The glenoids were then underwent single cycle pullout testing using a test frame (Instron 8521, Instron Inc., Norwood, MA). A 5 N preload was applied to the construct and the actuator was driven away from the shoulder at a rate of 12.5mm/s as seen in Figure 1. Force and displacement were collected from the test frame actuator at a rate of 500 Hz. The primary outcomes were failure strength and stiffness. Stiffness was calculated from the initial linear region of the force displacement curve. Failure strength was defined as the first local maximum inflection point in the force displacement curve. Results: During load to fail testing, all but three of the specimens had both anchors pull out of the glenoid. The other mode of failure included one or both of the sutures failing. Stiffness was 13.52 ± 3.8, 17.97 ± 5.02, 17.59 ± 4.65 and 18.95 ± 4.67 N/mm for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower stiffness compared to the other treatment groups. Failure strength was 48.68 ± 20.64, 76.16 ± 23.78, 73.19 ± 35.83 and 87.04 ± 34.67 N for the adjacent, 2 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm treatment groups as shown in Table 1. The adjacent group had a significantly lower

  2. Comparative sequence analysis of nitrogen fixation-related genes in six legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun eKim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Legumes play an important role as food and forage crops in international agriculture especially in developing countries. Legumes have a unique biological process called nitrogen fixation (NF by which they convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. Although legume genomes have undergone polyploidization, duplication and divergence, NF-related genes, because of their essential functional role for legumes, might have remained conserved. To understand the relationship of divergence and evolutionary processes in legumes, this study analyzes orthologs and paralogs for selected 20 NF-related genes by using comparative genomic approaches in six legumes i.e. Medicago truncatula (Mt, Cicer arietinum, Lotus japonicus, Cajanus cajan (Cc, Phaseolus vulgaris (Pv and Glycine max (Gm. Subsequently, sequence distances, numbers of synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks and nonsynonymous substitutions per nonsynonymous site (Ka between orthologs and paralogs were calculated and compared across legumes. These analyses suggest the closest relationship between Gm and Cc and the farthest distance between Mt and Pv in 6 legumes. Ks proportional plots clearly showed ancient genome duplication in all legumes, whole genome duplication event in Gm and also speciation pattern in different legumes. This study also reported some interesting observations e.g. no peak at Ks 0.4 in Gm-Gm, location of two independent genes next to each other in Mt and low Ks values for outparalogs for three genes as compared to other 12 genes. In summary, this study underlines the importance of NF-related genes and provides important insights in genome organization and evolutionary aspects of six legume species analyzed.

  3. Role of symbiotic auxotrophy in the Rhizobium-legume symbioses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Prell

    Full Text Available Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae mutants unable to transport branched-chain amino acids via the two main amino acid ABC transport complexes AapJQMP and BraDEFGC produce a nitrogen starvation phenotype when inoculated on pea (Pisum sativum plants [1], [2]. Bacteroids in indeterminate pea nodules have reduced abundance and a lower chromosome number. They reduce transcription of pathways for branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis and become dependent on their provision by the host. This has been called "symbiotic auxotrophy".A region important in solute specificity was identified in AapQ and changing P144D in this region reduced branched-chain amino acid transport to a very low rate. Strains carrying P144D were still fully effective for N(2 fixation on peas demonstrating that a low rate of branched amino acid transport in R. leguminosarum bv. viciae supports wild-type rates of nitrogen fixation. The importance of branched-chain amino acid transport was then examined in other legume-Rhizobium symbioses. An aap bra mutant of R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli also showed nitrogen starvation symptoms when inoculated on French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, a plant producing determinate nodules. The phenotype is different from that observed on pea and is accompanied by reduced nodule numbers and nitrogen fixation per nodule. However, an aap bra double mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti 2011 showed no phenotype on alfalfa (Medicago sativa.Symbiotic auxotrophy occurs in both determinate pea and indeterminate bean nodules demonstrating its importance for bacteroid formation and nodule function in legumes with different developmental programmes. However, only small quantities of branched chain amino acids are needed and symbiotic auxotrophy did not occur in the Sinorhizobium meliloti-alfalfa symbiosis under the conditions measured. The contrasting symbiotic phenotypes of aap bra mutants inoculated on different legumes probably reflects altered timing of amino acid

  4. Attenuation of oxidative stress and hepatic damage by some fermented tropical legume condiment diets in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adedayo O Ademiluyi; Ganiyu Oboh

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the modulatory effect of fermented legume condiments diet on oxidative stress in streptozotocin(STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods:Adult maleWistar rats were randomly divided into six groups with six animals in each group.Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection ofSTZ(35 mg/kg b.w.).After being confirmed diabetic, the rats were fed with fermentedBambara groundnut,Locust beanandSoybean diets for14 days.The plasma was obtained after14-day treatment and analyzed for hepatic damage marker enzymes(AST,ALT andALP) andin vivo antioxidant indices.Results:The diabetic untreated rats showed elevated (P<0.05) levels ofAST,ALT,ALP and malondialdehyde with reduced activities of glutathione-S-transferase, catalase as well as plasma reduced glutathione, vitaminC and total protein content.However, treatment of diabetic rats with fermented legume condiments diets for14 days significantly(P<0.05) reversed the above parameters towards normalcy, suggesting their modulation of oxidative stress, which may be due to their high phenolic content and antioxidant capacity.Conclusions:The attenuation of oxidative stress and protection of hepatic tissue damage by the legume condiment diets inSTZ induced diabetic rats compare favourably with that of metformin, a well known oral hypoglycemic drug.

  5. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar.

  6. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsu Bahar; S. Hardjosoewignjo; I Kismono; O Haridjaja

    1999-01-01

    A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo) and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage) was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage) to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage) and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage). Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.4...

  7. Redox Changes during the Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christine Chang; Isabelle Damiani; Alain Puppo; Pierre Frendol

    2009-01-01

    Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are continuously produced as a result of aerobic metabolism or in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.ROS are not only toxic by-products of aerobic metabolism,but are also signaling molecules involved in plant growth and environmental adaptation.Antioxidants can protect the cell from oxidative damage by scav-enging the ROS.Thus,they play an important role in optimizing cell function by regulating cellular redox state and mod-ifying gene expression.This article aims to review recent studies highlighting the role of redox signals in establishing and maintaining symbiosis between rhizobia and legumes.

  8. Endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabharanjak Shefali

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs represent an interesting amalgamation of the three basic kinds of cellular macromolecules viz. proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. An unusually hybrid moiety, the GPI-anchor is expressed in a diverse range of organisms from parasites to mammalian cells and serves to anchor a large number of functionally diverse proteins and has been the center of attention in scientific debate for some time now. Membrane organization of GPI-APs into laterally-organized cholesterol-sphingolipid ordered membrane domains or "rafts" and endocytosis of GPI-APs has been intensely debated. Inclusion into or exclusion from these membrane domains seems to be the critical factor in determining the endocytic mechanisms and intracellular destinations of GPI-APs. The intracellular signaling as well as endocytic trafficking of GPI-APs is critically dependent upon the cell surface organization of GPI-APs, and the associations with these lipid rafts play a vital role during these processes. The mechanism of endocytosis for GPI-APs may differ from other cellular endocytic pathways, such as those mediated by clathrin-coated pits (caveolae, and is necessary for unique biological functions. Numerous intracellular factors are involved in and regulate the endocytosis of GPI-APs, and these may be variably dependent on cell-type. The central focus of this article is to describe the significance of the endocytosis of GPI-APs on a multitude of biological processes, ranging from nutrient-uptake to more complex immune responses. Ultimately, a thorough elucidation of GPI-AP mediated signaling pathways and their regulatory elements will enhance our understanding of essential biological processes and benefit as components of disease intervention strategies.

  9. Adsorption phenomena and anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Despite the large quantity of phenomenological information concerning the bulk properties of nematic phase liquid crystals, little is understood about the origin of the surface energy, particularly the surface, interfacial, and anchoring properties of liquid crystals that affect the performance of liquid crystal devices. Self-contained and unique, Adsorption Phenomena and Anchoring Energy in Nematic Liquid Crystals provides an account of new and established results spanning three decades of research into the problems of anchoring energy and adsorption phenomena in liquid crystals.The book contains a detailed discussion of the origin and possible sources of anchoring energy in nematic liquid crystals, emphasizing the dielectric contribution to the anchoring energy in particular. Beginning with fundamental surface and anchoring properties of liquid crystals and the definition of the nematic phase, the authors explain how selective ion adsorption, dielectric energy density, thickness dependence, and bias voltage...

  10. ANCHORING IN THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana L. Shklyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of marketing, both ineconomy and in politics is to attract themaximum number of customers or voters, maximizing customer satisfaction and ,ideally, improve the quality of life.The author, in various aspects, thetechnology of anchoring used in NLP, to attract customers and voters, both in the economy and in politics.In different examples demonstrate theoverall impact on the psychology of the consumer. Separating policy and the economy, marketers are missing something. The author proposes to look at how psychologicalanchors affect these two, at fi rst glance, different vector.

  11. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16–41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5–6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface. PMID:27011815

  12. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Zhuang; Yang Li; Wei Su

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emerge...

  13. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Dean K; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J; Matsuda, Nicole A; Safran, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five patients (three females) of mean age 32 years (range, 16-41 years) had documented anchor-induced chondral damage with mean 3.5 years (range, 1.5-6.0 years) follow-up. The 1 o'clock position (four cases) and anterior and mid-anterior portals (two cases each) were most commonly implicated. Two cases of anchor-induced acetabular chondral deformation without frank penetration had successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, while one case progressed from deformation to chondral penetration with clinical worsening. Of the cases that underwent revision hip arthroscopy, all three had confirmed exposed hard anchors which were removed. Two patients have had clinical improvement and one patient underwent early total hip arthroplasty. Anchor-induced chondral deformation without frank chondral penetration may be treated with close clinical and radiographic monitoring with a low threshold for revision surgery and anchor removal. Chondral penetration should be treated with immediate removal of offending hard anchor implants. Preventative measures include distal-based portals, small diameter and short anchors, removable hard anchors, soft suture-based anchors, curved drill and anchor insertion instrumentation and attention to safe trajectories while visualizing the acetabular articular surface.

  14. Turnover of grain legume N rhizodeposits and effect of rhizodeposition on the turnover of crop residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, J.; Buegger, F.; Jensen, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    C). A sandy loam soil for the experiment was either stored at 6 degreesC or planted with the respective grain legume in pots. Legumes were in situ N-15 stem labelled during growth and visible roots were removed at maturity. The remaining plant-derived N in soil was defined as N rhizodeposition...

  15. Distribution of native Legumes (Leguminoseae) in frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinaceae)-Wiregrass (Poaceae) ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Hainds; Robert J. Mitchell; Brian J. Palik; Lindsay R. Boring; Dean H. Gjerstad

    1999-01-01

    Legume species distribution and abundance and selected environmental variables were quantified across a complex gradient (varying in both water-holding capacity and fertility) for frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Aristida stricta) ecosystems. Legumes were present in all months; however, abundance...

  16. Elevated CO₂ mitigates drought and temperature-induced oxidative stress differently in grasses and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Farfan-Vignolo, Evelyn Roxana; de Vos, Dirk; Asard, Han

    2015-02-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 will affect plant growth, including mitigation of stress impact. Such effects vary considerably between species-groups. Grasses (Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis) and legumes (Medicago lupulina, Lotus corniculatus) were subjected to drought, elevated temperature and elevated CO2. Drought inhibited plant growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, and induced osmolytes and antioxidants in all species. In contrast, oxidative damage was more strongly induced in the legumes than in the grasses. Warming generally exacerbated drought effects, whereas elevated CO2 reduced stress impact. In the grasses, photosynthesis and chlorophyll levels were more protected by CO2 than in the legumes. Oxidative stress parameters (lipid peroxidation, H2O2 levels), on the other hand, were generally more reduced in the legumes. This is consistent with changes in molecular antioxidants, which were reduced by elevated CO2 in the grasses, but not in the legumes. Antioxidant enzymes decreased similarly in both species-groups. The ascorbate-glutathione cycle was little affected by drought and CO2. Overall, elevated CO2 reduced drought effects in grasses and legumes, and this mitigation was stronger in the legumes. This is possibly explained by stronger reduction in H2O2 generation (photorespiration and NADPH oxidase), and a higher availability of molecular antioxidants. The grass/legume-specificity was supported by principal component analysis.

  17. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the

  18. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the i

  19. Short communication: a novel system to estimate protein degradability in legume and grass hays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorshorst, M E; Hoffman, P C

    2000-07-01

    Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy has utility in predicting rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) contents of legume and grass silages. This study was conducted to evaluate whether application of previous research techniques could yield a useful near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy RUP prediction system for legume and grass hays. Legume and grass hays (n = 106) were evaluated for RUP content by in situ techniques in four ruminally cannulated cows. In situ RUP for legume and grass hays averaged 25.9% CP and ranged from 14.6 to 45.5% CP, respectively. We developed a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy RUP calibration equation for the legume and grass hay data set using in situ RUP contents as base data. This procedure resulted in an acceptable (R2 = 0.87, SE = 2.46% CP) near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy equation to predict RUP content of legume and grass hays. Data suggest that near-infrared spectroscopy predicts RUP contents of legume and grass hays with accuracies similar to legume and grass silages.

  20. Harvesting management options for legumes intercropped in napier grass in the central highlands of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, D.M.; Cadisch, G.; Thorpe, W.; Giller, K.E.

    2004-01-01

    Ways of promoting integration of herbaceous forage legumes into a napier grass fodder system were evaluated with the aim of increasing forage quantity and quality on smallholder dairy farms in central Kenya. The herbaceous legumes Desmodium intortum cv. Greenleaf (ILRI 104), Macrotyloma axillare cv.

  1. Growth of tropical legume cover crops as influenced by nitrogen fertilization and Rhizobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropical legume cover crops are important components in cropping systems due to their role in improving soil quality. Information is limited on the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization on growth of tropical legume cover crops grown on Oxisols. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the...

  2. Phytoremediation of heavy and transition metals aided by legume-rhizobia symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, X; Taghavi, S; Xie, P; Orbach, M J; Alwathnani, H A; Rensing, C; Wei, G

    2014-01-01

    Legumes are important for nitrogen cycling in the environment and agriculture due to the ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. In this review, we introduce an important and potential role of legume-rhizobia symbiosis in aiding phytoremediation of some metal contaminated soils as various legumes have been found to be the dominant plant species in metal contaminated areas. Resistant rhizobia used for phytoremediation could act on metals directly by chelation, precipitation, transformation, biosorption and accumulation. Moreover, the plant growth promoting (PGP) traits of rhizobia including nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, phytohormone synthesis, siderophore release, and production of ACC deaminase and the volatile compounds of acetoin and 2, 3-butanediol may facilitate legume growth while lessening metal toxicity. The benefits of using legumes inoculated with naturally resistant rhizobia or recombinant rhizobia with enhanced resistance, as well as co-inoculation with other plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are discussed. However, the legume-rhizobia symbiosis appears to be sensitive to metals, and the effect of metal toxicity on the interaction between legumes and rhizobia is not clear. Therefore, to obtain the maximum benefits from legumes assisted by rhizobia for phytoremediation of metals, it is critical to have a good understanding of interactions between PGP traits, the symbiotic plant-rhizobia relationship and metals.

  3. N2-fixing legumes are linked to enhanced mineral dissolution and microbiome modulations in Neotropical rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epihov, Dimitar; Batterman, Sarah; Hedin, Lars; Saltonstall, Kristin; Hall, Jefferson; Leake, Jonathan; Beerling, David

    2017-04-01

    Legumes represent the dominant family of many tropical forests with estimates of 120 billion legume trees in the Amazon basin alone. Many rainforest legume trees form symbioses with N2-fixing bacteria. In the process of atmospheric N2-fixation large amounts of nitrogen-rich litter are generated, supplying half of all nitrogen required to support secondary rainforest succession. However, it is unclear how N2-fixers affect the biogeochemical cycling of other essential nutrients by affecting the rates of mineral dissolution and rock weathering. Here we show that N2-fixing legumes in young Panamanian rainforests promote acidification and enhance silicate rock weathering by a factor of 2 compared to non-fixing trees. We report that N2-fixers also associate with enhanced dissolution of Al- and Fe-bearing secondary minerals native to tropical oxisols. In legume-rich neighbourhoods, non-fixers benefited from raised weathering rates relative to those of legume-free zones thus suggesting a positive community effect driven by N2-fixers. These changes in weathering potential were tracked by parallel functional and structural changes in the soil and rock microbiomes. Our findings support the view that N2-fixing legumes are central components of biogeochemical cycling, associated with enhanced release of Fe- and Al-bound P and primary mineral products (Mg, Mo). Rainforest legume services therefore bear important implications to short-term C cycling related to forest growth and the long-term C cycle related to marine carbonate deposition fuelled by silicate weathering.

  4. Development of an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala using immature zygotic embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2009-01-01

    The tree-legume Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is used as a perennial fodder because of its fast-growing foliage, which is high in protein content. The use of leucaena as a fodder is however restricted due to the presence of the toxin mimosine. Improvements in the nutritional contents as well as other agronomic traits of leucaena can be accomplished through genetic transformation. The objective of this research was to develop a transformation protocol for leucaena using phosphinothricin resistance as the plant selectable marker. Explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos infected with the Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain C58C1 containing the binary plasmid pCAMBIA3201 produced four putative transformed leucaena plants. Transformation was con- firmed by PCR, RT-PCR, Southern blot, Western analyses, GUS-specific enzyme activity and herbicide leaf spraying assay. A transformation efficiency of 2% was established using this protocol.

  5. Construction of an integrated map of rose with AFLP, SSR, PK, RGA, SCAR and morphological markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan Zifu, Z.; Denneboom, C.; Hattendorf, A.; Dolstra, O.; Debener, T.; Stam, P.; Visser, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    A high-density genetic map with a number of anchor markers has been created to be used as a tool to dissect genetic variation in rose. Linkage maps for the diploid 94/1 population consisting of 88 individuals were constructed using a total of 520 molecular markers including AFLP, SSR, PK, RGA, RFLP,

  6. Calculation of prestressed anchor segment by 3D infiniteelement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfen WANG; Hongyang XIE; Yuanhan WANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on 1D infinite element theory, the coordinate transformation and shape function of 3D point-radiation 4-node infinite elements were derived.They were coupled with 8-node finite elements to compute the compressive deformation of the prestressed anchor segment. The results indicate that when the prestressed force acts on the anchor segment, the stresses and displacements in the rock around the anchor segment are concentrated in the zone center with the anchor axis and are subjected to exponential decay. Therefore, the stresses and the displacement spindles are formed. The calculation results of the infinite element are close to the theoretical results.

  7. AUV Load Separation Motion with Constraint of Anchor Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Cheng; SONG Bao-wei; DU Xiao-xu; WANG Peng; LI Jia-wang

    2009-01-01

    Motion equations of AUV(autonomous underwater vehicle) load separation with the constraint of anchor chain is derived. Based on proper engineering assumptions for anchor chain,system viewpoint is used to found the motion equations, and the D'Alembert principle is used to eliminate the constraint force of anchor chain. Based on the equations, the motion simulation is carried out to a certain AUV, which reflects the actual condition, and is used for the reference of resrarching AUV load separation motion with the constraint of anchor chain.

  8. Infrastructure anchor bolt inspection program with NDE applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Philip E.

    1996-11-01

    In 1990, Wisconsin Department of Transportation found a high mast light pole with two of six anchor bolts failed. This failure along with published reports from Michigan DOT about anchor bolt failures on cantilever sign structures, raised concern about the quality and condition of anchor bolts on the Wisconsin DOT system. Wisconsin Department of Transportation implemented an Anchor Bolt Inspection Program in 1990 for cantilever sign structures, high mast light towers, interstate light towers, and signal masts. The program requires an experienced inspection team and a practical inspection approach. Inspection preparation includes review of all background information such as design plans, design computations, construction plans, shop plans, and maintenance history. An inspection plan is developed. Special emphasis is placed on determining material type, cut or rolled threads, and type of coating for anchor bolts. Inspection emphasis are on "hands on" and Nondestructive evaluation. Special emphasis is placed on visual conditions of anchor bolts (cut or rolled threads, straightness, corrosion, nut tension etc.) along with ultrasonic inspection. This program places a strong emphasis on Non Destructive Testing (NDT), especially ultrasonic. Procedures and inspection calibrations are developed from similar anchor bolt geometry and material type. Cut notches are placed in the anchor bolts at locations of possible failure. NDT inspection calibrations are performed from these bolts. Report documentation includes all design plans, pictorial documentation of structural deficiencies, sketches, nondestructive evaluation reports, conclusions, and recommendations. This program has been successful in locating failed anchor bolts and critical cracks before failure of an entire structure.

  9. Double genetically modified symbiotic system for improved Cu phytostabilization in legume roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, Patricia; Romero-Aguilar, Asunción; Delgadillo, Julián; Doukkali, Bouchra; Caviedes, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Pajuelo, Eloísa

    2017-06-01

    Excess copper (Cu) in soils has deleterious effects on plant growth and can pose a risk to human health. In the last decade, legume-rhizobium symbioses became attractive biotechnological tools for metal phytostabilization. For this technique being useful, metal-tolerant symbionts are required, which can be generated through genetic manipulation.In this work, a double symbiotic system was engineered for Cu phytostabilization: On the one hand, composite Medicago truncatula plants expressing the metallothionein gene mt4a from Arabidopsis thaliana in roots were obtained to improve plant Cu tolerance. On the other hand, a genetically modified Ensifer medicae strain, expressing copper resistance genes copAB from Pseudomonas fluorescens driven by a nodulation promoter, nifHp, was used for plant inoculation. Our results indicated that expression of mt4a in composite plants ameliorated plant growth and nodulation and enhanced Cu tolerance. Lower levels of ROS-scavenging enzymes and of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), such as malondialdehyde (a marker of lipid peroxidation), suggested reduced oxidative stress. Furthermore, inoculation with the genetically modified Ensifer further improved root Cu accumulation without altering metal loading to shoots, leading to diminished values of metal translocation from roots to shoots. The double modified partnership is proposed as a suitable tool for Cu rhizo-phytostabilization.

  10. Transcriptional Regulation and Signaling in Phosphorus Starvation: What About Legumes?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oswaldo Valdés-Lóppez; Georgina Hernández

    2008-01-01

    The availability of soil phosphorus (P), an essential element, is one of the most important requirements for plant growth and crop production. The morphological and physiological adaptations evolved by plants to cope with P starvation have been well characterized. Several P deficiency plant responses are regulated at the transcriptional level. Microarray analysis has generated valuable information on global gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana grown under P-stress. Despite the identification of P responsive genes, little is known about the regulation of gene expression changes. Four transcription factors, PHR1, WRKY75, ZAT6 and BHLH32, involved in P starvation signaling have been characterized in Arabidopsis, and signaling pathways are deciphered. This review analyzes the current knowledge of transcriptional regulation of P starvation responses in Arabidopsis vis-a-vis legumes such as lupine, common bean and Medicago truncatula. The knowledge on regulatory and signaling mechanisms involved in P acquisition and use in legumes will be useful for improvement of these crops, which account for a large proportion of the world's crop production, providing good nutritional quality feed and food.

  11. Determination of Phytoestrogen Content in Fresh-Cut Legume Forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Hloucalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine phytoestrogen content in fresh-cut legume forage. This issue has been much discussed in recent years in connection with the health and safety of feedstuffs and thus livestock health. The experiments were carried out on two experimental plots at Troubsko and Vatín, Czech Republic during June and July in 2015. Samples were collected of the four forage legume species perennial red clover (variety “Amos”, alfalfa (variety “Holyně”, and annuals Persian clover and Alexandrian clover. Forage was sampled twice at regular three to four day intervals leading up to harvest and a third time on the day of harvest. Fresh and wilted material was analyzed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS. Higher levels ( p < 0.05 of isoflavones biochanin A (3.697 mg·g −1 of dry weight and formononetin (4.315 mg·g −1 of dry weight were found in red clover than in other species. The highest isoflavone content was detected in red clover, reaching 1.001% of dry matter ( p < 0.05, representing a risk for occurrence of reproduction problems and inhibited secretion of animal estrogen. The phytoestrogen content was particularly increased in wilted forage. Significant isoflavone reduction was observed over three to four day intervals leading up to harvest.

  12. TRUNCATULIX--a data warehouse for the legume community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, Kolja; Runte, Kai J; Bekel, Thomas; Dondrup, Michael; Jakobi, Tobias; Küster, Helge; Goesmann, Alexander

    2009-02-11

    Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database - hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  13. Soil Fertility Map for Food Legumes Production Areas in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Yang, Tao; Redden, Robert; He, Weifeng; Zong, Xuxiao

    2016-05-01

    Given the limited resources of fossil energy, and the environmental risks of excess fertilizer on crops, it is time to reappraise the potential role of food legume biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) as sources of nitrogen for cropping systems in China. 150 soil samples across 17 provinces and 2 municipalities of China were collected and analyzed. A distribution map of the soil fertilities and their patterns of distribution was constructed. The pH results indicated that soils were neutral to slightly alkaline overall. The soil organic matter (SOM) and the available nitrogen (AN) content were relatively low, while the available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) contents were from moderate to high. Production areas of food legumes (faba bean, pea, adzuki bean, mung bean and common bean) were clearly separated into 4 soil fertility type clusters. In addition, regions with SOM, AN, AP and AK deficiency, high acidity and high alkalinity were listed as target areas for further soil improvement. The potential was considered for biological nitrogen fixation to substitute for the application of mineral nitrogen fertiliser.

  14. Widespread fitness alignment in the legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Maren L

    2012-06-01

    Although 'cheaters' potentially destabilize the legume-rhizobium mutualism, we lack a comprehensive review of host-symbiont fitness correlations. Studies measuring rhizobium relative or absolute fitness and host benefit are surveyed. Mutant studies are tallied for evidence of pleiotropy; studies of natural strains are analyzed with meta-analysis. Of 80 rhizobium mutations, 19 decrease both partners' fitness, four increase both, two increase host fitness but decrease symbiont fitness and none increase symbiont fitness at the host's expense. The pooled correlation between rhizobium nodulation competitiveness and plant aboveground biomass is 0.65 across five experiments that compete natural strains against a reference, whereas, across 14 experiments that compete rhizobia against soil populations or each other, the pooled correlation is 0.24. Pooled correlations between aboveground biomass and nodule number and nodule biomass are 0.76 and 0.83. Positive correlations between legume and rhizobium fitness imply that most ineffective rhizobia are 'defective' rather than 'defectors'; this extends to natural variants, with only one significant fitness conflict. Most studies involve non-coevolved associations, indicating that fitness alignment is the default state. Rhizobium mutations that increase both host and symbiont fitness suggest that some plants maladaptively restrict symbiosis with novel strains.

  15. Determinism of carbon and nitrogen reserve accumulation in legume seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Larmure, Annabelle; Salon, Christophe

    2008-10-01

    In legume plants, the determination of individual seed weight is a complex phenomenon that depends on two main factors. The first one corresponds to the number of cotyledon cells, which determines the potential seed weight as the cotyledon cell number is related to seed growth rate during seed filling. Since cell divisions take place between flowering and the beginning of seed filling, any stress occurring before the beginning of seed filling can affect individual seed growth rate (C and N reserve accumulation in seeds), and thus individual seed weights. The second factor concerns carbon and nitrogen supply to the growing seed to support reserve accumulation. Grain legume species produce protein-rich seeds involving high requirement of nitrogen. Since seed growth rate as determined by cotyledon cell number is hardly affected by photoassimilate availability during the filling period, a reduction of photosynthetic activity caused by nitrogen remobilization in leaves (e.g., remobilization of essential proteins involved in photosynthesis) can lead to shorten the duration of the filling period, and by that can provoke a limitation of individual seed weights. Accordingly, any biotic or abiotic stress during seed filling causing a decrease in photosynthetic activity should lead to a reduction of the duration of seed filling.

  16. Improvement of native grassland by legumes introduction and tillage techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsu Bahar

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A factorial design using three species of legumes (Siratro, Centro and Stylo and three different of tillage techniques (no-tillage, minimum tillage and total tillage was applied in this experiment. The results showed that there was no interaction between species and tillage techniques. There was significant reductions on bulk density from 1.23±0.03 g/cm3 (no-tillage to 1.07±0.02 g/cm3 (minimum tillage and 1.05±0.03 g/cm3 (total tillage. Also reductions on penetration resistance from 17.47±3.84 kg/cm2 (no-tillage to 3.31±0.43 kg/cm2 (minimum tillage and 3.19±0.45 kg/cm2 (total tillage. Otherwise significant increasing on aeration porosity from 12.80±0.80% vol. (no-tillage to 21.70±0.95% vol. (minimum tillage and 20.70±0.35% vol. (total tillage. Total tillage gives increased dry matter yield. Also both total tillage and minimum tillage give yields with a higher percentage of legumes compared with no-tillage. It was concluded that total tillage and minimum tillage could be used for improving native grassland.

  17. Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Roe

    2004-02-27

    Consolidated Appropriations Resolution, 2003 Conference Report for the Department of Energy's Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program provided $481,000 for the Legume Genome Initiative at the University of Oklahoma. These funds were used to support our research that is aimed at determining the entire sequence of the gene rich regions of the genome of the legume, Medicago truncatula, by allowing us to obtain a greater degree of finished BAC sequences from the draft sequences we have already obtained through research funded by the Noble Foundation. During the funding period we increased the number of Medicago truncatula BACs with finished (Bermuda standard) sequences from 109 to 359, and the total number of BACs for which we collected sequence data from 584 to 842, 359 of which reached phase 2 (ordered and oriented contigs). We also sequenced a series of pooled BAC clones that cover additional euchromatic (gene rich) genomic regions. This work resulted in 6 refereed publications, see below. Genes whose sequence was determined during this study included multiple members of the plant disease resistance (R-gene) family as well as several genes involved in flavinoid biosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and plant-microbial symbosis. This work also served as a prelude to obtaining NSF funding for the international collaborative effort to complete the entire sequence of the Medicago truncatula genomic euchromatic regions using a BAC based approach.

  18. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  19. Standardized mapping of nodulation patterns in legume roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmler, Lauren; Clairmont, Lindsey; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Guinel, Frédérique Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Optimizing nodulation in legumes is a target for crop improvement, and the spatial control of nodulation is just beginning to be unravelled. However, there is currently no method for standard phenotyping of nodulation patterns. Here we present a method and software for the quantitative analysis of nodulation phenotypes. Roots of nodulated peas (Pisum sativum), wild-type and two mutants, were photographed. Data from the photographs were extracted using custom image and data analysis software. The software makes it possible to extract each nodule's position along primary and lateral roots, and to represent the nodulated root system in a standardized way independent of the way roots are arranged in the soil. A wide variety of nodulation and root variables are calculated, and average spatial nodulation patterns can be computed from multiple samples. Standardized spatial analysis of nodulation patterns opens the way for comparative analyses among genotypes of a single legume species, as here in pea. This approach could also be used to compare nodulation patterns among crops, among plants grown under different environmental conditions, or among plants exposed to different pharmacological treatments. The proposed method should therefore prove useful for studies on nodule organogenesis and nodule physiology and for optimizing nodulation in crops. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Tolerance of herbaceous summer legumes of temporary waterlogging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ciotti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse study to evaluate adaptation of 4 herbaceous summer legumes to temporary waterlogging was conducted.  Species evaluated were Desmanthus virgatus and Aeschynomene americana in their vegetative stage, and Macroptilium lathyroides and M. atropurpureum in both vegetative and reproductive stages.  The experimental design was randomized blocks with 5 replications and treatments were:  T0, control; T1, saturation by capillary movement placing pots in buckets of 5 L with 10 cm of permanent water; and T2, flooding, placing pots in buckets of 10 L and a layer of water 5 cm above the soil.  The duration of the water treatments was 7 days. Waterlogging did not affect shoot or root biomass production nor nodulation in A. americana, whereas D. virgatus had its highest dry matter production in saturated soil (T1.  In M. lathyroides flooding tolerance was more evident in the reproductive than in the vegetative stage, probably due to more production of adventitious roots and formation of aerenchymatic tissue.  Macroptilium atropurpureum showed adaptation to temporary flooding.  Survival and quick recovery of these species would confirm their potential as forages for temporarily waterlogged soils.Keywords: Forage legumes, flooding, Aeschynomene americana, Desmanthus virgatus, Macroptilium lathyroides, Northeast Argentina.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(2278-286

  1. Shaping bacterial symbiosis with legumes by experimental evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Marta; Jauneau, Alain; Capela, Delphine; Remigi, Philippe; Gris, Carine; Batut, Jacques; Masson-Boivin, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Nitrogen-fixing symbionts of legumes have appeared after the emergence of legumes on earth, approximately 70 to 130 million years ago. Since then, symbiotic proficiency has spread to distant genera of α- and β-proteobacteria, via horizontal transfer of essential symbiotic genes and subsequent recipient genome remodeling under plant selection pressure. To tentatively replay rhizobium evolution in laboratory conditions, we previously transferred the symbiotic plasmid of the Mimosa symbiont Cupriavidus taiwanensis in the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum, and selected spontaneous nodulating variants of the chimeric Ralstonia sp. using Mimosa pudica as a trap. Here, we pursued the evolution experiment by submitting two of the rhizobial drafts to serial ex planta-in planta (M. pudica) passages that may mimic alternating of saprophytic and symbiotic lives of rhizobia. Phenotyping 16 cycle-evolved clones showed strong and parallel evolution of several symbiotic traits (i.e., nodulation competitiveness, intracellular infection, and bacteroid persistence). Simultaneously, plant defense reactions decreased within nodules, suggesting that the expression of symbiotic competence requires the capacity to limit plant immunity. Nitrogen fixation was not acquired in the frame of this evolutionarily short experiment, likely due to the still poor persistence of final clones within nodules compared with the reference rhizobium C. taiwanensis. Our results highlight the potential of experimental evolution in improving symbiotic proficiency and for the elucidation of relationship between symbiotic capacities and elicitation of immune responses.

  2. Nitrogen modulation of legume root architecture signaling pathways involves phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Radzman, Nadiatul A; Djordjevic, Michael A; Imin, Nijat

    2013-10-01

    Nitrogen, particularly nitrate is an important yield determinant for crops. However, current agricultural practice with excessive fertilizer usage has detrimental effects on the environment. Therefore, legumes have been suggested as a sustainable alternative for replenishing soil nitrogen. Legumes can uniquely form nitrogen-fixing nodules through symbiotic interaction with specialized soil bacteria. Legumes possess a highly plastic root system which modulates its architecture according to the nitrogen availability in the soil. Understanding how legumes regulate root development in response to nitrogen availability is an important step to improving root architecture. The nitrogen-mediated root development pathway starts with sensing soil nitrogen level followed by subsequent signal transduction pathways involving phytohormones, microRNAs and regulatory peptides that collectively modulate the growth and shape of the root system. This review focuses on the current understanding of nitrogen-mediated legume root architecture including local and systemic regulations by different N-sources and the modulations by phytohormones and small regulatory molecules.

  3. Legume integration as an agroecological intensification option for smallholders in uplands of Southeast Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Von Yi

    in upland farming systems. The main aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of integrating legumes into maize-based cropping systems as an agroecological intensification option for smallholders in uplands of Southeast Asia. Three study areas representing different types of maize-based cropping...... root length and total P content when grown under P-deficient conditions. Introducing legumes as relay crops into maize-based cropping systems can be an agroecological intensification option for the smallholders in upland regions of Southeast Asia. The profitability of growing legumes, labour...... availability, the financial status of the household and access to extension services were the major factors influencing the decisions of resource-poor maize smallholders in legume adoption. The type of intervention approach by the extension agents needs to be considered to ensure sustained adoption of legume...

  4. Rigid rod anchored to infinite membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kunkun; Qiu, Feng; Zhang, Hongdong; Yang, Yuliang

    2005-08-15

    We investigate the shape deformation of an infinite membrane anchored by a rigid rod. The density profile of the rod is calculated by the self-consistent-field theory and the shape of the membrane is predicted by the Helfrich membrane elasticity theory [W. Helfrich, Z. Naturforsch. 28c, 693 (1973)]. It is found that the membrane bends away from the rigid rod when the interaction between the rod and the membrane is repulsive or weakly attractive (adsorption). However, the pulled height of the membrane at first increases and then decreases with the increase of the adsorption strength. Compared to a Gaussian chain with the same length, the rigid rod covers much larger area of the membrane, whereas exerts less local entropic pressure on the membrane. An evident gap is found between the membrane and the rigid rod because the membrane's curvature has to be continuous. These behaviors are compared with that of the flexible-polymer-anchored membranes studied by previous Monte Carlo simulations and theoretical analysis. It is straightforward to extend this method to more complicated and real biological systems, such as infinite membrane/multiple chains, protein inclusion, or systems with phase separation.

  5. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajeev K Varshney; Himabindu Kudapa; Manish Roorkiwal; Mahendar Thudi; Manish K Pandey; Rachit K Saxena; Siva K Chamarthi; Murali Mohan S; Nalini Mallikarjuna; Hari Upadhyaya; Pooran M Gaur; L Krishnamurthy; K B Saxena; Shyam N Nigam; Suresh Pande

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided > 10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these trait-associated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance to

  6. Advances in genetics and molecular breeding of three legume crops of semi-arid tropics using next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Rajeev K; Kudapa, Himabindu; Roorkiwal, Manish; Thudi, Mahendar; Pandey, Manish K; Saxena, Rachit K; Chamarthi, Siva K; Mohan, S Murali; Mallikarjuna, Nalini; Upadhyaya, Hari; Gaur, Pooran M; Krishnamurthy, L; Saxena, K B; Nigam, Shyam N; Pande, Suresh

    2012-11-01

    Molecular markers are the most powerful genomic tools to increase the efficiency and precision of breeding practices for crop improvement. Progress in the development of genomic resources in the leading legume crops of the semi-arid tropics (SAT), namely, chickpea (Cicer arietinum), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea), as compared to other crop species like cereals, has been very slow. With the advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) and high-throughput (HTP) genotyping methods, there is a shift in development of genomic resources including molecular markers in these crops. For instance, 2,000 to 3,000 novel simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers have been developed each for chickpea, pigeonpea and groundnut. Based on Sanger, 454/FLX and Illumina transcript reads, transcriptome assemblies have been developed for chickpea (44,845 transcript assembly contigs, or TACs) and pigeonpea (21,434 TACs). Illumina sequencing of some parental genotypes of mapping populations has resulted in the development of 120 million reads for chickpea and 128.9 million reads for pigeonpea. Alignment of these Illumina reads with respective transcriptome assemblies have provided more than 10,000 SNPs each in chickpea and pigeonpea. A variety of SNP genotyping platforms including GoldenGate, VeraCode and Competitive Allele Specific PCR (KASPar) assays have been developed in chickpea and pigeonpea. By using above resources, the first-generation or comprehensive genetic maps have been developed in the three legume speciesmentioned above. Analysis of phenotyping data together with genotyping data has provided candidate markers for drought-tolerance-related root traits in chickpea, resistance to foliar diseases in groundnut and sterility mosaic disease (SMD) and fertility restoration in pigeonpea. Together with these traitassociated markers along with those already available, molecular breeding programmes have been initiated for enhancing drought tolerance, resistance

  7. Career anchors and values from different career management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cunha da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To analyze the relationships between career anchors and young Generation Y professionals’ values, from the career concept perspective. Design/methodology/approach – Research concerning the proposed objective was carried out through quantitative research involving 189 Business Administration majors from a Catholic university in São Paulo, Brazil. We used two instruments to identify the career anchors and values of respondents: Schein (1990 and Schwartz (1994, respectively. We used statistical techniques to explore the relationships between career anchors and values. Findings – Among the results, mention should be made to the statistical relationships found between analyzed career anchors and values. It is also important to stress that, although the Lifestyle career anchor was predominantly present in the conglomerate division, this anchor was the predominant characteristic in the differentiation of the smaller group of respondents, the new career group. The General Management Career Anchor, which presents a lower incidence, is the predominant characteristic of the larger group, referring to organizational careers. As well as the Lifestyle career anchor, the Hedonism value was predominant among respondents. Originality/value – The need to consider the following was found: Generation Y presents generational characteristics that drive people management to propose work structures that offer activities to generate learning, pleasure, self-fulfillment and conciliation between work and personal life.

  8. Anchored Instruction in Preservice Educational Technology Classes: A Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeffrey W.

    This study examined the effectiveness of the anchored instruction (i.e., using a theme or anchor around which various learning activities take place) approach in preparing preservice teachers to integrate technology. Participants were 48 students enrolled in the three sections of a preservice educational technology class during the summer of 1997.…

  9. Effects of Knowledge Abstraction with Anchored Instruction on Learning Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Fen; And Others

    Transfer of learning is one of the major purposes of education. Theories and research have tried hard to answer questions such as: how does transfer occur? and how is transfer enhanced? Situated cognitive theory and research about anchored instruction together bring some positive findings. Anchored instruction provides the learner with a situated,…

  10. Using Anchored Instruction to Teach about Assistive Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhurst, A. Edward; Morse, Timothy E.

    1996-01-01

    A training module about assistive technology using an integrated hypermedia format and principles of anchored instruction was developed and field tested with 57 undergraduate students, graduate students, and professionals. The trainees responded positively to the anchored instruction. This article details the module's development, evaluation, and…

  11. Using Anchored Instruction to Evaluate Mathematical Growth and Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Batarelo, Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Anchored instruction is designed to present problems in a meaningful context to allow for investigations into real life environments. The Jasper Project was created to allow students to investigate mathematical dilemmas using anchored instruction techniques. This study uses case study methods to examine the perceptions that preservice teachers…

  12. [ISSR markers and their applications in plant genetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-bo

    2002-09-01

    Recently, inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers have emerged as an alternative system with reliability and advantages of microsatellites (SSR). The technique involves amplification of genomic segments flanked by inversely oriented and closely spaced microsatellite sequences by a single primer or a pair of primers based on SSRs anchored 5' or 3' with 1-4 purine or pyramidine residues. The sequences of repeats and anchor nucleates are arbitrarily selected. Coupled with the separation of amplification products on a polyacrylamide or agarose gels,ISSR amplification can reveal a much larger number of fragments per primer than RAPD. It is concluded that ISSR technique provides a quick, reliable and highly informative system for DNA fingerprinting.ISSR markers are inherited in Mendelin mode and segregated as dominant markers. This technique has been widely used in the studies of cultivar identification, genetic mapping, gene tagging,genetic diversity, evolution and molecular ecology.

  13. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  14. Breaking anchored droplets in a microfluidic Hele-Shaw cell

    CERN Document Server

    Amselem, Gabriel; Gallaire, François; Baroud, Charles N

    2015-01-01

    We study microfluidic self digitization in Hele-Shaw cells using pancake droplets anchored to surface tension traps. We show that above a critical flow rate, large anchored droplets break up to form two daughter droplets, one of which remains in the anchor. Below the critical flow velocity for breakup the shape of the anchored drop is given by an elastica equation that depends on the capillary number of the outer fluid. As the velocity crosses the critical value, the equation stops admitting a solution that satisfies the boundary conditions; the drop breaks up in spite of the neck still having finite width. A similar breaking event also takes place between the holes of an array of anchors, which we use to produce a 2D array of stationary drops in situ.

  15. Competition between rhizobia under different environmental conditions affects the nodulation of a legume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhao Jun; Yan, Hui; Cui, Qing Guo; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng; Chen, Wen Xin

    2017-03-01

    Mutualistic symbiosis and nitrogen fixation of legume rhizobia play a key role in ecological environments. Although many different rhizobial species can form nodules with a specific legume, there is often a dominant microsymbiont, which has the highest nodule occupancy rates, and they are often known as the "most favorable rhizobia". Shifts in the most favorable rhizobia for a legume in different geographical regions or soil types are not well understood. Therefore, in order to explore the shift model, an experiment was designed using successive inoculations of rhizobia on one legume. The plants were grown in either sterile vermiculite or a sandy soil. Results showed that, depending on the environment, a legume could select its preferential rhizobial partner in order to establish symbiosis. For perennial legumes, nodulation is a continuous and sequential process. In this study, when the most favorable rhizobial strain was available to infect the plant first, it was dominant in the nodules, regardless of the existence of other rhizobial strains in the rhizosphere. Other rhizobial strains had an opportunity to establish symbiosis with the plant when the most favorable rhizobial strain was not present in the rhizosphere. Nodule occupancy rates of the most favorable rhizobial strain depended on the competitiveness of other rhizobial strains in the rhizosphere and the environmental adaptability of the favorable rhizobial strain (in this case, to mild vermiculite or hostile sandy soil). To produce high nodulation and efficient nitrogen fixation, the most favorable rhizobial strain should be selected and inoculated into the rhizosphere of legume plants under optimum environmental conditions.

  16. [Genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from shrubby and herbaceous legumes in Shenmu arid area, Shaanxi, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Gang; Chen, Wei-Min; Wei, Ge-Hong

    2014-06-01

    Legume, with a strong resistance to the adverse environmental conditions, is one of pioneer plants in the desert region and plays an important role in the protection of the ecological environment. In this study, the symbiosis of rhizobia associating with shrubby and herbaceous legumes in Shenmu area, Shaanxi, China was characterized by the 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of involved genes. A total of 55 strains were isolated and purified, including 30 strains from the shrubby legume Amorpha fruticosa and Caragana microphylla, and 25 strains from herbaceous plants Astragalus adsurgens, Medicago sativa and Astragalus melilotoides. Results showed that there were 11 16S rRNA genotypes. The strains isolated from herbaceous legumes belonged to five genus including Mesorhizobium, Ensifer, Rhizobium, Phyllobacterium and Agrobacterium, which were very close related to M. huakuii, M. mediterraneum, M. robiniae, E. fredii, E. meliloti, R. indigoferae, R. radiobacter, P. ifriqiyense and Ag. tumefaciens through the phylogenetic analysis. The strains isolated from shrubby legumes belonged to Mesorhizobium, and they were very close related to M. huakuii and M. mediterraneum which were shared simultaneously by shrubby and herbaceous legumes. All of these indicated the choice of rhizobia by the two types of legumes in the arid area was different, and it might depend on the species of host plant and environmental factors.

  17. The potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Mallillin, Aida C; Loyola, Anacleta S; Sagum, Rosario S; Encabo, Rosario R

    2010-02-01

    Dietary fibre has been shown to have important health implications in the prevention of risks of chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to determine the potential health benefits of legumes as a good source of dietary fibre. Six to ten local legumes were studied as follows: cowpeas, mung beans, pole sitao, chickpeas, green peas, groundnuts, pigeon peas, kidney beans, lima beans and soyabeans. The following studies were conducted: (a) mineral availability, in vitro; (b) glycaemic index (GI) in non-diabetic and diabetic human subjects; (c) the cholesterol-lowering effect in human subjects with moderately raised serum cholesterol levels. The highest Fe availability among legumes was for lima beans (9.5 (sem 0.1)) while for Zn and Ca, the highest availability was for kidney beans (49.3 (sem 4.5)) and pigeon peas (75.1 (sem 7.1)), respectively. Groundnuts have the lowest Fe (1.3 (sem 1.1)), Zn (7.9 (sem 1.3)) and Ca (14.6 (sem 2.8)) availability. Legumes are low-GI foods ( legumes differs and may be attributed to their mineral content, mineral-mineral interaction and from their phytic and tannic acid content; legumes are considered low-GI foods and have shown potential hypocholesterolaemic effects. The above studies can be a scientific basis for considering legumes as functional foods.

  18. Wide distribution range of rhizobial symbionts associated with pantropical sea-dispersed legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Masaru; Nakata, Sayuri; Aoki, Seishiro; Takayama, Koji; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Ito, Motomi; Miya, Masaki; Kajita, Tadashi

    2016-12-01

    To understand the geographic distributions of rhizobia that associated with widely distributed wild legumes, 66 nodules obtained from 41 individuals including three sea-dispersed legumes (Vigna marina, Vigna luteola, and Canavalia rosea) distributed across the tropical and subtropical coastal regions of the world were studied. Partial sequences of 16S rRNA and nodC genes extracted from the nodules showed that only Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium were associated with the pantropical legumes, and some of the symbiont strains were widely distributed over the Pacific. Horizontal gene transfer of nodulation genes were observed within the Bradyrhizobium and Sinorhizobium lineages. BLAST searches in GenBank also identified records of these strains from various legumes across the world, including crop species. However, one of the rhizobial strains was not found in GenBank, which implies the strain may have adapted to the littoral environment. Our results suggested that some rhizobia, which associate with the widespread sea-dispersed legume, distribute across a broad geographic range. By establishing symbiotic relationships with widely distributed rhizobia, the pantropical legumes may also be able to extend their range much further than other legume species.

  19. Exploitation of the nutritional and functional characteristics of traditional Italian legumes: the potential of sourdough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, José Antonio; Coda, Rossana; Centomani, Isabella; Summo, Carmine; Gobbetti, Marco; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe

    2015-03-02

    This study aimed at evaluating the composition of nineteen traditional Italian legumes and at investigating the potential of the sourdough fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria to improve the nutritional and functional features. Traditional Italian legumes, all with product certifications and belonging to Phaseolus vulgaris, Cicer arietinum, Lathyrus sativus, Lens culinaris and Pisum sativum species, were used in this study. Seeds were milled, and flours were analyzed for proximate composition and subjected to sourdough fermentation at 30°C for 24h. Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactobacillus brevis AM7 were used as selected starters. Compared to control doughs, without bacterial inoculum, the concentrations of free amino acids (FAA), soluble fibres, and total phenols increased for all legume sourdoughs. Raffinose decreased of up to ca. 64%. During sourdough fermentation, the level of GABA markedly increased and reached values up to 624mg/kg. Condensed tannins decreased. At the same time, almost all legume sourdoughs showed increases of the antioxidant and phytase activities. As shown by PCA analysis based on data of total FAA, GABA, raffinose, soluble/insoluble dietary fibre, condensed tannins and antioxidant and phytase activities, all legume sourdoughs were clearly differentiated from control doughs. The traditional Italian legumes are bio-diverse, and all showed high levels of nutritional elements and suitability for optimal sourdough fermentation. Legume flours subjected to sourdough fermentation would be suitable to be used alone or better in mixture with cereals, and as gluten-free ingredients for making novel and healthy foods.

  20. Study and analysis of the legume crop market in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarukhanyan Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In mountainous and sub-mountainous zones of the Republic of Armenia farmers mainly grow beans, chickpeas, and peas. In addition there are very small crop areas (mainly homestead lands of faba bean, soybean, mung bean, and grass pea. The village population does not know much about the cultivation of these plants. The data show that in 2007-2009 the specific weight of legume in overall cropland was approximately 94%, and about the 96% of the gross harvest. Local production needs appropriate marketing strategy. The research of local market showed that more attention should be paid to the consumption of goods produced by the farmer households, as well as to offer them to various consumer groups.

  1. Pyramidal anchor stone from Baga waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    Underwater exploration in the coastal region off Baga (Goa, India) led to the recovery of an isolated stone artefact, which resembles a pyramidal type of anchor stone. This anchor stone is unlike to other pyramidal anchor stones found elsewhere...

  2. Effects of accuracy motivation and anchoring on metacomprehension judgment and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigates how accuracy motivation impacts anchoring and adjustment in metacomprehension judgment and how accuracy motivation and anchoring affect metacomprehension accuracy. Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions produced by the between-subjects factorial design involving accuracy motivation (incentive or no) and peer performance anchor (95%, 55%, or no). Two studies showed that accuracy motivation did not impact anchoring bias, but the adjustment-from-anchor process occurred. Accuracy incentive increased anchor-judgment gap for the 95% anchor but not for the 55% anchor, which induced less certainty about the direction of adjustment. The findings offer support to the integrative theory of anchoring. Additionally, the two studies revealed a "power struggle" between accuracy motivation and anchoring in influencing metacomprehension accuracy. Accuracy motivation could improve metacomprehension accuracy in spite of anchoring effect, but if anchoring effect is too strong, it could overpower the motivation effect. The implications of the findings were discussed.

  3. Nutritional Evaluation of Some Legumes and Vegetables Cultivated and Consumed in Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sarkiyayi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the nutritional and anti-nutritional content Legumes and vegetables consumed in Adamawa state. The investigations were carried out on Proximate (Moisture, fibre, Ash, Protein, Nitrogen, fat, carbohydrate and Energy, mineral elements (Na, K, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn, respectively. Vitamins (vitamin A (retinol, &beta-carotene, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Vitamin B1 and Vitamin B2 and Anti-ntrient composition (phytate, oxalate and Tannins. The percentage moisture ranges between 4.28% for baobab leaves to 12.78% in sesame leaves. Legumes contained higher protein contents, the highest was observed in legumes (ground nut with 25.40% the percentage for fat and carbohydrates were higher in legumes than in vegetables. Zinc was higher in vegetables (senna leaves and sesame leaves (5.90 mg/kg and was absent in one of the legumes (cowpea, red. Lead was only detected in vegetable leaves. It was higher in Sesame leaves with 2.0 mg/kg, lead was not detected in all the other sample used for this research. Vitamin A was only detected in vegetable samples and some legume (cowpea, the values ranges between 7.46 to 37.42 µg/100 g in senna leaves and cowpea (red respectively. Vitamin C was not detected in the vegetable samples, but was detected in legume samples. Vitamin B1 is higher in vegetable samples (baobab with 1.32 mg/100 g. Riboflavin (B2 was higher in sesame leaves with 1.01 mg/100 g. The values for phytate ranges between 0.03 mg/100 g in baobab and sesame leaves condiment sample to 5.33 mg/100 g in legume (cowpea, red respectively. Legumes and vegetables investigated revealed that the anti-nutrient contents were very high especially Oxalate and tannins but lower in phytate.

  4. TRUNCATULIX – a data warehouse for the legume community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runte Kai J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Databases for either sequence, annotation, or microarray experiments data are extremely beneficial to the research community, as they centrally gather information from experiments performed by different scientists. However, data from different sources develop their full capacities only when combined. The idea of a data warehouse directly adresses this problem and solves it by integrating all required data into one single database – hence there are already many data warehouses available to genetics. For the model legume Medicago truncatula, there is currently no such single data warehouse that integrates all freely available gene sequences, the corresponding gene expression data, and annotation information. Thus, we created the data warehouse TRUNCATULIX, an integrative database of Medicago truncatula sequence and expression data. Results The TRUNCATULIX data warehouse integrates five public databases for gene sequences, and gene annotations, as well as a database for microarray expression data covering raw data, normalized datasets, and complete expression profiling experiments. It can be accessed via an AJAX-based web interface using a standard web browser. For the first time, users can now quickly search for specific genes and gene expression data in a huge database based on high-quality annotations. The results can be exported as Excel, HTML, or as csv files for further usage. Conclusion The integration of sequence, annotation, and gene expression data from several Medicago truncatula databases in TRUNCATULIX provides the legume community with access to data and data mining capability not previously available. TRUNCATULIX is freely available at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/truncatulix/.

  5. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIAL SURFACTANTS ON THE GROWTH OF LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcheglova N. S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of biogenic surfactants — rhamnolipids, trehalose lipids — on the growth of legumes was investigated. Rhamnolipid surfactants — product of biosynthesis of Pseudomonas sp. PS-17 strain were extracted by Folch mixture from the culture liquid supernatant and trehalose lipid surfactants — from biomass of R. erythropolis Aс-50 strain. Вiocomplex PS, which is a mixture of rhamnolipids and polysaccharides was precipitated from culture liquid supernatantof Pseudomonas sp. PS-17 strain with acidification to pH 3. Seeds of alfalfa and winter vetch were treated before sowing with solutions of biosurfactants or with appropriate culture of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and were grown in vessels in the sand culture conditions. The influence of rhamnolipids and indoleacetic acid on rhizogenesis was set in the biotest with beans cuttings. The optimal concentration of biosurfactants (0.01 g/l was determined for pre-sowing treatment of alfalfa and winter vetch seeds, which promoted the growth of their aboveground mass by 16–20%. It was shown that treatment of seeds by biosurfactants improved the efficiency of winter vetch seeds inoculation by biopreparation of nitrogen-fixing microorganisms: an aboveground plant mass increased by 34%. It was shown that soaking of beans cuttings in a mixture of biocomplex PS and indoleacetic acid increased the number of formed roots on 26.7% and their weight — on 19.2% compared with the control which was indoleacetic acid. It was shown that biogenic surfactants (rhamnolipids, trehalose lipids stimulated the growth of legumes (alfalfa, vetch, contributed to the increase of vegetative mass and stimulated the formation of symbiosis of winter vetch with bacteria Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. It was determined that one of the mechanisms of biosurfactant influence on the plant growth was improving the efficiency of phytohormones, including indole-3-acetic acid.

  6. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Sprent, Janet I; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-04-12

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43-100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea-in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen-Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea-gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen-in a variety of forms-enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates.

  7. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Pedrosa, M.; Varela, A.; Guillamon, E.; Cabellos, B.; Burbano, C.; Gomez-Fernandez, J.; Mercado, E. de; Gomez-Izquierdo, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Muzquiz, M.

    2016-11-01

    The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid) was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g). The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g). The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g). Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g). The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean. (Author)

  8. Biochemical characterization of legume seeds as ingredients in animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Martín-Pedrosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current European protein deficit is estimated as high as 70% of present needs. Because of the high protein content of their seeds, grain legumes are attractive candidates for lowering the deficiency in plant protein production. The objective of this work was to identify new sources of vegetable protein that would reduce our high dependence of soy, the main source of protein in the manufacture of feedstuffs. To achieve this goal, we determined the proximate composition, the bioactive components, as well as the antinutritional factors present in the studied seeds. In general, the protein, fat and carbohydrates content of legume seeds studied were within the limits found in the literature. The bioactive compounds detected in all the seeds were α-galactosides, myoinositol phosphates, protease inhibitors and phenols. IP6 (phytic acid was the main inositol phosphate form in all the samples. The highest protease inhibitors content was detected in both Lathyrus cicera cultivars. Vicia ervilia and L. cicera cultivars showed low haemagglutinating activity (20.4 HU/g. The γ-glutamyl-S-ethenyl-cysteine content in Vicia narbonensis was around 16.0 mg/g. Both L. cicera varieties presented similar β-N-oxalyl-L-α, β-diaminopropionic acid content (0.80 mg/g. The two V. ervilia varieties showed high canavanine concentration (1.93-5.28 mg/g. Vicine was only detected in V. narbonensis cultivars (0.3 mg/g. The biochemical characterization carried out in this study allows us to know the limits of inclusion of these minor crop seeds in feed formulations in order to replace the soybean.

  9. An anchored framework BAC map of mouse chromosome 11 assembled using multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, W W; Reneker, J; Chow, C W; Vaishnav, M; Bradley, A

    1998-12-15

    Despite abundant library resources for many organisms, physical mapping of these organisms has been seriously limited due to lack of efficient library screening techniques. We have developed a highly efficient strategy for large-scale screening of genomic libraries based on multiplex oligonucleotide hybridization on high-density genomic filters. We have applied this strategy to generate a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) anchored map of mouse chromosome 11. Using the MIT mouse SSLP data, 320 pairs of oligonucleotide probes were designed with an "overgo" computer program that selects new primer sequences that avoid the microsatellite repeat. BACs identified by these probes are automatically anchored to the chromosome. Ninety-two percent of the probes identified positive clones from a 5.9-fold coverage mouse BAC library with an average of 7 positive clones per marker. An average of 4.2 clones was confirmed for 204 markers by PCR. Our data show that a large number of clones can be efficiently isolated from a large genomic library using this strategy with minimal effort. This strategy will have wide application for large-scale mapping and sequencing of human and other large genomes.

  10. Genome anchored QTLs for biomass productivity in hybrid Populus grown under contrasting environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Muchero

    Full Text Available Traits related to biomass production were analyzed for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs in a Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides F(2 population. A genetic linkage map composed of 841 SSR, AFLP, and RAPD markers and phenotypic data from 310 progeny were used to identify genomic regions harboring biomass QTLs. Twelve intervals were identified, of which BM-1, BM-2, and BM-7 were identified in all three years for both height and diameter. One putative QTL, BM-7, and one suggestive QTL exhibited significant evidence of over-dominance in all three years for both traits. Conversely, QTLs BM-4 and BM-6 exhibited evidence of under-dominance in both environments for height and diameter. Seven of the nine QTLs were successfully anchored, and QTL peak positions were estimated for each one on the P. trichocarpa genome assembly using flanking SSR markers with known physical positions. Of the 3,031 genes located in genome-anchored QTL intervals, 1,892 had PFAM annotations. Of these, 1,313, representing 255 unique annotations, had at least one duplicate copy in a QTL interval identified on a separate scaffold. This observation suggests that some QTLs identified in this study may have shared the same ancestral sequence prior to the salicoid genome duplication in Populus.

  11. Generation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein-deficient blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuan; Braunstein, Evan M; Ye, Zhaohui; Liu, Cyndi F; Chen, Guibin; Zou, Jizhong; Cheng, Linzhao; Brodsky, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    PIG-A is an X-linked gene required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; thus, PIG-A mutant cells have a deficiency or absence of all GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Acquired mutations in hematopoietic stem cells result in the disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hypomorphic germline PIG-A mutations lead to severe developmental abnormalities, seizures, and early death. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into cell types derived from all three germ layers, providing a novel developmental system for modeling human diseases. Using PIG-A gene targeting and an inducible PIG-A expression system, we have established, for the first time, a conditional PIG-A knockout model in human iPSCs that allows for the production of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. PIG-A-null iPSCs were unable to generate hematopoietic cells or any cells expressing the CD34 marker and were defective in generating mesodermal cells expressing KDR/VEGFR2 (kinase insert domain receptor) and CD56 markers. In addition, PIG-A-null iPSCs had a block in embryonic development prior to mesoderm differentiation that appears to be due to defective signaling through bone morphogenetic protein 4. However, early inducible PIG-A transgene expression allowed for the generation of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. This conditional PIG-A knockout model should be a valuable tool for studying the importance of GPI-APs in hematopoiesis and human development.

  12. Nitrogen transfer from forage legumes to grass in a systematic planting design. [Medicago sativa; Lotus corniculatus; Phalaris arundinacea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brophy, L.S.; Heichel, G.H.; Russelle, M.P.

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most important forage legume in the USA, but N transfer from this or other perennial forage species to companion grasses growing in a mixed sward is poorly understood. Furthermore, interplant distances and legume/grass ratios have seldom been controlled in studies of N transfer from legumes to non-legumes. The objectives of this field study were: (i) to determine the amount of N transferred from alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus carniculatus L.) to reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.); (ii) to define conditions of distance and species ratio under which N transfer occurs; (iii) to compare the two legumes for N transfer; and (iv) to determine the effect of grass proximity on legume N/sub 2/ fixation. Legumes were interplanted with grass in single-species rows within km/sup 2/ plots on a Typic hapludoll soil labeled with /sup 15/N. Analysis of herbage showed significantly lower /sup 15/N concentration in grass near legumes than in grass grown alone, and significantly lower /sup 15/N concentration in legumes near grass than legumes in monoculture. Calculations using isotope dilution methods showed that grass derived a maximum of 68% of its N from alfalfa and 79% from trefoil. This N represented 13% of the N/sub 2/ fixed by trefoil and 17% of that fixed by alfalfa. The results indicated that N transfer occurred over a distance of 20 cm with maximum N transfer in areas of high legume/grass ratio. At third harvest, N derived from symbiosis was significantly higher (95% in alfalfa, 92% in trefoil) for legumes grown in mixture with grass than for legumes grown in monoculture (86% in alfalfa, 80% in trefoil). These results indicate that significant N transfer occurred, and that the amount of N transferred was dependent on interspecies distance and legume/grass ratio.

  13. Anchorage Behaviors of Frictional Tieback Anchors in Silty Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Tsung; Hsiao, Wen-Ta; Chen, Ke-Ting; Hu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Ssu-Yi

    2017-06-01

    Soil anchors are extensively used in geotechnical applications, most commonly serve as tieback walls in deep excavations. To investigate the anchorage mechanisms of this tieback anchor, a constitutive model that considers both strain hardening and softening and volume dilatancy entitled SHASOVOD model, and FLAC3D software are used to perform 3-D numerical analyses. The results from field anchor tests are compared with those calculated by numerical analyses to enhance the applicability of the numerical method. After the calibration, this research carried out the parameter studies by numerical analyses. The numerical results reveal that whether the yield of soil around an anchor develops to ground surface and/or touches the diaphragm wall depending on the overburden depth H and the embedded depth Z of an anchor, this study suggests the minimum overburden and embedded depths to avoid the yield of soils develop to ground surface and/or touch the diaphragm wall. When the embedded depth, overburden depth or fixed length of an anchor increases, the anchorage capacity also increases. Increasing fixed length should be the optimum method to increase the anchorage capacity for fixed length less than 20m. However, when the fixed length of an anchor exceeds 30 m, the increasing rate of anchorage capacity per fixed length decreases, and progressive yield occurs obviously between the fixed length and surrounding soil.

  14. Distributed localization for anchor-free sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xunxue; Shan Zhiguan; Liu Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    Geographic location of nodes is very useful in a sensor network. Previous localization algorithms assume that there exist some anchor nodes in this kind of network, and then other nodes are estimated to create their coordinates. Once there are not anchors to be deployed, those localization algorithms will be invalidated. Many papers in this field focus on anchor-based solutions. The use of anchors introduces many limitations, since anchors require external equipments such as global position system, cause additional power consumption. A novel positioning algorithm is proposed to use a virtual coordinate system based on a new concept-virtual anchor. It is executed in a distributed fashion according to the connectivity of a node and the measured distances to its neighbors. Both the adjacent member information and the ranging distance result are combined to generate the estimated position of a network, one of which is independently adopted for localization previously. At the position refinement stage the intermediate estimation of a node begins to be evaluated on its reliability for position mutation; thus the positioning optimization process of the whole network is avoided falling into a local optimal solution. Simulation results prove that the algorithm can resolve the distributed localization problem for anchor-free sensor networks, and is superior to previous methods in terms of its positioning capability under a variety of circumstances.

  15. Quantifying Heuristic Bias: Anchoring, Availability, and Representativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richie, Megan; Josephson, S Andrew

    2017-07-28

    Construct: Authors examined whether a new vignette-based instrument could isolate and quantify heuristic bias. Heuristics are cognitive shortcuts that may introduce bias and contribute to error. There is no standardized instrument available to quantify heuristic bias in clinical decision making, limiting future study of educational interventions designed to improve calibration of medical decisions. This study presents validity data to support a vignette-based instrument quantifying bias due to the anchoring, availability, and representativeness heuristics. Participants completed questionnaires requiring assignment of probabilities to potential outcomes of medical and nonmedical scenarios. The instrument randomly presented scenarios in one of two versions: Version A, encouraging heuristic bias, and Version B, worded neutrally. The primary outcome was the difference in probability judgments for Version A versus Version B scenario options. Of 167 participants recruited, 139 enrolled. Participants assigned significantly higher mean probability values to Version A scenario options (M = 9.56, SD = 3.75) than Version B (M = 8.98, SD = 3.76), t(1801) = 3.27, p = .001. This result remained significant analyzing medical scenarios alone (Version A, M = 9.41, SD = 3.92; Version B, M = 8.86, SD = 4.09), t(1204) = 2.36, p = .02. Analyzing medical scenarios by heuristic revealed a significant difference between Version A and B for availability (Version A, M = 6.52, SD = 3.32; Version B, M = 5.52, SD = 3.05), t(404) = 3.04, p = .003, and representativeness (Version A, M = 11.45, SD = 3.12; Version B, M = 10.67, SD = 3.71), t(396) = 2.28, p = .02, but not anchoring. Stratifying by training level, students maintained a significant difference between Version A and B medical scenarios (Version A, M = 9.83, SD = 3.75; Version B, M = 9.00, SD = 3.98), t(465) = 2.29, p = .02, but not residents or attendings. Stratifying by heuristic and training level, availability maintained

  16. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nacira; Liu, Ailin; Kan, Leo; Li, Man-Wah; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea) to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes. PMID:28165413

  17. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacira Muñoz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes.

  18. Potential Uses of Wild Germplasms of Grain Legumes for Crop Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Nacira; Liu, Ailin; Kan, Leo; Li, Man-Wah; Lam, Hon-Ming

    2017-02-04

    Challenged by population increase, climatic change, and soil deterioration, crop improvement is always a priority in securing food supplies. Although the production of grain legumes is in general lower than that of cereals, the nutritional value of grain legumes make them important components of food security. Nevertheless, limited by severe genetic bottlenecks during domestication and human selection, grain legumes, like other crops, have suffered from a loss of genetic diversity which is essential for providing genetic materials for crop improvement programs. Illustrated by whole-genome-sequencing, wild relatives of crops adapted to various environments were shown to maintain high genetic diversity. In this review, we focused on nine important grain legumes (soybean, peanut, pea, chickpea, common bean, lentil, cowpea, lupin, and pigeonpea) to discuss the potential uses of their wild relatives as genetic resources for crop breeding and improvement, and summarized the various genetic/genomic approaches adopted for these purposes.

  19. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

    2012-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations...

  20. Transcriptome Sequencing of Lima Bean (Phaseolus lunatus to Identify Putative Positive Selection in Phaseolus and Legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengqi Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The identification of genes under positive selection is a central goal of evolutionary biology. Many legume species, including Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean, have important ecological and economic value. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the transcriptome of one Phaseolus species, lima bean. A comparison with the genomes of six other legume species, including the common bean, Medicago, lotus, soybean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, revealed 15 and 4 orthologous groups with signatures of positive selection among the two Phaseolus species and among the seven legume species, respectively. Characterization of these positively selected genes using Non redundant (nr annotation, gene ontology (GO classification, GO term enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway analyses revealed that these genes are mostly involved in thylakoids, photosynthesis and metabolism. This study identified genes that may be related to the divergence of the Phaseolus and legume species. These detected genes are particularly good candidates for subsequent functional studies.

  1. Changes in nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity during germination of nonconventional legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Yolanda; Díaz, María Felicia; Jiménez, Tania; Benítez, Vanesa; Herrera, Teresa; Cuadrado, Carmen; Martín-Pedrosa, Mercedes; Martín-Cabrejas, María A

    2013-08-28

    The present study describes the effects of germination on nonnutritional factors and antioxidant activity in the nonconventional legumes Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Canavalia ensiformis (jack bean), Lablab purpureus (dolichos), and Stizolobium niveum (mucuna). Protease inhibitors and lectins were detected in raw legumes and were significantly decreased during the germination. Regarding total and individual inositol phosphates (IP5-IP3), important reductions of IP6 and high increases in the rest of inositol phosphates were also detected during this process. In addition, total phenols, catechins, and proanthocyanidins increased, accompanied by an overall rise of antioxidant activity (79.6 μmol of Trolox/g of DW in the case of mucuna). Germination has been shown to be a very effective process to reduce nonnutritional factors and increase bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of these nonconventional legumes. For this reason, they could be used as ingredients to obtain high-value legume flours for food formulation.

  2. Genetic resources in the USDA, ARS, PGRCU legume crop germplasm collections with phyto-pharmaceutical uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventeen health functional legumes including butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.), Indigofera cassioides Rottler ex DC., I. linnaei Ali, I. suffruticosa Mill., hyacinth bean [Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet], velvetbean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC], jicama [Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urb.], winged bean [Psop...

  3. Desirable characteristics of forage legumes for improving protein utilization in ruminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broderick, G. A

    1995-01-01

    .... Evidence from numerous feeding studies with lactating dairy cows indicates that excessive ruminal protein degradation may be the most limiting nutritional factor in higher-quality temperature legume forages...

  4. Neurostimulation leads, intrathecal catheters and anchoring devices evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Demartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scientific studies highlight the usefulness of spinal cord stimulation and intrathecal therapy for the management of chronic pain syndromes resistant to pharmacological or less invasive interventional therapies. One of the possible complications of these techniques, reported in literature, is migration of the lead or catheter; thus the use of an anchoring system is considered mandatory. Every company that produces devices for neurostimulation or neuromodulation provides various anchoring devices evolved over time. In the study, the authors discuss about the most common anchoring devices based on their clinical experience.

  5. Rhizobium-legume symbiosis in the absence of Nod factors: two possible scenarios with or without the T3SS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shin; Tittabutr, Panlada; Teulet, Albin; Thouin, Julien; Fardoux, Joël; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gully, Djamel; Arrighi, Jean-François; Furuta, Noriyuki; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Nouwen, Nico; Teaumroong, Neung; Giraud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of alternative Nod factor (NF)-independent symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia was first demonstrated in some Aeschynomene species that are nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia lacking the canonical nodABC genes. In this study, we revealed that a large diversity of non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, including B. elkanii, was also able to induce nodules on the NF-independent Aeschynomene species, A. indica. Using cytological analysis of the nodules and the nitrogenase enzyme activity as markers, a gradient in the symbiotic interaction between bradyrhizobial strains and A. indica could be distinguished. This ranged from strains that induced nodules that were only infected intercellularly to rhizobial strains that formed nodules in which the host cells were invaded intracellularly and that displayed a weak nitrogenase activity. In all non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, the type III secretion system (T3SS) appears required to trigger nodule organogenesis. In contrast, genome sequence analysis revealed that apart from a few exceptions, like the Bradyrhizobium ORS285 strain, photosynthetic bradyrhizobia strains lack a T3SS. Furthermore, analysis of the symbiotic properties of an ORS285 T3SS mutant revealed that the T3SS could have a positive or negative role for the interaction with NF-dependent Aeschynomene species, but that it is dispensable for the interaction with all NF-independent Aeschynomene species tested. Taken together, these data indicate that two NF-independent symbiotic processes are possible between legumes and rhizobia: one dependent on a T3SS and one using a so far unknown mechanism.

  6. Rhizobium–legume symbiosis in the absence of Nod factors: two possible scenarios with or without the T3SS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shin; Tittabutr, Panlada; Teulet, Albin; Thouin, Julien; Fardoux, Joël; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Gully, Djamel; Arrighi, Jean- François; Furuta, Noriyuki; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Nouwen, Nico; Teaumroong, Neung; Giraud, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of alternative Nod factor (NF)-independent symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia was first demonstrated in some Aeschynomene species that are nodulated by photosynthetic bradyrhizobia lacking the canonical nodABC genes. In this study, we revealed that a large diversity of non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, including B. elkanii, was also able to induce nodules on the NF-independent Aeschynomene species, A. indica. Using cytological analysis of the nodules and the nitrogenase enzyme activity as markers, a gradient in the symbiotic interaction between bradyrhizobial strains and A. indica could be distinguished. This ranged from strains that induced nodules that were only infected intercellularly to rhizobial strains that formed nodules in which the host cells were invaded intracellularly and that displayed a weak nitrogenase activity. In all non-photosynthetic bradyrhizobia, the type III secretion system (T3SS) appears required to trigger nodule organogenesis. In contrast, genome sequence analysis revealed that apart from a few exceptions, like the Bradyrhizobium ORS285 strain, photosynthetic bradyrhizobia strains lack a T3SS. Furthermore, analysis of the symbiotic properties of an ORS285 T3SS mutant revealed that the T3SS could have a positive or negative role for the interaction with NF-dependent Aeschynomene species, but that it is dispensable for the interaction with all NF-independent Aeschynomene species tested. Taken together, these data indicate that two NF-independent symbiotic processes are possible between legumes and rhizobia: one dependent on a T3SS and one using a so far unknown mechanism. PMID:26161635

  7. Forage and grain legume silages as a valuable source of proteins for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Borreani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the supply of home-grown proteins in dairy farms, legume silage management is considered. The factors that affects fermentative quality and protein degradation during ensiling of tannin containing (sulla, sainfoin and non tannin-containing (lucerne, field pea legumes are discussed. The main considered factors are: wilting management, DM content, stage of growth and use of additives (lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants and chestnut tannin.

  8. [Production of inhibiting plant growth and development hormones by pathogenic for legumes Pseudomonas genus bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankevich, L A

    2013-01-01

    It has been studied the ability of pathogenic for legumes pathovars of Pseudomonas genus to produce ethylene and abscisic acid in vitro. A direct correlation between the level of ethylene production by agent of bacterial pea burn--Pseudomonas syringae pv. pisi and level of its aggressiveness for plants has been found. It is shown that the amount of abscisic acid synthesized by pathogenic for legumes Pseudomonas genus bacteria correlates with their aggressiveness for plants.

  9. Nutritional quality of legumes, and their role in cardiometabolic risk prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchenak, Malika; Lamri-Senhadji, Myriem

    2013-03-01

    Legumes (including alfalfa, clover, lupins, green beans and peas, peanuts, soybeans, dry beans, broad beans, dry peas, chickpeas, and lentils) represent an important component of the human diet in several areas of the world, especially in the developing countries, where they complement the lack of proteins from cereals, roots, and tubers. In some regions of the world, legume seeds are the only protein supply in the diet. The health benefits of legume consumption have received rising interest from researchers, and their consumption and production extends worldwide. Among European countries, higher legume consumption is observed around the Mediterranean, with per capita daily consumption between 8 and 23 g, while in Northern Europe, the daily consumption is less than 5 g per capita. The physiological effects of different legumes vary significantly. These differences may result from the polysaccharides composition, in particular, the quantity and variety of dietary fibers and starch, protein make-up, and variability in phytochemical content. The majority of legumes contain phytochemicals: bioactive compounds, including enzyme inhibitors, phytohemagglutinins (lectins), phytoestrogens, oligosaccharides, saponins, and phenolic compounds, which play metabolic roles in humans who frequently consume these foods. Dietary intake of phytochemicals may provide health benefits, protecting against numerous diseases or disorders, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and inflammation. The synergistic or antagonistic effects of these phytochemical mixtures from food legumes, their interaction with other components of the diet, and the mechanism of their action have remained a challenge with regard to understanding the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. Their mitigating effects and the mechanism of their action need to be further addressed if we are to understand the role of phytochemicals in health and diseases. This review provides an overview

  10. Breeding Food Legumes for Resistance to Storage Insect Pests: Potential and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Storage insect pests cause significant losses of food legumes particularly in the Tropics and the Sub-tropics. The most important species of storage insect pests of food legumes include Callosobruchus chinensis , C. maculatus , C. analis , Acanthoscelides obtectus , Bruchus incarnatus , B. rufimanus , B. dentipes , B. quinqueguttatus , B. emarginatus , B. ervi , B. lentis and B. pisorum . Effective post-harvest insect pest control measures should constitute part of the overall crop husbandry ...

  11. Future Prospects for Ascochyta Blight Resistance Breeding in Cool Season Food Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Rubiales, D.; Fondevilla, S.

    2012-01-01

    Legume cultivation is strongly hampered by the occurrence of ascochyta blights. Strategies of control have been developed but only marginal successes achieved. Breeding for disease resistance is regarded the most cost efficient method of control. Significant genetic variation for disease resistance exists in most legume crops with numerous germplasm lines maintained, providing an excellent resource for plant breeders. Fast and reliable screening methods have been adjusted to fulfill breeding ...

  12. Anchored boundary conditions for locally isostatic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theran, Louis; Nixon, Anthony; Ross, Elissa; Sadjadi, Mahdi; Servatius, Brigitte; Thorpe, M. F.

    2015-11-01

    Finite pieces of locally isostatic networks have a large number of floppy modes because of missing constraints at the surface. Here we show that by imposing suitable boundary conditions at the surface the network can be rendered effectively isostatic. We refer to these as anchored boundary conditions. An important example is formed by a two-dimensional network of corner sharing triangles, which is the focus of this paper. Another way of rendering such networks isostatic is by adding an external wire along which all unpinned vertices can slide (sliding boundary conditions). This approach also allows for the incorporation of boundaries associated with internal holes and complex sample geometries, which are illustrated with examples. The recent synthesis of bilayers of vitreous silica has provided impetus for this work. Experimental results from the imaging of finite pieces at the atomic level need such boundary conditions, if the observed structure is to be computer refined so that the interior atoms have the perception of being in an infinite isostatic environment.

  13. Symbiotic effectiveness of rhizobial mutualists varies in interactions with native Australian legume genera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter H Thrall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Interactions between plants and beneficial soil organisms (e.g. rhizobial bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi are models for investigating the ecological impacts of such associations in plant communities, and the evolution and maintenance of variation in mutualisms (e.g. host specificity and the level of benefits provided. With relatively few exceptions, variation in symbiotic effectiveness across wild host species is largely unexplored. METHODS: We evaluated these associations using representatives of several legume genera which commonly co-occur in natural ecosystems in south-eastern Australia and an extensive set of rhizobial strains isolated from these hosts. These strains had been previously assigned to specific phylotypes on the basis of molecular analyses. In the first of two inoculation experiments, the growth responses of each host species was evaluated with rhizobial strains isolated from that species. The second experiment assessed performance across genera and the extent of host specificity using a subset of these strains. RESULTS: While host growth responses to their own (sympatric isolates varied considerably, rhizobial phylotype was a significant predictor of symbiotic performance, indicating that bacterial species designations on the basis of molecular markers have ecological importance. Hosts responded in qualitatively different ways to sympatric and allopatric strains of rhizobia, ranging from species with a clear preference for their own strains, to those that were broad generalists, through to species that grew significantly better with allopatric strains. CONCLUSION: Theory has focused on trade-offs between the provision of benefits and symbiont competitive ability that might explain the persistence of less beneficial strains. However, differences in performance among co-occurring host species could also drive such patterns. Our results thus highlight the likely importance of plant community structure in

  14. Evaluation of N2—Fixing Capacites of Herbaceous and Shrub Legumes Under Field Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XJINGGUANGXI; SHISHULIAN; 等

    1998-01-01

    Natural 15N abundance method was used in this study to investigate the N2-fiing capacities of several herbaceous and shrub legumes by a field experiment,For herbaceous legumes,the results were in consistent with those obtained by a pot experiment .Crotalaria mucronata Desv.had a higher,N2-fixing capacity than Vigna sinensis(L.)Savi.For shurub legumes,N2-fixing Capacity under field condition was slightly different from that in pot experiment.These results demonstrated that the natural 15N abundance method was applicable to evaluating N2-fixing capacities of herbaceous and shrub legumes,and that pot experiment was suitable for evaluating the N2-fixing capacities of not only herbaceous legumes but also shrub legumes. Leguminous N2-fixing plants differed in response to phosphorus fertilization,Phosphorus fertilizer appication greatly increased the percentage of nitrogen derived from air (% N dfa)and total amount of N2 fixed by Lespedez formosa(Vog.)Koehne (Jiangxi),Phosphorus fertilizer showed no signifcant effect on the N2-fixing percentage of Cajanus cajan(L.)Millsp.but increased its total biomass,thus increasing the total amount of N2 fixed.

  15. Comprehensive Comparative Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of the Legume Genes Controlling the Nodulation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Zhenzhen; Pingault, Lise; Nourbakhsh-Rey, Mehrnoush; Libault, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most essential plant nutrients and one of the major factors limiting crop productivity. Having the goal to perform a more sustainable agriculture, there is a need to maximize biological nitrogen fixation, a feature of legumes. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the interaction between legumes and rhizobia, the symbiotic partner fixing and assimilating the atmospheric nitrogen for the plant, researchers took advantage of genetic and genomic resources developed across different legume models (e.g., Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus, Glycine max, and Phaseolus vulgaris) to identify key regulatory protein coding genes of the nodulation process. In this study, we are presenting the results of a comprehensive comparative genomic analysis to highlight orthologous and paralogous relationships between the legume genes controlling nodulation. Mining large transcriptomic datasets, we also identified several orthologous and paralogous genes characterized by the induction of their expression during nodulation across legume plant species. This comprehensive study prompts new insights into the evolution of the nodulation process in legume plant and will benefit the scientific community interested in the transfer of functional genomic information between species.

  16. Secretion systems and signal exchange between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew S; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots and/or stem of leguminous plants involves a complex signal exchange between both partners. Since many microorganisms are present in the soil, legumes and rhizobia must recognize and initiate communication with each other to establish symbioses. This results in the formation of nodules. Rhizobia within nodules exchange fixed nitrogen for carbon from the legume. Symbiotic relationships can become non-beneficial if one partner ceases to provide support to the other. As a result, complex signal exchange mechanisms have evolved to ensure continued, beneficial symbioses. Proper recognition and signal exchange is also the basis for host specificity. Nodule formation always provides a fitness benefit to rhizobia, but does not always provide a fitness benefit to legumes. Therefore, legumes have evolved a mechanism to regulate the number of nodules that are formed, this is called autoregulation of nodulation. Sequencing of many different rhizobia have revealed the presence of several secretion systems - and the Type III, Type IV, and Type VI secretion systems are known to be used by pathogens to transport effector proteins. These secretion systems are also known to have an effect on host specificity and are a determinant of overall nodule number on legumes. This review focuses on signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes, particularly focusing on the role of secretion systems involved in nodule formation and host specificity.

  17. Complex interactions between a legume and two grasses in a subalpine meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Charles; Pornon, André; Escaravage, Nathalie; Winterton, Peter; Lamaze, Thierry

    2009-10-01

    Interactions between plants are a complex combination of positive and negative interactions, with the net outcome depending on environmental contexts. The more frequent association of Trifolium alpinum (legume) with Festuca eskia than with Nardus stricta (grasses) in many Pyrenean subalpine meadows suggests a differential ability to use nitrogen (N) derived from N(2) fixation. In the field, we investigated the interactions between the legume and grasses and, in the glasshouse, the transfer of (15)N from the legume to the grasses. In one grass-Trifolium mixture, the legume had a strong positive effect on the biomass and N content of the grass as compared to pure grass stands. When both grasses grew together with the legume, only Festuca benefited from the presence of Trifolium but, surprisingly, the benefit decreased with increasing Trifolium abundance. Leaf labeling experiments with (15)N-NH(4)(+) revealed a higher transfer of (15)N from Trifolium to Festuca than to Nardus, suggesting a more direct N pathway between the two species. This more direct pathway could prevent Nardus from benefiting from the legume N in the three-species mixtures. Thus, the positive interactions between N-fixers and nonfixers appear to be largely species-specific and to depend strongly on the species in the plant assemblage.

  18. Distribution of native legumes (Leguminoseae) in frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinaceae)-wiregrass (Poaceae) ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainds, M J; Mitchell, R J; Palik, B J; Boring, L R; Gjerstad, D H

    1999-11-01

    Legume species distribution and abundance and selected environmental variables were quantified across a complex gradient (varying in both water-holding capacity and fertility) for frequently burned longleaf pine (Pinus palustris)-wiregrass (Aristida stricta) ecosystems. Legumes were present in all months; however, abundance peaked in June and was minimal after killing frosts in October. Legume species were prominent in the flora (43 species encountered) ubiquitous (94% of 2-m(2) subplots had at least one legume species), and abundant (nearly 120 000 stems/ha). Although most species were widely distributed throughout the gradient, Lespedeza angustifolia was distinctly associated with the more hydric end of the gradient, while both Petalostemon pinnatum and Galactia microphylla were located in the more xeric extreme. The percentage variation in species that could be accounted for by environmental variation was low (27%). Of the variation that could be accounted for, a number of environmental variables were important, including soil moisture, pine basal area (i.e., light), and bivalent base cations (e.g., Ca(2+)). Although gradients in resource availability among sites did not affect the distribution of species or abundance of legumes strongly, variation in resources are likely to regulate N(2)-fixation rates of the various native legume species, and thereby affect ecological functions such as maintenance of N capital and productivity.

  19. [Genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from common legumes in the Karst area. Northwest Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; He, Xun-yang; Xie, Qiang; Wang, Ke-lin

    2015-12-01

    Legumes, with a strong resistance to the adverse environmental conditions, are pioneer plants in degraded habitats, and play an important role in ecosystem restoration. In this study, the nodulation characteristics of 24 legumes were surveyed in the Karst area of Northwest Guangxi. A total of 39 nodule samples were collected from 15 legumes, the DNA was extracted and the 16S rDNA and nifH gene were amplified. A phylogenetic tree was then constructed to analyze the genetic diversity of rhizobia. The results showed that 15 legumes were nodulated, of which 14 belonged to the Papilionoideae, one to the Mimosaceae, and none to the Caesalpinoideae. No nodules were found on some legumes that were reported as nodulated, which might result from soil water stress in Karst. BLAST result and phylogenetic analyse indicated that most of the legumes were associated with rhizobia that belonged to the genus Bradyrhizobium, with the exception of two samples from Callerya nitida that were associated with the genus Mesorhizobium. In the phylogenetic tree, the sequences obtained from the same plot or the sequences from the same host species clustered together in most cases. This finding suggested that host selection and the ecological environment are the major factors that influence the genotype of rhizobia.

  20. Nutrient and nonnutrient components of legumes, and its chemopreventive activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chino, Xariss; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Álvarez-González, Isela; Madrigal-Bujaidar, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Legumes in combination with other products are the staple food for a large part of the world population, especially the low-income fragment, because their seeds provide valuable amounts of carbohydrates, fiber, and proteins, and have an important composition of essential amino acids, the sulphured amino acids being the limiting ones. Furthermore, legumes also have nonnutritional compounds that may decrease the absorption of nutrients or produce toxic effects; however, it has been reported that depending on the dose, these nonnutritional compounds also have different bioactivities as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and anticarcinogenic agents, which have been proven in scientific studies. It has been observed that in countries with a high consumption of legumes, the incidence of colorectal cancer is lower. Some studies have shown that legume seeds are an alternative chemopreventive therapy against various cancers especially colon; this was verified in various animal models of induced by azoxymethane, a colon specific carcinogenic compound, in which a diet was supplemented with different concentrations of beans, lentils, chickpeas, or soybeans, mostly. These studies have proven the anticancer activity of legumes in early stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, it is important to review the information available to elucidate the chemopreventive mechanisms of action of legume compounds.

  1. Tropical food legumes: virus diseases of economic importance and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hema, Masarapu; Sreenivasulu, Pothur; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Kumar, P Lava; Reddy, Dodla V R

    2014-01-01

    Diverse array of food legume crops (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) have been adopted worldwide for their protein-rich seed. Choice of legumes and their importance vary in different parts of the world. The economically important legumes are severely affected by a range of virus diseases causing significant economic losses due to reduction in grain production, poor quality seed, and costs incurred in phytosanitation and disease control. The majority of the viruses infecting legumes are vectored by insects, and several of them are also seed transmitted, thus assuming importance in the quarantine and in the epidemiology. This review is focused on the economically important viruses of soybean, groundnut, common bean, cowpea, pigeonpea, mungbean, urdbean, chickpea, pea, faba bean, and lentil and begomovirus diseases of three minor tropical food legumes (hyacinth bean, horse gram, and lima bean). Aspects included are geographic distribution, impact on crop growth and yields, virus characteristics, diagnosis of causal viruses, disease epidemiology, and options for control. Effectiveness of selection and planting with virus-free seed, phytosanitation, manipulation of crop cultural and agronomic practices, control of virus vectors and host plant resistance, and potential of transgenic resistance for legume virus disease control are discussed.

  2. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardi, Martina; de Campos, Samanta Bolzan; Purtschert, Gabriela; Eberl, Leo; Pessi, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria) have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum) to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica) under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro), while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production) and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont. PMID:28861050

  3. Competition Experiments for Legume Infection Identify Burkholderia phymatum as a Highly Competitive β-Rhizobium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Burkholderia (β-proteobacteria have only recently been shown to be able to establish a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with several legumes, which is why they are also referred to as β-rhizobia. Therefore, very little is known about the competitiveness of these species to nodulate different legume host plants. In this study, we tested the competitiveness of several Burkholderia type strains (B. diazotrophica, B. mimosarum, B. phymatum, B. sabiae, B. symbiotica and B. tuberum to nodulate four legumes (Phaseolus vulgaris, Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata and Mimosa pudica under our closely defined growth conditions. The assessment of nodule occupancy of these species on different legume host plants revealed that B. phymatum was the most competitive strain in the three papilionoid legumes (bean, cowpea and siratro, while B. mimosarum outcompeted the other strains in mimosa. The analysis of phenotypes known to play a role in nodulation competitiveness (motility, exopolysaccharide production and additional in vitro competition assays among β-rhizobial strains suggested that B. phymatum has the potential to be a very competitive legume symbiont.

  4. Scenario of Entomological Research in Legume Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishnu Prasad Neupane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review paper highlights scenario of entomological research in grain legumes in Nepal into headings of the monitoring, survey and surveillance, insect pest management, existing problem and future strategies. A survey study on yield loss assessment of chickpea due to Helicoverpa pod borer under field condition has been recorded up to 75% in the year 1996-1998 at Banke and Bardiya district. While monitored Helicoverpa armigera through pheromone trap, during the 2nd week of March, peak catches of 91 male moths were recorded at Rampur, while it was the maximum (42 male moths during the 3rd week of March. Synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and cypermethrin used at 0.01% concentration (a.i., were effective in controlling the chickpea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Genotypes NCH-18, NCH -31, NCH-138 and ICC 3075 WR were found resistant. Ripcord 10%@0.05% was found to be superior and effective chemical insecticides to control stem fly and soybean hairy caterpillar. The late sowing date December, 10 showed significantly higher percentage of chickpea pod borer damage with lower grain yield. Inter crops combinations of Chickpea +wheat (2:1 ratio was found effective against Helicoverpa armigera damage (1.2% followed by chickpea+barley (2.36% and Chickpea+linseed (2:1 ratio (3.7%. Bakaino (Melia azederach L. was identified as the best indigenous pesticides to check the normal growth of hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia casigneta kollar under laboratory condition. Metarhizium anisopliae was found effective for the management of Helicoverpa armigera that caused maximum mortality (94.67%, infection (45.33% within 7.49 days (LT50. Similarly, Beauveria bassiana caused maximum mortality (98.67%, infection (80.00% with the least LT50 value (5 days. Crop sprayed with HaNPV had the lowest pod damage (0.3% and the highest in Racer (2.2%. This review work provided a lot of information to conduct entomological research activity conducted in grain

  5. Anchoring of development workings in a zone of influence of mining in case of the level anchoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V. F.; Fofanov, O. B.; Demina, T. V.; Yavorskiy, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    Regularities of the change of the stress-strain state of coal containing rock masses, depending on mining-geological factors, were revealed. These factors allow establishing rational parameters of anchoring of wall rocks to enhance the stability of development workings. Specific conditions of the deflected mode, displays of rock pressure, terms of maintenance depending on technological parameters are investigated. Researches allowed determining the degree of their development influence on the efficiency of application of the anchoring of the hollow making and will allow a reasonable application of anchoring certificates, provide stability of the rocks mining and reduce expenses on its realization and maintenance.

  6. Anchored but not internalized: shape dependent endocytosis of nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bokai; Feng, Xi; Yin, Hang; Ge, Zhenpeng; Wang, Yanhuan; Chu, Zhiqin; Raabova, Helena; Vavra, Jan; Cigler, Petr; Liu, Renbao; Wang, Yi; Li, Quan

    2017-04-01

    Nanoparticle-cell interactions begin with the cellular uptake of the nanoparticles, a process that eventually determines their cellular fate. In the present work, we show that the morphological features of nanodiamonds (NDs) affect both the anchoring and internalization stages of their endocytosis. While a prickly ND (with sharp edges/corners) has no trouble of anchoring onto the plasma membrane, it suffers from difficult internalization afterwards. In comparison, the internalization of a round ND (obtained by selective etching of the prickly ND) is not limited by its lower anchoring amount and presents a much higher endocytosis amount. Molecular dynamics simulation and continuum modelling results suggest that the observed difference in the anchoring of round and prickly NDs likely results from the reduced contact surface area with the cell membrane of the former, while the energy penalty associated with membrane curvature generation, which is lower for a round ND, may explain its higher probability of the subsequent internalization.

  7. New Mathematical Modelling of Stabilizing Pile with Prestressed Tieback Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical modelling for analyzing stabilizing piles with prestressed tieback anchors. The new differential equations governing the mechanical response of the stabilizing pile are formulated and the boundary conditions considering the tie-back anchors are mathematically specified. Then, the system of differential equations is numerically solved by the high-accuracy Runge-Kutta finite difference method. A simple computer program has been written on the platform of MATLAB to run the procedure of the proposed algorithm. This approach is entirely different from the traditional finite element method used to design the anchored piles. The FEM is employed to verify the feasibility of the developed method. The comparative case study indicates that the proposed method has more higher modeling and computing efficiency than the FEM and can be an alternative method for designing the anchored pile used for slope stabilization.

  8. The relation between career anchors, emotional intelligence and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emotional intelligence (measured by the Assessing Emotions Scale) and employability ... career anchors, career development, emotional intelligence, employability satisfaction ...... occupational, race and gender groups, and economic sectors before final conclusions .... 'Sources of job stress, work engagement and career.

  9. Fluctuation-induced interactions in nematics with disordered anchoring energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi Pour Haddadan, Fahimeh; Naji, Ali; Shirzadiani, Nafiseh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2014-12-01

    We examine fluctuation-induced (pseudo-Casimir) interactions in nematic liquid-crystalline films confined between two surfaces, where one of the surfaces imposes a strong homeotropic anchoring (ensuring a uniform mean director profile), while the other one is assumed to be a chemically disordered substrate exhibiting an annealed distribution of anchoring energies. We employ a saddle-point approximation to evaluate the free energy of interaction mediated between the two surfaces and investigate how the interaction force is influenced by the presence of disordered surface anchoring energy. It is shown that the disorder results in a renormalization of the effective surface anchoring parameter in a way that it leads to quantitative and qualitative changes (including a change of sign at intermediate inter-surface separations) in the pseudo-Casimir interaction force when compared with the interaction force in the absence of disorder.

  10. Reaching the top: career anchors and professional development in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ruth; Shmulevitz, Carmela; Raviv, Dennie

    2009-01-01

    This study, based on Shein's conceptual theory of career anchors, examined the relationship between career anchors, professional development and emerging career patterns for graduates of 12 consecutive two year second career programs in nursing (N=231) compared to graduates of concurrent four year academic programs (N=273). A 2-group comparison design was used and data collection tools included a demographic profile, a professional profile and a career anchor questionnaire. Statistically significant differences were found in regard to career anchors (pdevelopment (pnurses were specialization and lifestyle where academic graduates chose management, autonomy and service. Academics displayed a statistically significant preference for administrative specialization (34%) compared to the second career tract (6.5%). Researchers propose that each group develops differently and contributes to the workplace and the importance of both certification and academic incentives to ensure recruitment.

  11. Effect of a preload force on anchor system frequency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Aihong; Xu Jinhai; Liu Haishun

    2013-01-01

    The interrelationship between preload forces and natural frequencies of anchors was obtained from the structure of an anchor and its mechanical characteristics.We established a numerical model for the dynamic analysis of a bolt support system taking into consideration the working surroundings of the anchor.The natural frequency distribution of the system under various preload forces of the anchor was analyzed with ANSYS.Our results show that each order of the system frequency varied with an increase in preload forces.A single order frequency decreased with an increase in the preload force.A preload force affected low-order frequencies more than high-order frequencies.We obtained a functional relationship by fitting preload forces and fundamental frequencies,which was in agreement with our theoretical considerations.This study provides theoretical support for the detection of preload forces.

  12. Robust conductance of dumbbell molecular junctions with fullerene anchoring groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Settnes, Mikkel; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    that a dumbbell construction with C60 molecules acting as anchors yields more well-defined conductances as compared to the widely used thiol anchoring groups. Here, we use density functional theory to investigate the electronic properties of this dumbbell construction. The conductance is found to be stable...... support the original motivation to achieve conductance values more stable towards changes in the structure of the molecule-metal contact leading to larger reproducibility in experiments. © 2011 American Institute of Physics....

  13. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  14. Behavioral Biases of Individual Investors: The Effect of Anchoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Zaiane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of the anchoring bias in the financial decision making of individual investors. A survey study is carried out to find out how the studied bias affects the investment behavior on the Tunisian stock market. The survey is for exploratory purpose and it is based on multiple factorial correspondence analyses. The results reveal that Tunisian investors do not suffer from the anchoring bias.

  15. Anchor-induced chondral damage in the hip

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Dean K.; Bharam, Srino; White, Brian J.; Matsuda, Nicole A.; SAFRAN, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the outcomes from anchor-induced chondral damage of the hip, both with and without frank chondral penetration. A multicenter retrospective case series was performed of patients with chondral deformation or penetration during initial hip arthroscopic surgery. Intra-operative findings, post-surgical clinical courses, hip outcome scores and descriptions of arthroscopic treatment in cases requiring revision surgery and anchor removal are reported. Five ...

  16. Characterizing the flow of stirred vessels with anchor type impellers

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto S.M.C.; Nunhez J.R.; Duarte C.G.

    2000-01-01

    Despite its importance in chemical industries, there are few works which studies anchor type impellers and only a fraction of the works investigate these systems under a computational approach. The great majority refers to turbine impellers, specially Rushton turbines, under turbulent flow. Anchor impellers are used specially for highly viscous flow, typical of polymer reactions. The viscosity is normally in the range 1000-10000 cp. Since this range of viscosity describe highly viscous flows,...

  17. Analysis of interspecies physicochemical variation of grain legume seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybiński, Wojciech; Rusinek, Robert; Szot, Bogusław; Bocianowski, Jan; Starzycki, Michał

    2014-10-01

    The paper presents an attempt to assess the reaction of seeds to mechanical loads taking into account their geometry expressed as seed thickness and 1000 seed weight. The initial material comprised 33 genotypes of grain legume plants and included cultivars registered in the country and breeding lines that are subject to pre-registration trials. The analysis of variance revealed significant diversity of the cultivars and lines of the species studied in terms of each of the analysed trait. The highest weight of 1000 seeds were obtained for white lupine seeds and peas, the lowest for andean lupine seeds. The maximum deformation and energy were obtained for white lupine seeds, the lowest for pea seeds, the maximum force and module the lowest values were determined for narrow-leafed lupine and pea. The highest values of protein were obtained for andean and yellow lupine, a fat content for andean and white lupine. The fatty acid profile as much as 70% or more were linoleic and oleic acids. Against the background of all the species are distinguished by white lupine seeds with a high content of oleic acid and the lowest of linoleic acid, for yellow lupine were obtained the inverse ratio of the two acids.

  18. Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria beyond legumes: Burkholderia in Rubiaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Verstraete

    Full Text Available Symbiotic ß-proteobacteria not only occur in root nodules of legumes but are also found in leaves of certain Rubiaceae. The discovery of bacteria in plants formerly not implicated in endosymbiosis suggests a wider occurrence of plant-microbe interactions. Several ß-proteobacteria of the genus Burkholderia are detected in close association with tropical plants. This interaction has occurred three times independently, which suggest a recent and open plant-bacteria association. The presence or absence of Burkholderia endophytes is consistent on genus level and therefore implies a predictive value for the discovery of bacteria. Only a single Burkholderia species is found in association with a given plant species. However, the endophyte species are promiscuous and can be found in association with several plant species. Most of the endophytes are part of the plant-associated beneficial and environmental group, but others are closely related to B. glathei. This soil bacteria, together with related nodulating and non-nodulating endophytes, is therefore transferred to a newly defined and larger PBE group within the genus Burkholderia.

  19. Production and transcriptional regulation of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in forage legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Meiliang; Wei, Li; Sun, Zhanmin; Gao, Lihua; Meng, Yu; Tang, Yixiong; Wu, Yanmin

    2015-05-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA), also known as condensed tannins, contribute to important forage legumes traits including disease resistance and forage quality. PA in forage plants has both positive and negative effects on feed digestibility and animal performance. The analytical methods and their applicability in measuring the contents of PA in forage plants are essential to studies on their nutritional effects. In spite of important breakthroughs in our understanding of the PA biosynthesis, important questions still remain to be answered such as the PA polymerization and transport. Recent advances in the understanding of transcription factor-mediated gene regulation mechanisms in anthocyanin and PA biosynthetic pathway in model plants suggest new approaches for the metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. The present review will attempt to present the state-of-the-art of research in these areas and provide an update on the production and metabolic engineering of PA in forage plants. We hope that this will contribute to a better understanding of the ways in which PA production to manipulate the content of PA for beneficial effects in forage plants.

  20. Evaluation of mitral valve replacement anchoring in a phantom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Moore, John; Lang, Pencilla; Bainbridge, Dan; Campbell, Gordon; Jones, Doug L.; Guiraudon, Gerard M.; Peters, Terry M.

    2012-02-01

    Conventional mitral valve replacement requires a median sternotomy and cardio-pulmonary bypass with aortic crossclamping and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity which could be reduced by performing the procedure off-pump. Replacing the mitral valve in the closed, off-pump, beating heart requires extensive development and validation of surgical and imaging techniques. Image guidance systems and surgical access for off-pump mitral valve replacement have been previously developed, allowing the prosthetic valve to be safely introduced into the left atrium and inserted into the mitral annulus. The major remaining challenge is to design a method of securely anchoring the prosthetic valve inside the beating heart. The development of anchoring techniques has been hampered by the expense and difficulty in conducting large animal studies. In this paper, we demonstrate how prosthetic valve anchoring may be evaluated in a dynamic phantom. The phantom provides a consistent testing environment where pressure measurements and Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor and assess the valve anchoring procedures, detecting pararvalvular leak when valve anchoring is inadequate. Minimally invasive anchoring techniques may be directly compared to the current gold standard of valves sutured under direct vision, providing a useful tool for the validation of new surgical instruments.

  1. Poor anchoring limits dyslexics' perceptual, memory, and reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-07-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin, Putter-Katz, & Banai, 2006), which suggests that dyslexics have a general difficulty in automatic extraction of stimulus regularities from auditory inputs. This hypothesis explained a broad range of dyslexics' verbal and non-verbal difficulties. However, it was not directly tested in the context of reading and verbal memory, which poses the main stumbling blocks to dyslexics. Here we assessed the abilities of adult dyslexics to efficiently benefit from ("anchor to") regularities embedded in repeated tones, orally presented syllables, and written words. We also compared dyslexics' performance to that of individuals with attention disorder (ADHD), but no reading disability. We found an anchoring effect in all groups: all gained from stimulus repetition. However, in line with the anchoring-deficit hypothesis, controls and ADHD participants showed a significantly larger anchoring effect in all tasks. This study is the first that directly shows that the same domain-general deficit, poor anchoring, characterizes dyslexics' performance in perceptual, working memory and reading tasks.

  2. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  3. Identification and characterization of a novel group of legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized WRKY and Exo70 proteins from soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yingjun; Yang, Yan; Li, Guiping; Wang, Fei; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Many plant genes belong to families that arise from extensive proliferation and diversification allowing the evolution of functionally new proteins. Here we report the characterization of a group of proteins evolved from WRKY and exocyst complex subunit Exo70 proteins through fusion with a novel transmembrane (TM) domain in soybean (Glycine max). From the soybean genome, we identified a novel WRKY-related protein (GmWRP1) that contains a WRKY domain with no binding activity for W-box sequences. GFP fusion revealed that GmWRP1 was targeted to the Golgi apparatus through its N-terminal TM domain. Similar Golgi-targeting TM domains were also identified in members of a new subfamily of Exo70J proteins involved in vesicle trafficking. The novel TM domains are structurally most similar to the endosomal cytochrome b561 from birds and close homologues of GmWRP1 and GmEx070J proteins with the novel TM domain have only been identified in legumes. Transient expression of some GmExo70J proteins or the Golgi-targeting TM domain in tobacco altered the subcellular structures labelled by a fluorescent Golgi marker. GmWRP1 transcripts were detected at high levels in roots, flowers, pods, and seeds, and the expression levels of GmWRP1 and GmExo70J genes were elevated with increased age in leaves. The legume-specific, Golgi apparatus-localized GmWRP1 and GmExo70J proteins are probably involved in Golgi-mediated vesicle trafficking of biological molecules that are uniquely important to legumes.

  4. Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomised cross-over intervention in mature women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Juscelino; Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

    2014-02-01

    The usefulness of dietary strategies against cardiometabolic risk is increasingly being acknowledged. Legumes and whole grains can modulate risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases, but their possible additive/synergistic actions are unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess, in healthy subjects, the effect of a diet including specific whole-grain barley products and legumes with prior favourable outcomes on cardiometabolic risk parameters in semi-acute studies. A total of forty-six overweight women (50-72 years, BMI 25-33 kg/m² and normal fasting glycaemia) participated in a randomised cross-over intervention comparing a diet rich in kernel-based barley products, brown beans and chickpeas (D1, diet 1 (functional diet)) with a control diet (D2, diet 2 (control diet)) of similar macronutrient composition but lacking legumes and barley. D1 included 86 g (as eaten)/d brown beans, 82 g/d chickpeas, 58 g/d whole-grain barley kernels and 216 g/d barley kernel bread. Both diets followed the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, providing similar amounts of dietary fibre (D1: 46·9 g/d; D2: 43·5 g/d), with wheat-based products as the main fibre supplier in D2. Each diet was consumed for 4 weeks under weight-maintenance conditions. Both diets decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, but D1 had a greater effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels (Plegume diet improves cardiometabolic risk-associated biomarkers in a healthy cohort, showing potential preventive value beyond that of a nutritionally well-designed regimen.

  5. Whole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, Janine A.

    2011-01-01

    Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at ...

  6. A second-generation anchored genetic linkage map of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Hardip R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii, a small kangaroo used for decades for studies of reproduction and metabolism, is the model Australian marsupial for genome sequencing and genetic investigations. The production of a more comprehensive cytogenetically-anchored genetic linkage map will significantly contribute to the deciphering of the tammar wallaby genome. It has great value as a resource to identify novel genes and for comparative studies, and is vital for the ongoing genome sequence assembly and gene ordering in this species. Results A second-generation anchored tammar wallaby genetic linkage map has been constructed based on a total of 148 loci. The linkage map contains the original 64 loci included in the first-generation map, plus an additional 84 microsatellite loci that were chosen specifically to increase coverage and assist with the anchoring and orientation of linkage groups to chromosomes. These additional loci were derived from (a sequenced BAC clones that had been previously mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, (b End sequence from BACs subsequently FISH-mapped to tammar wallaby chromosomes, and (c tammar wallaby genes orthologous to opossum genes predicted to fill gaps in the tammar wallaby linkage map as well as three X-linked markers from a published study. Based on these 148 loci, eight linkage groups were formed. These linkage groups were assigned (via FISH-mapped markers to all seven autosomes and the X chromosome. The sex-pooled map size is 1402.4 cM, which is estimated to provide 82.6% total coverage of the genome, with an average interval distance of 10.9 cM between adjacent markers. The overall ratio of female/male map length is 0.84, which is comparable to the ratio of 0.78 obtained for the first-generation map. Conclusions Construction of this second-generation genetic linkage map is a significant step towards complete coverage of the tammar wallaby

  7. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander A. A. Kooijmans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods: EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF. EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results: V analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression, but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions: We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules.

  8. Display of GPI-anchored anti-EGFR nanobodies on extracellular vesicles promotes tumour cell targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Sander A. A.; Aleza, Clara Gómez; Roffler, Steve R.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Vader, Pieter; Schiffelers, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are attractive candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transport biological cargo to recipient cells. However, the apparent lack of target cell specificity of exogenously administered EVs limits their therapeutic applicability. In this study, we propose a novel method to equip EVs with targeting properties, in order to improve their interaction with tumour cells. Methods EV producing cells were transfected with vectors encoding for anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) nanobodies, which served as targeting ligands for tumour cells, fused to glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor signal peptides derived from decay-accelerating factor (DAF). EVs were isolated using ultrafiltration/size-exclusion liquid chromatography and characterized using western blotting, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and electron microscopy. EV–tumour cell interactions were analyzed under static conditions using flow cytometry and under flow conditions using a live-cell fluorescence microscopy-coupled perfusion system. Results EV analysis showed that GPI-linked nanobodies were successfully displayed on EV surfaces and were highly enriched in EVs compared with parent cells. Display of GPI-linked nanobodies on EVs did not alter general EV characteristics (i.e. morphology, size distribution and protein marker expression), but greatly improved EV binding to tumour cells dependent on EGFR density under static conditions. Moreover, nanobody-displaying EVs showed a significantly improved cell association to EGFR-expressing tumour cells under flow conditions. Conclusions We show that nanobodies can be anchored on the surface of EVs via GPI, which alters their cell targeting behaviour. Furthermore, this study highlights GPI-anchoring as a new tool in the EV toolbox, which may be applied for EV display of a variety of proteins, such as antibodies, reporter proteins and signaling molecules. PMID:26979463

  9. Effects of Plant Age and Rock Phosphate on Quality and Nutrient Release of Legume Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I. ABARCHI; ZHANG Zhan-Yu; B. VANLAUWE; GUO Xiang-Ping; WANG Wei-Mu; B. T. I. ONG'OR; D. TIMBELY

    2009-01-01

    An incubation experiment was carried out on plateau and slope fields to investigate the effect of plant age and rock phosphate (RP) on the organic resource (OR) quality and available N and P release of the legume residues, including standing biomass and surface litter. The legumes, Mueuna pruriens (L.) and Lablab purpureus (L.), were treated with or without Togn rock phosphate (RP) and were sampled at 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks after planting. Results showed that the application of RP significantly affected the P content of the legume residues on the plateau field for the first 18 weeks, but not the other OR quality parameters, nor their N mineralization, or P release parameters. Although application of RPled to higher P contents in both legumes on the plateau field, the P contents were still far below those observed on the slope field. For both species, the biomass age appeared to have a major impact on their N, P, and polyphenol contents, but not on the lignin content. At 24 weeks, both legume N and P contents dropped to about half their values at 12 weeks of age. Residue age also significantly affected N mineralization both with and without RP addition and the net Olsen-P with RP addition. The younger residues generally led to higher N mineralization and net Olsen-P content than the older residues. The best immediate responses to herbaceous legume addition were expected from younger materials, but often at the cost of the total biomass produced and the possibility to produce seeds. The production of seeds, however, could be potentially implemented on a small area of legumes, thus invariably allowing for maturity and seed production.

  10. Effect of dietary legumes on bone-specific gene expression in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongsoon; Moon, Hyoun-Jung; Paik, Doo-Jin; Kim, Deog-Yoon

    2013-06-01

    In previous studies, we found that the consumption of legumes decreased bone turnover in ovariectomized rats. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether the protective effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and the microarchitecture of a diet containing legumes are comparable. In addition, we aim to determine their protective actions in bones by studying bone specific gene expression. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats are being divided into six groups during the 12 week study: 1) rats that underwent sham operations (Sham), 2) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet (OVX), 3) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with soybeans (OVX-S), 4) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with mung beans (OVX-M), 5) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with cowpeas (OVX-C), and 6) ovariectomized rats fed an AIN-93M diet with azuki beans (OVX-A). Consumption of legumes significantly increased BMD of the spine and femur and bone volume of the femur compared to the OVX. Serum calcium and phosphate ratio, osteocalcin, expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) ratio increased significantly, while urinary excretion of calcium and deoxypyridinoline and expression of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly reduced in OVX rats fed legumes, compared to OVX rats that were not fed legumes. This study demonstrates that consumption of legumes has a beneficial effect on bone through modulation of OPG and RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats and that legume consumption can help compensate for an estrogen-deficiency by preventing bone loss induced by ovarian hormone deficiency.

  11. Milk production from silage: comparison of grass, legume and maize silages and their mixtures

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    Richard Dewhurst

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The high rates of rumen fermentation, physical breakdown and passage rates from the rumen of legume silages lead to higher intakes than for grass silages of comparable digestibility. Although total tract digestibilities for legume silages and maize silages are often lower than for grass silages, milk yields are usually higher. A further benefit of legumes and maize is the reduced rate of decline in digestibility. Legume silages often lead to a reduction in milk fat concentration and increased levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3. This latter effect is related to reduced rumen biohydrogenation as a consequence of increased rumen passage rates or the effects of polyphenol oxidase. There is quite a wide range of maturities (300 – 350 g kg-1 DM that leads to maximum dry matter intakes and milk production from maize silage; milk production is reduced with immature or over–mature maize crops. Forage chop length exerts a number of effects, both in the silo and in the rumen, but effects on rumen function, feed intake and milk production have been inconsistent. The high protein content and high N degradability of most legume silages is associated with a low efficiency of converting dietary N into milk N, with a concomitant increase in urine N. Reducing N intake by inclusion of maize silage in mixtures with legume silages leads to a marked reduction in urine N without loss of production potential. It is predicted, on the basis of their chemical composition and rumen kinetics, that legume silages and maize silages would reduce methane production relative to grass silage, though in vivo measurements are lacking. Extensive fermentation in the silo reduces the amount of fermentable substrate, and reduced methane production in comparison with grass silage where fermentation had been restricted by high levels of acid additive.

  12. Influence of legume crops on content of organic carbon in sandy soil

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    Hajduk Edmund

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 3-year field experiment designed to evaluate the content of organic carbon in brown soil (Haplic Cambisol Dystric developed from a light loamy sand under legumes cultivation. Experimental factors were: species of legume crop (colorful-blooming pea (Pisum sativum, chickling vetch (Lathyrus sativus, narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius, methods of legumes tillage (legumes in pure culture and in mixture with naked oats and mineral N fertilization (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N·ha−1. Cultivation of legumes on sandy soil did not result in an increase of organic carbon content in the soil after harvest as compared to the initial situation, i.e. 7.39 vs. 7.76 g·kg−1 dry matter (DM, on average, respectively. However, there was the beneficial effect of this group of plants on soil abundance in organic matter, the manifestation of which was higher content of organic carbon in soils after legume harvest as compared to soils with oats grown (7.21 g·kg−1 DM, on average. Among experimental crops, cultivation of pea exerted the most positive action to organic carbon content (7.58 g·kg−1, after harvest, on average, whereas narrow-leaved lupin had the least effect on organic carbon content (7.23 g·kg−1, on average. Pure culture and greater intensity of legume cultivation associated with the use of higher doses of mineral nitrogen caused less reduction in organic carbon content in soils after harvest.

  13. Diversity and biogeographical patterns of legumes (Leguminosae) indigenous to southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trytsman, Marike; Westfall, Robert H; Breytenbach, Philippus J J; Calitz, Frikkie J; van Wyk, Abraham E

    2016-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to establish biogeographical patterns in the legume flora of southern Africa so as to facilitate the selection of species with agricultural potential. Plant collection data from the National Herbarium, South Africa, were analysed to establish the diversity and areas covered by legumes (Leguminosae/Fabaceae) indigenous to South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. A total of 27,322 records from 1,619 quarter degree grid cells, representing 1,580 species, 122 genera and 24 tribes were included in the analyses. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering was applied to the presence or absence of legume species in quarter degree grid cells, the resultant natural biogeographical regions (choria) being referred to as leguminochoria. The description of the 16 uniquely formed leguminochoria focuses on defining the associated bioregions and biomes, as well as on the key climate and soil properties. Legume species with a high occurrence in a leguminochorion are listed as key species. The dominant growth form of key species, species richness and range within each leguminochorion is discussed. Floristic links between the leguminochoria are established, by examining and comparing key species common to clusters, using a vegetation classification program. Soil pH and mean annual minimum temperature were found to be the main drivers for distinguishing among legume assemblages. This is the first time that distribution data for legumes has been used to identify biogeographical areas covered by leguminochoria on the subcontinent. One potential application of the results of this study is to assist in the selection of legumes for pasture breeding and soil conservation programs, especially in arid and semi-arid environments.

  14. The spatial genetic differentiation of the legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata F. (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations in West Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A.

    2012-04-17

    The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata, is an endemic insect pest that causes significant yield loss to the cowpea crop in West Africa. The application of population genetic tools is important in the management of insect pests but such data on M. vitrata is lacking. We applied a set of six microsatellite markers to assess the population structure of M. vitrata collected at five sites from Burkina Faso, Niger and Nigeria. Observed polymorphisms ranged from one (marker 3393) to eight (marker 32008) alleles per locus. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.0 to 0.8 and 0.0 to 0.6, respectively. Three of the loci in samples from Nigeria and Burkina Faso deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), whereas no loci deviated significantly in samples from Niger. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that 67.3% level of the genetic variation was within individuals compared to 17.3% among populations. A global estimate of F ST=0.1 (ENA corrected F ST=0.1) was significant (Pa=0.05) and corroborated by pairwise F ST values that were significant among all possible comparisons. A significant correlation was predicted between genetic divergence and geographic distance between subpopulations (R2=0.6, P=0.04), and cluster analysis by the program STRUCTURE predicted that co-ancestry of genotypes were indicative of three distinct populations. The spatial genetic variance among M. vitrata in West Africa may be due to limited gene flow, south-north seasonal movement pattern or other reproductive barriers. This information is important for the cultural, chemical and biological control strategies for managing M. vitrata. Copyright © 2012 Cambridge University Press.

  15. Perceptual anchoring in preschool children: not adultlike, but there.

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    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that human auditory perception follows a prolonged developmental trajectory, sometimes continuing well into adolescence. Whereas both sensory and cognitive accounts have been proposed, the development of the ability to base current perceptual decisions on prior information, an ability that strongly benefits adult perception, has not been directly explored. Here we ask whether the auditory frequency discrimination of preschool children also improves when given the opportunity to use previously presented standard stimuli as perceptual anchors, and whether the magnitude of this anchoring effect undergoes developmental changes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Frequency discrimination was tested using two adaptive same/different protocols. In one protocol (with-reference, a repeated 1-kHz standard tone was presented repeatedly across trials. In the other (no-reference, no such repetitions occurred. Verbal memory and early reading skills were also evaluated to determine if the pattern of correlations between frequency discrimination, memory and literacy is similar to that previously reported in older children and adults. Preschool children were significantly more sensitive in the with-reference than in the no-reference condition, but the magnitude of this anchoring effect was smaller than that observed in adults. The pattern of correlations among discrimination thresholds, memory and literacy replicated previous reports in older children. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The processes allowing the use of context to form perceptual anchors are already functional among preschool children, albeit to a lesser extent than in adults. Nevertheless, immature anchoring cannot fully account for the poorer frequency discrimination abilities of young children. That anchoring is present among the majority of typically developing preschool children suggests that the anchoring deficits observed among individuals with dyslexia represent a

  16. Cytogenetical anchoring of sheep linkage map and syntenic groups using a sheep BAC library

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    Cribiu Edmond-Paul

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to simultaneously integrate linkage and syntenic groups to the ovine chromosomal map, a sheep bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC library was screened with previously assigned microsatellites using a sheep-hamster hybrid panel and genetic linkage. Thirty-three BACs were obtained, fluorescently labelled and hybridised on sheep-goat hybrid metaphases (2n = 57. This study allowed us, (i, to anchor all linkage groups on sheep chromosomes, (ii, to give information on the probable position of the centromere on the linkage map for the centromeric chromosomes, (iii, to contradict the previous orientation of the ovine × linkage group by the mapping of BMS1008 on OARXq38. Concerning our somatic cell hybrid panel, this study resulted in the assignment of all the previously unassigned groups to ovine chromosomes and a complete characterisation of the hybrid panel. In addition, since hybridisations were performed on a sheep-goat hybrid, new marker/anchoring points were added to the caprine cytogenetic map.

  17. High density linkage mapping of genomic and transcriptomic SNPs for synteny analysis and anchoring the genome sequence of chickpea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi; Jeena, Ganga; Shah, Niraj; Gupta, Shefali; Pradhan, Seema; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Jain, Mukesh; Chattopadhyay, Debasis; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2015-01-01

    This study presents genome-wide discovery of SNPs through next generation sequencing of the genome of Cicer reticulatum. Mapping of the C. reticulatum sequenced reads onto the draft genome assembly of C. arietinum (desi chickpea) resulted in identification of 842,104 genomic SNPs which were utilized along with an additional 36,446 genic SNPs identified from transcriptome sequences of the aforementioned varieties. Two new chickpea Oligo Pool All (OPAs) each having 3,072 SNPs were designed and utilized for SNP genotyping of 129 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs). Using Illumina GoldenGate Technology genotyping data of 5,041 SNPs were generated and combined with the 1,673 marker data from previously published studies, to generate a high resolution linkage map. The map comprised of 6698 markers distributed on eight linkage groups spanning 1083.93 cM with an average inter-marker distance of 0.16 cM. Utility of the present map was demonstrated for improving the anchoring of the earlier reported draft genome sequence of desi chickpea by ~30% and that of kabuli chickpea by 18%. The genetic map reported in this study represents the most dense linkage map of chickpea , with the potential to facilitate efficient anchoring of the draft genome sequences of desi as well as kabuli chickpea varieties. PMID:26303721

  18. PROSPECTS OF USING INVASIVE LEGUMES IN HERBAL MEDICINE

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    Shelepova O. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose to consider alien invasive species as new bioresources. These plants form powerful (usually single-species thickets in the secondary range and their size are larger than at the native cenosis. The territory occupied by invasive species, especially in disturbed habitats, is quite high, so their possible yield is very high. The main problem of using alien species in the pharmacological purposes is the lack of information about the dynamics of the chemicals accumulation. Available data on the biochemistry in its natural habitat is inadaptable for the same taxon in the secondary range because of significant microevolutionary changes. In this work we present the results of phytochemical screening four legume species, formed invasive populations in the Middle Russia - Galega orientalis Lam., Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl., Robinia pseudoacacia L. & Caragana arborescens Lam. Information about these species as traditional medicine plants is given. Original data on the concentration phenolic compounds and biophile silicon in leaves and inflorescences are presented. Information on the fractional composition of the flavonoid complex is done. Taking into consideration the high adaptability of invasive species, the chemical analysis of the samples from different ecotypes was made. It is shown that accumulation of bioactive agents and biophile silicon isn’t depended on the environmental conditions. Concentrations of polyphenolic compounds were at the average level in comparison with medicinal plants. Thus, the combination of flavonoid complex with biophile silicon provides pharmacological significance of studied species, and justifies the needing the further study of invasive plant species in order to create new herbal medicines

  19. Small RNA pathways and diversity in model legumes: lessons from genomics.

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    Pilar eBustos-Sanmamed

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Small non coding RNAs (smRNA participate in the regulation of development, cell differentiation, adaptation to environmental constraints and defense responses in plants. They negatively regulate gene expression by degrading specific mRNA targets, repressing their translation or modifying chromatin conformation through homologous interaction with target loci. MicroRNAs (miRNA and short-interfering RNAs (siRNA are generated from long double stranded RNA (dsRNA that are cleaved into 20- to 24-nucleotide dsRNAs by RNase III proteins called DICERs (DCL. One strand of the duplex is then loaded onto effective complexes containing different ARGONAUTE (AGO proteins. In this review, we explored smRNA diversity in model legumes and compiled available data from miRBAse, the miRNA database, and from 22 reports of smRNA deep sequencing or miRNA identification genome-wide in Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus. In addition to conserved miRNAs present in other plant species, 229, 179 and 35 novel miRNA families were identified respectively in these 3 legumes, among which several seems legume-specific. New potential functions of several miRNAs in the legume-specific nodulation process are discussed. Furthermore, a new category of siRNA, the phased siRNAs, which seems to mainly regulate disease-resistance genes, was recently discovered in legumes. Despite that the genome sequence of model legumes are not yet fully completed, further analysis was performed by database mining of gene families and protein characteristics of DCLs and AGOs in these genomes. Although most components of the smRNA pathways are conserved, identifiable homologs of key smRNA players from non-legumes could not yet be detected in M. truncatula available genomic and expressed sequence databases. In addition, an important gene diversification was observed in the three legumes. Functional significance of these variant isoforms may reflect peculiarities of smRNA biogenesis in

  20. Effect of Harvest Time on Forage Yield and Quality Maize under Intercropping with Legume Plants

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    sh Nazari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation the different sowing date and different harvest time in intercropping of maize and legume plants on maize forage quality, a randomized complete block with three replications conducted in research field of university of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources in 2011. Treatments were included three legume plants (soybean, fenugreek and cowpea at two sowing time (simultaneously with maize, and 21 days after sowing of maize, and control treatment (maize without legume plants. The results showed that delay in harvest time was caused increasing the dry matter from milky stage to dough stage, while maize harvest at dough stage the dry matter yield in maize pure stand (17%, soybean at both time (14 and 9%, fenugreek at both time (11 and 22% and cowpea at both time (3 and 11% than the increase in milk yield the dry matter. The highest forage of legume plants was related to cowpea. The study showed that the harvest at milky stage than dough stage have higher forage quality. The maximum CP and DMD of maize forage were obtained at first time of cowpea and second time of soybean, respectively. The maximum of WSC also was observed in monoculture of maize (without legume plant. Weed dry matter decreased significantly (P

  1. Evolutionary signals of symbiotic persistence in the legume-rhizobia mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gijsbert D A; Cornwell, William K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Kiers, E Toby

    2015-08-18

    Understanding the origins and evolutionary trajectories of symbiotic partnerships remains a major challenge. Why are some symbioses lost over evolutionary time whereas others become crucial for survival? Here, we use a quantitative trait reconstruction method to characterize different evolutionary stages in the ancient symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, asking how labile is symbiosis across different host clades. We find that more than half of the 1,195 extant nodulating legumes analyzed have a high likelihood (>95%) of being in a state of high symbiotic persistence, meaning that they show a continued capacity to form the symbiosis over evolutionary time, even though the partnership has remained facultative and is not obligate. To explore patterns associated with the likelihood of loss and retention of the N2-fixing symbiosis, we tested for correlations between symbiotic persistence and legume distribution, climate, soil and trait data. We found a strong latitudinal effect and demonstrated that low mean annual temperatures are associated with high symbiotic persistence in legumes. Although no significant correlations between soil variables and symbiotic persistence were found, nitrogen and phosphorus leaf contents were positively correlated with legumes in a state of high symbiotic persistence. This pattern suggests that highly demanding nutrient lifestyles are associated with more stable partnerships, potentially because they "lock" the hosts into symbiotic dependency. Quantitative reconstruction methods are emerging as a powerful comparative tool to study broad patterns of symbiont loss and retention across diverse partnerships.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-12

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E2. Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  3. Legume growth-promoting rhizobia: an overview on the Mesorhizobium genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laranjo, Marta; Alexandre, Ana; Oliveira, Solange

    2014-01-20

    The need for sustainable agricultural practices is revitalizing the interest in biological nitrogen fixation and rhizobia-legumes symbioses, particularly those involving economically important legume crops in terms of food and forage. The genus Mesorhizobium includes species with high geographical dispersion and able to nodulate a wide variety of legumes, including important crop species, like chickpea or biserrula. Some cases of legume-mesorhizobia inoculant introduction represent exceptional opportunities to study the rhizobia genomes evolution and the evolutionary relationships among species. Complete genome sequences revealed that mesorhizobia typically harbour chromosomal symbiosis islands. The phylogenies of symbiosis genes, such as nodC, are not congruent with the phylogenies based on core genes, reflecting rhizobial host range, rather than species affiliation. This agrees with studies showing that Mesorhizobium species are able to exchange symbiosis genes through lateral transfer of chromosomal symbiosis islands, thus acquiring the ability to nodulate new hosts. Phylogenetic analyses of the Mesorhizobium genus based on core and accessory genes reveal complex evolutionary relationships and a high genomic plasticity, rendering the Mesorhizobium genus as a good model to investigate rhizobia genome evolution and adaptation to different host plants. Further investigation of symbiosis genes as well as stress response genes will certainly contribute to understand mesorhizobia-legume symbiosis and to develop more effective mesorhizobia inoculants.

  4. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh genes in legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochiai Toshinori

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuclear genes determine the vast range of phenotypes that are responsible for the adaptive abilities of organisms in nature. Nevertheless, the evolutionary processes that generate the structures and functions of nuclear genes are only now be coming understood. The aim of our study is to isolate the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh genes in two distantly related legumes, and use these sequences to examine the molecular evolutionary history of this nuclear gene. Results We isolated the expressed Adh genes from two species of legumes, Sophora flavescens Ait. and Wisteria floribunda DC., by a RT-PCR based approach and found a new Adh locus in addition to homologues of the Adh genes found previously in legumes. To examine the evolution of these genes, we compared the species and gene trees and found gene duplication of the Adh loci in the legumes occurred as an ancient event. Conclusion This is the first report revealing that some legume species have at least two Adh gene loci belonging to separate clades. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these genes resulted from relatively ancient duplication events.

  5. Molecular phylogeny and evolution of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes in legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tatsuya; Yokoyama, Jun; Nakamura, Toru; Song, In-Ja; Ito, Takuro; Ochiai, Toshinori; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki; Maki, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    Background Nuclear genes determine the vast range of phenotypes that are responsible for the adaptive abilities of organisms in nature. Nevertheless, the evolutionary processes that generate the structures and functions of nuclear genes are only now be coming understood. The aim of our study is to isolate the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) genes in two distantly related legumes, and use these sequences to examine the molecular evolutionary history of this nuclear gene. Results We isolated the expressed Adh genes from two species of legumes, Sophora flavescens Ait. and Wisteria floribunda DC., by a RT-PCR based approach and found a new Adh locus in addition to homologues of the Adh genes found previously in legumes. To examine the evolution of these genes, we compared the species and gene trees and found gene duplication of the Adh loci in the legumes occurred as an ancient event. Conclusion This is the first report revealing that some legume species have at least two Adh gene loci belonging to separate clades. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that these genes resulted from relatively ancient duplication events. PMID:15836788

  6. Protein and legume intake and prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Ellen; Garcia-Palmieri, Mario R; Figueroa, Nayda R; McGee, Daniel L; Messina, Mark; Freudenheim, Jo L; Crespo, Carlos J

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the number 1 cancer killer among Puerto Rican (PR) men. Plant foods have been inversely associated with prostate cancer. Legumes play a significant role in the PR diet; consumption of legumes in PR (14 lb/capita) was double that of the United States (7 lb/capita). We examined dietary protein consumption (from baseline 24-h dietary recalls) and prostate cancer mortality in the PR Heart Health Program, a cohort study of 9,824 men aged 35-79 years at baseline (1964) with follow-up until 2005. Total protein intake in the cohort was 85 g/day, and sources of protein were 30% vegetable, 30% dairy, 31% animal, and 8% seafood protein. Legume intake was 2.3 servings/day (1/4 cup each). Legume intake was not associated with prostate cancer mortality [comparing highest quartile to lowest quartile-odds ratio (OR) 1.40 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-2.18], P trend 0.17]-nor were total protein, animal, seafood, dairy, or vegetable protein intakes. Consuming 1-2 servings of fruit was inversely associated (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.77), whereas consuming more than 2 servings of fruit was not associated with prostate cancer mortality. Thus, we find no association between legumes or protein intake and prostate cancer mortality in this longitudinal cohort study of PR men.

  7. In-vitro regeneration studies of an important legume, Cicer arietinum: Hurdles and future prospects

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    Pragati Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several economically important grain legumes including chickpea that play significant role in nutrition of the rural and urban poor in developing world. Plants are subjected to a large number of stresses that may interfere with the normal growth and development. The model legumes are being developed as experimental systems to study a number of key biological questions using molecular tools including genomics and proteomics. Most of the functional genomics approaches rely upon the highthroughput transformation system useful for studying various gene identification strategies. The difficulty to transform a plant varies from species to species in legumes. There is limited success in exchange of the desirable characters by the classical and modern breeding technologies, in important pulse crop chickpea and biotechnological tools like plant tissue culture and genetic transformation techniques have emerged as a potential supplement. The major bottleneck is requirement of an in vitro manipulation of leguminosae members and the availability of reproducible, efficient and better plant regeneration methods. The regeneration and transformation of legumes particularly chickpea suffers due to recalcitrant nature towards rooting and transplantation of the in vitro regenerated plants. This becomes a limiting factor for the application of this technology towards designated mandate of crop improvement programs. This article discusses the hurdles and strategies for transformation of legumes in general and chickpea in particular.

  8. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Glenn Hyman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  9. Priority regions for research on dryland cereals and legumes [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hyman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dryland cereals and legumes  are important crops in farming systems across the world.  Yet they are frequently neglected among the priorities for international agricultural research and development, often due to lack of information on their magnitude and extent. Given what we know about the global distribution of dryland cereals and legumes, what regions should be high priority for research and development to improve livelihoods and food security? This research evaluated the geographic dimensions of these crops and the farming systems where they are found worldwide. The study employed geographic information science and data to assess the key farming systems and regions for these crops. Dryland cereal and legume crops should be given high priority in 18 farming systems worldwide, where their cultivated area comprises more than 160 million ha. These regions include the dryer areas of South Asia, West and East Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, Central America and other parts of Asia. These regions are prone to drought and heat stress, have limiting soil constraints, make up half of the global population and account for 60 percent of the global poor and malnourished. The dryland cereal and legume crops and farming systems merit more research and development attention to improve productivity and address development problems. This project developed an open access dataset and information resource that provides the basis for future analysis of the geographic dimensions of dryland cereals and legumes.

  10. Comparative study on antioxidant activity of different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Sushama A; Rajalakshmi, V; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Sharma, Arun

    2011-09-01

    Legumes are rich source of proteins, dietary fiber, micronutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. Thirty different varieties of commonly consumed legumes in India, were screened for phenolic content and antioxidant activity using, radical scavenging [(1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, (ABTS·⁺], Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and metal ion (Fe²⁺) chelation assays. Legumes varied largely in their antioxidant activity. Horse gram, common beans, cowpea (brown and red) and fenugreek showed high DPPH· radical scavenging activity (>400 units/g), while lablab bean (cream and white), chickpea (cream and green), butter bean and pea (white and green) showed low antioxidant activity (legumes having dark color seed coat did not always possessed high antioxidant activity (e.g. moth bean, black pea, black gram, lentils). Antioxidant activity showed positive correlation (r²>0.95) with phenolic contents, in DPPH·, ABTS·⁺ and FRAP assays, whereas poor correlation (r²=0.297) was observed between Fe²⁺ chelating activity of the legumes and phenolic contents.

  11. Weed inhibition by sowing legume species in early succession of abandoned fields on Loess Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Hua; Xu, Dang-Hui; Wang, Gang

    2008-01-01

    A major constraint on vegetation succession on abandoned land is dominance by early successional species. Our aim was to inhibit weeds and alter the initial vegetation succession by the introduction of legume species ( Medicago sativa, Melilotus suaveolens, and Astragalus adsurgens) into abandoned fields on the Loess Plateau, China. Results from our study showed that the addition of legume species strongly affected the dominance pattern of the abandoned-field vegetation. The number of naturally colonizing species was inhibited by the introduction of legume species in the first two growing seasons. The strongest effect on weed inhibition appeared by sowing Melilotus suaveolens. Vegetation cover and above-ground biomass increased after introduction of legume species and the number of naturally colonizing plant species showed a positive correlation with above-ground biomass. Later successional species like Stipa breviflora and Astragalus polycladus appeared three years following the introduction of Melilotus suaveolens, indicating that the course of old-field succession may be accelerated by introducing legume species such as Melilotus suaveolens, at least temporarily.

  12. An Analysis for Cross Beam-Ground Anchor Reinforcement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yingzi; Zhang Baiqing; Tang Huiming

    2005-01-01

    With the rapid development of water facilities, hydroelectric projects, highways and railways in China, beam-anchor reinforcement has been widely used to stabilize slopes in recent years. But the theory for the design of beam-anchor reinforcement is far behind the application. Cross beam-ground anchor reinforcement is a combination of beams and anchors forming a new structure to prevent slope sliding. The forces in the beams are discussed using theoretical analysis and numerical modeling. The Winkler model is used to analyze the beams, and reasonable values of λ, length, spacing and cantilevered length for the beams are determined through a theoretical analysis. A three-dimensional finite element method is adopted to model the interaction of the beams and soils and a structure analysis is applied to treat the beams and to study the stress distribution in external and internal beams. The analytical results show that it is better to satisfy λ≥2π, the spacing between anchors ls should be lsλ<π/2 and cantilever length should be (0.3-0.5)ls for the optimum design. The numerical results show that the same design can be used for all beams in different directions, including the internal and external beams. The application of the analytical method for reinforcement beam analysis is acceptable. It is better to choose a safety coefficient of 1.3 for design based on the analytical method for safety.

  13. Anchoring a Leviathan: How the Nuclear Membrane Tethers the Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapiewski, Rafal; Robson, Michael I; Schirmer, Eric C

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the nuclear envelope has many distinct direct connections to chromatin that contribute to genome organization. The functional consequences of genome organization on gene regulation are less clear. Even less understood is how interactions of lamins and nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins (NETs) with chromatin can produce anchoring tethers that can withstand the physical forces of and on the genome. Chromosomes are the largest molecules in the cell, making megadalton protein structures like the nuclear pore complexes and ribosomes seem small by comparison. Thus to withstand strong forces from chromosome dynamics an anchoring tether is likely to be much more complex than a single protein-protein or protein-DNA interaction. Here we will briefly review known NE-genome interactions that likely contribute to spatial genome organization, postulate in the context of experimental data how these anchoring tethers contribute to gene regulation, and posit several hypotheses for the physical nature of these tethers that need to be investigated experimentally. Significantly, disruption of these anchoring tethers and the subsequent consequences for gene regulation could explain how mutations in nuclear envelope proteins cause diseases ranging from muscular dystrophy to lipodystrophy to premature aging progeroid syndromes. The two favored hypotheses for nuclear envelope protein involvement in disease are (1) weakening nuclear and cellular mechanical stability, and (2) disrupting genome organization and gene regulation. Considerable experimental support has been obtained for both. The integration of both mechanical and gene expression defects in the disruption of anchoring tethers could provide a unifying hypothesis consistent with both.

  14. 棉花遗传锚定的基因组物理图谱%Toward a Genetically-anchored Physical Map of the Cotton Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew H. PATERSON; James C. ESTILL; Jun-kang RONG; Dawn T. WILLIAMS-COPLIN; Barry S. MARLER

    2002-01-01

    @@ We are using a high-density (1-cM) molecular map of the cotton genome based on RFLP, SSR,and EST markers as a foundation for development of a robust BAC based physical map. The 'overgo' approach is providing an efficient means by which to accomplish hybridization-based anchoring of geneticallymapped cotton sequences, and also heterologous sequences from other genomes that are useful for comparative biology.

  15. Estimation of Nitrogenase Enzyme Activities and Plant Growth of Legume and Non-legume Inoculated with Diazotrophic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salwani S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF process benefits the agriculture sector especially for reducing cost of nitrogenfertilizer. In the process, the diazotrophs convert N2 into ammonia (NH3 which is useable by plants. The BNF process iscatalysed by nitrogenase enzyme that involved protons and electrons together with evolution of H2 therefore, theassessment of N2 fixation is also available via H2 production and electron allocation analysis. Thus, the aims of thisexperiment were to estimate the nitrogenase enzyme activities and observe the influence of diazothrophs on growth oflegume (soybean and non legume (rice plants. Host plants were inoculated with respective inocula; Bradyrhizobiumjaponicum (strain 532C for soybean while Azospirillum brasilense (Sp7 and locally isolated diazotroph (isolate 5 forrice. At harvest, the plants were observed for plant growth parameters, H2 evolution, N2 fixation and electron allocationcoefficient (EAC values. The experiment recorded N2 fixation activities of inoculated soybean plants at 141.2 μmol N2 h-1g-1 dry weight nodule, and the evolution of H2 at 144.4 μmol H2 h-1 g-1 dry weight nodule. The electron allocationcoefficient (EAC of soybean was recorded at 0.982. For inoculated rice plants, none of the observations was successfully recorded. However, results for chlorophyll contents and plant dry weight of both plants inoculated with respective inocula were similar to the control treatments supplied with full nitrogen fertilization (+N. The experiment clearly showed that inoculation of diazotrophic bacteria could enhance growth of the host plants similar to plants treated with nitrogenous fertilizer due to efficient N2 fixation process

  16. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  17. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  18. Selection for cheating across disparate environments in the legume-rhizobium mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephanie S; Simms, Ellen L

    2014-09-01

    The primary dilemma in evolutionarily stable mutualisms is that natural selection for cheating could overwhelm selection for cooperation. Cheating need not entail parasitism; selection favours cheating as a quantitative trait whenever less-cooperative partners are more fit than more-cooperative partners. Mutualisms might be stabilised by mechanisms that direct benefits to more-cooperative individuals, which counter selection for cheating; however, empirical evidence that natural selection favours cheating in mutualisms is sparse. We measured selection on cheating in single-partner pairings of wild legume and rhizobium lineages, which prevented legume choice. Across contrasting environments, selection consistently favoured cheating by rhizobia, but did not favour legumes that provided less benefit to rhizobium partners. This is the first simultaneous measurement of selection on cheating across both host and symbiont lineages from a natural population. We empirically confirm selection for cheating as a source of antagonistic coevolutionary pressure in mutualism and a biological dilemma for models of cooperation.

  19. Risk assessment of clinical reactions to legumes in peanut-allergic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Bjerremann; Andersen, Milene; Skov, Per Stahl

    2008-01-01

    Peanut-allergic children might be at risk for reactions to other legumes. However, it is not always possible to perform multiple oral food challenges in children. On the basis of patient case history, in vitro diagnostic tests, and eventually food challenges, we aimed at developing an algorithm...... for risk assessment of possible clinical reactions to other legumes (soybean, lupine, fresh, and blanched green pea). Seventy-five consecutive patients with a positive oral food challenge to peanut were included in the study. All tests were run as part of the routine allergy examination. A high proportion...... of patients and/or caretakers refused the administered legume oral food challenges. Obtained diagnoses from histamine release did not correlate significantly to the outcome of the algorithm. Interestingly, threshold from peanut challenges did not correlate with the risk assessment.The algorithm presented...

  20. Optical Fiber Grating Sensor for Force Measurement of Anchor Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Desheng; FU Jinghua; LIU Shengchun; SUI Lingfeng; FU Rong

    2006-01-01

    The development of the sensor suitable for measuring large load stress to the anchor cable becomes an important task in bridge construction and maintenance. Therefore, a new type of optical fiber sensor was developed in the laboratory - optical fiber grating sensor for force measurement of anchor cable (OFBFMAC). No similar report about this kind of sensor has been found up to now in China and other countries. This sensor is proved to be an effective way of monitoring in processes of anchor cable installation, cable cutting, cable force regulation, etc, with the accurate and repeatable measuring results. Its successful application in the tie bar cable force safety monitoring for Wuhan Qingchuan bridge is a new exploration of optical fiber grating sensing technology in bridge tie bar monitoring system.

  1. Anchoring effect on first passage process in Taiwan financial market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hsing; Liao, Chi-Yo; Ko, Jing-Yuan; Lih, Jiann-Shing

    2017-07-01

    Empirical analysis of the price fluctuations of financial markets has received extensive attention because a substantial amount of financial market data has been collected and because of advances in data-mining techniques. Price fluctuation trends can help investors to make informed trading decisions, but such decisions may also be affected by a psychological factors-the anchoring effect. This study explores the intraday price time series of Taiwan futures, and applies diffusion model and quantitative methods to analyze the relationship between the anchoring effect and price fluctuations during first passage process. Our results indicate that power-law scaling and anomalous diffusion for stock price fluctuations are related to the anchoring effect. Moreover, microscopic price fluctuations before switching point in first passage process correspond with long-term price fluctuations of Taiwan's stock market. We find that microscopic trends could provide useful information for understanding macroscopic trends in stock markets.

  2. Legumes mitigate ecological consequences of a topographic gradient in a northern Mongolian steppe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Brenda B; Goldman, Robert; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Helliker, Brent R; Plante, Alain F; Spence, Laura A; Liancourt, Pierre; Boldgiv, Bazartseren; Petraitis, Peter S

    2012-05-01

    Topography should create spatial variation in water and nutrients and play an especially important role in the ecology of water-limited systems. We use stable isotopes to discern how plants respond both to ecological gradients associated with elevation and to neighboring legumes on a south-facing slope in the semi-arid, historically grazed steppe of northern Mongolia. Out of three target species, Potentilla acaulis, Potentilla sericea, and Festuca lenensis, when >30 cm from a legume, all showed a decrease in leaf δ(15)N with increasing elevation. This, together with measures of soil δ(15)N, suggests greater N processing at the moister, more productive, lower elevation, and more N fixation at the upper elevation, where cover of legumes and lichens and plant-available nitrate were greater. Total soil N was greater at the lower elevation, but not lichen biomass or root colonization by AMF. Leaf δ(13)C values for P. acaulis and F. lenensis are consistent with increasing water stress with elevation; δ(13)C values indicated the greatest intrinsic water use efficiency for P. sericea, which is more abundant at the upper elevation. Nearby legumes (<10 cm) moderate the effect of elevation on leaf δ(15)N, confirming legumes' meaningful input of N, and affect leaf δ(13)C for two species, suggesting an influence on the efficiency of carbon fixation. Variation in leaf %N and %C as a function of elevation and proximity to a legume differs among species. Apparently, most N input is at upper elevations, pointing to the possible importance of grazers, in addition to hydrological processes, as transporters of N throughout this landscape.

  3. Genetic Diversity of Selected Mangifera Species Revealed by Inter Simple Sequence Repeats Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Zulhairil Ariffin; Muhammad Shafie Md Sah; Salma Idris; Nuradni Hashim

    2015-01-01

    ISSR markers were employed to reveal genetic diversity and genetic relatedness among 28 Mangifera accessions collected from Yan (Kedah), Bukit Gantang (Perak), Sibuti (Sarawak), and Papar (Sabah). A total of 198 markers were generated using nine anchored primers and one nonanchored primer. Genetic variation among the 28 accessions of Mangifera species including wild relatives, landraces, and clonal varieties is high, with an average degree of polymorphism of 98% and mean Shannon index, H0=7.5...

  4. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  5. Adapting to change in banana-based farming systems of northwest Tanzania: the potential role of herbaceous legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baijukya, F.P.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Land use changes; Herbaceous legumes; Adoptability; N 2 -fixation; Residual effect; Legume management; Exploration of options, Nutrient depleted soils.The banana-based farming system in

  6. Characterization of LysM-receptors and their ligands involved in development and regulation of legume-rhizobium symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broghammer, Angelique; Krusell, Lene; Blaise, Mickael

    their function is unknown. Symbiotic interaction between legumes and rhizobia results in the development of a new organ, the root nodule. The specificity of the rhizobial/legume interaction is determined by LysM receptor-like kinases (NFR1/NFR5) and rhizobia secreted Nod factors containing strain specific...

  7. Using an energetic and exergetic life cycle analysis to assess the best applications of legumes within a biobased economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In symbiosis with bacteria, legumes are able to biologically fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and therefore require less artificial nitrogen fertilizer. As the manufacturing of nitrogen fertilizers demands a lot of process energy, growing legumes may give large overall energy savings. The reduction

  8. Productivity and residual benefits of grain legumes to sorghum under semi-arid conditions in southwestern Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, B.; Twomlow, S.J.; Wijk, van M.T.; Dimes, J.P.; Giller, K.E.

    2007-01-01

    The productivity and residual benefits of four grain legumes to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) grown in rotation were measured under semi-arid conditions over three cropping seasons. Two varieties of each of the grain legumes; cowpea (Vigna unguiculata); groundnut (Arachis hypogaea); pigeon pea (Cajanus

  9. Piloting a Cooperative Extension Service Nutrition Education Program on First-Grade Children's Willingness to Try Foods Containing Legumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cassandra S.; Hermann, Janice R.

    2011-01-01

    Many nutrition education campaigns targeting children in the United States focus on increasing fruit and vegetable consumption, but most don't specifically promote legumes. The project described here sought to pilot the effect of an Extension nutrition education program on first grade children's willingness to try foods containing legumes. A…

  10. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    Full Text Available Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2 involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a, potentially degradable (b and the degradation rate constant (c of 'b' fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater 'a' fraction, 'b' fraction, 'c' values, and effective degradability (E value of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn

  11. Legume-Cereal Intercropping Improves Forage Yield, Quality and Degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yin, Binjie; Xie, Yuhuai; Li, Jing; Yang, Zaibin; Zhang, Guiguo

    2015-01-01

    Intercropping legume with cereal is an extensively applied planting pattern in crop cultivation. However, forage potential and the degradability of harvested mixtures from intercropping system remain unclear. To investigate the feasibility of applying an intercropping system as a forage supply source to ruminants, two consecutive experiments (experiments 1 and 2) involving a field cultivation trial and a subsequent in vivo degradable experiment were conducted to determine the forage production performance and the ruminally degradable characteristics of a harvested mixture from an alfalfa/corn-rye intercropping system. In experiment 1, the intercropping system was established by alternating alfalfa and corn or rye with a row ratio of 5:2. Dry matter (DM) and nutrient yields were determined. In experiment 2, forages harvested from the different treatments were used as feedstuff to identify nutrient degradation kinetics and distribution of components between the rapidly degradable (a), potentially degradable (b) and the degradation rate constant (c) of 'b' fraction by in sacco method in Small-Tail Han wether Sheep. The intercropping system of alfalfa and corn-rye provided higher forage production performance with net increases of 9.52% and 34.81% in DM yield, 42.13% and 16.74% in crude protein (CP) yield, 25.94% and 69.99% in degradable DM yield, and 16.96% and 5.50% in degradable CP yield than rotation and alfalfa sole cropping systems, respectively. In addition, the harvest mixture from intercropping system also had greater 'a' fraction, 'b' fraction, 'c' values, and effective degradability (E value) of DM and CP than corn or rye hay harvested from rotation system. After 48-h exposure to rumen microbes, intercropping harvest materials were degraded to a higher extent than separately degraded crop stems from the sole system as indicated by visual microscopic examination with more tissues disappeared. Thus, the intercropping of alfalfa and corn-rye exhibited a greater

  12. Proteomic analysis of GPI-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2006-01-01

    Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) represent a subset of post-translationally modified proteins that are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane via a C-terminal GPI anchor. GPI-APs are found in a variety of eukaryote species, from pathogenic microorganisms...... to humans. GPI-APs confer important cellular functions as receptors, enzymes and scaffolding molecules. Specific enzymes and detergent extraction methods combined with separation technologies and mass spectrometry permit proteomic analysis of GPI-APs from plasma membrane preparations to reveal cell...

  13. Proteomic analysis of GPI-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Hye Ryung; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2006-01-01

    to humans. GPI-APs confer important cellular functions as receptors, enzymes and scaffolding molecules. Specific enzymes and detergent extraction methods combined with separation technologies and mass spectrometry permit proteomic analysis of GPI-APs from plasma membrane preparations to reveal cell......Glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) represent a subset of post-translationally modified proteins that are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane via a C-terminal GPI anchor. GPI-APs are found in a variety of eukaryote species, from pathogenic microorganisms...

  14. Arrangement of anchor reinforcement in roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾攀峰; 陈启永; 芦付松

    2003-01-01

    Bolting of mining roadway for fully mechanized sublevel caving has been practised successfully in Hebi mining area.It provides a new method for roadway support and settles the problem of support difficulty radically for sublevel caving in Hebi mining area.Where anchor reinforcement holds an important station in roadway support.This article brings forward the arrangement project of anchor based on theoretic analysis.Compared with arranged in the middle of the entry, anchor arranged in the vertex of the entry can reduces the length of anchor,shortens the anchor installation time,and heightens the reliability of anchor installation.

  15. Mechanical behavior of the U-anchor of super-CFRP rod under tensile loading

    OpenAIRE

    Djamaluddin, Rudy; yamaguchi, Kohei; Hino, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    - A suitable anchoring system is required to anchor a CFRP tendon due to its sensitivity in lateral pressure. Recent developed anchors are still relying on lateral pressure in anchoring CFRP tendons. A new CFRP unit equipped with U-anchor at both end of the rod body without any jointing (namely of Super CFRP, S-CFRP) has been developed. This paper presents the mechanical behavior as well as failure mechanism of U-anchor under direct loading and loaded under embedded within concrete, respec...

  16. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Upland Farmland as Affected by Summer Legume Crop Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Zheng-qin; XING Guang-xi; H Tsuruta; SHI Shu-lian; SHEN Guang-yu; DU Li-juan; QIAN Wei

    2002-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the effects of leguminous crop cultivation on nitrousoxide (N2O) emissions from upland agricultural soils. Results demonstrated that N2O emission sequences were tively. While in terms of seasonal emission, the sequence was that soybean > peanut crop > upland rice, being 0.77, 0.70 and 0.55 kg/ha respectively. Results also demonstrated that legume crop treatment emitted much more N2O than non-legume upland rice treatment and that N fertilized treatments emitted more than unand N fertilizer, therefore, were one of the important sources of N2O emissions from agricultural fields.

  17. Kidney bean: a major sensitizer among legumes in asthma and rhinitis patients from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrashan Kasera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of IgE mediated food allergies has increased over the last two decades. Food allergy has been reported to be fatal in highly sensitive individuals. Legumes are important food allergens but their prevalence may vary among different populations. The present study identifies sensitization to common legumes among Indian population, characterizes allergens of kidney bean and establishes its cross reactivity with other legumes. METHODOLOGY: Patients (n = 355 with history of legume allergy were skin prick tested (SPT with 10 legumes. Specific IgE (sIgE and total IgE were estimated in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Characterization of kidney bean allergens and their cross reactivity was investigated by immunobiochemical methods. Identification of major allergens of kidney bean was carried out by mass spectrometry. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Kidney bean exhibited sensitization in 78 (22.0% patients followed by chickpea 65 (18.0% and peanut 53 (15%. SPT positive patients depicted significantly elevated sIgE levels against different legumes (r = 0.85, p<0.0001. Sera from 30 kidney bean sensitive individuals exhibited basophil histamine release (16-54% which significantly correlated with their SPT (r = 0.83, p<0.0001 and sIgE (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Kidney bean showed eight major allergens of 58, 50, 45, 42, 40, 37, 34 and 18 kDa on immunoblot and required 67.3±2.51 ng of homologous protein for 50% IgE inhibition. Inhibition assays revealed extensive cross reactivity among kidney bean, peanut, black gram and pigeon pea. nLC-MS/MS analysis identified four allergens of kidney bean showing significant matches with known proteins namely lectin (phytohemagglutinin, phaseolin, alpha-amylase inhibitor precursor and group 3 late embryogenesis abundant protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Among legumes, kidney bean followed by chick pea and peanut are the major allergic triggers in asthma and rhinitis patients in India

  18. Isoptopic evidence of the transfer of nitrogen fixed by legumes to coffee trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snoeck D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of isotopic methods has made it possible to quantify the contribution of nitrogen fixed by a coffee plantation. Thanks to the use of the natural 15N abundance assessment technique, we were able to show that, in field condition, roughly 30/ of the nitrogen effectively fixed by a legume (including biomass, roots and root exudates were transferred to the associated coffee trees. The quantities of N transferred by legume prunings to sole coffee trees were measured to evaluate the amount of N transferred to coffee via litter fall or soil.

  19. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2009-01-01

    balances. A 2½-year lysimeter experiment was carried out on a temperate sandy loam soil. Crops were not fertilized in the experimental period and the natural 15N abundance technique was used to determine grain legume N2 fixation. Faba bean total aboveground DM production was significantly higher (1,300 g m...... on the subsequent spring wheat or winter triticale DM production. Nitrate leaching following grain legumes was significantly reduced with catch crops compared to without catch crops during autumn and winter before sowing subsequent spring wheat. Soil N balances were calculated from monitored N leaching from...

  20. Current status of frameless anchored IUD for immediate intracesarean insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, Dirk; Goldstuck, Norman D; Hasskamp, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Immediate postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion deserves great attention as it can provide immediate, timely and convenient contraception plus the added benefit of preventing repeat unintended pregnancies. Although women post vaginal delivery can benefit from immediate post-placenta contraception, women undergoing Cesarean section clearly need contraception, as an inter-delivery interval shorter than 18 months places them at a high risk for uterine rupture. The main drawback of currently available framed IUD devices for immediate postpartum insertion of an IUD is their high expulsion and displacement rates when inserted immediately postpartum after both vaginal and Cesarean delivery. Current research suggests that a brief window of opportunity exists of 10 minutes for insertion of conventional IUDs after which time expulsion rates both immediately and over time are greatly enhanced. This paper summarizes the current research conducted to overcome the expulsion problems associated with conventional T-shaped devices as well as through the use of an anchored frameless device. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts were made to solve the expulsion problem by modifying existing devices, such as adding absorbable sutures (Delta-T) or additional appendages. These attempts proved to be clinically unsuccessful as the catgut suture added to the transverse arms did not provide sufficient resistance to prevent downward displacement and expulsion. An anchoring technique to suspend a copper IUD to the fundus of the uterus was developed in Belgium in the 1980s and has been the subject of extensive ongoing clinical research since 1985. Recently the frameless copper releasing anchor IUD, GyneFix, has been tested for postplacental insertion. Initially, the anchor was modified by the inclusion of a biodegradable cone which was added below the anchoring knot. Clinical studies confirmed the adequacy of this approach suggesting that it was technically possible to anchor an IUD

  1. Compatibility of rhizobial genotypes within natural populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae for nodulation of host legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguerre, Gisèle; Louvrier, Philippe; Allard, Marie-Reine; Amarger, Noëlle

    2003-04-01

    Populations of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were sampled from two bulk soils, rhizosphere, and nodules of host legumes, fava bean (Vicia faba) and pea (Pisum sativum) grown in the same soils. Additional populations nodulating peas, fava beans, and vetches (Vicia sativa) grown in other soils and fava bean-nodulating strains from various geographic sites were also analyzed. The rhizobia were characterized by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-PCR fingerprinting and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of 16S-23S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacers as markers of the genomic background and PCR-RFLP of a nodulation gene region, nodD, as a marker of the symbiotic component of the genome. Pairwise comparisons showed differences among the genetic structures of the bulk soil, rhizosphere, and nodule populations and in the degree of host specificity within the Vicieae cross-inoculation group. With fava bean, the symbiotic genotype appeared to be the preponderant determinant of the success in nodule occupancy of rhizobial genotypes independently of the associated genomic background, the plant genotype, and the soil sampled. The interaction between one particular rhizobial symbiotic genotype and fava bean seems to be highly specific for nodulation and linked to the efficiency of nitrogen fixation. By contrast with bulk soil and fava bean-nodulating populations, the analysis of pea-nodulating populations showed preferential associations between genomic backgrounds and symbiotic genotypes. Both components of the rhizobial genome may influence competitiveness for nodulation of pea, and rhizosphere colonization may be a decisive step in competition for nodule occupancy.

  2. Fullerene-based Anchoring Groups for Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Christian A.; Ding, Dapeng; Sørensen, Jakob Kryger

    2008-01-01

    We present results on a new fullerene-based anchoring group for molecular electronics. Using lithographic mechanically controllable break junctions in vacuum we have determined the conductance and stability of single-molecule junctions of 1,4-bis(fullero[c]pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzene. The compound can...

  3. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-Out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.

    1995-01-01

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assume that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  4. Analytical Model for Hook Anchor Pull-out

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Ulfkjær, J. P.; Adamsen, P.

    A simple analytical model for the pull-out of a hook anchor is presented. The model is based on a simplified version of the fictitious crack model. It is assumed that the fracture process is the pull-off of a cone shaped concrete part, simplifying the problem by assuming pure rigid body motions...

  5. Experience-based, body-anchored qualitative research interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    -anchored interviewing, and second, by an interview guide that explores a research participant's personal experience with mindfulness meditation. An excerpt from an interview is discussed to illustrate the advantages of this interview form, namely its value as a methodological instrument for qualitative research...

  6. The importance of anchor text for ad hoc search revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2010-01-01

    It is generally believed that propagated anchor text is very important for effective Web search as offered by the commercial search engines. "Google Bombs" are a notable illustration of this. However, many years of TREC Web retrieval research failed to establish the effectiveness of link evidence fo

  7. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  8. Stepping stones of Amsterdam, Local and global anchor points 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bois, G. de Peter

    2011-01-01

    This report shows the results of research on the relation between local and global anchor points in the city of Amsterdam, executed by a small group of international students from Italy and Spain within the scope of two research modules in their Bachelor education at the University of Applied Scienc

  9. Finding the Optimal Guidance for Enhancing Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Bathke, Arne; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different methods of guidance with anchored instruction on students' mathematical problem-solving performance. The purpose of this research was to iteratively design a learning environment to find the optimal level of guidance. Two iterations of the software were compared. The first iteration used explicit…

  10. Implementing Anchored Instruction: Guiding Principles for Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Kim; And Others

    A curriculum based on "anchored instruction" was developed to enhance students' literacy development and acquisition of knowledge. The curriculum was designed to create a rich, shared environment that generates interest and enables students to identify and define problems while they explore the content from many perspectives. Based on…

  11. Impact of Enhanced Anchored Instruction in Inclusive Math Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Toland, Michael D.; Gassaway, Linda; Butler, Mark; Choo, Sam; Griffen, Ann Katherine; Ma, Xin

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics will place more pressure on special education and math teachers to raise the skill levels of all students, especially those with disabilities in math (MD). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of enhanced anchored instruction (EAI) on students with and without MD in co-taught general…

  12. Proteomic analysis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elortza, Felix; Nühse, Thomas S; Foster, Leonard J

    2003-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are a functionally and structurally diverse family of post-translationally modified membrane proteins found mostly in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Although the general role of GPI-APs remains un...

  13. Ten Anchor Points for Teaching Principles of Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkovick, Chuck

    2004-01-01

    Effective marketing instructors commonly share a love for their students, an affinity for the subject matter, and a devotion to continuous quality improvement. The purpose of this article is to highlight 10 anchor points for teaching Principles of Marketing, which are designed to better engage students in the learning process. These anchor…

  14. Almost Lie structures on an anchored Banach bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Cabau, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Under appropriate assumptions, we generalize the concept of linear almost Poisson struc- tures, almost Lie algebroids, almost differentials in the framework of Banach anchored bundles and the relation between these objects. We then obtain an adapted formalism for mechanical systems which is illustrated by the evolutionary problem of the "Hilbert snake"

  15. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajesh; Kusai Baroudi; K. Bala Kasi Reddy; Praveen, B. H.; V. Sumanth Kumar; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  16. Modified Anchor Shaped Post Core Design for Primary Anterior Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  17. Modified anchor shaped post core design for primary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, R; Baroudi, Kusai; Reddy, K Bala Kasi; Praveen, B H; Kumar, V Sumanth; Amit, S

    2014-01-01

    Restoring severely damaged primary anterior teeth is challenging to pedodontist. Many materials are tried as a post core but each one of them has its own drawbacks. This a case report describing a technique to restore severely damaged primary anterior teeth with a modified anchor shaped post. This technique is not only simple and inexpensive but also produces better retention.

  18. Anchoring return: the role of the Solutions Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierfrancesco Maria Natta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing a minimum standard of living and livelihood opportunities to help anchor those who have returned is critical for the future stability and security of Afghanistan. This is one of the three main objectives of the 2012 Solutions Strategy for Afghan Refugees.

  19. A Proteomics Investigation of Anchored PKA-RI Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovanich, D.

    2013-01-01

    Compartmentalization of kinases and phosphatases plays an important role in the specificity of second messenger mediated signaling events. Localization of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase is mediated by interaction of its regulatory subunit (PKA-R) with the versatile family of A-kinase anchoring pr

  20. The bone-anchored hearing aid for children: recent developments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snik, A.F.M.; Leijendeckers, J.M.; Hol, M.K.S.; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.

    2008-01-01

    In 1984 the Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid, or BAHA, system was introduced. Its transducer is coupled directly to the skull percutaneously to form a highly effective bone-conduction hearing device. Clinical studies on adults with conductive hearing loss have shown that the BAHA system outperforms convent

  1. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  2. The Effect of Anchor Test Construction on Scale Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, Judit; Proctor, Thomas P.; Melican, Gerald J.

    2014-01-01

    In common-item equating the anchor block is generally built to represent a miniature form of the total test in terms of content and statistical specifications. The statistical properties frequently reflect equal mean and spread of item difficulty. Sinharay and Holland (2007) suggested that the requirement for equal spread of difficulty may be too…

  3. Ringstone anchors from Gujarat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    as doorjambs (Rao, 1999). Similar types of ring stone have also been reported from off Oman and it is suggested by the local people of that region that they would have been used as anchors for fishing nets. However, the description given by local fishermen...

  4. Poor Anchoring Limits Dyslexics' Perceptual, Memory, and Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganian, Yulia; Ahissar, Merav

    2012-01-01

    The basic deficits underlying the severe and persistent reading difficulties in dyslexia are still highly debated. One of the major topics of debate is whether these deficits are language specific, or affect both verbal and non-verbal stimuli. Recently, Ahissar and colleagues proposed the "anchoring-deficit hypothesis" (Ahissar, Lubin,…

  5. Stone anchors of India: Findings, classification and significance.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    is that they are trapezoidal or rectangular in shape, used to have two square or rectangular holes at the lower end opposite facing each other for securing wooden flukes and a round hole at the apex meant for cable. The other feature of Indo-Arabian type of stone anchor...

  6. Audiometric evaluation of bilaterally fitted bone-anchored hearing aids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.J.; Snik, A.F.M.; Pouw, C.T.M. van der; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bilateral fittings of bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHA) were evaluated in 25 patients with at least 3 months experience with using two BAHAs. For all patients, air conduction hearing aids were contraindicated due to either recurrent otorrhoea or otitis externa (19 cases) or to congenital aural atres

  7. Synergistic effect of a new wedge-bond-type anchor for CFRP tendons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢桂华; 刘荣桂; 陈蓓; 李明君; 石天罡

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the anchoring force of anchors for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) tendons further, a new wedge-bond-type anchor for CFRP tendons was developed. The increment in anchoring force induced by the clamping segment of anchor was studied. Taking the deformation of all parts in clamping segment in the transverse direction into consideration, the calculation formula for the increment of anchoring force was proposed based on the linear elastic hypotheses. The proposed model is verified by experiments and conclusions are drawn that the anchoring force is influenced mainly by the inclination angle of clamping pieces, the length of clamping part and the thickness of bonding medium. Especially, the thickness of bonding medium should be lowered in design to improve the synergistic effect of anchors.

  8. Historical period stone anchors from Vijaydurg on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Stone anchors are the primary antiquites in marine archaeological studies. Evidences of their evolution are noticed in India since 2500 B.C. A number of stone anchors have been recovered during the recent marine archaeological explorations at Dwarka...

  9. Farmer evaluation of phosphorus fertilizer application to annual legumes in Chisepo, Central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.C.G.; Whitbread, A.M.; Wall, P.; Waddington, S.R.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Building from the perception that farmers have an intimate knowledge of their local environment, production problems, crop priorities and criteria for evaluation, an on-farm experiment was conducted with farmers in 2003/4 in Chisepo, central Malawi, to evaluate the response of six annual legumes to

  10. Effects of nano-ZnO on the agronomically relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of nano-ZnO (nZnO) on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied with garden pea and its compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure of peas to nZnO had no impact on germination, but significantly affected root length. Chronic exposure of plant to nZnO impac...

  11. Exploring socio-ecological niches for legumes in western Kenya smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojiem, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: adaptability, agro-ecosystems, biophysical and socio-economic heterogeneity, economic benefits, N2-fixation, productivity.This thesis explores the potential of using herbaceous and grain legume species to improve soil fertility and farm productivity in the heterogeneous s

  12. Nitrogen dynamics following grain legumes and subsequent catch crops and the effects on succeeding cereal crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2009-01-01

    balances. A 2½-year lysimeter experiment was carried out on a temperate sandy loam soil. Crops were not fertilized in the experimental period and the natural 15N abundance technique was used to determine grain legume N2 fixation. Faba bean total aboveground DM production was significantly higher (1,300 g m...

  13. Method Development to Increase Protein Enrichment During Dry Fractionation of Starch-Rich Legumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2015-01-01

    A facile method was developed to establish milling settings that optimally separate starch granules from protein bodies and cell wall fibres for starch-rich legumes. Optimal separation was obtained for pea, bean, lentil and chickpea when the particle size distribution curve of flour and isolated sta

  14. The Effects of Fortification of Legumes and Extrusion on the Protein Digestibility of Wheat Based Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil S. Patil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal food products are an important part of the human diet with wheat being the most commonly consumed cereal in many parts of the world. Extruded snack products are increasing in consumer interest due to their texture and ease of use. However, wheat based foods are rich in starch and are associated with high glycaemic impact products. Although legume materials are generally rich in fibre and protein and may be of high nutritive value, there is a paucity of research regarding their use in extruded snack food products. The aim of this study was to prepare wheat-based extrudates using four different legume flours: lentil, chickpea, green pea, and yellow pea flour. The effects of adding legumes to wheat-based snacks at different levels (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during extrusion were investigated in terms of protein digestibility. It was observed that fortification of snacks with legumes caused a slight increase in the protein content by 1%–1.5% w/w, and the extrusion technique increased the protein digestibility by 37%–62% w/v. The product developed by extrusion was found to be low in fat and moisture content.

  15. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Montiel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs, are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant’s response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis.

  16. Self-reseeding annual legumes for cover cropping in rainfed managed olive orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ângelo Rodrigues, M.; Ferreira, I. Q.; Freitas, S.L.; Pires, J.M.; Arrobas, M.P.

    2015-07-01

    Given the environmental impact of nitrogen (N)-fertilizer manufacture and use, the sustainable management of agro-systems should be sought by growing N-fixing legumes. In this work, eleven self-reseeding annual legumes were grown in pure stands as mulching cover crops in a rainfed olive orchard managed without grazing animals. Dry matter yield, N content in above-ground biomass, groundcover percentage and persistence of the sown species were assessed during four growing seasons. All covers provided enough soil protection over the year, with living plants during the autumn/winter period and a mulch of dead residues during the summer. The legumes overcame a false break observed in the third year recovering the dominance of the covers in the fourth growing season. This means that the seed bank established in previous seasons ensured the persistence of the sown legume even when a gap in seed production occurred. The early-maturing cultivars produced less biomass and fixed less N (approx. 50 kg N/ha/yr present in the above-ground biomass) than the late-maturing ones, but would compete less for water since the growing cycle finished earlier in the spring. They seem best suited to being grown in dry farmed olive orchards with low N demand in drought prone regions. (Author)

  17. The 75% Isopropanol-Soluble Polysaccharides from the Endosperm of the Legume Seed of Gleditsia Triacanthos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Stortz

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The 75% isopropanol-soluble material from the endosperm of the legume-seed of Gleditsia triacanthos was isolated. The material extracted with boiling water was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography and characterized. Besides minor amounts of galactomannans, major proportions of arabinans and/or arabinogalactans appear.

  18. Farmer evaluation of phosphorus fertilizer application to annual legumes in Chisepo, Central Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamanga, B.C.G.; Whitbread, A.M.; Wall, P.; Waddington, S.R.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Giller, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    Building from the perception that farmers have an intimate knowledge of their local environment, production problems, crop priorities and criteria for evaluation, an on-farm experiment was conducted with farmers in 2003/4 in Chisepo, central Malawi, to evaluate the response of six annual legumes to

  19. Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of nano-TiO2 on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO2 did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-...

  20. N2 Fixation by Grain Legume Varieties as Affected By Rhizobia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    N2 Fixation by Grain Legume Varieties as Affected By Rhizobia Inoculation in The ... continuous supply of N for plant growth in ... (RCBD), replicated three times. A pre-plant soil sample of the site aws taken and analyzed ... other cultural practices as well as soil, plant ..... farmyard manure, and N and P on light sandy.

  1. Evolution of a symbiotic receptor through gene duplications in the legume-rhizobium mutualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mita, De S.; Streng, A.; Bisseling, T.; Geurts, R.

    2014-01-01

    •The symbiosis between legumes and nitrogen-fixing rhizobia co-opted pre-existing endomycorrhizal features. In particular, both symbionts release lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) that are recognized by LysM-type receptor kinases. We investigated the evolutionary history of rhizobial LCO receptor ge

  2. Breeding Food Legumes for Resistance to Storage Insect Pests: Potential and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifle Dagne

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage insect pests cause significant losses of food legumes particularly in the Tropics and the Sub-tropics. The most important species of storage insect pests of food legumes include Callosobruchus chinensis, C. maculatus, C. analis, Acanthoscelides obtectus, Bruchus incarnatus, B. rufimanus, B. dentipes, B. quinqueguttatus, B. emarginatus, B. ervi, B. lentis and B. pisorum. Effective post-harvest insect pest control measures should constitute part of the overall crop husbandry practices for preserving the quality of produce. Storage insect pests are commonly controlled using chemical insecticides which, however, bear many drawbacks related to high cost, environmental pollution and food safety risks. Breeding legume crops to improve their resistance against storage insect pests, although having technical limitations, is the best way of overcoming these disadvantages in an environment-friendly manner. In this paper, we present the findings of our extensive reviews on the potential of breeding resistant varieties of food legumes against storage insect pests along with the major technical limitations one would likely encounter and the prospective ways of tackling them.

  3. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant’s response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. PMID:27213330

  4. [Glycemic response to consumption of a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar on healthy individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Rosaura; Granito, Marisela; Valero, Yolmar

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work was to formulate a cereals and legume (Phaseolus vulgaris) bar and assess its impact on the glycemic response of healthy individuals, in order to contribute to the healthy food supply beneficial to consumers. A mixture of cereals (corn and oats) and different percentages (20 and 30%) of Phaseolus vulgaris was used to formulate the bar. Additionally, a legume cereal bar without legumes (bar control) was prepared. The bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris was selected through sensory evaluation, being scored with better flavor and texture. This combination of cereals and legumes aminoacid improves complementation and reaches the formulation criteria previously established. Chemical characterization indicated a higher protein content in the bar with 30% of Phaseolus vulgaris (13.55%) relative to the bar control (8.5%). The contents of fat, ash and dietary fiber did not differ between the two bars evaluated. However, the soluble fiber and resistant starch of the selected bar was a 32.05% and 18.67%, respectively, than in the control bar; this may contribute to decreasing the rate of glucose uptake. The selected bar presented a low glycemic index (49) and intermediate glycemic load (12.0) in healthy volunteers, which could lead to a possible reduction in the rate of absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, associated with a carbohydrate content of slow absorption. This bar represents a proposal of a healthy snack for the consumer.

  5. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  6. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes for extending the grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    A column was written to discuss how clovers and warm-season legumes, such as alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil, in mixture with grasses can enhance the overall nutritive value of the overall forage, increase dry matter yield, and contribute nitrogen to the soil via the nitrogen fixing Rhizobia bacteria ...

  7. Tannin content and rate of ruminal protein degradation of legume hays

    Science.gov (United States)

    This work evaluated ruminal protein degradation rates of legume hays that varied in tannin content. Two cuttings of 5 varieties of birdsfoot trefoil, (Lotus corniculatus), selected for different tannin contents but similar NDF and CP contents, and Spredor 4 alfalfa (control) were conserved as hay. S...

  8. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant–Pollinator Interplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso, María J.; Bebeli, Penelope J.; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A. A.; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M.

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant–pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the “pest control service” and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System. PMID:27047514

  9. Enhancing Legume Ecosystem Services through an Understanding of Plant-Pollinator Interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suso, María J; Bebeli, Penelope J; Christmann, Stefanie; Mateus, Célia; Negri, Valeria; Pinheiro de Carvalho, Miguel A A; Torricelli, Renzo; Veloso, Maria M

    2016-01-01

    Legumes are bee-pollinated, but to a different extent. The importance of the plant-pollinator interplay (PPI), in flowering crops such as legumes lies in a combination of the importance of pollination for the production service and breeding strategies, plus the increasing urgency in mitigating the decline of pollinators through the development and implementation of conservation measures. To realize the full potential of the PPI, a multidisciplinary approach is required. This article assembles an international team of genebank managers, geneticists, plant breeders, experts on environmental governance and agro-ecology, and comprises several sections. The contributions in these sections outline both the state of the art of knowledge in the field and the novel aspects under development, and encompass a range of reviews, opinions and perspectives. The first three sections explore the role of PPI in legume breeding strategies. PPI based approaches to crop improvement can make it possible to adapt and re-design breeding strategies to meet both goals of: (1) optimal productivity, based on an efficient use of pollinators, and (2) biodiversity conservation. The next section deals with entomological aspects and focuses on the protection of the "pest control service" and pollinators in legume crops. The final section addresses general approaches to encourage the synergy between food production and pollination services at farmer field level. Two basic approaches are proposed: (a) Farming with Alternative Pollinators and (b) Crop Design System.

  10. THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CACTI (Opuntia ficus indica-LEGUME MIXED SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GUSHA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of making silage using dry browse legume hay (Acacia angustissima, Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra callothrysus and Macroptilium Atropurpureum mixed with fresh cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica for winter supplementation of veld grass was evaluated using the proximate, tannins and the pH analyses. Chemical analysis revealed that N values were significantly increased (P<0.05. The N levels were 3.72, 4.5, 4.05, and 2.5% DM for A. angustissima, L. leucocephala, C. callothrysus and M. atropurpureum respectively, which were higher when compared to silage made from cereals. The NDF and ADF values were slightly higher than those reported in literature for cereal silages. The DM level of cactus –browse silage was very good (41%DM considering that cactus normally have less than 10% DM. The silage pH was within the reported range, ranging from 3.97 to 4.11 on a pH meter. This was a good indicator of silage quality considering that low pH inhibit undesirable microbial activities. The tannins levels were lower in the silages but significantly different (P<0.05 between browse legume species. Ensiling lowered the tannin levels in the silage compared to the individual browse legume tannin levels. This study concluded that purely on compositional laboratory analysis, the legumes and cactus can be used to make silage which can be used by farmers during dry season.

  11. Co-option of pre-existing pathways during Rhizobium-legume symbiosis evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lillo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Fixed nitrogen is one of the most limiting factors for plant growth. One of the most important nitrogen-fixing systems is the rhizobium root nodule symbiosis. In this Thesis I have studied the legume-rhizobium symbiosis, starting from the idea that part of pre-existing signalling pathways have been

  12. Legume NADPH Oxidases Have Crucial Roles at Different Stages of Nodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Jesús; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2016-05-18

    Plant NADPH oxidases, formerly known as respiratory burst oxidase homologues (RBOHs), are plasma membrane enzymes dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. These oxidases are implicated in a wide variety of processes, ranging from tissue and organ growth and development to signaling pathways in response to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Research on the roles of RBOHs in the plant's response to biotic stresses has mainly focused on plant-pathogen interactions; nonetheless, recent findings have shown that these oxidases are also involved in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. The legume-rhizobia symbiosis leads to the formation of the root nodule, where rhizobia reduce atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. A complex signaling and developmental pathway in the legume root hair and root facilitate rhizobial entrance and nodule organogenesis, respectively. Interestingly, several reports demonstrate that RBOH-mediated ROS production displays versatile roles at different stages of nodulation. The evidence collected to date indicates that ROS act as signaling molecules that regulate rhizobial invasion and also function in nodule senescence. This review summarizes discoveries that support the key and versatile roles of various RBOH members in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis.

  13. Intracellular accommodation of rhizobia in legume host cell: the fine-tuning of the endomembrane system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gavrin, A.Y.

    2015-01-01

    The symbiosis of legumes with rhizobia leads to the formation of root nodules. Rhizobia which are hosted inside specialized infected cells are surrounded by hostderived membranes, forming symbiosomes. Although it is known that symbiosome formation involves proliferation of membranes and changing of

  14. The Proteome of Seed Development in the Model Legume Lotus japonicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Svend; Laursen, Brian S.; Ornfelt, Jane H.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterized the development of seeds in the model legume Lotus japonicus. Like soybean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum), Lotus develops straight seed pods and each pod contains approximately 20 seeds that reach maturity within 40 days. Histological sections show the characteristic...

  15. Soil amendment with biochar increases the competitive ability of legumes via increased potassium availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oram, N.J.; Van de Voorde, T.F.J.; Ouwehand, G.J.; Bezemer, T.M.; Mommer, L.; Jeffery, S.; van Groeningen, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Soil amendment with biochar is currently proposed as a management strategy to improve soil quality and enhance plant productivity. Relatively little is known about how biochar affects plant competition, although it has been suggested that it can increase the competitive ability of legumes. This

  16. Quantitative understanding of the performance of upland rice – cover legume cropping systems in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akanvou, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: upland rice, relay intercropping, modelling, cover crops, improved fallow.Reducing the long fallow period by replacing the natural fallow with fast growing legume species to improve soil fertility, control weeds or to grow additional forage necessitate selection of suitable species for tho

  17. Grain legume impacts on soil biological processes in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain legumes occupy about 20 million hectares in Africa. The major crops are cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), which is grown on about 11 million hectares mostly in west Africa, and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), grown on about 5 million hectares mostly in eastern and southern Africa. These grain le...

  18. Exploring socio-ecological niches for legumes in western Kenya smallholder farming systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ojiem, J.O.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: adaptability, agro-ecosystems, biophysical and socio-economic heterogeneity, economic benefits, N2-fixation, productivity.This thesis explores the potential of using herbaceous and grain legume species to improve soil fertility and farm productivity in the heterogeneous

  19. Comparative study of the growth parameters of legumes grown in fipronil-stressed soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munees Ahemad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern agronomy, insecticides of the diverse chemical families are repeatedly used to control various plant growth limiting insect pests and to improve plant productivity. However, the intensive application of these plant protecting agrochemicals results in their accumulation in soils in substantial concentration and deteriorates the soil fertility. Previous studies concerning the effect of insecticides are commonly confined to a specific legume and reports about the concurrent impact of any specific insecticide on more than one legume in parallel are rare. The present study was therefore, designed to assess the effect of insecticide fipronil simultaneously on common food legumes (chickpea, pea, lentil and green gram. In this study, fipronil displayed a varying degree of toxicity to the tested legumes. The highest toxicity of fipronil was observed in the shoot dry biomass, leghaemoglobin and chlorophyll content, and the seed protein in chickpea, nodule numbers and nodule biomass in pea, root dry biomass and shoot N in green gram, and nodule biomass, root N, root P, shoot P, and seed yield in lentil. Generally, the most toxic effect of fipronil was observed on the growth parameters of lentil plants.

  20. Processing of legume seeds : effects on digestive behaviour in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goelema, J.O.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, effects of toasting, expander treatment and pelleting on in situ rumen degradability and intestinal digestibility of legume seeds are described. Toasting decreases protein degradability of peas, lupins, faba beans and soybeans and starch degradability of peas and faba beans, especiall