Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Downtown City Tenant Information: Includes tenant name, address, Business open date, close date, years in business, and independent vs. chain. Data provided by the...
Turcan, Romeo V.
by its multiple stakeholders; and (2) what legitimation strategies it developed and adopted to legitimate itself in the eyes of its multiple stakeholders. Theoretically, the paper is grounded within legitimation theory. The empirical context is defined by a new, international NGO entering an established...
Gustavs, J.; Clegg, S.R.
As a result of changing conditions of funding, emanating in a sense of crisis about viability and the need to find new sources of revenue, many universities in Australia and elsewhere are moving into new areas of application in novel partnerships with corporate organizations, to deliver 'work-based
Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari
Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.
Turcan, Romeo V.
There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during...... the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK...... types of legitimation strategies: technology, operating, and anchoring. Studying international new ventures through theoretical lenses of legitimation is a promising area of research that would contribute to the advancement of international entrepreneurship theory....
Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna
) judicial bodies have relied largely on theoretical or normative priors about what makes these institutions legitimate. In contrast, this paper directly connects the study of courts' legitimating efforts with their effects by empirically mapping how the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism's (DSM) exercise......Similar to many types of legal institutions, international courts employ a wide variety of legitimation strategies in order to establish and maintain a sound basis of support among their constituents. Existing studies on the legitimacy or legitimating efforts of the World Trade Organization's (WTO...
Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.
Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683
Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683
Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.
Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683
Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.
Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683
Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.
Full Text Available This text is oriented by the following questions: What is terrorism? How does it differ from other legitimized violent acts committed during war or in the course of a revolution? In order to answer them, this article discusses, first, the legitimacy of violence and the moral judgment of it; second, it will address the distinction between terrorist acts, acts of war, common crimes and revolutionary action, on the one hand, and the concept of innocent victim and the legitimacy of the target, on the other. In short, a new classification for terrorism will be seen, which will appear as a tactic used by political groups, as well as by public authorities, in the course of a revolution or during a war.
Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.
... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.307 Tenant... histories. An owner may consider a family's background with respect to such factors as: (i) Payment of rent... selected to participate in the program. The PHA policy must provide that the PHA will give the same types...
van Leeuwen, Theo
, and of persons in whom institutional authority is vested, (2) moral evaluation, legitimation by reference to discourses of value, (3) rationalization, legitimation by reference to the goals and uses of institutionalized social action and to the social knowledges that endow them with cognitive validity, and (4...
... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Payment to Owner § 983.353 Tenant rent; payment to... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenant rent; payment to owner. 983... owner. (b) Tenant payment to owner. (1) The family is responsible for paying the tenant rent (total...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD policy on tenant participation... URBAN DEVELOPMENT TENANT PARTICIPATION AND TENANT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING General Provisions § 964.11 HUD policy on tenant participation. HUD promotes resident participation and the active...
van der Zijden, WIm; Hiemstra, Djoerd; van Keulen, Maurice
We argue that there is a need for Multi-Tenant Customizable OLTP systems. Such systems need a Multi-Tenant Customizable Database (MTC-DB) as a backing. To stimulate the development of such databases, we propose the benchmark MTCB. Benchmarks for OLTP exist and multi-tenant benchmarks exist, but no
Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd
Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...... governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met...... by decision makers at the institutional level, provide, so it is promised, legitimate decisions. While we agree that A4R represents an important contribution to the priority-setting debate, we challenge the framework in two respects. First, we argue that A4R, and more specifically the relevance condition of A...
... PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Occupancy § 983.255 Tenant screening. (a) PHA option. (1) The PHA has... owner may consider a family's background with respect to such factors as: (i) Payment of rent and... providing information to owners. (4) The PHA policy must provide that the PHA will give the same types of...
... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Multi-Family Housing Occupancy § 3560.154 Tenant... documented in the housing project's management plan and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan. (d... regardless of income. Such applicants, however, will be ranked among themselves by income level, giving...
... documentation of all marketing. (4) The borrower is temporarily unable to achieve or maintain a level of... AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Multi-Family Housing Occupancy § 3560.152 Tenant... moderate-income level may occupy housing projects with an Agency loan approved prior to 1968 with a loan...
... premises in such a manner that provides decent, safe, sanitary, and affordable housing in accordance with... decent, safe, and sanitary manner, rental payments may be deposited by the tenant into an escrow account... escrow account must be in a Federally-insured institution or with a bonded independent agent. (iii...
Schilling, J D
An approach for ensuring legitimate data transfers of an individual within a remote healthcare solution. Biometric traits and networking are discussed for clarification of the approach. In this approach, a biometric solution is identified as a fingerprint scanner for use in a personal area network of the patient's home. Secure data exchange is acknowledged as a potential weakness in the transferring of patient data within this network. Some options are discussed to ensure security of data for the review by the caregiver. Example approaches regarding legitimacy are identified using a pulse oximeter , a blood pressure meter, and a weight scale as the remote patient devices in the remote healthcare solution.
Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683
Division des Ressources Humaines
Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683
Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683
Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.
... the tenant-based rental assistance under this part. (i) Security deposits. (1) A grantee may use HOME..., except that the amount of HOME funds that may be provided for a security deposit may not exceed the equivalent of two month's rent for the unit. (3) Only the prospective tenant may apply for HOME security...
... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.312 Notice to tenants. (a) During the development of pet rules as described in...) Tenants are permitted to own and keep common household pets in their dwelling units, in accordance with...
Multi-tenant software systems are Software-as-a-Service systems in which customers (or tenants) share the same resources. The key characteristics of multi-tenancy are hardware resource sharing, a high degree of configurability and a shared application and database instance. We can deduct from these
Romeo V. Turcan
Full Text Available There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK, and had internationalized and struggled for survival during the dotcom era. Grounded in data, this study corroborates a number of legitimation strategies yielded by prior research and refutes others. It further contributes to our understanding of international new venture legitimation by suggesting new types of legitimation strategies: technology, operating, and anchoring. Studying international new ventures through theoretical lenses of legitimation is a promising area of research that would contribute to the advancement of international entrepreneurship theory.
Turcan, Romeo V.; Fraser, Norman
an initial condition in which an industry does not exist to a final condition in which it is institutionalized. We ground our discussion in a typology of legitimation. Both authors bring to the discussion their ethnographic experience in creating and legitimating new industries and new ventures......The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of creation and legitimation of new industries. Specifically, the question we address is how to cross the gulf between no industry and embryonic industry in order for a new industry to emerge. In this, our focus is on the process of change from...
Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Thomsen, Christa
Within the theoretical frameworks of strategic communication and legitimation and through the use of a case study analysis, this article investigates the creation of managerial legitimation towards internal stakeholders in text and talk as a particular mode of strategic communication in a public...... sector organization. Following a theoretical discussion of the interconnectedness of strategic communication and managerial legitimation, we present a case study analysis of management talk at three interrelated management meetings dealing with the implementation of New Public Management-based (NPM...... talk happens at a microlevel and is used as a particular mode of strategic communication....
This Power Point presentation deals with the topic of controlling building operating costs and the benefits that can be derived from such an approach. Energy Advantage provides to commercial, institutional and industrial end-users, an independent total energy management outsource. Environmentally acceptable energy is influenced by factors such as commodity prices, deregulation, technology and the environment. The author then displayed a diagram about short term gas price volatility during the winter of 2001, which was followed by a diagram showing the daily and hourly prices in Alberta in 2001. A map displayed the electricity deregulation status in the United States. The author discussed changes in energy technology and how they are affected by the Internet and wireless communications, smart metering and smart devices, new and improved heating, ventilation and air conditioning equipment, cogeneration, fuel cells, and renewable energy. Climate change and global warming also play a role. The reasons for effecting change in the energy sector are many: the owners get a better return on their investment, the property managers gain higher revenues and lower costs, the employees enjoy job security and job satisfaction, the tenants have lower costs, and the local community benefits from lower infrastructure costs. Finally we conserve energy for our children. A total energy management approach is required to attain these objectives. BP Amoco promises a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to 10 per cent below 1990 levels. figs.
Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata; Meyer, Renate E.
This paper explores the deployment of rhetorical legitimation strategies during public-sector accounting reforms by investigating how organizational actors justify related changes in the central governments of the United Kingdom (UK), Italy and Austria. The study shows that changes are largely le...... in terms of rationalization and normalization. Italian and Austrian actors more frequently resort to authorization strategies to explain accounting change....
Criticizes Elihu Katz's understanding of professionalism in media journalism as used in his report to the British Broadcasting Corporation (on social research on broadcasting), on the grounds that reporting the news should not be the agent for legitimizing the event. (JMF)
Full Text Available The shopping malls intended for retail commerce have at the base a complex dynamic, a tridimensional character, which includes as main parties the owners, the tenants and the consumers, who have to become constant clients of the tenantsâ€™ shops in order the process to function. The complexity mark results from the additional requirements related to the presence of the appropriate variety of tenants (or shopkeepers, who can attract in an efective way enough consumers in order to sustain the business plan. The retail dynamic imposes the cooperation between the owner and the shopkeeper, in order to achieve success, with the third party, the consumers. Usually, the shopping mall management is formed for satisfying the demands stated by the third party. From a broader perspective, the paper proposes to offer solutions for the researchers and the organizations involved in a segment very well delimited from the retail field, respectively shopping malls. The paper has a practical character because wants to offer argumentatively economical explanations in order to take decisions by the people who represent the shopkeepers from the shopping malls. Exactly, the paper has as main objectives offering the solutions for shopkeepers when they determine the measure of the traderâ€™s markups, of the rebates and discounts or the stocks volume. The research has as support general economical indicators (traderâ€™s markups, stocks rotation and indicators specific to retail management (the start-up margin, the constant margin, the gross margin, the percentage rebate etc.. The problems related to the traderâ€™s markups, the rebates, the discounts, the volume and the stocks rotation which the tenants of a shopping mall have to confront need to be known not only by them, but also by the manager of that shopping mall. The manager of the shopping mall has to understand aspects related to the stocks rotation, but also those related to the level of the
Full Text Available This article provides a review of public relations literature in relation with CSR, through an analysis of academic research done in 1999-2014 period and published in three main scientific journals. The content of this literature shows that researchers looked for new perspectives along the years, broadening Clark’s approach (2000 of communication management to encompass management function and relationship management as well. The findings of the study suggest that the accent on processes may address ethics or legitimation topics in public relation as well as in CSR, because of the improved relationships they can establish between organizations, stakeholders and society.
Levitt, A J; Jost, J J; Mergl, K A; Hannigan, A; Degenova, J; Chung, S Y
New initiatives to house chronically street homeless (CSH) adults have led to increasing proportions of this population living in congregate supportive housing, but little is known about the impact of this shift on supportive housing programs. The present multisite, mixed-methods study examined service utilization and lease compliance among 52 chronically street homeless and 46 long-term shelter stayer (LTSS) adults during their first 12 months in congregate supportive housing. Quantitative analysis of administrative data revealed that CSH tenants used significantly more service resources than LTSS tenants, including more advocacy, escorting, and psychiatric treatment and more assistance with financial, housing, and mental and physical health issues. The 2 groups did not differ significantly on measures of lease compliance. Qualitative focus groups with CSH tenants, service provider staff, and property management staff all indicated that existing supportive housing services are suitable for this population, although some adjustments, additional resources, or both, may be indicated. © 2012 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5383-N-01] Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Multifamily Tenant Characteristics Family Reporting AGENCY: Office... following information: Title of Proposal: Multifamily Tenant Characteristics Family Report and Moving To...
Aderholdt, Ferrol [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Caldwell, Blake A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hicks, Susan Elaine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Koch, Scott M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pelfrey, Daniel S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pogge, James R. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Scott, Stephen L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Shipman, Galen M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sorrillo, Lawrence [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
High performance computing environments are often used for a wide variety of workloads ranging from simulation, data transformation and analysis, and complex workflows to name just a few. These systems may process data at various security levels but in so doing are often enclaved at the highest security posture. This approach places significant restrictions on the users of the system even when processing data at a lower security level and exposes data at higher levels of confidentiality to a much broader population than otherwise necessary. The traditional approach of isolation, while effective in establishing security enclaves poses significant challenges for the use of shared infrastructure in HPC environments. This report details current state-of-the-art in reconfigurable network enclaving through Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and their applicability to secure enclaves in HPC environments. SDN and NFV methods are based on a solid foundation of system wide virtualization. The purpose of which is very straight forward, the system administrator can deploy networks that are more amenable to customer needs, and at the same time achieve increased scalability making it easier to increase overall capacity as needed without negatively affecting functionality. The network administration of both the server system and the virtual sub-systems is simplified allowing control of the infrastructure through well-defined APIs (Application Programming Interface). While SDN and NFV technologies offer significant promise in meeting these goals, they also provide the ability to address a significant component of the multi-tenant challenge in HPC environments, namely resource isolation. Traditional HPC systems are built upon scalable high-performance networking technologies designed to meet specific application requirements. Dynamic isolation of resources within these environments has remained difficult to achieve. SDN and NFV methodology
Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut
Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. 1.167(h)-1 Section 1.167(h)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.167(h)-1 Life tenants and beneficiaries of trusts and estates. (a) Life tenants...
The tenants in the vineyard (GThom 65/Mark 12:1-12): A realistic and socialscientific reading. Ernest van Eck. Abstract. Kloppenborg's reading of the parable of the tenants (Mk 12:1-12/GThom 65) can be regarded as the first thoroughgoing realistic interpretation of the Tenants. By using extensive literary evidence on ...
Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.
Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a
... each state agency administering low-income housing tax credits (LIHTCs) to furnish HUD information... Lists the Following Information Title Of Proposal: Low Income Housing Tax Credit Tenant Database. Omb... low-income housing tax credits (LIHTCs) to furnish HUD information concerning the race, ethnicity...
Rollinson, Paul A.
Conducted study of single room occupancy (SRO) hotels in Chicago, Illinois and collected data on everyday experiences of 53 elderly tenants. Findings showed that hotel environments offered anything but independence. Residents were trapped in situation that exacerbated isolation and withdrawal from society and were in desperate need of social…
Turcan, Romeo V.
building, the paper introduces the typology of captivity, and the four types that have emerged: captive industry supplier, captive dyadic partner, captive market leader, and free market leader. The effects of captivity types on the acquisition of external legitimacy and its survival, on reaching legitimacy......This paper explores within the framework of new venture legitimation how and why international new ventures acquire external legitimacy and strive for survival in the face of critical events. Following a longitudinal multiple-case study methodology that was adopted for the purpose of theory...
an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably...... reject. Thus, Sen's vision of development as freedom is amended to suggest limits to freedoms. Forms of development which are not sustainable can be reasonably rejected due, at least, to the harm and blighting entailed. Based on this, it is argued that at country level of comparison the Human Development...
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUBJECT: DoD Needs to Improve Screening and Access Controls for General Public Tenants Leasing Housing on Military...public tenants who leased DoD privatized housing before granting those tenants unescorted access to military installations. In addition, DoD officials...issued access badges to general public tenants with expiration dates that exceeded the tenants’ lease terms. As a result, DoD assumed a higher and
Sánchez, José C
Entrepreneurship as a research topic has been approached from disciplines such as economics, sociology or psychology. After justifying its study, we define the domain of the field, highlighting what has currently become its dominant paradigm, the process of the discovery, assessment and exploitation of opportunities. We then describe the main perspectives and offer an integrated conceptual framework that will allow us to legitimize the study of entrepreneurship as a field of knowledge in its own right. We believe that this framework will help researchers to better recognize the relations among the many factors forming part of the study of entrepreneurship. Lastly, we conclude with some brief reflections on the potential value of the framework presented.
Del Sordi, A.; Brusis, M.; Ahrens, J.; Schulze Wessel, M.
This chapter surveys the legitimation strategies enacted by the political leadership of the contemporary post-Soviet republic. While showing that Kazakhstan bases its legitimation primarily on international recognition and the country’s economic performance, it also focuses on an institutional
N.M. Wijnberg (Nachoem)
textabstractThe legitimation of technology policy is discussed from the point of view of the neoclassical and of the dynamic, Schumpeterian, approach. The results are presented, using the traditional categories of policy legitimation in welfare theory: public goods, externalities, and merit goods.
...) Security deposits. (1) A participating jurisdiction may use HOME funds provided for tenant-based rental... the amount of HOME funds that may be provided for a security deposit may not exceed the equivalent of two month's rent for the unit. (3) Only the prospective tenant may apply for HOME security deposit...
Bezemer, C.; Zaidman, A.
Multi-tenancy is a relatively new software architecture principle in the realm of the Software as a Service (SaaS) business model. It allows to make full use of the economy of scale, as multiple customers "tenants" share the same application and database instance. All the while, the tenants enjoy a
Kloppenborg's reading of the parable of the tenants (Mk 12:1- 12/GThom 65) can be regarded as the first thoroughgoing realistic interpretation of the Tenants. By using extensive literary evidence on viticulture from 300 BCE to 300 CE, Kloppenborg argues that GThom 65 most probably comes closest to the original form of ...
Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.
Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.
Marwah Kareem Ali
Full Text Available This paper examines the discursive structures employed in legitimizing the event of U.S. forces withdrawal from Iraq and identifies them in relation to linguistic features. It attempts to describe the relation between language use and legitimation discursive structures in depicting political events. The paper focuses on the political event of U.S. forces’ withdrawal from Iraq in the English newspaper issued in Iraq. The study shows the way in which journalists express their values and attitudes concerning this critical event. Consequently, this requires a critical discourse analysis (henceforth, CDA to analyse news articles in the Iraqi English newspaper: The Kurdish Globe (henceforth, KG newspaper. Accordingly, the study presents a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles to identify the legitimation discursive structures and their linguistic features. It is found that the main discursive structures of legitimation employed in the KG newspaper are: authorization, rationalization, and moral evaluation. Besides, there were five verb processes used to represent this legitimation, including material, verbal, relational, mental, and existential. Keywords: Critical discourse analysis, legitimation discursive structures, linguistic features, newspaper discourse, systemic functional linguistics
Full Text Available Global governance is frequently criticised because of major legitimacy deficits, including lack of public accountability and democratic control. Within this context, questions about the legitimacy of non-state governance actors, such as non-governmental organizations, transnational corporations and private security companies, are neither an exception nor a surprise. Many actors have, therefore, turned to the measurement of performance, defined as publicly beneficial outcomes, in order to gain legitimacy. However, the rise of performance assessments as legitimizing practice is not without problems. Taking global security and health interventions as examples, this article contends that the immaterial, socially constructed and inherently contested nature of such public goods presents major obstacles for the assessment of performance in terms of observable, measurable and attributable outcomes. Performance is therefore frequently replaced by performativity, i.e. a focus on the repetitive enactment of specific forms of behaviour and capabilities, which are simply equated with the intended results. The implications for how global public goods are conceptualized and, ultimately, implemented are profound.
The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as "MAE") has sent a reminder of the following rules relating to legitimation documents (special cards, henceforth called "special residence permits" (titres de séjour spéciaux), and attestations de fonctions) that it issues. The Ministry has specified that compliance with these rules is essential to the proper functioning of any International Organization established in France. 1. Types of document and use a) Special CD, FI and AT residence permits They serve as residence permits for members of the personnel and the members of their families who are not of French nationality and who do not have the status of permanent resident (see N.B. below). Vis-à-vis the French authorities, they serve as proof that those holding these cards enjoy the privileges and immunities provided for by the Status Agreement between CERN and France (immunity from legal process in the discharge of their duties, entitlement to drive a vehicle registered in a special ...
Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.; Wang, Na
A growing number of building owners are benchmarking their building energy use. This requires the building owner to acquire monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer energy use data (CEUD) as a way to give building owners whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. Meter profile aggregation adds a layer of protection that decreases the risk of revealing CEUD as the number of meters aggregated increases. The report statistically characterizes the similarity between individual energy usage patterns and whole-building totals at various levels of meter aggregation.
Liu, Yuxin; Zhu, Danhong; Zhang, Dong
With the evolution of cloud computing and virtualization, the congestion control of virtual datacenters has become the basic issue for multi-tenant datacenters transmission. Regarding to the friendly conflict of heterogeneous congestion control among multi-tenant, this paper proposes a delay-based virtual congestion control, which translates the multi-tenant heterogeneous congestion control into delay-based feedback uniformly by setting the hypervisor translation layer, modifying three-way handshake of explicit feedback and packet loss feedback and throttling receive window. The simulation results show that the delay-based virtual congestion control can effectively solve the unfairness of heterogeneous feedback congestion control algorithms.
Yasmin Mohd Adnan
Full Text Available Only a limited amount of research has been reported on factors influencing office building occupation decision among tenants within the centre of Kuala Lumpur. In this paper, a comprehensive set of factors that may influence occupation decisions by tenants in office buildings in Kuala Lumpur is first identified through the search of existing literature. Results are then presented of a Delphi study that investigates the views of the panel of experts who had dealt with office building tenants in Kuala Lumpur in relation to factors influencing occupation decisions. The top five important factors identified by the panel are rental rate, security and access control, responsible management and maintenance team, car park provision/accessibility, and building image/identity. With the given responses, the results will then be used in the study to determine the relative importance of the factors and sub-factors across the different categories of office building tenants in Kuala Lumpur.
Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Anderson, David M.
This technical appendix accompanies report PNNL–23786 “Commercial Building Tenant Energy Usage Data Aggregation and Privacy”. The objective is to provide background information on the methods utilized in the statistical analysis of the aggregation thresholds.
Full Text Available This article studies the problem of structural deformations of property in post-privatization period, via the lack of public awareness ofthe property legitimacy that constantly produces utopian political slogans and public dissatisfaction with the current redistribution of property. Two completely opposite instruments of legitimization of property by means of nationalization and constitutional reform are examined. Conclusions are focused on the implementation of economic constitutionalism policy as a way of legitimizing the owner in Ukraine and building democratic and legal state. Emphasis is put on the confidence improvement of authority agents and counteract of the crisis of neoliberal capitalism, when rich people grow rich thanks to the poor segment of population as an essential mechanisms for public perception of property legalization and providing them with status quo. Legitimization of owner is objectively necessary condition for society reconstruction on the way of entrenchment of fundamental dominants of markets and civil society.
Turcan, Romeo V.; Fraser, Norman
This study explores the process of legitimation of international new ventures from an emerging economy and the effect such ventures have on the process of creation and legitimation of a new industry in that economy. It is a longitudinal ethnographic case study. Following an inductive theory...... not exist to a final condition in which it is institutionalized. The model addresses the case where the initial catalyst is the formation of an international new venture that is the seed for the birth of the industry. Since both the new venture and the new industry lack cognitive and socio...... building approach, data were collected over an eleven year period via in-depth interviews, participant observations, and unobtrusive data. The study puts forward a process model of new industry legitimation. The model theorizes the process of change from an initial condition in which an industry does...
Turcan, Romeo V.; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar
The paper focuses on legitimation and legitimation strategies applied by companies. Following the process of systematic review, we analyze empirical studies exploring legitimation and legitimation strategies from different theoretical perspectives. Using the key findings by reconnoitering and com...... and comparing the theoretical background, approaches, methodologies, and findings of these empirical studies, we outline potential directions for research in the legitimation strategies of firms engaged in international business operations....
As Max Weber and many others in his tradition have argued, the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force is the core of the modern state. What counts here is not the frequency of the actual use of force but the fact that only the state has the legitimate right to use such force. The military and the police are the most concrete expressions of this monopoly. In recent decades, the use of the military and the police has been subject to external challenges – ‘globalization’ – and new idea...
how the recently proposed vision of a Loop City for the Danish/Swedish Øresund Region has played an important role in legitimizing and building political support for a light railway connecting the outer suburbs of Copenhagen. It is not unusual for large investments in new transport infrastructures...... railway and Loop City planning processes together with document analysis of background reports and analyses from the last 10-15 years, the paper investigates to what extent the vision of a Loop City has played an important role in legitimizing the need for a light railway in the outer suburbs...
Palermini, D.; Hewitt, D.
A current trend in the multifamily housing industry is to convert heating (gas and oil) systems to tenant-metered heating systems (electric zonal heat, individual gas furnaces, secondary metering systems for boilers). Moving responsibility for heating costs directly to tenants has been shown to save energy (on the order of 15%). However, there are social and economic aspects of this type of 'energy investment' such as the impact on vacancy rates, rent levels and comfort of tenants. This paper presents the findings from a research project that surveyed the owners and tenants of 37 multifamily buildings (a total of 741 units) that had been converted from central to individual metering. In addition to the behavioral analysis, the authors gathered utility billing data which they analyzed using the Princeton Scorekeeping Method. Survey findings indicate that energy use was decreased substantially by conversion to separate heating systems. Increases in tenant-paid utility bills after conversion were not sufficient to cause hardship for most tenants, even those with modest incomes. Rent and vacancy levels remained stable after the heating system changes were made or an allocation system was installed
Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir
The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma. The research was done in relation to the specific situation in Denmark, but theory, information and experiences from other countries were included. The results show that there are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma, but principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma. - Highlights: • There are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma. • The principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. • An array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation. • Legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information
Full Text Available The survey of the Osijek District and County Courts procedures related to the motion to determine the usable values of flats and into procedures of establishing separate parts of real property by the means of apportioning plans as well as the tenant ownership study procedures resulted in different and inconsistent approaches in the process of creation of the study and establishing the usable surface area. The paper deals with the analysis of judicial decisions on determining usable surface and indicates the problems emerging in practice while establishing the tenant ownership based on proportional co-ownership share of the real property. It also gives suggestions to passing a by-law on the procedure of tenant ownership study creation i.e. calculation of usable values of particular real property shares and usable values of all flats and other independent premises of the entire real property. Its goals are equal interpretation and application of tenant ownership by all parties to the procedure as well as legal security, uniform application of law and harmonisation of judicial practice. As a possible approach to the solutions in Croatian legal system the paper also analyses the regulation of tenant ownership in the Republic of Slovenia. In conclusion, it establishes the need for professional training of judges, court counsellors, court appointed expert witnesses, civil servants through application of a multidisciplinary approach to the issue of tenant ownership procedure based on other scientific disciplines e.g. civil engineering and economics.
Having been evicted from their homes because of incentives created by the New Deal's AGricultural ADjustment Act, sharecroppers in Arkansas formed the biracial Southern Tenant Farmers' Union (STFU) in 1934. Led by socialists and radicals, the organization ultimately claimed upward of thirty thousand members and constituted an assault on the social, economic, and racial status quo of the South. Historians have celebrated the STFU, especially its commitment to biracial cooperation and equality. This article digs beneath this carefully constructed image of the union to scrutinize the internal dynamics of the movement. It revises a number of interpretations surrounding the STFU. Although the greatest obstacles to the union's success were external, it also faced internal divisions that diminished its efficacy. The STFU's decentralized structure did not foster strong connections between leadership and membership, resulting in misunderstandings. But most importantly, the union struggled to live up to its creed of biracialism and equal treatment of African Americans. Ultimately, the STFU was less an aberration that tirelessly confronted the social and racial ills of the South and more an organization that reflected some of those ills even as it grappled with them.
Livingston, Olga V.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Wang, Na
In a number of cities and states, building owners are required to disclose and/or benchmark their building energy use. This requires the building owner to possess monthly whole-building energy usage information, which can be challenging for buildings in which individual tenants have their own utility meters and accounts with the utility. Some utilities and utility regulators have turned to aggregation of customer data as a way to give building owners the whole-building energy usage data while protecting customer privacy. However, no utilities or regulators appear to have conducted a concerted statistical, cybersecurity, and privacy analysis to justify the level of aggregation selected. Therefore, the Tennant Data Aggregation Task was established to help utilities address these issues and provide recommendations as well as a theoretical justification of the aggregation threshold. This study is focused on the use case of submitting data for ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager (ESPM), but it also looks at other potential use cases for monthly energy consumption data.
I consider the implications of the creative approach in KZN JLC for the development of the doctrine of substantive legitimate expectation under administrative law in future. Finally I discuss how the creation of a new legal mechanism to enforce publicly promulgated promises to pay was "subversive of PAJA and the scheme in ...
McNamara, Martin S
To investigate the potential of recent conceptual developments in the sociology of education for conceptualising academic leadership in nursing. During an investigation into the current status and future trajectory of academic nursing in Ireland, academic leadership emerged as a major concern for respondents. The languages of legitimation of academic leaders were elicited in in-depth interviews and analysed as expressions of underlying legitimation principles. The concept of legitimation principles provides a way of thinking about how academic nursing is positioned in the health and higher education sectors, how its leaders construct its identity, practices and purposes, and clarifies the proper focus and goals of academic leadership in nursing. Academic leadership is concerned with legitimating the discipline of nursing as an autonomous, coherent and distinctive professional and academic endeavour. This legitimacy must be secured in academic, clinical and wider contexts in which academic nursing is viewed with ambivalence; leaders must take account of the impact of nursing history on the current status and future trajectory of the discipline. The analytic tools facilitate a better understanding of the internal and external conditions under which academic nursing will flourish, or wither, in contemporary higher education.
This thesis traces the development of British civil nuclear power policy between 1945 and 1982. Throughout particular attention is paid to the methods of legitimation which have been used to justify this policy in the public arena. By tracing this legitimation process, and public responses to it, the modern anti nuclear movement and crisis of public acceptability are placed within an historical context. It is argued that public concern and disquiet have always required the active legitimation of nuclear policy from the inception of the technology. The initial base of this legitimation was largely symbolic and associated nuclear power with the future of civilisation and a second of Elizabethan splendour for Britain. Symbolic legitimacy was underpinned by the twin pillars of expert hegemony and political authority. As these became increasingly prominent due to internal disputes within the industry secrecy was applied as a means of preserving legitimacy. Having tried conventional avenues of opposition the anti nuclear movement then embarked upon a campaign of direct action. The links between this campaign and the pervasive sense of public unease which had always existed are explored. It is argued here that the anti nuclear movement produces and sustains a cogent critique of nuclear power. Campaigning around this critique wins the movement increasing legitimacy as its arguments are increasingly accepted. (author)
Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara
"Capoeira", the Brazilian dance and martial art, is taught across the world. Learners acquire vital knowledge and are socialised as "capoeiristas" through legitimate peripheral participation, in particular when watching games in the "roda". The "roda", the circle within which the "capoeira" game is played, is a classic place for learning by…
In the "Gorgias," Plato focuses attention upon the value of dialectic as opposed to rhetoric, as well as the status of orators as opposed to philosophers. Through his agent, Socrates, Plato confirms dialectic as a legitimate endeavor while calling into question the place of rhetoric. Socrates is portrayed as a director who enacts a…
Building a Legitimate and Accountable State in South Sudan: Political Dimensions Beyond the Comprehensive Peace Accord. Policymakers and researchers believe that inclusive political settlements are vital to avoiding a relapse into violence in conflict-affected and fragile contexts. Despite numerous comparative ...
E. A. Boytsov
Full Text Available A multi-tenant database cluster is a concept of a data-storage subsystem for cloud applications with the multi-tenant architecture. The cluster is a set of relational database servers with the single entry point, combined into one unit with a cluster controller. This system is aimed to be used by applications developed according to Software as a Service (SaaS paradigm and allows to place tenants at database servers so that providing their isolation, data backup and the most effective usage of available computational power. One of the most important problems about such a system is an effective distribution of data into servers, which affects the degree of individual cluster nodes load and faulttolerance. This paper considers the data-management approach, based on the usage of a load-balancing quality measure function. This function is used during initial placement of new tenants and also during placement optimization steps. Standard schemes of metaheuristic optimization such as simulated annealing and tabu search are used to find a better tenant placement.
Harrison, Stephen; Mcdonald, Ruth
This paper argues that the means by which the profession of medicine has to legitimise itself in the context of state‐provided health services is changing in a way that may be summarised in Weberian terms as a shift from substantive to formal rationality. The traditional model for such legitimations, evident in the UK over the last 50 years, relied heavily on professional interpretation of emergent patient needs, on professional pragmatism as a means of coping with resource limitations, on un...
This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...
"This article examines the interaction of legitimation, cooptation, and repression in China's authoritarian consolidation. It shows that the totalitarian regime under Mao Zedong was characterized by a low degree of performance and cooptation and that it had to rely on extreme repression and ideological indoctrination to stay in power. After the death of Mao Zedong, the character of the regime changed markedly. The new elites made sparing use of repression and indoctrination but did not compen...
Legitimizing ESS 'Big Science' is a broad epithet that can be associated with research projects as different as the Manhattan Project, the Hubble Telescope-construction, and the CERN-establishment in Geneva. While the science produced by these projects is vastly different, they have in common the fact that they all involve huge budgets, big facilities, complex instrumentation, years of planning, and large multidis...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based assistance or alternative uses. 290.21 Section 290.21 Housing and... Multifamily Projects § 290.21 Computing annual number of units eligible for substitution of tenant-based...
... projects, and utility rate information, as obtained from the utility supplier; (iv) The estimated monthly... HUD: Conversion from project-paid utilities to tenant-paid utilities or a reduction in tenant utility... AUTHORITIES TENANT PARTICIPATION IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Procedures for Requesting Approval of a...
Chen, H Carrie; Sheu, Leslie; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Ten Cate, Olle; Teherani, Arianne
Given the calls for earlier student engagement in clinical experiences, educators are challenged to define roles for pre-clerkship students that enable legitimate participation in clinical practice. This study aimed to determine the student roles and activities, as well as the clinic characteristics, that allow early student engagement within a specific clinical experience. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews in December 2011 and January 2012 with a purposive sample of medical student and faculty volunteers at student-run clinics (SRCs). They were asked to discuss and compare student roles in SRCs with those in the core curriculum. An inductive approach and iterative process were used to analyse the interview transcripts. Themes identified from initial open coding were organised using the sensitising concepts of workplace learning and communities of practice and subsequently applied to code all transcripts. A total of 22 medical students and four faculty advisors were interviewed. Thematic analysis revealed pre-clerkship student roles in direct patient care (patient triage, history and physical examinations, patient education, laboratory and immunisation procedures) and in clinic management (patient follow-up, staff management, quality improvement). Students took ownership of patients and occupied central roles in the function of the clinic, with faculty staff serving as peripheral resources. Clinic-related features supporting this degree of legitimate participation included defined scopes of practice, limited presenting illnesses, focused student training, and clear protocols and operations manuals. Pre-clerkship students are capable of legitimately participating in patient care experiences to an extent not usually available to them. The SRC represents one example of how early clinical experiences in the core curriculum might be transformed through the provision of patient care activities of narrow scope. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lunde Jørgensen, Ida
of art support in the New Carlsberg Foundation and the Danish Arts Foundation at critical points in time, drawing on and contributing to the literature on institutional logics and convention theory. Specifically, the thesis shows the importance of nine particular logics of legitimation underlying art...... support; the industrial, market, inspired, family, renown, civic, projective, emotional and temporal. Most central to the foundations’ operation are the professional (industrial), artistic (inspired) and civic logics. The thesis shows that the invocations of these logics are highly reflective upon wider...
.... Often, tenants residing as leaseholders in residential properties become collateral victims in addition... Residential Property,'' published in the Federal Register on June 24, 2009. Specifically, today's notice... accepting conveyance of an occupied property because of foreclosure of an FHA mortgage, the occupant is...
... residential properties become collateral victims in addition to homeowners when foreclosures occur, and are... Residential Property,'' published in the Federal Register on June 24, 2009, and supplemented by further... property subject to the existing lease and provide tenants residing in the property with notice to vacate...
Bank, Natasha; Kanda, Wisdom
Recruitment and support processes in sustainability-profiled incubators have received little research attention. The article addresses this knowledge gap in an empirical investigation of three sustainability-oriented incubators in Sweden, Finland and Germany. The data are based on interviews with managers, stakeholders and tenants in Green Tech…
... a covered person in accordance with sections 5.858 and 5.859, or alcohol abuse by a covered person... violations of the rental agreement that: (i) Disrupt the livability of the project, (ii) Adversely affect the health or safety of any person or the right of any tenant to the quiet enjoyment of the leased premises...
Verhaeghe, Pieter-Paul; Van der Bracht, Koen; Van de Putte, Bart
According to the social model of disability, physical 'impairments' become disabilities through exclusion in social relations. An obvious form of social exclusion might be discrimination, for instance on the rental housing market. Although discrimination has detrimental health effects, very few studies have examined discrimination of people with a visual impairment. We aim to study (1) the extent of discrimination of individuals with a visual impairment on the rental housing market and (2) differences in rates of discrimination between landowners and real estate agents. We conducted correspondence tests among 268 properties on the Belgian rental housing market. Using matched tests, we compared reactions by realtors and landowners to tenants with and tenants without a visual impairment. The results show that individuals with a visual impairment are substantially discriminated against in the rental housing market: at least one in three lessors discriminate against individuals with a visual impairment. We further discern differences in the propensity toward discrimination according to the type of lessor. Private landlords are at least twice as likely to discriminate against tenants with a visual impairment than real estate agents. At the same time, realtors still discriminate against one in five tenants with a visual impairment. This study shows the substantial discrimination against visually people with an impairment. Given the important consequences discrimination might have for physical and mental health, further research into this topic is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McKenna, Eoghan; Richardson, Ian; Thomson, Murray
Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.
Thyroff, Anastasia E.
Nanotechnology is the control, manipulation, and application of matter on an atomic and molecular level. The technology is complex and confusing to consumers, and its long-term safety and effect on the human body, as well as the environment, are unknown. However, for the past decade, nanotechnology has been used to develop consumer products and food with novel and attractive attributes. Since nanotechnology is still not well known, it is not legitimized; that is, it has not been deemed safe and accepted by society. However, the market for nanotechnology is in the legitimation process. It will take an entire network of key stakeholders playing a specific roles for nanotechnology to legitimize. Specifically, each key stakeholder will align with a certain cultural discourse to frame nanotechnology in a particular way that complements their values. In Essay 1, I follow previous market system dynamic's literature and combine Actor Network Theory (ANT), Foucault's Discourse on Power and Goffman's Frame analysis to theoretically explore what the actor network for nanotechnology looks like. Four dominate frames are identified: 1) Advancement (i.e., government), 2) Management (i.e., industry), 3) Development (i.e., academia/scientists), and 4) Informant (i.e., NGO). Essay 2 empirically explores each actor's perspective on the nanotechnology network through a total of 24 interviews. A hermeneutic approach is used to analyze the 208 page text and themes describing each actor's role from a self and other's perspective are discussed. Additionally, three overarching themes (i.e., contradiction, constance, and cutoff) emerge; these themes describe the degree of similarity in how actors view their role in the nanotechnology network compared to how other actor's view that actor's role. In Essay 3, I bring critical theory into market system's research to better contextualize market formation theories. Specifically, I discuss how critical theory can be used to supplement ANT. I
Nicholas L. Holt
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to critique representation and legitimation as they relate to the peer review process for an autoethnographic manuscript. Using a conversation derived from seven reviewers' comments pertaining to one autoethnographic manuscript, issues relating to (a the use of verification strategies in autoethnographic studies; and, (b the use of self as the only data source are discussed. As such, this paper can be considered as an autoethnographic writing story. The problematic nature of autoethnography, which is located at the boundaries of scientific research, is examined by linking the author's experiences of the review process with dominant research perspectives. Suggestions for investigators wishing to produce autoethnographic accounts are outlined along with a call for the development of appropriate evaluative criteria for such work.
Bachrach, L L
Program development for chronic mentally ill women is emerging in a climate where more general concerns relating to women's health and mental health are increasingly being examined. Although in the past the special needs of chronic mentally ill women have received scant attention in the professional literature, there is evidence today of a growing commitment to serving this population. The author traces the emergence and legitimation of three specific issues--homelessness, skills training, and family planning--that reflect the complexity of program development for this population. As specific issues in service delivery to chronic mentally ill women come to the fore and move toward relevant solutions, we may anticipate a sharpening of planning concepts. Both male and female chronic mental patients stand to benefit from these developments.
Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.
The interpretation of methamphetamine and amphetamine positive test results in biological samples is a challenge to clinical and forensic toxicology for several reasons. The effects of pH and dilution of urine samples and the knowledge about legitimate and illicit sources have to be taken into account. Besides a potentially legal prescription of amphetamines, many substances metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine in the body: amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, deprenyl, dimethylamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, famprofazone, fencamine, fenethylline, fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mesocarb, and prenylamine. Especially the knowledge of potential origins of methamphetamine and amphetamine turns out to be very important to prevent a misinterpretation of the surrounding circumstances and to prove illegal drug abuse. In this review, potential precursor compounds are described, including their medical use and major clinical effects and their metabolic profiles, as well as some clues which help to identify the sources.
Daniel Frasson Lima
Full Text Available The legitimation of power among small entrepreneurs toward the employees was analyzed in the region of Passo Fundo/RS; it’s a process in which these entrepreneurs consolidate working relationships to perform their functions with self-confidence. A descriptive qualitative research was done and used as method of data collection a semi-structured interview, with observation and documental analysis. Four directors of franchises in the field of language education in the northern of Rio Grande do Sul participated in the research. The collected data were submitted to an interpretative analysis that made use of the academic frame to rescue the conception of power, its role and its fountainsin the organizations. The results reinforced the difficulties in measuring the legitimation of power. The phenomenon was investigated from an array of angles and a series of related factors were identified, provokingan evolution on its understanding.It was realized that the strategies of legitimation of the power vary according to the history and leadership style of the directors creating similar results in short term, but not always attending to professionalization and expansion matters.
Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Probst, Christian W.
identification, classification, and change management challenges. We have explored findings from systematic as well as structured reviews of the literature on quality requirements of the cloud-based systems including but not limited to security, availability, scalability, privacy, and multi-tenancy. We have...... presented a framework for requirements classification and change management focusing on distributed Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) systems as well as complex software ecosystems that are built using PaaS and SaaS, such as Tools as a Service (TaaS). We have demonstrated......-time status of the tenant-specific architecture quality requirements can be monitored and system configurations can be adjusted accordingly. For the systems that can be used by multiple tenants, the requirements change management framework should consider if the addition or modification (triggered...
Full Text Available The question of how best to tackle the problem of energy inefficient older housing in the UK is considerable, and is further complicated by the question of tenure. Social landlords are working to update and improve their properties, which make up around 15% of the total UK housing stock (4 million properties. The success of such efficiency improvements depends in part on the cooperation of tenants, and their ability and willingness to engage with the process of change. This paper describes the experiences of eleven social housing tenant households whose properties were fitted with External Wall Insulation (EWI, based on pre- and post-installation interviews and data collection. It includes discussion of tenants’ knowledge, attitudes, and expectations prior to and following installation; household thermal comfort and energy spending before installation; tenant experiences of having EWI installed; tenant perceptions regarding the effects of EWI on thermal comfort, energy spending, and housing attractiveness; impacts of EWI on internal temperatures and heat loss (measured via thermal imaging; energy bill comparisons. Households experienced an average saving of 33% on energy bills following EWI installation, and the majority of tenants reported benefits including improved thermal comfort and related positive impacts on health and wellbeing. The paper concludes by highlighting potential learning points for engaging tenants in the process of enhancing energy efficiency in UK social rented housing.
Pérez Romero, Jordi; Sallent Roig, José Oriol; Ferrús Ferré, Ramón Antonio; Agustí Comes, Ramon
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Berge, Gio ten; Widdershoven, R.J.G.M.
“An important function of the law is to provide certainty by making possible legitimate expectations”.1 “The law cannot be based on trust and expectations, however reasonable and fair they may be”.2 These are just two quotations from Dutch literature on the principle of legitimate
This volume analyzes the dynamics and interactive processes among the players (individuals, institutions, and organizations/firms) that have constituted and legitimized the development of the biotechnology industries. The unit of analysis is small entrepreneurial firms developing biotechnological...
Full Text Available This paper discusses the exhibition Jerusalem at the Museum of World Culture (MoWC in Gothenburg, Sweden. The exhibition mixes photographs of LGBTQ (LesbianGayBiTransQueer persons in Jerusalem, with quotes from the three Abrahamitic Holy Scriptures condemning homosexual activities and behaviours. MoWC held dialogues with religious persons. Although no-one wanted to stop the exhibition, many were critical of the artist’s mixing of Holiness and Nudity/Sexuality. The Museum was criticized for bending to fundamentalist pressure, assuming that it had plans to stop the exhibition, and a media debate on censorship and freedom of speech followed. This paper analyzes the situatedness of MoWC, and its discursive belonging. How can a state governed institution deal with legitimate and opposing claims, and counter both heteronormativity and islamophobia? What discourses is the Museum institution inscribed in? What power relations follow from that? Is it, due to historic, bureaucratic, and cultural legacies, tied to certain positions and affiliations in the public space?
New rules and reminder The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'MAE') has informed CERN of the following solution to a problem that has existed for over 30 years: from now on, members of the personnel residing in France and holding a full-time contract of between three and six months will be entitled to a special EM-type residence permit that does not confer any privileges (see Paragraph 2 below). Furthermore, the MAE has stated that it is willing to request the competent authorities to look favourably on applications for work permits by a member of the personnel's family members who reside in France and wish to take up gainful employment, although it is unable to guarantee the outcome (see Paragraph 7 below). The MAE also wishes to draw attention to the following rules concerning the legitimation documents it issues and to point out that compliance with these rules is essential for the proper operation of all international organisations established in France. This communicatio...
Full Text Available Sweden has committed itself to comply with EU-directive 2009/28/EC on energy from renewable sources and 2012/27/EU on improvement in the efficiency of energy. Measures in the existing housing stock, such as installing photovoltaics (PV, provide a means of contributing to the goals above. The purpose of this paper is to study how the organization of property management and the decision-making structure in tenant-owner cooperatives (TOCs in Sweden facilitates or hampers the adoption of large-scale residential building applied photovoltaics (BAPV in this housing sector. Data collected through seven semi-structured interviews of executive board members in seven housing cooperatives were descriptively analyzed and the results indicate that the decision to adopt BAPV in TOCs does not follow the common frameworks of adoption of innovations. The choice by TOCs to adopt BAPV depends more on the wish to lower operating costs than on efforts to promote a sustainable environment and various principal-agency problems during the decision-making process, as well as during the implementation phase create challenges to the adoption of BAPV. There is a need to strengthen the quality and management of knowledge, as well as procurement proficiency in the TOCs in order to harness the potential for BAPV in the sector.
Rico, Antonio; Noguera, Manuel; Garrido, José Luis; Benghazi, Kawtar; Barjis, Joseph
Multi-tenant architectures (MTAs) are considered a cornerstone in the success of Software as a Service as a new application distribution formula. Multi-tenancy allows multiple customers (i.e. tenants) to be consolidated into the same operational system. This way, tenants run and share the same application instance as well as costs, which are significantly reduced. Functional needs vary from one tenant to another; either companies from different sectors run different types of applications or, although deploying the same functionality, they do differ in the extent of their complexity. In any case, MTA leaves one major concern regarding the companies' data, their privacy and security, which requires special attention to the data layer. In this article, we propose an extended data model that enhances traditional MTAs in respect of this concern. This extension - called multi-target - allows MT applications to host, manage and serve multiple functionalities within the same multi-tenant (MT) environment. The practical deployment of this approach will allow SaaS vendors to target multiple markets or address different levels of functional complexity and yet commercialise just one single MT application. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated via a case study of a real multi-tenancy multi-target (MT2) implementation, called Globalgest.
Luciano Pereira de Souza
Full Text Available This article evaluates whether the legitimate defense can be used in the protection of collective environmental rights. Some scholars are contrary to the legitimate defense of those rights in face of an unlawful assault not involving concomitant aggression to individual rights. Given the current risk scenario for the global ecological balance, revealed by the approach of planetary boundaries - and taking into account its fundamental principles of protection and defense of a right – this paper does not exclude legitimate defense as a lawful means of environmental protection, regardless its impact on public order and peace.
Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to find an ideal tenant mix structure for the current shopping centres in Upper Silesian Urban Area Region in Poland, taking under consideration consumer preferences and behaviour. Research Design & Methods: Apart from literature review, empirical research is based on a survey questionnaire. The Analytic Hierarchy Process was applied in the analysis of the data collected. Findings: The research confirmed that to a great extent the valid tenant mix structure in the surveyed shopping centres meets with friendly attitude of customers. However, there are areas where improvement can increase the visitors’ satisfaction. Moreover, it was proven that shopping remains the main reason for customers’ visits in shopping centres, in spite of extending the offer of this type of places with new functions. Implications & Recommendations: Real estate managers are recommended to take actions aiming at increasing competitiveness on the market via the extension of the proposed shopping offer and their adjustment to customers’ expectations. For the managers, the results of the conducted research suggest lack of the necessity for radical transformations, and transforming Polish shopping centres into facilities of the fourth and fifth generation, which is slow in Poland, is, as it turns out, not necessarily expected, since customers identify shopping centres mainly with their traditional function. Contribution & Value Added: The proposed research model and findings can serve as a useful lens within the research of tenant mix structure in shopping centres in other parts of the Poland.
Pourgiv, Farideh; Rahmati, Sara Ebrahimi
Through the use of narrative analysis of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, it is argued in this paper that by introducing a female artist Bronte is posing questions regarding the experiences of the middle class women of the Victorian era, thus showing how much they were allowed to express their desires and emotions. Bronte presents a female artist who is forced to choose between her role as a wife and her role as an artist. The use of a journal in this novel makes it a counterplot in which female ...
Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir
solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve...... be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma....
Full Text Available Patriarchy system occurs in the era of Victoria and many women experience the effects of this system. The aims of the study is to describe the patriarchy system presented in the novel The Tenant of Wildfell Hall by Anne Bronte. This research was conducted with descriptive qualitative method. The data were taken from Anne Bronte’s novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall published by Anne Bronte in 1848. Data were collected from intensive reading of the novel and library research for resources related to patriarchy system. The result of study indicated that the patriarchy system which found in the novel ‘The Tenant of Wildfell Hall’ (1848 touch some basic institution namely economic institution, education, religion, family, state institution and cultural values. This novel told us about the condition of society in the Victorian era especially related to the patriarchy system occurred in that era.
Van Mossel, J.H.
For housing associations, maintenance is an opportunity for high quality interaction with their tenants, and thus an opportunity for effectively influencing the quality of service delivery to tenants. Dutch housing associations have a market share of about one third of the entire Dutch housing
... Federally sponsored child care center in a multi-tenant building? 792.226 Section 792.226 Administrative... agency disburse funds to a Federally sponsored child care center in a multi-tenant building? In a multi...' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Agency Use of Appropriated Funds for Child Care Costs for Lower Income...
André, Stéfanie; Dewilde, Caroline; Luijkx, Ruud
Integrating housing tenure in Instrumental Motivation Theory predicts a tenure gap in electoral participation, as homeowners would be more motivated to vote compared with tenants. The empirical question is whether this effect is causal or rather due to selection into different housing tenures. This question is tackled using coarsened exact matching (CEM) on data for 19 countries, allowing us to better control for endogeneity. Even then, homeowners are found to vote more often than tenants. This association is stronger in countries characterized by a strong pro-homeownership ideology and/or where the financialization of housing markets turned houses into assets.
Full Text Available Renting is a common form of tenure in many developing countries in the global south. This is due to a housing shortage in these countries and has led to a situation where the vast majority of individuals in major cities find accommodation in the rental market. This situation can be put down to the difficulty to entering the market as a homeowner. While this condition is found in much of the formal housing market in the global south, little has been explored in the informal housing market. This state of affairs has pushed many residence in informal settlements into the rental market. This paper examines the rental market in informal settlements in Johannesburg, South Africa by conducting a qualitative investigation into the experiences of landlords (n = 11 and tenants (n = 15 in three informal settlements in Johannesburg. Overall, there is an asymmetric relationship between the two actors within this market, with the perception that landlords, who view their role as noble provider, impose arbitrary rental terms on tenants in an illegal tenancy market.
... remain a walkup structure containing five hundred two-bedroom occupied and five hundred three-bedroom... occupancy rate, tenant composition, physical configuration and management structure of the revitalized....T.) and $100,000 monthly in utility costs paid by the authority and $50,000 monthly in utility...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What authority do I have to screen... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse General § 5.851 What authority do I have to screen applicants and to evict tenants? (a) Screening...
Mackerron, G. [SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Berkhout, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Over the course of 50 years, UK radioactive waste policy change has been coupled with institutional change, without much progress towards the ultimate goal of safe, long-term stewardship of wastes. We explain this history as a search for legitimacy against a shifting context of legitimation needs and deficits. Following Habermas, we argue that legitimation is derived from a process of justificatory discourse. In principle, there must be a reasonable exchange of arguments between diverse parties in society, based on common norms, for legitimacy to be achieved. We show that the work of legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy has moved from a focus on factual validity claims towards an increasing emphasis on deliberative processes. This reframing of legitimation needs explains institutional and policy changes in UK radioactive waste policy. The most recent phase of policy and institutional change, which placed public deliberation about long-term management and disposal options centre-stage, represents a new step towards bridging legitimation deficits. Plans to build new nuclear reactors in the UK based on a more closed 'streamlined' decision process risk reversing the legitimacy gains that have been achieved through growing openness on radioactive waste management.
Full Text Available Through the use of narrative analysis of The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, it is argued in this paper that by introducing a female artist Bronte is posing questions regarding the experiences of the middle class women of the Victorian era, thus showing how much they were allowed to express their desires and emotions. Bronte presents a female artist who is forced to choose between her role as a wife and her role as an artist. The use of a journal in this novel makes it a counterplot in which female maturity is not equated with marriage, but with the heroine’s rejection of her role as a wife, for though Helen’s character develops through her experience in courtship and marriage, it is her flight and rejection of the angel that empowers her to be born as an artist.
Hope, Alexander John; Booth, Alexander
The UK's housing stock generates approximately 27% of the country's total annual carbon emissions. In light of the legally binding targets to reduce carbon emissions, new housing is subject to a tightening of regulations governing energy demand and efficiency resulting in a gradual improvement in carbon emissions. The question is how to achieve the deep carbon emission reductions from existing domestic properties, of which 75% will still be in use in 2050. Government has sought to provide incentives to homeowners to improve the energy efficiency of their households, and mandate improvements in socially rented housing using a range of fiscal measures, most recently the ‘Green Deal’. There has however been little consideration of the 18% of UK households who privately rent their home, a tenure that is growing fast. The aim of this research is to investigate the factors that influence private sector landlords when considering energy efficiency improvements to their tenanted homes. The results indicate that government policy has consistently failed to engage private sector landlords in the issue of energy efficiency and thus measures must be taken to understand the motivations of landlords in order to design effective incentives and interventions. - Highlights: • Attitudes of private sector landlords to energy efficiency in their tenanted homes are analysed. • Reports on the actions taken by private landlords to improve energy efficiency. • Privately rented homes poorly performing in terms of energy performance. • The private rented sector is disengaged with the issue of housing energy performance. • Current government initiatives such as Green Deal offer little incentive for improvements
This article explores the relationship between machismo and implicit power processes at a conceptual and empirical level. Implicit power processes are the taken-for-granted ways in which organizational members reproduce sexual divisions in their organizations. The empirical data are derived from the
This paper aims to examine the rise and the fall of biomedicine in the public legitimization of the development of nuclear energy. Until the late 1950s, biological and medical applications of radioisotopes were presented as the most important successes of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. I will argue that despite the major financial investment, the development of the uses of radioisotopes and their important impact on biology and clinical practices, the assessment of medical uses remained relatively limited. As consequence, the place of biomedicine in the public legitimization of financial investment and civilian uses of nuclear energy began to decline from the late 1950s.
Weiler, Hans N.
Shows how the concept of legitimacy and, in particular, the theoretical construct of compensatory legitimation as a determinant of policy strategies may be useful for the comparative analysis of educational policy in advanced capitalist societies. Uses examples of educational policy in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States. (BRR)
Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John
This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…
Woo, David James
As new technologies continue to shape society, there has been a greater need for communities of practice to facilitate changing teaching and learning practices through technology in schools. Legitimate peripheral participation through these communities of practice has become an essential means to spread and support this technology integration…
This article analyses institutional evaluations of higher education in England and Finland through the concept of legitimacy. The focus of the article is on the institutional tendencies of legitimacy. This author's hypothesis is that evaluation is legitimate when the evaluation process is of a good quality and accepted both morally and in practice…
Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov
Quality, professionalism and legitimate knowledge in a changing SSP-collaboration. This article explores the inter professional collaboration in a crime preventive initiative called SSP, which is a collaboration between school, social work and police. By drawing on interviews of actors from...
Clarke, Sara; Thomas, Zoe
This feature considers the legitimate peripheral participation model in developing professional competencies in health librarianship. It is described how this model was used in the development of a framework for mapping and recognising the competencies gained by new health librarians at the Royal Free Hospital Medical Library. HS. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
Gangl, Katharina; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Lamm, Claus; Kirchler, Erich; Hofmann, Eva
Cooperation in social systems such as tax honesty is of central importance in our modern societies. However, we know little about cognitive and neural processes driving decisions to evade or pay taxes. This study focuses on the impact of perceived tax authority and examines the mental chronometry mirrored in ERP data allowing a deeper understanding about why humans cooperate in tax systems. We experimentally manipulated coercive and legitimate authority and studied its impact on cooperation and underlying cognitive (experiment 1, 2) and neuronal (experiment 2) processes. Experiment 1 showed that in a condition of coercive authority, tax payments are lower, decisions are faster and participants report more rational reasoning and enforced compliance, however, less voluntary cooperation than in a condition of legitimate authority. Experiment 2 confirmed most results, but did not find a difference in payments or self-reported rational reasoning. Moreover, legitimate authority led to heightened cognitive control (expressed by increased MFN amplitudes) and disrupted attention processing (expressed by decreased P300 amplitudes) compared to coercive authority. To conclude, the neuronal data surprisingly revealed that legitimate authority may led to higher decision conflict and thus to higher cognitive demands in tax decisions than coercive authority. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Castagno, Angelina E.
In this article, I examine the ways in which silences around race contribute to the maintenance and legitimation of Whiteness. Drawing on ethnographic data from two demographically different schools, I highlight patterns of racially coded language, teacher silence, silencing students' race talk, and the conflating of culture with race, equality…
O'Sullivan, N.; O'Dwyer, B.
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present an in-depth, context rich, and stakeholder-focused perspective on the legitimation dynamics surrounding the initiation and evolution of one of the key financial sector environmental and social responsibility initiatives in recent years, the Equator
Taking the evolution of the quality agenda in the UK as its centrepiece, this article analyses the politics of legitimation accompanying the emergence of quality assurance and the contribution of quality enhancement to the power play therein. This article argues that over the last 25 years the quality agenda has been used as a proxy--a state…
Klein, Eva M; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W
The proportion of adolescent migrants in Germany aged 15-20 years has risen to about 29.5% in 2014 according to Federal census statistics. The purpose of the current study was to describe and to compare the psychological strains of adolescent 1 st and 2 nd generation migrants with non-migrants in a representative school survey. Acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity norms was explored and its correlation with psychological strain was analyzed. Self-reported data of psychological strain (internalizing and externalizing problems) and acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity were gathered among 8 518 pupils aged 12-19 years across different school types. Among the surveyed adolescents, 27.6% reported a migration background (5.8% 1 st generation migrants; 21.8% 2 nd generation migrants). Particularly 1 st generation migrants scored higher in internalizing and externalizing problems than 2 nd generation migrants or non-migrants. The differences, however, were small. Adolescents with migration background suffered from educational disadvantage, especially 1 st generation migrants. Male adolescents reported significantly higher acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity norms than their female counterparts. Strong agreement with the measured concept of masculinity was found among pupils of lower secondary school and adolescents reported regularly tobacco and cannabis consumption. The acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity norms was greater among migrants, particularly 1 st generation migrants, than non-migrants. Overall, high acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity norms was related to externalizing problems, which can be understood as dysfunctional coping mechanisms of social disadvantage and a lack of prospects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Nilsen, Heidi; Strømsnes, Kristin; Schmidt, Ulla
Artiklen analyserer kampagnen "Klimavalg 2013", en kampagne i forbindelse med valget til det norske Storting i 2013, hvor mere end 100 civilsamfundsorganisationer gik sammen om seks politiske målsætninger knyttet til bekæmpelse af klimaændringer. Artiklen diskuterer hvordan en kampagne der fik ti...
A New York City couple, [name removed] and [name removed], must pay [name removed] $125,000 for trying to force him from their apartment because he is gay and HIV-positive. The Rosacos used an 18-month campaign of abuse and harassment, including disabling [name removed]'s door locks, turning off his electricity, and threatening to force him out into the street. They denounced [name removed] in public and expressed their wish that he develop AIDS and die a painful death. [Name removed] filed a complaint with the Human Rights Commission, who ruled that the [name removed] violated a section of the city's administrative code prohibiting landlords from discriminating against tenants based on sexual orientation and disability. The [name removed] were ordered to pay [name removed] $100,000 in emotional distress damages and a $75,000 civil penalty. The State Supreme Court's Appellate Division found no reason to grant the [name removed] an appeal. They decreased the civil penalty to $25,000 because the [name removed] 50 unit apartment building does not make them large landlords by Manhattan standards.
E. A. Boytsov
Full Text Available One of the main trends of recent years in software design is a shift to a Software as a Service (SaaS paradigm which brings a number of advantages for both software developers and end users. However, along with these benefits this transition brings new architectural challenges. One of such challenges is the implementation of a data storage that would meet the needs of a service-provider, at the same time providing a fairly simple application programming interface for software developers. In order to develop effective solutions in this area, the architectural features of cloud-based applications should be taken into account. Among others, such key features are the need for scalability and quick adaptation to changing conditions. This paper provides a brief analysis of the problems in the field of cloud data storage systems based on the relational model and it proposes the concept of database cluster designed for applications with a multi-tenant architecture. Besides, the article describes a simulation model of such a cluster, as well as the main stages of its development and the main principles forming its foundation.
Rosalyn A. V. Robison
Full Text Available Government policy aimed at curbing carbon emissions often focusses on encouraging individual action, however the effectiveness of this approach has been limited. Investigations of why this might be have included segmentation, to identify different groups who undertake more or less action, and analysis of various “barriers” to action. Those on lower incomes who are not home owners have previously been found to be less engaged in seeking out energy efficiency information. Working with low-income tenants living in supported social housing we conducted three group interviews, accompanied by a 7-item scale measuring general attitude towards the environment. The interviews were aimed at opening up discussion about environmental and energy issues, including exploring more deeply what, for these participants, underlies barriers to conservation behaviours. We found participants to be very willing to engage in conversation and knowledgeable about a range of relevant issues. Barriers explored include: lack of confidence in existing levels of knowledge, habit, self-interest and lack of agency, and in all cases several different perspectives were voiced by participants. Implications for policy, interventions and public engagement are given, including ways to increase dialogue and reflection on sustainability issues for all sectors of society.
Case studies are presented of British coal and American oil as the only two, big examples of modern extractive industries that have been based on private leases. Depletion has played a decisive role in both cases in bringing about the convergence of the contractually defined groundrents to minimum levels called reservation groundrents. There were, however, two significant differences. In the first place, there was never a class of landlords in the USA, thus the legal framework has been able to adapt to the economic and technological requirements of petroleum production. This was not possible in coal mining in Britain where the landlords were politically powerful. Secondly, it was much easier to keep up with technological developments in the pumping of a liquid product, oil, than in the mining of solid coal. These factors led to the breakdown of the landlord-tenant relationship and the nationalisation of British coal but there is no likelihood of anything similar happening in the case of American oil. The case studies are prefaced by a theoretical framework and consideration of Ricardian rent theory and royalties. (UK)
Kamans, Elanor; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Postmes, Tom
In intractable intergroup conflicts, groups often try to frame intergroup violence as legitimate through the use of emotional appeals. Two experiments demonstrate that outsiders' perception of which emotion conflict parties communicate influences the extent to which they legitimize their violence.
Full Text Available Despite widespread beliefs that the United States has not used chemical weapons since the distant past of World War I, this study suggests a more complicated history by examining U.S. use of herbicides and incapacitating gases in the Vietnam War and its use of herbicides in the "War on Drugs." This article places such use of toxic violence within a context of U.S. hegemony, by which U.S. officials have used contested forms of violence to secure geopolitical goals, but have also been pressured to comply with humanitarian norms or-when there is a gap between norms and state policy-to do legitimating work in order to maintain domestic and international consent. Based on case study analysis of archival and secondary sources, this article identifies three main techniques U.S. officials use to legitimate contested forms of violence. These techniques are defensive categorization, humanitizing discourse, and surrogacy.
Full Text Available The issue of legitimizing political power has specific dimensions determined by the historical context. In the period following the First World War, democratic regimes dramatically collapsed due to ample protest movements against the political establishment from different countries, but also as a result of a serious political legitimation crisis, thus making way for the rise of totalitarian regimes of Fascism and Nazism. That time debates on the problem of legitimization political power are symptomatic. Due to the general perception regarding corruption in politics and to the political incapacity to deal with social problems, we can witness a decrease of trust in contemporary democratic regimes.In order to exemplify, in a brief expositive manner, my paper will present the topic of political legitimation approached by Max Weber and Karl Jaspers, in a selection of relevant texts issued by both authors during 1919-1931. The aim of this paper is to highlight the actuality, the validity of Weber’s and Jasper’s statements and also their capacity to give pertinent responses to questions such as: What role do the common values play in the legitimating of power in a democratic society? Are there any kinds of limits regarding the electoral legitimation? How can we make the difference between a legitimate appeal and an illegitimate one, between civism and terrorism?
Jørgensen, Martin Bak
, political and economic rights, of moral obligations, of sovereignty, and of equity, as well as of how to define target groups and legal and categorical statuses into the debates. Having a backdrop in the theoretical framework of Carol Bacchi, Anne Schneider and Helen Ingram and Giorgio Agamben, this article...
Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John
This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young people classified as NEET (not in education, employment or training), or at risk of becoming so to challenge dominant discourses about youth unemploymen...
This study explores the processes involved in the evolution of cultural markets as legitimate institutional arrangements in the context of the U.S. Hispanic market. This research consists of a historical analysis of newspaper articles from 1984 to 2010 in the Wall Street Journal and USA Today in order to obtain a view of the processes involved in the evolution of the Hispanic market as a viable entity. The research uncovers the industry, marketing and societal processes which contribute to t...
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the production of legitimate transactions in a microcredit policy and to explore the creation of interpersonal agreements and conflicts related to these transactions. Based on an ethnographic approach, the paper focuses on the meanings that actors give to the allocation of money, emphasizing the creation as well as the expression of both ‘economic’ and ‘non-economic’ debts and obligations.
The didactic methodology reminds of the idea of an efficient functioning of the education process. In this way, the systemic perspective of the didactic methodology illustrates the way in which the educational experience transposed at the level of the teaching-learning-evaluating activity. Thus, the didactic courses of action initiated in the context of the educational reality emphasize an image that legitimizes the experience of learning itself in general. Therefore, from a pragmatic perspec...
Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a qualitative descriptive study that explored the professional socialization experiences of Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs who attended an online university to earn a Baccalaureate degree in nursing (BN, a prerequisite to writing the Canadian Registered Nurse (RN qualifying exam. The project was framed from a constructivist worldview and Haas and Shaffir’s theory of legitimation. Participants were 27 nurses in a Post-LPN to BN program who came from across Canada to complete required practicums. Data was collected from digital recordings of four focus groups held in different cities. Transcripts were analyzed for themes and confirmed with participants through member checking. Two overarching themes were identified and are presented to explain how these unique adult learners sought to legitimize their emerging identity as Registered Nurses (RNs. First, Post-LPN to BN students need little, if any, further legitimation to affirm their identities as “nurse.” Second, practicum interactions with instructors and new clinical experiences are key socializing agents.
Ferry de Jong
Full Text Available The past decade has seen the rise of a fierce, ongoing controversy concerning the authority of criminal courts and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system as such. This article aims to provide some much needed conceptual clarity regarding the primal subjects under discussion: To what do we actually refer when we are using the words 'authority' and 'legitimacy'? What is 'legitimate authority'? For an answer to this question, reference is made to a number of theoretical developments within (political philosophy. The article investigates how developments within the doctrines of the general part of substantive criminal law are related to shifting contemporary views on the general conditions for a legitimate exercise of practical authority. An account of a number of interlocking developments within the doctrinal system of Dutch substantive criminal law serves as a starting point for the subsequent inquiry. It is argued that these developments exemplify shifts in the way authority is distributed over various agents involved in criminal proceedings. It is further argued that these shifts in the distribution of authority parallel notable movements within the philosophical literature on the concept of legitimate authority, that is: a movement from a rationalistic and top-down approach toward a reciprocal, bottom-up approach.
Albu, Oana Brindusa
to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co......This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...
Shamseer, Larissa; Moher, David; Maduekwe, Onyi; Turner, Lucy; Barbour, Virginia; Burch, Rebecca; Clark, Jocalyn; Galipeau, James; Roberts, Jason; Shea, Beverley J
The Internet has transformed scholarly publishing, most notably, by the introduction of open access publishing. Recently, there has been a rise of online journals characterized as 'predatory', which actively solicit manuscripts and charge publications fees without providing robust peer review and editorial services. We carried out a cross-sectional comparison of characteristics of potential predatory, legitimate open access, and legitimate subscription-based biomedical journals. On July 10, 2014, scholarly journals from each of the following groups were identified - potential predatory journals (source: Beall's List), presumed legitimate, fully open access journals (source: PubMed Central), and presumed legitimate subscription-based (including hybrid) journals (source: Abridged Index Medicus). MEDLINE journal inclusion criteria were used to screen and identify biomedical journals from within the potential predatory journals group. One hundred journals from each group were randomly selected. Journal characteristics (e.g., website integrity, look and feel, editors and staff, editorial/peer review process, instructions to authors, publication model, copyright and licensing, journal location, and contact) were collected by one assessor and verified by a second. Summary statistics were calculated. Ninety-three predatory journals, 99 open access, and 100 subscription-based journals were analyzed; exclusions were due to website unavailability. Many more predatory journals' homepages contained spelling errors (61/93, 66%) and distorted or potentially unauthorized images (59/93, 63%) compared to open access journals (6/99, 6% and 5/99, 5%, respectively) and subscription-based journals (3/100, 3% and 1/100, 1%, respectively). Thirty-one (33%) predatory journals promoted a bogus impact metric - the Index Copernicus Value - versus three (3%) open access journals and no subscription-based journals. Nearly three quarters (n = 66, 73%) of predatory journals had editors or
Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; Hellman, Heikki; Riegert, Kristina
Based on theories about the role of cultural mediators in cultural production and using the TV series Mad Men as a case, this article investigates how cultural journalists in the Nordic countries have contributed to legitimizing “quality TV series” as a worthy field of aesthetic consumption. Key analytical points are as follows: (1) cultural journalists legitimize Mad Men’s quality by addressing aspects internal (aesthetic markers) and aspects external (culture industry markers) to the series...
Flavio Ricardo Albuquerque Azevedo
Full Text Available This article analyzes the Institute of Legitimation of Possession, as a form of public land acquisition in the State of Pará and investigates the applicable regulations, since the State Law of Para n. 7.289 / 2009 established the legitimacy as a mean of public land alienation, without expressly mentioning the State Decree no. 1054/1996, which declared the forfeiture of the possession of records made before the state land agencies, whose areas were not legitimized.
Azevedo, Flavio Ricardo Albuquerque; da Fonseca, Luciana Costa
This article analyzes the Institute of Legitimation of Possession, as a form of public land acquisition in the State of Pará and investigates the applicable regulations, since the State Law of Para n. 7.289 / 2009 established the legitimacy as a mean of public land alienation, without expressly mentioning the State Decree no. 1054/1996, which declared the forfeiture of the possession of records made before the state land agencies, whose areas were not legitimized.
Full Text Available This article analyzes the epistemological legitimation of mathematics in natural philosophy in the seventeenth century. In the Renaissance it was claimed that mathematics does not meet the Aristotelian criteria of scientificity, and that it did not explain the efficient and final causes. So, its critics, inspired by the Aristotelian tradition, rejected the first attempts to mathematize natural philosophy. The epistemological conditions involved in the debate are examined on the scientific nature of mathematics and its relevance to natural philosophy. A historiographical tour of the mathematization of nature is made to provide new weighing elements with respect to a historically and philosophically more conceptual characterization of the emergence of modern science.
Marana Sotero De Sousa
Full Text Available The present article tries to point out the importance of participatory democracy for continuous affirmation of Law Democratic State, shrouded at modifications about citizenship in his evolution between State models following as suffered reforms under Brazilian Public Administration. Through qualitative methodology, especially with historical and hermeneutic procedures and bibliographical sources, the objective is develop the discussion about Popular Participation As legitimation instrument in the decisions that are limited in the administrator space. At the end, show the popular participation and citizens are fundamentals for current democratic model of state.
Farah de Sousa Malcher
Full Text Available We defend the importance of studying the discriminatory treatment of criminal law from the analysis of discourses on the subjectivities, resulting in dichotomy citizen/enemy. Rationalisations about the category of enemy in so-called "law of risk", seem to justify the unequal exercise of power punitive and the neutralization of individuals labelled as harmful and abnormal behavior, even if this is at the expense of principles, fundamental rights and guarantees of the rule of law. Such discourses also favors the neoliberal environment, to the extent that translate the entire conflitividade on punishment and legitimized stigmatization processes, criminalization of poverty and criminal selectivity.
Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; York, Peter; Kubic, Thomas
Counterfeit medicines are a global public health risk. We assess counterfeit reports involving the legitimate supply chain using 2009-2011 data from the Pharmaceutical Security Institute Counterfeit Incident System (PSI CIS) database that uses both open and nonpublic data sources. Of the 1,510 identified CIS reports involving counterfeits, 27.6% reported China as the source country of the incident/detection. Further, 51.3% were reported as counterfeit but the specific counterfeit subcategory was not known or verifiable. The most prevalent therapeutic category was anti-infectives (21.1%) with most reports originating from health-related government agencies. Geographically, Asian and Latin American regions and, economically, middle-income markets were most represented. A total of 127 (64.8%) of a total of 196 countries had no legitimate supply chain CIS counterfeit reports. Improvements in surveillance, including detection of security breaches, data collection, analysis, and dissemination are urgently needed to address public health needs to combat the global counterfeit medicines trade. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian
The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.
Johansson, K A; Jerene, D; Norheim, O F
To provide an ethical analysis of whether the Ethiopian and Tanzanian national HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines can be considered legitimate and fair rationing tools. Qualitative study and ethical analysis involving guideline documents and interviews with nine key members involved in the development of the guidelines. The analysis followed an editing organising style. The theoretical framework was a guideline-specific framework based on theories of just resource allocation in healthcare and conditions that ensure fair processes in guideline development. According to this framework, legitimate rationing requires reasons for patient selection to be explicit, public and relevant, and decisions must be open to question and revision. The only explicit rationing criteria that both guidelines recommended were clinical antiretroviral treatment indications. Explicit non-clinical rationing criteria were expressed in a separate Ethiopian implementation guideline. Neither of the guideline development processes fully satisfies minimal requirements of procedural fairness. There is a lack of transparency. The reasons for decisions are rarely given and are not publicly available. This reduces the opportunity for public questioning, debate and revisions. The guidelines were based on expert opinion and consensus. Recommendations from the WHO were copied without much discussion, disagreement or adjustment. The two national HIV treatment guidelines discussed are de facto mechanisms for rationing but were developed using methods that do not fully satisfy the requirements of fair processes.
Geradt, Max; Jahnke, Sara; Heinz, Julia; Hoyer, Jürgen
Among pedophilic men, social contact with children has been discussed as creating a risk situation for sexual abuse. Also, pedophilic men searching for such contact are seen as harboring more beliefs legitimizing sexual contact with children. However, social contact may also decrease false beliefs. We tested these competing views in an anonymous Internet survey with a non-forensic, non-clinical sample of 104 self-classified pedophilic men. Results showed that both increased social and physical contact were significantly linked to fewer legitimizing beliefs toward sex with children, even when controlling for past psychotherapy, educational level, social desirability, and age. Controlling for previous conviction for child sexual offenses reduced the effect for physical contact, but not for social contact. Exploratory analyses showed that either type of contact had no significant effect on total self-perceived risk of offending. However, pedophilic men with physical contact with children perceived a higher risk of more direct (i.e., child abuse) than indirect offenses (i.e., child pornography offenses) compared to pedophilic men without physical contact. Despite limitations of the correlational design and the only small to moderate effects, the results challenge the assumption that complete avoidance of contact with children is necessary for persons with pedophilia to reduce the risk of abusive behavior.
Helen P Carr
Full Text Available This paper considers current cuts to social housing provision in the UK made in the name of austerity. It focuses particularly on the ‘bedroom tax’ —the cut to housing benefit for working-age social housing tenants whose property is deemed to provide more bedrooms than they need. It begins by explaining the long-standing political project of social housing in the UK. This background is important to explain the emergence of a discursively ghettoized population within social housing. We then turn to the ‘bedroom tax’ itself. We consider the two quite separate rationales underpinning its introduction. One rationale —fairness— is the focus of the politicians; the other —under-occupation— provides the focus for policy analysts. Both offer different versions of truth about the social in social housing and both are unconvincing. For us, this is significant because the politics of austerity require the support of public opinion. We then consider some strategies of resistance to the ‘bedroom tax’ which harness the disruptive potential of fairness before concluding that the bedroom tax requires relatively little unpacking to reveal it as an ideological device which operates to increase inequality whilst deploying a rhetoric of fairness. Este artículo analiza los recortes en las prestaciones de viviendas sociales que se realizan actualmente en el Reino Unido en nombre de la austeridad. Se centra particularmente en el 'impuesto dormitorio' -el recorte en el subsidio de vivienda para inquilinos en edad de trabajar, cuya vivienda se considera que tiene más dormitorios de los que necesitan. Comienza explicando el proyecto político de viviendas sociales, de larga tradición en el Reino Unido. Estos antecedentes son importantes para explicar el surgimiento de guetos en las viviendas sociales. A continuación se centra en el "impuesto dormitorio” en sí mismo. Se analizan los dos diferentes motivos que sustentan su promulgación. Una es
... Public Housing With the Cost of Tenant-Based Assistance I. Public Housing-Net Present Value The costs... year after the initial year. The sum of the discounted values for each year (net present value) for public housing will then be compared to the net present value of the stream of costs associated with...
Full Text Available Introduction: Open access (OA medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for “predatory” publishers who take authors’ money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. Methods: We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM. Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. Results: We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based. Of these 55, 25 (45% were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. Conclusion: OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals.
Hood, Nancy E; Ferketich, Amy K; Klein, Elizabeth G; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Pirie, Phyllis
Mandatory smoke-free policies in subsidized, multiunit housing (MUH) may decrease secondhand smoke exposure in households with the highest rates of exposure. Ideally, policies should be based on a strong understanding of factors affecting support for smoke-free policies in the target population to maximize effectiveness. A face-to-face survey was conducted from August to October 2011 using a stratified random sample of private subsidized housing units in Columbus, OH, without an existing smoke-free policy (n = 301, 64% response rate). Lease holders were asked to report individual, social, and environmental factors hypothesized to be related to support for smoke-free policies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with policy support. Most tenants supported smoke-free policies in common areas (82.7%), half supported policies inside units (54.5%), and one third supported a ban outside the building (36.3%). Support for smoke-free policies in units and outdoors was more common among nonsmokers than smokers (71.5% vs. 35.7%, p social, but no environmental, factors were independently associated with policy support. Smokers who intended to quit within 6 months or less were more likely than other smokers to support in-unit policies (45.3% vs. 21.1%; p = .003). More than half of subsidized MUH tenants supported smoke-free policies inside their units. Strategies to address individual- and social-level barriers to behavior change should be implemented in parallel with smoke-free policies. Policies should be evaluated with objective measures to determine their effectiveness.
Evandro Ricardo Guindani
Full Text Available This work results from a study at the doctoral level who investigated how the university helps to legitimize the logic of capital, through research in religious studies. Seven dissertations produced in two Brazilian universities were analyzed. While focusing on the creation of this issue today, we have not lost sight of how, since the Middle Ages, theology was used by the nobility and the clergy, preceding or current way of announcing the appropriation of this knowledge by the hegemonic class. Detected in the current context or a resumption of the tightening relationship between religion and market mediation University, now no longer in the service of the nobility and the clergy, but of entrepreneurs.
Lybecker, Kristina M; Fowler, Elisabeth
This paper examines two recent examples of compulsory licensing legislation: one globally embraced regime and one internationally controversial regime operating under the same WTO rules. In particular, we consider Canadian legislation and the use of compulsory licensing for HIV/AIDS drugs destined for a developing country. This is then contrasted with the conditions under which Thai authorities are pursuing compulsory licenses, the outcomes of their compulsory licenses, as well as the likely impact of the Thai policy. Finally, we construct a rubric to evaluate characteristics of a successful regime. This is used to analyze the Canadian and Thai regimes and frame the expected implications of each national policy. It is hoped that the assessment will guide changes to compulsory licensing design to ensure that legitimate regimes are embraced while illegitimate ones are disallowed.
Full Text Available This article reconstructs the principal moments of Dieter Henrich's work on Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy. Henrich seeks to clarify and regain the fundaments of Kant's theory of knowledge - from which his followers, according to him, have distanced themselves - based on the analysis of the "transcendental deduction of the categories". Firstly, Henrich investigates the proof structure of deduction, comparing the first and the second edition of Critique of Pure Reason. Secondly, he investigates, in the Kantian argument, the relationship between the identity principle of self-consciousness and objectivity. Finally, extending the comparison to Critique of Practical Reason, Henrich elucidates the program and methodology in deduction, showing that the idea of a legitimating fact, borrowed from the juridical notion of a deduction, becomes the fundamental element. We analyse the problems raised by the conception of a philosophical argument based on fundamental "facts".
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, German medical hypnotists sought to gain a therapeutic and epistemological monopoly over hypnosis. In order to do this, however, these physicians were required to engage in a complex multi-dimensional form of boundary-work, which was intended on the one hand to convince the medical community of the legitimacy and efficacy of hypnosis and on the other to demarcate their use of suggestion from that of stage hypnotists, magnetic healers, and occultists. While the epistemological, professional, and legal boundaries that medical hypnotists erected helped both exclude lay practitioners from this field and sanitize the medical use of hypnosis, the esoteric interests, and sensational public experiments of some of these researchers, which mimicked the theatricality and occult interests of their lay competitors, blurred the distinctions that these professionals were attempting to draw between their "legitimate" medical use of hypnosis and the "illegitimate" lay and occult use of it.
Full Text Available This article draws parallels between Tsar Nicholas I and current Russian President Vladimir Putin with respect to their use of nationalism to justify statist policies and political authoritarianism. Building upon insights by Alexander Gerschenkron about the economic development of “backwards” states, it argues that both Nicholas and Putin have rhetorically used Western concepts such as nationalism and democracy to legitimize their rule but have modified them to give them more statist content. Under Nicholas, this was exemplified in the tripartite (Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality Official Nationality policy. Putin has emphasized patriotism, power, and statism to justify centralization of power and authoritarian policies. Putin's policies and rhetoric are strong analogs to those of Nicholas. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to explain state-inspired Russian nationalism and how it has been aligned with authoritarian politics, as well as specifying similarities between present and past in Russia.
Neil A. Thompson
Full Text Available Sustainable ventures often lack legitimacy (perceived to be desirable and appropriate because various stakeholder groups use contradictory institutions (rules and norms to make their judgements, which leads to there being fewer resources available and higher failure rates. Using an institutional theory framework and a multi-case research design with 15 biofuel ventures operating in the Netherlands, this study asks how sustainable entrepreneurs attempt to gain legitimacy in these circumstances. Analysis reveals that the entrepreneurs use a combination of rhetorical, reconciliatory and institutional change strategies to obtain legitimacy from different stakeholder groups. These findings further our understanding of sustainable entrepreneurial behavior by revealing how and why different legitimation strategies are used in complex institutional environments.
Redman, Susan; Taylor, Julie
This paper reports a study of how issues around the use of smacking by parents are represented in the print media. Our purpose was not to state a case for or against the use of smacking. Rather, within the contemporary social context we sought to answer the question, 'Why is smacking considered to be a legitimate part of parenting in the United Kingdom?' Although a number of government proposals aiming to ban the use of smacking by parents have been presented in the United Kingdom parliament and Scottish Executive, current legislation allows parents to use this form of physical discipline as long as it does not result in physical injury to the child. For the purposes of this discussion, smacking is considered as a social phenomenon rather than an activity simply to be favoured or to be opposed. A sample of 244 articles from five different United Kingdom newspapers was examined during 2004. Schema analysis that drew upon semiotics was used to analyse these print media representations about the use of legitimate violence by parents towards children. Newspaper reportage about the parental use of physical discipline has increased over the past 20 years. Only one newspaper (The Independent) published on this topic prior to 1994. The discourse about the use of physical discipline by parents has changed over time from one that focuses on the effectiveness of smacking to one that about the human rights of the child. The main themes identified in the print media discourse were the rights of the child, the effectiveness of smacking, long-term effects and consequences, and the role of the state. Media texts can influence and reinforce social dimensions of the label. The beliefs and attitudes of healthcare professionals and parents about smacking may be influenced by such representations.
Full Text Available Abstract: Legitimation Through a (Selective Shared Past: Russia's Use of History in the Conflict in UkraineHow has Russia used history to justify its actions in the conflict in Ukraine? Through an analysis of official statements of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as speeches and remarks by Putin, this article argues that history has played an important but varying role in official rhetoric. With Crimea, the emphasis was on the ‘sanctity’ of the territory for Russian Orthodox identity, drawing on history dating back to the baptism of Prince Vladimir in 10th century AC. The shared past of the two states has not been as central in official Russian policy justification regarding Ukraine outside Crimea: the ‘brotherhood’ of the two nations has been noted repeatedly, but usually secondary to arguments pertaining to economic and political interests. The two world wars have been used as a cautionary tale, with Russia effectively seeking to delegitimize the new Ukrainian government by evoking carefully selected elements of its past. Finally, the author looks at the use of international precedence as a form of justification, turning the history of Western – US in particular – actions back on Russia’s critics. The official usage of history is placed within broader strategies of legitimation, as it is not enough to study propaganda and manipulation strategies as part of information warfare to explain how the Kremlin achieves support for its policies. The ‘thick’ historical narratives of Crimea play on elements linked to issues of national identity, making it difficult to dispute using the type of counter-propaganda and rebuttal of disinformation proposed by some.
Verstappen, Leonardus; Galgani, Pietro; de Adelhart Toorop, Reinier; de Groot Ruiz, Adrian; van Maanen, Eise
The Organising Committee of the Dutch Land Governance Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue has commissioned an investigation into the need and possibility to develop a protocol on fair compensation in cases of legitimate land tenure changes, with a focus on expropriation. This is in line with the Ministry’s
Jimenez-Moya, Gloria; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Spears, Russell; de Lemus, Soledad
How do individuals deal with group disadvantage when their fellow in-group members conceive it as legitimate? Integrating research on the normative conflict model (Packer, 2008, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 12, 50) and collective action, we expect high identifiers to reject the in-group norm of
1. III * Middle English: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... In '"And to the herte she hireselven smot": The Loveris Maladye and the Legitimate Suicides of Chaucer's and Gower's Exemplary Lovers' (Mediaevalia ... nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp; 2. Publications of the Medieval
Ehrensal, Patricia A.
Examines legal and ethical ramifications of three roles of school authorities (agents-of-state, custodial, tutelary) legitimated in two Supreme Court decisions: "New Jersey v. T.L.0." (search and seizure) and "Vernonia v. Action" (drug use testing). (Contains 34 references.)(PKP)
Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.
Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)
Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…
This article examines how university corporate security (UCS) services engage in legitimation work in their attempts to make their university communities (i.e., faculty, staff, students) and political masters (i.e., university administrators, boards of governors, senators) believe that they are honest, trustworthy, and caring and have authority that should be deferred to. This is accomplished through the analysis of interview and observational data collected as part of a research project exploring UCS services at five Canadian universities and an examination of how UCS services at 14 Canadian universities communicate using the social media service Twitter. These UCS services were found to primarily use Twitter for the purposes of soliciting or requesting information and for networking. In communicating through Twitter, UCS services engage in public legitimation work in which they make claims about and attempt to demonstrate their expertise, authority, and accountability. This article argues that both UCS services' particular legitimacy problem (i.e., their possession of both private and public attributes) and the interactive nature of public legitimation work create tensions that may serve to disrupt UCS services' ability to attain legitimacy. Cet article examine la manière dont les services de sécurité d'entreprise à l'université (SEU) s'engagent à légitimer leurs tentatives de persuader leurs communautés universitaires (c'est-à-dire le corps professoral, le personnel et les étudiants) ainsi que la haute administration (c'est-à-dire les administrateurs de l'université, le conseil des gouverneurs et les sénateurs) qu'ils sont honnêtes, attentifs, dignes de confiance, et qu'ils possèdent un niveau d'autorité auquel quiconque devrait se référer. Ceci sera accompli en analysant un corpus d'entrevues et d'observations dans le cadre d'un projet de recherche examinant les services de type SEU dans cinq universités canadiennes, ainsi qu'une étude sur
... is discarded material and is a solid waste. In determining if their recycling is legitimate, persons....43 Section 260.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of...
Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation
Full Text Available The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant, basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability.
Analysis of 44 Cases before the Landlord and Tenant Board Involving Bed Bug Infestations in Ontario, Canada: Focus on Adjudicator Decisions Based on Entomological/Pest Management Evidence and Accountability under the Residential Tenancy Act and Other Applicable Legislation
The resurgence of bed bugs in major urban centres in North America has resulted in conflict between landlords and tenants. This is commonly focused on attribution of blame for source of infestation, on responsibility, on costs for preparation, treatment and losses, and for compensation as rent abatement and/or alternative temporary housing. In Ontario, Canada, these issues are often decided by adjudicators at the Landlord and Tenant Board hearing claims, counter-claims and defense by legal representation (lawyers and paralegals) as well as through mediation. Evidence in these hearings may include photographs, invoices for costs as well as testimony by tenants, landlords and “expert witnesses” who are most often pest control firms representing their landlord clients. A total of 44 Landlord and Tenant Board adjudicated cases available online were analyzed. The analysis included elements of the decisions such as adjudicator, claimant (landlord or tenant), basis of claim, review of evidence, amount of claim, amount awarded, and evaluation of the quality of the evidence. The results of the analysis of these findings are discussed. Recommendations for improvement of adjudicator decisions on the basis of knowledge of bed bug biology and Integrated Pest Management best practices are presented as well as the importance of education of tenants and landlords to a process of mutual trust, support and accountability. PMID:26467732
Hatch, Mary Jo
Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....
Hatch, Mary Jo
and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....
Houle, Janie; Coulombe, Simon; Radziszewski, Stephanie; Leloup, Xavier; Saïas, Thomas; Torres, Juan; Morin, Paul
In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households) across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1) Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice), a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2) Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3) Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a) contextual factors (tenants' previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.); b) activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c) short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital). The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.
Discussions about the legitimacy of private security companies (PSCs) in multilateral military interventions abound. This article looks at how the United States has sought to legitimize the outsourcing of security services to PSCs through performance-based contracting and performance assessments. Both mechanisms aim to demonstrate the effective provision of publicly desirable outcomes. However, the immaterial and socially constructed nature of security presents major problems for performance assessments in terms of observable and measurable outcomes. Performance has therefore given way to performativity - that is, the repetitive enactment of particular forms of behaviour and capabilities that are simply equated with security as an outcome. The implications of this development for the ways in which security has been conceptualized, implemented and experienced within US interventions have been profound. Ironically, the concern with performance has not encouraged PSCs to pay increased attention to their impacts on security environments and civilian populations, but has fostered a preoccupation with activities and measurable capabilities that can be easily assessed by government auditors.
Full Text Available Taking into account that the Romanian Constitution mentions the "state of law" and "constitutional democracy", concomitantly specifying the essential values- human dignity, citizens' rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism- defended by the domestic legal order, it seems of a real practical interest to notice the concrete means established in order to protect the above mentioned values. As it has been mentioned before, the contentious administrative represents one of the most efficient ways under which the values constitutionally affirmed are guaranteed and defended. The contentious administrative basically answers the old question: "Quis custodiet custodes?", question that comprises one of the most difficult obstacles against the state of law actualization: to find the most efficient procedural ways for the state bodies able to use, directly or indirectly, the coercion force in order to make the citizens observe the laws, to be in their turn under the situation to observe the same laws. As the contentious administrative represents the courts of law activity meant to settle the conflicts whereas at least one of the parties is a public authority, we will try, while evoking procedural aspects, procedural means available for someone prejudiced by a public authority, to stress the weight of the procedural rules in guarantying and defending effectively the citizens' rights and legitimate interests.
Robert K. GRUENWALD
Findings: OECD and EU evaluations do not determine causal relationships between funding allocation and effects. The evaluations of the KfW and the German Ministry of Economics use an empirical quantitative approach and determine direct causal relations. In order to fulfil the requirements of legitimizing functions for the SME policy, it is recommended to further develop the EU funding policy and evaluation according to the “German model” both in terms of the institutional framework and in terms of the evaluation of impacts through funding policy measures. Definition of minimum requirements and alternative possibilities for EU SME policy evaluation in order to close the legitimisation gap between the allocation of tax money and impact proof (cost-benefit ratio.
José Luis Sañudo Ospina
Full Text Available The Colombian state is about to close one of the worst chapters in its history: the war against FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia that has lasted for more than five decades. After more than three years of discussions, the parties have settled on important agreements such as the de-escalation of the armed conflict and transitional justice mechanisms. It is thus time for the State to use constitutional and legal means to incorporate the agreements into the national legal system. President Juan Manuel Santos has called for a plebiscite as the means to legitimate the peace agreements. As a surprise to many, the plebiscite did not obtain the votes needed for its implementation, leaving it’s future in uncertainty. The government is now considering other alternatives, such as pass it through congress, call for an open council meeting and even call for a new plebiscite. The main aim of this article is to analyze the mechanisms of constitutional reform existing in the Colombian legal system to validate the Havana Talks. Some concepts, and constitutional and legal regulations will be studied and various mechanisms of citizen participation and constitutional reform will be contrasted that may help to achieve the government expectations with the peace process.
Current health policy initiatives in India advocate medical pluralism and seek to address a lack of skilled human resources for health care provision. This qualitative study investigated a form of indigenous therapy that does not fit into officially recognised categories of 'Indian medicine' but is a popular source of informal medical care. Semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations of 30 'bone doctor' (haad vaidya) practices were conducted in the capital city of Rajasthan, north India in 2009-2010 together with historical analysis of changes in state policies for the registration of Indian medicine practitioners. Contestations over legitimacy among individual practitioners and hierarchies of authority between different medical traditions are shown to rest on conceptions of what constitutes authentic 'expertise'. The findings demonstrate a progressive restriction over time in official definitions of medical expertise, towards a reliance exclusively on formal qualifications rather than experientially acquired and inherited skills to demarcate legitimate therapeutic knowledge. This case study contributes to our understanding of the nature of non-professional expertise and its implications for pluralistic health care policy and the human resourcing of Indian health systems. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gitte Rasmussen Hougaard
Full Text Available Since its inception, Conversation Analysis (CA has become not only a framework and a set of methods for studying the generic machinery of talk-in-interaction but also a celebrated, qualitative method for studying a wealth of phenomena and exploring and testing concepts and hypotheses from numerous disciplines, including linguistics, psychology, anthropology and Second Language Acquisition (SLA. CA is often resorted to as the key to resolving knots and dead-ends in these neighboring disciplines. Despite the very interesting results that such work admittedly produces, it is too often not accompanied by focused considerations of how the specific concerns from one field match with the aims that CA procedures have been developed for and hence with the procedures themselves. This paper takes recent applications of CA to the study of SLA as a case in point. It discusses a whether CA can shed light on "learning" as commonly defined in SLA and b whether the resort to a particular model of learning (LAVE & WENGER, 1991, Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP helps overcoming some of the problems with which CA work in SLA is confronted. It is hoped that the specific discussions of problems involved in the project, CA-for-SLA, will contribute to the ongoing, general discussion of qualitative research methods and their prospects and problems. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090247
Andersen, Jack; Skouvig, Laura
In this article, the authors examine the discipline of knowledge organization by harnessing the theories of Michel Foucault and Jurgen Habermas. The argument is that knowledge organization is not just a question of improved technology; as an academic discipline, it has to define and legitimize its relevance for society. The authors use the…
Ngo, C.; Demchenko, Y.; de Laat, C.
Cloud Computing is developed as a new wave of ICT technologies, offering a common approach to on-demand provisioning of computation, storage and network resources that are generally referred to as infrastructure services. Most of currently available commercial cloud services are built and organized
Елена Борисовна Григорьева
Full Text Available The article examines the influence of the authoritarian syndrome on the process of legitimization of various bodies and institutions of government, in particular, to establish and maintain a personal type of legitimation. The author offers the analysis of prospects for the transformation of Russian political regime, namely the transfer from the personal type of legitimacy of the political system to the structural type. It shows the dynamics of components of the authoritarian syndrome is widely spread in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1992 to 2012. The article describes a new approach to the authoritarianism, along with cultural, neo-institutional, institutional explanation of the reasons supporting the communication, trust, and an uncritical attitude to the president, stands authoritarian syndrome.
Gey, Fatih; Van Landuyt, Dimitri; Joosen, Wouter; Jonckers, Viviane
Applying application-level multi-tenancy in Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) offerings yields a number of compelling benefits: sharing a single instance of the application between large numbers of customer organizations increases cost efficiency and allows the SaaS provider to attain true economies-of-scale benefits. There is however a main downside to this: increased sharing of resources causes the SaaS application to be very difficult to modify after initial development and deployment ...
Epstein, Steven; Mamo, Laura
Especially since the 1990s, the term sexual health has flourished in professional, commercial, and lay domains. Yet the more the phrase has become visible, the greater the mutability in its meanings. These developments matter for an understanding of healthism-the idea that modern individuals are enjoined to recognize a moral obligation to maximize their health. Theorists of healthism have paid relatively little attention to sexuality and its frequent rendering as controversial, illegitimate, or stigmatizing. We argue that because pairing "sexual" with "health" serves to legitimize and sanitize sexuality, the framing of sexual issues as matters of sexual health is widely appealing across multiple social arenas, and this appeal helps to explain both the proliferation of the term and the diversification of its uses. Secondly, we argue that while the polysemy of sexual health might suggest that the phrase lacks a clear meaning, in another sense the term is quite meaningful: content analysis of journal articles, newspaper articles, and websites shows that the semantics of sexual health can be categorized into six social problem niches, within which sexuality and health are construed in distinctive ways. For each social problem framing, we identify the implied meanings of both sexuality and health, the "opposite" of sexual health, the institutional action plans, the individual injunctions, and the presumed ontologies of bodies and selves. By focusing on how the conjoining of "sexual" and "health" changes the meanings of both terms, our analysis adds nuance to discussions of healthism: it challenges a singular conception of healthism and points to the need for clearer consideration of its different forms. At the same time, we call attention to the significance of "sexual healthism" as a particular example of the "will to health" while also highlighting implications of characterizing sexual issues as matters of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In The Spirit of the Laws, Montesquieu tried not to discuss about laws, but in fact, about the type of power hiding behind them. Inspired by Plato and Aristotle, he built his own vision on the palingenesis of the political forms and of the principles governing them. Baron de La Brède started from ideas, from spiritual structures, that have the role to create certain social behaviors, and identified three types of government forms, each characterized by its own nature and principle: monarchy, democracy, and despotism. The French philosopher tried to understand, besides the principles ensuring the nature of each government, the key elements legitimating the power and also its sources. The monarchy is seen by Montesquieu as the most suitable regime, for his time, to rule free societies. The aristocracy helps to the maintenance of freedom in royalty by resisting to any attempt of the crown to exceed its constitutional prerogatives. The transition from one form of government to another is done because of the alteration of principles. Democracy is maybe the most exposed to alteration as its excess of freedom leads to the affirmation of the spirit of endless equality that makes everybody wanting to be the equals to the rulers. Montesquieu sees no other solution to replace the degraded forms of political organization than the confederative republic. Such a political organization would answer the need for permanent political flexibility.
A few words on the purpose of this paper are given by way of introduction. A brief analysis will be made of the relationship between legality and legitimacy in relation to decision-making processes and within the context of the policies concerning the public management of technological risks. The aim is to raise questions and outline some reflections based on the theory of the state, from the perspective of the conditions of the institutionalization of power. I shall first clarify a few conceptual points. The notion of legality refers to the notion of compliance with legal standards, that is to say, with the law. Is the decision made by a person empowered by law so do to (legal competence)? Is it taken in compliance with legal procedure? And are the effects implicitly in keeping with the spirit of the law? The legitimacy of the power of those who govern, or the legitimacy of their decisions, is not determined solely by legal standards but rather, is a matter of individual and social representation or view. As Hobbes says, in essence, to govern is to convince: to convince people of the rightfulness of the source of the power of those who govern and of the action or public policies that they formulate. The paper is organised around three propositions: 1. The role of the legitimacy or social acceptability of public policies has always been an element of the way all political systems function. This role, however, occupies an increasingly important place on the political agenda in a societal decision-making context that has undergone irreversible changes. 2. Although the essence of the social legitimacy of public policies remains the same, the conditions, mechanisms and criteria evolve. 3. The critical centrality of social legitimacy, together with the evolution of the criteria for legitimate decision, today modify the decision-making mechanisms that were established in response to the requirements of classical democracy. We observe a political organisation i n the
Fernanda Mauricio da Silva
Full Text Available In the 1970s, the TV reviews published by Artur da Távola rose a new discursive place for TV journalism: instead of the approach with an impoverishing entertainment, a legitimate discourse through technology. This article discusses how Távola legitimated television journalism through a discourse of quality compared to other media, showing power struggles around the representation of reality, emotional speech and compared with everyday life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. Methods The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1 Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice, a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2 Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3 Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a contextual factors (tenants’ previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.; b activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital. Discussion The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.
Full Text Available Public power has been justified by resorting to two different kinds of legitimation: one coming from above, the other emerging from the governed. While legitimation “from above” implies that those who are vested with executive power are qualified in their function because of their allegedly higher competences, “bottom-up” legitimacy always presupposes that only citizens can properly decide on their destiny. After giving a brief account of how both legitimation strategies have developed in the history of political ideas, attention is focused on the theories regarding the legitimacy of public power in the European Union. Indeed, both strands of legitimation of public power are represented here with original proposals, according to the specificity of the supranational condition. But even more interesting is that the research into the characteristics of supranational integration has been one of the most significant fields in which the legitimation “from above” has reappeared in Western thought after a rather long period of marginality, now taking the shape of a technocratic justification. In the main section of the article, the reasons in favour of a democratic “bottom-up” legitimation of the European public power are analyzed first, then those which recur to the so-called “output legitimacy” – in other words to technocratic arguments. The last section of the contribution is dedicated to an overall assessment of the different positions.
Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
Full Text Available Retraction Watch is a science watchdog that may give the impression of being both an anti-bad science and an anti-science blog. This blog has tried to legitimize its ethical stance by naming its parent organization The Center for Science Integrity Inc. (CSI, and by appointing a former Chair of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE, Elizabeth Wager, to the CSI board of directors. Jeffrey Beall, another science watchdog, often appears in public alongside Adam Marcus and Ivan Oransky, the CSI secretary and president, respectively, and participates in events with Wager. Beall became academically redundant on January 15, 2017. This is because his blog, which hosted a faulty, controversial and misleading list (and thus potentially libelous of “predatory” open access journals and publishers, suddenly went blank. Beall offered no apology or explanation to the public, but was offered intellectual asylum and protection by the University of Colorado, Denver, where he works as a librarian. After a grace period of almost two months, members of the global academic community have now largely lost respect for Beall because of his silence, which may be equated with irresponsibility and/or cowardice. Despite this near extinct academic status, Retraction Watch continues to laud Beall, refer to his now-defunct site and lists as valid, as many as 25 times, and even rely on the Beall blog and lists to support several of their journalistic claims. In the world of science publishing, the legitimization of a “fact” using a defunct or false (i.e., non-factual source, is equivalent to publishing misconduct, and feeds into the “false facts” and “alternative truths” epidemic in journalism that Retraction Watch is now impregnating into science publishing. Why then is Retraction Watch allowed to operate under an ethically superior platform, while expecting scientists and academics to respect basic rules of citing valid references, but while practicing
Hartl, Barbara; Hofmann, Eva; Gangl, Katharina; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Kirchler, Erich
Following the classic economic model of tax evasion, taxpayers base their tax decisions on economic determinants, like fine rate and audit probability. Empirical findings on the relationship between economic key determinants and tax evasion are inconsistent and suggest that taxpayers may rather rely on their beliefs about tax authority’s power. Descriptions of the tax authority’s power may affect taxpayers’ beliefs and as such tax evasion. Experiment 1 investigates the impact of fines and beliefs regarding tax authority’s power on tax evasion. Experiments 2-4 are conducted to examine the effect of varying descriptions about a tax authority’s power on participants’ beliefs and respective tax evasion. It is investigated whether tax evasion is influenced by the description of an authority wielding coercive power (Experiment 2), legitimate power (Experiment 3), and coercive and legitimate power combined (Experiment 4). Further, it is examined whether a contrast of the description of power (low to high power; high to low power) impacts tax evasion (Experiments 2-4). Results show that the amount of fine does not impact tax payments, whereas participants’ beliefs regarding tax authority’s power significantly shape compliance decisions. Descriptions of high coercive power as well as high legitimate power affect beliefs about tax authority’s power and positively impact tax honesty. This effect still holds if both qualities of power are applied simultaneously. The contrast of descriptions has little impact on tax evasion. The current study indicates that descriptions of the tax authority, e.g., in information brochures and media reports, have more influence on beliefs and tax payments than information on fine rates. Methodically, these considerations become particularly important when descriptions or vignettes are used besides objective information. PMID:25923770
Hartl, Barbara; Hofmann, Eva; Gangl, Katharina; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Kirchler, Erich
Following the classic economic model of tax evasion, taxpayers base their tax decisions on economic determinants, like fine rate and audit probability. Empirical findings on the relationship between economic key determinants and tax evasion are inconsistent and suggest that taxpayers may rather rely on their beliefs about tax authority's power. Descriptions of the tax authority's power may affect taxpayers' beliefs and as such tax evasion. Experiment 1 investigates the impact of fines and beliefs regarding tax authority's power on tax evasion. Experiments 2-4 are conducted to examine the effect of varying descriptions about a tax authority's power on participants' beliefs and respective tax evasion. It is investigated whether tax evasion is influenced by the description of an authority wielding coercive power (Experiment 2), legitimate power (Experiment 3), and coercive and legitimate power combined (Experiment 4). Further, it is examined whether a contrast of the description of power (low to high power; high to low power) impacts tax evasion (Experiments 2-4). Results show that the amount of fine does not impact tax payments, whereas participants' beliefs regarding tax authority's power significantly shape compliance decisions. Descriptions of high coercive power as well as high legitimate power affect beliefs about tax authority's power and positively impact tax honesty. This effect still holds if both qualities of power are applied simultaneously. The contrast of descriptions has little impact on tax evasion. The current study indicates that descriptions of the tax authority, e.g., in information brochures and media reports, have more influence on beliefs and tax payments than information on fine rates. Methodically, these considerations become particularly important when descriptions or vignettes are used besides objective information.
Turillazzi, Emanuela; Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Gulino, Matteo; Fineschi, Vittorio
On 28 August 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) issued a judgment regarding the requirements for the legitimate access of couples to assisted reproductive techniques (ART) and to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This judgment concerns the case of an Italian couple who found out after their first child was born with cystic fibrosis that they were healthy carriers of the disease. When the woman became pregnant again in 2010 and underwent fetal screening, it was found that the unborn child also had cystic fibrosis, whereupon she had the pregnancy terminated on medical grounds. In order to have the embryo genetically screened prior to implantation under the procedure of PGD, the couple sought to use in vitro fertilisation to have another child. Since article 1 of the Italian law strictly limits access to ART to sterile/infertile couples or those in which the man has a sexually transmissible disease, the couple appealed to the European court, raising the question of the violation of articles 8 and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The applicants lodged a complaint that they were not allowed legitimate access to ART and to PGD to select an embryo not affected by the disease. The European Court affirmed that the prohibition imposed by Italian law violated article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Focusing on important regulatory and legal differences among EU Nations in providing ART treatments and PGD, we derived some important similarities and differences. © The Author(s) 2014.
Milian, Roger Pizarro; Quirke, Linda
Conventional wisdom within the sociology of education and organizations posits that schools achieve legitimacy by conforming to institutionalized norms and mimicking the actions of successful peers. Recent work on non-elite private schools (NEPS) shows that this institutional type may serve as an exception to this logic, generally adopting what…
these organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap of knowledge by exploring how members of a bankrupted bank experience and handle attributions of organizational il-legitimacy: to investigate the phenomenon from an inside perspective - in the eyes of the people who undergo it. The paper has...
When music education is formalized within schools and non-governmental organizations, it often becomes aligned with justice-oriented aims of providing universal access to music education. This qualitative case study examines the formation of a marching band within a Haitian school in northeastern Haiti. Data sources collected and analyzed included…
Havrylyuk Svitlana Ivanivna
Full Text Available The author of the article attempts to analyse the impact of information and manipulative technologies in the process of legitimation of the political power in Ukraine. It is proved that implemented information-manipulative technologies are the key factors of political legitimation and influence the political behaviour of citizens. The article analyses relationship between the applied information and manipulative technologies and perception of political reality of citizens, their political behaviour, electoral results. The necessity of changing the paradigm of legitimacy achieve of political actors in Ukraine is substantiated because of the refusal of politicians, technologists, media (and their owners from destructive legitimation technologies based on the use of information and manipulation technologies. It revealed the importance of a joint search for the subjects of democratic policy instruments of political consolidation of the Ukrainian society.
act on perceived interests says nothing important without connecting the kind of interest to the content of the behavior.55 Al Capone and Mother...Air Force Base,, AL 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...asserting that change is 1 Carl von Clausewitz et al ., On War (Princeton, N.J
Franzoni, Juliana Martínez
Policies are made in response to the rationale of pressure and legitimization, which join forces in many different ways. This work analyzes the planning and adoption of the health reforms undertaken in Costa Rica between 1988 and 1998. It questions whether political parties, international financial institutions and the technical and bureaucratic elites in each sector can be taken as sufficiently explanatory of themselves. Empirical evidence would suggest that apart from investigating the individual interests of the agents involved, one must also consider the sector reforms that are actually available internationally. The paper draws this discussion into the larger scenario of policy making in Latin America and draws links between this and other stages in policy making and other moments in the construction of the State.
Lakosi, L; Zsigrai, J; Safar, J
Illicit trade of nuclear materials (NM) represents a serious challenge to radiation monitoring upon scenarios, when legitimate radioisotope shipments are used to obscure the weak radiation of NM. Planar and hemispherical Cd(Zn)Te detectors with a portable mini-multichannel analyzer were proven to be suitable, in measuring times of 10 min order, for revealing the presence of low-enriched or natural U-bearing reactor fuel pellets in amounts of kg order, placed beside transport containers of lead or depleted uranium, which contain high activity sup 6 sup 0 Co (10 GBq range) or sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir (TBq range) radioisotope sources. Such a hand-held or portable device may help authorities combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials.
Full Text Available The purpose of the doctoral education process is to create and legitimize scholarly researchers. This transformation, from student to scholar, is widely discussed in the literature. However, recent rapid changes in university culture have resulted in less time for supervision, stricter completion deadlines, and a greater focus on efficiency and productivity. This has had an impact on this transition process, and this impact has not been widely studied. The aim of this article is to understand the consequences of the current trends for PhD students and the education of PhD students in general. The article is based on interviews with 14 international students from two different research programs at the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University in Denmark. The case of international PhD students in a western setting is singled out as a challenging case for becoming a legitimate scholar, since they face the additional challenge of becoming socialised into their new foreign setting. Overall, the study concludes that the transition process of doctoral students is affected by the way different supervisors deal with current university trends and how PhD students fit or do not fit into their knowledge production practices. The study identifies matches or mismatches in a knowledge production perspective, quality of contact, and degree of independence of the PhD student as factors that influence whether a transition process can be marked as sound, troublesome, or lacking. Finally, the study identifies an overall risk of neglecting the more interdependent types of international PhD students. Suggestions are given as how to address this risk.
Albu, Oana Brindusa
This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... centred approach to explore the implications of pursuing ideals of transparency in organizational relationships. The dissertation is comprised of four papers each contributing to extant debates in organizational studies and transparency literature. The findings indicate that transparency, in contrast...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...
Powell, Justin J. W.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Blanck, Jonna M.
Global discourse about human rights, education for all, and inclusive education has altered social norms relating to dis/ability and schooling, especially through awareness-raising, by legitimating advocates' positions and by facilitating policy reforms. Affected by societal and educational change, special education systems and their participants…
Examines the political dynamics of planning and implementing educational reforms in Greece, with comparisons to France. Argues that, as in France, the state's concern for "compensatory legitimation" provides a better tool than those advanced by sociologists or historians for explaining Greece's many failed educational reforms. Compares…
Asarta, Carlos J.
Carlos Asarta comments here that Arbaugh, Fornaciari, and Hwang (2016) are to be commended for their work ("Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory" "Journal of Management Education," Dec 2016, see EJ1118407). Asarta says that they make several…
Antonacopoulou, Elena P.
In "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory," authors J.B. Arbaugh, Charles J. Fornaciari, and Alvin Hwang ("Journal of Management Education," December 2016 vol. 40 no. 6 p654-691, see EJ1118407) used citation analysis to track the development of…
Progress in the Legitimacy of Business and Management Education Research: Rejoinder to "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory"
Bacon, Donald R.
In this rejoinder to "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory," published in the "Journal of Management Education," Dec 2016 (see EJ1118407), Donald R. Bacon discusses the similarities between Arbaugh et al.'s (2016) findings and the scholarship…
According to the principle of risk analysis established by Regulation 178/2002, food safety measures in the EU and Member States must be based on scientific risk assessment. Apart from science, however, decision makers should take into account other legitimate factors, such as societal, ethical or
the United States and partner nations.5 Corruption refers to dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery . It is...violence, corruption , exploitation of country differences, and legally through legitimate businesses.4 Transnational criminal organizations (TCOs...forging alliances with corrupt foreign government officials and some foreign intelligence services; destabilizing political, financial, and security
Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri
This paper explores subjective processes of "Agents of Law" - individuals who the state grants the authority to use violence - and the dissonance stemming from the contradictory demands posed on them as legitimate users of violence despite the societal taboo against violence. A conceptual model will be offered based on two theoretical legs, Lacanian psychoanalysis and political theories of legitimacy. Specifically, psychoanalytic ideas would serve to examine unconscious processes, subject position and various identifications related to the question of "self-legitimacy" of Agents of Law. A central link between psychoanalysis and political thought is found in the image of the father and in the triad ruler-God-Father, which calls for an oedipal analysis. A psychoanalytic reading of two philosophical schools that elaborated on the question of legitimacy will be presented, and yield two analytic poles of a model for the understanding of possible subject positions of agents of Law: identification with a "Living Father" vs. identification with a "Dead Father". The psychoanalytic reading will shed light on the limitations of the philosophical perspectives in reflecting on the various (im)possible psychological positions of agents of Law. Finally, then, it will be shown how psychoanalysis helps finding words to characterize different nuances in the coping of agents of Law with the contradictory demands posed on them in an age in which God is dead, the father was murdered and the king was beheaded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brandt, Mark J
System justification theory (SJT) posits that members of low-status groups are more likely to see their social systems as legitimate than members of high-status groups because members of low-status groups experience a sense of dissonance between system motivations and self/group motivations (Jost, Pelham, Sheldon, & Sullivan, 2003). The author examined the status-legitimacy hypothesis using data from 3 representative sets of data from the United States (American National Election Studies and General Social Surveys) and throughout the world (World Values Survey; total N across studies = 151,794). Multilevel models revealed that the average effect across years in the United States and countries throughout the world was most often directly contrary to the status-legitimacy hypothesis or was practically zero. In short, the status-legitimacy effect is not a robust phenomenon. Two theoretically relevant moderator variables (inequality and civil liberties) were also tested, revealing weak evidence, null evidence, or contrary evidence to the dissonance-inspired status-legitimacy hypothesis. In sum, the status-legitimacy effect is not robust and is unlikely to be the result of dissonance. These results are used to discuss future directions for research, the current state of SJT, and the interpretation of theoretically relevant but contrary and null results. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Heráclito Mota Barreto Neto
Full Text Available The following paper has as objective questioning the legitimacy of state's paternalistic interventions on individual autonomy by using institutional-criminal instruments. In this path, the paper aims to understand in which cases the State is allowed to interfere in private individual lives under the justification of being promoting a well or avoiding a harm and, as well, in which cases such interference is abusive of individuals self-determination. Into this analysis, the work will study the current concepts of paternalism, the theoretical classifications on paternalistic interventions which will be useful to demonstrate admissible and inadmissible species of paternalism and Joel Feinberg and Gerald Dworkin's anti- paternalistic theories. Following, this subject will be analyzed in association with the implications of juridical-criminal goods involved in conflicts between autonomy, human vulnerabilities and paternalism, specially regarding to the (unavailability of those goods. In the end, the work intends to define legitimation criteria for paternalistic interventions inserted in criminal laws, which superimpose themselves on the individual autonomy, in order to harmonize constitutional values of respect for autonomy, protection of vulnerable individuals and the Criminal Law functions of exclusive protection of juridical goods.
Stephenson, Eleanor; Doukas, Alexander; Shaw, Karena
Natural gas is widely considered to be the crucial “bridging fuel” in the transition to the low-carbon energy systems necessary to mitigate climate change. This paper develops a case study of the shale gas industry in British Columbia (BC), Canada to evaluate this assumption. We find that the transition fuel argument for gas development in BC is unsubstantiated by the best available evidence. Emissions factors for shale gas and LNG remain poorly characterized and contested in the academic literature, and context-specific factors have significant impacts on the lifecycle emissions of shale gas but have not been evaluated. Moreover, while the province has attempted to frame natural gas development within its ambitious climate change policy, this framing misrepresents substantive policy on gas production. The “transition fuel” and “climate solution” labels applied to development by the BC provincial government risk legitimizing carbon-intensive gas development. We argue that policy makers in BC and beyond should abandon the “transition fuel” characterization of natural gas. Instead, decision making about natural gas development should proceed through transparent engagement with the best available evidence to ensure that natural gas lives up to its best potential in supporting a transition to a low-carbon energy system. - Highlights: ► Transition fuel discourse may greenwash gas development. ► Gaps in research obscure emissions factors for LNG and shale gas. ► Climate solution label for shale gas and LNG development in BC is unsubstantiated.
Full Text Available The Arctic states are bound in an institutional relationship by means of their actions through the Arctic Council (AC—an organisation created by the eight Arctic states. Although a number of its European Union (EU states are both members and observers in the AC, the EU is not, despite its clear stake in the Arctic, for of a number of reasons. The AC twice postponed the application of the EU in 2013; however, it granted the EU the right to observe the AC meetings as an “observer in principle.” In addition to the significant resource and commercial interests of the EU in the Arctic, it assumes a stewardship role in the Arctic. As the leader in combating global climate change, for example, the EU is committed to assuming responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment given that climate change does have a devastating impact in the Arctic. Moreover, the EU is also concerned about its and continental Europe's only indigenous people, the Sámi, a significant proportion of whom live in its Arctic member states of Finland and Sweden. Thus, in recent years, the EU has endorsed a series of policy documents concerning the Arctic. Against the background of this development, this article examines whether the policy responses of the Arctic states with regard to the EU's increased ambition to engage in Arctic matters make it a legitimate actor or stakeholder. The article concludes that even though the Arctic states, as the primary actors, determine the region's governance approach, they see also a general partnership role for the EU with regard to the common goals of knowledge-based responsible governance and sustainable development of the Arctic.
Edwards, Leslie D.
How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.
On July 31, 2012, HUD published an interim rule entitled "Homeless Emergency Assistance and Rapid Transition to Housing: Continuum of Care Program." The Continuum of Care (CoC) program is designed to address the critical problem of homelessness through a coordinated community-based process of identifying needs and building a system of housing and services to address those needs. This rule amends the CoC program regulations to allow individuals and families to choose housing outside of a CoC's geographic area, subject to certain conditions, and to retain the tenant-based rental assistance under the CoC program. In addition to allowing individuals and families to choose housing outside of the CoC's geographic area, this interim rule exempts recipients and subrecipients from compliance with all nonstatutory regulations when a program participant moves to flee domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking. This relaxation of conditions is consistent with the Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, directing greater protections for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.
Full Text Available In this paper I briefly discuss the development of the doctrine of legitimate expectation in South African law, which had left the way open for the Constitutional Court to develop a doctrine of substantive legitimate expectation in KwaZulu-Natal Joint Liaison Committee v MEC for Education, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN JLC. I then discuss the court's refusal to develop the doctrine in KZN JLC and analyse the approach adopted instead, which saw the court invoke rationality review to create a new legal mechanism for the enforcement of a unilateral, publicly promulgated promise by government to pay on broad public law grounds. I do so from the perspective of whether or not this creative approach amounted to the development of the doctrine by another name. I consider the implications of the creative approach in KZN JLC for the development of the doctrine of substantive legitimate expectation under administrative law in future. Finally I discuss how the creation of a new legal mechanism to enforce publicly promulgated promises to pay was "subversive of PAJA and the scheme in s 33 of the Constitution".
... tenants and tenant organizers to conduct the following activities related to the establishment or... offer information about tenant organizations; (6) Posting information on bulletin boards; (7) Assisting... housing projects covered under § 245.10, and their agents, must allow tenants and tenant organizers to...
Nengher N. Vang
Full Text Available This article provides a book review of Mai Na M. Lee’s Dreams of the Hmong Kingdom: The Quest for Legitimation in French Indochina, 1850-1960. Dreams of the Hmong Kingdom. It highlights the contribution of the book to the historiography of the Hmong and provides a critical assessment of the dichotomous analytical framework that Lee uses to analyze the rivalry between Hmong messianic leaders and Hmong political brokers and the competition between the Ly and Lo clans for paramountcy in French Indochina
Luis González Alcaraz
Full Text Available The article aims to describe and compare journalistic frames of climate change produced by two leading newspapers in South America: Clarin of Argentina and Folha de São Paulo of Brazil, in the context of the Doha (COP- 18 and Warsaw (COP -19 conferences. For this, it has used a definition of framing which recognizes its various dimensions: definition of the situation, reasoning about causes, moral evaluations and recommendations or prescriptions. The analysis was addressed by a qualitative process of coding and classification of journalistic texts. The empirical results indicate that the frames produced for the newspapers correspond to the political context to which they belong, that they coincide in pointing to climate change as a serious problem caused primarily by industrialized countries and what must be faced with a sense of urgency, so they tend to legitimate climate policy. In this regard, it is noted that journalistic frames not only guide the interpretation of social problems, but legitimate political action.
'To sleep: perchance to dream', is the frequent mantra of the surgical resident. However, unlike. Hamlet, there is no ensuing speculation as to what dreams may come as there are seldom any!! Surgical residency has been both vilified and immortalized, but the fact remains that it is one of the most challenging, provocative ...
Chapleau, Kristine M; Oswald, Debra L
Rape is a pervasive social problem that causes serious physical and psychological repercussions. Rape victims' recovery is often complicated by the public's failure to believe the victim and restore justice. This study applied system justification theory to examine whether the justification of gender inequality is related to moral outrage (an emotional precursor to corrective action) and rape myth acceptance; we also examined whether rape myth acceptance is associated with moral outrage at injustice. Results showed that gender-specific system justification correlated with less moral outrage at human suffering as well as greater rape myth acceptance. The relationships between these variables were similar for men and for women, a finding that suggests that rape myths are system justifying for women. When we controlled for gender-specific system justification, rape myth acceptance correlated with less moral outrage. Results are discussed in the context of how legitimizing ideologies reduce moral outrage at injustice and perpetuate a system of sexual violence.
Voluntary disclosures of intangible assets and legitimization: The production industry of olive oil Divulgación voluntaria de intangibles y legitimación: La industria productora de aceite de oliva Voluntary disclosures of intangible assets and legitimization: The production industry of olive oil
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyze whether the decision to disclose intangible assets could be explained by Institutional Theory. Our interest is to provide evidence of his interpretative capacity through an empirical study applied to the olive oil mill industry. Design/methodology/approach: We used a mixed methodological design that combines quantitative and qualitative methods. Findings: In an industry like olive oil mills, not use to providing additional information on intangible assets on a voluntary basis, social legitimization can be seen as a long-term objective because of the lack of urgency associated to it. Instead, a more pragmatic behavior concerned with economic legitimization has been observed, such as those that have been already found. Research limitations/implications: Greater efforts should be made to complete comparative results in a specific industry as well as we consider necessary to analyze longitudinally the evolution of the relationship legitimation-disclosure of intangibles. Originality/value: The results obtained help contribute to the literature coming from Institutional Theory in the sense that the legitimization of a new practice can vary between industries according to the state of the process of its institutionalization in each of them.Objeto: El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar si la decisión de divulgar información sobre intangibles puede ser explicada por la Teoría Institucional. Nuestro interés es proporcionar evidencia de su capacidad interpretativa a través del estudio de la industria productora de aceite de oliva. Diseño/metodología: Empleamos un diseño mixto que combina métodos cuantitativos y cualitativos. Aportaciones y resultados: En una industria como la del aceite de oliva, poco dada a proporcionar información adicional sobre intangibles de manera voluntaria, la legitimación social se considera un objetivo a largo plazo, no así la legitimación económica que sí se asocia al
„Denn du gehst gleich ein in ewige Gärten.“ Zum Zusammenhang zwischen transzendenter Weltanschauung und Gewaltbegründung (“You Will Enter Eternal Gardens.“ On the Connection Between Transcendental Worldviews and Legitimizing Violence
Full Text Available Discussions about Islamist violence can often be divided into two different trends: one that claims Islam to be essentialy violent per se and another one arguing that violence has nothing to do with Islam. Latter line of argument, particularly in academic discourses, frequently suggests that assailants use religion merely as an instrument to achieve their actually economic-rational interests. However, such argumentation tends to neglect an essential dimension of the whole phenomenon of religiously motivated violence: the spiritual or transcendental worldview which perpetrators use to legitimate their own violence. This article looks into the connection between a religiously based ideology and the representation of violence. To do so, six different documents will be analyzed: the “spiritual guidance“ of the perpetrators involved in the 9/11 attacks (Seidensticker, 2004, four contemporary texts of jihadist actors (mainly from jihadist internet platforms; Lohlker, 2009 and the charter of the terror organization Hamas. Based on these texts, it will be shown how the authors legitimize violence in regard to four fundamental metaphysical principles: the existence of god, the belief in an afterlife, the dichotomous separation of humanity into good and evil and the relevance of a spiritual mindset. The results of the analysis suggest that there is an interior logic of religiously motivated violence, based on premises differentiated from the liberal secularization paradigm and instead following a transcendent understanding of reality. Recognizing this paradigm as one important dimension of Islamist violence could help to better understand such phenomenon and to improve practical work in the field of deradicalization. Article in German
Full Text Available The paper takes the assumptions of bounded rationality as the premise for organization theorizing. It draws a distinction between a science of objects and a science of subjects, arguing the latter as the more appropriate frame for organization analysis. Organization studies, it suggests, are an example of the type of knowledge that Flyvbjerg, following Aristotle, terms 'phronesis'. At the core of phronetic organization studies, the paper argues, there stands a concern with power, history and imagination. The core of the paper discusses power and the politics of organizing, to point up some central differences in approach to the key term in the trinity that the paper invokes. The paper concludes that organization theory and analysis is best cultivated not in an ideal world of paradigm consensus or domination but in a world of discursive plurality, where obstinate differences in domain assumptions are explicit and explicitly tolerated. A good conversation assumes engagement with alternate points of view, argued against vigorously, but ultimately, where these positions pass the criteria of reason rather than prejudice, tolerated as legitimate points of view. In so doing, it elaborates and defends criteria of reason.
Full Text Available Health care organizations have to develop a sustainable path for creating public value by seeking legitimacy for building and maintaining public trust with patients as social and economic institutions creating value and sustaining both health and wealth for people and communities within society. Health care organizations having at disposal decreasing resources and meeting increasing demands of citizens are following an unsustainable path. Designing sustainable health care systems and organizations is emerging as a strategic goal for developing the wealth of people and communities over time. Building sustainable organizations relies on valuing human resources, designing efficient and effective processes, using technology for better managing the relationships within and outside organizations. Sustainable health care organizations tend to rediscover the importance of human resource management and policies for effectively improving communication with patients and building trust-based relationships. While processes of accreditation contribute to legitimizing effectiveness and quality of health care services and efficient processes, introducing and using new information and communication technologies (ICTs and informatics helps communication leading to restore trust-based relationships between health care institutions and patients for value creation within society.
Full Text Available This paper explores how two Chinese medical Master’s students’ international publication success/failure and their academic English learning outcomes were related to their agency and the social context in which they were embedded by using the notions of legitimate peripheral participation (LPP and community of practice (CoP. While both students were highly motivated and similarly limited in English proficiency, their publication and academic English literacy learning outcomes vastly differed. Analysis via the lenses of LPP and CoP reveals that their differences in scholarly achievement in terms of international publication success and academic English learning outcomes can be convincingly explained by variation in the structure of the CoPs to which they belonged. Their respective CoPs determine their amount and quality of co-participation or mutual engagement with old-timers, particularly the master, which ultimately led to markedly different publication and academic English learning outcomes. Accordingly, I argue that institutions must consider the amount of mutual engagement senior researchers can afford to their research students when allocating advising responsibilities to professors.
Marcela Pérez Pazmiño
Full Text Available This article puts the human subject into the center of the discussion, by finding common factors of representative authors in the field, revealing what was their predominant concern. From the Weberian bureaucratic tradition, organizational theory has witnessed that economic target was in the very center of organizations. For current assumptions, legitimate forms of domination would be substantiated by the inability to resolve most everyday affairs, those that handle to the rentability. It starts to show that organizations, far from being a rational set of actions, are places of unsound decisions, most often used for personal than community goals. The conclusion brings a new topic of discussion for organizational theory: the concept of a free agent within the organization.
The article reviews the most recent research surrounding the potential role of organic agriculture in providing food for the planet. It challenges the claims of organic agriculture’s environmental superiority compared to well-managed, conventional agriculture. The relative advantages of these contrasting approaches to farming in areas such as aggregate land requirements, biodiversity/habitat loss, water quality, land degradation and climate change are considered. Legitimate concerns abo...
Pereda Vicandi, M
Today you can ask if you can apply ethics to organizations because much of the greater overall impact decisions are not made by private individuals, are decided by organizations. Any organization is legitimate because it satisfies a need of society and this legitimacy depends if the organization does with quality. To offer a good service, quality service, organizations know they need to do well, but seem to forget that should do well not only instrumental level, must also make good on the ethical level. Public health care organizations claim to promote attitudes and actions based on ethics, level of their internal functioning and level of achievement of its goals, but increased awareness and analysis of its inner workings can question it. Such entities, for its structure and procedures, may make it difficult for ethical standards actually govern its operation, also can have negative ethical consequences at the population level. A healthcare organization must not be organized, either structurally or functionally, like any other organization that offers services. In addition, members of the organization can not simply be passive actors. It is necessary that operators and users have more pro-ethical behaviors. Operators from the professionalism and users from liability. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In “Non tradicional legitimation for criminal action – legal protection of goods from other public institutions”, Franklyn Roger Alves Silva examines the question of the legitimacy of criminal action in the case of crimes with undetermined taxable person and proposes the recognition of a supplementary legitimization of other Public institutions (such as the Public Defender's Office to promote the criminal action of such crimes when there is inertia of the Public Prosecutor's Office. The analysis carried out in this scientific critique reveals a concern with the direction of the Public Defender in the criminal sphere, which, by showing itself incapable of protecting legal assets through criminal law, can become another agent of the State's punitive power, consequent reproduction of social inequalities and violation of human life and dignity, precisely the reverse of the idea that motivated its constitution as a mechanism for defending the human rights of the vulnerable.
Barreto Xavier, Ângela
Full Text Available Early modern Portuguese political providentialism has attracted significant scholarly interest in recent years. Whether in reference to the legitimization of imperialism in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, to the divine justification of royal power in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (especially after 1640, to Sebastianism, the Fifth Empire and other forms of millenarism, or to the uses of astrology, scholars have demonstrated that political providentialism was a familiar language to the Portuguese monarchy. Little is known, however, about the formulation and spread of political providentialism in the Asian part of the Portuguese Empire. In this paper I provide a more complex picture of the dissemination of this language in the Estado da Índia through an analysis of the treatise Vizão de Affonso Henriques, written in Goa by Friar António de S. Thiago, in the year 1659. How does this treatise relate to metropolitan political providentialism, namely in the context of the legitimization of the Braganza monarchy? How is Franciscanism crucial in the treatise’s structure? And can the treatise be located at the crossroads of Euro-Asiatic political culture?En los últimos años el estudio del providencialismo político en el Portugal Moderno ha despertado un significativo interés académico. Ya sea como referencia a la legitimación del imperialismo de los siglos XV y XVI, ya a la justificación divina del poder real en los siglos XVI y XVII (sobre todo después de 1640, como al Sebastianismo, al Quinto Imperio y demás formas de milenarismo o a los usos de la astrología, los especialistas han demostrado que el providencialismo era una lenguaje conocido en la monarquía portuguesa. Poco se sabe, sin embargo, de su formulación y propagación en la parte asiática del Imperio portugués. En este trabajo se propone una imagen más compleja de la difusión del providencialismo político en el Estado de la India a través de un an
Jordt Jørgensen, Nanna; Bregnbæk, Susanne
knowledge about an important challenge facing day-care institutions across Europe. Drawing on empirical material from an ongoing ethnographic fieldwork, the paper examines the ways in which children from refugee families in four different daycare institutions are perceived and treated depending......This paper discusses the encounter between refugee families and day-care institutions in Denmark. By taking a dual perspective that explores both the experiences of refugee children and parents on one hand, and the point of view of pedagogues on the other, our research seeks to generate new...
Lars Øystein Ursin
Full Text Available Rosamond Rhodes and John Harris have both recently argued that we all have a general moral duty to participate in medical research. However, neither Rhodes' nor Harris' arguments in support of this obligation stand up to scrutiny, and severe and convincing criticism has been levelled against their case. Still, to refute their arguments is not to refute the conclusion. There seems to be some truth in the view that when people are asked to take part in medical research, their choice is not completely morally neutral. In this article, we argue that the proper question to ask is when, rather than if, a certain moral duty to volunteer for medical research can be appealed to. To answer this question, we need a denser description of relevant research projects and their context rather than just describing medical research in general. Drawing on our study of participants in the Norwegian HUNT biobank, we use the normative implications of the Norwegian concept «dugnad» as an analogy to discuss the requirement of providing neutral information to potential biobank participants in order to promote their free and informed decision as to whether or not to take part. We suggest that normative recruitment is not just a question of principles and ethics. It is also a question of research design and the creation of the common good in the community where the research takes place.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i2.1697
Li, Jingwei; Liu, Zhifeng; He, Chunyang; Yue, Huanbi; Gou, Siyuan
Developing a greater understanding of water stress dynamics is crucial for sustainable development in global drylands. The primary goal of this study was to examine the water stress dynamics throughout the drylands of northern China (DNC). We first calculated the water stress index (WSI) of all 474 catchments in the DNC in 2003 and 2014. Then, we investigated the water stress dynamics in the DNC between 2003 and 2014 at multiple scales, which included the entire DNC, the drainage basins, and the main cities. In 2014, we found water stress in DNC over an area of 2.05×10 6 km 2 , which accounted for 52.13% of the total area of the DNC. From 2003 to 2014, the water stress in the DNC increased primarily because of increases in the area of irrigated croplands and the population of urban areas, and the total increase in the water stress area reached 3.14×10 5 km 2 , which accounted for 7.98% of the total area of the DNC. We also found that water shortages raised a legitimate concern over the sustainable development of the DNC because the population and urban land area exposed to water stress in the DNC have rapidly increased by 2.61×10 7 persons and 1.25×10 4 km 2 over the past two decades, respectively. Thus, we argue that effective actions are required to address the water stress in the DNC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Anton Sergeevich Zaytsev
Full Text Available In this article the author considers documents and scientific articles that should be used to configure monitoring and information security incident management process in an organization of banking system of Russia. Also key principles of monitoring configuration were marked up and a technique of monitoring configuration was proposed. Principles of monitoring system configuration were defined and a set of documents used to legitimate monitoring and information incident management process was considered.
Carton, Sabine; Romeyer, Cécile; de Vaujany, François-Xavier
In their Organizing Vision model, Swanson and Ramiller called for more research on the relationship between inter-organizational “authorized” (legitimated) discourse on IT and organizational practices. In this paper, the research question is focused on national differences in the way cross-organizational discourses interact with local practices. The methodology used includes the identification of so-called “authorized” ideas through an analysis of both French and US publications (using themat...
This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...... credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia resulting from this history has been implicated in dismantling organizations, and in making OS progressively irrelevant to a wider public....
strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...
Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...
Petryshyn, V.; Bailey, J.; Stamps, B. W.; Stevenson, B. S.; Corsetti, F. A.
Microbial activity can play a role in the construction of carbonate features like stromatolites and thrombolites, but determining whether microbes were directly or indirectly involved in the formation can be difficult—an endeavor that becomes more difficult as geologic time passes and organic signals degrade. In order to assess our ability to decipher the role of microbes in stromatolite formation, DNA (geologically short-lived) and alkanes (potentially geologically long-lived) were extracted and analyzed from finely-laminated Holocene carbonate stromatolites of Walker Lake, Nevada. The stromatolitic laminations were typically between 50 and 100 microns thick. The surrounding sediment and lake water was also sampled, for comparison. SSU rRNA gene sequencing suggests that a large percentage (25-40 % relative abundance) of the microbial community found within the stromatolite is comprised of ambient lake algae, not known to form stromatolite-building mats given their size vs. stromatolite lamination thickness, rather than the usual taxa associated with the formation of stromatolites. Other minor taxa were identified, including the bacterial families Cyanobacteria, Flavobacteriaceae, and Rhodobacteraceae. Mirroring the DNA results, the carbon isotopic compositions of the alkanes were largely indistinguishable from the limnic biomass dominated by lake algae. The results suggest that organic matter was passively incorporated into the carbonate structure from the lake as it accreted. Although evidence of life was abundant in the stromatolite, a direct role (builders) or even an indirect role (tenants) is difficult to establish, as the 16S/18S and lipid biomarkers appear to simply originate from the water column (squatters) and not from a unique microbial mat. In the absence of in situ analyses during the formation of the stromatolite, it may be difficult to disentangle the builders from the tenants and/or squatters based solely on molecular or organic geochemical data
REFLECTIONS ON THE ROLE OF WRITING AS A TOOL TO DIAGNOSTIC AND REINTEGRATION OF SUBJECTS WITH COGNITIVE PROBLEMS AND THE NEED OF LINGUISTIC TRAINNING OF PROFESSIONALS IN THE FIELD: TOWARDS A LEGITIMATE INCLUSION
Margareth de Souza Freitas Thomopoulos
Full Text Available In this reflection, the role of writing in differential diagnosis of motor aphasias and oral apraxic disorders is discussed, as well as its use as a resource for preserving/rescuing the subjectivity of individuals with other cognitive problems. This study also showed reciprocal influences of orality and writing on cases of children with phonoarticulatory problems. Finally, the formation of elementary teachers and professionals working in the spheres of speech therapy and psycho-pedagogy is problematized in order to promote a legitimate social "inclusion" of subjects with cognitive problems.
Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie A
Despite the high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse, many women suffer in silence, lacking the language and opportunity to describe their condition. There are limited descriptions of women's experiences with pelvic organ prolapse in the literature. This qualitative study addressed the knowledge and experience of women with pelvic organ prolapse. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women who had been previously diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and coded using a process of content analysis compared against the framework of authoritative knowledge, developed by Brigitte Jordan. By applying the concept of authoritative knowledge, we identified 3 themes of how women construct understanding about pelvic organ prolapse and how they demonstrate deference to the authoritative knowledge of medical providers. First, we found through women's narratives that authoritative knowledge was held by the health care provider and is considered consequential and legitimate by all participants. Second, women reported that the health care provider's authoritative knowledge was valued over personal, experiential knowledge. Finally, women described how they work with their health care providers to create a system of authoritative knowledge as they seek treatment for or discuss their condition. Throughout the narratives, women's experiences are not legitimized by the women or the medical community, perpetuating the "hidden" nature of these conditions. This analysis provides qualitative evidence of Jordan's authoritative knowledge: women and health care providers contribute to dimensions of authoritative knowledge surrounding pelvic organ prolapse. Despite what women experience, the health care provider's definition and understanding of pelvic organ prolapse is seen as legitimate and consequential. Because of their construction of their condition, and the power dynamic at play, women are silenced, and their expertise about their
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la construcción y validación preliminar de una escala diseñada para niños y niñas, cuyo objetivo es medir creencias que legitiman la violencia en las relaciones interpersonales. El proceso incluyó su aplicación a 608 niños de 12 colegios de Coquimbo y a 20 niños víctimas de violencia. El instrumento muestra adecuados niveles de confiabilidad y evidencia un constructo multidimensional, compuesto por distintas formas de legitimación de la violencia. Los resultados permiten vincular estas creencias a contextos relaciónales violentos y sugieren su asociación con las variables: cultura escolar y socialización de género. El instrumento se plantea como una herramienta para el estudio de los mecanismos que obstaculizan la erradicación de la violencia en nuestras comunidades.This article presents the development of a scale, designed for children, which measures beliefs that legitimate interpersonal violence. The scale shows adequate reliability and shows evidence of a multidimensional construct, constituted by different ways to legitimize violence. Results suggest an association of this beliefs system with violent relational contexts, school culture and gender socialization. The scale is proposed as a tool for investigation of underlying mechanisms that perpetuate violence in our communities.
Full Text Available Women and sexual minorities in the United States continue to experience subordinate status, and the policy gains they have made in areas such as reproductive rights and marriage equality continue to be challenged in political discourse. We conducted a critical discourse analysis of texts from the 2012 Democratic and Republican national conventions in order to examine the extent to which ideological representations of the family were employed to legitimize public policy positions related to gender (e.g., abortion and sexuality (e.g., same-sex marriage. We analyzed two forms of text (official party platform document, transcripts of speeches with distinct intended audiences (i.e., party members, general audience. Findings revealed that an ideological representation of the traditional family ideal—featuring a heterosexual couple, their children, and asymmetric gender relations—was present within speeches given by both parties, particularly by the spouses of the presidential candidates (Michelle Obama and Ann Romney. Although this ideological representation was subsequently used within the Republican Party platform to legitimize positions against same-sex marriage and abortion, the Democratic Party platform challenged this representation of the family to instead advocate for policy positions in favor of same-sex marriage and women’s reproductive rights. We discuss this ambivalence within Democratic texts in light of the different audiences that party convention texts seek. Implications for gender- and sexuality-based policies are discussed, as well as the importance of examining political discourse across diverse forms and settings.
Wolfe, Charles T
The category "organism" has an ambiguous status: is it scientific or is it philosophical? Or, if one looks at it from within the relatively recent field or sub-field of philosophy of biology, is it a central, or at least legitimate category therein, or should it be dispensed with? In any case, it has long served as a kind of scientific bolstering for a philosophical train of argument which seeks to refute the mechanistic or reductionist trend, which has been perceived as dominant since the 17th century, whether in the case of Stahlian animism, Leibnizian monadology, the neo-vitalism of Hans Driesch, or, lastly, of the "phenomenology of organic life" in the 20th century, with authors such as Kurt Goldstein, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and Georges Canguilhem. In this paper I try to reconstruct some of the main interpretive stages or layers of the concept of organism in order to evaluate it critically. How might organism be a useful concept if one rules out the excesses of organismic biology and metaphysics? Varieties of instrumentalism and what I call the projective concept of organism are appealing, but perhaps ultimately unsatisfying.
Full Text Available organic production is a process that develops a viable and legitimate agricultural ecosystems. The link between man, agriculture and local environmental conditions, provides quality food for people, plants and animals in a healthy environment. There are a few basic principles and ideas that explain the production of organic food in the ecosystem. The organic viticulture production in which there is a balance between environmental conditions, varieties and methods of cultivation. The two main factors that determine the choice of location concepts and establishing assortments. Organic viticulture is widespread mainly in the Mediterranean countries of Europe such as Italy, France and Spain. The Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and constant air currents limiting the development of pests and diseases on grapevines. The same concept can be seen in California, USA and South Africa. In the wine-growing countries with humid climates apply to another concept of organic viticulture, and that is the use of varieties resistant to pests and diseases. In Romania, Germany, Hungary, Switzerland and northern France are represented interspecific hybrids and new resistant varieties. In the north-east of America, on the border with Canada, grown varieties Vitis labrusca and Vitis species in the south rotundifolia. However, in these humid regions is crucial in the selection of sites with appropriate climatic and soil conditions. The choice of suitable climatic conditions is important for conventional viticulture in order to get the best quality of grapes and wine.
Enterprise software applications have changed significantly over the last decades. Increasingly, software is deployed in a central location to be accessed through the internet, instead of installing software at end-users. Having software in a central location enables multi-tenancy, where multiple
Frederiksen, Bodil Folke
society that are based on identities and regarded as outside legitimate civil society. It looks at politics from below, taking the example of the 2007 elections in Kenya, and the role of Mungiki, an organization characterized by the intersection of class, generation, religion and ethnicity. Mungiki builds...... on Kenya's history and rich archive of indigenous popular culture. It originated in the early 1990s’ turmoil of ‘ethnic clashes’ and population displacement and now operates in rural and poor urban areas, providing income opportunities, service delivery and extortion/protection. During elections, sections...... of Mungiki have been recruited by political leaders and functioned as violent militia; concurrently, it seeks representation in formal and parliamentary politics. The organization is distinct from ‘respectable’ segments of Kenya's civil society who participate in NGO activities and mainstream churches...
von Groote, Per M; Reinhardt, Jan D; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; DeLisa, Joel A; Melvin, John L; Bickenbach, Jerome E; Stucki, Gerold
International non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in official relation with the World Health Organization (WHO) face organizational challenges against the background of legitimate representation of their membership and accountable procedures within the organization. Moreover, challenges arise in the light of such an international NGO's civil societal mandate to help reach the "health-for-all" goals as defined by WHO and to facilitate the implementation of the United Nations (UN) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The objective of this paper is to examine how such an international NGO using the International Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ISPRM) as a case in point can address these challenges. The specific aims are to analyse ISPRM's structures and procedures of internal organs and external relations and to develop solutions. These possible solutions will be presented as internal organizational scenarios and a yearly schedule of meetings closely aligned to that of WHO to facilitate an efficient internal and external interaction.
Guilly, J.; Pennaneach, M.; El Balghiti, F.
Un composé chloré (BCl3, TiCl4, WCl6) est introduit froid dans un plasma d'argon soufflé à grande vitesse. L'écriture en axisymétrique des équations de la diffusion pour chaque espèce en tenant compte des variations locales des coefficients de transport et le calcul simultané de la composition, permet de tracer en fonction des coordonnées les courbes de concentrations à cinq espèces et les courbes de température. Les résultats mettent en évidence l'importance des coefficients de diffusion et ...
Paulo Augusto Sobral Escada
Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisa a experiência de um grupo de cientistas e especialistas do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE que buscou consolidar e legitimar, ao longo de duas décadas, um modo próprio de produção de conhecimento científico e tecnológico. Mudanças de paradigma da Política de C&T, nos anos 1990, retiraram o apoio governamental de seus desenvolvimentos, obrigando-os a mudar suas ações estratégicas para que permitisse manter e preservar o modelo endógeno e autônomo de produção do conhecimento. O artigo trabalha com a perspectiva de Pierre Bourdieu (2001, aplicada ao campo científico, e a noção de “translação” de Bruno Latour (2000. A abordagem sociológica contempla e naturaliza os jogos de interesses e disputas no interior do campo científico, bem como destaca o processo de legitimação científica e social do conhecimento. O artigo tem como objetivo principal oferecer uma contribuição aos processos de discussão do modelo das políticas de CTI, principalmente na definição dos conhecimentos a serem produzidos e absorvidos pelo processo de desenvolvimento econômico e social do país. O artigo destaca a necessidade de se ampliar e aprofundar mecanismos democráticos, adotando maior inclusão e transparência nas disputas do campo científico e das políticas de C&T, condições básicas para alcançar um consenso geral que permita emergir um desenvolvimento desejado e planejado por boa parte da sociedade. Palavras-chave Sociologia do Conhecimento, produção de conhecimento, legitimação, democracia e desenvolvimento Abstract This article analyzes the experience of a group of scientists and specialists from the National Institute of Space Research (INPE who aimed to consolidate and legitimize, throughout two decades, its own way of producing scientific and technological knowledge. Changes of paradigm in Science, Technology and Innovation (STI Politics, during the 90s, removed governmental
Edward J. Balleisen
Full Text Available This essay considers the question of how strategies of legitimatizing private regulatory governance evolve over the long term. It focuses on the century-long history of the American Better Business Bureau (BBB network, a linked set of business-funded non-governmental organizations devoted to promoting truthful marketing. The BBBs took on important roles in standard-setting, monitoring, public education, and enforcement, despite never enjoying explicit delegation of authority from Congress or state legislatures. This effort depended on building legitimacy with three separate groups with very different perspectives and interests—the business community, a fractured American state, and the American public, in their roles as consumers and investors. The BBBs initially managed to build a strong reputation with each constituency during its founding period, from 1912 to 1933. The Bureaus then in many ways adapted successfully to the emergence of a more assertive regulatory state from the New Deal through the mid 1970s. Eventually, however, the resurgence of conservative politics in the United States exposed the challenges of satisfying such divergent stakeholders, and led the BBBs to focus resolutely on shoring up its support from the business establishment. That choice, over time, undercut the Bureaus standing with other stakeholders, and especially the wider public. This history illustrates: the salience of generational amnesia within private regulatory institutions; the profound impact that the shifting nature of public faith in government can have on the strategies and reputation of private regulatory bodies; and the extent to which private regulators face long-term trade-offs among strategies to sustain legitimacy with different audiences. It also suggests a rich set of research questions for longer-term histories of other private regulatory institutions, in the United States, other societies, and at the international level.
This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.
Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus
. This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....
Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte
This entry is concerned with demonstrating the increasingly important interface between government organization and communication. Government organization can be approached in terms of state centrism, where the emphasis is on government organization understood as state authority and power......, with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... between power, communication, and organizational forms, and suggest the usefulness of viewing government organization in terms of polycentrism, highlighting communication and organizing processes in a wider perspective. The entry focuses particularly on two major strands of literature: deliberative...
Ernesto Vargas Pacheco
Full Text Available En el arte monumental del periodo Clásico maya la imagen del señor ocupaba el sitio principal y todas las demás imágenes un lugar secundario. Con este trabajo se quiere demostrar que los soberanos mayas ya en el Preclásico Tardío, o desde antes, usaron la arquitectura para reproducir la topografía del universo y se sirvieron de los mascarones para transmitir la condición divina de sus antepasados, de sus dioses y la suya propia. En El Tigre, Campeche, se han explorado varios mascarones de estuco del Preclásico Tardío, que representan rostros humanos, los cuales bien podrían identificarse como ancestros: antepasados de gobernantes que pretenden divinizarlos para así legitimizar la realeza maya.The images of Maya dignitaries take the most important places in monumental art during Classic period, and all other representations occupy a secondary position in that context. This paper pretends to demonstrate that Maya kings tried to duplicate their conception of the Universe on civic architecture since Preclassic period, or even before; they used huge mask representations to transmit the sacred condition of their ancestors, their gods and their selves. At El Tigre site, in Campeche, have been explored several stucco masks of Late Preclassic date, showing human faces that may represent ancestors of the kings who tried to deify them in order to legitimate Maya royalty.
The participative construction of the criminal decision in democratic states ruled by the law: the guaranty of participation of the parties, through confrontation, in the composition of a fair and legitimate decision
Flávio da Silva Andrade
Full Text Available This article concerns a topic that is not new, but it remains current: the participatory construction of the criminal decision in a democratic State ruled by law. Starting from the concepts of Rule of Law, of Guarantism and of Democracy, it seeks to renew the importance of the equal and dialectical participation of the parties, through the adversarial system, for the composition of a fair and legitimate criminal judicial decision. It is argued, from this perspective, that the parties should take the role of protagonists in the procedural scenario, since the decision should be built in a participatory way, i.e., based on the arguments and evidence presented, thus reducing the gaps that favor judicial discretion and decisionism. It is proposed, therefore, that the solution to the concrete case (acceptance or dismissal of the information or indictment, grant or rejection of a criminal precautionary measure, conviction or acquittal should be elaborated with support on the contribution of the litigants, from the contrast of their arguments and of the evidence produced, in adversarial proceedings, in the regular course of the process.
Mercedes Cancelo Sanmartín
ón de acciones de relaciones públicas basadas en la generación de una imagen transparente incide positivamente en la percepción de los ciudadanos sobre el organismo público.AbstractBecause of the importance of the Attorney General in the social structure, it is necessary to study their picture, therefore its legitimacy institucional.El object of this research is the federal program targeted transparency implemented by the institution, whether modified on citizens image created medially.The institutions can not be considered only for its instrumental function, but because they constitute the social nature of man, which is done as an individual to the extent that the community participates in (Sotelo, 2001:23. This is a fundamental pillar of the existence ofcorporate communications. This implies the need for the microcosm of the institutions is in contact with the macrocosm. Also it is not enough that the organization meets its objectives and activities, but also that their task is socially significant. An active recognition, in which society helps build the institution. Due to the legacy that lives on in each institution dumped a set of meanings to society and therefore each new generation that is developed in the same, which explains the identity and fate of societies.The methodology used in the study included surveys of citizens users. To do this we used different methodological tools such as questionnaires with closed questions and / or open. Overall Tamaulipas Mexican citizens regularly make use of its institutions, identified and accepted as part of society smoothly and are informed of the functions they perform and represent utility for users of the same. Also, in the case study, they show a certain image of the Agency, which matches the development and the facts specific to the institution. The results showed that the implementation of public relations based on the generation of a transparent image positively influences the perception of citizens about the
Naber, W J M; Faez, S; Wiel, W G van der
We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of spintronics and organic electronics are addressed, and phenomena which are in particular relevant for organic spintronics are highlighted. Experiments using different organic materials, including carbon nanotubes, organic thin films, self-assembled monolayers and single molecules are then reviewed. Observed magnetoresistance points toward successful spin injection and detection, but spurious magnetoresistance effects can easily be confused with spin accumulation. A few studies report long spin relaxation times and lengths, which forms a promising basis for further research. We conclude with discussing outstanding questions and problems. (topical review)
Kafafi, Zakya H
Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...
Hömme, R; Neeser, G
For patients with end-stage organ disease transplantation of human organs is a well-established therapy, and in most cases it is the only life-saving one. But the lack of available organs is a big problem. The legal basis in Germany is the transplantation law (TPG). According to this law, every ventilated patient with diagnosed brain death is a potential organ donor. However, brain death may lead to strong reactions in the patient's cardiovascular system as well as disturbances in thermoregulation, water and electrolyte balance, and the endocrine and haemostatic systems. Thus, protecting the organs of the organ donor and, furthermore, caring for his or her relatives are great challenges for every physician and nurse in the intensive care unit.
Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard
should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how......An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational...... networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how ‘issue...
Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas
Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a
Lallemand, J.Y.; Fetizon, M.
The 1988 progress report of the Organic Synthesis Chemistry laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The laboratory activities are centered on the chemistry of natural products, which have a biological activity and on the development of new reactions, useful in the organic synthesis. The research works involve the following domains: the natural products chemistry which are applied in pharmacology, the plants and insects chemistry, the organic synthesis, the radical chemistry new reactions and the bio-organic physicochemistry. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis are listed [fr
Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus
The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices....... This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...
Low, Lisa Kane; Tumbarello, Julie A.
Introduction Despite the high prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse many women suffer in silence, lacking the language and opportunity to describe their condition. There are limited descriptions of women’s experiences with pelvic organ prolapse in the literature. This qualitative study addressed the knowledge and experience of women with pelvic organ prolapse. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 women who had been previously diagnosed with pelvic organ prolapse. Transcripts of the interviews were reviewed and coded using a process of content analysis compared against the framework of authoritative knowledge, developed by Bridgitte Jordan. Results By applying the concept of “authoritative knowledge,” we identified three themes of how women construct understanding about their pelvic organ prolapse and how they demonstrate deference to the authoritative knowledge of medical providers. First, we found through women’s narratives that authoritative knowledge was held by the health care provider and is considered consequential and legitimate by all participants. Second, women reported that the health care provider’s authoritative knowledge was valued over personal, experiential knowledge. Finally, women describe how they work with their health care providers to create a system of authoritative knowledge as they seek treatment for or discuss their condition. Throughout the narratives, women’s experiences are not well acknowledged by themselves or the medical community, perpetuating the “hidden” nature of these conditions. Discussion This analysis provides qualitative evidence of Jordan’s authoritative knowledge: women and health care providers contribute to dimensions of authoritative knowledge surrounding pelvic organ prolapse. Despite what women experience, the health care provider’s definition and understanding of pelvic organ prolapse is seen as legitimate and consequential. Because of their construction of their condition, and
... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...
... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... brochures What Every Patient Needs to Know Living Donation Multiple Listing Visit UNOS Store Learn more How organs are matched How to become a living donor ...
Organic aerosols scatter solar radiation. They may also either enhance or decrease concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei. This paper summarizes observed concentrations of aerosols in remote continental and marine locations and provides estimates for the sources of organic aerosol matter. The anthropogenic sources of organic aerosols may be as large as the anthropogenic sources of sulfate aerosols, implying a similar magnitude of direct forcing of climate. The source estimates are highly uncertain and subject to revision in the future. A slow secondary source of organic aerosols of unknown origin may contribute to the observed oceanic concentrations. The role of organic aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is described and it is concluded that they may either enhance or decrease the ability of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols to act as CCN
Rogers, Wendy A; Trey, Torsten; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Bridgett, Madeleine; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Lavee, Jacob
This response refutes the claim made in a recent article that organs for transplantation in China will no longer be sourced from executed prisoners. We identify ongoing ethical problems due to the lack of transparent data on current numbers of transplants in China; implausible and conflicting claims about voluntary donations; and obfuscation about who counts as a voluntary donor. The big unanswered question in Chinese transplant ethics is the source of organs, and until there is an open and independently audited system in China, legitimate concerns remain about organ harvesting from prisoners of conscience. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Moore, Jennifer; Cahill, Maria
Several decades of research have established that time spent reading has a positive impact on the cognitive development and academic success of school-aged children and adolescents. Yet, reading among adolescents has been in decline in recent years while engagement with audiobooks has increased. Professionals in librarianship, children's…
A common understanding is that dyslexia is the inability to spell words, the inability to recall symbols, the inability to recognize sight words, or the inability to decode. Dyslexia is often described in deficiency language--the inability to do something. Deficiency language is a product of special education and continues to dominate common…
Maderer, Peter; Skiba, Alexander
In part 1 of this paper we presented the theory of an integrative geragogy. Integrative geragogy is a basic part of educational gerontology, dealing especially with the oldest of the old, mentally handicapped elderly people, and their potentials. In part 2 the context between theory and practice of an integrative geragogy shall be explained. We…
Langendahl, Per-Anders; Cook, Matthew; Potter, Stephen; Roby, Helen; Collins, Trevor
Smart grids which use Information and Communication Technologies to augment energy network management have been developed in several locations including London and Stockholm. Common rationales for smart grids include: de-carbonising energy supply, maintaining security of supply and promoting affordability. However, beyond these general abstractions, smart grids seem to exhibit considerable diversity in terms of their characteristics and rationales for development. Thus, while the term smart g...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to research the feasibility of training mental health consumers as tutors for 4th year medical students in psychiatry. Methods A partnership between a consumer network and an academic unit in Psychological Medicine was formed to jointly develop a training package for consumer tutors and a curriculum in interviewing skills for medical students. Student attitudes to mental health consumers were measured pre and post the program. All tutorial evaluation data was analysed using univariate statistics. Both tutors and students evaluated the teaching program using a 4 point rating scale. The mean scores for teaching and content for both students and tutors were compared using an independent samples t-test. Results Consumer tutors were successfully trained and accredited as tutors and able to sustain delivery of tutorials over a 4 year period. The study found that whilst the medical students started with positive attitudes towards consumers prior to the program, there was a general trend towards improved attitude across all measures. Other outcomes for tutors and students (both positive and negative are described. Conclusions Consumer tutors along with professional tutors have a place in the education of medical students, are an untapped resource and deliver largely positive outcomes for students and themselves. Further possible developments are described.
Thorsøe, Martin Hvarregaard; Graversgaard, Morten; Noe, Egon
to the legitimacy of agri-environmental regulation that occurs when the regulatory regime changes from general regulation to differentiated regulation. The analysis is based on a case study of the implementation of the Buffer zone act in Denmark – a regulation that prevents agricultural production in a 10 (later 9...
The 2011 World Development Report, Conflict, Security, and Development, underscored the far-reaching and devastating impact of violent conflict on a country's social fabric, economy, and governance. Some impacts are tangible, including deaths, injuries, displacement, refugee flows, infrastructure destruction, social ...
Full Text Available Santiago Ramón y Cajal is recognized as the founder of modern neuroscience, his discovery’s representing the fundamental pillars of our current understanding of the nervous system. As Cajal's career spanned a critical period in Spanish history, he witnessed strong social demands for progress in culture, education and science. Indeed, the life of Santiago Ramón y Cajal can be considered to reflect the gradual development of Spanish science from the last third of the 19th century. Cajal promoted a national movement that had important consequences for Spanish science, mainly triggered by the creation of the Junta para Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas, an instrument he established to enrich scientific research and that was later to bear such abundant fruit. The school generated by Cajal profited from this development, through which all Cajal’s disciples received fellowships to train in laboratories across Europe. Unfortunately, the Spanish Civil War disrupted this revitalization of Spanish science and provoked the diaspora of many Spanish scientists. However, a political impulse, mostly following this spirit, was resumed in Spain during the eighties that successfully led to a renaissance in Spanish science.
Public confidence in state security forces must be rebuilt to ensure success. This project will analyze the post-2007 electoral violence in Kenya and highlight how formal and informal security institutions' role, performance, and reforms were essential to avoiding a relapse into violence. Researchers will examine the lessons ...
Plyometric exercises or drills combine speed and strength to produce an explosive-reactive movement or increased power. Some world-class athletes have used plyometric-training in sports such as high-jumping, hurdles, football, baseball, and hockey. The method is still considered experimental. Sample exercises are described. (JL)
Full Text Available Training of Pastors: Calling, Testing and Ordination The profession of being a pastor is under pressure. The challenge for churches and seminaries is to rediscover what it means to be called, and more specifically to be called for full time ministry in a local church. Such a calling needs to be secularised in order to be recovered. In this process the �job� of the called one needs to be determined, at least to a larger extent, by the congregation or parish. The point in question here is the fact that such �functions� as pastors are being given by God for equipping the body (Eph 4:7-16. When this is a reality, testing for such a call asks for a commitment to what the call, training for the profession and retaining status imply. Such testing leads to new freedom and the discovery of the complex nature of ministry on the one hand, and giftedness for specific ministries on the other. While further research is needed, the intermediate questions are whether there are seminaries that are willing to partner with churches to find an answer to the growing gap between professional training and church-based-training, and whether there are churches with the courage to take recruitment, testing, and ongoing training more serious.
... pregnancy, some women do excessively worry about their weight gain and experience body image issues during pregnancy. The risk of pregorexia ... provider can help you determine an appropriate weight gain during ... your pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index. He or she can also explain ...
Mehmet Ali KARAMAN
Full Text Available Bu çalışma Osmanlı Devleti’nin Almanya ile ittifak yaparak Birinci Dünya Savaşı’na dahil olması üzerine yoğun tenkitlere maruz kalan Osmanlı hükûmetinin attığı adımı meşrulaştırmak amacıyla askeri basın ve yayın organlarında başlattığı propaganda çalışmalarını ayrıntılı olarak belgeleriyle incelemektedir. İngiltere ve Rusya’nın 19. yüzyılın sonlarına doğru Osmanlı karşıtı siyaset izlemeleri nedeniyle Osmanlı askeri yayınları Almanya ile ittifakı bir ehven-i şer olarak görmüş ve bu yüzden başında Almanya ile birlikte savaşa girmenin kaçınılmaz olduğu vurgulanmıştır. This article examines the Ottoman government propaganda in the Ottoman military publications to legitimize the Ottoman Empire’s entrance in World War I on the side of Germany after the government faced harsh criticism for its decision to side with Germany. Because the other major powers, G. Britain and Russia adopted an explicitly anti-Ottoman foreign policy in the late nineteenth century, the Ottoman military publications presented the alliance with Germany as the least bad option and stated it as an inevitable outcome.
Parsimonia cognitiva y legitimación de las injusticias sociales: la creencia en el mundo justo y el fatalismo latinoamericano Cognitive parsimony and legitimization of social injustice: the belief in a just world and latin american fatalism
Full Text Available Este trabajo se ocupa de un tema propio de la psicología social: el conocimiento de sentido común. Particularmente, se analizan las distintas creencias que permiten a las personas pensar y sentir que controlan -o no- el medio en que viven centrándose en la creencia en el mundo justo y el fatalismo latinoamericano. Ambas creencias en su origen psicológico se basan en la necesidad de control del medio y en su contenido cumplen la función de legitimar el orden social y mantener el status quo. Se concluye que la complejidad de este tipo de objetos de estudio implica estudios interdisciplinarios que vinculen diferentes niveles de análisis para así poder dar cuenta de cómo se relacionan los mecanismos psicológicos con los procesos históricos-sociales conformando una visión de la realidad para los distintos grupos sociales.This paper deals with a topic which belongs to social psychology: common sense knowledge. In particular, it analyzes the different beliefs that enable people to think and feel in control -or not- to their environment. This paper makes focus on just world belief and the Latin-American fatalism. Both beliefs are psychological in origin, based on the need for environmental control and their contents serve the function of legitimating social order, supporting the status quo. It is concluded that the complexity of such phenomena involves interdisciplinary studies, which link different levels of analysis in order to explain how psychological mechanisms are related to social historical processes shaping the world views about reality that social groups hold.
Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... changed dramatically with the advent of: new communication systems, adaptive mechanisms, information technology, knowledge management systems, innovation processes and more. This book systemically examines these developments and their impact on OD with contributions from leading scholars in the area...... threefold theme: (1) core issues in organization design, (2) emerging perspectives in OD, and (3) new developments and directions in organizational design. A special feature of each chapter is: 1) implications for theory, and 2) implications for practice. DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches...
Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe
2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
In recent years the attention towards demographic diversity has increased among academics and practitioners dealing with organization management. Finding a possible connection between diversity and group performance has been the objective of much extant research. Still, however, results are incon......In recent years the attention towards demographic diversity has increased among academics and practitioners dealing with organization management. Finding a possible connection between diversity and group performance has been the objective of much extant research. Still, however, results...
Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas
Würtz, Rolf P
Organic Computing is a research field emerging around the conviction that problems of organization in complex systems in computer science, telecommunications, neurobiology, molecular biology, ethology, and possibly even sociology can be tackled scientifically in a unified way. From the computer science point of view, the apparent ease in which living systems solve computationally difficult problems makes it inevitable to adopt strategies observed in nature for creating information processing machinery. In this book, the major ideas behind Organic Computing are delineated, together with a sparse sample of computational projects undertaken in this new field. Biological metaphors include evolution, neural networks, gene-regulatory networks, networks of brain modules, hormone system, insect swarms, and ant colonies. Applications are as diverse as system design, optimization, artificial growth, task allocation, clustering, routing, face recognition, and sign language understanding.
After a rapid definition of a nuclear basis installation, the national organization of nuclear safety in France is presented, as also the main organizations concerned and their functions. This report shows how the licensing procedure leading to the construction and exploitation of such installations is applied in the case of nuclear laboratories of research and development: examinations of nuclear safety problems are carried out at different levels: - centralized to define the frame out of which the installation has not to operate, - decentralized to follow in a more detailed manner its evolution [fr
Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille
The chapter accounts for the process of becoming of a changed practice within the area of disability care in the Municipality of Aalborg in Denmark. Across a period of a few months in the fall of 2015 a group of employees across the organization and an action researcher from Aalborg University (the...... author) met and formed a research- practice group and across this period a revised model for cooperation emerged that – upon realization – would reconfigure the intra-play of all relevant areas of the organization involved in disability care. The model included the grasping of disability as dis...
Hauge, Amalie Martinus
With this dissertation I take up a problem currently traversing popular, political and academic arenas, namely the potential demise of values in public organizations allegedly instigated by management tools deriving from industrial sectors. Taking a pragmatic stance, inspired by John Dewey......, this dissertation sets out to develop a practical and situation-based understanding of the relationship between these management tools, values and organizations, which can contribute to pushing forward the currently detached and polarized debates over New Public Management. In this endeavor the dissertation engages...
Una atribución a Pietro di Martino Veese: el Escudo de armas de Carlos II entre ángeles tenantes de la iglesia de las Calatravas de Madrid y la influencia de Bernini en la decoración española del Barroco
Gutiérrez Pastor, Ismael
Full Text Available Sobre la puerta del brazo del crucero del lado de la epístola de la iglesia de la Concepción Real de Calatrava de Madrid, vulgo Calatravas, que da paso a la sacristía y a la sala capitular del templo, existe un elegante altorrelieve que representa un Escudo de armas de Carlos II entre ángeles tenantes, dispuesto como remate a todo los ancho del dintel (Fig. 1. Está pintado con un color claro de tonalidad gris verdosa y debe estar realizado en estuco o en barro a juzgar por los planos excavados, los agujeros y las imperfecciones de ciertas partes del mismo, por lo general de carácter secundario y menos visible, como los cuerpos de los leones o las esferas que sujetan con sus garras. A su perfil mixtilíneo se le sobrepone una cornisa como apoyo del altorrelieve, que se estructura a partir de un pedestal que arranca en volutas horizontales y sirve de apoyo a un escudo de perfiles ondulantes…
DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS: 21st Century Approaches er en vigtig publikation inden for organisationsdesign. Fokus ligger på nye udviklinger inden for organisationsdesign og bogen hjælper med at skabe mere reflekterende forskining og stærkere empiriske analyser inden for dette vigtige felt inden...
Festle, Mary Jo
The transplant medical community in the United States has frequently been divided over the appropriate role of the federal government and of the public in matters related to organ transplantation. Using public statements in government hearings, newspapers, and press releases, this article traces the thinking of the transplant medical community in particular during three especially politicized periods: the heart transplant and brain death controversies in the late 1960s, consideration of the National Organ Transplant Act and other legislation during the mid-1980s, and the controversy over organ allocation regulations issued by the Department of Health and Human Services in the late 1990s. Even while sometimes denouncing "politicization," over time surgeons, physicians, representatives of the United Network for Organ Sharing, and other leaders in the field became increasingly politically active and more accustomed to the notion that because of the unique nature of organ transplantation, both the public and the federal government have a legitimate and potentially beneficial oversight role.
A educação na 'Constelação pós-nacional': o enfraquecimento da legitimação e do controle democrático, "expertocrático" e ético-profissional Education in the 'Postnational Constellation': the weakening of democratic, expertocratic and ethicoprofessional legitimation and control
organizations in educational issues marks a transition to a "postnational constellation" also in the education field insofar as the national educational sovereignty is being at least readjusted. The economization of education policy is however not restricted to bringing education closer to the needs of the economy and to turning its services into tradable goods. Rather, it also impinges on the operative level of education. A logics of production is being implemented in the self-description of the institutions of the education system, which are no longer bureaucratically administered establishments, but are rather conceived of as managerially conducted production business in which entrepreneurial action is needed. This new governance raises the problem of democratic legitimation of political decisions which ideally combines three elements: democratic, expertocratic, and ethico-professional. The article discusses the consequences of a shift in the balance of the three components with reference to Germany.
We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)
Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Al-Shamery, Katharina
Single crystalline nanowires from fluorescing organic molecules like para-phenylenes or thiophenes are supposed to become key elements in future integrated optoelectronic devices . For a sophisticated design of devices based on nanowires the basic principles of the nanowire formation have...... to be well understood . Nanowires from para-phenylenes, from ®-thiophenes, and from phenylene/thiophene co-oligomers, Fig. 1, are investigated exemplarily. Epitaxy and electrostatic interactions determine the microscopic growth mechanism, whereas kinetics ascertains the macroscopic habit. Results from...
Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders
This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...
Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C.; Chen, Hongzheng
Energy inflation, the constant encouragement to economize on energy consumption and the huge investments in developing alternative energy resources might seem to suggest that there is a global shortage of energy. Far from it, the energy the Sun beams on the Earth each hour is equivalent to a year's supply, even at our increasingly ravenous rate of global energy consumption . But it's not what you have got it's what you do with it. Hence the intense focus on photovoltaic research to find more efficient ways to harness energy from the Sun. Recently much of this research has centred on organic solar cells since they offer simple, low-cost, light-weight and large-area flexible photovoltaic structures. This issue with guest editors Frederik C Krebs and Hongzheng Chen focuses on some of the developments at the frontier of organic photovoltaic technology. Improving the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic systems, while maintaining the inherent material, economic and fabrication benefits, has absorbed a great deal of research attention in recent years. Here significant progress has been made with reports now of organic photovoltaic devices with efficiencies of around 10%. Yet operating effectively across the electromagnetic spectrum remains a challenge. 'The trend is towards engineering low bandgap polymers with a wide optical absorption range and efficient hole/electron transport materials, so that light harvesting in the red and infrared region is enhanced and as much light of the solar spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device parameters . The work contributes to a better understanding of the solar-cell characteristics of polymer:fullerene blends, which form the material basis for some of the most
Hull Kristensen, Peer; Bojesen, Anders
This paper invites to discuss the processes of individualization and organizing being carried out under what we might see as an emerging regime of change. The underlying argumentation is that in certain processes of change, competence becomes questionable at all times. The hazy characteristics...... of this regime of change are pursued through a discussion of competencies as opposed to qualifications illustrated by distinct cases from the Danish public sector in the search for repetitive mechanisms. The cases are put into a general perspective by drawing upon experiences from similar change processes...... in MNCs. The paper concludes by asking whether we can escape from a regime of competence in a world defined by a rhetoric of change and create a more promising world in which doubt and search serve as a strategy for gaining knowledge and professionalism that improve on our capability for mutualism....
Demming, Anna; Krebs, Frederik C; Chen, Hongzheng
spectrum as possible can be converted into an electrical current', explains Mukundan Thelakkat and colleagues in Germany, the US and UK. In this special issue they report on how charge carrier mobility and morphology of the active blend layer in thin film organic solar cells correlate with device...... and solar energy, what a source of power! I hope we don't have to wait until oil and coal run out, before we tackle that'. Born in the wake of the industrial revolution when coal was king, the words seem strangely anachronistic and ahead of his time. As an undisputed genius of inventions it should...... not surprise us that he had such remarkable foresight, nor that the present generation of innovators are 'tackling' the opportunity with such promise and success, as the work in this special issue clearly demonstrates. References  http...
Ana Paula Barbosa-Fohrmann
Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisará, em primeiro lugar, o significado kantiano de legitimação e a sua distinção em relação à legitimidade. Num segundo momento, tratará de aspectos centrais da teoria de John Rawls, o qual influenciado por Kant, Locke e Rousseau, construiu uma teoria universalista e procedimental baseada em princípios morais de justiça. Por fim, serão ainda apresentadas algumas críticas à teoria rawlsiana. Palavras-chave: legitimação; teoria da justiça; elementos estruturadores; princípios morais de justiça; críticas à teoria rawlsiana. Abstract This paper will examine, first, the Kantian notion of legitimation, and the distinction between legitimation and legitimacy. Secondly, it will address some key aspects of John Rawls’ theory, who influenced by Kant, Locke and Rousseau, built a universal and proceduralist theory grounded on the moral principles of justice. Finally, some critics on Rawlsian theory will be also presented. Keywords: legitimacy; a theory of justice; structuring elements; the moral principles of justice; critics on Rawlsian theory.
Danaher, Kelly; Branscombe, Nyla R
Two experiments examined the effects of gender-based token hiring practices in organizational settings. In Expt 1, women were exposed to organizational hiring practices that were open, token, or closed. Token practices served to perpetuate inequality by maintaining individual mobility beliefs and organizational identification. In Expt 2, both men and women imagined working for a corporation that planned to implement open, token, or closed hiring practices. Although women reported experiencing negative emotions in the closed and token conditions compared to the open condition, token practices maintained positive perceptions of the organization and individual mobility beliefs compared to the closed condition. Men endorsed more individual mobility beliefs as well as positive emotions in the token and closed conditions compared to the open condition. Token practices distort perceptions of fairness in both women and men. For women, token practices make group boundaries seem more negotiable than they actually are, while for men token practices legitimize their group's dominance.
In this paper we try to define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization. Organization is defined as a structure with a function. So we can define the difference between hierarchical organization and self-organization both on the structure as on the function. In the next two chapters these two definitions are given. For the structure we will use some existing definitions in graph theory, for the function we will use existing theory on (self-)organization. In the t...
Full Text Available Laundry wash is a new form of crime that endangers stability, transparency and efficiency of financial systems, the developed countries and developing countries. One of the most widespread and simplest understanding, and according to some authors and simplest definition of the term money laundering is the conversion of "black money in green." The most comprehensive definition of the term money laundering would be the definition accepted by the G-7 and the FATF, as supplemented by the element of avoiding legal consequences. According to this definition the process of money laundering is: - "The process by which the gains for which it is believed to originate from criminal activity are transported, transferred, converted or incorporated into legal funds in order to conceal their origin, source, movement or ownership. The purpose of the process of money laundering through illegal activities to enable these funds to appear as legitimate, and persons involved in criminal activity to escape the legal consequences of such action. " Given that money laundering is an international problem, the national regulations of almost all countries contain provisions that prohibit and penalize any kind of organized crime aimed at acquiring illegal material benefit. The money acquired illegally, criminals need to legalize or black money to resort to legal financial flows in order to conceal their origin, source, movement or ownership.
Forrest, Stephen R; Lunt, Richard R
An ordered multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure is formed by depositing at least two layers of thin film crystalline organic materials successively wherein the at least two thin film layers are selected to have their surface energies within .+-.50% of each other, and preferably within .+-.15% of each other, whereby every thin film layer within the multilayer crystalline organic thin film structure exhibit a quasi-epitaxial relationship with the adjacent crystalline organic thin film.
... extremely low income families as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. (ii) Deconcentration of poverty... on the residents or the project environment; (iv) Objective and reasonable policies for selection by... occupancy during the fiscal year of PHA public housing units located in census tracts with a poverty rate of...
the result of this is that property owners (landlords) have many obligations but only little motivation on improving the standards of the property as the return on such investments is very low. This is mainly due to the fact that amounts spent on energy saving measures or other improvements to a building...
The continuing financial crisis effects the financial, labour and housing market. Governments are forced to take action to ensure welfare amongst its citizens. Four aspects can be regarded as basic criteria of social housing: affordability, availability, accessibility and quality. Along these
34 given genre designations such as tales, anecdotes, legends, ballads , beliefs, customs, and the like. These traditions are * collected from a number...West Point connection. Trips were sometimes made to surrounding towns like .Meridian. Tupelo, and Birmingham , Alabama. Visits to the State Capitol in...would include such important centers as Memphis and Chattanooga, Tennessee, Birmingham and Mobile, Alabama, and Jackson, Mississippi. This arbitrary
... be maintained and retained for three years. (c) Reexamination of family income and composition—(1...), the Borrower must reexamine the income and composition of the family at least every 12 months. Upon... reexamination of family income and composition, the Borrower must require the family to meet the disclosure and...
... waiting list showing the name, race, gender, ethnicity and date of each person applying for the program... occupancy requirements. For cases where domestic violence, dating violence, stalking, or criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is involved or claimed to be involved...
Carter, David; Larsen, David; Baldwin, Philip; Wilson, Cristy; Ruley, LaMont
The Near Earth Network (NEN) consists of globally distributed tracking stations that are strategically located throughout the world which provide Telemetry, Tracking, and Commanding (TTC) services support to a variety of orbital and suborbital flight missions, including Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO), highly elliptical, and lunar orbits. Swedish Space Corporation (SSC), which is one of the NEN Commercial Service Provider, has provided the NEN with TTC services support from its Alaska, Hawaii, Chile and Sweden. The presentation will give an overview of the NEN and its support from SSC.
This article describes the toxicity of organic micropollutants on tested microorganisms. Itis a current issue because organic micropollutants are identified in all elements of environmental (surface water, ground water, soils) and in food products. The organic micropollutants include: polychlorinated dibenzodioxyns PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofurans PCDF, polychlorinated biphenyls PCB, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH, halogenated compounds and by-products of water treatment. Some organic compounds cause hazard for health and human life due to their estrogenic biological activity, carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic activity. The influence on organisms indicators of these compounds based on literature data were presented. The level of TEQ (toxic equivalency) in response to organic chlorine derivatives (PCDDs, PCDF, PCBs) is usually determined by toxic equivalency factor (TEF). The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies organic micropollutants as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), possibly carcinogenic (Group 2A) or probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.
Resistance to organ donation and the continuing shortage of donated organs is discussed and four legal approaches to organ acquisition are examined. A fifth, based on the principle of supported individual autonomy, is proposed. (MSE)
Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari
in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...
Bošković Goran N.
Full Text Available Criminal structure spread sphere of influence in all fields of social life and become a threat to national and international security. Namely, criminal profits generated by organized crime in the criminal market and its infiltration into the legal economic flows represent a potential danger for corrupting in legal economic relations and undermine the integrity of financial institutions. In this way, in the end the basic fundamentals of the financial system may be disrupted, and in dangerous are the functioning of state institutions, economic prosperity and national security. Modern criminal organizations are profit-oriented and market-based and operating methods that use are combination of criminal and methods of modern business organizations, which makes them particularly dangerous to society. The great economic power of organized crime used to acquire political power, and it is in turn used to pursue criminal objectives. Thus, the threat of organized crime is not limited to the effects of individual criminal actions, but much more on the ability to influence the decision making processes in the sphere of politics and economics. The great interest of organized crime to influence on state and its functions stems from the fact that with the help of the state authority can provide the easiest way for providing criminal profit and immunity from prosecution. The authors in paper point to areas and dominant negative consequences of the infiltration of organized crime into legitimate economic relations, as well as the implications of these processes in order to gain a better understanding of their importance for defining the model on fighting of organized crime. .
Hermansen, John E.; Horsted, Klaus
The development in organic livestock production can be attributed to an increased consumer inter-est in organic products while, at the same time, farmers are interested in converting to organic pro-duction methods – often stimulated by governmental support or subsidies. It is important that the organic production systems can fulfil the expectations of each of these stakeholders if the organic livestock production is to increase further. This is in particular important if the organic poultry p...
Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M.; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K.
Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...
Organic thin films are used in many technological and engineering applications nowadays. They find use as coatings, sensors, detectors, as matrix materials in nanocomposites, as self-assembled monolayers for surface functionalization, as low-k dielectrics in integrated circuits and in advanced organic electronic applications like organic light emitting diodes, organic field effect transistors and organic photovoltaics (esp. organic solar cells) and many other applications. OLED displays are n...
The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...
This picture shows the organism Yersinia enterocolitica . Yersinia organisms cause a wide range of disease but are most often associated with diarrhea or gastrointestinal symptoms. Yersinia infection is ...
.... The 50th Space Wing makes available by permit two buildings on the base's real property records, 720 and 730, to the Joint National Integration Center, a Component of the Missile Defense Agency...
Robert G. Qualls; Bruce L. Haines; Wayne Swank
Our objectives in this study were (i) compare fluxes of the dissolved organic nutrients dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DON, and dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) in a clearcut area and an adjacent mature reference area. (ii) determine whether concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients or inorganic nutrients were greater in clearcut areas than in reference areas,...
А В Крылов
Full Text Available The article focuses on the history and evolution of the jihadist terrorist organization “Jab-hat al-Nusra” (“The Support Front for the People of the Levant”. It also reveals the ideological principals of the organization, its main goals and objectives and the methods used to achieve them. “Jabhat al-Nusra” was created as a branch of “Al Qaeda” in Syria. Subsequently, the organization changed its name twice. From July 2016 known as the “Jabhat Fateh al-Sham” (“The Liberation Front of the Levant” and from January 2017 - as the “Hay'at Tahrir al-Sham” (“Organization for the Liberation of the Levant”. The replacement of the signboard was determined primarily by the fact that “Al-Nusra” had been designated as a terrorist organization in many countries around the world, including Russia. The main goals of “Jabhat al-Nusra” are follows: first - to overthrow the legitimate government of the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad; second - to create a Muslim Sunni state governed by the laws of Sharia on the territory of Syria. The article shows that now the front “Al-Nusra” is the most powerful military and political force among all political organizations and military groups of the Syrian opposition. “Al-Nusra” is actively trying to become a more respectable movement and persistently seeks to get rid of the image of a terrorist organization. The article reflects the official position of the Russian Federation toward “Jabhat al-Nusra”.
Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...
This presentation outlined natural gas purchasing strategies with particular reference to direct purchase agreements for multi-site, multi-tenant commercial properties. It included an overview of the commercial buyer, the importance of a direct purchase agreement, dealing with an agent, and the procurement process. Direct purchase gas agreements are used for multi-tenant dwellings where tenants pay a proportionate share of costs to heat the building with natural gas. These types of agreements optimize operating costs and offer price stability, thereby contributing to the marketability of the building. The issues that should be considered during the procurement process include: different risk profiles; terms of the contract; current market conditions; futures market; sale of property; acquisition of new properties; and, terms of property management
Meier Sørensen, Bent; Spoelstra, Sverre; Höpfl, Heather
of religious practices in organizations. Instead, theology of organization recognizes that the way we think about and act in organizations is profoundly structured by theological concepts. In this editorial to the special issue we have three aims: to outline what theology of organization is, to show how......This Introduction argues for the importance of theology for the study of organization. It also draws the contours of a possible ‘theology of organization’. Theology of organization, as we use it here, does not refer to a study of organization that is rooted in faith, nor does it refer to a study...... it builds upon Carl Schmitt’s ‘political theology’ and Giorgio Agamben’s ‘economic theology’ and finally to propose three different forms that theology of organization can take. These forms of theology of organization respectively (1) analyse organizational concepts as secularized theological concepts, (2...
Meyer, Renate E.; Höllerer, Markus A.; Jancsary, Dennis
With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized “visual mode” of discourse...... and meaning construction. Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda. After briefly exploring the workings of visuals, we...... introduce the methodological and theoretical “roots” of visual studies in a number of disciplines that have a long-standing tradition of incorporating the visual. We then continue by extensively reviewing work in the field of organization and management studies: More specifically, we present five distinct...
van Leeuwen, Theo; Meyer, Renate; Hollerer, Markus
With the unprecedented rise in the use of visuals, and its undeniable omnipresence in organizational contexts, as well as in the individual's everyday life, organization and management science has recently started to pay closer attention to the to date under-theorized "visual mode" of discourse...... and meaning constriction, Building primarily on insights from the phenomenological tradition in organization theory and from social semiotics, this article sets out to consolidate previous scholarly efforts and to sketch a fertile future research agenda, After briefly exploring the working of visuals, we...... introduce the methodological and theoretical roots of visual studies in a number of disciplines that have a long-standing tradition of incorporating the visual. We then continue by extensively reviewing work in the field of organization and management studies: More specifically, we present five distinct...
Full Text Available Sports organizations as "sui generis" organizations inevitably have to adopt the concept of marketing as a business philosophy, if you want to survive and develop its activities in the modern business environment. Supply and demand as the market, and psychological phenomena are inherent in sports organizations. Sport is a special area of human activity in which marketing has a specific place and role. Sports and sporting events are also a massive public and media events and high level of interest involving multi-million audience. Between direct and indirect participants of these events takes place appropriate communication sociological, psychological and marketing character. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility of more efficient operation of sports organizations using and adopting the marketing concept as a philosophy of action.
Seventeen papers, each processed separately cover the types of organic materials in radioactive wastes, their effect on repository performance and destruction of organics, including incineration, peroxide and wet oxidation and acid and biological digestion. (U.K.)
Christensen, Lars Thøger
The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott.......The article reviews the book "Understanding Identity and Organizations," by Kate Kenny, Andrea Whitle, and Hugh Wilmott....
This volume reviews the latest trends in organic optoelectronic materials. Each comprehensive chapter allows graduate students and newcomers to the field to grasp the basics, whilst also ensuring that they have the most up-to-date overview of the latest research. Topics include: organic conductors and semiconductors; conducting polymers and conjugated polymer semiconductors, as well as their applications in organic field-effect-transistors; organic light-emitting diodes; and organic photovoltaics and transparent conducting electrodes. The molecular structures, synthesis methods, physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of the organic optoelectronic materials are also introduced and described in detail. The authors also elucidate the structures and working mechanisms of organic optoelectronic devices and outline fundamental scientific problems and future research directions. This volume is invaluable to all those interested in organic optoelectronic materials.
Rougier, Nicolas,; Boniface, Yann
International audience; We present in this paper a variation of the self-organizing map algorithm where the original time-dependent (learning rate and neighborhood) learning function is replaced by a time-invariant one. The resulting self-organization does not fit the magnification law and the final vector density is not directly proportional to the density of the distribution. This lead us to introduce the notion of motivated self-organization where the self-organization is biased toward som...
Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm
This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....
Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.
Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…
Du, Shuili; Bartels, Jos; Reinders, Machiel; Sen, Sankar
Consumer demand for organic food and non-food products has been growing dramatically. This study examines organic consumption behavior from a social identification perspective. Focusing on the central role of organic consumer identification (OCI), or the extent to which individuals categorize
Kjærgård, Bente; Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit
The study focuses on the recent debate about what is, or what constitutes, organic farming and what is the right path for organic farming in the future. The study is based on a critical discourse analysis of the controversy about suspending the private standard for organic farming adopted by the ...
The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass
Radziwon, Michal Jędrzej; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Madsen, Morten
Recent forecasts for alternative energy generation predict emerging importance of supporting state of art photovoltaic solar cells with their organic equivalents. Despite their significantly lower efficiency, number of application niches are suitable for organic solar cells. This work reveals...... the principles of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells fabrication as well as summarises major differences in physics of their operation....
A Escolha da Seguradora para o Seguro Fiança Locatícia na Óptica dos Corretores de SegurosThe choice of the Insurance Company for the Insurance bail tenant on the view of the brokersLa Elección de la Compañía de Seguros para el Seguro Fianza de Arrendamiento en la Visión de los Agentes de Seguros
SILVA, Júlio César Bezerra da
Full Text Available RESUMOEsta pesquisa teve a finalidade de avaliar o processo decisório do corretor do seguro fiança locatícia, buscando conhecer alguns aspectos que influenciam a escolha deste profissional por uma seguradora para indicá-la aos seus clientes. Para isso, considerou-se num primeiro momento a opinião de 10 (dez das maiores corretoras que operam neste segmento no Brasil; opinião esta, coletada através de entrevistas, que geraram várias assertivas sobre o assunto. Com a determinação destas assertivas, desenvolvemos um questionário que foi aplicado em 112 corretores que operam com o seguro fiança locatícia no Brasil. Este questionário buscou medir a concordância dos demais corretores com relação às assertivas coletadas na primeira fase desta pesquisa. Na pesquisa bibliográfica realizada, apresentamos um modelo do comportamento de compra dos corretores de seguros, que se mostrou inteiramente relacionado às assertivas proporcionando assim um melhor entendimento a respeito do processo decisório destes intermediários. Com a aplicação do questionário, pudemos confirmar a importância dos itens relacionados na entrevista, e concluir que o corretor do seguro fiança locatícia, indica a seus clientes uma seguradora que além de proporcionar-lhe maiores receitas e trazer mais satisfação a seus clientes, também o reconheça como importante profissional, proporcione melhores condições de trabalho, seja mais eficiente nas suas operações e possua melhor qualidade nos seus serviços.ABSTRACTThis research had the purpose of evaluating broker’s decisive process of the insurance bail tenant, seeking to know some aspects that influence the choice of this professional by a insurer to indicate to their customers. For that, it considered in a first moment the opinion of 10 (ten of the largest brokers who operate in this segment in Brazil; the opinions were collected through interviews that generated several assertive about the subject
Scheuer, John Damm
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of the kind of understanding of organizing that is implied by design theories for project managers' understanding and organizing of design work. Five theories and their organizing consequences for project managers organizing of design work...... design theories. The selected theories of design thus represent different views on what design is, address different design areas and are based on different ontological and epistemological assumptions that influence their views on how design processes should be organized....
Rasmussen, Morten Bygvraa; Obel, Børge; Kallehave, Pernille
is an important driver in organizations and its impact and effect on organization design is critical. Development of organization design, structure, processes, and human skills and values are needed to create the sustainable organization for the future. This paper discusses the requirements to be a sustainable...... organization. Here we follow the Global Compact criteria. The consequences for processes, structure, and human skills and values are analyzed. In particular the analysis will investigate exploration and exploitation from a holistic perspective using the principles of requisite variety and information...
Recent developments on conjugated polymer based photovoltaic diodes and photoactive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs) are discussed. The photophysics of such devices is based on the photoinduced charge transfer from donor type semiconducting conjugated polymers onto acceptor type conjugated polymers or acceptor molecules such as Buckminsterfullerene, C 6 0. Potentially interesting applications include sensitization of the photoconductivity and photovoltaic phenomena as well as photoresponsive organic field effect transistors (photOFETs). Furthermore, organic polymeric/inorganic nanoparticle based 'hybrid' solar cells will be discussed. This talk gives an overview of materials' aspect, charge-transport, and device physics of organic diodes and field-effect transistors. Furthermore, due to the compatibility of carbon/hydrogen based organic semiconductors with organic biomolecules and living cells there can be a great opportunity to integrate such organic semiconductor devices (biOFETs) with the living organisms. In general the largely independent bio/lifesciences and information technology of today, can be thus bridged in an advanced cybernetic approach using organic semiconductor devices embedded in bio-lifesciences. This field of bio-organic electronic devices is proposed to be an important mission of organic semiconductor devices
Full Text Available Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.
Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.
Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty. PMID:23908807
Kahl, Johannes; Alborzi, Farnaz; Beck, Alexander
In 2007 EU Regulation (EC) 834/2007 introduced principles and criteria for organic food processing. These regulations have been analysed and discussed in several scientific publications and research project reports. Recently, organic food quality was described by principles, aspects and criteria....... These principles from organic agriculture were verified and adapted for organic food processing. Different levels for evaluation were suggested. In another document, underlying paradigms and consumer perception of organic food were reviewed against functional food, resulting in identifying integral product...... identity as the underlying paradigm and a holistic quality view connected to naturalness as consumers' perception of organic food quality. In a European study, the quality concept was applied to the organic food chain, resulting in a problem, namely that clear principles and related criteria were missing...
Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...
Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi
Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue
Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.
A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.
Bals, Lydia; Laiho, Aki; Laine, Jari
Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, Procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... is presented and results of a first case study discussed. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on Procurement organization, understanding the internal and internal contingency factors. From a theoretical perspective, it opens up insights that can be furthermore leveraged...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies provides the opportunity to consciously match organization to its...
branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate...
branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...... not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...
not only understand their distinct identity and their brands, but are also able to express these externally and internally. In order to thrive in an era of transparency and customer choice, the authors argue, organizations will have to be expressive. This book is intended for undergraduate and postgraduate......This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate...... branding on organizational structures and processes? How do organizations discover their identities? These are some of the vexing problems addressed in this book by a diverse international team of contributors. According to the authors, the future lies with "the expressive organization". Such organizations...
This is the first comprehensive textbook on the physical aspects of organic solids. All phenomena which are necessary in order to understand modern technical applications are being dealt with in a way which makes the concepts of the topics accessible for students. The chapters - from the basics, production and characterization of organic solids and layers to organic semiconductors, superconductors and opto-electronical applications - have been arranged in a logical and well thought-out order.
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.; Linder, Stefan
Austrian economics focuses on markets, but has much to say about organizations. In particular, Austrian insights on the structure of production, the heterogeneity and subjectivity of resources, the nature of uncertainty, the role of monetary calculation, and the function of the entrepreneur provide...... solid foundations for a distinctly Austrian theory of organizations. We review these insights, discuss recent literature on Austrian economics and the theory of the firm, and suggest new directions for developing and extending an Austrian approach to organizations....
Meyer, Renate; Leixnering, Stephan
and private sectors as well as the boundaries of single organizations. In addition, the complexity of the interlocking arrangements and relationships in this public organizational landscape has resulted in considerable governance problems with serious implications for coordination and policy coherence.......New public management-inspired reforms created numerous autonomous units with many different faces and labels. This variety of organizations and organizational forms precludes a straightforward definition of what constitutes a public sector organization and blurs the boundaries between the public...
This book is a significant step towards developing a body of management knowledge pertinent to the context of Library Information Science (LIS) and provides a succinct but deep account of management and information organizations. Management of Information Organizations presents a broad view of the information organizations and the nature of management in these organizations, and how information professionals are affected by such management systems. The book equips the reader with the knowledge that will enable them to develop a strong intellectual foundation relating to management and its mani
This book brings together leading organization scholars and business historians to examine the opportunities and challenges of incorporating historical research into the study of firms and markets. It examines the reasons for the growing interest in historically grounded research in management...... section, Sources and Methods, the contributors explicate historical methodologies within the context of other approaches to studying organizations and provide concrete suggestions for researchers in the field. The introduction places these issues within the broader context of developments in the fields...... of business history and organization studies, and orients readers to the ‘future of the past in management and organization studies.’...
Colour is inescapable. It fills and forms the world, shaping what can be felt and known, desired and expressed. It thus becomes social technology and organizational tool. At the same time, however, colour betrays, undermines and subverts the attempts to manage it. Based on an understanding...... of colour as aesthetic force and medium of transformation, the essay presents a montage of scenes that set up encounters with what colour does: how it affects organization, and how it is affected by organization; how it organizes what is given to perception, knowledge and organization itself, and how...
Sagan, C.; Thompson, W. R.; Khare, B. N.
Voyager discovered nine simple organic molecules in the atmosphere of Titan. Complex organic solids, called tholins, produced by irradiation of the simulated Titanian atmosphere, are consistent with measured properties of Titan from ultraviolet to microwave frequencies and are the likely main constituents of the observed red aerosols. The tholins contain many of the organic building blocks central to life on earth. At least 100-m, and possibly kms thicknesses of complex organics have been produced on Titan during the age of the solar system, and may exist today as submarine deposits beneath an extensive ocean of simple hydrocarbons.
Filling the gap in the literature currently available, this book presents an overview of our knowledge of the physics behind organic semiconductor devices. Contributions from 18 international research groups cover various aspects of this field, ranging from the growth of organic layers and crystals, their electronic properties at interfaces, their photophysics and electrical transport properties to the application of these materials in such different devices as organic field-effect transistors, photovoltaic cells and organic light-emitting diodes. From the contents:. * Excitation Dynamics in O
Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi
Research on Purchasing Organization is dominated by studies on centralization versus decentralization. While global sourcing relates to the integrated activities of purchasing and other functions in line with the company’s strategic objectives and while it has been put forward that hybrid...... organizations are on the rise, the exact ways in which companies employ hybrid organizations in this context have not been studied in further detail. By presenting a multi-year case study from 2010 to 2013 at a pharmaceutical company, we elaborate on the existing knowledge regarding hybrid organizations...
Doka, Kenneth J; Heflin-Wells, E Neil; Martin, Terry L; Redmond, Lula M; Schachter, Sherry R
This article explores, using Wilensky's Model of Professionalization, the emergence of professional organizations within the thanatology. The authors review the history of four organizations--The Foundation of Thanatology, Ars Moriendi, The Forum for Death Education and Counseling (now the Association for Death Education and Counseling: A Thanatology Organization [ADEC]), and The International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement (IWG). The authors speculate on some of the reasons that the first two failed while IWG and ADEC remain viable-while noting challenges that these remaining thanatological organizations will experience as they seek to continue to stay relevant.
Kledal, Paul Rye
The paper is based on research conducted for DARCOF II (Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, www.darcof.dk). The aim of the research project is to analyze the future development of the Danish organic food sector through focusing on two agro-commodities: vegetables and pork. Emphasis...... is placed on identification of economic forces within the supply chains. The main conclusions of the paper – being the results from the organic vegetable chain – are that the rules and regulations, and the development of alternative transaction processes in organic food and farming have so far been founded...
Matson, Eric; DeLoach, Scott
... capable of taking on problems that require self-organization, adaptation, and recovery. To capture and understand the concept of organization and reorganization, we must define organization transition...
Higgins, Christina; Ponte, Eva
This article explores the identities of a group of elementary teachers who participated in a professional development (PD) project on multilingual language learners. We study how the participating teachers drew on different aspects of their identities to respond to encouragement to increase their attention to students' diverse multilingual…
Most theoretical concerns regarding capabilities centre on the relationship between structure and agency. While there has been a lot of concentration on how agency is constructed, there is little work on now how agency may be recovered or expressed. Trends in both critical social theory and
Williams, Linda Meyer
Scientific investigations of the relationship between race and rape have been flawed by the acceptance of official statistics and have been influenced by prevailing myths about rape and race. This paper proposes a theoretical framework for understanding rape and race. The thesis is presented that only the black victim of sexual assault is viewed…
Kica, Evisa; Bowman, D.M.
In recent years, the development and the use of engineered nanomaterials have generated many debates on whether these materials should be part of the new or existing regulatory frameworks. The uncertainty, lack of scientific knowledge and rapid expansion of products containing nanomaterials have
Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.
The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong. PMID:8597690
Selman, Jr, John T
.... These transitions were hastened by nonviolent civil disobedience. Although nonviolent civil disobedience is a common form of political action throughout the world, many political observers do not understand its nature and often underestimate its effect...
Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.
The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.
Bisenieks, Alan D
.... Terrorism cannot be solved with military assets alone. The Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) has forced operational commanders to tackle a problem requiring extensive cooperation throughout government agencies...
Pittarello, Andrea; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Motro, Daphna
Across four experiments, we show that when people can serve their self-interest, they are more likely to refrain from reporting the truth ( lie of omission) than actively lie ( lie of commission). We developed a novel online "Heads or Tails" task in which participants can lie to win a monetary
Jorge Eduardo Rulli
Full Text Available The weakness of liberalism, the mirage of development, the new imperial units for Latin America and the role of the left are part of a necessary reflection. The article proposes a signaling point of the core issues of social structure that left extractivism in our region. The weakness of liberalism, the mirage of development, the new imperial units for Latin America and the role of the left are part of a necessary reflection.
identify how levels of inclusivity affect the viability of the peace process in South Sudan;; examine the extent to which formal and informal political institutions that are part of the CPA process were inclusive in their creation and evolution;; examine the relationship between the inclusivity of formal and informal political ...
Anmeldelse af: Tea Sindbæk: Usable History? Representations of Yugoslavia’s difϔicult past from 1945 to 2002, Aarhus University Press 2013.......Anmeldelse af: Tea Sindbæk: Usable History? Representations of Yugoslavia’s difϔicult past from 1945 to 2002, Aarhus University Press 2013....
We use the term “eboliticization” to describe the various ideologically mediated discourses constructed by individuals ..... out the name of God, this country has long had a history of utmost charity, giving money and charity to help others, even .... The only thing Dems really care about is. Gay rights, gay marriage and abortion.
Glasser, Theodore L.; Ettema, James S.
Investigative journalists long have had an adversarial relationship with powerful institutions and those in public office, stemming from the "righteously indignant" reporters of the early nineteenth century penny presses who guarded the interests of the public. Currently, investigative journalists are in a difficult position if they have…
African Sociological Review / Revue Africaine de Sociologie. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2000) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
This mechanism of transformation is perceptible in Paul Lomami Tchibamba's novel Ngando (1948), the object of this study. Ngando's imagined colonial city stands out as a site of contrasts and contradictions. However, the duplicated model shows the “transformability” of the new space into “normalcy” by a subversive native
Sørensen, Camilla T. N.
Thanks to Beijing’s expanding global role and interests, it is no longer possible for China to follow its traditional ‘lay low’ [tao guang yang hui] strategy and the traditionally rather strict interpretation of the principle of non-intervention. Consequently, among Chinese International Relations...
population in solidarity and indicated to General Pinochet that he could no longer rule through fear.24 Bell ringing visibly shaped solidarity for the...dictator Augusto Pinochet , have resorted to torture, incarceration, and mass murder but, they, nevertheless, were defeated by non-violent groups of...government’s brutality. General Pinochet of Chile was brutal, but toppled. Nonviolent leaders were assassinated in South Africa yet the nonviolent
Using textual analysis and interviews with student writers, this study aims to provide an insight into second language students' use of direct quotations in their MA theses by comparing direct quotations in high-rated and low-rated Master's theses, and by exploring student writers' own motivations to quote directly from sources. The corpus…
Aoki, Ted T.
Contrasts the instrumental character of traditional curriculum plans with the retextured curricular landscape inhabited by a hypothetical fifth-grade teacher struggling to help individual students learn. The idea is to teach science as a humanity, so that a privileged technoscientific mindset can be demystified and the multiplicity of human…
The question is discussed by several contributions by different authors put together for this issue of 'et', and the aspects under review range from public acceptance of technology in general to the role of scientists in making their view of technology, and nuclear technology in particular, understandable. The discussion elaborates the subject from the technical and political point of view and from the point of view of theology and ethics. (UA) [de
Before WWII science was largely dependent on support through teaching, and a few foundations. In the last half century, thanks to the contribution of applied science to winning the second world war, government became a deep-pockets source of support for science. While many academic scientists were deeply suspicious of government as a sponsor, the research universities saw an opportunity to build their institutions around government support. Government saw science as a means for sustaining its military primacy. Thus a marriage was consummated by partners -- science and politics -- who needed each other, but for quite different and to some degree conflicting motives. In the U.S. democracy, the relationship between science and politics has never been easy. The search for truth in science and for legitimacy in politics both require systems for generating public trust, but these systems are not the same, and indeed they are often incompatible. The most profound area of mismatch between science and politics is found not in conflicts over what kinds of research are deserving of public funding, but rather in conflicts over the advice government receives from scientific and technical experts. It is no accident that democratic America fostered progress in science and technology. Both American democracy and modern science are products of the Enlightenment, with its emphasis on reason and openness rather than on prejudice and traditional authority. American democracy has always benefited from a pragmatic willingness to learn from experience, very much as science relies on experiment. Progress in science is based transparency and accountability; these are also basic principles of democratic government. If science is corrupted by government, government itself is in danger of becoming corrupt. In recent years we seemed to be going down that path. It is no accident that President Obama and media commentators speak often of the ``new pragmatism,'' or that he appointed exceptionally well-qualified scientists to top posts in his government. Both democracy and science stand to benefit enormously when our political leaders understand that the ethos of science and ethics of democracy have common roots.
Working within the tenets of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and insights from Stanley Cohen's sociological concept of Moral Panic (MP), this study examined the motivations behind some of the online reactions to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. News of the outbreak of the dreaded disease in some countries like ...
To widen the concept of justificatory rhetoric (which has previously been considered as a presidential rhetorical form delivered in a context of foreign policy emergency) and to show some of its inherent hazards, this paper analyzes a 1978 address by Governor James Hunt of North Carolina, in which he justified his decision not to pardon the…
Jun 2, 2016 ... as the author, publishers, printers, promoters, and distributors. Pamphlet publishing became a lucrative industry especially in the 1960s. The printing of the pamphlets which originally began in Onitsha later spread to several parts of the country like Aba, Port Harcourt, Enugu, and even parts of the defunct ...
Juliana Correa Bernardes
Full Text Available Through contemporary analysis, it was noted that the countryside of São Paulo experienced drastic transformation and demanded rural family farmers to adapt themselves to technological innovations, where the most striking is the use of the internet in search of information to the sustainable development of rural property. The research adopted a methodological way of exploratory, through the case study, which analyzed the general objective the dissemination and usability of information and communication technologies in rural areas in the interior of forms-based applied to farmers in the family farms belonging to theAssociation of banana growers of Tupã. In seeking to achieve this goal, reflected on the use of internet in rural areas and measured-factors that enhance digital communication barriers in rural addressing the digital divide becomes a limiting factor to access. In this sense, the rural communication emerges as relational link mediating solutions and incorporating the diffusion of innovations in the pursuit of digital literacy of farmers contributing to the democratization of society in the information age.
responses to it motivated discourses that are political, religious and racist in orientation. Internet postings on the disease reveal real or imaginary activation of what Charteris-. Black calls “culturally based schema of what constitutes sources of fear and forms of social menace” (2005, p. 24). Thus the socio-political perception ...
IPD , Si,KRj ). The router writes the capability in the client’s connection request packet (e.g., TCP - SYN ) to the server. Thus, a router issues an...acknowledgement (e.g., TCP - SYN /ACK). In Fig. 1, the flow identifier fi at Rj is the capability Cj since Cj can only be authenticated by the Rj . These capabilities...access in flooding attacks. A. Token-Bucket Model Revisited We first review the standard TCP congestion-control mech- anism and the aggregate traffic
Reflexões sobre o processo histórico-discursivo do uso da legítima defesa da honra no Brasil e a construção das mulheres Reflections on the historical-discursive process of the use of the legitimate defence of honour in Brazil and the construction of women
Margarita Danielle Ramos
Full Text Available O presente artigo busca compreender, à luz da teoria de gênero, como, ainda hoje, nos julgamentos de assassinatos de mulheres a prerrogativa da legítima defesa da honra tem sido usada na defesa do réu como tentativa de reversão da pena de homicídio qualificado. Para tanto, fizemos um estudo dos códigos da legislação vigente no Brasil relacionados ao tema de nosso trabalho desde o período colonial até os dias de hoje. O trabalho procura mostrar como o assassinato das mulheres é o final de uma rede de violações contra elas que tem seu início na forma como as mulheres são produzidas pelo discurso.This work uses a gender perspective to analyse the discourse in six documents in the jurisprudence of Minas Gerais. The objective is to understand how lawyers appeal until the present date to the legitimate defence of honour in trials of men who have killed a woman in order to avoid punishment for their crime. The analysis is based on two sets of studies: the study of the legislation concerning the concept of honour since the colonial period in Brazil and the study of the struggle that the Brazilian feminist movement has undertaken to remove violence against women from the private sphere and turn it into gender violence. The work attempts to show that the murder of women is the final step in a chain of violations against women, which begins in the devalued way that women are produced in discourse.
Consumo y dinero: transacciones legítimas, acuerdos y conflictos interpersonales en un programa de microcréditos Consumo e dinheiro: transações legítimas, acordos e conflitos interpessoais em um programa de microcrédito Consumption and money: legitimate transactions, agreements and interpersonal conflicts in a microcredit program
Full Text Available El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la producción de transacciones legítimas en una política social de microcrédito e indagar en la generación de acuerdos y conflictos interpersonales relacionados con las transacciones. Adoptamos un enfoque eminentemente etnográfico y nos centramos en los sentidos que los actores le otorgan al uso y a la asignación de dinero, enfatizando en la creación y expresión de las deudas así como en las obligaciones tanto "económicas" como "no económicas".Este artigo pretende analisar a produção de transações legítimas em uma política social de microcrédito e abordar a criação de acordos e conflitos interpessoais relacionados a essas transacções. Adotando uma abordagem eminentemente etnográfica, nos centraremos nos sentidos que os atores atribuem ao uso e alocação de dinheiro enfatizando a análise dos modos em que as dívidas são criadas e expressas, como também as obrigações tanto "econômicas" como "não econômicas".The objective of this paper is to analyze the production of legitimate transactions in a microcredit policy and to explore the creation of interpersonal agreements and conflicts related to these transactions. Based on an ethnographic approach, the paper focuses on the meanings that actors give to the allocation of money, emphasizing the creation as well as the expression of both 'economic' and 'non-economic' debts and obligations.
This text challenges beliefs about organizational identity, reputation, and branding. It contains a wealth of new ideas for finding the elusive answers to questions troubling contemporary organizations. How does an organization create a strong reputation? What are the implications of corporate br...... students of management, business strategy, accounting, marketing, and communication studies; MBA students; Managers and consultants....
Lekanne Deprez, F.R.E.; Tissen, R.J.
This paper addresses the spatial design of modern organizations in the context of a fundamental change which is currently taking place in the way companies view their organizations and the inherent performance expectations, requirements and results underlying these. This change involves a managerial
Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo
The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...
Brunner, David James
Organizing refers to methods of distributing physical and symbolic tasks among multiple agents in order to achieve goals. My dissertation investigates the dynamics of organizing in hybrid information processing systems that incorporate both humans and computers. To explain the behavior of these hybrid systems, I develop and partially test a theory…
Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey
in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies and their relation to specific structural dimensions that can be chosen...
However, there are so many chemical reactions notably in organic chemistry where reactions may not directly lead to products. ... There are concepts that support these ideas but can they be proven to the ... Reaction mechanism is one such issue in organic chemistry that has attracted a lot of controversial comments from ...
Scirotino, P. T.; Madden, Denis
Malfunctioning organizations do not facilitate the accomplishment of the purposes of their members in a number of ways and for a number of reasons. This paper used Maslow's hierarchy of needs model in an attempt to describe one view of that malfunction. Leadership is examined briefly as a functioning organization's facilitating arrangement.…
Velazquez, Luis E.; Esquer, Javier; Munguia, Nora E.; Moure-Eraso, Rafael
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to debate how companies may better become a sustainable learning organization by offering the most used and insightful concepts of sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: Through literature review, learning organization and sustainability perspectives are explored and compared. Findings: Learning…
Gentry, Sommer E; Chow, Eric K H; Massie, Allan; Luo, Xun; Zaun, David; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K; Kasiske, Bert; Segev, Dorry L
Whether the liver allocation system shifts organs from better performing organ procurement organizations (OPOs) to poorer performing OPOs has been debated for many years. Models of OPO performance from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients make it possible to study this question in a data-driven manner. We investigated whether each OPO's net liver import was correlated with 2 performance metrics [observed to expected (O:E) liver yield and liver donor conversion ratio] as well as 2 alternative explanations [eligible deaths and incident listings above a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 15]. We found no evidence to support the hypothesis that the allocation system transfers livers from better performing OPOs to centers with poorer performing OPOs. Also, having fewer eligible deaths was not associated with a net import. However, having more incident listings was strongly correlated with the net import, both before and after Share 35. Most importantly, the magnitude of the variation in OPO performance was much lower than the variation in demand: although the poorest performing OPOs differed from the best ones by less than 2-fold in the O:E liver yield, incident listings above a MELD score of 15 varied nearly 14-fold. Although it is imperative that all OPOs achieve the best possible results, the flow of livers is not explained by OPO performance metrics, and instead, it appears to be strongly related to differences in demand. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
Bals, Lydia; Laine, Jari; Mugurusi, Godfrey
Procurement has to find further levers and advance its contribution to corporate goals continuously. This places pressure on its organization in order to facilitate its performance. Therefore, procurement organizations constantly have to evolve in order to match these demands. A conceptual model...... putting the structural elements in focus is derived from the analysis of two case companies, which extends the existing literature and opens new avenues for future research. The findings highlight the importance of taking a contingency perspective on procurement organization, understanding the internal...... in future studies in the fields of hybrid procurement organizations, global sourcing organizations as well as international procurement offices (IPOs). From a practical standpoint, an assessment of external and internal contingencies and their relation to specific structural dimensions that can be chosen...
Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang
originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect......Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...
Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping
Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.
Full Text Available The paper discusses public opinion on post-mortem organ donation, especially the difference between high support of public opinion to transplant activity, its general readiness to donate organs and the low number of signed organ donor cards. Through different approaches the article tries to point out possible factors relevant to the decision to donate organs. Early studies showed demographic variables and information as significant factors when deciding to donate organs after death. As there was not enough evidence that long-term effect through these factors is significant, the need for new investigation has grown. Social cognition theories helped understanding the difference mentioned above. It seems that the use of this approach might contribute to the understanding the problem and to delimit most useful factors when working with public.
Hayashi, T.; Sato, T.
The primary purpose of this paper is to extract a grand view of self-organization through an extensive computer simulation of plasmas. The assertion is made that self-organization is governed by three key processes, i.e. the existence of an open complex system, the existence of information (energy) sources and the existence of entropy generation and expulsion processes. We find that self-organization takes place in an intermittent fashion when energy is supplied continuously from outside. In contrast, when the system state is suddenly changed into a non-equilibrium state externally, the system evolves stepwise and reaches a minimum energy state. We also find that the entropy production rate is maximized whenever a new ordered structure is created and that if the entropy generated during the self-organizing process is expelled from the system, then the self-organized structure becomes more prominent and clear. (author)
Zetas employ thousands of people that range in age from young kids playing in the street to older citizens, whose jobs vary from white collar ...favor legitimately buying vehicles or renting houses instead of stealing or committing crimes that would cause bystanders to call the police.208...drugs from the supply chain, little significance of that 4 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
Organizing is such a common activity that we often do it without thinking much about it. In our daily lives we organize physical things--books on shelves, cutlery in kitchen drawers--and digital things--Web pages, MP3 files, scientific datasets. Millions of people create and browse Web sites, blog, tag, tweet, and upload and download content of all media types without thinking "I'm organizing now" or "I'm retrieving now." This book offers a framework for the theory and practice of organizing that integrates information organization (IO) and information retrieval (IR), bridging the disciplinary chasms between Library and Information Science and Computer Science, each of which views and teaches IO and IR as separate topics and in substantially different ways. It introduces the unifying concept of an Organizing System--an intentionally arranged collection of resources and the interactions they support--and then explains the key concepts and challenges in the design and deployment of Organizing Systems in many do...
The British government has printed 10 million organ donor cards--as well as posters, car stickers, and leaflets--for distribution in a campaign to increase the number of organ transplants in the United Kingdom. Norman Fowler, Secretary of State for Social Services, suggested at a February 22, 1984, press conference that signing of donor cards might become a family occasion, so that all concerned would know of a person's wishes in the event of sudden death. He made it clear that the government has no plans to introduce a system of presumed consent for organ donation. Mr. Fowler also announced a commitment of additional government funds for renal services.
Felin, Teppo; Foss, Nicolai Juul
Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management and organ......Making links between micro and macro levels has been problematic in the social sciences, and the literature in strategic management and organization theory is no exception The purpose of this chapter is to raise theoretical issues in developing micro-foundations for strategic management...
This paper introduces the term 'anchoring' within systems development: Visions, developed through early systems design within an organization, need to be deeply rooted in the organization. A vision's rationale needs to be understood by those who decide if the vision should be implemented as well...... as by those involved in the actual implementation. A model depicting a recent trend within systems development is presented: Organizations rely on purchasing generic software products and/or software development outsourced to external contractors. A contemporary method for participatory design, where...
Tanasawa, Ichiro; Nagata, Shinichi; Kimura, Naohiro
Cryopreservation is considered to be the most promising way of preserving living organs or tissues for a long period of time without casuing any damage to their biological functions. However, cryopreservation has been succeeded only for simple and small-size tissues such as spermatozoon, ovum, erythrocyte, bone marrow and cornea. Cryopreservation of more complex and large-scale organs are not yet succssful. The authors have attempted to establish a technique for cryopreservation of larger living organs. An experiment was carried out using daphnia (water flea). The optimum rates of freezing and thawing were determined together with the optimum selection of cryoprotectant. High recovery rate was achieved under these conditions.
A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 40 are included in Volume I. A number of papers deal with the behaviour and functions of organic matter and make a contribution to increasing agricultural production by proposing improved management practices. Other papers discuss turnover of plant residues, release of plant nutrients through biodegradation of organic compounds, and nitrogen economy and the dynamics of transformation of organic forms of nitrogen. Separate entries have been prepared for those 8 papers which discuss the use of tracer techniques in soil studies
Vogl, C. R.; Heß, J.
During the present decade, Austria has experienced a dramatic increase in organic farming among those countries that comprise the European Union (EU). For example, in 1992, approximately 2,000 farms were practicing organic, ecological, or biodynamic farming methodes. By 1997 the number of certified organic farms plus those in transition from conventional farming had increased 10-fold to some 20,000 farms. This represents almost 9% of the total farms in Austria and an area of 345,375 ha, or 10...
This handy reference is the first comprehensive book covering both fundamentals and recent developments in the field with an emphasis on nanotechnology. Written by a highly regarded author in the field, the book details state-of-the-art preparation, characterization and applications of thin films of organic molecules and biomaterials fabricated by wet processes and also highlights applications in nanotechnology The categories of films covered include monomolecular films (monolayers) both on a water surface and on a solid plate, Langmuir-Blodgett films (transferred multilayer films on a solid plate from a water surface), layer-by-layer films (adsorbed multilayer films on a solid support), and spontaneously assembled films in solution.
Archpriest Alexander Zadornov
Full Text Available The coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles in the structure of ecclesiastical organizations is a well known fact in church history. Both principles are equally legitimate from the point of view of canonical law. The “ethnic principle” was based on legal norms of the so-called 34th Apostolic Rule, and contrary to the opinion of scholars of the 19th century, it was still in use after the era of the Ecumenical Councils. This fact must be considered by students of the history of Church organizations in the First Bulgarian Kingdom, too. The observations regarding the structure of church organizations in Simeonic Bulgaria make it possible to assume the coexistence of ethnic and territorial principles of church organizations in his kingdom. As is known, Slavonic church schools were established in the southwestern part of the First Bulgarian Kingdom after 886. They were aimed at training the Slavonic clergy for the Slavonic church organization. In 893, the Bulgarian King Simeon was elevated to the throne, and a Slavonic eparchy headed by St. Clement of Ohrid was established in the southwestern territories of the First Bulgarian Kingdom. As a result, heterogeneous church organizations were established in the region, and church structures of ethnic and territorial types appeared. They differ from each other by the language of their church services. Old Church Slavonic must have been used as a liturgical language in the ethnic Slavonic eparchy. Since direct historical evidence for such heterogeneous church structure in the First Bulgarian Kingdom is absent, new interpretations of sources made on the basis of canonical law can be of importance for Slavonic studies.
Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.
Nami, Mohammad Reza
The need to remain competitive in the open market forces companies to concentrate on their core competencies while searching for alliances when additional skills or resources are needed to fulfill business opportunities. The changing business situation of companies and customer needs have motivated researchers to introduce Virtual Organization (VO) idea. A Virtual Organization is always a form of partnership and managing partners and handling partnerships are crucial. Virtual organizations are defined as a temporary collection of enterprises that cooperate and share resources, knowledge, and competencies to better respond to business opportunities. This paper presents base concepts of virtual organizations including properties, management concepts, operational concepts, and main issues in collaboration such as security and authentication.
... the Treatment Options for Pelvic Organ Prolapse? After obtaining a detailed medical history and completing a thorough ... Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888-INFO-FDA (1- ...
Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl
Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100 nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-μm structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.
Balzer, Frank; Schiek, Manuela; Osadnik, Andreas
Organic semiconductors formed by epitaxial growth from small molecules such as the para-phenylenes or squaraines promise a vast application potential as the active ingredient in electric and optoelectronic devices. Their self-organization into organic nanowires or "nanofibers" adds a peculiar...... attribute, making them especially interesting for light generation in OLEDs and for light-harvesting devices such as solar cells. Functionalization of the molecules allows the customization of optical and electrical properties. However, aging of the wires might lead to a considerable decrease in device...... performance over time. In this study the morphological stability of organic nanoclusters and nanowires from the methoxy functionalized quaterphenylene, 4,4'''dimethoxy-1,1':4',1''4'',1'''-quaterphenylene (MOP4), is investigated in detail. Aging experiments conducted by atomic force microscopy under ambient...
Many professionals prefer to work in nonprofit organizations, rather than in either for-profit or bureaucratic organizations. This preference suggests that nonprofits may be successful in reducing the tension between professional principles and institutional requirements. Professionals in for-profit organizations must submit to the control of a manager who is motivated to overrule them whenever their decisions come into conflict with the goal of profit maximization. Bureaucratic organizations stress predictability of results and adherence to rules as the overriding criteria of evaluation and control. This paper argues that nonprofits are on the whole superior from the point of view of professional ideology and practice. Thus, given a commitment to the values of professionalism, the preference for the nonprofit form becomes understandable, even without the usual assumptions about income-maximizing behavior.
This paper summarises the processes for the treatment of organic matter in radioactive waste. Pyrolysis, incineration, and digestion, wet oxidation, immobilisation, alkaline hydrolysis and cementation are compared and evaluated. (U.K.)
Campylobacter jejuni infection causes cramping, diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days after a person has been exposed to the organism. Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common bacterial ...
It is a fundamental challenge for organizational theory to understand and explain how organizations work: what drives processes of organizational learning and change, and how is coordinated action brought about in organizations? It is well recognized that organizational theory rests...... on – or implicitly presumes – fundamental philosophical assumptions. Organizational theories are based on ontological and epistemological assumptions about what an organization is, how actors act and learn in organizational settings, and how researchers can come to know about organizational phenomena. But it is less...... recognized that organizational theory also presumes and express ethical and normative perspectives on organizations. This is also the case in the new branch of organizational theory that has been developed with an inspiration from theories of practice (e.g. Schatzki 2005, 2006; Nicolini 2013; Gherardi 2015...
Rivnay, Jonathan; Inal, Sahika; Salleo, Alberto; Owens, Róisín M.; Berggren, Magnus; Malliaras, George G.
Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) make effective use of ion injection from an electrolyte to modulate the bulk conductivity of an organic semiconductor channel. The coupling between ionic and electronic charges within the entire volume of the channel endows OECTs with high transconductance compared with that of field-effect transistors, but also limits their response time. The synthetic tunability, facile deposition and biocompatibility of organic materials make OECTs particularly suitable for applications in biological interfacing, printed logic circuitry and neuromorphic devices. In this Review, we discuss the physics and the mechanism of operation of OECTs, focusing on their identifying characteristics. We highlight organic materials that are currently being used in OECTs and survey the history of OECT technology. In addition, form factors, fabrication technologies and applications such as bioelectronics, circuits and memory devices are examined. Finally, we take a critical look at the future of OECT research and development.
Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.
Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)
Astronomical observations, theoretical modeling, laboratory simulation and analysis of extraterrestrial material have enhanced our knowledge of the inventory of organic matter in the interstellar medium (ISM) and on small bodies such as comets and asteroids (Ehrenfreund & Charnley 2000). Comets, asteroids and their fragments, meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), contributed significant amounts of extraterrestrial organic matter to the young Earth. This material degraded and reacted in a terrestrial prebiotic chemistry to form organic structures that may have served as building blocks for life on the early Earth. In this talk I will summarize our current understanding of the organic composition and chemistry of interstellar clouds. Molecules of astrobiological relevance include the building blocks of our genetic material: nucleic acids, composed of subunits such as N-heterocycles (purines and pyrimidines), sugars and amino acids. Signatures indicative of inheritance of pristine and modified interstellar material in comets and meteorites will also be discussed.
Civil servants conduct the work which makes welfare states functions on an everyday bases: Police men police, school teachers teach, and tax inspectors inspect. Focus in this paper is on the core tasks of tax inspectors. The paper argues that their core task of securing the collection of revenue...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...... has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...
Gabriel, Yiannis; Griffiths, Dorothy S.
Although organizations are attempting to harness emotional intelligence, social constructivist and psychoanalytic perspectives suggest that this is problematic. Emotions deriving from deep unconscious sources (e.g., anxiety) may be impervious to learning. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)
Raja, Jawwad; Chakkol, Mehmet; Johnson, Mark
Purpose: Research suggests that to structure for servitization, organizations should separate their front- and back-end units by reference to high vs low contact activities. However, these prescriptions are overly simplistic and largely based on anecdotal evidence that fails to account for context....... The purpose of this paper is to explore the design decisions taken by organizations in support of servitization. Design/methodology/approach: A large-scale exploratory case study was conducted, consisting of embedded cases in three divisions of a UK-based, global manufacturing firm. Findings: Each division...... an organization are not possible. The findings show that underlying contextual factors, such as the complexity and temporality of the offering, as well as the power of the customer, have implications for the structuring of servitizing organizations. Research limitations/implications: This is a context...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — It is a compilation of organism concentrations of 16 sampling events conducted between July 2015 and February 2016. It also includes statistical analysis such as...
Turkulainen, Virpi; Bals, Lydia
Outsourcing remains one of the most prevalent business practices. Still, many businesses fail to realize the benefits anticipated from their outsourcing initiative. Research reports that one major reason for these outsourcing challenges are in the design of the focal organization. In this paper, we...... take an organization design view to outsourcing and elaborate on the organizational design implications for outsourcing. We present a multi-year case study from 2010 to 2013 of a global chemical and pharmaceutical company (GCC), which went through an organization redesign and subsequently successfully...... outsourced some organizational tasks. Specifically, we take the case of the Purchasing & Supply Management (PSM) function to illustrate how an activity-based organization design can facilitate outsourcing of some parts of the PSM function....
J. van Cleeff; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden
Purpose: to explore and demonstrate the effects of organizational culture on projects, in particular project culture and project management style. Methodology/approach: descriptive and explorative; through students’ groups. Findings: the cultural relationship between organizations, their projects
... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... Nursing Care of the Renal Transplant Recipient." UNOS Donation and Transplantation Nursing Curriculum . 1996 This Web site is intended ...
Balzer, F.; Schiek, M.; Wallmann, I.
atomic force microscopy (AFM). Aging experiments under ambient conditions already show substantial morphological changes. Nanoscopic organic clusters, which initially coexist with the nanowires, vanish within hours. Thermal annealing of nanowire samples leads to even more pronounced morphology changes...
Kambic, Helen E.; And Others
Biomaterials are substances or combinations of substances that can be used in a system that treats, augments, or replaces any tissue, organ, or body function. The nature and role of these substances, particularly in the cadiovascular system, are discussed. (JN)
Nunan, Naoise; Lerch, Thomas; Pouteau, Valérie; Mora, Philippe; Changey, Fréderique; Kätterer, Thomas; Herrmann, Anke
Bare fallow soils that have been deprived of fresh carbon inputs for prolonged periods contain mostly old, stable organic carbon. In order to shed light on the nature of this carbon, the functional diversity profiles (MicroResp™, Biolog™ and enzyme activity spectra) of the microbial communities of long-term barefallow soils were analysed and compared with those of the microbial communities from their cultivated counterparts. The study was based on the idea that microbial communities adapt to their environment and that therefore the catabolic and enzymatic profiles would reflect the type of substrates available to the microbial communities. The catabolic profiles suggested that the microbial communities in the long-term bare-fallow soil were exposed to a less diverse range of substrates and that these substrates tended to be of simpler molecular forms. Both the catabolic and enzyme activity profiles suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were less adapted to using polymers. These results do not fit with the traditional view of old, stable carbon being composed of complex, recalcitrant polymers. An energetics analysis of the substrate use of the microbial communities for the different soils suggested that the microbial communities from the long-term bare-fallow soils were better adapted to using readily oxidizable,although energetically less rewarding, substrates. Microbial communities appear to adapt to the deprivation of fresh organic matter by using substrates that require little investment.
Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.
The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...
McCamey, Dane; Boehme, Christoph
An organic, spin-dependent magnetic field sensor (10) includes an active stack (12) having an organic material with a spin-dependence. The sensor (10) also includes a back electrical contact (14) electrically coupled to a back of the active stack (12) and a front electrical contact (16) electrically coupled to a front of the active stack (12). A magnetic field generator (18) is oriented so as to provide an oscillating magnetic field which penetrates the active stack (12).
Alina Maria ANDRIES
Emotions management in organizations is meant to habilitate the employees in administrating the emotional resources aiming at the correct adaptation to the organizational environment and the necessities in the work activity. The study of emotions in organizations has the purpose to know and optimize the employees’ emotional condition. The efficient leaders are interested in administrating the emotions, being aware of and capable to revaluate the factors which positively activate the employees...
Mun, Seok Sik
This book deals with organic chemistry experiments, it is divided five chapters, which have introduction, the way to write the experiment report and safety in the laboratory, basic experiment technic like recrystallization and extraction, a lot of organic chemistry experiments such as fischer esterification, ester hydrolysis, electrophilic aromatic substitution, aldol reaction, benzoin condensation, wittig reaction grignard reaction, epoxidation reaction and selective reduction. The last chapter introduces chemistry site on the internet and way to find out reference on chemistry.
Most of the interstellar organic molecules have been found in the large radio source Sagittarius B2 toward the galactic center, and in such regions as W51 and the IR source in the Orion nebula. Questions of the reliability of molecular identifications are discussed together with aspects of organic synthesis in condensing clouds, degradational origin, synthesis on grains, UV natural selection, interstellar biology, and contributions to planetary biology.
This article discusses the highly controversial question whether human organs should be allowed to be the object of a contract aimed at profit. The author comes to the conclusion that--seen from a consequentialist viewpoint--the legislature is not well-advised to allow organ donations for consideration. However, it is admitted that a more deontological approach could come to quite the opposite conclusion.
Nugent, Jennifer L.
Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
"Why can't I give you my organs after my heart has stopped beating?" An overview of the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues concerning organ donation after circulatory death in Italy.
Giannini, Alberto; Abelli, Massimo; Azzoni, Giampaolo; Biancofiore, Gianni; Citterio, Franco; Geraci, Paolo; Latronico, Nicola; Picozzi, Mario; Procaccio, Francesco; Riccioni, Luigi; Rigotti, Paolo; Valenza, Franco; Vesconi, Sergio; Zamperetti, Nereo
Donation after circulatory death (DCD) is a valuable option for the procurement of functioning organs for transplantation. Clinical results are promising and public acceptance is quite good in most western countries. Yet, although DCD is widespread in Europe, several problems still persist in Italy as well as in some other countries. This paper aims to describe the main clinical, organisational, ethical and legal issues at stake, bearing in mind the particular situation created by Italian legislation. Currently, as regards DCD, Italy is somewhat different from other countries. Therefore, every effort should be made for the safe and effective implementation of DCD programs: uncontrolled DCD programs should be promoted and encouraged, within the framework of shared and authoritative rules. At the same time, we need to tackle the question of controlled DCD, promoting debate among all involved subjects regarding the fundamental issues of end-of-life care within protocols that best integrate the highest standard of care for the dying and the legitimate interests of those awaiting a life-saving organ.
Löffler, S; Melican, K; Nilsson, K P R; Richter-Dahlfors, A
A major challenge in the growing field of bioelectronic medicine is the development of tissue interface technologies promoting device integration with biological tissues. Materials based on organic bioelectronics show great promise due to a unique combination of electronic and ionic conductivity properties. In this review, we outline exciting developments in the field of organic bioelectronics and demonstrate the medical importance of these active, electronically controllable materials. Importantly, organic bioelectronics offer a means to control cell-surface attachment as required for many device-tissue applications. Experiments have shown that cells readily attach and proliferate on reduced but not oxidized organic bioelectronic materials. In another application, the active properties of organic bioelectronics were used to develop electronically triggered systems for drug release. After incorporating drugs by advanced loading strategies, small compound drugs were released upon electrochemical trigger, independent of charge. Another type of delivery device was used to achieve well-controlled, spatiotemporal delivery of cationic drugs. Via electrophoretic transport within a polymer, cations were delivered with single-cell precision. Finally, organic bioelectronic materials are commonly used as electrode coatings improving the electrical properties of recording and stimulation electrodes. Because such coatings drastically reduce the electrode impedance, smaller electrodes with improved signal-to-noise ratio can be fabricated. Thus, rapid technological advancement combined with the creation of tiny electronic devices reacting to changes in the tissue environment helps to promote the transition from standard pharmaceutical therapy to treatment based on 'electroceuticals'. Moreover, the widening repertoire of organic bioelectronics will expand the options for true biological interfaces, providing the basis for personalized bioelectronic medicine. © 2017 The
Olden, Peter C
Managers at all levels in a health care organization must organize work to achieve the organization's mission and goals. This requires managers to decide the organization structure, which involves dividing the work among jobs and departments and then coordinating them all toward the common purpose. Organization structure, which is reflected in an organization chart, may range on a continuum from very mechanistic to very organic. Managers must decide how mechanistic versus how organic to make the entire organization and each of its departments. To do this, managers should carefully consider 5 factors for the organization and for each individual department: external environment, goals, work production, size, and culture. Some factors may push toward more mechanistic structure, whereas others may push in the opposite direction toward more organic structure. Practical advice can help managers at all levels design appropriate structure for their departments and organization.
Hu, Yimei; Sørensen, Olav Jull
that there are different logical considerations when designing a network organization to facilitate innovation. I identify three types of network organizations: market-led, directed and culture-led network organizations. Different types of network organizations show that organizations are dual and even ternary systems...
Full Text Available Organic agriculture, or at least its basic principles, was introduced, as an idea, in the world in the beginning of the 20th century and has been present since. Today's principles of organic agriculture were established in 1972 by founding the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFAOM. The aim of this study was to analyse concept, idea and basic principles of organic agriculture as to give an answer why does it provide chances for the development of agriculture in the world and in our country? In Serbia, organic agriculture has been present for almost 30 years, but it is still seeking its place. It could be said, it is on the very begging in relation to the rest of the world. The reason for this is the specific production technology that increases the price of production inputs, the economic situation in the country, insufficient training of farmers and their inadequate knowledge about importance and benefits of organic agriculture. Great natural potential and unpolluted natural resources are Serbia's potentials for the development of this branch of agriculture. The largest areas with organic farms are in Vojvodina, but under developed rural areas and small farms should also seek their chances in such cultivation. Today, in the world, areas with organic agriculture amount to 0.9% of the total agricultural area. The highest average percentage of these areas is in Europe (6.2%. As many as eight countries have an average over 10%, while there are only 0.44% of such areas in Serbia. Organic agriculture is not just a production method, but also a new way of living of modern man. It is a return to old values and preservation of new ones. Export of such products is the only chance for our farmers, due to the economic situation, but it is necessary to develop the network of extension services that will spread the knowledge and create prerequisites that will provide better access to both the production and the products to an
Pierson, Richard N; Barr, Mark L; McCullough, Keith P; Egan, Thomas; Garrity, Edward; Jessup, Mariell; Murray, Susan
This article presents an overview of factors associated with thoracic transplantation outcomes over the past decade and provides valuable information regarding the heart, lung, and heart-lung waiting lists and thoracic organ transplant recipients. Waiting list and post-transplant information is used to assess the importance of patient demographics, risk factors, and primary cardiopulmonary disease on outcomes. The time that the typical listed patient has been waiting for a heart, lung, or heart-lung transplant has markedly increased over the past decade, while the number of transplants performed has declined slightly and survival after transplant has plateaued. Waiting list mortality, however, appears to be declining for each organ and for most diseases and high-severity subgroups, perhaps in response to recent changes in organ allocation algorithms. Based on perceived inequity in organ access and in response to a mandate from Health Resources and Services Administration, the lung transplant community is developing a lung allocation system designed to minimize deaths on the waiting list while maximizing the benefit of transplant by incorporating post-transplant survival and quality of life into the algorithm. Areas where improved data collection could inform evolving organ allocation and candidate selection policies are emphasized.
Paris, Wayne; Nour, Bakr
Concern has increasingly been expressed about the growing number of reports of medical personnel participating in the transplantation of human organs or tissues taken from the bodies of executed prisoners, handicapped patients, or poor persons who have agreed to part with their organs for commercial purposes. Such behavior has been universally considered as ethically and morally reprehensible, yet in some parts of the world the practice continues to flourish. The concept of justice demands that every person have an equal right to life, and to protect this right, society has an obligation to ensure that every person has equal access to medical care. Regrettably, the Egyptian system does not legally recognize brain death and continues to allow the buying and selling of organs. For more than 30 years in Egypt, the ability to pay has determined who receives an organ and economic need has determined who will be the donor. As transplant professionals, it is important that we advocate on behalf of all patients, potential recipients, and donors and for those who are left out and not likely to receive a donor organ in an economically based system. Current issues associated with this debate are reviewed and recommendations about how to address them in Egypt are discussed.
Baigenzhin, Abay; Doskaliyev, Zhaksylyk; Tuganbekova, Saltanat; Zharikov, Serik; Altynova, Sholpan; Gaipov, Abduzhappar
The Republic of Kazakhstan is one of the fastest developing countries in the world and has a health care system that is unique in Central Asia. Its organ transplant services are also developing rapidly. We aimed to analyze and briefly report on the current status of organ transplant in the Republic of Kazakhstan. We analyzed organ transplant activities in that country for the period 2012 to 2014. All data were collected from the official database of the National Transplant Coordinating Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. At the end of 2014, the number of transplant centers had increased to 10, three of which could perform multiorgan transplants; during the same period, the number of deceased-donor organ-donating hospitals increased up to 37. By 2013, the transplant activity rate for all centers had reached 9.22 per million population. During the previous 3 years (2012-2014), there was a 3-fold increase in the number of living donors and an 18-fold increase in the number of kidney transplants. Between 2012 and 2014, the number of living-donor liver transplants increased from 17 to 25, and the number of deceased-donor transplants increased from 3 to 7. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), the number of heart transplants increased to 7 cases. During the last 3 years (2012-2014), Kazakhstan achieved a significant improvement in the organization of its transplant services, and a noticeable upward trend in the system continues.
Muñoz, Juan José; García-Ceca, Javier; Alfaro, David; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto; Cejalvo, Teresa; Jiménez, Eva; Zapata, Agustín G
Eph receptors and their ligands, ephrins, are molecules involved in the morphogenesis of numerous tissues, including the central nervous system in which they play a key role in determining cell positioning and tissue domains containing or excluding nerve fibers. Because common features have been suggested to occur in the microenvironmental organization of brain and thymus, a highly compartmentalized organ central for T cell differentiation, we examined the expression and possible role of Eph/ephrins in the biology of the thymus gland. We reviewed numerous in vivo and in vitro results that confirm a role for Eph and ephrins in the maturation of the thymic epithelial cell (TEC) network and T cell differentiation. Their possible involvement in different steps of early thymus organogenesis, including thymus primordium branching, lymphoid colonization, and thymocyte-TEC interactions, that determine the organization of a mature three-dimensional thymic epithelial network is also analyzed.
Abbott, Kenneth W
International Organizations as Orchestrators reveals how IOs leverage their limited authority and resources to increase their effectiveness, power, and autonomy from states. By 'orchestrating' intermediaries - including NGOs - IOs can shape and steer global governance without engaging in hard, direct regulation. This volume is organized around a theoretical model that emphasizes voluntary collaboration and support. An outstanding group of scholars investigate the significance of orchestration across key issue areas, including trade, finance, environment and labor, and in leading organizations, including the GEF, G20, WTO, EU, Kimberley Process, UNEP and ILO. The empirical studies find that orchestration is pervasive. They broadly confirm the theoretical hypotheses while providing important new insights, especially that states often welcome IO orchestration as achieving governance without creating strong institutions. This volume changes our understanding of the relationships among IOs, nonstate actors and sta...
This paper aims at making a contribution to the study of how organization happens by focusing on the entrepreneurship-creativity relationship. I do this by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring, defined as organisation-creation. S......This paper aims at making a contribution to the study of how organization happens by focusing on the entrepreneurship-creativity relationship. I do this by developing a processual conceptualisation of a form of entrepreneurial creativity called entrepreneuring, defined as organisation......, with such ‘changes in our perceptions and methodologies,’ (Ibid., p. 437) meaning we have now a capacity to step up to this challenge. This, I hope, will also be a contribution to how we can rethink organization processually by placing entreprenuring more at the centre....
Even if people may always have been bored, ‘boredom’ as a phenomenon is not a universal feature of human existence. Rather it is deeply connected to organization as a reaction to the gradual emergence in Western culture of the management and administration of time. As an acquired capacity of those...... able to tell and endure time in an organized manner, boredom is a perceived loss of meaning inferred by the lived experience of a discrepancy between the involvement with transient means in everyday life and their value in a larger vision of existence. But boredom also signifies a concurrent protest...... against such a loss, which potentially leads new possibilities with it. In this essay, I explore the connection between boredom and organization, focusing on these two interrelated aspects of the phenomenon: how boredom can be understood as an experience of a loss of meaning, but also how this loss itself...
Annesini, Maria Cristina; Piemonte, Vincenzo; Turchetti, Luca
Artificial organs may be considered as small-scale process plants, in which heat, mass and momentum transfer operations and, possibly, chemical transformations are carried out. This book proposes a novel analysis of artificial organs based on the typical bottom-up approach used in process engineering. Starting from a description of the fundamental physico-chemical phenomena involved in the process, the whole system is rebuilt as an interconnected ensemble of elemental unit operations. Each artificial organ is presented with a short introduction provided by expert clinicians. Devices commonly used in clinical practice are reviewed and their performance is assessed and compared by using a mathematical model based approach. Whilst mathematical modelling is a fundamental tool for quantitative descriptions of clinical devices, models are kept simple to remain focused on the essential features of each process. Postgraduate students and researchers in the field of chemical and biomedical engineering will find that t...
Chang, S.; Scattergood, T.; Aronowitz, S.; Flores, J.
Features taken from various models of Titan's atmosphere are combined in a working composite model that provides environmental constraints within which different pathways for organic chemical synthesis are determined. Experimental results and theoretical modeling suggest that the organic chemistry of the satellite is dominated by two processes: photochemistry and energetic particle bombardment. Photochemical reactions of CH4 in the upper atmosphere can account for the presence of C2 hydrocarbons. Reactions initiated at various levels of the atmosphere by cosmic rays, Saturn 'wind', and solar wind particle bombardment of a CH4-N2 atmospheric mixture can account for the UV-visible absorbing stratospheric haze, the reddish appearance of the satellite, and some of the C2 hydrocarbons. In the lower atmosphere photochemical processes will be important if surface temperatures are sufficiently high for gaseous NH3 to exist. It is concluded that the surface of Titan may contain ancient or recent organic matter (or both) produced in the atmosphere.
Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)
Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.
Scholl, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
The Geothermal Power Organization is an industry-led advisory group organized to advance the state-of-the-art in geothermal energy conversion technologies. Its goal is to generate electricity from geothermal fluids in the most cost-effective, safe, and environmentally benign manner possible. The group achieves this goal by determining the Member`s interest in potential solutions to technological problems, advising the research and development community of the needs of the geothermal energy conversion industry, and communicating research and development results among its Members. With the creation and adoption of a new charter, the Geothermal Power Organization will now assist the industry in pursuing cost-shared research and development projects with the DOE`s Office of Geothermal Technologies.
(pollution) and consequences for human health. Broader ideas about ecosystems and the recycling of nutrients between the agricultural sector and the urban population are notably absent. On the basis of these findings the paper concludes by discussing the relationship between the consumers’ values that guide...... to phase out their use of conventional manure before 2021. This, however, raises a number of questions about consumers’ acceptance of the alternative technologies that have been proposed to close the nutrient gap. Drawing on qualitative interviews with Danish organic consumers, this paper first discusses...... what, from a consumers perspective, characterizes the technologies consumers associate with organic production. This part of the analysis shows that by and large consumers regard organic technologies as the opposite of conventional farming. Second, consumers’ perceptions of solutions suggested to close...
Full Text Available Purpose—to present distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization”; giving their definitions.Design/methodology/approach—review of previous researches, systemic analyses of their findings and synthesis of distinctive characteristics of ”virtual organization” and “networked organization.”Findings—the main result of the research is key diverse features separating ”virtual organization” and ”networked organization.” Definitions of “virtual organization” and “networked organization” are presented.Originality/Value—distinction between “virtual organization” and “networked organization” creates possibilities to use all advantages of those types of organizations and gives foundation for deeper researches in this field.Research type: general review.
Horst, S. M.
We now know that the outer solar system contains a number of Ocean Worlds (and candidate Ocean Worlds), including Europa, Titan, Enceladus, Callisto, and Ganymede. The presence of liquid water on these worlds (and also liquid hydrocarbons on the multi-ocean world Titan) means they are particularly intriguing sites for searching for life in the solar system. In addition to the presence of liquid, the search for life centers around understanding the abundance and composition of organic materials available for the origin, evolution, and persistence of life. Characterization of these organics is necessary for assessing the habitability of Ocean Worlds and searching for past or extant life, which in turn requires a robust framework for identifying biosignatures and instruments that are capable of the required measurements. I will review our current understanding of organic materials and Ocean Worlds and discuss future prospects for improving the state of knowledge including the search for life.
Andersen, Torben Juul; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard
. Results of structural equation analyses indicate that superior performance in the ambidextrous organizations is associated with efficiencies derived from adherence to centralized strategic planning and effectiveness generated by decentralized innovative behavior through participation and autonomous...... the essence of organizational ambidexterity as the means to sustain performance over time when environmental conditions change. This paper incorporates strategic management and organization theoretical rationales in a model that combines elements of integration and experimentation in the strategy making...... process and thereby extends the evolving literature on the ambidextrous organization. The performance relationships of the ambidextrous integrative strategy making model are investigated on the basis of a cross-sectional sample of 185 business entities operating in different manufacturing industries...
Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.
and the nature of product market competition, (ii) the organization designs firms may adopt and the industry structures that can result when significant numbers of firms adopt modular product architectures, and (iii) learning processes and knowledge structures at the firm and industry levels in modular product......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...
A provocative question has emerged since the Supreme Court of Canada's decision on assisted dying: Should Canadians who request, and are granted, an assisted death be considered a legitimate source of transplantable organs? A related question is addressed in this paper: is controlled organ donation after assisted death (cDAD) more or less ethically-problematic than standard, controlled organ donation after circulatory determination of death (cDCDD)? Controversial, ethics-related dimensions of cDCD that are of relevance to this research question are explored, and morally-relevant distinctions between cDAD and cDCD are identified. In addition, a set of morally-relevant advantages of one practice over the other is uncovered, and a few potential, theoretical issues specifically related to cDAD practice are articulated. Despite these concerns, the analysis suggests a counterintuitive conclusion: cDAD is, overall, less ethically-problematic than cDCDD. The former practice better respects the autonomy interests of the potential donor, and a claim regarding irreversibility of cessation of the donor's circulatory function in the cDAD context can be supported. Further, with cDAD, there is no possibility that the donor will have negative sensory experiences during organ procurement surgery. Although the development of appropriate policy-decision and regulatory approaches in this domain will be complex and challenging, the comparative ethical analysis of these two organ donation practices has the potential to constructively inform the deliberations of relevant stakeholders, resource persons and decision makers.
As the ability to transplant organs and tissues has grown, the demand for these procedures has increased as well—to the point at which it far exceeds the available supply creating the core ethical challenge for transplantation—rationing. The gap between supply and demand, although large, is worse than it appears to be. There are two key steps to gaining access to a transplant. First, one must gain access to a transplant center. Then, those waiting need to be selected for a transplant. Many potential recipients do not get admitted to a program. They are deemed too old, not of the right nationality, not appropriate for transplant as a result of severe mental impairment, criminal history, drug abuse, or simply because they do not have access to a competent primary care physician who can refer them to a transplant program. There are also financial obstacles to access to transplant waiting lists in the United States and other nations. In many poor nations, those needing transplants simply die because there is no capacity or a very limited capacity to perform transplants. Although the demand for organs now exceeds the supply, resulting in rationing, the size of waiting lists would quickly expand were there to suddenly be an equally large expansion in the number of organs available for transplantation. Still, even with the reality of unavoidable rationing, saving more lives by increasing organ supply is a moral good. Current public policies for obtaining organs from cadavers are not adequate in that they do not produce the number of organs that public polls of persons in the United States indicate people are willing to donate. PMID:24478386
Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Pandit, Bishnu Hari; Cornelissen, Gerard; Kammann, Claudia
Biochar produced in cost-efficient flame curtain kilns (Kon-Tiki) was nutrient enriched either with cow urine or with dissolved mineral (NPK) fertilizer to produce biochar-based fertilizers containing between 60-100 kg N, 5-60 kg P2O5 and 60-100 kg K2O, respectively, per ton of biochar. In 21 field trials nutrient-enriched biochars were applied at rates of 0.5 to 2 t ha-1 into the root zone of 13 different annual and perennial crops. Treatments combining biochar, compost and organic or chemical fertilizer were evaluated; control treatments contained the same amounts of nutrients but without biochar. All nutrient-enriched biochar substrates improved yields compared to their respective no-biochar controls. Biochar enriched with dissolved NPK produced on average 20% ± 5.1% (N=4) higher yields than standard NPK fertilization without biochar. Cow urine-enriched biochar blended with compost resulted on average in 123% ± 76.7% (N=13) higher yields compared to the organic farmer practice with cow urine-blended compost and outcompeted NPK-enriched biochar (same nutrient dose) by 103% ± 12.4% (N=4) on average. 21 field trials robustly revealed that low-dosage root zone application of organic biochar-based fertilizers caused substantial yield increases in rather fertile silt loam soils compared to traditional organic fertilization and to mineral NPK- or NPK-biochar fertilization. This can likely be explained by the nutrient carrier effect of biochar causing a slow nutrient release behavior, more balanced nutrient fluxes and reduced nutrient losses especially when liquid organic nutrients are used for the biochar enrichment. The results promise new pathways for optimizing organic farming and improving on-farm nutrient cycling.
Tiddi, William; Elsukova, Anna; Le, Hoa Thanh
that simple organic molecules, e.g. alcohols, condensed to form thin-films at low temperature demonstrate resist-like capabilities for EBL applications and beyond. The entire lithographic process takes place in a single instrument, and avoids exposing chemicals to the user and the need of cleanrooms. Unlike...... EBL that requires large samples with optically flat surfaces, we patterned on fragile membranes only 5-nm-thin, and 2 x 2 mm2 diamond samples. We created patterns on the nm to sub-mm scale, as well as three-dimensional structures by stacking layers of frozen organic molecules. Finally, using plasma...
Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Boesen, Andreas; Pedersen, Lene Holm
of management and performance are classified. The results illustrate how a systematization of the conceptual space of performance in public organizations can help researchers select what to study and what to leave out with greater accuracy while also bringing greater clarity to public debates about performance.......Performance in public organizations is a key concept that requires clarification. Based on a conceptual review of research published in 10 public administration journals, this article proposes six distinctions to describe the systematic differences in performance criteria: From which stakeholder...
This paper presents an overview of present and emerging applications of membrane technology for the separation and purification of organic materials. This technology is highly relevant for programs aimed at minimizing waste in processing and in the treatment of gaseous and liquid effluents. Application of membranes for organic separation is growing rapidly in the petrochemical industry to simplify processing and in the treatment of effluents, and it is expected that this technology will be useful in numerous other industries including the processing of nuclear waste materials