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Sample records for legitimate live births

  1. Saving lives at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Trandafir, Mircea; van Ewijk, Reyn

    2015-01-01

    Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for endogeneity...... in location of birth, we exploit the exogenous variation in distance from a mother’s residence to the closest hospital. We find that giving birth in a hospital leads to substantial reductions in newborn mortality. We provide suggestive evidence that proximity to medical technologies may be an important...

  2. Congenital Anomalies among Live Births

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Rosa Vázquez Martínez; Cristobal Jorge Torres González; Alina Luisa Díaz Dueñas; Grisel Torres Vázquez; Dariel Diaz Díaz; Rafael de la Rosa López

    2014-01-01

    Background: congenital anomalies contribute significantly to mortality during early stages of life; they are the leading cause of infant death in developed countries.Objective: to determine the characteristics of congenital anomalies among live births. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted in the province of Cienfuegos in 2012. Thirty-seven women who had live-born neonates with congenital anomalies were studied. The variables analyzed were: parental age, skin color, order of birth, famil...

  3. Live birth in an archosauromorph reptile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Organ, Chris L; Benton, Michael J; Brandley, Matthew C; Aitchison, Jonathan C

    2017-02-14

    Live birth has evolved many times independently in vertebrates, such as mammals and diverse groups of lizards and snakes. However, live birth is unknown in the major clade Archosauromorpha, a group that first evolved some 260 million years ago and is represented today by birds and crocodilians. Here we report the discovery of a pregnant long-necked marine reptile (Dinocephalosaurus) from the Middle Triassic (∼245 million years ago) of southwest China showing live birth in archosauromorphs. Our discovery pushes back evidence of reproductive biology in the clade by roughly 50 million years, and shows that there is no fundamental reason that archosauromorphs could not achieve live birth. Our phylogenetic models indicate that Dinocephalosaurus determined the sex of their offspring by sex chromosomes rather than by environmental temperature like crocodilians. Our results provide crucial evidence for genotypic sex determination facilitating land-water transitions in amniotes.

  4. Prognosis for live birth in women with recurrent miscarriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Nielsen, Henriette Svarre

    2012-01-01

    To establish a method of estimating the proportion of women with a subsequent live birth after a well-defined time period in an open cohort of women referred to a tertiary recurrent miscarriage clinic.......To establish a method of estimating the proportion of women with a subsequent live birth after a well-defined time period in an open cohort of women referred to a tertiary recurrent miscarriage clinic....

  5. Congenital Microphthalmia, Anophthalmia and Coloboma among Live Births in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Laura; Jensen, Hanne; Grønskov, Karen

    2016-01-01

    -2012 with diagnoses of MO/AO or coloboma was identified from the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR), and their ocular and extra-ocular diagnoses were reviewed. In order to assess the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities in the cohort, the data were cross-referenced with the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry...... (DCCR). RESULTS: We identified 415 patients with MO/AO/coloboma in the DNPR. The total number of live births from 1995-2012 was 1,174,299, and the average birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma was 3.6/10,000 live births and of MO/AO was 1.2/10,000 live births. Extra-ocular abnormalities were observed in 32....... CONCLUSION: The birth prevalence of MO/AO/coloboma in Denmark has been steady at 3.6/10,000 live births during the last 17 years. The rate of syndromic cases was lower compared to other studies. A relatively high rate of pathogenic chromosomal aberrations was observed, suggesting an important role...

  6. In the Beginning-The Birth of a Living Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 6. In the Beginning — The Birth of a Living Universe Evolutionary Ripples. S Krishnaswamy. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 6 June 1997 pp 93-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Neonatal Bacteraemia Among 112,360 Live Births

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Huggard, D

    2016-10-01

    Our aims were to determine the incidence of bacteraemia in a cohort of neonatal patients over a 14 year period, to describe the organisms involved, and to establish the rates of sepsis with regard to both early onset sepsis (EOS) and late onset sepsis (LOS). Lastly, we investigated the trends of neonatal sepsis, to determine whether changes in clinical practice influenced the rate of blood culture positivity. With regards to EOS, GBS was the predominant pathogen, followed by E.coli, CoNS, and S. aureus . The overall mean EO rate per 1000 live births (LBs) was 1.19. Looking at LOS, S. aureus , CoNS , Enterococcus spp. were the most common bacteria cultured. The mean LOS rate was 1.88 per 1000 live births. The overall rate of EOS remained fairly steady. GBS remains the major pathogen in EOS; however its incidence has remained largely unchanged over time in relation to both EOS and LOS. Conversely the rate of LOS peaked from ’05-’09, mainly due to an increase in Staphylococcus aureus , CoNS and Enterococcus spp. cases, and then improved dramatically in the following years. This was likely due to a change in hospital policies in relation to hand hygiene and intravenous line placement and maintenance.

  8. Cretaceous choristoderan reptiles gave birth to live young

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiang; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Cheng, Yen-Nien

    2010-04-01

    Viviparity (giving birth to live young) in fossil reptiles has been known only in a few marine groups: ichthyosaurs, pachypleurosaurs, and mosasaurs. Here, we report a pregnant specimen of the Early Cretaceous Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis, a species of Choristodera, a diapsid group known from unequivocal fossil remains from the Middle Jurassic to the early Miocene (about 165 to 20 million years ago). This specimen provides the first evidence of viviparity in choristoderan reptiles and is also the sole record of viviparity in fossil reptiles which lived in freshwater ecosystems. This exquisitely preserved specimen contains up to 18 embryos arranged in pairs. Size comparison with small free-living individuals and the straight posture of the posterior-most pair suggest that those embryos were at term and had probably reached parturition. The posterior-most embryo on the left side has the head positioned toward the rear, contrary to normal position, suggesting a complication that may have contributed to the mother’s death. Viviparity would certainly have freed species of Hyphalosaurus from the need to return to land to deposit eggs; taking this advantage, they would have avoided intense competition with contemporaneous terrestrial carnivores such as dinosaurs.

  9. Live birth and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease receiving assisted reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente Mertz; Larsen, P V; Fedder, J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the chance of live births and adverse birth outcomes in women with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) compared with women without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who have undergone assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. METHODS: This was a nationwide...

  10. Triassic marine reptiles gave birth to live young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yen-Nien; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Ji, Qiang

    2004-11-18

    Sauropterygians form the largest and most diverse group of ancient marine reptiles that lived throughout nearly the entire Mesozoic era (from 250 to 65 million years ago). Although thousands of specimens of this group have been collected around the world since the description of the first plesiosaur in 1821 (ref. 3), no direct evidence has been found to determine whether any sauropterygians came on shore to lay eggs (oviparity) like sea turtles, or gave birth in the water to live young (viviparity) as ichthyosaurs and mosasauroids (marine lizards) did. Viviparity has been proposed for plesiosaur, pachypleurosaur and nothosaur sauropterygians, but until now no concrete evidence has been advanced. Here we report two gravid specimens of Keichousaurus hui Young from the Middle Triassic of China. These exquisitely preserved specimens not only provide the first unequivocal evidence of reproductive mode and sexual dimorphism in sauropterygians, but also indicate that viviparity could have been expedited by the evolution of a movable pelvis in pachypleurosaurs. By extension, this has implications for the reproductive pattern of other sauropterygians and Mesozoic marine reptiles that possessed a movable pelvis.

  11. Estimation of live birth underreporting with a capture-recapture method, Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Bianca; Silva, Nilza Nunes da

    2011-12-01

    Estimate the number of live births and, therefore, underreporting of live births. The databases of the Live Birth Information System and the Civil Registry of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, from the second and third trimesters of 2006 in Sergipe state (Northeastern Brazil) were paired by deterministic linkage based on the number of the Live Birth Declaration. The geographic disaggregation utilized was mother's microregion of residence. Huggins closed population models were used to estimate the capture probabilities for each database and the total live births during the period, within each geographic subdivision. MARK® software was used for the estimates. Underregistration during the period studied was 19.3%. Application of the capture-recapture method to estimate underregistration of live births is possible, including for geographic disaggregations smaller than a state. The deterministic linkage was impaired in four microregions, due to non-inclusion of the Live Birth Declaration number in the database of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Maternal age, a heterogeneity characteristic in the population of live births, affected the probability of capture by the civil registry. Capture-recapture was a viable method to estimate the underregistration of live births.

  12. International New Venture Legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2013-01-01

    There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during...... the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK...... types of legitimation strategies: technology, operating, and anchoring. Studying international new ventures through theoretical lenses of legitimation is a promising area of research that would contribute to the advancement of international entrepreneurship theory....

  13. Saving Lives at Birth : The Impact of Home Births on Infant Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meltem Daysal, N.; Trandafir, M.; van Ewijk, R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Many developed countries have recently experienced sharp increases in home birth rates. This paper investigates the impact of home births on the health of low-risk newborns using data from the Netherlands, the only developed country where home births are widespread. To account for

  14. VSRR - Provisional monthly number of live births by state

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsrr/provisional-tables.htm Monthly provisional counts of births are provided by state of residence (50 states, District of...

  15. Live birth rates after MESA or TESE in men with obstructive azoospermia: is there a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wely, Madelon; Barbey, Natalie; Meissner, Andreas; Repping, Sjoerd; Silber, Sherman J.

    2015-01-01

    How do live birth rates compare after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for men with obstructive azoospermia when using sperm derived from testicular sperm extraction (TESE) versus microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (MESA)? Our study suggests that proximal epididymal sperm (from MESA)

  16. Male and female alcohol consumption and live birth after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment......, 22.6% and 20.2% of cycles resulted in a live birth for abstainers and heavy consumers (>14 drinks/week), respectively. No statistically significant associations between alcohol consumption and live birth were observed. Adjusted odds ratios from trend analyses were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.......99-1.01) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01) for every one-unit increase in female and male weekly alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation, respectively. In conclusion, this study did not show significant associations between male or female alcohol consumption and odds of live birth after...

  17. Predicting live birth, preterm delivery, and low birth weight in infants born from in vitro fertilisation: a prospective study of 144,018 treatment cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which baseline couple characteristics affect the probability of live birth and adverse perinatal outcomes after assisted conception is unknown.We utilised the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority database to examine the predictors of live birth in all in vitro fertilisation (IVF cycles undertaken in the UK between 2003 and 2007 (n = 144,018. We examined the potential clinical utility of a validated model that pre-dated the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI as compared to a novel model. For those treatment cycles that resulted in a live singleton birth (n = 24,226, we determined the associates of potential risk factors with preterm birth, low birth weight, and macrosomia. The overall rate of at least one live birth was 23.4 per 100 cycles (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.2-23.7. In multivariable models the odds of at least one live birth decreased with increasing maternal age, increasing duration of infertility, a greater number of previously unsuccessful IVF treatments, use of own oocytes, necessity for a second or third treatment cycle, or if it was not unexplained infertility. The association of own versus donor oocyte with reduced odds of live birth strengthened with increasing age of the mother. A previous IVF live birth increased the odds of future success (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.46-1.71 more than that of a previous spontaneous live birth (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.99-1.24; p-value for difference in estimate <0.001. Use of ICSI increased the odds of live birth, and male causes of infertility were associated with reduced odds of live birth only in couples who had not received ICSI. Prediction of live birth was feasible with moderate discrimination and excellent calibration; calibration was markedly improved in the novel compared to the established model. Preterm birth and low birth weight were increased if oocyte donation was required and ICSI was not used. Risk of macrosomia increased with advancing

  18. Association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in single-embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Patel, Hency H; Stone, Logan D; Christos, Paul J; Elias, Rony T; Spandorfer, Steven D; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the association between ABO blood type and live-birth outcomes in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 single-embryo transfer (SET). Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated center. Normal responders, blood type and live birth, while controlling for confounders. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for live birth were estimated. A total of 2,329 patients were included. The mean age of the study cohort was 34.6 ± 4.78 years. The distribution of blood types was as follows: A = 897 (38.5%); B = 397 (17.0%); AB = 120 (5.2%); and, O = 1,915 (39.3%) patients. There was no difference in the baseline demographics, ovarian stimulation, or embryo quality parameters between the blood types. The unadjusted ORs for live birth when comparing blood type A (referent) with blood types B, AB, and O were 0.96 (95% CI, 0.6-1.7), 0.72 (95% CI, 0.4-1.2), and 0.96 (95% CI. 0.6-1.7), respectively. The adjusted ORs for live birth remained not significant when comparing blood type A to blood types B, AB, and O individually. No difference in birth weight or gestational age at delivery was noted among the four blood types. Our findings suggest that ABO blood type is not associated with live-birth rate, birth weight, or gestational age at delivery in patients undergoing IVF with day 5 SET. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilini, Alberto; Minerva, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    Abortion is largely accepted even for reasons that do not have anything to do with the fetus' health. By showing that (1) both fetuses and newborns do not have the same moral status as actual persons, (2) the fact that both are potential persons is morally irrelevant and (3) adoption is not always in the best interest of actual people, the authors argue that what we call 'after-birth abortion' (killing a newborn) should be permissible in all the cases where abortion is, including cases where the newborn is not disabled.

  20. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  1. Did the ever dead outnumber the living and when? A birth-and-death approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Jean; Grosjean, Nicolas; Huillet, Thierry

    2015-02-01

    This paper is an attempt to formalize analytically the question raised in 'World Population Explained: Do Dead People Outnumber Living, Or Vice Versa?' Huffington Post, Howard (2012). We start developing simple deterministic Malthusian growth models of the problem (with birth and death rates either constant or time-dependent) before running into both linear birth and death Markov chain models and age-structured models.

  2. Inpatient hospitalizations in women with and without assisted reproductive technology live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judy E; Gopal, Daksha; Diop, Hafsatou; Missmer, Stacey A; Coddington, Charles C; Luke, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate frequency of hospitalization before, during, and after assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment by cycle outcome. Six thousand and one hundred thirty women residing in Massachusetts undergoing 17,135 cycles of ART reported to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System (SARTCORS) from 2004 to 2011 were linked to hospital discharges and vital records. Women were grouped according to ART treatment cycle outcome as: no pregnancy (n = 1840), one or more pregnancies but no live birth (n = 968), or one or more singleton live births (n = 3322). Hospital delivery discharges during 1998-2011 were categorized as occurring before, during, or after the ART treatment. The most prevalent ICD-9 codes for non-delivery hospital discharges were compared. Groups were compared using chi square test using SAS 9.3 software. The proportion of any hospitalization was 57.0, 58.3, and 91.3% for women with no pregnancy, no live birth, and ART singleton live birth, respectively; the proportion of non-delivery hospitalizations was 30.4, 31.0, and 28.3%, respectively. The non-ART delivery proportion after ART treatment did not differ by group (33.4, 36.2, and 36.9%, respectively, p = 0.17). Most frequent non-delivery diagnoses (including fibroids, obesity, ectopic pregnancy, depression, and endometriosis) also did not differ by group. A secondary analysis limited to only women with no delivery discharges before the first ART cycle showed similar results. All groups had live birth deliveries during the study period, suggesting an important contribution of non-ART treatment or treatment-independent conception to overall delivery and live births. Hospitalizations not associated with delivery suggested similarity in morbidity for all ART patients regardless of success with ART treatment.

  3. Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Thyroid Autoimmunity Are Not Associated With Fecundity, Pregnancy Loss, or Live Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Torie C.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Perkins, Neil J.; Silver, Robert; Galai, Noya; DeCherney, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Prior studies examining associations between subclinical hypothyroidism and antithyroid antibodies with early pregnancy loss and live birth suggest mixed results and time to pregnancy (TTP) has not been studied in this patient population. Objective: This study sought to examine associations of prepregnancy TSH concentrations and thyroid autoimmunity with TTP, pregnancy loss, and live birth among women with proven fecundity and a history of pregnancy loss. Design and Setting: This was a prospective cohort study from a large, randomized controlled trial that took place at four medical centers in the United States. Patients or Other Participants: Healthy women, ages 18–40 y, who were actively attempting to conceive and had one or two prior pregnancy losses and no history of infertility were eligible for the study. Intervention: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measure: TTP, pregnancy loss, and live birth. Results: Women with TSH ≥ 2.5 mIU/L did not have an increased risk of pregnancy loss (risk ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81–1.41) or a decrease in live birth rate (risk ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.88–1.07) or TTP (fecundability odds ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.90–1.31) compared with women with TSH pregnancy loss, TSH levels ≥ 2.5 mIU/L or the presence of antithyroid antibodies were not associated with fecundity, pregnancy loss, or live birth. Thus, women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity can be reassured that their chances of conceiving and achieving a live birth are likely unaffected by marginal thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27023447

  4. Effect of Embryo Banking on U.S. National Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Albertini, David F; Darmon, Sarah K; Gleicher, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) reports generated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) exclude embryo banking cycles from outcome calculations. We examined data reported to the CDC in 2013 for the impact of embryo banking exclusion on national ART outcomes by recalculating autologous oocyte ART live birth rates. Inflation of reported fresh ART cycle live birth rates was assessed for all age groups of infertile women as the difference between fresh cycle live births with reference to number of initiated fresh cycles (excluding embryo banking cycles), as typically reported by the CDC, and fresh cycle live births with reference to total initiated fresh ART cycles (including embryo banking cycles). During 2013, out of 121,351 fresh non-donor ART cycles 27,564 (22.7%) involved embryo banking. The proportion of banking cycles increased with female age from 15.5% in women 44 years. Concomitantly, the proportion of thawed cycles decreased with advancing female age (P banking cycles led to inflation of live birth rates in fresh ART cycles, increasing in size in parallel to advancing female age and utilization of embryo banking, reaching 56.3% in women age >44. The inflation of live birth rates in thawed cycles could not be calculated from the publically available CDC data but appears to be even greater. Utilization of embryo banking increased during 2013 with advancing female age, suggesting a potential age selection bias. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from national ART outcome reports significantly inflated national ART success rates, especially among older women. Exclusion of embryo banking cycles from US National Assisted Reproductive Technology outcome reports significantly inflates reported success rates especially in older women.

  5. The Meaning of Giving Birth: Voices of Hmong Women Living in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Cheryl A; Callister, Lynn Clark; Gettys, Jamie Peterson; Hickman, Jacob R

    Increasing knowledge about the sociocultural context of birth is essential to promote culturally sensitive nursing care. This qualitative study provides an ethnographic view of the perspectives on birthing of Hmong mothers living in the highlands of Vietnam. Unique cultural beliefs exist in Hmong culture about the spiritual and physical world as well as ritual practices associated with childbearing. This includes variations of ancestor worship, reincarnation, and healing practices by shamans. Traditionally, Hmong families take an active role in childbirth with birth frequently occurring in the home. Situated within a large collaborative anthropology project, a convenience sample of 8 Hmong women, who had recently given birth, were interviewed regarding the perinatal experience. In addition, ethnic traditional birth attendants (midwives) and other village women contributed perspectives providing richly descriptive data. This ethnographic study was conducted during 6 weeks of immersed participant observation with primary data collection carried out through fieldwork. Data were analyzed to derive cultural themes from interviews and observations. Significant themes included (1) valuing motherhood, (2) laboring and giving birth silently, (3) giving birth within the comfort of home and family, (4) feeling capable of birthing well, (5) feeling anxiety to provide for another child, and (6) embracing cultural traditions. Listening to the voices of Hmong women enhances understanding of the meaning of childbirth. Gaining greater understanding of Hmong cultural beliefs and practices can ensure childbearing women receive respectful, safe, and quality care.

  6. Living in violence: Neighborhood domestic violence and small for gestational age births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker-Kantor, Erica; Wallace, Maeve; Theall, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    To determine the association between neighborhood domestic violence and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth and to examine if there is a differential impact of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births by race in a high crime community. This analysis includes all birth records issued in New Orleans, Louisiana from 2011 to 2012 geocoded by census tract (N=177 census tracts, N=8322 women). Hierarchical modeling and ecologic spatial analysis were used to examine the area-effect of neighborhood domestic violence on SGA births, independent of individual-level predictors and accounting for the propensity to live in high domestic violence neighborhoods. Tests for spatial autocorrelation reveled area-level clustering and overlap of SGA and domestic violent rates. Pregnant women living in high domestic violence areas were more likely to give birth to an SGA infant compared to women in low-domestic violence areas (OR=1.04, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.08), net of the effects of individual-level factors and propensity scores. Neighborhood-level attributes including rates of domestic violence may increase women's risk for SGA birth, highlighting a policy-relevant and potentially amenable exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Live birth rate and number of blastomeres on day 2 transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Hoest, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether the presence of large fragment (LF) and abnormal cell divisions (ACDs) has influenced the correlation between live birth rate and number of blastomeres detected on day 2 by conventional scoring. Methods This study included 578 embryos cultured in time lapse and sele......Purpose To investigate whether the presence of large fragment (LF) and abnormal cell divisions (ACDs) has influenced the correlation between live birth rate and number of blastomeres detected on day 2 by conventional scoring. Methods This study included 578 embryos cultured in time lapse...... and selected for transfer by conventional scoring on day 2. By time-lapse recordings, embryos were reassessed to identify ACDs and/or LFs mistaken as blastomeres. The latter identifications were used to recalculate fragmentation rate and the number of blastomeres. Life birth rate according to number......-lapse assessment, ACDs and/or recalculated fragmentation >25 % was recognized in 106/578 (18.3 %) of transferred embryos. None of them resulted in a live birth. After exclusion of these embryos, the number of blastomeres on the day of transfer did not have any impact on life birth rate. Conclusion Conventional...

  8. The influence on birthweight of maternal living conditions a decade prior to giving birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Singhammer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The study’s aim was to correlate measures of mothers’ socio-economic status, a decade prior to giving birth, with their children’s birthweight. As part of a larger study, information on birth characteristics from 706 babies born 1970-73 were linked with census data obtained from their mothers near the time of birth as well as one decade earlier. The 706 individuals were selected at random from two national surveys in 1998 and 2000 and traced back to the time of birth in the period 1970-73. Information on birth characteristics was linked to census data obtained from the mothers in 1960 and 1970. Included was information on parent’s living conditions (e.g. income, type of dwelling, indoor plumbing, telephone, number of people in the household. Information on mother’s health during pregnancy, a decade before childbirth and near childbirth, and data on mothers’ and the infants’ health at birth was obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. In analysis that included both early and current socio-economic conditions maternal education and rural residency at the time of giving birth were observed as statistical significant predictors of birthweight. Results were adjusted for maternal age, parity, plurality, gender and diagnoses before and during pregnancy, all factors observed to attenuate birthweight. Indicators of women’s socio-economic conditions a decade prior to giving birth were not significantly associated with birthweight. These findings do not clearly support suggestions in the literature that an infant’s vitality may be influenced by the family’s socio-economic conditions years before birth.

  9. Metastatic Choriocarcinoma Following Live Birth – A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joya Sree Roy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Choriocarcinoma is the most malignant tumor of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Post-partum choriocarcinoma is an infrequent event with poor prognosis. The diagnosis is usually delayed due to failure to recognize the mode of presentation of this disease. Being a rare occurrence, limited data is available regarding its clinical features. We present a 24 years old women with parity one delivered by caesarean section indicated for premature rupture of membrane with fetal distress at 39 wks of pregnancy. Frequent episodes of heavy vaginal bleeding had started 28 days following C/S. For this, she had H/O uterine evacuatin twice within 5 days interval. Biopsy report of second curettage showed choriocarcinoma. On admission to Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH, the pretreatment Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (βhCG level was >200000.0 IU/L, uterine mass of about 18 wks pregnancy size & X-Ray chest showed segmental consolidation in left mid zone of lung. After consultation with oncologist Etoposide, Methotrexate, Dactinomycin, Cyclophosphamide & Vincristine (EMACO therapy was started but before completion of her proposed cycles, she developed a live threatening condition which was managed very urgently and meticulously. Now the patient is under regular monitoring. Key words: GTD; Choriocarcinoma DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v4i2.8642 BSMMU J 2011; 4(2:116-118

  10. Live Birth Following a Term Pregnancy in a Non-communicating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Her packed cell volume was 30.9 L/L and other routine investigations were ... Report of a live birth following a rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnosed at cesarean section. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences ... imaging may be necessary in cases where ultrasound findings are unclear.[2] In all cases of uterine anomaly, ...

  11. Mid-luteal progesterone concentrations are associated with live birth rates during ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arce Saez, Jane; Balen, A; Platteau, P

    2011-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated whether mid-luteal serum progesterone concentrations are associated with live birth rates in women with WHO group II anovulatory infertility undergoing ovulation induction. Data were from women (n=335) stimulated with gonadotrophins using a low-dose step...

  12. Children born after autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue. A review of 13 live births

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnez, Jacques; Silber, Sherman; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-01-01

    of fresh ovarian tissue transplantation. We report 13 live births after orthotopic transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue in cancer patients (n = 8) and in patients treated with high doses of chemotherapy for benign diseases (n = 2) (microscopic polyangiitis, sickle cell anemia). Interpretation...

  13. Is there a link between blastomere contact surfaces of day 3 embryos and live birth rate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paternot Goedele

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell-cell communication and adhesion are essential for the compaction process of early stage embryos. The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive objective calculation system of embryo compaction in order to test the hypothesis that embryos with a larger mean contact surface result in a higher live birth rate compared to embryos with a lower mean contact surface. Methods Multilevel images of 474 embryos transferred on day 3 were evaluated by the Cellify software. This software calculates the contact surfaces between the blastomeres. The primary outcome of this study was live birth. An ideal range of contact surface was determined and the positive and negative predictive value, the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the curve for this new characteristic were calculated. Results In total, 115 (24% transferred embryos resulted in a live birth. Selection of an embryo for transfer on its mean contact surface could predict live birth with a high sensitivity (80% and high negative predicting value (83% but with a low positive predictive value (27%, a low specificity (31% and low area under the ROC curve (0.56. The mean contact surface of embryos cultured in a single medium was significantly higher compared to the mean contact surface of embryos cultured in a sequential medium (p = 0.0003. Conclusions Neither the mean contact surface nor the number of contact surfaces of a day 3 embryo had an additional value in the prediction of live birth. The type of culture medium, however, had an impact on the contact surface of an embryo. Embryos cultured in a single medium had a significant larger contact surface compared to embryos cultured in the sequential medium.

  14. The Legitimation of Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Miniuci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This text is oriented by the following questions: What is terrorism? How does it differ from other legitimized violent acts committed during war or in the course of a revolution? In order to answer them, this article discusses, first, the legitimacy of violence and the moral judgment of it; second, it will address the distinction between terrorist acts, acts of war, common crimes and revolutionary action, on the one hand, and the concept of innocent victim and the legitimacy of the target, on the other. In short, a new classification for terrorism will be seen, which will appear as a tactic used by political groups, as well as by public authorities, in the course of a revolution or during a war.

  15. Legitimizing Blacks in Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameliah Shorter-Bourhanou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In its efforts toward improving diversity, the discipline of philosophy has tended to focus on increasing the number of black philosophers. One crucial issue that has received less attention is the extent to which black philosophers are delegitimized in the discipline because their philosophical contributions challenge the status quo. A systematic problem that bars black philosophers from equal and full participation, this delegitimization precludes the emergence of genuine diversity and reveals the importance of interrogating broader attitudes toward black philosophical contributions. In this essay, I argue for radical systematic changes to disciplinary hallmarks of professionalization such as pedagogy, mentoring, publishing, and hiring practices with the aim of legitimizing black philosophers and their contributions.

  16. Pre-stimulation parameters predicting live birth after IVF in the long GnRH agonist protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Göran; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Broberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify novel pre-stimulation parameters associated with live birth in IVF and to develop a model for prediction of the chances of live birth at an early phase of the treatment cycle. Data were collected from a randomized trial in couples with unexplained...

  17. Legitimation in Discourse and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    , and of persons in whom institutional authority is vested, (2) moral evaluation, legitimation by reference to discourses of value, (3) rationalization, legitimation by reference to the goals and uses of institutionalized social action and to the social knowledges that endow them with cognitive validity, and (4...

  18. Successful live births after surgical treatments for symptomatic cesarean scar pregnancies: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gayoung; Lee, Daeun; Lee, Sara; Jeong, Kyungah

    2014-01-01

    There is no current consensus on the best treatment modality for cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) with favorable reproductive and pregnancy outcome. We treated 3 cases of symptomatic CSP with fetal cardiac activity. The first case underwent laparoscopic repair at 6 weeks' gestational age of unruptured CSP. The second patient underwent laparoscopic repair due to massive vaginal bleeding after suction curettage. Both patients conceived naturally 6 months later and underwent repeated cesarean section at term. These were successful live births although the second patient was treated with uterine artery embolization for postpartum hemorrhage. The last patient underwent emergency exploratory laparotomy due to ruptured CSP and delivered a preterm baby. Earlier surgical treatment of CSP is indicated for a subsequent successful pregnancy and live birth. The laparoscopic approach might be advisable prior to uterine rupture. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Time to conception and time to live birth in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, S P; van Mens, T E; Middeldorp, S; Hutten, B A; Hof, M H P; van der Post, J A M; van der Veen, F; Goddijn, M

    2014-06-01

    What is the time to conception in a cohort of women with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM). Median time to conception in women diagnosed with unexplained RM was 21 weeks (interquartile range (IQR) 8-55 weeks), with a cumulative incidence of conception of 74% after 12 months of trying to conceive. There is no effective treatment in couples with unexplained RM. Adequate counselling about their prognosis, for example time to conception and time to a live birth, is therefore very important. So far, there are no studies that give insight on these issues. A nested prospective cohort study was performed from February 2004 through July 2009 within a multicentre randomized placebo-controlled trial (ALIFE trial) on anticoagulant treatment in 364 women with unexplained RM. A total of 251 women who were not pregnant at the time of diagnosis of unexplained RM were included in this study. Of these, 13% became pregnant with ART, and all other women conceived naturally. The primary outcome was time to conception in weeks, calculated from the moment of diagnosis until conception measured by a urinary HCG. Secondary outcome was time to a live birth in the subsequent pregnancy. The relative prognostic significance of female age, the number of preceding miscarriages, interventions within the trial and the presence or absence of a preceding late miscarriage, a previous live birth and factor V Leiden mutation, was evaluated by Cox regression for time to conception and by competing risk modelling for time to live birth, respectively. The cumulative incidence of conception was 56% after 6 months, 74% after 12 months and 86% after 24 months of which 65% resulted in a live birth. The median time to conception was 21 weeks (IQR 8-55 weeks). Of potential prognostic factors, the presence of the factor V Leiden mutation resulted in a significantly shorter median time to conception of 11 weeks for carriers versus 23 weeks for non-carriers (hazard ratio (HR) 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI

  20. Clinical-epidemiological description of live births with microcephaly in the state of Sergipe, Brazil, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Cibelle Mendes; Nóbrega, Martha Elizabeth Brasil da; Leite, Priscila Leal E; Souza, Mércia Simone Feitosa de; Teixeira, Daniela Cabral Pizzi; Cavalcante, Taíse Ferreira; Lima, Raulinna Gomes de Souza; Tavares, Lúcia Maria Sayde de Azevedo; Souza, Priscila Bochi de; Saad, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    to describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of microcephaly cases in live births in Sergipe, Brazil, and to calculate the prevalence in its municipalities. this is a descriptive study on live births from September 1st to November 30th, 2015, with data from medical records and interviews with mothers. 83 cases of microcephaly were confirmed, with three deaths; prevalence in the 26 municipalities with confirmed cases ranged from 18 to 185/10,000 live births; the median of head circumference was 31 cm (range: 22.5-33.0); agenesis of corpus callosum (26/43), lissencephaly (12/43), absence of midline (10/43) and ventriculomegaly (8/43) were observed in the transfontanellar ultrasound; 40 mothers reported rash in pregnancy, 23 in the first trimester, with pruritus, arthralgia and headache; seven were positive for infections potentially causing malformations. there was a high occurrence of cases of microcephaly, and reports of signs and symptoms compatible with Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  1. Live birth outcome, spontaneous pregnancy and adoption up to five years after undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgsten, Helena; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-08-01

    This study is part of a longitudinal cohort undertaken in both women and men to describe live birth outcome after undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in a clinical setting. Another objective was to follow women and men living with children from other alternatives after ART, such as adoption. A total of 439 (80.5%) women and 423 (77.6%) men were included in the baseline cohort (2005-2007). Live birth rate after ART was 24.8% at baseline. Up to 5 years later (2010-2011) the same participants were sent individual postal questionnaires (n = 439). Overall, 278 (63.3%) women and 183 (41.7%) men filled in and returned the questionnaire at follow up. The majority of women (91.7%) and men (93.4%) were living with children. A total of 225 (80.9%) women had a live birth at follow up. Of these, almost three of four (71.6%) had a live birth after ART and more than one of four (28.0%) after spontaneous pregnancies or both. Of these, 52 (26.1%) women had a subsequent live birth after successful ART and 26 (32.9%) women after unsuccessful ART. Nineteen (6.8%) women and 13 (7.1%) men had a child after adoption. Almost one of five (19.1%) women had no live birth at follow up. The majority of women and men were living with children, resulting from a live birth after ART, spontaneous pregnancy and/or adoption up to 5 years later. However, almost one of five had no live birth at follow up. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  2. Live birth sex ratios and father's geographic origins in Jerusalem, 1964-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, J; Opler, M; Kleinhaus, K; Perrin, M C; Calderon-Margalit, R; Manor, O; Paltiel, O; Conley, D; Harlap, S; Malaspina, D

    2017-05-06

    To examine whether ancestry influenced sex ratios of offspring in a birth cohort before parental antenatal sex selection influenced offspring sex. We measured the sex ratio as the percent of males according to countries of birth of paternal and maternal grandfathers in 91,459 live births from 1964 to 1976 in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Confidence limits (CI) were computed based on an expected sex ratio of 1.05, which is 51.4% male. Of all live births recorded, 51.4% were male. Relative to Jewish ancestry (51.4% males), significantly more males (1,761) were born to Muslim ancestry (54.5, 95% CI = 52.1-56.8, P = 0.01). Among the former, sex ratios were not significantly associated with paternal or maternal age, education, or offspring's birth order. Consistent with a preference for male offspring, the sex ratio decreased despite increasing numbers of births over the 13-year period. Sex ratios were not affected by maternal or paternal origins in North Africa or Europe. However, the offspring whose paternal grandfathers were born in Western Asia included fewer males than expected (50.7, 50.1-51.3, P = 0.02), whether the father was born abroad (50.7) or in Israel (50.8). This was observed for descendents of paternal grandfathers born in Lebanon (47.6), Turkey (49.9), Yemen & Aden (50.2), Iraq (50.5), Afghanistan (50.5), Syria (50.6), and Cyprus (50.7); but not for those from India (51.5) or Iran (51.9). The West Asian group showed the strongest decline in sex ratios with increasing paternal family size. A decreased sex ratio associated with ancestry in Western Asia is consistent with reduced ability to bear sons by a subset of Jewish men in the Jerusalem cohort. Lower sex ratios may be because of pregnancy stress, which may be higher in this subgroup. Alternatively, a degrading Y chromosome haplogroup or other genetic or epigenetic differences on male germ lines could affect birth ratios, such as differential exposure to an environmental agent, dietary

  3. Saving Lives at Birth; development of a retrospective theory of change, impact framework and prioritised metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Marek; Ruysen, Harriet; Blencowe, Hannah; Yee, Kristen; Clune, Karen; DeSilva, Mary; Leffler, Marissa; Hillman, Emily; El-Noush, Haitham; Mulligan, Jo; Murray, Jeffrey C; Silver, Karlee; Lawn, Joy E

    2018-01-29

    Grand Challenges for international health and development initiatives have received substantial funding to tackle unsolved problems; however, evidence of their effectiveness in achieving change is lacking. A theory of change may provide a useful tool to track progress towards desired outcomes. The Saving Lives at Birth partnership aims to address inequities in maternal-newborn survival through the provision of strategic investments for the development, testing and transition-to-scale of ground-breaking prevention and treatment approaches with the potential to leapfrog conventional healthcare approaches in low resource settings. We aimed to develop a theory of change and impact framework with prioritised metrics to map the initiative's contribution towards overall goals, and to measure progress towards improved outcomes around the time of birth. A theory of change and impact framework was developed retrospectively, drawing on expertise across the partnership and stakeholders. This included a document and literature review, and wide consultation, with feedback from stakeholders at all stages. Possible indicators were reviewed from global maternal-newborn health-related partner initiatives, priority indicator lists, and project indicators from current innovators. These indicators were scored across five domains to prioritise those most relevant and feasible for Saving Lives at Birth. These results informed the identification of the prioritised metrics for the initiative. The pathway to scale through Saving Lives at Birth is articulated through a theory of change and impact framework, which also highlight the roles of different actors involved in the programme. A prioritised metrics toolkit, including ten core impact indicators and five additional process indicators, complement the theory of change. The retrospective nature of this development enabled structured reflection of the program mechanics, allowing for inclusion of learning from the first four rounds of the

  4. Estimation of live birth and population prevalence of Down syndrome in nine U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Gert; Buckley, Frank; Dever, Jennifer; Skotko, Brian G

    2017-10-01

    For all of the U.S. states with sufficient data, we estimated live birth and population prevalences for Down syndrome (DS). As social service resources vary between states, such data are important for public policy discussions and state planning. We predicted the actual and nonselective live birth prevalence, and population prevalence, for DS in nine U.S. states based on publicly available datasets from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. As of 2010, we estimated a population size for people with DS of 4,554 in MA (population prevalence 1 in 1,440), 6,101 in NJ (1 in 1,443), 14,315 in NY (1 in 1,355), 9,739 in IL (1 in 1,319), 4,354 in IN (1 in 1,491), 7,295 in MI (1 in 1,354), 9,099 in FL (1 in 2,071), 3,014 in KY (1 in 1,442), and 3,596 in AZ (1 in 1,784). The number of people living with DS has steadily increased from 1950 until 2010 in these nine U.S. states. Population prevalence would have been higher absent DS-related elective terminations. Racial and ethnic groups, other than non-Hispanic whites, comprise a growing proportion within these DS communities, particularly among younger-aged persons. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Preterm birth among women living within 600 meters of high voltage overhead Power Lines: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Taktom; Ahmadi, Amirmasoud; Javadian, Maryam; Gholamian, Sayyed Asghar; Delavar, Mouloud Agajani; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Bahare; Hadighi, Mozhgan Sadat Hassanpour

    2017-09-26

    The issue of preterm birth due to exposure to magnetic fields from power lines is unclear. Exposure to electromagnetic field in uterus has been hypothesized as possible preterm birth. The aim of the present study was to determine whether living closer to high voltage power lines increased the risk of preterm labor. In a nested case-control study, 135 cases of singleton live spontaneous preterm birth in Rohani hospital, Babol, Iran, during the period between 2013 and 2014 were studied. The 150 control subjects were singleton term live birth in the same year of birth and city of residence using randomized-digit dialing. The shortest distance to any of the high voltage power lines to the maternal residence during pregnancy was measured using ArcGIS software for every case and control. To test the association between the preterm births and the residential proximity to power lines, stepwise multiple logistic regression was used. There were 28 households, 20 cases (14.8%) and 8 controls (5.3%) situated within 600 meters of high voltage power lines. The adjusted OR for spontaneous preterm birth and birth defect in women who were living in less than 600 meters from high voltage power lines was higher compared to those living at farther distance (OR = 3.28, CI: 1.37 to 7.85) and (OR = 5.05, CI: 1.52 to 16.78), respectively. Therefore, installing overhead power lines and stations within 600 meters or making overhead underground would be useful in the prevention of both preterm birth and birth defect.

  6. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Hoest, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Mikkelsen, Anne Lis

    2017-06-01

    This study included 238 good morphology blastocysts, which were transferred after vitrification-warming to 152 women by single blastocyst transfer in Holbæk Fertility Clinic, Denmark. Time-lapse recordings of transferred good morphology blastocysts were reassessed to recognize every abnormal cell division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst transferred to each patient showed similar to results. In conclusion, good morphology blastocysts presenting ACDs can result in live birth although lower compared to blastocysts with solely regular cell division. Pre-implantation embryos in vitro may undergo self-selection or correcting processes. This supports the transfer of blastocysts instead of cleavage stage embryos, giving first priority to blastocyst showing solely regular cell divisions, and giving second priority to blastocysts presenting ACDs at any cell cycle. Copyright © 2017 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  7. Live birth rates and safety profile using dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Ravichandran; Rajesh, Hemashree; Wong, Ker Yi; Faisal, Fazlin; Yu, Su Ling

    2017-06-01

    Assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) result in a deficient luteal phase, requiring the administration of intramuscular, intravaginal or oral exogenous progesterone. Dydrogesterone, an oral retroprogesterone with good bioavailability, has been used in assisted reproductive cycles with outcomes that are comparable to those of vaginal or intramuscular progesterone. However, there are limited reviews on its use for luteal phase support in ARTs, in terms of pregnancy outcomes and associated fetal anomalies. This study aimed to review the live birth rates and associated fetal anomalies of women who were given dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproductive cycles at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. This retrospective descriptive study included 1,050 women who underwent in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection at the Centre for Assisted Reproduction of Singapore General Hospital between 2000 and 2011. The women were given dydrogesterone for luteal phase support. The main outcome measures were rates of pregnancy, live birth, miscarriage and fetal anomalies. The pregnancy and live birth rates were 34.7% and 27.7%, respectively. Among those who achieved pregnancy, 17.0% miscarried, 0.8% had ectopic pregnancies and 0.3% had molar pregnancies. Fetal anomalies were detected in 1.9% of pregnancies, all of which were terminated by choice. Since the outcomes of dydrogesterone are comparable to those of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone, it is a reasonable option to provide luteal phase support for women who are uncomfortable with injections or vaginal insertions. Randomised controlled studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage of dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in ARTs.

  8. Waiting time distribution for the first conception leading to a live birth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, G.; Biswas, S.

    1985-01-01

    An attempt has been made in this paper to obtain probability model describing the distribution of the waiting time from marriage to first conception based on the data from marriage to first live birth. The speciality of this present approach lies in assuming the marital exposure to be finite which was assumed to be infinite by most of the earlier investigators for mathematical simplicity. Illustration of the applicability of the model on the data pertaining to first order of conception and monthly probability of conception for women married at different age groups have been illustrated in this paper. (author)

  9. Pregnancy outcome and live birth after IVF and ICSI according to embryo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauque, Patricia; Léandri, Roger; Merlet, Françoise; Juillard, Jean-Claude; Epelboin, Sylvie; Guibert, Juliette; Jouannet, Pierre; Patrat, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    The pregnancy outcome and the chances of birth were assessed according to embryo quality after IVF or ICSI. The implantation rate (IR), the loss of gestational sacs rate (LGSR), and birth rate (BR) were determined according to the cleavage stage and the integrity of blastomeres after day-2 homogeneous embryo transfers (n = 1812). The LGSR was higher after transfers of 2-3-cell or 5-6-cell embryos and was significantly increased when more than 20% of the embryo volume was fragmented in 4-cell embryos. After transfers of 4-cell embryos without fragmentation, the BR was significantly higher than the BR after transfers of 4-cell embryos with 1-20% fragmentation (16.6% vs 13.1%). The difference was the consequence of a higher IR (20.4% vs 17.3%) but also of a lower LGSR (18.9% vs 24.2%). Not only implantation and the ability to give a pregnancy, but also the capacity to give a live birth are dependent on the embryo quality.

  10. Live birth after in vitro fertilization (ivf in a 53 year old woman: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NC Orazulike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of live birth in a 53 year old woman following assisted reproductive techniques (ART. A 53-year-old civil servant who registered for antenatal care at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH in 2008 at 17 weeks gestation is presented. She had conceived after 4 years of infertility follow treatment by intracytoplasmic sperm injection/embryo transfer (ICSI-ET using her husband's sperm and donor eggs. The pregnancy was complicated by breech presentation at term. She was delivered of a healthy live male infant by elective caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. The puerperium was complicated by hypertension, which was managed appropriately. Infertility in women of advanced reproductive age can be successfully treated with donor oocytes in Nigeria. Antenatal supervision and delivery by skilled attendants is the key to achieve favourable outcome.

  11. Live birth potential of good morphology and vitrified blastocysts presenting abnormal cell divisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azzarello, Antonino; Høst, Thomas; Hay-Schmidt, Anders

    2017-01-01

    division (ACD) from the 1st to the 4th cell cycle. ACDs were distinguished as failed cell divisions and multi-cell divisions. ACDs were recognized in 37.0% (no. 88/238) of good morphology blastocysts that were vitrified-warmed and transferred in our clinic. Good morphology blastocysts with ACDs showed...... a lower live birth rate (17.0%) than blastocyst with solely regular cell divisions (29.3%). ACDs could occur at more than one cell division in the same good morphology blastocyst. Reported as independent events, we observed ACDs occurring more frequently at the later cell cycles (1st: 1.3%; 2nd: 8.0%; 3rd......: 18.5%; 4th: 18.1%). More blastocysts presented failed cell divisions (no. 95) than multi-cell divisions (no. 14). Live births were achieved from blastocysts showing multi-cell divisions at any cell cycle and failed cell divisions from the 2nd cell cycle. Analyses of the subgroup of first blastocyst...

  12. One uterus bridging three generations: first live birth after mother-to-daughter uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, Mats; Bokström, Hans; Dahm-Kähler, Pernilla; Diaz-Garcia, Cesar; Ekberg, Jana; Enskog, Anders; Hagberg, Henrik; Johannesson, Liza; Kvarnström, Niclas; Mölne, Johan; Olausson, Michael; Olofsson, Jan I; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether a uterus from the mother of a woman with absolute uterine factor infertility can be transplanted to daughter and carry a pregnancy with delivery of a healthy child. Part of an observational study. University teaching hospital. Twenty eight-year-old woman with uterine agenesis, her male partner, and her 50-year-old mother. In vitro fertilization with embryo cryopreservation before live donor uterus transplantation (UTx). Induction immunosuppression. Embryo transfer 12 months after UTx, pregnancy controls, delivery, and hysterectomy. Results of IVF-ET, parameters of pregnancy/birth, and surgical data of transplantation/cesarean section/hysterectomy. Two IVF cycles before UTx resulted in 10 cryopreserved embryos. Donor surgery included hysterectomy with vascular pedicles of uterine vessels and proximal vessels up to and including parts of internal iliacs. Recipient surgery was by bilateral vascular connections to external iliacs, vaginal-vaginal anastomosis, and uterine fixation. Pregnancy occurred at the first single ET, and the pregnancy proceeded uneventfully until gestational week 34, when the patient developed cholestasis with intense pruritus. Cesarean section was performed at 34+6, with delivery of a healthy boy (weight 2,335 g). Hysterectomy was performed 3.5 months after delivery. The weight of the healthy child at 12 months was 9.3 kg. Grandmother (uterus donor) and mother are in good health 3 years after UTx. This is the first report of a live birth after mother-to-daughter UTx, and it also represents the second birth ever after human UTx. NCT01844362. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Live birth outcome, spontaneous pregnancy and adoption up to five years after undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volgsten, Helena; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study is part of a longitudinal cohort undertaken in both women and men to describe live birth outcome after undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in a clinical setting. Another objective was to follow women and men living with children from other alternat......INTRODUCTION: This study is part of a longitudinal cohort undertaken in both women and men to describe live birth outcome after undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment in a clinical setting. Another objective was to follow women and men living with children from other...... alternatives after ART, such as adoption. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 439 (80.5%) women and 423 (77.6%) men were included in the baseline cohort (2005-2007). Live birth rate after ART was 24.8% at baseline. Up to 5 years later (2010-2011) the same participants were sent individual postal questionnaires (n...... birth after ART and more than one of four (28.0%) after spontaneous pregnancies or both. Of these, 52 (26.1%) women had a subsequent live birth after successful ART and 26 (32.9%) women after unsuccessful ART. Nineteen (6.8%) women and 13 (7.1%) men had a child after adoption. Almost one of five (19...

  14. Predictors of Pregnancy and Live Birth in Couples with Unexplained or Male-factor Infertility after Insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Hansen, Karl R.; Factor-Litvak, Pamela; Carson, Sandra A.; Guzick, David S.; Santoro, Nanette; Diamond, Michael P.; Eisenberg, Esther; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify risk factors for pregnancy outcomes in couples treated with intracervical or intrauterine insemination, with or without superovulation for unexplained or male-factor infertility. The treatment continued for four cycles unless pregnancy was achieved. Design Secondary analysis of data from a randomized superovulation and intrauterine insemination trial. Setting Academic medical centers. Intervention(s) None. Patients Out of 932 couples randomized to four treatment groups, 664 couples who had completed the lifestyle questionnaires were assessed for occurrence of pregnancy and live birth. Main outcome measure(s) pregnancy and live birth. Results The pregnancy and live birth rates were significantly higher in couples in which the female partners reported that they had consumed coffee or tea in the past or drank alcoholic beverages in the past (past users) when compared to those who had never consumed coffee or tea (4.0, 1.6–10.2 for pregnancy; 3.1, 1.2–8.1 for live birth) or alcoholic beverages (1.9, 1.1–3.3 for pregnancy; 2.1, 1.2–3.7 for live birth) (data are adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval). Past users also had significantly higher pregnancy and live birth rates than those who were currently consuming coffee or tea or alcoholic beverages. Demographic, occupational exposures and other lifestyle factors were not significant. Conclusion(s) Couples in which the female partners drank coffee, tea, or alcoholic beverages in the past had higher pregnancy and live birth rates when compared to never or current users. When discontinuing these habits, they might have made other lifestyle changes to improve the pregnancy outcome. PMID:22270557

  15. An Ethnographic Study of New Venture and New Sector Legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Fraser, Norman

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the process of legitimation of international new ventures from an emerging economy and the effect such ventures have on the process of creation and legitimation of a new industry in that economy. It is a longitudinal ethnographic case study. Following an inductive theory...... not exist to a final condition in which it is institutionalized. The model addresses the case where the initial catalyst is the formation of an international new venture that is the seed for the birth of the industry. Since both the new venture and the new industry lack cognitive and socio...... building approach, data were collected over an eleven year period via in-depth interviews, participant observations, and unobtrusive data. The study puts forward a process model of new industry legitimation. The model theorizes the process of change from an initial condition in which an industry does...

  16. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E; van der Post, J A M; van Wely, M; Bloemenkamp, K W M; Hoek, A; Kuchenbecker, W K; Verhoeve, H R; Scheepers, H C J; Rombout-de Weerd, S; Koks, C; Zwart, J J; Broekmans, F; Verpoest, W; Christiansen, O B; Post, M; Papatsonis, D N M; Verberg, M F G; Sikkema, J; Mol, B W; Bisschop, P H; Goddijn, M

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of levothyroxine administration on live birth rate in euthyroid TPO-Ab positive women with recurrent miscarriage. We will perform a multicenter, placebo controlled randomized trial in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Recurrent miscarriage is defined as two or more miscarriages before the 20th week of gestation. The primary outcome is live birth, defined as the birth of a living fetus beyond 24weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes are ongoing pregnancy at 12weeks, miscarriage, preterm birth, (serious) adverse events, time to pregnancy and survival at 28days of neonatal life. The analysis will be performed according to the intention to treat principle. We need to randomize 240 women (120 per group) to demonstrate an improvement in live birth rate from 55% in the placebo group to 75% in the levothyroxine treatment group. This trial is a registered trial (NTR 3364, March 2012). Here we discuss the rationale and design of the T4-LIFE study, an international multicenter randomized, double blind placebo controlled, clinical trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of levothyroxine in women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO-Ab. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The long-term prognosis for live birth in couples initiating fertility treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchau, S S; Henningsen, A A; Loft, A; Rasmussen, S; Forman, J; Nyboe Andersen, A; Pinborg, A

    2017-07-01

    What are the long-term chances of having a child for couples starting fertility treatments and how many conceive with ART, IUI and without treatment? Total 5-year live birthrates were strongly influenced by female age and ranged from 80% in women under 35-26% in women ≥40 years, overall, 14% of couples conceived naturally and one-third of couples starting treatments with intrauterine insemination delivered from that treatment. Few studies report success rates in fertility treatments across a couple's complete fertility treatment history, across clinics, evaluating live births after insemination, ART and natural conceptions. This register-based national cohort study from Denmark includes all women initiating fertility treatments in public and private clinics with homologous gametes in 2007-2010. Women were identified in the Danish ART Registry and were cross-linked with the Medical Birth Registry to identify live births. Subfertile couples were followed 2 years (N = 19 884), 3 years (N = 14 445) and 5 years (N = 5165), or until their first live birth. Cumulative live birthrates were estimated 2, 3 and 5 years from the first treatment cycle, in all women, including drop-outs. Birthrates were stratified by type of first treatment (ART/IUI), mode of conception (ART/IUI/natural conception) and female age. Within 5 years, in women aged women aged women starting treatments with IUI (N = 3028), 35% delivered after IUI within 5 years, 24% delivered after shift to ART treatments and 17% delivered after natural conception. Within 5 years from starting treatments with ART (N = 2137), 53% delivered after ART, 11% delivered after natural conception and 0.6% delivered after IUI. Birthrates are most likely higher compared to countries without national coverage of treatments and results are influenced by laws and regulations. Information on duration of infertility prior to treatment was not available. Future prospective intervention studies should focus on the role of expectant

  18. Does age of the sperm donor influence live birth outcome in assisted reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghuman, N K; Mair, E; Pearce, K; Choudhary, M

    2016-03-01

    Does age of the sperm donor have an effect on reproductive outcomes (live birth rate and miscarriage occurrence) of donor insemination or in vitro fertilization treatment using donated sperm? Live birth and miscarriage occurrence in assisted reproduction treatment using donor sperms was not found to be affected by the age of sperm donors up to 45 years old. Literature on the effect of sperm donor age on outcome of medically assisted reproduction is scarce. Most researchers agree that semen parameters deteriorate with increasing paternal age. However, there is no substantial evidence to suggest that this deterioration adversely affects the reproductive outcomes in couples undergoing medically assisted reproduction. This retrospective cohort study analysed 46 078 first donor insemination treatments and fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles using donated sperm from 1991 to 2012. The first fresh donor insemination and IVF/ICSI treatment cycles (46 078 treatment cycles) using donated sperm from the long-term anonymized data registry from 1991 to 2012 of the HFEA, the UK regulator, were analysed by the binary logistic modelling technique for association between sperm donor age and reproductive outcomes (live birth occurrence and miscarriage occurrence). The statistical package SPSS (version 21) was used for analysis and results were considered to be statistically significant if the P-value was 0.05). The miscarriage occurrence (i.e. number of miscarriages per 100 women commencing treatment) was 1.3% in 18-34 year old women, 1.9% in 35-37 year old women and 1.9% in 38-50 year old women undergoing donor insemination treatment. In the sperm donation IVF/ICSI treatment group, these figures were 5.7, 8.4 and 6.8% respectively. The results were not suggestive of any unfavourable effect of advancing sperm donor age on the odds of miscarriage occurrence (P > 0.05). As sperm donors are a select population based on good semen indices

  19. Live birth after laparotomy for concurrent heterotopic pregnancy and appendicitis in a 6 weeks IVF pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daponte, Alexandros; Spyridakis, Mihail; Ioannou, Maria; Vanakara, Polyxeni; Tzovaras, Georgios; Hatzitheofilou, Konstantine; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2007-05-01

    A term delivery after concurrent appendectomy and salpingectomy at 6 weeks in an appendicitis coexisting with a heterotopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is reported. Case report. The patient presented with severe low abdominal pain at 6 weeks of pregnancy after IVF and had explorative laparotomy for appendicitis, during which she had appendectomy and salpingectomy for an undiagnosed concurrent heterotopic pregnancy. The patient delivered a 3,960 g healthy infant at 38 weeks. In patients with severe abdominal pain after IVF, appendicitis and heterotopic pregnancy should be included in the differential diagnosis. A dual pathology is possible and when treated appropriately it can result in survival of the precious intrauterine pregnancy. This is the second and earliest ever reported case of that resulted in live birth. It shows that explorative surgery must be performed timely in acute abdomen in pregnancy.

  20. The influence of female and male body mass index on live births after assisted reproductive technology treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Schmidt, Lone; Pinborg, Anja

    2013-01-01

    . Analyses were adjusted for age and smoking at treatment initiation and results stratified by BMI groups and presented by IVF/ICSI treatment. RESULT(S): In total, 12,566 women and their partners went through 25,191 IVF/ICSI cycles with 23.7% ending in a live birth. Overweight and obese women with regular......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent and combined associations between female and male body mass index (BMI) on the probability of achieving a live birth after treatments with in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) under adjustment for relevant covariates....... DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Danish national registers. PATIENT(S): Patients with permanent residence in Denmark receiving IVF or ICSI treatment with use of autologous oocytes from January 1, 2006, to September 30, 2010. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth...

  1. Window of implantation transcriptomic stratification reveals different endometrial subsignatures associated with live birth and biochemical pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Ruiz-Alonso, Maria; Sebastian-Leon, Patricia; Pellicer, Antonio; Valbuena, Diana; Simón, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    To refine the endometrial window of implantation (WOI) transcriptomic signature by defining new subsignatures associated to live birth and biochemical pregnancy. Retrospective cohort study. University-affiliated in vitro fertilization clinic and reproductive genetics laboratory. Healthy fertile oocyte donors (n = 79) and patients with infertility diagnosed by Endometrial Receptivity Analysis (n = 771). None. WOI transcriptomic signatures associated with specific reproductive outcomes. The retrospective cohort study was designed to perform a prediction model based on transcriptomic clusters for endometrial classification (training set, n = 529). The clinical follow-up set in the expected WOI (n = 321) was tested with the transcriptomic predictor to detect WOI variability and the pregnancy outcomes associated with these subsignatures (n = 228). The endometrial receptivity signature was redefined into four WOI transcriptomic profiles. This stratification identified an optimal endometrial receptivity (RR) signature resulting in an ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) of 80% in terms of live birth, as well as a late receptive-stage (LR) signature with a potential high risk of 50% biochemical pregnancy. Abnormal down-regulation of the cell cycle was the main dysregulated function among the 22 genes associated with biochemical pregnancy. The major differences between the WOI transcriptomic stratification were in the OPR and biochemical pregnancy rate. The OPR ranged from 76.9% and 80% in the late prereceptive (LPR) and RR signatures, respectively, versus 33.3% in the LR. The biochemical pregnancy rate was 7.7% and 6.6% in LPR and RR, respectively, but 50% in LR, which highlights the relevance of endometrial status in the progression of embryonic implantation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Risk and fear in the lived experience of birth without a midwife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plested, Mariamni; Kirkham, Mavis

    2016-07-01

    the broad aim of this study was to examine the lived-experience of women who birth without a midwife or other health-care professional in the United Kingdom; the specific purpose of this paper is to examine risk discourse as experienced by these women. reflective lifeworld research, a phenomenological approach was used in this study based on the philosophical writings of Husserl, Merleau-Ponty and Gadamer (Dahlberg et al., 2008). 10 in-depth interviews were conducted with women who had birthed without a midwife or other health-care professional present, interviews were transcribed and hermeneutically analysed. women׳s lived-experiences of the maternity services in this study suggest a pervading mood of fear which finds voice in manipulative risk discourse and midwifery behaviours that can result in women avoiding maternity care. Fear based ׳risk-talk׳ is used as a scare tactic to coerce women into particular choices; if women do not comply they are labelled ׳risk-takers׳ and can become ostracised by the maternity care system. risk discourse and its emphasis on mortality and morbidity raises awareness of death and creates important existential concerns for women which are unaddressed by health-care professionals. This can lead to a loss of trust in health-care professionals and women sourcing positive support and a salutogenic approach to childbirth from outside the system. health-care professionals need to become aware of and address manipulative and coercive attitudes in risk discourse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Relationship between air pollution exposure during pregnancy and birth weight of term singleton live-birth newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L Q; Zhang, Q; Zhao, D D; Wang, L L; Chen, Y; Mi, B B; Dang, S N; Yan, H

    2017-10-10

    Objective: This study explored the association between air pollution exposure and birth weight by using the multilevel linear model, after controlling related meteorological factors and individual differences of both mothers and babies. Methods: Women of childbearing age who were pregnant in Xi'an from 2010 to 2013, were selected as objects of this study. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 4 631 subjects followed by a self-designed questionnaire survey. Data related to quality of air and meteorology were gathered from routine monitoring system. Gestational age and date of birth, together with the average levels of air pollution were calculated for each trimester on each mother, and then the impact of air pollution on birth weight was assessed. A multilevel linear model was employed to investigate the association between the levels of exposure to air pollution by birth weight. Confounding factors were under control. We established three models in this study: Model 1 which involving the variable of air pollution exposure. Model 2 was adjusted for variables in Model 1 plus some other individual differences of both mother and baby. Model 3 was adjusted for variables in Model 2 plus meteorological factors. Results: There were significant differences seen in birth weight within the subgroups of gender, gestational age, mother's reproductive age, maternal education, residential areas and family incomes ( P 0.05). Data from Model 3 indicated that a decrease of 13.3 g(10.9 g in Model 2) and 6.6 g (5.9 g in Model 2) in birth weight that were associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester; A decrease of 13.7 g (9.8 g in Model 2) in birth weight was associated with an increase of 10 μg/m(3) in the average level of NO(2) during the third trimester. Conclusion: After controlling for meteorological factors, the levels of exposure to NO(2) and PM(10) during the second trimester and NO(2) during the

  4. Development of Autoimmune Overt Hypothyroidism Is Highly Associated With Live Births and Induced Abortions but Only in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Buelow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    replacement therapy, also taking various possible confounders into account. Results: In multivariate regression models with no event as reference, the odds ratios (ORs) for hypothyroidism [95% confidence interval (CI)] after one/two/three or more live births were 1.72 (0.56-5.32)/3.12 (1.14-8.48)/4.51 (1......: In conditional multivariate logistic regression models, we analyzed the associations between the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism and age at menarche/menopause, years of menstruations, pregnancies, spontaneous and induced abortions, live births, and years on oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone...

  5. Pre-stimulation parameters predicting live birth after IVF in the long GnRH agonist protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pettersson, Göran; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Broberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify novel pre-stimulation parameters associated with live birth in IVF and to develop a model for prediction of the chances of live birth at an early phase of the treatment cycle. Data were collected from a randomized trial in couples with unexplained...... infertility, tubal factor, mild male factor or other reason for infertility. All women (n=731) had undergone an IVF cycle (no intracytoplasmic sperm injection) after stimulation with human menopausal gonadotrophin or follicle-stimulating hormone following the long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist...

  6. Legitimate Allocation of Public Healthcare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper; Lauridsen, Sigurd

    2009-01-01

    Citizens' consent to political decisions is often regarded as a necessary condition of political legitimacy. Consequently, legitimate allocation of healthcare has seemed almost unattainable in contemporary pluralistic societies. The problem is that citizens do not agree on any single principle...... governing priorities among groups of patients. The Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework suggests an ingenious solution to this problem of moral disagreement. Rather than advocating any substantive distributive principle, its advocates propose a feasible set of conditions, which, if met...... by decision makers at the institutional level, provide, so it is promised, legitimate decisions. While we agree that A4R represents an important contribution to the priority-setting debate, we challenge the framework in two respects. First, we argue that A4R, and more specifically the relevance condition of A...

  7. The changing trends in live birth statistics in Korea, 1970 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Woo Lim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although Korean population has been growing steadily during the past four decades, the nation is rapidly becoming an aging society because of its declining birth rate combined with an increasing life expectancy. In addition, Korea has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world due to fewer married couples, advanced maternal age, and falling birth rate. The prevalence of low birth weight infants and multiple births has been increased compared with the decrease in the birth rate. Moreover, the number of congenital anomalies is expected to increase due to the advanced maternal age. In addition, the number of interracial children is expected to increase due to the rise in the number of international marriages. However, the maternal education level is high, single-mother birth rate is low, and the gender imbalance has lessened. The number of overweight babies has been decreased, as more pregnant women are receiving adequate prenatal care. Compared to the Asian average birth weight, the average birth weight is the highest in Asia. Moreover, the rate of low birth weight infants is low, and infant mortality is similarly low across Asia. Using birth data from Statistics Korea and studies of birth outcomes in Korea and abroad, this study aimed to assess the changes in maternal and infant characteristics associated with birth outcomes during the past four decades and identify necessary information infrastructures to study countermeasures the decrease in birth rate and increase in low birth weight infants in Korea.

  8. Estimates of live birth prevalence of children with Down syndrome in the period 1991-2015 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Engelen, J. J. M.; Gijsbers, A. C. J.; Hochstenbach, R.; Hoffer, M. J. V.; Kooper, A. J. A.; Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Srebniak, M. I.; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, A. M. F.; van Zutven, L. J. C. M.; Voorhoeve, E.

    2017-01-01

    In Western countries, increasing maternal age has led to more pregnancies with a child with Down syndrome (DS). However, prenatal screening programs, diagnostic testing and termination of pregnancy influence the actual DS live birth (LB) prevalence as well. The aim of this study is to examine these

  9. Estimates of live birth prevalence of children with Down syndrome in the period 1991–2015 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Engelen, J. J.M.; Gijsbers, A. C.J.; Hochstenbach, R.; Hoffer, M. J.V.; Kooper, A. J.A.; Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Srebniak, M. I.; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, A. M.F.; van Zutven, L. J.C.M.; Voorhoeve, E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Western countries, increasing maternal age has led to more pregnancies with a child with Down syndrome (DS). However, prenatal screening programs, diagnostic testing and termination of pregnancy influence the actual DS live birth (LB) prevalence as well. The aim of this study is to

  10. Estimates of live birth prevalence of children with Down syndrome in the period 1991-2015 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Engelen, J. J. M.; Gijsbers, A. C. J.; Hochstenbach, R.; Hoffer, M. J. V.; Kooper, A. J. A.; Sikkema-Raddatz, B.; Srebniak, M. I.; van der Kevie-Kersemaekers, A. M. F.; van Zutven, L. J. C. M.; Voorhoeve, E.

    Background In Western countries, increasing maternal age has led to more pregnancies with a child with Down syndrome (DS). However, prenatal screening programs, diagnostic testing and termination of pregnancy influence the actual DS live birth (LB) prevalence as well. The aim of this study is to

  11. Differences in rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe in 2003: results from the MOSAIC cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Draper, E.S.; Kollee, L.A.A.; Milligan, D.; Boerch, K.; Agostino, R.; Gortner, L.; Reempts, P. van; Chabernaud, J.L.; Gadzinowski, J.; Breart, G.; Papiernik, E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Advances in perinatal medicine increased survival after very preterm birth in all countries, but comparative population-based data on these births are not readily available. This analysis contrasts the rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in 10

  12. Legitimate data in remote monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, J D

    2009-01-01

    An approach for ensuring legitimate data transfers of an individual within a remote healthcare solution. Biometric traits and networking are discussed for clarification of the approach. In this approach, a biometric solution is identified as a fingerprint scanner for use in a personal area network of the patient's home. Secure data exchange is acknowledged as a potential weakness in the transferring of patient data within this network. Some options are discussed to ensure security of data for the review by the caregiver. Example approaches regarding legitimacy are identified using a pulse oximeter [1], a blood pressure meter, and a weight scale as the remote patient devices in the remote healthcare solution.

  13. Live Births from Domestic Dog (Canis familiaris Embryos Produced by In Vitro Fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Nagashima

    Full Text Available Development of assisted reproductive technologies (ART in the dog has resisted progress for decades, due to their unique reproductive physiology. This lack of progress is remarkable given the critical role ART could play in conserving endangered canid species or eradicating heritable disease through gene-editing technologies-an approach that would also advance the dog as a biomedical model. Over 350 heritable disorders/traits in dogs are homologous with human conditions, almost twice the number of any other species. Here we report the first live births from in vitro fertilized embryos in the dog. Adding to the practical significance, these embryos had also been cryopreserved. Changes in handling of both gametes enabled this progress. The medium previously used to capacitate sperm excluded magnesium because it delayed spontaneous acrosome exocytosis. We found that magnesium significantly enhanced sperm hyperactivation and ability to undergo physiologically-induced acrosome exocytosis, two functions essential to fertilize an egg. Unlike other mammals, dogs ovulate a primary oocyte, which reaches metaphase II on Days 4-5 after the luteinizing hormone (LH surge. We found that only on Day 6 are oocytes consistently able to be fertilized. In vitro fertilization of Day 6 oocytes with sperm capacitated in medium supplemented with magnesium resulted in high rates of embryo development (78.8%, n = 146. Intra-oviductal transfer of nineteen cryopreserved, in vitro fertilization (IVF-derived embryos resulted in seven live, healthy puppies. Development of IVF enables modern genetic approaches to be applied more efficiently in dogs, and for gamete rescue to conserve endangered canid species.

  14. CDC-reported assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates may mislead the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Vitaly A; Choi, Jennifer; Darmon, Sarah K; Albertini, David F; Barad, David H; Gleicher, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    The Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) publicly reports assisted reproductive technology live-birth rates (LBR) for each US fertility clinic under legal mandate. The 2014 CDC report excluded 35,406 of 184,527 (19.2%) autologous assisted reproductive technology cycles that involved embryo or oocyte banking from LBR calculations. This study calculated 2014 total clinic LBR for all patients utilizing autologous oocytes two ways: including all initiated assisted reproductive technology cycles or excluding banking cycles, as done by the CDC. The main limitation of this analysis is the CDC report did not differentiate between cycles involving long-term banking of embryos or oocytes for fertility preservation from cycles involving short-term embryo banking. Twenty-seven of 458 (6%) clinics reported over 40% of autologous cycles involved banking, collectively performing 12% of all US assisted reproductive technology cycles. LBR in these outlier clinics calculated by the CDC method, was higher than the other 94% of clinics (33.1% versus 31.1%). However, recalculated LBR including banking cycles in the outlier clinics was lower than the other 94% of clinics (15.5% versus 26.6%). LBR calculated by the two methods increasingly diverged based on proportion of banking cycles performed by each clinic reaching 4.5-fold, thereby, potentially misleading the public. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L Schnakenberg

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC: Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1, which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2, which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1 reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2 causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.

  16. Sperm-storage defects and live birth in Drosophila females lacking spermathecal secretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakenberg, Sandra L; Matias, Wilfredo R; Siegal, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    Male Drosophila flies secrete seminal-fluid proteins that mediate proper sperm storage and fertilization, and that induce changes in female behavior. Females also produce reproductive-tract secretions, yet their contributions to postmating physiology are poorly understood. Large secretory cells line the female's spermathecae, a pair of sperm-storage organs. We identified the regulatory regions controlling transcription of two genes exclusively expressed in these spermathecal secretory cells (SSC): Spermathecal endopeptidase 1 (Send1), which is expressed in both unmated and mated females, and Spermathecal endopeptidase 2 (Send2), which is induced by mating. We used these regulatory sequences to perform precise genetic ablations of the SSC at distinct time points relative to mating. We show that the SSC are required for recruiting sperm to the spermathecae, but not for retaining sperm there. The SSC also act at a distance in the reproductive tract, in that their ablation: (1) reduces sperm motility in the female's other sperm-storage organ, the seminal receptacle; and (2) causes ovoviviparity--the retention and internal development of fertilized eggs. These results establish the reproductive functions of the SSC, shed light on the evolution of live birth, and open new avenues for studying and manipulating female fertility in insects.

  17. The maternal age-specific live birth prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 compared to trisomy 21 (Down syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, George M; Walker, Kate; Morris, Joan K

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the maternal age-specific live birth prevalence (in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination) of trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) and compare it with that of trisomy 21 (Down syndrome). Records of prenatal and postnatal diagnoses from seven UK regional congenital anomaly registers and two Australian registers covering 4.5 million births included 975 diagnoses of trisomy 13 and 2254 of trisomy 18. Prevalence at birth in the absence of prenatal diagnosis and selective termination was calculated by adjusting for prenatally diagnosed pregnancies that were terminated according to their likelihood of surviving to term. The live birth prevalence in the absence of prenatal screening and selective termination in England and Wales from 1997 to 2004 was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2-1.6) per 10 000 births for trisomy 13 and 2.3 (95% CI: 2.1-2.5) for trisomy 18. It has increased since 1989-1996, by 13% for trisomy 13 and 25% for trisomy 18. These increases are consistent with those predicted due to increases in maternal age. This study provides the first estimates of maternal age-specific prevalence of trisomies 13 and 18 for women aged 16-45. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Bias from conditioning on live birth in pregnancy cohorts: an illustration based on neurodevelopment in children after prenatal exposure to organic pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn; Cui, Xin; Ritz, Beate; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

    2015-01-01

    Only 60-70% of fertilized eggs may result in a live birth, and very early fetal loss mainly goes unnoticed. Outcomes that can only be ascertained in live-born children will be missing for those who do not survive till birth. In this article, we illustrate a common bias structure (leading to

  19. The Terrorist Attacks and the Human Live Birth Sex Ratio: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; O'Neill, Sinéad M; Khashan, Ali S; Kenny, Louise C; Grech, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The live birth sex ratio is defined as male/total births (M/F). Terrorist attacks have been associated with a transient decline in M/F 3-5 months later with an excess of male losses in ongoing pregnancies. The early 21st century is replete with religious/politically instigated attacks. This study estimated the pooled effect size between exposure to attacks and M/F. Registration number CRD42016041220. PubMed and Scopus were searched for ecological studies that evaluated the relationship between terrorist attacks from 1/1/2000 to 16/6/2016 and M/F. An overall pooled odds ratio (OR) for the main outcome was generated using the generic inverse variance method. Five studies were included: 2011 Norway attacks; 2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting; 2001 September 11 attacks; 2004 Madrid and 2005 London bombings. OR at 0.97 95% CI (0.94-1.00) (I2 = 63%) showed a small statistically significant 3% decline in the odds (p = 0.03) of having a male live birth 3-5 months later. For lone wolf attacks there was a 10% reduction, OR 0.90 95% CI (0.86-0.95) (p = 0.0001). Terrorist (especially lone wolf) attacks were significantly associated with reduced odds of having a live male birth. Pregnancy loss remains an important Public Health challenge. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses considering other calamities are warranted.

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  1. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  2. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  3. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  4. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  5. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  6. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  7. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  8. Living in stressful neighbourhoods during pregnancy: an observational study of crime rates and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Tom; Dibben, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Patterns of adverse birth outcomes vary spatially and there is evidence that this may relate to features of the physical environment such as air pollution. However, other social characteristics of the environment such as levels of crime are relatively understudied. This study examines the association between crime rates and birth weight and prematurity. Maternity inpatient data recorded at birth, including residential postcode, was linked to a representative 5% sample of Scottish Census data and small area crime rates from Scottish Police forces. Coefficients associated with crime were reported from crude and confounder adjusted models predicting low birth weight (crime rates were associated with strong and significant reductions in mean birth weight and increases in the risks of both a small for gestational age baby and premature birth. These effects, with the exception of prematurity, were robust to adjustment for individual characteristics including smoking, ethnicity and other socio-economic variables as well as area based confounders including air pollution. Mean birth weight was robust to additional adjustment for neighbourhood income deprivation. The level of crime in a mother's area of residence, which may be a proxy for the degree of threat felt and therefore stress experienced, appears to be an important determinant of the risk of adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  9. Uterus transplantation: From animal models through the first heart beating pregnancy to the first human live birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Omer; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Ozkan, Ozlenen; Mendilcioglu, Inanc; Dogan, Selen; Aydinuraz, Batu; Simsek, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Absolute uterine factor infertility affects 3–5% of the general population, and unfortunately this condition is untreatable. There are some available options, including surrogacy or adoption, but neither of these suits each and every woman who desires to have her own genetic child. With recent advances in surgery and transplant immunology, uterus transplantation may be a source of hope for these women with uterine infertility. In the last decade, a number of animal species including rats, mice, rabbits, pigs, sheep, and primates have been used as experimental models, and pregnancies were achieved in some of these. Human data consist of 11 subjects yielding positive pregnancy results with no live births in the second trial from Turkey and, more fortunately, live births from the latest trial from Sweden. In the light of all these studies, uterus transplantation has been proven to be a viable option for women with uterine factor infertility. PMID:27638900

  10. Live birth in a woman without ovaries after autograft of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue combined with growth factors

    OpenAIRE

    Callejo, Justo; Salvador, Cristina; Gonz?lez-Nu?ez, Santiago; Almeida, Laura; Rodriguez, Luciano; Marqu?s, Laura; Valls, Ana; Lailla, Jos? Maria

    2013-01-01

    Currently, cryopreservation of oocytes, embryos and ovarian tissue is considered the basis of fertility preservation programs for women with cancer and other diseases who are rendered sterile by gonadotoxic drugs or radiation. Numerous studies have confirmed that autograft of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue can restore ovarian function and fertility. A total of twenty-two live births have been reported but we still have to consider this technique as experimental. The main problem is that the imp...

  11. Increasing live birth rate by preimplantation genetic screening of pooled polar bodies using array comparative genomic hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feichtinger

    Full Text Available Meiotic errors during oocyte maturation are considered the major contributors to embryonic aneuploidy and failures in human IVF treatment. Various technologies have been developed to screen polar bodies, blastomeres and trophectoderm cells for chromosomal aberrations. Array-CGH analysis using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC arrays is widely applied for preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD using single cells. Recently, an increase in the pregnancy rate has been demonstrated using array-CGH to evaluate trophectoderm cells. However, in some countries, the analysis of embryonic cells is restricted by law. Therefore, we used BAC array-CGH to assess the impact of polar body analysis on the live birth rate. A disadvantage of polar body aneuploidy screening is the necessity of the analysis of both the first and second polar bodies, resulting in increases in costs for the patient and complex data interpretation. Aneuploidy screening results may sometimes be ambiguous if the first and second polar bodies show reciprocal chromosomal aberrations. To overcome this disadvantage, we tested a strategy involving the pooling of DNA from both polar bodies before DNA amplification. We retrospectively studied 351 patients, of whom 111 underwent polar body array-CGH before embryo transfer. In the group receiving pooled polar body array-CGH (aCGH analysis, 110 embryos were transferred, and 29 babies were born, corresponding to live birth rates of 26.4% per embryo and 35.7% per patient. In contrast, in the control group, the IVF treatment was performed without preimplantation genetic screening (PGS. For this group, 403 embryos were transferred, and 60 babies were born, resulting in live birth rates of 14.9% per embryo and 22.7% per patient. In conclusion, our data show that in the aCGH group, the use of aneuploidy screening resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate compared with the control group, supporting the benefit of PGS for IVF couples in

  12. National screening guidelines and developments in prenatal diagnoses and live births of Down syndrome in 1973-2016 in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Stina; Petersen, Olav B; Jørgensen, Finn S; Lund, Ida C B; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Vogel, Ida

    2018-02-01

    Denmark was the first country in the world to implement a national, free-for-all offer of prenatal screening for Down syndrome to all pregnant women. It has a high uptake (>90%) compared to other countries. Thus, Denmark offers an interesting case for investigating the consequences of implementing comprehensive, national prenatal screening guidelines. The aim of this study was to describe the historical developments in invasive procedures, pre-/postnatal diagnoses of Down syndrome and Down syndrome live births in the period 1973-2016 in Denmark. Data on invasive procedures, pre- and postnatal Down syndrome diagnoses were retrieved from the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry. From 1973 to 1993, screening based on maternal age and high-risk indications resulted in a constant increase in invasive procedures. After the introduction of the triple test in 1994, invasive procedures decreased for the first time in 20 years. Following the introduction of an offer of combined screening to all pregnant women in 2004, the number of invasive procedures decreased markedly, while there was a concurrent increase in prenatal diagnoses of Down syndrome. Additionally, the number of Down syndrome live births decreased suddenly and significantly, but subsequently stabilized at 23-35 annual live births. Of these, the majority were diagnosed postnatally. Though prenatal screening technologies constantly improve, it was the introduction of and adherence to national guidelines that resulted in marked shifts in screening procedures and outcome in Denmark. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Is subclinical hypothyroidism associated with lower live birth rates in women who have experienced unexplained recurrent miscarriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Myrthe M; Vissenberg, Rosa; Bisschop, Peter H; Dawood, Feroza; van Wely, Madelon; Goddijn, Mariëtte; Farquharson, Roy G

    2016-12-01

    Thyroid disorders have been associated with recurrent miscarriage. Little evidence is available on the influence of subclinical hypothyroidism on live birth rates. In this cohort study, women who had experienced miscarriage and subclinical hypothyroidism (defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone >97.5th percentile mU/l with a normal thyroxine level) were investigated; the control group included women who had experienced recurrent miscarriage and normal thyroid function. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of subclinical hypothyroidism. Data were available for 848 women; 20 (2.4%) had subclinical hypothyroidism; 818 women (96%) had euthyroidism; and 10 (1.2%) had overt hypothyroidism. The live birth rate was 45% in women with subclinical hypothyroidism and 52% in euthyroid women (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.71). The ongoing pregnancy rate was 65% versus 69% (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.10) and the miscarriage rate was 35% versus 28% (OR 1.43, 95% CI 0.56 to 3.68), respectively. No differences were found when thyroid stimulating hormone 2.5 mU/l was used as cut-off level to define subclinical hypothyroidism. In women with unexplained miscarriage, no differences were found in live birth, ongoing pregnancy and miscarriage rates between women with subclinical hypothyroidism and euthyroid women. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Frequency of marriage and live birth among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Miller, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth

  15. What is the impact of interventions that prevent fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Gizelton Pereira; da Silva, Zilda Pereira; Santos, Patrícia Carla; Raspantini, Priscila Ribeiro; Moura, Barbara Laisa Alves; de Almeida, Marcia Furquim; do Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2015-07-23

    There is a global growing trend of preterm births and a decline trend of fetal deaths. Is there an impact of the decline of fetal mortality on the increase of preterm live births in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil? The time trends were evaluated by gestational age through exponential regression analysis. Data analyzed included the fetal mortality ratio, proportion of preterm live births, fertility rate of women 35 years and over, prenatal care, mother's education, multiple births and cesarean section deliveries. A survival analysis was carried out for 2000 and 2010. Preterm births showed the highest annual increase (3.2%) in the less than 28 weeks of gestation group and fetal mortality ratio decreased (7.4%) in the same gestational age group. There was an increase of cesarean section births and it was higher in the increased trend in multiple births and fertility rates of women of 35 years and over. The variables were highly correlated to which other over time. In 2000, 8.2% of all pregnancies resulted in preterm births (0.9% in fetal deaths and 7.3% in live births). In 2010, the preterm birth increased to 9.4% (0.8% were preterm fetal deaths and 8.6% preterm live births). The results suggest that 45.2% could be the maximum contribution of successful interventions to prevent a fetal death on the increase in preterm live births. This increasing trend is also related to changes of the women reproductive profile with the change of the women reproductive profile and access to prenatal care.

  16. Acupuncture to improve live birth rates for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Caroline A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IVF is a costly treatment option for women, their partners, and the public. Therefore new therapies that improve reproductive and health outcomes are highly desirable. There is a growing body of research evaluating the effect of acupuncture administered during IVF, and specifically on the day of embryo transfer (ET. Many trials are heterogeneous and results inconsistent. There remains insufficient evidence to determine if acupuncture can enhance live birth rates when used as an adjunct to IVF treatment. The study will determine the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture with improving the proportion of women undergoing IVF having live births. Other objectives include: determination of the cost effectiveness of IVF with acupuncture; and examination of the personal and social context of acupuncture in IVF patients, and examining the reasons why the acupuncture may or may not have worked. Methods We will conduct a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared to placebo acupuncture. Inclusion criteria include: women aged less than 43 years; undergoing a fresh IVF or ICSI cycle; and restricted to women with the potential for a lower live birth rate defined as two or more previous unsuccessful ETs; and unsuccessful clinical pregnancies of quality embryos deemed by the embryologist to have been suitable for freezing by standard criteria. Women will be randomized to acupuncture or placebo acupuncture. Treatment is administered on days 6 to 8 of the stimulated cycle and two treatments on the day of ET. A non-randomized cohort of women not using acupuncture will be recruited to the study. The primary study outcome is the proportion of women reporting a live birth. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of women reporting a clinical pregnancy miscarriage prior to 12 weeks, quality of life, and self-efficacy. The sample size of the study is 1,168 women, with the aim of detecting a 7% difference in live births between groups (P

  17. [Incidence of fetal macrosomia among single live birth neonates and influencing factors in Xi' an, 2010-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Bai, R H; Wang, L L; Dang, S N; Mi, B B; Yan, H

    2016-08-10

    To analyze the incidence and influencing factors on fetal macrosomia among single live birth neonates in Xi' an. A questionnaire survey was conducted among women at the childbearing age who were selected through multi stage stratified random sampling in Xi 'an during 2010-2013. All the childbearing aged women involved, were in pregnancy or having definite pregnancy outcomes. A total of 4 970 women at childbearing age and their infants were investigated. The overall incidence of fetal macrosomia weight among the single live birth neonates under study, was 9.7% during 2010-2013 (8.9% in 2010, 8.1% in 2011, 10.0% in 2012 and 10.1% in 2013, respectively). The incidence rates of fetal macrosomia appeared 10.5% in the central district and, 8.6% in the rural-urban area of Xi'an. There were statistically significant differences (Pmacrosomia. The incidence of fetal macrosomia in Xi' an was higher than the national figures. The incidence of fetal macrosomia was higher in the central district than in rural-urban area. Having male neonate, postmature birth, gestational diabetes, being multipara, drinking during pregnancy were the risk factors related to fetal macrosomia.

  18. International New Venture Legitimation: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo V. Turcan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is limited theoretical understanding and empirical evidence for how international new ventures legitimate. Drawing from legitimation theory, this study fills in this gap by exploring how international new ventures legitimate and strive for survival in the face of critical events during the process of their emergence. It is a longitudinal, multiple-case study research that employs critical incident technique for data collection, analysis, and interpretation. Following theory driven sampling, five international new ventures were selected that were operating in the software sector in the UK, and had internationalized and struggled for survival during the dotcom era. Grounded in data, this study corroborates a number of legitimation strategies yielded by prior research and refutes others. It further contributes to our understanding of international new venture legitimation by suggesting new types of legitimation strategies: technology, operating, and anchoring. Studying international new ventures through theoretical lenses of legitimation is a promising area of research that would contribute to the advancement of international entrepreneurship theory.

  19. Epidemiological profile of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers and live birth conditions in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Scalabrini Pinto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological characteristics of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mothers and the live birth conditions of neonates. METHODS: A serological survey with IgG-specific tests was conducted using dried blood samples from newborn infants in the State of Minas Gerais. T. cruzi infection was confirmed in mothers through positive serology in two different tests, and infected mothers were required to have their infants serologically tested after the age of 6 months. The birth conditions of the neonates were obtained from the System of Information on Live Births database. RESULTS: The study included 407 children born to T. cruzi-infected mothers and 407 children born to uninfected mothers. The average age of seropositive mothers was 32 years (CI95% 31.3-32.6, which was greater than the average age of seronegative mothers - 25 years (CI95% 24.8-25.2. The mothers' level of education was higher among uninfected mothers (41% had 8 or more years of education, versus 22% between the infected mothers. Vaginal delivery was more frequent among infected mothers. There was no evidence of inter-group differences with respect to the child's sex, gestational age, birth weight or Appearance, pulse, grimace, activity and respiration (APGAR scores at 1 and 5 minutes. Conclusions: The level of education and the greater number of previous pregnancies and cases of vaginal delivery reflect the lower socioeconomical conditions of the infected mothers. In the absence of vertical transmission, neonates had similar health status irrespective of the infection status of their mothers.

  20. On new industry creation and legitimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Fraser, Norman

    an initial condition in which an industry does not exist to a final condition in which it is institutionalized. We ground our discussion in a typology of legitimation. Both authors bring to the discussion their ethnographic experience in creating and legitimating new industries and new ventures......The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of creation and legitimation of new industries. Specifically, the question we address is how to cross the gulf between no industry and embryonic industry in order for a new industry to emerge. In this, our focus is on the process of change from...

  1. A Study Of 370 Live Births In A Rural Area Of Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Surinder

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in12 Anganwadi areas of ferozepur District in Punjab to know about the various aspects of reproduction of the population. A total of 13, 782 population was covered. The sex ratio of the surveyed population was 900.7 females to 1000 males. The crude Birth rate of the area came to be 26.83 per 1000 population. In 94.87% of the births, the delivery occurred at the completion of 36 weeks of Gestation period & majority of the births (91.63% occurred to the mothers in the age group of 20 to 35 years . 24.86% of the children were born to the mothers with parity of five and above. 46.75% of the births took place between the months of July and October. 96.22% of the deliveries were conducted at home and majority (93.79% of the mothers utilized the services of indigenous dais( 73.52% of trained dais and 20.27% of untrained dais for the conduction of delivery.

  2. Prevalence of Hospitalized Live Births Affected by Alcohol and Drugs and Parturient Women Diagnosed with Substance Abuse at Liveborn Delivery: United States, 1999–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

  3. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  4. Combined advanced parental age has an additive negative effect on live birth rates-data from 4057 first IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Nicole O; Zander-Fox, Deirdre; Vincent, Andrew D; Lane, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if there is an additive effect of combined advanced maternal and paternal age on pregnancy and live birth rates. Retrospective data analysis of 4057 first cycles at a fertility centre between 2009 and 2013 was compiled. Donor, preimplantation genetic screening and double embryo transfer cycles were excluded. Main outcomes measured were clinical pregnancy, viable pregnancy, live birth and term birth. Logistic regression indicated strong negative associations for maternal ages exceeding 27 years with clinical pregnancies (p < 0.001), viable pregnancies (p < 0.001), live births (p < 0.001) and term births (p < 0.001). There was evidence of negative associations between paternal age and both viable pregnancies (p = 0.06) and live births (p = 0.04), such that the probability of pregnancy was 10% further reduced for women who were 35 years with a partner over 40 years vs. women aged 35 years with a partner under 30 years. There was evidence of an interaction between maternal age and the paternal age on term births (p = 0.02) such that advanced paternal age's effect on the probability of a term birth was only evident in couples where the maternal age ranged between ~27 and 35 years. There is an additive effect to pregnancy and live birth rates when both partners are of an advanced age, thus highlighting the need for pre-conception public health messaging and a combined approach to ART counselling assessing both parental ages in combination.

  5. National Pregnancy and Health Survey: Drug Use Among Women Delivering Live Births (NPHS-1992)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The primary objective of the National Pregnancy and Health Survey (NPHS) was to produce national annual estimates of the percentages and numbers of mothers of live...

  6. CDC WONDER: Births

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Births (Natality) online databases in CDC WONDER report birth rates, fertility rates and counts of live births occurring within the United States to U.S....

  7. Live Birth After In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) in a 53 Year Old Woman: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    using her husband's sperm and donor eggs. The pregnancy was complicated by breech presentation at term. She was delivered of a healthy live male infant by elective caesarean section at 38 weeks of gestation. .... than 40 years of age[14]. The quality/quantity of the oocyte and the impairment of implantation as a result of.

  8. Live birth after IVF in a 46-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Prato, Luca; Borini, Andrea; Cattoli, Monica; Preti, Maria Serena; Serrao, Lucia; Flamigni, Carlo

    2005-10-01

    Pregnancies after IVF have been reported in women aged > or =44 years, but nobody older than 45 years at oocyte retrieval delivered. We report a case of birth of a healthy child after IVF in a 46-year-old infertile woman. Ovarian stimulation was performed with clomiphene citrate, 150 mg daily for 5 days. Three oocytes were retrieved and one embryo was replaced. The patient delivered a healthy male infant after Caesarean section at 39 weeks. A successful pregnancy after IVF with homologous oocytes can be achieved in women older than 45 years. At this age IVF is not a cost-effective treatment compared with oocyte donation, but it may be offered in countries in which gamete donation is forbidden.

  9. Live birth rates in the first complete IVF cycle among 20 687 women using a freeze-all strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qianqian; Chen, Qiuju; Wang, Li; Lu, Xuefeng; Lyu, Qifeng; Wang, Yun; Kuang, Yanping

    2018-03-09

    What is the chance of having a child following one complete IVF cycle for patients using a freeze-all strategy? The chance of having a child after the first complete IVF cycle was 50.74% with the freeze-all strategy. Several studies have reported on live birth rates (LBRs) based on only the fresh embryo transfer cycle or fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. However, the LBR using a freeze-all strategy in IVF is unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 20 687 women who started their first IVF cycles using a freeze-all strategy during the period from 1 January 2007, through 31 March 2016, in China. Data on 20 687 women undergoing their first complete cycles using a freeze-all strategy from 2007 to 2016 were analyzed to estimate LBRs. The LBR in a complete cycle was defined as the chance of a live birth from an ovarian stimulation cycle including all subsequent frozen embryo transfers from this stimulation. The relationship between LBR and number of oocyte was explored. The LBR for the first complete cycle was 50.74% for patients using a freeze-all strategy. By age group, the LBR declined from 63.81% for women under 31 years old to 4.71% for women over 40 years old after the first complete cycle. The LBRs improved as the number of oocytes retrieved increased up to 25 in the freeze-all strategy. This was a retrospective study without a control group. Data on BMI and smoking status were not collected in this database. Our results showed that 50.74% of patients could achieve a live birth after the first complete cycle via a freeze-all strategy. In addition, the LBRs were positively correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved via the freeze-all strategy. These findings are critical for patients and clinicians in making an informed decision to embark on IVF treatment. This work was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) (31770989 to Y.W.) and the Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital Foundation of China (JYLJ030

  10. Distinct differences in global gene expression profiles in non-implanted blastocysts and blastocysts resulting in live birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Villesen, Palle; Jensen, Jacob Malte

    2015-01-01

    Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related to clini......Results from animal models points towards the existence of a gene expression profile that is distinguishably different in viable embryos compared with non-viable embryos. Knowledge of human embryo transcripts is however limited, in particular with regard to how gene expression is related...... to clinical outcome. The purpose of the present study was therefore to determine the global gene expression profiles of human blastocysts. Next Generation Sequencing was used to identify genes that were differentially expressed in non-implanted embryos and embryos resulting in live birth. Three trophectoderm...

  11. Live birth rates following natural cycle IVF in women with poor ovarian response according to the Bologna criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyzos, N P; Blockeel, C; Verpoest, W; De Vos, M; Stoop, D; Vloeberghs, V; Camus, M; Devroey, P; Tournaye, H

    2012-12-01

    What is the effect of natural cycle IVF in women with poor ovarian response according to the new ESHRE definition for poor ovarian responders: the Bologna criteria? Although natural cycle IVF is a promising treatment option for normal responders, poor ovarian responders, as described by the Bologna criteria, have a very poor prognosis and do not appear to experience substantial benefits with natural cycle IVF. Previous trials have shown that natural cycle IVF is an effective treatment for the general infertile population and might be an option for poor ovarian responders. However, none of the trials have examined the effect of natural cycle IVF in poor responders according to the Bologna criteria, the newly introduced definition by the ESHRE Working Group on Poor Ovarian Response Definition. In this trial, we examined the effect of natural cycle IVF in poor ovarian responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria. In this retrospective cohort trial, 164 consecutive patients, undergoing 469 natural cycle IVFs between 2008 and 2011 were included. Patients were stratified as poor and normal responders: 136 (390 cycles) were poor ovarian responders according to the Bologna criteria, whereas 28 women (79 treatment cycles) did not fulfil the criteria and were considered as normal responders. All patients were monitored with hormonal analysis and ultrasound scan every second day, from Day 7 or 8 of the cycle onwards. When a follicle of >16 mm was observed, ovulation was triggered with 5000 IU of i.m. hCG and oocyte retrieval was performed 32 h later. Live birth rates in poor responders according to the Bologna criteria were significantly lower compared with the control group of women; the live birth rate per cycle was 2.6 versus 8.9%, P = 0.006 and the live birth rate per treated patient was 7.4 versus 25%, P = 0.005. In poor responders according to the Bologna criteria, live birth rates were consistently low and did not differ among different age groups (≤ 35 years, 36

  12. A Live Birth Subsequent to IVF following Egg Retrieval Only 12 Hours after hCG Priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limor Man

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To report a live birth following egg retrieval after only 12 hours from hCG priming. Patients. A childless couple with five-years-lasting secondary infertility. Methods. IVF was performed according to the long protocol. Two immature oocytes were retrieved following only 12 hours after hCG priming due to the patient misunderstanding. The eggs were cultured in vitro and ICSI was performed following polar body extruded after 24 hours in culture. After additional 24 hours a 4-cell embryo was developed and ET was performed. Results. A viable pregnancy was achieved and a healthy baby girl was delivered at 38 weeks of gestation. Conclusion. In a rare and unexpected situation when immature oocytes are retrieved following a short hCG priming, the eggs should be cultured in vitro, late ICSI should be performed, and a pregnancy may be expected.

  13. National screening guidelines and developments in prenatal diagnoses and live births of Down syndrome in 1973–2016 in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Stina; Petersen, Olav B.; Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark was the first country in the world to implement a national, free-for-all offer of prenatal screening for Down syndrome to all pregnant women. It has a high uptake (> 90%) compared to other countries. Thus, Denmark offers an interesting case for investigating the consequences...... of implementing a comprehensive, national prenatal screening guideline. The aim of this study was to describe the historical developments in invasive procedures, pre-/postnatal diagnoses of Down syndrome and Down syndrome live births in the period 1973-2016 in Denmark MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data on invasive...... procedures, pre- and postnatal Down syndrome diagnoses were retrieved from the Danish Cytogenetic Central Registry RESULTS: From 1973-1993 screening based on maternal age and high-risk indications resulted in a constant increase in invasive procedures. After the introduction of the triple test in 1994...

  14. Estimation of single-year-of-age counts of live births, fetal losses, abortions, and pregnant women for counties of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bismark; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2017-05-08

    We provide a methodology for estimating counts of single-year-of-age live-births, fetal-losses, abortions, and pregnant women from aggregated age-group counts. As a case study, we estimate counts for the 254 counties of Texas for the year 2010. We use interpolation to estimate counts of live-births, fetal-losses, and abortions by women of each single-year-of-age for all Texas counties. We then use these counts to estimate the numbers of pregnant women for each single-year-of-age, which were previously available only in aggregate. To support public health policy and planning, we provide single-year-of-age estimates of live-births, fetal-losses, abortions, and pregnant women for all Texas counties in the year 2010, as well as the estimation method source code.

  15. New Option in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) Allows for the Conversion of Prevalence of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births to Prevalence of Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Clermont, Adrienne; Walker, Neff

    2017-11-01

    Background: The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is a software model that estimates the health impact of scaling up interventions on maternal and child health. One of the outputs of the model is an estimation of births by fetal size [appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) or small-for-gestational-age (SGA)] and by length of gestation (term or preterm), both of which influence birth weight. LiST uses prevalence estimates of births in these categories rather than of birth weight categories, because the causes and health consequences differ between SGA and preterm birth. The World Health Assembly nutrition plan, however, has set the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) as a key indicator, with a specific goal of a 30% reduction in LBW prevalence by 2025. Objective: The objective of the study is to develop an algorithm that will allow LiST users to estimate changes in prevalence of LBW on the basis of changes in coverage of interventions and the resulting impact on prevalence estimates of SGA and preterm births. Methods: The study used 13 prospective cohort data sets from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; 4 from sub-Saharan Africa, 5 from Asia, and 4 from Latin America), with reliable measures of gestational age and birth weight. By calculating the proportion of LBW births among SGA and preterm births in each data set and meta-analyzing those estimates, we calculated region-specific pooled rates of LBW among SGA and preterm births. Results: In Africa, 0.4% of term-AGA, 36.7% of term-SGA, 49.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Asia, 1.0% of term-SGA, 47.0% of term-SGA, 36.7% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. In Latin America, 0.4% of term-AGA, 34.4% of term-SGA, 32.3% of preterm-AGA, and 100.0% of preterm-SGA births were LBW. Conclusions: The simple conversion factor proposed here allows for the estimation of LBW within LiST for most LMICs. This will allow LiST users to approximate the impact of their health programs on

  16. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on semen quality, reproductive hormones and live birth rate: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Lawaetz, Jacob Gerner; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-11-03

    Animal models and cross-sectional cohort studies have suggested a beneficial role for vitamin D in male reproduction. Determine the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on semen quality in infertile men with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD)≤ 50 nmol/l. A single centre, triple-blinded, randomized clinical trial. 1427 infertile men were screened to include 330. 1002 men did not meet inclusion criteria and 95 did not wish to participate. The active group received cholecalciferol 300,000IU initially followed by 1400IU + 500mg calcium daily for 150 days, while the other group received placebo. Serum concentrations of 25-OHD and 1,25OH2D3 were significantly higher in men treated with vitamin D + calcium for 150 days compared with placebo. Vitamin D supplementation was not associated with changes in semen parameters although spontaneous pregnancies tended to be higher 7.3% vs 2.4%,Δ5.0% [-0.6%;10.5%]. Vitamin D treatment in a subgroup of oligozoospermic men increased the chance for a live birth compared with placebo 35.6% vs 18.3%,Δ17.3% [1.6%; 32.9%]. Moreover, serum inhibin B was higher in vitamin D deficient men randomized to vitamin D 193pg/ml vs 143pg/ml, Δ49pg/ml [8;91pg/ml], however, the increase in sperm concentration was not significantly higher than placebo (p=0.07). High dose vitamin D supplementation did not improve semen quality in vitamin D insufficient infertile men. The positive impact of vitamin D supplementation on live birth rate and serum inhibin B in oligozoospermic and vitamin D deficient men may be of clinical importance and warrant verification by others. NCT01304927.

  17. Shortening gametes co-incubation time improves live birth rate for couples with a history of fragmented embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, Anne; Hesters, Laetitia; Gallot, Vanessa; Tallet, Cathie; Tachdjian, Gerard; Frydman, Nelly

    2017-10-01

    Short gamete co-incubation (SGCO) consists in decreasing the duration of contact between oocytes and sperm from the standard overnight insemination (SOI) toward 2 hours. However, the effectiveness of this technique to improve in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcomes remains controversial. Our study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of SGCO in a poor prognosis population with a history of fragmented embryos defined by the presence of at least 50% of the embryos with more than 25% of cytoplasmic fragments. From January 2010 to January 2014, 97 couples were included in a SGCO protocol. We separated women into 2 subgroups: younger and older than 35 years. Compared to SOI, after SGCO, 2-cell stage embryos were higher in all women (ptimes higher after SGCO than after SOI. However, the live-birth rate was 4 times higher with SGCO than with SOI in women above 35 years but 3 times higher with SGCO than with SOI in women younger than 35 years. The present results indicate that for a particular indication, reducing the time of oocytes and sperm co-incubation may improve IVF-ET outcomes in terms of live-birth rate. AMH: anti mullerian hormone; COC: cumulus-oocytes complex; E2: estradiol; ET: embryo transfer; FET: frozen embryo transfer; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotrophin releasing hormone; hCG: human chorionic gonadotropin hormone; hMG: human menopausal gonadotropin hormone; IRB: institutional review board; IVF: in vitro fertilization; IVF-ET: in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer; MNB: multinucleated blastomere; mRNA: messanger ribonucleic acid; OC: oocyte retrieval; O2: oxygen; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SGCO: short gamete co-incubation; SOI: standard overnight insemination.

  18. Congenital anomalies among live births in a polluted area. A ten-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianicolo Emilio Antonio Luca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Congenital anomalies and their primary prevention are a crucial public health issue. This work aimed to estimate the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Brindisi, a city in southeastern Italy at high risk of environmental crisis. Methods This research concerned newborns up to 28 days of age, born between 2001 and 2010 to mothers resident in Brindisi and discharged with a diagnosis of congenital anomaly. We classified cases according to the coding system adopted by the European Network for the Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT. Prevalence rates of congenital anomalies in Brindisi were compared with those reported by EUROCAT. Logistic regression models were adapted to evaluate the association between congenital anomalies and municipality of residence of the mother during pregnancy. Results Out of 8,503 newborns we recorded 194 subjects with congenital anomalies (228.2/10,000 total births, 1.2 times higher than the one reported by the EUROCAT pool of registries. We observed 83 subjects with congenital heart diseases with an excess of 49.1%. Odds Ratios for congenital heart diseases significantly increased for newborns to mothers resident in Brindisi (OR 1.75 CI 95% 1.30-2.35. Conclusions Our findings indicated an increased prevalence of Congenital Anomalies (especially congenital heart diseases in the city of Brindisi. More research is needed in order to analyze the role of factors potentially involved in the causation of congenital anomalies.

  19. A Case of Live Birth after Uterine Reconstruction for Recurrent Cornual Ectopic Pregnancy following IVF Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deivanayagam Maruthini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of recurrent ruptured right cornual ectopic pregnancies conceived after IVF. Following the second episode, a sonohysterography was undertaken to identify possible areas of scar weakness that may rupture with uterine distension in a future pregnancy. The scan revealed asymmetrical muscle thickness in the cornual regions, the right (6 mm being thinner than the left (1.6 cm. Subsequently, an elective laparotomy was undertaken, and the cornua were reconstructed and thickened in several layers by bringing the laterally retracted myometrial fibres onto the reconstruction site. A sono-hysterography after surgery showed satisfactory (3-4 cm myometrial thickness all around. A further cycle of IVF resulted in a singleton pregnancy. Pelvic scans confirmed normal intrauterine pregnancy without any myometrial thinning. She was delivered by an uneventful elective caesarean section at term. We propose that, in those who intend to have further pregnancies after a cornual ectopic pregnancy, a sono-hysterography is possibly the best investigative tool to assess myometrial integrity. This case demonstrates that in women with areas of muscle weakness it is possible to successfully perform an interval elective reconstructive surgery on the uterus that can result in an uneventful pregnancy and birth.

  20. Undergoing varicocele repair before assisted reproduction improves pregnancy rate and live birth rate in azoospermic and oligospermic men with a varicocele: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, E Will; Wiener, Laura Elizabeth; Rajanahally, Saneal; Crowell, Karen; Coward, Robert M

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate how varicocele repair (VR) impacts pregnancy (PRs) and live birth rates in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproduction wherein the male partner has oligospermia or azoospermia and a history of varicocele. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Azoospermic and oligospermic males with varicoceles and in couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) with IUI, IVF, or testicular sperm extraction (TESE) with IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Measurement of PRs, live birth, and sperm extraction rates. Odds ratios for the impact of VR on PRs, live birth, and sperm extraction rates for couples undergoing ART. Seven articles involving a total of 1,241 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that VR improved live birth rates for the oligospermic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.699) and combined oligospermic/azoospermic groups (OR = 1.761). Pregnancy rates were higher in the azoospermic group (OR = 2.336) and combined oligospermic/azoospermic groups (OR = 1.760). Live birth rates were higher for patients undergoing IUI after VR (OR = 8.360). Sperm retrieval rates were higher in persistently azoospermic men after VR (OR = 2.509). Oligospermic and azoospermic patients with clinical varicocele who undergo VR experience improved live birth rates and PRs with IVF or IVF/ICSI. For persistently azoospermic men after VR requiring TESE for IVF/ICSI, VR improves sperm retrieval rates. Therefore, VR should be considered to have substantial benefits for couples with a clinical varicocele even if oligospermia or azoospermia persists after repair and ART is required. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Are risk factors for preterm and early-term live singleton birth the same? A population-based study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnord, Marie; Blondel, Béatrice; Prunet, Caroline; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-24

    To investigate whether risk factors for preterm (term birth (37 and 38 weeks gestation) are similar. Nationally representative cross-sectional study of births. France in 2010. Live singleton births (n=14 326). Preterm and early-term birth rates overall and by mode of delivery (spontaneous and indicated). Risk factors were maternal sociodemographic characteristics, previous preterm birth, height, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and smoking, assessed using multinomial regression models with full-term births 39 weeks and over as the reference group. There were 5.5% preterm and 22.5% early-term births. Common risk factors were: a previous preterm delivery (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 8.2 (95% CI 6.2 to 10.7) and aRRR 2.4 (95% CI 2.0 to 3.0), respectively), short stature, underweight (overall and in spontaneous deliveries), obesity (in indicated deliveries only), a low educational level and Sub-Saharan African origin. In contrast, primiparity was a risk factor only for preterm birth, aRRR 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.2), while higher parity was associated with greater risk of early-term birth. Most population-level risk factors were common to both preterm and early-term birth with the exception of primiparity, and BMI which differed by mode of onset of delivery. Our results suggest that preterm and early-term birth share similar aetiologies and thus potentially common strategies for prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Legitimating Change in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyndman, Noel; Liguori, Mariannunziata; Meyer, Renate E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the deployment of rhetorical legitimation strategies during public-sector accounting reforms by investigating how organizational actors justify related changes in the central governments of the United Kingdom (UK), Italy and Austria. The study shows that changes are largely le...... in terms of rationalization and normalization. Italian and Austrian actors more frequently resort to authorization strategies to explain accounting change....

  3. Professionalism as an Agent of Legitimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuchman, Gaye

    1978-01-01

    Criticizes Elihu Katz's understanding of professionalism in media journalism as used in his report to the British Broadcasting Corporation (on social research on broadcasting), on the grounds that reporting the news should not be the agent for legitimizing the event. (JMF)

  4. Hopes against Hobbes: On Authoritarianism, Regime Legitimation and Soft Power with a Review of Richard C. Bush’s Hong Kong in the Shadow of China: Living with the Leviathan (2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Kok-Kheng Yeoh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Richard C. Bush’s Hong Kong in the shadow of China: Living with the Leviathan (2016 represents an important study on post-“Handover” Hong Kong focusing on the making of the 2014 Occupy Campaign and Umbrella Movement and the impact on the coming development in politics, governance and economy of Hong Kong, taking into consideration China’s Hong Kong policy and the response of the Hong Kong people as well as the perspectives of Taiwan and the United States. This article, while reviewing the book, also provides a detailed analysis of the wider implications of the issues the author of the book has raised as regards Hong Kong – as China’s policy approach towards Hong Kong and by extension Taiwan and the struggle of the Hong Kong people, as well as the Taiwan people, to protect the political freedom and democratic rights they aspire to maintain (in the case of Hong Kong and that they have fought hard to secure (in Taiwan have impacts that reach far beyond Hong Kong and Taiwan in the light of the PRC’s current relentless global projection, riding on the wave of her economic miracle, of her hard and so-called “soft” power in a through an intricate nexus of her domestic and foreign policies that not only serves to strengthen domestic governance and enhance international influence but also involves extraterritorial actions to maintain CCP’s one-party authoritarianism.

  5. EVOLUTION OF THE NATURAL GROWTH AND THE ANALYSIS OF THE SEASONALITY OF LIVE BIRTHS AND DEATHS FROM ROMANIA AND BACAU COUNTY IN THE LAST FOUR YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Harja

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1992, Romania's population declined every year naturally, the number of deaths being higher than live births. If in Bacau until 2002 we had to deal with natural growth of the population, even if increasingly less, starting that year it emerged more and more the process of decline of the population. In both cases, the phenomenon is more pronounced in rural areas than in urban areas due to more pronounced aging of the rural population. Both in the case of live births and deaths it is observed the seasonal oscillation by the months of the year. If in the case of births they are more numerous in the summer months and in decrease in the winter months, the situation is exactly the opposite in the case of deaths. Thus from here we have the natural decrease of the population, which increases in the winter months and starts to decline or become slightly positive in July-September.

  6. Cumulative live birth rates following lVF in 41-to 43-year-old women presenting with favourable ovarian reserve characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Disseldorp, J.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Klinkert, E. R.; Velde, E. R. te; Fauser, B. C.; Broekmans, F. J. M.

    For women aged 41-43 years old, success rates in IVF are generally poor. This study aimed to assess cumulative live birth rate related to treatment costs over a maximum of three IVF cycles in selected women who were considered to still have adequate ovarian reserve. Fifty-five patients (38% of the

  7. Effect of clomiphene citrate on endometrial thickness, ovulation, pregnancy and live birth in anovulatory women: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gadalla, M. A.; Huang, S.; Wang, R.; Norman, R. J.; Abdullah, S. A.; El Saman, A. M.; Ismail, A. M.; van Wely, M.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2018-01-01

    To compare the impact of clomiphene citrate (CC) vs other drug regimens on mid-cycle endometrial thickness (EMT), ovulation, pregnancy and live birth rates in women with World Health Organization (WHO) group II ovulatory disorders. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, The Cochrane

  8. Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis and Natural Conception: A Comparison of Live Birth Rates in Patients with Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Associated with Translocation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Ikuma

    Full Text Available Established causes of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL include antiphospholipid syndrome, uterine anomalies, parental chromosomal abnormalities, particularly translocations, and abnormal embryonic karyotypes. The number of centers performing preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for patients with translocations has steadily increased worldwide. The live birth rate with PGD was reported to be 27-54%. The live birth rate with natural conception was reported to be 37-63% on the first trial and 65-83% cumulatively. To date, however, there has been no cohort study comparing age and the number of previous miscarriages in matched patients undergoing or not undergoing PGD. Thus, we compared the live birth rate of patients with RPL associated with a translocation undergoing PGD with that of patients who chose natural conception.After genetic counseling, 52 patients who desired natural conception and 37 patients who chose PGD were matched for age and number of previous miscarriages and these comprised the subjects of our study. PGD was performed by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The live birth rates on the first PGD trial and the first natural pregnancy after ascertainment of the carrier status were 37.8% and 53.8%, respectively (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.22-1.23. Cumulative live birth rates were 67.6% and 65.4%, respectively, in the groups undergoing and not undergoing PGD. The time required to become pregnancy was similar in both groups. PGD was found to reduce the miscarriage rate significantly. The prevalence of twin pregnancies was significantly higher in the PGD group. The cost of PGD was $7,956 U.S. per patient.While PGD significantly prevented further miscarriages, there was no difference in the live birth rate. Couples should be fully informed of the similarity in the live birth rate, the similarity in time to become pregnancy, the advantages of PGD, such as the reduction in the miscarriage rate, as well as

  9. Antimüllerian hormone levels and antral follicle count as prognostic indicators in a personalized prediction model of live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Scott M; Fleming, Richard; Gaudoin, Marco; Choi, Bokyung; Santo-Domingo, Kenny; Yao, Mylene

    2015-08-01

    To compare antimüllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) separately and in combination with clinical characteristics for the prediction of live birth after controlled ovarian stimulation. Retrospective development and temporal external validation of prediction model. Outpatient IVF clinic. We applied the boosted tree method to develop three prediction models incorporating clinical characteristics plus AMH or AFC or the combination on 2,124 linked IVF cycles from 2006 to 2010 and temporally externally validated predicted live-birth probabilities with an independent data set comprising 1,121 cycles from 2011 to 2012. None. Predictive power (posterior log of odds ratio compared to age, or PLORA), reclassification, receiver operator characteristic analysis, calibration, dynamic range. Predictive power, was highest for the AMH model (PLORA = 29.1), followed by the AMH-AFC model (PLORA = 28.3) and AFC model (PLORA = 22.5). The prediction errors were 1% to models, except for the predicted live-birth probabilities of model, where the prediction error was 8%. The improvement in predictive power was highest for the AMH model: 76.2% improvement over age alone relative to 59% improvement for AFC and 73.3% for the combined model. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the AMH and the combined model had comparable discrimination (area under the curve = 0.716) and similar prediction error for high and low strata of live-birth prediction, with an improvement of 6.3% over age alone. The validated prediction model confirmed that AMH when combined with clinical characteristics can accurately identify the likelihood of live birth with a low prediction error. AFC provided no added predictive value beyond AMH. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Crisis of Youth or Youth in Crisis? Education, Employment and Legitimation Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young…

  11. The evolution of viviparity: molecular and genomic data from squamate reptiles advance understanding of live birth in amniotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, James U; Brandley, Matthew C; Thompson, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are an ideal model system for testing hypotheses regarding the evolution of viviparity (live birth) in amniote vertebrates. Viviparity has evolved over 100 times in squamates, resulting in major changes in reproductive physiology. At a minimum, all viviparous squamates exhibit placentae formed by the appositions of maternal and embryonic tissues, which are homologous in origin with the tissues that form the placenta in therian mammals. These placentae facilitate adhesion of the conceptus to the uterus as well as exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, sodium, and calcium. However, most viviparous squamates continue to rely on yolk for nearly all of their organic nutrition. In contrast, some species, which rely on the placenta for at least a portion of organic nutrition, exhibit complex placental specializations associated with the transport of amino acids and fatty acids. Some viviparous squamates also exhibit reduced immunocompetence during pregnancy, which could be the result of immunosuppression to protect developing embryos. Recent molecular studies using both candidate-gene and next-generation sequencing approaches have suggested that at least some of the genes and gene families underlying these phenomena play similar roles in the uterus and placenta of viviparous mammals and squamates. Therefore, studies of the evolution of viviparity in squamates should inform hypotheses of the evolution of viviparity in all amniotes, including mammals.

  12. Fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus: a nationwide cohort study of 565,116 live births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, Laura Ozer; Matthiesen, Niels Bjerregaard; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Bay, Bjørn; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the association between specific types of fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nationwide birth cohort study. Not applicable. All pregnancies resulting in a live-born singleton child in Denmark from 1995 to 2003. Not applicable. Childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus identified from redeemed prescriptions for insulin until 2013. The study included 565,116 singleton pregnancies. A total of 14,985 children were conceived by ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination, and 8,490 children were conceived by in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. During the follow-up period, 2,011 (0.4%) children developed type 1 diabetes mellitus. The primary analyses showed no association between fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. In secondary analyses, ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination with follicle-stimulating hormone was associated with an increased risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio 3.22; 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 8.64). No clear associations were seen with other types of fertility treatment or with specific treatment indications. No association between fertility treatment and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus was found. Ovulation induction or intrauterine insemination with follicle-stimulating hormone may be associated with an increased risk of childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, this finding may be due to chance or to confounding by indication and thus requires further investigation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating the net effect of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG on live birth rates after IVF: a cohort analysis of 3296 IVF cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Lainas, George T; Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2015-03-01

    What is the proper way of assessing the effect of progesterone elevation (PE) on the day of hCG on live birth in women undergoing fresh embryo transfer after in vitro fertilization (IVF) using GnRH analogues and gonadotrophins? This study indicates that a multivariable approach, where the effect of the most important confounders is controlled for, can lead to markedly different results regarding the association between PE on the day of hCG and live birth rates after IVF when compared with the bivariate analysis that has been typically used in the relevant literature up to date. PE on the day of hCG is associated with decreased pregnancy rates in fresh IVF cycles. Evidence for this comes from observational studies that mostly failed to control for potential confounders. This is a retrospective analysis of a cohort of fresh IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles (n = 3296) performed in a single IVF centre during the period 2001-2013. Patients in whom ovarian stimulation was performed with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues. Natural cycles and cycles where stimulation involved the administration of clomiphene were excluded. In order to reflect routine clinical practice, no other exclusion criteria were imposed on this dataset. The primary outcome measure for this study was live birth defined as the delivery of a live infant after 24 weeks of gestation. We compared the association between PE on the day of hCG (defined as P > 1.5 ng/ml) and live birth rates calculated by simple bivariate analyses with that derived from multivariable logistic regression. The multivariable analysis controlled for female age, number of oocytes retrieved, number of embryos transferred, developmental stage of embryos at transfer (cleavage versus blastocyst), whether at least one good-quality embryo was transferred, the woman's body mass index, the total dose of FSH administered during ovarian stimulation and the type of GnRH analogues used (agonists versus antagonists) during ovarian

  14. Reproductive health and rights in East Jerusalem: the effects of militarisation and biopolitics on the experiences of pregnancy and birth of Palestinians living in the Kufr 'Aqab neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamayel, Layaly; Hammoudeh, Doaa; Welchman, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    Research with marginalised communities points to the need to understand political determinants of reproductive health. For residents of Kufr 'Aqab neighbourhood, Israeli biopolitics in East Jerusalem can be barriers to access to maternal health. This is manifested in women having to cross military checkpoints to give birth in hospitals located in Jerusalem to make their children eligible for "permanent residency", a document required for Palestinians to live in Jerusalem. A basic qualitative design is utilised, and semi-structured in-depth interviews with 27 women and 20 men were conducted and thematic analysis was used to extract themes and subthemes. Women reported exposure to risky conditions during pregnancy and worries of giving birth at checkpoints. Social support was restricted for some women due to inability of the husband/family to reach the hospital at the time of birth. Men reported distress related to inability to attend birth. Giving birth in a Jerusalem hospital, as part of passing residency to children, was perceived as reaffirming Palestinian presence in the City and transforming sites of suffering to sites of resistance. Israeli residency policies and segregation of Jerusalem affect Kufr 'Aqab residents' pregnancy and birth on physical, social and psychological levels. Results indicate the importance of incorporating political determinants of access to maternal care and safe pregnancy in the conceptualisation of reproductive rights.

  15. Legitimating Lived Curriculum: Towards a Curricular Landscape of Multiplicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ted T.

    1993-01-01

    Contrasts the instrumental character of traditional curriculum plans with the retextured curricular landscape inhabited by a hypothetical fifth-grade teacher struggling to help individual students learn. The idea is to teach science as a humanity, so that a privileged technoscientific mindset can be demystified and the multiplicity of human…

  16. Effect of Different Concentrations of Melatonin on Live Births Resulting from the Transfer of Two-Cell Embryos of NMRI Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Saadati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : Infertility is a global problem affecting millions of men and women in developed and developing countries. In this regard, in-vitro fertilization (IVF plays an important role in improving the quality of life in infertile patients. However, studies have shown that the implantation failure in IVF is the main challenge of this procedure. Melatonin can increase the survival rate of embryos and IVF success rate through eliminating free radicals and removing reactive oxygen species. So, this study is conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of melatonin on the rate of newborns of mice following transfer oftwo-cell embryos .   Methods : In this study, female mice with average age of six to eight weeks were superovulated by administering pregnant mares serum gonadotropin (PMSG intraperitoneally (7.5 IU. ip, and followed after 48h by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG (7.5 IU. ip. Two-cell mouse embryos were obtained from female mice oviduct after 48 h. The embryos transferred bilaterally into pseudopregnant mice of the same strain through surgical procedure and 8-14 embryos were transferred to each tube. The study included 4 treatment groups and one control group (6 mice in each group. The treatment groups were exposed to subcutaneous injection of concentrations of 100 µm , 10 µm , 1 µm and 100 nm of melatonin. After the cesarean on 18th day of pregnancy, the percentage of live births was assessed. The outcomes of the live birth rate were as­sessed using the chi-square test and statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS version 16.0. Percentage of live birth was calculated and compared with the control group.   Results: A total of 701 two-cell mouse embryos were transferred into one control group and four experimental groups. The number and percentage of live births at concentrations of 100 µm and 10 µm of melatonin and the control groups were 21 (15.55%, 13 (9.15% and 9 (6

  17. External legitimation in international new ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    building, the paper introduces the typology of captivity, and the four types that have emerged: captive industry supplier, captive dyadic partner, captive market leader, and free market leader. The effects of captivity types on the acquisition of external legitimacy and its survival, on reaching legitimacy......This paper explores within the framework of new venture legitimation how and why international new ventures acquire external legitimacy and strive for survival in the face of critical events. Following a longitudinal multiple-case study methodology that was adopted for the purpose of theory...

  18. A Legitimate Freedom Approach to Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    an integrate sustainability into the Human Development Index would thus give the wrong policy message. Drawing on the works of Amartya Sen and Thomas Scanlon, this article argues that sustainable development can be seen as a process of increasing legitimate freedoms, the freedoms that others cannot reasonably...... reject. Thus, Sen's vision of development as freedom is amended to suggest limits to freedoms. Forms of development which are not sustainable can be reasonably rejected due, at least, to the harm and blighting entailed. Based on this, it is argued that at country level of comparison the Human Development...

  19. DHEA Supplementation Confers No Additional Benefit to that of Growth Hormone on Pregnancy and Live Birth Rates in IVF Patients Categorized as Poor Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Kevin N; Hinchliffe, Peter M; Rowlands, Philip K; Borude, Gayatri; Srinivasan, Shanti; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Yovich, John L

    2018-01-01

    In vitro fertilization (IVF) patients receive various adjuvant therapies to enhance success rates, but the true benefit is actively debated. Growth hormone (GH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation were assessed in women undergoing fresh IVF transfer cycles and categorized as poor prognosis from five criteria. Data were retrospectively analyzed from 626 women undergoing 626 IVF cycles, where they received no adjuvant, GH alone, or GH-DHEA in combination. A small group received DHEA alone. The utilization of adjuvants was decided between the attending clinician and the patient depending on various factors including cost. Despite patients being significantly older with lower ovarian reserve, live birth rates were significantly greater with GH alone (18.6%) and with GH-DHEA (13.0%) in comparison to those with no adjuvant ( p  birth chance. Following adjustment for patient age, antral follicle count, and quality of transferred embryo, GH alone and GH-DHEA led to a 7.1-fold and 5.6-fold increase in live birth chance, respectively ( p  births, particularly in younger women, and importantly, the positive effects of GH treatment were still observed even if DHEA was also used in combination. However, supplementation with DHEA did not indicate any potentiating benefit or modify the effects of GH treatment. Due to the retrospective design, and the risk of a selection bias, caution is advised in the interpretation of the data.

  20. Triggering of final oocyte maturation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist or human chorionic gonadotropin. Live birth after frozen-thawed embryo replacement cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griesinger, Georg; Kolibianakis, E M; Papanikolaou, E G

    2007-01-01

    . PATIENT(S): Patients under observation previously had been recruited into two concurrently performed, independent, randomized controlled trials (comparing hCG with GnRH-agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation in GnRH-antagonist multiple-dose protocols in normal responder patients) encompassing...... a total of 228 participants. Surplus embryos or oocytes at the pronuclear stage were cryopreserved in 53 patients after hCG administration and 32 patients after GnRH-agonist administration on the basis of patient choice, pronuclear/embryo availability, and local laws. INTERVENTION(S): Transfer of frozen......-thawed embryos. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Live birth rate. RESULT(S): Thirty-one and 23 patients after administration of hCG and GnRH-agonist, respectively, started a frozen-embryo replacement cycle by September 2005, with 25 and 16 patients eventually undergoing at least one frozen-thawed ET. Live birth rate per...

  1. DHEA Supplementation Confers No Additional Benefit to that of Growth Hormone on Pregnancy and Live Birth Rates in IVF Patients Categorized as Poor Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin N. Keane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn vitro fertilization (IVF patients receive various adjuvant therapies to enhance success rates, but the true benefit is actively debated. Growth hormone (GH and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA supplementation were assessed in women undergoing fresh IVF transfer cycles and categorized as poor prognosis from five criteria.MethodsData were retrospectively analyzed from 626 women undergoing 626 IVF cycles, where they received no adjuvant, GH alone, or GH–DHEA in combination. A small group received DHEA alone. The utilization of adjuvants was decided between the attending clinician and the patient depending on various factors including cost.ResultsDespite patients being significantly older with lower ovarian reserve, live birth rates were significantly greater with GH alone (18.6% and with GH-DHEA (13.0% in comparison to those with no adjuvant (p < 0.003. No significant difference was observed between the GH groups (p = 0.181. Overall, patient age, quality of the transferred embryo, and GH treatment were the only significant independent predictors of live birth chance. Following adjustment for patient age, antral follicle count, and quality of transferred embryo, GH alone and GH–DHEA led to a 7.1-fold and 5.6-fold increase in live birth chance, respectively (p < 0.000.ConclusionThese data indicated that GH adjuvant may support more live births, particularly in younger women, and importantly, the positive effects of GH treatment were still observed even if DHEA was also used in combination. However, supplementation with DHEA did not indicate any potentiating benefit or modify the effects of GH treatment. Due to the retrospective design, and the risk of a selection bias, caution is advised in the interpretation of the data.

  2. Dynamics of living weight and rate of growth repair heifers of Ukrainian black-spotted dairy breed from birth to 6 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    DOBRYANSKIY S.A.

    2012-01-01

    A study of the impact of technology growing dynamics of live weight and rate of growth of repair heifers Ukrainian black-spotted dairy breed from birth to 6 months of age. There was a monthly weighing animals and calculated absolute, relative and average daily gain. The necessity of growing heifer’s repairs using in feeding whole corn mixed with rolled of grain barley and wheat.

  3. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) cumulative live birth rates following preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy (PGD-A) or morphological assessment of embryos: A cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Evelyn; Chambers, Georgina Mary; Hale, Lyndon; Illingworth, Peter; Wilton, Leeanda

    2017-12-27

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for aneuploidy (PGD-A) for all 24 chromosomes improves implantation and clinical pregnancy rates per single assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycle. However, there is limited data on the live-birth rate of PGD-A over repeated cycles. To assess the cumulative live-birth rates (CLBR) of PGD-A compared with morphological assessment of embryos of up to three 'complete ART cycles' (fresh plus frozen/thaw cycles) in women aged 37 years or older. A retrospective cohort study of ART treatments undertaken by ART-naïve women at a large Australian fertility clinic between 2011 and 2014. Cohorts were assigned based on the embryo selection method used in their first fresh cycle [PGD-A, n = 110 women (PGD-A group); morphological assessment of embryos, n = 1983 women (control group)]. CLBR, time to clinical pregnancy and cycles needed to achieve a live birth were measured over multiple cycles. Compared to the control group, the PGD-A group achieved a higher per cycle live-birth rate (14.47% vs 9.12%, P ART cycles', the CLBR was comparable for the two groups (30.90% vs 26.77%, P = 0.34). This is the first study to assess the effectiveness of PGD-A over multiple ART cycles. These real-world findings suggest that PGD-A leads to better outcomes than using morphological assessment alone in women of advanced maternal age. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  4. Sperm vacuoles negatively affect outcomes in intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection in terms of pregnancy, implantation, and live-birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Ermanno; Scarselli, Filomena; Fabozzi, Gemma; Colasante, Alessandro; Zavaglia, Daniela; Alviggi, Erminia; Litwicka, Katarzyna; Varricchio, Maria Teresa; Minasi, Maria Giulia; Tesarik, Jan

    2013-08-01

    To retrospectively evaluate whether sperm vacuoles influence clinical results, with a particular focus on live-birth rates, in 101 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles. Retrospective, observational study. Medical center. A total of 101 couples with at least two failed intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) attempts and impaired sperm morphology. Patients divided into two groups according to sperm morphology and vacuolization pattern: group A comprising patients with good quality spermatozoa (type I and/or type II spermatozoa) (n = 63 patients); group B comprising patients with low quality spermatozoa (type III and/or IV spermatozoa) (n = 38 patients). Fertilization rate, embryo quality, pregnancy, implantation, and live-birth rates. No statistically significant differences were observed between group A and B with regard to "early" assisted reproduction outcomes (fertilization rate and embryo quality). However, the "late" outcomes (pregnancy, implantation, and live-birth rates) were statistically significantly higher in group A. These results confirm a correlation between sperm vacuoles and a negative IMSI outcome, suggesting that sperm vacuoles are related to the late paternal effect. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Which factors are most predictive for live birth after in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatments? Analysis of 100 prospectively recorded variables in 8,400 IVF/ICSI single-embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, Katarina Kebbon; Lakic, Tatevik Ghukasyan; Olovsson, Matts; Berglund, Lars; Brodin, Thomas; Holte, Jan

    2017-03-01

    To construct a prediction model for live birth after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) treatment and single-embryo transfer (SET) after 2 days of embryo culture. Prospective observational cohort study. University-affiliated private infertility center. SET in 8,451 IVF/ICSI treatments in 5,699 unselected consecutive couples during 1999-2014. A total of 100 basal patient characteristics and treatment data were analyzed for associations with live birth after IVF/ICSI (adjusted for repeated treatments) and subsequently combined for prediction model construction. Live birth rate (LBR) and performance of live birth prediction model. Embryo score, treatment history, ovarian sensitivity index (OSI; number of oocytes/total dose of FSH administered), female age, infertility cause, endometrial thickness, and female height were all independent predictors of live birth. A prediction model (training data set; n = 5,722) based on these variables showed moderate discrimination, but predicted LBR with high accuracy in subgroups of patients, with LBR estimates ranging from 40%. Outcomes were similar in an internal validation data set (n = 2,460). Based on 100 variables prospectively recorded during a 15-year period, a model for live birth prediction after strict SET was constructed and showed excellent calibration in internal validation. For the first time, female height qualified as a predictor of live birth after IVF/ICSI. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. VSRR - Provisional monthly and 12-month ending number of live births, deaths and infant deaths: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsrr/provisional-tables.htm Monthly and 12 month-ending provisional counts of births, deaths and infant deaths are provided for the...

  7. Nascimentos pré-termo no Brasil entre 1994 e 2005 conforme o Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC Preterm births in Brazil from 1994 to 2005 according to the Information System on Live Births (SINASC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela F. Silveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A monitorização da prematuridade é muito importante, considerando seu impacto na morbidade e mortalidade infantis e seus custos econômicos e sociais. Este estudo utilizou dados do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, implantado em 1990 e expandido de forma gradativa até cobrir cerca de 90% de todos os nascimentos no país, para descrever a evolução da prematuridade no Brasil, regiões e capitais, entre os anos de 1994 e 2005. Observou-se um aumento na proporção de partos prematuros no país como um todo e uma diminuição no número de nascimentos sem informação da idade gestacional. As regiões Sudeste, Sul e Centro-Oeste acompanharam a tendência do país, ao contrário das regiões Norte e Nordeste. São comparados os achados do SINASC com os de estudos de base populacional. O SINASC vem apresentando progressiva melhora na cobertura e qualidade dos dados, mas ainda existem problemas com a acurácia da idade gestacional, levando a uma subestimação da prevalência de prematuridade. Por causa de sua importância, torna-se necessário aprofundar os esforços para o ganho de acurácia do sistema.Monitoring preterm births is essential given their impact on infant morbidity and mortality and their economic and social costs. This article is based on data from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC, implemented in 1990 and expanded gradually to cover 90% of all births in the country. Preterm birth time trends are presented for Brazil, regions, and capitals from 1994 to 2005. At the national level, there was an increase in the preterm birth rate, accompanied by a reduction in the proportion of missing information on gestational age. The Southeast, South, and Central-West regions followed the national trend, while the preterm birth rate fell in the North and Northeast regions. We compared the findings from SINASC with those from population-based studies. The coverage and quality of SINASC has increased over time

  8. Entrepreneurship as a legitimate field of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C

    2011-08-01

    Entrepreneurship as a research topic has been approached from disciplines such as economics, sociology or psychology. After justifying its study, we define the domain of the field, highlighting what has currently become its dominant paradigm, the process of the discovery, assessment and exploitation of opportunities. We then describe the main perspectives and offer an integrated conceptual framework that will allow us to legitimize the study of entrepreneurship as a field of knowledge in its own right. We believe that this framework will help researchers to better recognize the relations among the many factors forming part of the study of entrepreneurship. Lastly, we conclude with some brief reflections on the potential value of the framework presented.

  9. (De)Legitimation at the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    ) judicial bodies have relied largely on theoretical or normative priors about what makes these institutions legitimate. In contrast, this paper directly connects the study of courts' legitimating efforts with their effects by empirically mapping how the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism's (DSM) exercise......Similar to many types of legal institutions, international courts employ a wide variety of legitimation strategies in order to establish and maintain a sound basis of support among their constituents. Existing studies on the legitimacy or legitimating efforts of the World Trade Organization's (WTO...

  10. Births: Final Data for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... characteristics. Data are presented for maternal age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, marital status, attendant at ... and fertility rates are presented by age, live-birth order, race and Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected ...

  11. The birth prevalence of PKU in populations of European, South Asian and sub-Saharan African ancestry living in South East England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardelid, P; Cortina-Borja, M; Munro, A; Jones, H; Cleary, M; Champion, M P; Foo, Y; Scriver, C R; Dezateux, C

    2008-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism (OMIM 261600). Treatment with a low-phenylalanine diet following early ascertainment by newborn screening prevents impaired cognitive development, the major disease phenotype in PKU. The overall birth prevalence of PKU in European, Chinese and Korean populations is approximately 1/10,000. Since the human PAH locus contains PKU-causing alleles and polymorphic core haplotypes that describe and corroborate an out-of-Africa range expansion in modern human populations, it is of interest to know the prevalence of PKU in different ethnic groups with diverse geographical origin. We estimated PKU prevalence in South East England, where a sizeable proportion of the population are of Sub-Saharan African or South Asian ancestry. Over the period 1994 to 2004 167 children were diagnosed with PKU. Using birth registration and census data to derive denominators, PKU birth prevalence per 10,000 live births (95% Bayesian credible intervals) was estimated to be 1.14 (0.96-1.33) among white, 0.11 (0.02-0.37) among black, and 0.29 (0.10-0.63) among Asian ethnic groups. This suggests that PKU is up to an order of magnitude less prevalent in populations with Sub-Saharan African and South Asian ancestry that have migrated to the UK.

  12. Normal live births after intracytoplasmic sperm injection in a man with the rare condition of Eagle-Barrett syndrome (prune-belly syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Steven D; Varughese, Elizabeth; Hua, Vi-Khiem; Robertson, Amanda; Dalzell, Fiona; Boothroyd, Clare V

    2013-12-01

    To report the first live births of male infants resulting from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using spermatozoa from a man with Eagle-Barrett syndrome (EBS). Case report. Assisted conception unit within a private hospital. An infertile couple. An infertile couple received repeated treatment with ICSI. Clinical pregnancy and a normal live birth. In 2008, after microinjection of ten oocytes, the transfer of a single expanded blastocyst led to the premature birth of a morphologically normal male infant at 18 weeks' gestation. This outcome followed preterm rupture of membranes and possible cervical incompetence. In 2009, after microinjection of six oocytes, transfer of a single 5-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy, with emergency cervical cerclage being performed at 21 weeks. A healthy male infant was born at 30 weeks, with no evidence of EBS, by lower-segment cesarean section for breech presentation and premature labor. In 2012, after elective laparoscopic placement of cervical suture, microinjection of ten oocytes and transfer of a single 4-cell embryo led to a singleton pregnancy with a healthy male infant, with no evidence of EBS, being born by cesarean section at 38 weeks. This report suggests that EBS is not transmitted to male offspring via ICSI. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Crisis of youth or youth in crisis? Education, employment and legitimation crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Robin; Smyth, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the Habermasian concept of legitimation crisis to critique the relationship between post-compulsory education and training and the chronic levels of youth unemployment and under-employment which now characterise post-industrial Western economies, such as the UK. It draws on data from an ethnographic study of the lives of young people classified as NEET (not in education, employment or training), or at risk of becoming so to challenge dominant discourses about youth unemploymen...

  14. Legitimation and the Party of Power in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Sordi, A.; Brusis, M.; Ahrens, J.; Schulze Wessel, M.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter surveys the legitimation strategies enacted by the political leadership of the contemporary post-Soviet republic. While showing that Kazakhstan bases its legitimation primarily on international recognition and the country’s economic performance, it also focuses on an institutional

  15. Art and technology: A comparative study of policy legitimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Wijnberg (Nachoem)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe legitimation of technology policy is discussed from the point of view of the neoclassical and of the dynamic, Schumpeterian, approach. The results are presented, using the traditional categories of policy legitimation in welfare theory: public goods, externalities, and merit goods.

  16. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissenberg, R.; van Dijk, M. M.; Fliers, E.; van der Post, J. A M; van Wely, M.; Bloemenkamp, K. W M; Hoek, A.; Kuchenbecker, W. K.; Verhoeve, H. R.; Scheepers, H. C J; Rombout-de Weerd, S.; Koks, C.; Zwart, J. J.; Broekmans, F.; Verpoest, W.; Christiansen, O. B.; Post, M.; Papatsonis, D. N M; Verberg, M. F G; Sikkema, J.; Mol, B. W.; Bisschop, P. H.; Goddijn, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the

  17. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissenberg, R.; van Dijk, M. M.; Fliers, E.; van der Post, J. A. M.; van Wely, M.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Hoek, A.; Kuchenbecker, W. K.; Verhoeve, H. R.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Rombout-de Weerd, S.; Koks, C.; Zwart, J. J.; Broekmans, F.; Verpoest, W.; Christiansen, O. B.; Post, M.; Papatsonis, D. N. M.; Verberg, M. F. G.; Sikkema, J.; Mol, B. W.; Bisschop, P. H.; Goddijn, M.

    Background: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the

  18. Effect of levothyroxine on live birth rate in euthyroid women with recurrent miscarriage and TPO antibodies (T4-LIFE study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissenberg, R; van Dijk, M M; Fliers, E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) in euthyroid women are associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM) and other pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. It is unclear if treatment with levothyroxine improves pregnancy outcome. Aim To determine the effect of levothyroxine admi...

  19. Projecting the potential impact of the Cap-Score™ on clinical pregnancy, live births, and medical costs in couples with unexplained infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Sharara, Fady I; Garrison, Louis P

    2018-01-01

    The Cap-Score™ was developed to assess the capacitation status of men, thereby enabling personalized management of unexplained infertility by choosing timed intrauterine insemination (IUI), versus immediate in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in individuals with a low Cap-Score™. The objective of this study was to estimate the differences in outcomes and costs comparing the use of the Cap-Score™ with timed IUI (CS-TI) and the standard of care (SOC), which was assumed to be three IUI cycles followed by three IVF-ICSI cycles. We developed and parameterized a decision-analytic model of management of unexplained infertility for women based on data from the published literature. We calculated the clinical pregnancy rates, live birth rates, and medical costs comparing CS-TI and SOC. We used Monte Carlo simulation to quantify uncertainty in projected estimates and performed univariate sensitivity analysis. Compared to SOC, CS-TI was projected to increase the pregnancy rate by 1-26%, marginally reduce live birth rates by 1-3% in couples with women below 40 years, increase live birth rates by 3-7% in couples with women over 40 years, reduce mean medical costs by $4000-$19,200, reduce IUI costs by $600-$1370, and reduce IVF costs by $3400-$17,800, depending on the woman's age. The Cap-Score™ is a potentially valuable clinical tool for management of unexplained infertility because it is projected to improve clinical pregnancy rates, save money, and, depending on the price of the test, increase access to treatment for infertility.

  20. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Lan, Vuong Thi Ngoc; Tuong, Ho Manh

    2013-01-01

    Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implanta...... implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients....

  1. Use of complementary and alternative medicines associated with a 30% lower ongoing pregnancy/live birth rate during 12 months of fertility treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boivin, J; Schmidt, L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND There seems to be little discussion between patient and physician about the use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs), perhaps because they are not perceived to have adverse effects on fertility. We therefore compared ongoing pregnancy and live birth rate in spontaneous users...... and non-users of CAM during a 12-month period of assisted reproduction technique (ART) treatment. Consent was by questionnaire return. METHOD This was a prospective observational cohort study with a 12-month follow-up period, sampling consecutive patients attending five ART clinics in Denmark. N = 728...

  2. Sistema de informações sobre nascidos vivos: um estudo de revisão Brazilian live birth information system: a review study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Santana Paiva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão de literatura sobre o uso do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC na pesquisa em saúde. As bases de dados MEDLINE, LILACS e SciELO foram pesquisadas no período de 1994 a 2005, utilizando-se a combinação dos seguintes descritores: "SINASC", "live birth", "Brazil". Foram identificados 157 resumos dentro do período de referência, dos quais 44 foram selecionados e classificados segundo critérios específicos. O número de artigos publicados por ano cresceu ao longo do período estudado. A maioria dos estudos foi desenvolvida na região Sudeste e empregou o município como a unidade geográfica da análise. Uma gama variada de temas foi avaliada, incluindo descrições do perfil de nascidos vivos, avaliações de serviços e programas de saúde e fatores de risco para desfechos infantis. Concluindo, embora o SINASC represente uma fonte de dados importante para a pesquisa sobre a saúde materno-infantil, a cobertura do sistema e a confiabilidade dos seus dados precisam ser melhor avaliadas.The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the use of the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informações de Nascidos Vivos SINASC in health research. MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO databases were searched from 1994 to 2005 using the following combination of descriptors: "SINASC", "live birth", "Brazil". We identified 157 abstracts within the reference period, among which 44 were selected and classified according to specific criteria. The number of articles published per year increased during the period studied. The majority of the studies was carried out in the Southeast region and used the municipality as the geographic unity of analysis. A varied range of subjects were assessed including descriptions of live births profiles, health service and programs evaluations and risk factors for infant outcomes. In conclusion, although the SINASC represents an important data

  3. Maternal KIR haplotype influences live birth rate after double embryo transfer in IVF cycles in patients with recurrent miscarriages and implantation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alecsandru, D; Garrido, N; Vicario, J L; Barrio, A; Aparicio, P; Requena, A; García-Velasco, J A

    2014-12-01

    In patients with recurrent miscarriages (RM) or recurrent implantation failure (RIF), does the maternal killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) haplotype have an impact on live birth rates per cycle after embryo transfer with the patient's own or donated oocytes? After double embryo transfer (DET) in patients with the maternal KIR AA haplotype, a significantly increased early miscarriage rate was observed when the patient's own oocytes were used, and a significantly decreased live birth rate per cycle after embryo transfer was observed when donated oocytes were used. Interactions between fetal HLA-C and maternal KIR influence placentation during human pregnancy. There is an increased risk of RM, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction in mothers with the KIR AA haplotype when the fetus has more HLA-C2 genes than the mother. Between 2010 and 2014, we performed a retrospective study that included 291 women, with RM or RIF, who had a total of 1304 assisted reproductive cycles. Pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth rates per cycle after single or DET, categorized by the origin of the oocytes and the presence of maternal KIR haplotypes, were studied. KIR haplotype regions were defined by the presence of the following KIR genes: Cen-A/2DL3; Tel-A/3DL1 and 2DS4; Cen-B/2DL2 and 2DS2; as well as Tel-B/2DS1 and 3DS1. Higher rates of early miscarriage per cycle after DET with the patient's own oocytes in mothers with the KIR AA haplotype (22.8%) followed by those with the KIR AB haplotype (16.7%) compared with mothers with the KIR BB haplotype (11.1%) were observed (P = 0.03). Significantly decreased live birth rates per cycle were observed after DET of donated oocytes in mothers with the KIR AA haplotype (7.5%) compared with those with the KIR AB (26.4%) and KIR BB (21.5%) haplotypes (P = 0.006). No statistically significant differences were observed for pregnancy, miscarriage and live birth rates per cycle among those with maternal KIR AA, AB and BB haplotypes after

  4. Antimüllerian hormone as a predictor of live birth following assisted reproduction: an analysis of 85,062 fresh and thawed cycles from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database for 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Wantman, Ethan; Baker, Valerie; Tal, Oded

    2018-02-01

    To determine if serum antimüllerian hormone (AMH) is associated with and/or predictive of live birth assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. Retrospective analysis of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System database from 2012 to 2013. Not applicable. A total of 69,336 (81.8%) fresh and 15,458 (18.2%) frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles with AMH values. None. Live birth. A total of 85,062 out of 259,499 (32.7%) fresh and frozen-thawed autologous non-preimplantation genetic diagnosis cycles had AMH reported for cycles over this 2-year period. Of those, 70,565 cycles which had embryo transfers were included in the analysis. Serum AMH was significantly associated with live birth outcome per transfer in both fresh and FET cycles. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that AMH is an independent predictor of live birth in fresh transfer cycles and FET cycles when controlling for age, body mass index, race, day of transfer, and number of embryos transferred. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC) for AMH as predictors of live birth in fresh cycles and thawed cycles were 0.631 and 0.540, respectively, suggesting that AMH alone is a weak independent predictor of live birth after ART. Similar ROC curves were obtained also when elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) cycles were analyzed separately in either fresh (AUC 0.655) or FET (AUC 0.533) cycles, although AMH was not found to be an independent predictor in eSET cycles. AMH is a poor independent predictor of live birth outcome in either fresh or frozen embryo transfer for both eSET and non-SET transfers. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Endometrial thickness significantly affects clinical pregnancy and live birth rates in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Dai, Wei; Sun, Yingpu

    2016-07-01

    In order to explore the relationship between endometrial thickness on the day of embryo transfer and pregnancy outcomes in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycles, we retrospectively analyzed data from 2997 patients undergoing their first FET cycles from January 2010 to December 2012. All patients were divided into three groups (Group A, ≤8 mm; Group B, 9-13 mm; Group C, ≥14 mm) according to the endometrial thickness on embryo transfer day. Compared with patients in the other two groups, patients with thin endometrial thickness in Group A had significantly lower clinical pregnancy rate (33.4%, 41.3% and 45.4%, p birth rate (23.8%, 32.2% and 34.0%, p confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.77, p birth rate (aOR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.16-1.95, p < 0.01) were significant. We conclude that for patients undergoing FET, endometrial thickness on the embryo transfer day significantly affects IVF outcomes in cleavage embryo transfer cycles independent of other factors.

  6. Comparison of US population and live birth rates with poison exposures reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS): children ages 0-5 years from 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, H A; Spyker, D A; Casavant, M J

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring of poison control center data has provided an important public health surveillance tool. Previous work has identified the population with the greatest risk of poisoning as children of poison center volume. Therefore, one would expect population changes to be reflected in corresponding National Poison Data system (NPDS) call volume changes. We examined this relationship. This was a retrospective comparison of young children's poison exposures reported to NPDS with changes in US population as reported by the US Census Bureau and by live birth counts in the United States. We examined the relation of population and live birth counts to NPDS exposures in children of 0-5 years and for the total (children of 0-5 years). There was a statistically significant relation between exposures and population for the three of the seven age groups (1-3 years old) and between exposures and live birth counts for the five of the seven age groups (1-4 years old and total (0-5)). The highest correlation was seen with the age groups of 2-year olds (r = 0.815; slope, 4.7373; 95% CI, 2.36-7.11) and 1-year olds (r = 0.785; slope, 4.878; 95% CI, 2.163-7.592). Live birth count was more closely related than population for all but the 1-year-old age groups. Our study reports a number of interesting findings including 1) live birth counts and population are closely associated with each other, 2) poison exposures in NPDS were more strongly associated with live birth counts than with population, 3) the population at greatest risk is the 1- and 2-year-old age groups and the strongest associations between exposures and population and exposures and live birth counts occurred in these two age groups, and 4) changes occurring in the live birth counts, both positive and negative, were reflected in annual changes reported in NPDS human exposures in children poison exposures and suggests that the population at risk should be considered in monitoring poisoning injuries in the future. These results

  7. Legitimate Permissions And Specifity Of Their Enforceability In Modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  8. LEGITIMATE PERMISSIONS AND SPECIFITY OF THEIR ENFORCEABILITY IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Subochev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Caucasus Institute of Advanced Training (branch of Krasnodar University of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 123, Malbahova Street, Nalshik, 360016, Russia. Abstract: The article investigates the basic legal permissions in Russian law - legal rights, freedoms and legitimate interests. Potential of these means of legal regulation is examined as well as their common features and essential differences. Authors argue that the effectiveness of the mechanism of legal regulation largely depends on the proper use of legal permissions. Particular attention is paid to such kind of legal mean as a legitimate interest. The article draws attention to the fact that if a legal right or freedom are such kind of permissions which are guaranteed by the law in order to sustain certain demands of subjects of law, the legitimate interest is qualitatively different mean of regulation. The authors suggest considering a legitimate interest as reflected in the objective law legal possibility of subjects of law to enjoy certain social benefits and to seek protection from the state authorities in order to meet their interests which are not contradictory to provisions of law. Qualitative difference between legitimate interest and legal right and freedom is that the legitimate interest is an opportunity, guaranteed to a lesser extent than the permitted behavior within a legal right or freedom. Legitimate interest is a mere permission, admitted by the state and to some extent supported by it. But legal right and freedom - are those means of regulation, which are directly approved and sanctioned by the state which presuppose duty of a person to a particular behavior. The author's vision of the specifity of legal enforcement of legitimate admissions is presented.

  9. Linguistic Legitimation of Political Events in Newspaper Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwah Kareem Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discursive structures employed in legitimizing the event of U.S. forces withdrawal from Iraq and identifies them in relation to linguistic features. It attempts to describe the relation between language use and legitimation discursive structures in depicting political events. The paper focuses on the political event of U.S. forces’ withdrawal from Iraq in the English newspaper issued in Iraq. The study shows the way in which journalists express their values and attitudes concerning this critical event. Consequently, this requires a critical discourse analysis (henceforth, CDA to analyse news articles in the Iraqi English newspaper: The Kurdish Globe (henceforth, KG newspaper. Accordingly, the study presents a qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles to identify the legitimation discursive structures and their linguistic features. It is found that the main discursive structures of legitimation employed in the KG newspaper are: authorization, rationalization, and moral evaluation. Besides, there were five verb processes used to represent this legitimation, including material, verbal, relational, mental, and existential. Keywords: Critical discourse analysis, legitimation discursive structures, linguistic features, newspaper discourse, systemic functional linguistics

  10. Multivariate analysis of factors affecting probability of pregnancy and live birth with in vitro fertilization: an analysis of the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Valerie L; Luke, Barbara; Brown, Morton B; Alvero, Ruben; Frattarelli, John L; Usadi, Rebecca; Grainger, David A; Armstrong, Alicia Y

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate factors predictive of clinical pregnancy and of pregnancy loss from assisted reproductive technology (ART) using data from the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology database for 2004-2006. Retrospective cohort. Clinic-based data. The study population included 225,889 fresh embryo transfer cycles using autologous oocytes and partner semen. None. Clinical intrauterine gestation (presence of gestational sac) and live birth (>or=22 weeks gestation and >or=300 g birth weight). Increasing maternal age was significantly associated with a reduced odds of conception and increased fetal loss until 19 weeks gestation, but not with later pregnancy loss. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), assisted hatching, and increasing number of embryos transferred had significant positive effects on the odds of conception and pregnancy continuation through the first trimester, but did not affect the risk of later loss. Blacks, Asians, and Hispanics had significantly lower odds of clinical pregnancy compared with whites. Also compared with whites, Hispanics and Asians had a significantly greater risk of pregnancy loss in the second and third trimesters, and blacks had a significantly greater risk of pregnancy loss in all trimesters. Certain demographic and ART treatment parameters influenced chance of conception and early pregnancy loss, whereas black race and Hispanic ethnicity were also significantly associated with late pregnancy loss in ART-conceived pregnancies. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perfil dos nascidos vivos no Município de Belo Horizonte, 1992-1994 Profile of live births in Belo Horizonte, 1992-1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste de Souza Rodrigues

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available O Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos ­ Sinasc ­ foi desenvolvido pelo Ministério da Saúde, objetivando a melhoria da qualidade das informações sobre estas crianças, no Brasil, e vem sendo usado no Município de Belo Horizonte, efetivamente, desde 1992. Com o objetivo de caracterizar as crianças nascidas vivas e permitir a utilização dos dados para subsidiar o planejamento, organização e avaliação de ações de saúde desenvolvidas, foi analisada a distribuição destas, através de todas as Declarações de Nascidos Vivos ­ DN, de mães residentes em Belo Horizonte, 1992/94, segundo características relativas ao parto,à gravidez e à mãe. Concluiu-se haver necessidade de estudos que aprofundem a análise da morbi-mortalidade materna e infantil e os custos das internações por partos operatórios, por uma atenção especial às adolescentes, além de acompanhamento pré-natal de boa qualidade para todas as gestantes. O Sinasc é um instrumento poderoso de informações rotineiras, devendo ser aprimorado e o seu uso difundido, incluindo a possibilidade não só de cruzamento de dados com os de outros sistemas, especialmente o SIM (Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade e o banco de dados de AIH (Autorização para Internação Hospitalar, como também de sua utilização para intervenções específicas e diferenciadas em determinados grupos populacionais e microáreas de risco.The Information System on Live Births - SINASC - was developed by the Health Ministry and designed to improve quality of information on live births in Brazil. It has been effectively used in Belo Horizonte since 1992. The distribution of live births was analysed in order to characterise them and to allow use of existing data to support planning, organisation and evaluation of the health activities developed. It was conducted by using Declarations of Live Births of newborns of mothers resident in Belo Horizonte, in the period 1992-1994, in

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Repeat Teen Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Repeat Teen Births Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... live birth before age 20. Problem Too many teens, ages 15–19, have repeat births. Nearly 1 ...

  13. The effects of the sequencing of marriage and first birth during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, S D; Grady, W R; Billy, J O; Landale, N S; Winges, L D

    1986-01-01

    Whether or not they marry, black adolescent mothers are more likely than whites to attend school following the birth of their first child. Marrying to legitimate a birth reduces the likelihood that a teenager will return to school after childbearing; this impact of marriage is much stronger among black than among white teenagers. The timing of marriage appears to affect school enrollment among white teenagers through its impact on living arrangements. However, the negative impact of marriage on educational achievement does not seem to be a consequence of earlier differences in educational expectations among the teenagers. Teenage mothers appear less likely to separate from their husbands in later years if they marry before the birth than if they marry afterward. Delaying marriage until after the birth has a long-term effect on the probability of separation among white teenage mothers, but has only a short-term impact among blacks. Among teenagers who marry before giving birth, there is little difference in the likelihood of separation between those who marry before becoming pregnant and those who do so afterward. In addition, the effect of the sequence of marriage and first birth among white teenage mothers may have declined in recent years. Adolescent mothers who do not marry before their first birth experience a longer interval between that birth and their second than do those who marry either before or during the pregnancy. These differences are primarily the result of short-term variations in the amount of time they spend married; that is, women who are unmarried when they give birth are less likely to have a second birth soon afterward.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Preterm Birth Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Preterm birth ... Can anything be done to prevent a preterm birth? Preventing preterm birth remains a challenge because there ...

  15. Cesarean Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...

  16. LEGITIMIZATION OF OWNERSHIP IN THE CONDITIONS OF TRANSITION ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Branovitskiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the problem of structural deformations of property in post-privatization period, via the lack of public awareness ofthe property legitimacy that constantly produces utopian political slogans and public dissatisfaction with the current redistribution of property. Two completely opposite instruments of legitimization of property by means of nationalization and constitutional reform are examined. Conclusions are focused on the implementation of economic constitutionalism policy as a way of legitimizing the owner in Ukraine and building democratic and legal state. Emphasis is put on the confidence improvement of authority agents and counteract of the crisis of neoliberal capitalism, when rich people grow rich thanks to the poor segment of population as an essential mechanisms for public perception of property legalization and providing them with status quo. Legitimization of owner is objectively necessary condition for society reconstruction on the way of entrenchment of fundamental dominants of markets and civil society.

  17. Empirical Studies on Legitimation Strategies: A Case for International Business Research Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on legitimation and legitimation strategies applied by companies. Following the process of systematic review, we analyze empirical studies exploring legitimation and legitimation strategies from different theoretical perspectives. Using the key findings by reconnoitering and com...... and comparing the theoretical background, approaches, methodologies, and findings of these empirical studies, we outline potential directions for research in the legitimation strategies of firms engaged in international business operations....

  18. Changes in dietary habits and eating practices in adolescents living in urban South Africa: the birth to twenty cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Alison; Musenge, Eustasius; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2012-07-01

    To assess changes in the dietary habits and eating practices of a longitudinal cohort of adolescents over a 5-y period living in Soweto and Johannesburg. An interviewer-assisted questionnaire was used to gather data on the dietary habits and eating practices across three environments: in the home, in the school, and in the community. Participants (n = 1451, 49.1% male, 89% black, and 11% with mixed ancestry) 13, 15, and 17 y old with complete data were included in the analyses. The weekday breakfast consumption decreased over the 5-y period, from 76% to 65% (P breakfast during the weekend more regularly but this also decreased with age. Snacking while watching television increased with age, from 3.6 ± 4.6 to 6.7 ± 5.9 snacks/week, with female subjects consistently consuming more snacks than male subjects (P portion/week over the 5 y and confectionery consumption stayed the same, around 9 items/week in male subjects and 10 items/week in female subjects (P < 0.02). Lunch box usage decreased with age; conversely, the number of tuck shop purchases increased. Poor eating habits in all three environments were found; the participants' propensity for foods that were energy dense and micronutrient poor was high. This study also found that dietary patterns are well established by 13 y of age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Monopoly of Legitimate Force : Denationalization, or Business as Usual?

    OpenAIRE

    Jachtenfuchs, Markus

    2014-01-01

    As Max Weber and many others in his tradition have argued, the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force is the core of the modern state. What counts here is not the frequency of the actual use of force but the fact that only the state has the legitimate right to use such force. The military and the police are the most concrete expressions of this monopoly. In recent decades, the use of the military and the police has been subject to external challenges – ‘globalization’ – and new idea...

  20. Strategic Spatial Planning's Role in Legitimizing Investments in Transport Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    how the recently proposed vision of a Loop City for the Danish/Swedish Øresund Region has played an important role in legitimizing and building political support for a light railway connecting the outer suburbs of Copenhagen. It is not unusual for large investments in new transport infrastructures...... railway and Loop City planning processes together with document analysis of background reports and analyses from the last 10-15 years, the paper investigates to what extent the vision of a Loop City has played an important role in legitimizing the need for a light railway in the outer suburbs...

  1. [In the case of premature live birth, is very early rupture of the membranes an additional risk factor for morbidity and mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isnard, T; Vincent-Rohfritsch, A; Le Ray, C; Goffinet, F; Patkai, J; Sibiude, J

    2018-02-26

    To describe survival rate after preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) before 25 weeks of gestation and compare neonatal morbidity and mortality among those born alive with a control group of infants born at a similar gestational age without premature rupture of membranes. We conducted a retrospective single-centre study at Port-Royal maternity, from 2007 to 2015, comparing neonatal outcomes between liveborninfants exposed to PPROM prior to 25 weeks of gestation (WG) and a control group not exposed to premature rupture of the membranes. For each live-born child, the next child born after spontaneous labor without PPROM was matched for gestational age at birth, sex, and whether or not they received antenatal corticosteroid therapy. The primary endpoint was severe neonatal complications assessed by a composite endpoint including neonatal deaths, grade 3-4 HIV, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, leukomalacia and stade 3-4 retinopathies. Among 77 cases of very premature rupture of the membranes, 55 children were born alive. Among these, the average gestational age at birth was 28 WG and 1 day. The rate of severe neonatal complications did not differ between the two groups (43.6% in the PPROM group vs. 36.4%, P=0.44) and the survival rate at discharge was also similar in the two groups (85.5% vs. 83.6%, P=0.98). In our cohort and among livebirths after 24 WG, PPROM before 25 WG was not associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to children born at the same gestational age after a spontaneous labor with intact membranes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. ICD-10 impact on ascertainment and accuracy of oral cleft cases as recorded by the Brazilian national live birth information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ricardo Lima; Castilla, Eduardo E; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Orioli, Iêda M

    2018-02-09

    We compared Brazilian oral cleft (OC) frequencies between the population-based Brazilian System of Live Birth (SINASC) and the hospital-based Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC), trying to understand the paucity of cleft of lip and palate (CLP) in the first system. SINASC uses the International Classification of Disease version 10 (ICD-10) for congenital defects coding, ECLAMC uses ICD-8 with modifications. In SINASC, the CLP frequency was 1.7 per 10,000 (95% confidence limits 1.7-1.8), cleft lip (CL) 1.6 (1.5-1.7), and cleft palate (CP) 2.0 (1.9-2.1). In ECLAMC, the CLP frequency was 10.4 per 10,000 (9.0-12.1), CL 5.5 (4.5-6.7), and CP 4.4. (4.5-6.7). In SINASC, only 33% of the oral clefts were CLP, versus 51% in ECLAMC. Part of this discrepancy may have been due to the relative excess of CP and CL cases. Although congenital defect frequencies are usually lower in population than in hospital-based registries, differences in the proportion of the main OC categories are not expected and are probably due to ICD-10 coding issues, such as lumping of unilateral CL and CL without other specifications. ICD-10 codes, whose deficiency for oral clefts is fully explained in the literature, lack modifiers for severity, or clinical subtypes. This paper shows the practical aspect of the ICD-10 system deficiency in capturing cleft lip and palate (CLP) subtypes, as demonstrated in SINASC covering three million births per year. Such errors are expected to occur in any registry that uses the ICD-10 coding system, and must be adjusted, given its relevance worldwide. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Use of donor sperm in addition to oocyte donation after repeated implantation failure in normozoospermic patients does not improve live birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez, A; García, D; Rodríguez, A; Vassena, R; Vernaeve, V

    2016-11-01

    Does switching to donor semen after at least three failed oocyte donation (OD) cycles with the partner normozoospermic semen increase the live birth rate in a subsequent OD cycle? Switching to donor semen after at least three failed OD cycles with the partner normozoospermic semen does not increase the live birth rate. In some patients, a viable pregnancy cannot be achieved after several OD cycles, despite normal diagnostic findings for the couple. The ESHRE Capri Workshop Group indicates that, in order to improve reproductive outcomes, a semen donation can be offered after three failed ICSI cycles. A retrospective cohort analysis of fourth and fifth OD cycles with either the partner's normozoospermic semen (OD) or double-donation cycles (DD), performed between January 2011 and December 2014 in a private fertility center. These couples did not have a known male factor. The study included 228 cycles (159 OD and 69 DD). The fertilization method was ICSI in all cycles and embryos were transferred fresh. Fertilization rates were compared between groups using ANOVA while pregnancy outcomes were compared using Chi-square tests. Effect of DD on pregnancy outcomes was further analyzed using a logistic regression model adjusted for recipient's age and BMI, number of embryos transferred, day of embryo transfer and morphological embryo quality score. There was no difference in live birth rate between the DD and OD groups (38.2 versus 35.8%, P = 0.73), even after adjustment for confounding factors (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 0.72, 2.76; P = 0.31). Rates of biochemical pregnancy (52.2 versus 54.1%, P = 0.79), clinical pregnancy (41.2 versus 45.9%, P = 0.51) and ongoing pregnancy (38.2 versus 37.1%, P = 0.87) were not different between the DD and the OD groups, as well as fertilization rate (75.3 versus 75.2%, P = 0.97). The DD and OD groups were comparable at baseline in all demographic and cycle variables analyzed (recipient's BMI, number of

  4. Pregnancy and live birth after follicle-stimulating hormone treatment for an infertile couple including a male affected by Sertoli cell-only syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulis G

    2017-10-01

    established and developed. Subsequently, the pregnancy resulted in the live birth of a girl. Keywords: azoospermia, Sertoli cell-only syndrome, FSH, ICSI, TESE sperm retrieval, live birth pregnancy

  5. A qualitative study exploring newborn care behaviours after home births in rural Ethiopia: implications for adoption of essential interventions for saving newborn lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasibew, Mihretab Melesse; Filteau, Suzanne; Marchant, Tanya

    2014-12-12

    Ethiopia is among seven high-mortality countries which have achieved the fourth millennium development goal with over two-thirds reduction in under-five mortality rate. However, the proportion of neonatal deaths continues to rise and recent studies reported low coverage of the essential interventions saving newborn lives. In the context of low uptake of health facility delivery, it is relevant to explore routine practices during home deliveries and, in this study, we explored the sequence of immediate newborn care practices and associated beliefs following home deliveries in rural communities in Ethiopia. Between April-May 2013, we conducted 26 semi-structured interviews and 2 focus group discussions with eligible mothers, as well as a key informant interview with a local expert in traditional newborn care practices in rural Basona woreda (district) near the urban town of Debrebirhan, 120 km from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The most frequently cited sequence of newborn care practices reported by mothers with home deliveries in the rural Basona woreda was to tie the cord, immediately bath then dry the newborn, practice 'Lanka mansat' (local traditional practice on newborns), give pre-lacteal feeding and then initiate breastfeeding. For 'Lanka mansat', the traditional birth attendant applies mild pressure inside the baby's mouth on the soft palate using her index finger. This is performed believing that the baby will have 'better voice' and 'speak clearly' later in life. Coverage figures fail to tell the whole story as to why some essential interventions are not practiced and, in this study, we identified established norms or routines within the rural communities that determine the sequence of newborn care practices following home births. This might explain why some mothers delay initiation of breastfeeding and implementation of other recommended essential interventions saving newborn lives. An in-depth understanding of established routines is necessary, and community

  6. A future for the doctrine of substantive legitimate expectation? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I consider the implications of the creative approach in KZN JLC for the development of the doctrine of substantive legitimate expectation under administrative law in future. Finally I discuss how the creation of a new legal mechanism to enforce publicly promulgated promises to pay was "subversive of PAJA and the scheme in ...

  7. Academic leadership in nursing: legitimating the discipline in contested spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Martin S

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the potential of recent conceptual developments in the sociology of education for conceptualising academic leadership in nursing. During an investigation into the current status and future trajectory of academic nursing in Ireland, academic leadership emerged as a major concern for respondents. The languages of legitimation of academic leaders were elicited in in-depth interviews and analysed as expressions of underlying legitimation principles. The concept of legitimation principles provides a way of thinking about how academic nursing is positioned in the health and higher education sectors, how its leaders construct its identity, practices and purposes, and clarifies the proper focus and goals of academic leadership in nursing. Academic leadership is concerned with legitimating the discipline of nursing as an autonomous, coherent and distinctive professional and academic endeavour. This legitimacy must be secured in academic, clinical and wider contexts in which academic nursing is viewed with ambivalence; leaders must take account of the impact of nursing history on the current status and future trajectory of the discipline. The analytic tools facilitate a better understanding of the internal and external conditions under which academic nursing will flourish, or wither, in contemporary higher education.

  8. British nuclear power: protest and legitimation 1945 - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, I.

    1988-02-01

    This thesis traces the development of British civil nuclear power policy between 1945 and 1982. Throughout particular attention is paid to the methods of legitimation which have been used to justify this policy in the public arena. By tracing this legitimation process, and public responses to it, the modern anti nuclear movement and crisis of public acceptability are placed within an historical context. It is argued that public concern and disquiet have always required the active legitimation of nuclear policy from the inception of the technology. The initial base of this legitimation was largely symbolic and associated nuclear power with the future of civilisation and a second of Elizabethan splendour for Britain. Symbolic legitimacy was underpinned by the twin pillars of expert hegemony and political authority. As these became increasingly prominent due to internal disputes within the industry secrecy was applied as a means of preserving legitimacy. Having tried conventional avenues of opposition the anti nuclear movement then embarked upon a campaign of direct action. The links between this campaign and the pervasive sense of public unease which had always existed are explored. It is argued here that the anti nuclear movement produces and sustains a cogent critique of nuclear power. Campaigning around this critique wins the movement increasing legitimacy as its arguments are increasingly accepted. (author)

  9. "Roda Boa", "Roda Boa": Legitimate Peripheral Participation in Diasporic "Capoeira"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Neil; Delamont, Sara

    2010-01-01

    "Capoeira", the Brazilian dance and martial art, is taught across the world. Learners acquire vital knowledge and are socialised as "capoeiristas" through legitimate peripheral participation, in particular when watching games in the "roda". The "roda", the circle within which the "capoeira" game is played, is a classic place for learning by…

  10. The Legitimization of Dialectic: Socratic Strategy in the "Gorgias."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia

    In the "Gorgias," Plato focuses attention upon the value of dialectic as opposed to rhetoric, as well as the status of orators as opposed to philosophers. Through his agent, Socrates, Plato confirms dialectic as a legitimate endeavor while calling into question the place of rhetoric. Socrates is portrayed as a director who enacts a…

  11. Building a Legitimate and Accountable State in South Sudan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building a Legitimate and Accountable State in South Sudan: Political Dimensions Beyond the Comprehensive Peace Accord. Policymakers and researchers believe that inclusive political settlements are vital to avoiding a relapse into violence in conflict-affected and fragile contexts. Despite numerous comparative ...

  12. Is the fertile window extended in women with polycystic ovary syndrome? Utilizing the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology registry to assess the impact of reproductive aging on live-birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Suleena Kansal; Ratcliffe, Sarah J; Dokras, Anuja

    2013-07-01

    To assess whether women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) follow the same age-related decline in IVF outcomes as women with tubal factor infertility over the reproductive life span. PCOS is characterized by increased ovarian reserve as assessed by antral follicle counts and anti-Müllerian hormone levels. It is unclear whether these surrogate markers of ovarian reserve reflect a true lengthening of the reproductive window. Retrospective cohort. Not applicable. Women with PCOS and tubal factor infertility (42,286 cycles). IVF. Pregnancy and live-birth rates. The mean number of oocytes retrieved was higher in women with PCOS compared with in women with tubal factor (16.4 vs. 12.8; odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-1.29). The clinical pregnancy (42.5% vs. 35.8%; OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.27-1.38) and live-birth rates were also increased in women with PCOS (34.8% vs. 29.1%; OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.24-1.35). A similar rate of decline in clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates was noted in both groups (20-44 years). The implantation, clinical pregnancy, miscarriage, and live-birth rates were not significantly different for each year after age 40 in the two groups. Despite a higher oocyte yield in all age groups, women with PCOS over age 40 had similar clinical pregnancy and live-birth rates compared with women with tubal factor infertility. These findings suggest that the reproductive window may not be extended in PCOS and that patients with infertility should be treated in a timely manner despite indicators of high ovarian reserve. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3-year-old children living in Cuba: A population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefina Venero-Fernández, Silvia; Fundora-Hernández, Hermes; Batista-Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez-Medina, Ramón; de la C Mora-Faife, Esperanza; García-García, Gladys; Del Valle-Infante, Ileana; Gómez-Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2017-05-06

    Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population-based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3-years-old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient -0.70 mg L -1 per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: -1.34 to -0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (-0.65 mg L -1 per kg birthweight; 95% CI: -1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The usefulness of traditional birth attendants to women living with HIV in resource-poor settings: the case of Mfuwe, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyamba, Choolwe; Groot, Wim; Tomini, Sonila M; Pavlova, Milena

    2017-01-01

    Although there is increased attention on the role of trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal care, most of the research has mainly focused on providing evidence of the relevance of trained TBAs to women in general without a specific focus on women who are HIV positive, despite them being most vulnerable. Therefore, the aim of this study is to fill this gap by assessing the relevance of trained TBAs to women living with HIV in resource-poor settings by using Zambia as a case study. Our data collection consisted of two focus group discussions, one involving HIV-positive women utilizing trained TBAs and the other with women not utilizing TBAs. Additionally, in-depth interviews were conducted with trained TBAs and health workers. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. In general, women living with HIV positively characterized the services of TBAs. In the face of an inefficient health system, trained TBAs were seen to be useful in providing efficient, cheap and quality care, counseling, and referral and logistical support, including treatment adherence support. In Zambia, trained TBAs and professional care are not mutually exclusive but complementary. There is no doubt that HIV-positive women need professionals to handle complications and offer antiretroviral treatment to ensure prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). However, additional "soft" services offered by trained TBAs are equally important in the promotion of maternal health care among HIV-positive women. Thus, it seems there is more to gain by systematically allowing trained TBAs to work alongside professionals in a well-coordinated and complementary manner.

  15. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3‐year‐old children living in Cuba: A population‐based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundora‐Hernández, Hermes; Batista‐Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez‐Medina, Ramón; de la C. Mora‐Faife, Esperanza; García‐García, Gladys; del Valle‐Infante, Ileana; Gómez‐Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Methods Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population‐based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3‐years‐old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Results Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient −0.70 mg L−1 per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: −1.34 to −0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (−0.65 mg L−1 per kg birthweight; 95% CI: −1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Conclusions Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. PMID:27859847

  16. Rates of 47, + 13 amd 46 translocation D/13 Patau syndrome in live births and comparison with rates in fetal deaths and at amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, E B

    1980-11-01

    Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) is rare in newborns. Data on rates in 167,774 live births from 17 separate studies are reviewed, and the following pooled rates found for: (1) 47,trisomy 13, 8.3 X 10(-5) (1/12,000); and (2) 46, (D/13 Robertsonian translocations), 4.2 X 10(-5) (1/24,000)--mutants, 1.2 X 10(-5) (1/80,000) to 1.8 X 10(-5) (1/56,000); and familial cases, 2.4 X 10(-5) (1/42,000) to 3.0 X 10(-5) (1/33,000). The rate of trisomy 13 (47, + 13) in liveborns (ignoring possible biases in studies and heterogeneity in rates) is, with 95% confidence, between 4.6 X 10(-5) (1/21,700) and 14.0 X 10(-5) (1/7,000), with the most likely figure close to 8 X 10(-5) (1/12,000). Numbers are insufficient to construct a comparably narrow confidence interval for translocation cases. The rates of 47, + 13 may be estimated in (1) spontaneous abortuses, about 0.8%--1.0% (100-fold greater than in liveborns); (2) early neonatal deaths, about 0.4% (50-fold greater than in liveborns); and (3) amniocentesis, higher than in liveborns, at least for mothers 40 years and over.

  17. Science, consumerism and bureaucracy: the new legitimations of medical professionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Stephen; Mcdonald, Ruth

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that the means by which the profession of medicine has to legitimise itself in the context of state‐provided health services is changing in a way that may be summarised in Weberian terms as a shift from substantive to formal rationality. The traditional model for such legitimations, evident in the UK over the last 50 years, relied heavily on professional interpretation of emergent patient needs, on professional pragmatism as a means of coping with resource limitations, on un...

  18. Ways of explaining sexual harassment: motivating, enabling and legitimizing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation aims to contribute to a comprehensive explanation of sexual harassment by the investigation of three social-psychological processes, which seem to crucially contribute to the etiology of sexual harassment: motivation to sexually harass (e.g., power or sexuality), enabling processes (e.g., through diverse situational cues), and legitimization of sexually harassing behavior (e.g., by applying myths about sexual harassment). By consolidating these three processes into one multi...

  19. Legitimation, Kooptation und Repression in der Volksrepublik China

    OpenAIRE

    Goebel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    "This article examines the interaction of legitimation, cooptation, and repression in China's authoritarian consolidation. It shows that the totalitarian regime under Mao Zedong was characterized by a low degree of performance and cooptation and that it had to rely on extreme repression and ideological indoctrination to stay in power. After the death of Mao Zedong, the character of the regime changed markedly. The new elites made sparing use of repression and indoctrination but did not compen...

  20. Legitimizing ESS Big Science as a collaboration across boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    O'Dell, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Legitimizing ESS 'Big Science' is a broad epithet that can be associated with research projects as different as the Manhattan Project, the Hubble Telescope-construction, and the CERN-establishment in Geneva. While the science produced by these projects is vastly different, they have in common the fact that they all involve huge budgets, big facilities, complex instrumentation, years of planning, and large multidis...

  1. Factors associated with a poor prognosis for the IVF-ICSI live birth rate in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Pauline; Perrin, Jeanne; Mancini, Julien; Agostini, Aubert; Boubli, Léon; Courbiere, Blandine

    2017-07-01

    To assess the factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF live birth rate (LBR) in women with stage III and IV endometriosis according to the revised classification of the American Fertility Society (rAFS). A retrospective cohort study was conducted between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, in our Reproductive Medicine Center. We analyzed different factors associated with a poor prognosis for a cumulative IVF LBR in women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. A total of 101 patients were included, representing 232 IVF-ICSI cycles and 212 embryo transfers. The primary endpoint was the cumulative LBR per cycle and per patient. The cumulative LBR per cycle was 14.7% (n = 34) and that per patient was 31.7% (n = 32). The cumulative LBR was significantly decreased by active smoking [ adj OR = 3.4, 95% CI (1.12-10.60), p = 0.031], poor ovarian response (POR) according to the Bologna criteria [ adj OR = 11.5, 95% CI (1.37-96.83), p = 0.024], and rAFS stage IV [ adj OR = 3.2, 95% CI (1.13-8.95), p = 0.024]. The cumulative LBR per women was 59.4% without factors associated with a poor prognosis and 25.6% in the case of one factor, and it decreased to 7.7% in the case of two or three factors (p endometriosis had a negative impact on the IVF-ICSI cumulative LBR for women with rAFS stage III and IV endometriosis. Because smoking dramatically decreases the LBR with endometriosis, stopping smoking before IVF-ICSI should be strongly advised.

  2. Socio-cultural determinants of contraceptive use among rural women aged 15-29 years from marriage to first live birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammad Sayem

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR is lower while the fertility is higher among rural married women aged 15-29 in Bangladesh. Thus, this comparative study attempted to identify the socio-economic and cultural determinants of contraceptive use in different rural settings. In this primary data based cross sectional study, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to women aged 15-29 years in two rural areas who had at least one live birth on/before 20 December, 2006. The study areas were identified by multi-stage random sampling technique. Results showed that CPR was slightly higher in Dariadaulat (43.4% than that of Chardigoldi union (41.6% while the mean duration of use was slightly higher in Chardigoldi compared to Dariadaulat (5.04 v. 4.59 mo. Regression model for Dariadaulat (38.7% with P<0.001 better explained the use of contraception than that of Chardigoldi (30.0% with P<0.001. Among the determinants in Dariadaulat the most explanatory variable was mass media exposure (15.8% while it was desired number of children in Chardigoldi (12.6%. Among others, joint decision of using contraception, familiarity with contraceptives before marriage, desired number of children, electricity, family interference and family size were found to have significant impact in Dariadaulat. On the other hand, the other explanatory variables in Chardigoldi were joint decision of using contraception, family interference and familiarity with contraceptives before marriage and age at present. It may be concluded that the CPR is markedly low in rural communities. The lack of accessibility to mass media, lack of joint decision with husband, premarital unawareness regarding contraceptive use, lack of post-marital planning and family interference are major contributory factors for the low CPR in the study population. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2008; 2(2: 49-54

  3. Metformin improves pregnancy and live-birth rates in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin-Papunen, Laure; Rantala, Anni S; Unkila-Kallio, Leila; Tiitinen, Aila; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Perheentupa, Antti; Tinkanen, Helena; Bloigu, Risto; Puukka, Katri; Ruokonen, Aimo; Tapanainen, Juha S

    2012-05-01

    The role of metformin in the treatment of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is still controversial. OBJECTIVE AND OUTCOMES: We investigated whether metformin decreases the early miscarriage rate and improves the pregnancy rates (PR) and live-birth rates (LBR) in PCOS. This was a multicenter, randomized (1:1), double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Three hundred twenty women with PCOS and anovulatory infertility were randomized to metformin (n = 160, Diformin; obese women, 1000 mg two times daily; nonobese subjects, 500 mg + 1000 mg daily) or identical doses of placebo (n = 160). After 3 months' treatment, another appropriate infertility treatment was combined if necessary. If pregnancy occurred, metformin/placebo was continued up to the 12th week. Miscarriage rates were low and similar in the two groups (metformin 15.2% vs. placebo 17.9%, P = 0.8). Intent-to-treat analysis showed that metformin significantly improved PR and LBR (vs. placebo) in the whole study population (PR: 53.6 vs. 40.4%, P = 0.006; LBR: 41.9 vs. 28.8%, P = 0.014) and PR in obese women (49.0 vs. 31.4%, P = 0.04), and there was a similar trend in nonobese (PR: 58.6 vs. 47.6%, P = 0.09; LBR: 46.7 vs. 34.5%, P = 0.09) and in obese women with regard to LBR (35.7 vs. 21.9%, P = 0.07). Cox regression analysis showed that metformin plus standard infertility treatment increased the chance of pregnancy 1.6 times (hazard rate 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.27). Obese women especially seem to benefit from 3 months' pretreatment with metformin and its combination thereafter with routine ovulation induction in anovulatory infertility.

  4. Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A birth defect is a problem that happens while a baby is developing in the mother's body. Most birth defects happen during the first 3 months of ... in the United States is born with a birth defect. A birth defect may affect how the ...

  5. Legitimating New Forms of Organizing and New International Activities in the Eyes of Multiple Stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    by its multiple stakeholders; and (2) what legitimation strategies it developed and adopted to legitimate itself in the eyes of its multiple stakeholders. Theoretically, the paper is grounded within legitimation theory. The empirical context is defined by a new, international NGO entering an established...

  6. Vaginal cytology pattern and birth features of female Wistar rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mating, pregnancy diagnosis and determination of birth parameters followed immediately after the end ... The average live birth weight of the neonates measured was observed to be highest for Group A with average live birth weight of 6.27g, followed by Groups B and the control with average live birth weight of 5.83g and ...

  7. Endometrial scratching in women with implantation failure after a first IVF/ICSI cycle; does it lead to a higher live birth rate? The SCRaTCH study: a randomized controlled trial (NTR 5342).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogenhuijze, N E; Torrance, H L; Mol, F; Laven, J S E; Scheenjes, E; Traas, M A F; Janssen, C; Cohlen, B; Teklenburg, G; de Bruin, J P; van Oppenraaij, R; Maas, J W M; Moll, E; Fleischer, K; van Hooff, M H; de Koning, C; Cantineau, A; Lambalk, C B; Verberg, M; Nijs, M; Manger, A P; van Rumste, M; van der Voet, L F; Preys-Bosman, A; Visser, J; Brinkhuis, E; den Hartog, J E; Sluijmer, A; Jansen, F W; Hermes, W; Bandell, M L; Pelinck, M J; van Disseldorp, J; van Wely, M; Smeenk, J; Pieterse, Q D; Boxmeer, J C; Groenewoud, E R; Eijkemans, M J C; Kasius, J C; Broekmans, F J M

    2017-07-21

    Success rates of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) are approximately 30%, with the most important limiting factor being embryo implantation. Mechanical endometrial injury, also called 'scratching', has been proposed to positively affect the chance of implantation after embryo transfer, but the currently available evidence is not yet conclusive. The primary aim of this study is to determine the effect of endometrial scratching prior to a second fresh in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycle on live birth rates in women with a failed first IVF/ICSI cycle. Multicenter randomized controlled trial in Dutch academic and non-academic hospitals. A total of 900 women will be included of whom half will undergo an endometrial scratch in the luteal phase of the cycle prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using an endometrial biopsy catheter. The primary endpoint is the live birth rate after the 2 nd fresh IVF/ICSI cycle. Secondary endpoints are costs, cumulative live birth rate (after the full 2 nd IVF/ICSI cycle and over 12 months of follow-up); clinical and ongoing pregnancy rate; multiple pregnancy rate; miscarriage rate and endometrial tissue parameters associated with implantation failure. Multiple studies have been performed to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching on live birth rates in women undergoing IVF/ICSI cycles. Due to heterogeneity in both the method and population being scratched, it remains unclear which group of women will benefit from the procedure. The SCRaTCH trial proposed here aims to investigate the effect of endometrial scratching prior to controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in a large group of women undergoing a second IVF/ICSI cycle. NTR 5342 , registered July 31 st , 2015. Version 4.10, January 4th, 2017.

  8. Legitimate workplace roles and activities for early learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H Carrie; Sheu, Leslie; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Ten Cate, Olle; Teherani, Arianne

    2014-02-01

    Given the calls for earlier student engagement in clinical experiences, educators are challenged to define roles for pre-clerkship students that enable legitimate participation in clinical practice. This study aimed to determine the student roles and activities, as well as the clinic characteristics, that allow early student engagement within a specific clinical experience. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews in December 2011 and January 2012 with a purposive sample of medical student and faculty volunteers at student-run clinics (SRCs). They were asked to discuss and compare student roles in SRCs with those in the core curriculum. An inductive approach and iterative process were used to analyse the interview transcripts. Themes identified from initial open coding were organised using the sensitising concepts of workplace learning and communities of practice and subsequently applied to code all transcripts. A total of 22 medical students and four faculty advisors were interviewed. Thematic analysis revealed pre-clerkship student roles in direct patient care (patient triage, history and physical examinations, patient education, laboratory and immunisation procedures) and in clinic management (patient follow-up, staff management, quality improvement). Students took ownership of patients and occupied central roles in the function of the clinic, with faculty staff serving as peripheral resources. Clinic-related features supporting this degree of legitimate participation included defined scopes of practice, limited presenting illnesses, focused student training, and clear protocols and operations manuals. Pre-clerkship students are capable of legitimately participating in patient care experiences to an extent not usually available to them. The SRC represents one example of how early clinical experiences in the core curriculum might be transformed through the provision of patient care activities of narrow scope. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Public Relations and CSR as a Part of Corporate Legitimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Buhăniță

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of public relations literature in relation with CSR, through an analysis of academic research done in 1999-2014 period and published in three main scientific journals. The content of this literature shows that researchers looked for new perspectives along the years, broadening Clark’s approach (2000 of communication management to encompass management function and relationship management as well. The findings of the study suggest that the accent on processes may address ethics or legitimation topics in public relation as well as in CSR, because of the improved relationships they can establish between organizations, stakeholders and society.

  10. Institutions and Legitimations in Finance for the Arts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    of art support in the New Carlsberg Foundation and the Danish Arts Foundation at critical points in time, drawing on and contributing to the literature on institutional logics and convention theory. Specifically, the thesis shows the importance of nine particular logics of legitimation underlying art...... support; the industrial, market, inspired, family, renown, civic, projective, emotional and temporal. Most central to the foundations’ operation are the professional (industrial), artistic (inspired) and civic logics. The thesis shows that the invocations of these logics are highly reflective upon wider...

  11. Breech birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000623.htm Breech birth To use the sharing features on this page, ... safer for your baby to pass through the birth canal. In the last weeks of pregnancy, your ...

  12. Treatment period and medical care costs to achieve the first live birth by assisted reproductive technology are lower in the single embryo transfer period than in the double embryo transfer period: a retrospective analysis of women younger than 40 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Shunsuke; Ueda, Akane; Nakahori, Takashi; Honda, Tetsuro

    2017-04-01

    It was examined whether the single embryo transfer policy makes the treatment period longer for couples to achieve their first live birth by assisted reproductive technology. This study retrospectively analyzed women who started assisted reproductive technology at younger than 40 years of age in the authors' organization. The treatment periods for couples to achieve the first live birth by assisted reproductive technology, between the women who started assisted reproductive technology from 2004 to 2009 (the double embryo transfer period group, n=250), in which the double embryo transfer was predominant, and the women who started assisted reproductive technology from 2010 to 2015 (the single embryo transfer period group, n=298), in which the single embryo transfer was predominant, were compared. The age at the start of assisted reproductive technology, pregnancy rate per embryo transfer, and rate of women who achieved a live birth by assisted reproductive technology per number of women who tried assisted reproductive technology were all significantly higher in the single embryo transfer period group. Among the women who achieved a live birth by assisted reproductive technology, the incidence of multiple births and severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, the treatment period, and medical care costs needed to achieve the first live birth were all significantly lower in the single embryo transfer period group. In the single embryo transfer period group, those women who were younger than 40 years of age achieved their first live birth by assisted reproductive technology more safely, quickly, and reasonably.

  13. Becoming a parent to a child with birth asphyxia-From a traumatic delivery to living with the experience at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heringhaus, Alina; Blom, Michaela Dellenmark; Wigert, Helena

    2013-04-30

    The aim of this study is to describe the experiences of becoming a parent to a child with birth asphyxia treated with hypothermia in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In line with the medical advances, the survival of critically ill infants with increased risk of morbidity is increasing. Children who survive birth asphyxia are at a higher risk of functional impairments, cerebral palsy (CP), or impaired vision and hearing. Since 2006, hypothermia treatment following birth asphyxia is used in many of the Swedish neonatal units to reduce the risk of brain injury. To date, research on the experience of parenthood of the child with birth asphyxia is sparse. To improve today's neonatal care delivery, health-care providers need to better understand the experiences of becoming a parent to a child with birth asphyxia. A total of 26 parents of 16 children with birth asphyxia treated with hypothermia in a Swedish NICU were interviewed. The transcribed interview texts were analysed according to a qualitative latent content analysis. We found that the experience of becoming a parent to a child with birth asphyxia treated with hypothermia at the NICU was a strenuous journey of overriding an emotional rollercoaster, that is, from being thrown into a chaotic situation which started with a traumatic delivery to later processing the difficult situation of believing the child might not survive or was to be seriously affected by the asphyxia. The prolonged parent-infant separation due to the hypothermia treatment and parents' fear of touching the infant because of the high-tech equipment seemed to hamper the parent-infant bonding. The adaption of the everyday life at home seemed to be facilitated by the follow-up information of the doctor after discharge. The results of this study underline the importance of family-centered support during and also after the NICU discharge.

  14. Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Eoghan; Richardson, Ian; Thomson, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.

  15. Factors associated with delaying birth of first child: A Case Study of 15- 49 years old married women lived in Meybod town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zare Mehrjardi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of demographic, social, economic and cultural factors on delaying the Birth of the first child in Meybod town. Spacing between marriage and the birth of the first child is a crucial factor in demographic planning. Methods: The survey was research method and Information collected by the structured questionnaire. The study population was married women 15 to 49 years old in the city Meybod, and the sample population included 379 such women were selected with using of multi stage cluster random sampling. Results: The results of the study show that there are a meaningful relationship between the variables of women’s tendency to pregnancy, kind of family, women’s age and duration of marriage, Education of women and their husbands, geographic origin of women, occupational status of women, and their type of marriage with the dependent variable the length of period from marriage to first child birth. Also, Results of multivariate regression shows that the Use of contraceptive, women’s marriage age, women’s geographic origin, Duration of marriage, Gender Equality and kind of family, Respectively, Have a major role in determining this spacing, and able to predict 34% of the variance in the dependent variable. Conclusion: The results of this study and previous studies shows that in recent years, the space between marriage and birth of first child has increased and from the intensity of fertility is reduced. Overall, from the findings can be concluded that impact of demographic, social and cultural Condition on increase in delaying of the first child birth, and therefore the fertility decline of society is far more than economic conditions. So, to reduce the space between marriage and the birth of first child in the planning, should pay more attention to demographic and social-cultural Factors.

  16. Postmortem CT investigation of air/gas distribution in the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts of newborn infants: a serial case study with regard to still- and live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiue, Tomomi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Kawamoto, Osamu; Sogawa, Nozomi; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2013-03-10

    Flotation tests on the lungs and gastrointestinal tract to investigate aeration are classic procedures to examine the life of a newborn after birth; however, there are arguments about the reliability. The present study investigated serial forensic autopsy cases of newborn infants without marked decomposition (n=4) with regard to air/gas distribution in the lungs and gastrointestinal tracts by means of postmortem CT (PM-CT) as well as macromorphology and histology, compared with intrauterine and aborted fetuses (n=3). No gas was detected in the lungs or gastrointestinal tracts in all of three intrauterine fetal deaths. Gas was diffusely detected in the lungs of a newborn fatality attributed to smothering after birth; however, two neonatal fatalities had poor lung gas contents due to marked congestion with edema and diffuse atelectasis. In a case of unsuccessful cardiopulmonary resuscitation following possible birth asphyxia, pulmonary aeration was evidently localized on CT morphology, despite a larger amount of bowel gas, and was also uneven in histology, showing a membranous immunostaining pattern of pulmonary surfactant on the intra-alveolar surfaces of expanded alveoli. The combined use of PM-CT is useful to demonstrate air/gas distributions in the lungs and gastrointestinal tract for interpretation of spontaneous breathing after birth in newborn fatalities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Legitimation of Novel Technologies: The Case of Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroff, Anastasia E.

    Nanotechnology is the control, manipulation, and application of matter on an atomic and molecular level. The technology is complex and confusing to consumers, and its long-term safety and effect on the human body, as well as the environment, are unknown. However, for the past decade, nanotechnology has been used to develop consumer products and food with novel and attractive attributes. Since nanotechnology is still not well known, it is not legitimized; that is, it has not been deemed safe and accepted by society. However, the market for nanotechnology is in the legitimation process. It will take an entire network of key stakeholders playing a specific roles for nanotechnology to legitimize. Specifically, each key stakeholder will align with a certain cultural discourse to frame nanotechnology in a particular way that complements their values. In Essay 1, I follow previous market system dynamic's literature and combine Actor Network Theory (ANT), Foucault's Discourse on Power and Goffman's Frame analysis to theoretically explore what the actor network for nanotechnology looks like. Four dominate frames are identified: 1) Advancement (i.e., government), 2) Management (i.e., industry), 3) Development (i.e., academia/scientists), and 4) Informant (i.e., NGO). Essay 2 empirically explores each actor's perspective on the nanotechnology network through a total of 24 interviews. A hermeneutic approach is used to analyze the 208 page text and themes describing each actor's role from a self and other's perspective are discussed. Additionally, three overarching themes (i.e., contradiction, constance, and cutoff) emerge; these themes describe the degree of similarity in how actors view their role in the nanotechnology network compared to how other actor's view that actor's role. In Essay 3, I bring critical theory into market system's research to better contextualize market formation theories. Specifically, I discuss how critical theory can be used to supplement ANT. I

  18. Representation, Legitimation, and Autoethnography: An Autoethnographic Writing Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas L. Holt

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to critique representation and legitimation as they relate to the peer review process for an autoethnographic manuscript. Using a conversation derived from seven reviewers' comments pertaining to one autoethnographic manuscript, issues relating to (a the use of verification strategies in autoethnographic studies; and, (b the use of self as the only data source are discussed. As such, this paper can be considered as an autoethnographic writing story. The problematic nature of autoethnography, which is located at the boundaries of scientific research, is examined by linking the author's experiences of the review process with dominant research perspectives. Suggestions for investigators wishing to produce autoethnographic accounts are outlined along with a call for the development of appropriate evaluative criteria for such work.

  19. Chronic mentally ill women: emergence and legitimation of program issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, L L

    1985-10-01

    Program development for chronic mentally ill women is emerging in a climate where more general concerns relating to women's health and mental health are increasingly being examined. Although in the past the special needs of chronic mentally ill women have received scant attention in the professional literature, there is evidence today of a growing commitment to serving this population. The author traces the emergence and legitimation of three specific issues--homelessness, skills training, and family planning--that reflect the complexity of program development for this population. As specific issues in service delivery to chronic mentally ill women come to the fore and move toward relevant solutions, we may anticipate a sharpening of planning concepts. Both male and female chronic mental patients stand to benefit from these developments.

  20. Human Trafficking: Fighting the Illicit Economy with the Legitimate Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Shelley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of research on human trafficking, there has been attention paid to the challenges surrounding the illicit economy. In creating new strategies and initiatives on combatting human trafficking, there needs to be more discussion surrounding the legitimate economy and how the business sector can make an impact in the fight against trafficking. Currently, there is a growing movement of businesses that are looking to address human trafficking through training, education, and leadership initiatives; codes of conduct; supply chain management; and financial analysis. This paper will examine the latest in these strategies and approaches by businesses in the global war against human trafficking, in addition to a discussion of a new initiative engaging the private sector co-led by Dr. Louise Shelley and Christina Bain through the World Economic Forum’s Global Agenda Council Network.

  1. Illegal or legitimate use? Precursor compounds to amphetamine and methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, F

    2000-02-01

    The interpretation of methamphetamine and amphetamine positive test results in biological samples is a challenge to clinical and forensic toxicology for several reasons. The effects of pH and dilution of urine samples and the knowledge about legitimate and illicit sources have to be taken into account. Besides a potentially legal prescription of amphetamines, many substances metabolize to methamphetamine or amphetamine in the body: amphetaminil, benzphetamine, clobenzorex, deprenyl, dimethylamphetamine, ethylamphetamine, famprofazone, fencamine, fenethylline, fenproporex, furfenorex, mefenorex, mesocarb, and prenylamine. Especially the knowledge of potential origins of methamphetamine and amphetamine turns out to be very important to prevent a misinterpretation of the surrounding circumstances and to prove illegal drug abuse. In this review, potential precursor compounds are described, including their medical use and major clinical effects and their metabolic profiles, as well as some clues which help to identify the sources.

  2. Differences in rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe in 2003: results from the MOSAIC cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; Draper, Elizabeth S; Kollée, Louis

    2008-01-01

    of gestation without lethal congenital anomalies (N = 4908). Outcomes were rates of preterm birth, in-hospital mortality, intraventricular hemorrhage grades III and IV or cystic periventricular leukomalacia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Mortality and morbidity rates were standardized for gestational age...... as well as 28 to 31 weeks of gestation. Morbidity among survivors also varied (intraventricular hemorrhage/periventricular leukomalacia ranged from 2.6% to

  3. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management options. Breastfeeding basics. Caring for baby at home. Birthing classes are not just for new parents, though. ... midwife. Postpartum care. Caring for your baby at home, including baby first aid. Lamaze One of the most popular birthing techniques in the U.S., Lamaze has been around ...

  4. Reduced live-birth rates after IVF/ICSI in women with previous unilateral oophorectomy: results of a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Tekla; Holte, Jan; Olofsson, Jan I; Hadziosmanovic, Nermin; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Lood, Mikael; Berglund, Lars; Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny

    2018-02-01

    Is there a reduced live-birth rate (LBR) after IVF/ICSI treatment in women with a previous unilateral oophorectomy (UO)? A significantly reduced LBR after IVF/ICSI was found in women with previous UO when compared with women with intact ovaries in this large multicentre cohort, both crudely and after adjustment for age, BMI, fertility centre and calendar period and regardless of whether the analysis was based on transfer of embryos in the fresh cycle only or on cumulative results including transfers using frozen-thawed embryos. Similar pregnancy rates after IVF/ICSI have been previously reported in case-control studies and small cohort studies of women with previous UO versus women without ovarian surgery. In all previous studies multiple embryos were transferred. No study has previously evaluated LBR in a large cohort of women with a history of UO. This research was a multicentre cohort study, including five reproductive medicine centres in Sweden: Carl von Linné Clinic (A), Karolinska University Hospital (B), Uppsala University Hospital (C), Linköping University Hospital (D) and Örebro University Hospital (E). The women underwent IVF/ICSI between January 1999 and November 2015. Single embryo transfer (SET) was performed in approximately 70% of all treatments, without any significant difference between UO exposed women versus controls (68% versus 71%), respectively (P = 0.32), and a maximum of two embryos were transferred in the remaining cases. The dataset included all consecutive treatments and fresh and frozen-thawed cycles. The exposed cohort included 154 women with UO who underwent 301 IVF/ICSI cycles and the unexposed control cohort consisted of 22 693 women who underwent 41 545 IVF/ICSI cycles. Overall, at the five centres (A-E), the exposed cohort underwent 151, 34, 35, 41 and 40 treatments, respectively, and they were compared with controls of the same centre (18 484, 8371, 5575, 4670 and 4445, respectively). The primary outcome was LBR, which was

  5. National collection of embryo morphology data into Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System: associations among day 3 cell number, fragmentation and blastomere asymmetry, and live birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racowsky, Catherine; Stern, Judy E; Gibbons, William E; Behr, Barry; Pomeroy, Kimball O; Biggers, John D

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the validity of collecting day 3 embryo morphology variables into the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcomes Reporting System (SART CORS). Retrospective. National database-SART CORS. Fresh autologous assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles from 2006-2007 in which embryos were transferred singly (n=1,020) or in pairs (n=6,508) and embryo morphology was collected. None. Relationship between live birth, maternal age, and morphology of transferred day 3 embryos as defined by cell number, fragmentation, and blastomere symmetry. Logistic multiple regressions and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were applied to determine specificity and sensitivity for correctly classifying embryos as either failures or successes. Live birth rate was positively associated with increasing cell number up to eight cells (8 cells: 16.2%), but was negatively associated with maternal age, increasing fragmentation, and asymmetry scores. An area under the receiver operating curve of 0.753 (95% confidence interval 0.740-0.766) was derived, with a sensitivity of 45.0%, a specificity of 83.2%, and 76.4% of embryos being correctly classified with a cutoff probability of 0.3. This analysis provides support for the validity of collecting morphology fields for day 3 embryos into SART CORS. Standardization of morphology collections will assist in controlling for embryo quality in future database analyses. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The principle of legitimate expectations in Dutch constitutional and administrative law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, Gio ten; Widdershoven, R.J.G.M.

    1998-01-01

    “An important function of the law is to provide certainty by making possible legitimate expectations”.1 “The law cannot be based on trust and expectations, however reasonable and fair they may be”.2 These are just two quotations from Dutch literature on the principle of legitimate

  7. Avaliação de preditores do óbito neonatal em uma série histórica de nascidos vivos no Nordeste brasileiro An evaluation of the predictors of neonatal death in a time series of live births in the Northeast Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar tendência dos preditores do óbito neonatal entre os nascidos vivos e qualidade do preenchimento do Sistema de Informações para Nascidos Vivos (Sinasc institucional. MÉTODOS: série histórica do Sinasc do Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1995-2006 em Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Foram avaliadas: completitude de preenchimento das variáveis e tendência dos indicadores de risco para mortalidade infantil (baixo peso ao nascer; anóxia; prematuridade; cesariana; ausência de pré-natal; mãe adolescente; analfabetismo e nenhum filho nascido vivo e morto. Significância estatística para teste t de Student foi de 5% em um modelo de regressão linear. RESULTADOS: 58.689 nascidos vivos com contínuo incremento a partir de 2002; baixo peso ao nascer, 22,8%; Apgar OBJECTVES: to evaluate predictors of neonatal death among live births and the quality of use of the institutional Live Birth Information System register (Sinasc. METHODS: a time serie based on data from the Sinasc of the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (1995-2006 in the city Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. The following were evaluated: the completeness of the forms and the tendency regarding risk factors for infant mortality (low birth weight; anoxia; premature birth; caesarian birth; lack of prenatal care; adolescent pregnancy; illiteracy; and having had no live or still born child. Statistical significance was tested using Student's t test with p<0.05 in a linear regression model. RESULTS: 58,689 live births occurred with a continued rise from 2002 onwards; low birth weight, 22.8%; Apgar <7 1º minute 15.3%; premature 22.4%; Caesarian birth 38,2%; adolescent mothers 27.2%; illiteracy 2.7% and 89% with no live or still born child. One percent of variables were not recorded. The following variables increased (p<0.05: Apgar in the 1st minute, low birth weight, premature birth and caesarian birth; and the following decreased (p<0

  8. THE LAWFUL CONSEQUENCES OF BIRTH CERTIFICATE ON CHILDREN ABROGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasya Immanuela Sandjojo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research due to the law on the abrogation of birth certificates against children aims to know the effect of law affecting the child, as well as review of the determination and judgment in court that play a role in the birth certificate abrogation. This research describes the importance of birth certificate because of the low public awareness to perform birth registration. The study uses normative juridical research, which faces legal issues with the process of discovering legal rules, principles, and legal doctrines, with deductive methods, starting from the general thing and then generating specific and legitimate answers. Based on the results of the study, that the abrogation of birth certificate brings great lawful consequences for the child, especially the status and position of the child, as well as the right of alimentation,  which in this study included some examples of determination and court decision about the birth certificate abrogation.

  9. The New Rich and Their Unplanned Births: Stratified Reproduction under China's Birth-planning Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lihong

    2017-12-01

    This article explores the creation and ramifications of a stratified reproductive system under China's state control of reproduction. Within this system, an emerging group of "new rich" are able to circumvent birth regulations and have unplanned births because of their financial capabilities and social networks. While China's birth-planning policy is meant to be enforced equally for all couples, the unequal access to wealth and bureaucratic power as a result of China's widening social polarization has created disparate reproductive rights and experiences. This article identifies three ways in which reproductive privileges are created. It further explores how a stratified reproductive system under state population control reinforces social polarization. While many socially marginalized couples are unable to register their unplanned children for citizenship status and social benefits, the new rich are able to legitimate their births and transfer their privilege and status to their children, thus reproducing a new generation of elites. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  10. When legitimate claims collide: communities, media and dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Grinell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the exhibition Jerusalem at the Museum of World Culture (MoWC in Gothenburg, Sweden. The exhibition mixes photographs of LGBTQ (LesbianGayBiTransQueer persons in Jerusalem, with quotes from the three Abrahamitic Holy Scriptures condemning homosexual activities and behaviours. MoWC held dialogues with religious persons. Although no-one wanted to stop the exhibition, many were critical of the artist’s mixing of Holiness and Nudity/Sexuality. The Museum was criticized for bending to fundamentalist pressure, assuming that it had plans to stop the exhibition, and a media debate on censorship and freedom of speech followed. This paper analyzes the situatedness of MoWC, and its discursive belonging. How can a state governed institution deal with legitimate and opposing claims, and counter both heteronormativity and islamophobia? What discourses is the Museum institution inscribed in? What power relations follow from that? Is it, due to historic, bureaucratic, and cultural legacies, tied to certain positions and affiliations in the public space?

  11. Legitimizing Private Actors in Global Governance: From Performance to Performativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Krahmann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Global governance is frequently criticised because of major legitimacy deficits, including lack of public accountability and democratic control. Within this context, questions about the legitimacy of non-state governance actors, such as non-governmental organizations, transnational corporations and private security companies, are neither an exception nor a surprise. Many actors have, therefore, turned to the measurement of performance, defined as publicly beneficial outcomes, in order to gain legitimacy. However, the rise of performance assessments as legitimizing practice is not without problems. Taking global security and health interventions as examples, this article contends that the immaterial, socially constructed and inherently contested nature of such public goods presents major obstacles for the assessment of performance in terms of observable, measurable and attributable outcomes. Performance is therefore frequently replaced by performativity, i.e. a focus on the repetitive enactment of specific forms of behaviour and capabilities, which are simply equated with the intended results. The implications for how global public goods are conceptualized and, ultimately, implemented are profound.

  12. LEGITIMATION DOCUMENTS ISSUED BY THE FRENCH MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as "MAE") has sent a reminder of the following rules relating to legitimation documents (special cards, henceforth called "special residence permits" (titres de séjour spéciaux), and attestations de fonctions) that it issues. The Ministry has specified that compliance with these rules is essential to the proper functioning of any International Organization established in France. 1. Types of document and use a) Special CD, FI and AT residence permits They serve as residence permits for members of the personnel and the members of their families who are not of French nationality and who do not have the status of permanent resident (see N.B. below). Vis-à-vis the French authorities, they serve as proof that those holding these cards enjoy the privileges and immunities provided for by the Status Agreement between CERN and France (immunity from legal process in the discharge of their duties, entitlement to drive a vehicle registered in a special ...

  13. Legitimation documents issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    New rules and reminder The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'MAE') has informed CERN of the following solution to a problem that has existed for over 30 years: from now on, members of the personnel residing in France and holding a full-time contract of between three and six months will be entitled to a special EM-type residence permit that does not confer any privileges (see Paragraph 2 below). Furthermore, the MAE has stated that it is willing to request the competent authorities to look favourably on applications for work permits by a member of the personnel's family members who reside in France and wish to take up gainful employment, although it is unable to guarantee the outcome (see Paragraph 7 below). The MAE also wishes to draw attention to the following rules concerning the legitimation documents it issues and to point out that compliance with these rules is essential for the proper operation of all international organisations established in France. This communicatio...

  14. Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities. High birth weight babies are often big because ...

  15. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... licensed to handle low-risk births and whose philosophy emphasizes educating expectant parents about the natural aspects ... Partner Message About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  16. [Birth hypoxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Větr, M

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of the commonly used laboratory and clinical parameters of the newborn shortly after birth. Check thresholds acidemia, and in relation to the method of termination of pregnancy. Retrospective epidemiological study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital, Olomouc. Of the 26,869 children born in the years 2000 to 2013 Inclusion criteria (complete clinical and laboratory findings after birth) fulfill 23,471 (87.4%) neonates. Methods for evaluation of newborns included Apgar score calculation and arterial umbilical cord blood pH and lactate analysis. A total of 0.7% (157) of the neonates had severe acidosis pH below 7.00 arterial umbilical cord blood, its prevalence varies annually between 0.1 to 1.1%. Cutoff lactate in relation to pH reserves. Operating cesarean births in particular accounts for more than half of those with worse clinical findings Apgar and pH <7.00, but only 30% supratreshold lactate values. Also worse clinical evaluation after caesarean section is not in accordance with the laboratory findings. Vaginal surgery, especially forceps have a significant share of severe acidosis than cesarean, regardless of their frequency. Risk factor of forceps to pH less 7.00,OR = 9.28 (5.39 -15.77), P = 0.0000000, while caesarean to pH less 7,00 had OR = 1.52 (1.08 to 2.14), P = 0.01408156. The results obtained confirm that acidosis after birth is quite common, although they may not have response on the clinical condition of the newborn after birth. Evaluation of Apgar is little objective for the detection of hypoxia during birth and is influenced by the immaturity of newborn and method of delivery. Lactate levels may contribute to an objective assessment of hypoxia during birth. Values above 6.3 mmol/l can be considered an important indicator of newborn acidosis and birth hypoxia.

  17. Remarks on the Legitimate Use of Force to Defend the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pereira de Souza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates whether the legitimate defense can be used in the protection of collective environmental rights. Some scholars are contrary to the legitimate defense of those rights in face of an unlawful assault not involving concomitant aggression to individual rights. Given the current risk scenario for the global ecological balance, revealed by the approach of planetary boundaries - and taking into account its fundamental principles of protection and defense of a right – this paper does not exclude legitimate defense as a lawful means of environmental protection, regardless its impact on public order and peace.

  18. Legitimation as a particular mode of strategic communication in the public sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Thomsen, Christa

    2016-01-01

    Within the theoretical frameworks of strategic communication and legitimation and through the use of a case study analysis, this article investigates the creation of managerial legitimation towards internal stakeholders in text and talk as a particular mode of strategic communication in a public...... sector organization. Following a theoretical discussion of the interconnectedness of strategic communication and managerial legitimation, we present a case study analysis of management talk at three interrelated management meetings dealing with the implementation of New Public Management-based (NPM...... talk happens at a microlevel and is used as a particular mode of strategic communication....

  19. Comparison of acupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone on live birth in anovulatory infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Hu, Zhenxing; Wu, Wanting; Lai, Maohua; Wu, Taixiang; Ma, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The high prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is considered to be one of the major pathophysiological changes in PCOS that leads to anovulatory infertility. We hypothesise that electroacupuncture pretreatment improves insulin sensitivity and leads to a higher ovulation rate and greater chances of live birth after the induction of ovulation. The effect of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by ovulation induction in women with anovulatory PCOS has not been investigated before, and we present here a randomised controlled trial to test this hypothesis by comparing electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by letrozole versus letrozole alone in anovulatory women with PCOS. Methods/analysis This is a multicentre, randomised,and controlled trial. A total of 384 patients will be enrolled in this study and will be randomly allocated by a central randomisation system to the treatment group or the control group in a 1:1 ratio. The treatment group will undergo 16 weeks of electroacupuncture pretreatment followed by 4 cycles of letrozole, and the control group will only undergo 4 cycles of letrozole. The primary outcome will be the live birth rate. All statistical analyses will be performed using the SPSS program V.21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, Illinois, USA), and a p value <0.05 will be considered statistically significant. Ethics/dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committees of each participating centre. Written consent will be obtained from each patient and her husband before any study procedure is performed. Adverse events will be categorised, and the percentage of patients experiencing adverse events or serious adverse events during the treatment period will be documented. The results of this trial will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international meetings. Trial registration number NCT02491333. PMID:27855085

  20. The association between living through a prolonged economic depression and the male:female birth ratio--a longitudinal study from Cuba, 1960-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venero Fernández, Silvia Josefina; Medina, Ramon Suárez; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W

    2011-12-15

    The Trivers-Willard hypothesis suggests that populations respond to scarcity by decreasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. Cuba experienced an extreme economic depression in the 1990s called the "special period." Using time-series analysis, the authors studied the impact of this event on the male:female sex ratio at birth in Cuba from 1960 to 2008. From 1990 to 1993, the per capita gross domestic product in Cuba decreased by 36%. By use of a definition of the special period from 1991 to 1998, there was a prolonged increase in the male:female ratio of livebirths during this period of economic depression (P Cuba, contrary to the Trivers-Willard hypothesis, the human population responded to conditions of scarcity by increasing the ratio of males to females at livebirth. These data may be relevant in the modeling of demographic projections in countries that experience prolonged economic depression and in understanding adaptive human reproductive responses to environmental change.

  1. Mosaic embryo transfer after oocyte in vitro maturation in combination with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT)-first report of a euploid live birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naomi; Lopez, Rosmary; Delgado, Andrea; Nuñez, Denisse; Portella, Jimmy; Noriega-Hoces, Luis; Guzmán, Luis

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a healthy life birth after a mosaic embryo transfer in oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM). Patient received minimal stimulation, starting on day 3 after menstrual period. No hCG trigger was administered. Oocyte retrieval was performed and oocytes were matured for 30 h. After denuding, mature oocytes were inseminated by ICSI. Embryos were cultured until blastocyst stage and biopsied. One euploid embryo after array comprehensive genome hybridization (aCGH) was diagnostic. However, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) re-analysis showed that embryo was a mosaic for chromosome 13 and 21. Nevertheless, pregnancy ultrasound scans and non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT-Verifi-Illumina) indicated a normal fetus development. Finally, a healthy baby was born after 38 weeks. Its weight was 4480 g, head circumference 36 cm, and total length of 51 cm. To confirm that the baby was chromosomically normal, an NGS test was performed in buccal cells, a normal profile was obtained. Our finding confirmed that mosaic embryo transfer would bring a healthy offspring.

  2. Risk factors and birth prevalence of birth defects and inborn errors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children with any birth defect or metabolic errors of metabolism at birth or in the neonatology section were our sample for study. Control group was randomly selected from the cases with normal live births. Blood tests were performed for children suspected to suffer from genetic blood disorders. The principal BD as per the ...

  3. Birth interval and its predictors among married women in Dabat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-30

    Birth intervals (time between two successive live births) if short are associated with diverse complications. We assessed birth interval and its predictors among 613 married women who gave birth from January 1 to December 30, 2008. Data were collected in April 2012. Life table and Kaplan-Meier curve were used to ...

  4. Successful pregnancy and live birth from a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism woman with low serum estradiol concentrations despite numerous oocyte maturations: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kaori; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Chuyu

    2017-09-20

    The increase in serum estradiol (E 2 ) concentrations during the follicular phase becomes the index of oocyte maturation in vivo. When ovarian stimulation is performed to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) patients with only follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), proper increase in serum E 2 concentrations is not observed. Even if oocytes are obtained, which usually have low fertilization rate. In this report, we would like to present an unique case, in which under low E 2 concentrations and without luteinizing hormone (LH) administration, numerous mature oocytes could be obtained and a healthy baby delivered. During controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with only recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH) administrations, a 26-year-old Japanese woman with hypothalamic amenorrhea (i.e., hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) developed numerous follicles despite low serum E 2 , 701 pg/ml, and high progesterone (P 4 ) concentrations, 2.11 ng/ml, on the day of induced ovulation. However, 33 cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were successfully obtained; following the embryo culture, four early embryos and six blastocysts were cryopreserved. This patient received hormone replacement therapy (HRT), during which one of six cryopreserved blastocysts was thawed and transferred into the uterine lumen. The patient became pregnant from the first transfer, went through her pregnancy without any complications, and delivered a healthy male baby in the 39th week. Low E 2 concentrations in follicular fluids (FFs) are suggestive that aromatase and/or 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) could be low. Serum E 2 concentrations may not be the most important index for oocyte maturation during COS, and suggested that oocyte maturation was in progress even under low serum E 2 and high P 4 conditions. Even if serum E 2 concentrations did not properly increase, numerous mature oocytes could be obtained, resulting in the birth of a healthy baby.

  5. Does childhood adversity account for poorer mental and physical health in second-generation Irish people living in Britain? Birth cohort study from Britain (NCDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das-Munshi, Jayati; Clark, Charlotte; Dewey, Michael E; Leavey, Gerard; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Prince, Martin J

    2013-03-01

    Worldwide, the Irish diaspora experience elevated mortality and morbidity across generations, not accounted for through socioeconomic position. The main objective of the present study was to assess if childhood disadvantage accounts for poorer mental and physical health in adulthood, in second-generation Irish people. Analysis of prospectively collected birth cohort data, with participants followed to midlife. England, Scotland and Wales. Approximately 17 000 babies born in a single week in 1958. Six per cent of the cohort were of second-generation Irish descent. Primary outcomes were common mental disorders assessed at age 44/45 and self-rated health at age 42. Secondary outcomes were those assessed at ages 23 and 33. Relative to the rest of the cohort, second-generation Irish children grew up in marked material and social disadvantage, which tracked into early adulthood. By midlife, parity was reached between second-generation Irish cohort members and the rest of the sample on most disadvantage indicators. At age 23, Irish cohort members were more likely to screen positive for common mental disorders (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.94). This had reduced slightly by midlife (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.69). Although at age 23 second-generation cohort members were just as likely to report poorer self-rated health (OR 1.06; 95% CI 0.79 to 1.43), by midlife this difference had increased (OR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.60). Adjustment for childhood and early adulthood adversity fully attenuated differences in adult health disadvantages. Social and material disadvantage experienced in childhood continues to have long-range adverse effects on physical and mental health at midlife, in second-generation Irish cohort members. This suggests important mechanisms over the life-course, which may have important policy implications in the settlement of migrant families.

  6. Maternal occupation and the risk of birth defects: an overview from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Chapman, B.R.; Hooiveld, M.; Olshan, A.; Liu, X.; DePersis, R.D.; Zhu, J.; Druschel, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between a spectrum of 24 maternal occupations and 45 birth defects for hypothesis generating purposes. METHODS: Cases of isolated and multiple birth defects (n = 8977) and all non-malformed live-born control births (n = 3833) included in the National Birth

  7. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    ; provides practical guidance on how to set-up and maintain birth cohorts for completing family-based studies in life course epidemiology; describes how to undertake appropriate statistical analyses of family-based studies and correctly interpret results from these analyses; and provides examples...

  8. The influence of the induction of farrowing on live birth, body mass, appearance of dystocia, mortality and surviving of neonatal pigs in litter during the first ten days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Slavoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of the the day of farrowing induction on the number of newborn piglets (live born and dead born, body mass and mortality of neonatal pigs in litter by the tenth day of age. For the investigation purpose, there were chosen 167 pregnant animals, 34 gilts and 133 sows, divided into 3 groups each, according to the day of pregnancy when prostaglandin analogue, dinoprost-tromethamine, was applied (from 112th to 114th day. Fastest- induced parturition was in gilts which were administered dinoprost on the 113th day of pregnancy, (34,30 ± 6,23 h after application, that is, in sows which were administered prostaglandin on the 114th day of pregnancy, (29,57 ± 4,14 h after application of dinoprost. Most gilts (75 % and sows (90,91% started farrowing 24-36 h after dinoprost application, when it was given on the 113th day of pregnancy. During daily twelve-hour working time (7-19 h, 67,07% out of all the treated animals started farrowing. When farrowing was induced on the 112th day of pregnancy, 17 sows (12,78% needed obstetric assistance for dystocia, while 47 (35,34 % sows had troublesome farrowing. Along with the delayed induction, body mass of newborn pigs increased, and the largest recorded weight was 1,27 kg in sows, that is 1,38 kg in gilts, which were given dinoprost on the 114th day of pregnancy, with the lowest number of live born pigs of body mass less than 1 kg (23,76%. In this experiment there was determined the connection between the body mass and vitality of newborn piglets, so the lowest mortality rate of the pigs by the 10th day of age was noticed in sows and gilts which were given dinoprost on the 114th day of pregnancy (11,05%, in regard to the pigs born of sows and gilts which were given dinoprost on the 112th day of pregnancy (15,39 %.

  9. Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Research Matters July 21, 2014 Drug Improves Birth Rates for Women with Ovary Disorder At a ... more effective than standard therapy in increasing live births for women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Letrozole could ...

  10. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Learning to listen. Institutional change and legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackerron, G. [SPRU Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom); Berkhout, F. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, VU University, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-04-15

    Over the course of 50 years, UK radioactive waste policy change has been coupled with institutional change, without much progress towards the ultimate goal of safe, long-term stewardship of wastes. We explain this history as a search for legitimacy against a shifting context of legitimation needs and deficits. Following Habermas, we argue that legitimation is derived from a process of justificatory discourse. In principle, there must be a reasonable exchange of arguments between diverse parties in society, based on common norms, for legitimacy to be achieved. We show that the work of legitimation in UK radioactive waste policy has moved from a focus on factual validity claims towards an increasing emphasis on deliberative processes. This reframing of legitimation needs explains institutional and policy changes in UK radioactive waste policy. The most recent phase of policy and institutional change, which placed public deliberation about long-term management and disposal options centre-stage, represents a new step towards bridging legitimation deficits. Plans to build new nuclear reactors in the UK based on a more closed 'streamlined' decision process risk reversing the legitimacy gains that have been achieved through growing openness on radioactive waste management.

  12. Birth weight reference percentiles for Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    Full Text Available To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese.Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006-2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves.Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants.There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes.

  13. Sub-registro de nascimentos vivos em localidade do Estado de Piauí, Brasil Underregistration of live births in city of the State of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Rezende Brito Portela

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Decorrente de falta de dados que informem de modo fidedigno aos planejadores da área de Saúde, objetivou-se estimar a taxa mínima de sub-registro de nascimentos vivos na cidade de Piripiri, Piauí, no período de 1 de julho de 1983 a 30 de junho de 1984. O método utilizado para medir o sub-registro foi a comparação dos dados oficiais (Cartório de Registro Civil com os não oficiais (Fundação Serviço Especial de Saúde Pública - FSESP e Igreja Católica, cujo resultado mostrou uma taxa mínima de sub-registro muito alta (68,4% quando comparada com taxas de outras localidades brasileiras. Estudou-se a associação entre registro civil e variáveis interveníentes como local do parto, sexo da criança, estado civil e zona de residência da mãe. Concluiu-se ser o sub-registro um problema de Saúde Pública cujos fatores fundamentais como a educação, a conscientização da população e a gratuidade do registro, dentre outros, poderão contribuir para sua diminuição, com a conseqüente melhoria do planejamento das ações na área da Saúde Pública, de benéfica repercussão na vida da população.The minimum rate of underregistration of live births in the city of Piripiri, Piauí, between Jury 1,1983 and June 30,1984, is calculated. The lack of trustworthy data on underregistration of births is of the utmost importance in the area of Public Health, principally to those responsible for planning the Health Services. The method used to measure underregistration was the comparison of official data (Civil Registry Office with unofficial data (Foundation SESP and the Catholic Church, the results of which show a very high minimum rate of underregistration - 68.4% - as compared with the rates of other places in Brazil. The association between the civil register and such variables as place of births, sex of child, civil status and residential zone of mother was also studies. It is concluded that underregistration is a public health problem

  14. Assisted Reproductive Technology and Birth Defects: Effects of Subfertility and Multiple Births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Rebecca F; Getz, Kelly D; Heinke, Dominique; Luke, Barbara; Stern, Judy E; Declercq, Eugene R; Chen, Xiaoli; Lin, Angela E; Anderka, Marlene

    2017-08-15

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) has been associated with birth defects, but the contributions of multiple births and underlying subfertility remain unclear. We evaluated the effects of subfertility and mediation by multiple births on associations between ART and nonchromosomal birth defects. We identified a retrospective cohort of Massachusetts live births and stillbirths from 2004 to 2010 among ART-exposed, ART-unexposed subfertile, and fertile mothers using linked information from fertility clinics, vital records, hospital discharges, and birth defects surveillance. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Mediation analyses were performed to deconstruct the ART-birth defects association into the direct effect of ART, the indirect effect of multiple births, and the effect of ART-multiples interaction. Of 17,829 ART-exposed births, 355 had a birth defect, compared with 162 of 9431 births to subfertile mothers and 6183 of 445,080 births to fertile mothers. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6) for ART and 1.3 (95% CI, 1.1-1.5) in subfertile compared with fertile deliveries. We observed elevated rates of several birth defects with ART, including tetralogy of Fallot and hypospadias. Subfertility and multiple births affect these associations, with multiple births explaining 36% of the relative effect of ART on nonchromosomal birth defects. Although the risk of birth defects with ART is small, a substantial portion of the relative effect is mediated through multiple births, with subfertility contributing an important role. Future research is needed to determine the impact of newer techniques, such as single embryo transfer, on these risks. Birth Defects Research 109:1144-1153, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Birth rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkin, R

    1980-06-01

    Despite the marked decline in Singapore's crude birth rate from 42.7/1000 population to 22.1/1000 population from 1957 to 1970, the government adopted a policy of sterilization by coercion with the passage in 1970 of the Voluntary Sterilisation Act. Although sterilization is supposedly voluntary, various regulations make it extremely difficult for couples who wish to retain their fertility. Couples under 40 years of age with more than 2 children must agree to accept sterilization or their children are assigned to a low priority category in regard to primary school admittance. An individual who wishes to marry a non-Singaporean cannot obtain a marriage application unless one of the parties to the marriage agrees to have a sterilization after the birth of their 2nd child. Singapore, with a population density of almost 4000/square kilometer, needs to be concerned about population growth; however, since the population had for the most part already adopted a 2 child family norm, these coercive policies appear to be blatantly excessive.

  16. Radioisotopes "economy of promises": on the limits of biomedicine in public legitimization of nuclear activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Soraya

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the rise and the fall of biomedicine in the public legitimization of the development of nuclear energy. Until the late 1950s, biological and medical applications of radioisotopes were presented as the most important successes of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. I will argue that despite the major financial investment, the development of the uses of radioisotopes and their important impact on biology and clinical practices, the assessment of medical uses remained relatively limited. As consequence, the place of biomedicine in the public legitimization of financial investment and civilian uses of nuclear energy began to decline from the late 1950s.

  17. Infant Deaths per Thousand Live Births 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  18. Birth-associated long-bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Asma; Amarin, Zouhair; Abu-Hassan, Freih

    2013-11-01

    To assess the incidence and outcome of neonatal long-bone fractures at a tertiary teaching hospital. A retrospective study of all neonates with long-bone fractures delivered at Jordan University Hospital between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. Among a total of 34 519 live births, 8 neonates had a long-bone fracture (incidence 0.23/1000 live births); of these, 6 had a femur fracture (0.17/1000 live births) and 2 had a humerus fracture (0.05/1000 live births). The route of delivery was emergency cesarean delivery for 6 infants, elective cesarean delivery for 1 infant, and the vaginal route for 1 infant. The mean birth weight was 2723g. All neonates weighed more than 2200g and their gestational age was more than 35weeks, with the exception of 1 neonate born at 31weeks weighing 1500g. The mean time interval from birth to fracture diagnosis was 1.5days. All fractures healed with no residual deformity. Emergency cesarean delivery carries a higher risk of long-bone fracture than vaginal delivery. Prematurity, malpresentation, abnormal lie, and multiple pregnancies may predispose to long-bone fractures. The prognosis of birth-associated long-bone fractures is good. © 2013.

  19. Legalization, Expertise, and Participation: Strategies of Compensatory Legitimation in Educational Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Hans N.

    1983-01-01

    Shows how the concept of legitimacy and, in particular, the theoretical construct of compensatory legitimation as a determinant of policy strategies may be useful for the comparative analysis of educational policy in advanced capitalist societies. Uses examples of educational policy in the Federal Republic of Germany and the United States. (BRR)

  20. Central Practitioners' Developing Legitimate Peripheral Participation in a Community of Practice for Changing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, David James

    2015-01-01

    As new technologies continue to shape society, there has been a greater need for communities of practice to facilitate changing teaching and learning practices through technology in schools. Legitimate peripheral participation through these communities of practice has become an essential means to spread and support this technology integration…

  1. Institutional Tendencies of Legitimate Evaluation: A Comparison of Finnish and English Higher Education Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, Pirkko

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses institutional evaluations of higher education in England and Finland through the concept of legitimacy. The focus of the article is on the institutional tendencies of legitimacy. This author's hypothesis is that evaluation is legitimate when the evaluation process is of a good quality and accepted both morally and in practice…

  2. Kvalitet, faglighed og legitime videnformer i SSP-samarbejdet under transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    2016-01-01

    Quality, professionalism and legitimate knowledge in a changing SSP-collaboration. This article explores the inter professional collaboration in a crime preventive initiative called SSP, which is a collaboration between school, social work and police. By drawing on interviews of actors from...

  3. Health librarians: developing professional competence through a 'legitimate peripheral participation' model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Sara; Thomas, Zoe

    2011-12-01

    This feature considers the legitimate peripheral participation model in developing professional competencies in health librarianship. It is described how this model was used in the development of a framework for mapping and recognising the competencies gained by new health librarians at the Royal Free Hospital Medical Library. HS. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  4. Coercive and legitimate authority impact tax honesty: evidence from behavioral and ERP experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Katharina; Pfabigan, Daniela M; Lamm, Claus; Kirchler, Erich; Hofmann, Eva

    2017-07-01

    Cooperation in social systems such as tax honesty is of central importance in our modern societies. However, we know little about cognitive and neural processes driving decisions to evade or pay taxes. This study focuses on the impact of perceived tax authority and examines the mental chronometry mirrored in ERP data allowing a deeper understanding about why humans cooperate in tax systems. We experimentally manipulated coercive and legitimate authority and studied its impact on cooperation and underlying cognitive (experiment 1, 2) and neuronal (experiment 2) processes. Experiment 1 showed that in a condition of coercive authority, tax payments are lower, decisions are faster and participants report more rational reasoning and enforced compliance, however, less voluntary cooperation than in a condition of legitimate authority. Experiment 2 confirmed most results, but did not find a difference in payments or self-reported rational reasoning. Moreover, legitimate authority led to heightened cognitive control (expressed by increased MFN amplitudes) and disrupted attention processing (expressed by decreased P300 amplitudes) compared to coercive authority. To conclude, the neuronal data surprisingly revealed that legitimate authority may led to higher decision conflict and thus to higher cognitive demands in tax decisions than coercive authority. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. "I Don't Want to Hear That!": Legitimating Whiteness through Silence in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagno, Angelina E.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the ways in which silences around race contribute to the maintenance and legitimation of Whiteness. Drawing on ethnographic data from two demographically different schools, I highlight patterns of racially coded language, teacher silence, silencing students' race talk, and the conflating of culture with race, equality…

  6. Stakeholder perspectives on a financial sector legitimation process: the case of NGOs and the Equator Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Sullivan, N.; O'Dwyer, B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present an in-depth, context rich, and stakeholder-focused perspective on the legitimation dynamics surrounding the initiation and evolution of one of the key financial sector environmental and social responsibility initiatives in recent years, the Equator

  7. The Evolution of the Quality Agenda in Higher Education: The Politics of Legitimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakou, Ourania

    2017-01-01

    Taking the evolution of the quality agenda in the UK as its centrepiece, this article analyses the politics of legitimation accompanying the emergence of quality assurance and the contribution of quality enhancement to the power play therein. This article argues that over the last 25 years the quality agenda has been used as a proxy--a state…

  8. Live birth pregnancy outcome after first in vitro fertilization treatment in a patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and isolated high positive IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva Hristina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available IgA anti-β2glycoprotein I antibodies (IgA-anti-β2GPI seems to be the most prevalent isotype in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE with a significant association to thrombotic events. Both SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS can be associated with implantation failure, fetal loss and obstetric complications. Recent reports highlight the clinical value of IgA-anti-β2GPI determination in supporting in vitro fertilization (IVF treatment and IVF pregnancy outcomes. We report a 36-year-old female diagnosed with SLE, endometriosis and unexplained infertility. Conventional APS markers were consistently negative: anti-cardiolipin (aCL and anti-β2GPI: IgG/IgM. She was then tested with reports of repeatedly high IgA-anti-β2GPI and tested positive from 2014 after IgA (aCL; anti-β2GPI were established in our APS diagnostic panel. She underwent successful first IVF procedure with a 30 week live birth pregnancy outcome. During the follow up no lupus flare, thrombosis or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were registered. Serum IgA anti-β2GPI and anti-dsDNA levels declined statistically significant during the second and third trimester. Titres of IgA-anti-β2GPI remained lower postpartum as well. This case highlights the clinical importance of IgA-anti-β2GPI testing for family planning, assisted reproduction and pregnancy in women with SLE and/or APS.

  9. Birth control pills - combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  10. Birth Control Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships STIs Media Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 582 Birth Control Explorer Sort by all methods most effective ... MORE You are here Home » Birth Control Explorer Birth Control Explorer If you’re having sex —or ...

  11. Accredited Birth Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Administrative Staff Donate Contact MENU CLOSE back Accredited Birth Centers You are here: Home Accredited Birth Centers ... not CABC-accredited. How do you find a birth center here? Skip Instructions! Get to the Map… ...

  12. Essure Permanent Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prosthetics Essure Permanent Birth Control Essure Permanent Birth Control Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Email Print Essure is a a permanently implanted birth control device for women (female sterilization). Implantation of ...

  13. Warning Signs After Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care > Warning signs after birth Warning signs after birth E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... health problems new moms may have after giving birth? Chances are that you’ll be healthy after ...

  14. [Psychological Distress and Acceptance of Violence Legitimizing Masculinity Norms among Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Eva M; Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W

    2017-04-01

    The proportion of adolescent migrants in Germany aged 15-20 years has risen to about 29.5% in 2014 according to Federal census statistics. The purpose of the current study was to describe and to compare the psychological strains of adolescent 1 st and 2 nd generation migrants with non-migrants in a representative school survey. Acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity norms was explored and its correlation with psychological strain was analyzed. Self-reported data of psychological strain (internalizing and externalizing problems) and acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity were gathered among 8 518 pupils aged 12-19 years across different school types. Among the surveyed adolescents, 27.6% reported a migration background (5.8% 1 st generation migrants; 21.8% 2 nd generation migrants). Particularly 1 st generation migrants scored higher in internalizing and externalizing problems than 2 nd generation migrants or non-migrants. The differences, however, were small. Adolescents with migration background suffered from educational disadvantage, especially 1 st generation migrants. Male adolescents reported significantly higher acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity norms than their female counterparts. Strong agreement with the measured concept of masculinity was found among pupils of lower secondary school and adolescents reported regularly tobacco and cannabis consumption. The acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity norms was greater among migrants, particularly 1 st generation migrants, than non-migrants. Overall, high acceptance of violence legitimizing masculinity norms was related to externalizing problems, which can be understood as dysfunctional coping mechanisms of social disadvantage and a lack of prospects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print About Contraception and Birth Control Contraception is the prevention of pregnancy. Contraception, or birth control, also allows couples to plan the timing ...

  16. Quality of reporting on birth defects in birth certificates: case study from a Brazilian reference hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquetti, Daniela Varela; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the coverage, validity and reliability of Brazil's Information System on Live Births (SINASC) for birth defects in a hospital in the city of Campinas (São Paulo State). The study population consisted of 2,823 newborn infants delivered in 2004 at the Women's Integrated Health Care Center (CAISM). A birth defect registry (ECLAMC) was used as the gold-standard. All birth defect cases reported at CAISM in 2004 (92 cases) were selected from SINASC data files. All 168 birth defect cases from the same city and year registered at ECLAMC were also retrieved. An underreporting of 46.8% was observed for all birth defects, and 36.4% when considering only the major birth defects. The ascertained sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 54.2% and 99.8%. The reliability of three and four-digit ICD-10 coding for birth defects was 0.77 and 0.55 respectively (kappa statistic). These results suggest that information provided by birth certificates in Campinas still presents limitations when seeking to ascertain accurate estimates of the prevalence of birth defects, hence indicating the need for improvements in the SINASC database to enable it to portray birth defect prevalence at birth in this city.

  17. UNICEF supports birth control despite Holy See.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, T

    1992-01-01

    The Vatican has failed in its attempt to prevent the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) from spreading the message of family planning in developing countries. Over the strong objections of the Holy See, the 41-member Executive Board of UNICEF has asked the agency to cooperate with the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and the WHO "to support family planning in the context of sustainable national healthcare systems." A member of the Executive Board said the Vatican held the view that UNICEF had no legitimate right to be involved in family planning. "But the Holy See was in a minority of one," he said, adding that "the whole problem arises from the fact that the Vatican continues to equate birth control and abortion with family planning." A recently concluded board meeting unanimously adopted a resolution requesting UNICEF to "contribute substantively" to the UNFPA-sponsored International Conference on Population and Development (CPF) set to take place in 1994 in Cairo. The board also asked UNICEF Executive Director James Grant to submit a policy paper "on the involvement of UNICEF in family planning, taking into account the health of the child and the mother." The paper is to be presented for the consideration of the board at its regular session next year, with a view to approving it prior to the ICPD. Prior to the adoption of the resolution, J. Klink, a spokesman for the Holy See, told the Executive Board that there were "concerns" over calls for UNICEF to involve itself in family planning activities. He said UNICEF should not be concerned with family planning because there were other agencies entrusted with that mandate. Responding to the support given by Nordic countries to the UNICEF resolution, Klink said that wealthy nations must not impose dictates as to the "appropriate" size of poor families. "The Holy See would not propose that UNICEF halt its current balanced, informational approach to the spacing of births," he said. "Families must be free to decide their size

  18. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create 'cosmic music'. The fourth lecture in the series, entitled 'The Birth of Matter', will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Auditorium...

  19. The Birth of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    To mark the World Year of Physics, the Physics Section of the University of Geneva is organising a series of lectures for the uninitiated. Each lecture will begin with a demonstration in the auditorium of the detection of cosmic rays and, in collaboration with Professor E. Ellberger of the Conservatoire de Musique de Genève, of how these signals from the farthest reaches of the Universe can be used to create "cosmic music". The fourth lecture in the series, entitled "The Birth of Matter", will take place on Tuesday 3 May 2005 and will be given by CERN's theoretical physicist, John Ellis. Where does matter come from? Where do the structures that surround us, such as galaxies, come from? Are we living in a world of invisible matter? Why is the universe so old and so big? John Ellis will show how elementary particle physics and, in particular, the LHC under construction at CERN, can answer these questions. The Birth of Matter Professor John Ellis Tuesday 3 May, starting 8.00 p.m. Main Audito...

  20. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  1. Communicating the right emotion makes violence seem less wrong : Power-congruent emotions lead outsiders to legitimize violence of powerless and powerful groups in intractable conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamans, Elanor; van Zomeren, Martijn; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; Postmes, Tom

    In intractable intergroup conflicts, groups often try to frame intergroup violence as legitimate through the use of emotional appeals. Two experiments demonstrate that outsiders' perception of which emotion conflict parties communicate influences the extent to which they legitimize their violence.

  2. Hegemony and Humanitarian Norms: The U.S. Legitimation of Toxic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bonds

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite widespread beliefs that the United States has not used chemical weapons since the distant past of World War I, this study suggests a more complicated history by examining U.S. use of herbicides and incapacitating gases in the Vietnam War and its use of herbicides in the "War on Drugs." This article places such use of toxic violence within a context of U.S. hegemony, by which U.S. officials have used contested forms of violence to secure geopolitical goals, but have also been pressured to comply with humanitarian norms or-when there is a gap between norms and state policy-to do legitimating work in order to maintain domestic and international consent. Based on case study analysis of archival and secondary sources, this article identifies three main techniques U.S. officials use to legitimate contested forms of violence. These techniques are defensive categorization, humanitizing discourse, and surrogacy.

  3. ISSUES OF LEGITIMIZING POLITICAL POWER IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY: MAX WEBER AND KARL JASPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae IUGA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of legitimizing political power has specific dimensions determined by the historical context. In the period following the First World War, democratic regimes dramatically collapsed due to ample protest movements against the political establishment from different countries, but also as a result of a serious political legitimation crisis, thus making way for the rise of totalitarian regimes of Fascism and Nazism. That time debates on the problem of legitimization political power are symptomatic. Due to the general perception regarding corruption in politics and to the political incapacity to deal with social problems, we can witness a decrease of trust in contemporary democratic regimes.In order to exemplify, in a brief expositive manner, my paper will present the topic of political legitimation approached by Max Weber and Karl Jaspers, in a selection of relevant texts issued by both authors during 1919-1931. The aim of this paper is to highlight the actuality, the validity of Weber’s and Jasper’s statements and also their capacity to give pertinent responses to questions such as: What role do the common values play in the legitimating of power in a democratic society? Are there any kinds of limits regarding the electoral legitimation? How can we make the difference between a legitimate appeal and an illegitimate one, between civism and terrorism?

  4. Legitimizing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    , political and economic rights, of moral obligations, of sovereignty, and of equity, as well as of how to define target groups and legal and categorical statuses into the debates. Having a backdrop in the theoretical framework of Carol Bacchi, Anne Schneider and Helen Ingram and Giorgio Agamben, this article...

  5. Agents of the Father's law in a society of brothers: A philosophic and psychoanalytic perspective on legitimate use of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri

    This paper explores subjective processes of "Agents of Law" - individuals who the state grants the authority to use violence - and the dissonance stemming from the contradictory demands posed on them as legitimate users of violence despite the societal taboo against violence. A conceptual model will be offered based on two theoretical legs, Lacanian psychoanalysis and political theories of legitimacy. Specifically, psychoanalytic ideas would serve to examine unconscious processes, subject position and various identifications related to the question of "self-legitimacy" of Agents of Law. A central link between psychoanalysis and political thought is found in the image of the father and in the triad ruler-God-Father, which calls for an oedipal analysis. A psychoanalytic reading of two philosophical schools that elaborated on the question of legitimacy will be presented, and yield two analytic poles of a model for the understanding of possible subject positions of agents of Law: identification with a "Living Father" vs. identification with a "Dead Father". The psychoanalytic reading will shed light on the limitations of the philosophical perspectives in reflecting on the various (im)possible psychological positions of agents of Law. Finally, then, it will be shown how psychoanalysis helps finding words to characterize different nuances in the coping of agents of Law with the contradictory demands posed on them in an age in which God is dead, the father was murdered and the king was beheaded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Juridical-Criminal Paternalism, Autonomy and Vulnerability: Legitimation Criteria of Paternalistic Interventions on Individual Autonomy in Criminal Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Mota Barreto Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper has as objective questioning the legitimacy of state's paternalistic interventions on individual autonomy by using institutional-criminal instruments. In this path, the paper aims to understand in which cases the State is allowed to interfere in private individual lives under the justification of being promoting a well or avoiding a harm and, as well, in which cases such interference is abusive of individuals self-determination. Into this analysis, the work will study the current concepts of paternalism, the theoretical classifications on paternalistic interventions which will be useful to demonstrate admissible and inadmissible species of paternalism and Joel Feinberg and Gerald Dworkin's anti- paternalistic theories. Following, this subject will be analyzed in association with the implications of juridical-criminal goods involved in conflicts between autonomy, human vulnerabilities and paternalism, specially regarding to the (unavailability of those goods. In the end, the work intends to define legitimation criteria for paternalistic interventions inserted in criminal laws, which superimpose themselves on the individual autonomy, in order to harmonize constitutional values of respect for autonomy, protection of vulnerable individuals and the Criminal Law functions of exclusive protection of juridical goods.

  7. “Greenwashing gas: Might a ‘transition fuel’ label legitimize carbon-intensive natural gas development?”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, Eleanor; Doukas, Alexander; Shaw, Karena

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is widely considered to be the crucial “bridging fuel” in the transition to the low-carbon energy systems necessary to mitigate climate change. This paper develops a case study of the shale gas industry in British Columbia (BC), Canada to evaluate this assumption. We find that the transition fuel argument for gas development in BC is unsubstantiated by the best available evidence. Emissions factors for shale gas and LNG remain poorly characterized and contested in the academic literature, and context-specific factors have significant impacts on the lifecycle emissions of shale gas but have not been evaluated. Moreover, while the province has attempted to frame natural gas development within its ambitious climate change policy, this framing misrepresents substantive policy on gas production. The “transition fuel” and “climate solution” labels applied to development by the BC provincial government risk legitimizing carbon-intensive gas development. We argue that policy makers in BC and beyond should abandon the “transition fuel” characterization of natural gas. Instead, decision making about natural gas development should proceed through transparent engagement with the best available evidence to ensure that natural gas lives up to its best potential in supporting a transition to a low-carbon energy system. - Highlights: ► Transition fuel discourse may greenwash gas development. ► Gaps in research obscure emissions factors for LNG and shale gas. ► Climate solution label for shale gas and LNG development in BC is unsubstantiated.

  8. Market Legitimacy: An Investigation into the Legitimation of Hispanic Cultural Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ruvalcaba, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the processes involved in the evolution of cultural markets as legitimate institutional arrangements in the context of the U.S. Hispanic market. This research consists of a historical analysis of newspaper articles from 1984 to 2010 in the Wall Street Journal and USA Today in order to obtain a view of the processes involved in the evolution of the Hispanic market as a viable entity. The research uncovers the industry, marketing and societal processes which contribute to t...

  9. Consumption and money: legitimate transactions, agreements and interpersonal conflicts in a microcredit program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Koberwein

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to analyze the production of legitimate transactions in a microcredit policy and to explore the creation of interpersonal agreements and conflicts related to these transactions. Based on an ethnographic approach, the paper focuses on the meanings that actors give to the allocation of money, emphasizing the creation as well as the expression of both ‘economic’ and ‘non-economic’ debts and obligations.

  10. Legitimizing the Educational Experience in the context of the Didactic Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Marius-Costel ESI

    2010-01-01

    The didactic methodology reminds of the idea of an efficient functioning of the education process. In this way, the systemic perspective of the didactic methodology illustrates the way in which the educational experience transposed at the level of the teaching-learning-evaluating activity. Thus, the didactic courses of action initiated in the context of the educational reality emphasize an image that legitimizes the experience of learning itself in general. Therefore, from a pragmatic perspec...

  11. Becoming Socialized into a New Professional Role: LPN to BN Student Nurses' Experiences with Legitimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Melrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a qualitative descriptive study that explored the professional socialization experiences of Licensed Practical Nurses (LPNs who attended an online university to earn a Baccalaureate degree in nursing (BN, a prerequisite to writing the Canadian Registered Nurse (RN qualifying exam. The project was framed from a constructivist worldview and Haas and Shaffir’s theory of legitimation. Participants were 27 nurses in a Post-LPN to BN program who came from across Canada to complete required practicums. Data was collected from digital recordings of four focus groups held in different cities. Transcripts were analyzed for themes and confirmed with participants through member checking. Two overarching themes were identified and are presented to explain how these unique adult learners sought to legitimize their emerging identity as Registered Nurses (RNs. First, Post-LPN to BN students need little, if any, further legitimation to affirm their identities as “nurse.” Second, practicum interactions with instructors and new clinical experiences are key socializing agents.

  12. A Reciprocal Turn in Criminal Justice? Shifting Conceptions of Legitimate Authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry de Jong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen the rise of a fierce, ongoing controversy concerning the authority of criminal courts and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system as such. This article aims to provide some much needed conceptual clarity regarding the primal subjects under discussion: To what do we actually refer when we are using the words 'authority' and 'legitimacy'? What is 'legitimate authority'? For an answer to this question, reference is made to a number of theoretical developments within (political philosophy. The article investigates how developments within the doctrines of the general part of substantive criminal law are related to shifting contemporary views on the general conditions for a legitimate exercise of practical authority. An account of a number of interlocking developments within the doctrinal system of Dutch substantive criminal law serves as a starting point for the subsequent inquiry. It is argued that these developments exemplify shifts in the way authority is distributed over various agents involved in criminal proceedings. It is further argued that these shifts in the distribution of authority parallel notable movements within the philosophical literature on the concept of legitimate authority, that is: a movement from a rationalistic and top-down approach toward a reciprocal, bottom-up approach.

  13. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  14. Potential predatory and legitimate biomedical journals: can you tell the difference? A cross-sectional comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseer, Larissa; Moher, David; Maduekwe, Onyi; Turner, Lucy; Barbour, Virginia; Burch, Rebecca; Clark, Jocalyn; Galipeau, James; Roberts, Jason; Shea, Beverley J

    2017-03-16

    The Internet has transformed scholarly publishing, most notably, by the introduction of open access publishing. Recently, there has been a rise of online journals characterized as 'predatory', which actively solicit manuscripts and charge publications fees without providing robust peer review and editorial services. We carried out a cross-sectional comparison of characteristics of potential predatory, legitimate open access, and legitimate subscription-based biomedical journals. On July 10, 2014, scholarly journals from each of the following groups were identified - potential predatory journals (source: Beall's List), presumed legitimate, fully open access journals (source: PubMed Central), and presumed legitimate subscription-based (including hybrid) journals (source: Abridged Index Medicus). MEDLINE journal inclusion criteria were used to screen and identify biomedical journals from within the potential predatory journals group. One hundred journals from each group were randomly selected. Journal characteristics (e.g., website integrity, look and feel, editors and staff, editorial/peer review process, instructions to authors, publication model, copyright and licensing, journal location, and contact) were collected by one assessor and verified by a second. Summary statistics were calculated. Ninety-three predatory journals, 99 open access, and 100 subscription-based journals were analyzed; exclusions were due to website unavailability. Many more predatory journals' homepages contained spelling errors (61/93, 66%) and distorted or potentially unauthorized images (59/93, 63%) compared to open access journals (6/99, 6% and 5/99, 5%, respectively) and subscription-based journals (3/100, 3% and 1/100, 1%, respectively). Thirty-one (33%) predatory journals promoted a bogus impact metric - the Index Copernicus Value - versus three (3%) open access journals and no subscription-based journals. Nearly three quarters (n = 66, 73%) of predatory journals had editors or

  15. Birth asphyxia in a mission hospital in Benin City, Nigeria | Onyiriuka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: In this descriptive (cross-sectional) study at St Philomena Catholic Hospital, the one-and-five-minute Apgar scores of 2,208 live-births were recorded. Those with low Apgar scores (6 at one minute) were studied and their data analyzed. Results: Birth asphyxia occurred in 83.8 per 1000 live-births with preterm and ...

  16. Kairos time at the moment of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Susan; Smythe, Elizabeth; Spence, Deb

    2015-04-01

    there is something extraordinary in the lived experience of being there at the time of birth. Yet the meaning and significance of this special time, named Kairos time in this paper, have received little attention. to describe the lived-experience of Kairos time at birth and surface its meaning. this is an interpretive hermeneutic phenomenology study informed by the writings of Heidegger and Gadamer. 14 in-depth interviews with mothers, birth partners, midwives and obstetricians were transcribed and stories from the data were hermeneutically analysed. there is a time, like no other, at the moment of birth that is widely known and valued. This paper reveals and names this phenomenon Kairos time. This is a felt-time that is lineal, process and cyclic time and more. Kairos time describes an existential temporal experience that is rich in significant sacred meaning; a time of emergent insight rarely spoken about in practice yet touches everyone present. The notion of Kairos time in relation to the moment of birth is introduced as a reminder of something significant that matters. Kairos time is revealed as a moment in and beyond time. It has a temporal enigmatic mystery involving spiritual connectedness. Kairos time is a time of knowing and remembrance of our shared natality. In this time life is disclosed as extraordinary and beyond everyday personal and professional concerns. It is all this and more. Kairos time at birth is precious and powerful yet vulnerable. It needs to be safeguarded to ensure its presence continues to emerge. This means maternity care providers and others at birth need to shelter and protect Kairos time from the sometimes harsh realities of birth and the potentially insensitive ways of being there at the moments of birth. Those who find themselves at birth need to pause and allow the profundity of its meaning to surface and inspire their actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Births resulting from assisted reproductive technology: comparing birth certificate and National ART Surveillance System Data, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Marie E; Boulet, Sheree; Martin, Joyce A; Kissin, Dmitry

    2014-12-10

    This report compares data on births resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures from 2011 birth certificates with data from the 2011 National ART Surveillance System (NASS) among the subset of jurisdictions that adopted the 2003 revised birth certificate as of January 1, 2011, with information on ART. Birth certificate data are based on 100% of births registered in 27 states and the District of Columbia. NASS data included all ART cycles initiated in 2010 or 2011 for which a live birth in 2011 was reported. The same reporting area was used for both data sources and represents 67% of all births in the United States in 2011. A ratio was computed by dividing the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures for NASS data by the percentage for birth certificate data. A ratio of 1.0 represents equivalent levels of reporting. Because this reporting area is not a random sample of births, the results are not generalizable to the United States as a whole. Overall, the percentage of births resulting from ART procedures was 2.06 times higher for NASS data (1.44%) compared with birth certificate data (0.70%). The ratio for each jurisdiction varied from 1.04 for Utah and Wisconsin to 7.50 for Florida. Higher-risk groups had more consistent reporting. between data sources [e.g., triplet or higher-order multiples (1.36) compared with singletons (2.11)]. Births resulting from ART procedures appear to be underreported on the birth certificate; however, the magnitude of underreporting varied by jurisdiction and maternal-infant health characteristics.

  18. Cerebral palsy in eastern Denmark: declining birth prevalence but increasing numbers of unilateral cerebral palsy in birth year period 1986-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne Holst; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Uldall, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Cerebral Palsy Registry in eastern Denmark has been collecting cases using a uniform data sampling procedure since birth year 1979. Children are included by two child neurologists and an obstetrician. Information on pregnancy, birth, neonatal period, impairments and demographic data...... are registered. The total cerebral palsy birth prevalence has been significantly decreasing since the birth period 1983-1986 with 3.0 per 1000 live births until the period 1995-1998 with 2.1 per 1000 live births. The overall decrease was seen in preterm infants (...

  19. Planned hospital birth versus planned home birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O.; Clausen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies of increasingly better quality and in different settings suggest that planned home birth in many places can be as safe as planned hospital birth and with less intervention and fewer complications. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1998....

  20. After birth abortion: why should the baby live? Alcune note su un seminario di riflessione sulle questioni della procreazione a partire dall’articolo di Alberto Giubilini e Francesca Minerva. Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Bioetica di Napoli - Università l’Orientale, Palazzo Giusso, Napoli 17 gennaio 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Speranza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the publication of the paper by Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva, two Italian researchers currently active in Australia, entitled After birth abortion: Why Should the baby live?, published in 2012, there was a great debate among scholars and journalists that induced many people to rethink the current conditions of life and death. The mass media have reported a strong controversy on this topic. Fitting into this heated exchange of views, the University Orientale of Naples, in the presence of the authors of the paper, hosted a seminar organized by CIRB (Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Bioetica of Naples to reflect on post-birth abortion, which was attended by doctors, lawyers and philosophers. The meeting generated an interesting discussion on the main topics of bioethics, but left many unanswered questions.

  1. Report: After birth abortion: why should the baby live? Alcune note su un seminario di riflessione sulle questioni della procreazione a partire dall’articolo di Alberto Giubilini e Francesca Minerva. Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Bioetica di Napoli Università l’Orientale, Palazzo Giusso, Napoli 17 gennaio 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speranza Maria Teresa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available After the publication of the paper by Alberto Giubilini and Francesca Minerva, two Italian researchers currently active in Australia, entitled After birth abortion: Why Should the baby live?, published in 2012, there was a great debate among scholars and journalists that induced many people to rethink the current conditions of life and death. The mass media have reported a strong controversy on this topic. Fitting into this heated exchange of views, the University Orientale of Naples, in the presence of the authors of the paper, hosted a seminar organized by CIRB (Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Bioetica of Naples to reflect on post‐birth abortion, which was attended by doctors, lawyers and philosophers. The meeting generated an interesting discussion on the main topics of bioethics, but left many unanswered questions.

  2. Cultural Mediators Seduced by Mad Men::How cultural journalists legitimized a quality TV series in the Nordic Region

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; Hellman, Heikki; Riegert, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Based on theories about the role of cultural mediators in cultural production and using the TV series Mad Men as a case, this article investigates how cultural journalists in the Nordic countries have contributed to legitimizing “quality TV series” as a worthy field of aesthetic consumption. Key analytical points are as follows: (1) cultural journalists legitimize Mad Men’s quality by addressing aspects internal (aesthetic markers) and aspects external (culture industry markers) to the series...

  3. The Institute of Legitimation of Possession in The New Pará Lands Law N ° 7289/2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Ricardo Albuquerque Azevedo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Institute of Legitimation of Possession, as a form of public land acquisition in the State of Pará and investigates the applicable regulations, since the State Law of Para n. 7.289 / 2009 established the legitimacy as a mean of public land alienation, without expressly mentioning the State Decree no. 1054/1996, which declared the forfeiture of the possession of records made before the state land agencies, whose areas were not legitimized.

  4. The Institute of Legitimation of Possession in The New Pará Lands Law N ° 7289/2009

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Flavio Ricardo Albuquerque; da Fonseca, Luciana Costa

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the Institute of Legitimation of Possession, as a form of public land acquisition in the State of Pará and investigates the applicable regulations, since the State Law of Para n. 7.289 / 2009 established the legitimacy as a mean of public land alienation, without expressly mentioning the State Decree no. 1054/1996, which declared the forfeiture of the possession of records made before the state land agencies, whose areas were not legitimized.

  5. Maternal race and intergenerational preterm birth recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Lee, Jong Hyung; Grant, Jacqueline H; Miles, Gandarvaka; Stoddard, Gregory J; Chapman, Derek A; Manuck, Tracy A

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth is a complex disorder with a heritable genetic component. Studies of primarily White women born preterm show that they have an increased risk of subsequently delivering preterm. This risk of intergenerational preterm birth is poorly defined among Black women. Our objective was to evaluate and compare intergenerational preterm birth risk among non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study, using the Virginia Intergenerational Linked Birth File. All non-Hispanic Black and non-Hispanic White mothers born in Virginia 1960 through 1996 who delivered their first live-born, nonanomalous, singleton infant ≥20 weeks from 2005 through 2009 were included. We assessed the overall gestational age distribution between non-Hispanic Black and White mothers born term and preterm (preterm (preterm birth, 34-36 weeks; and early preterm birth, preterm birth among all eligible births; and (2) suspected spontaneous preterm birth among births to women with medical complications (eg, diabetes, hypertension, preeclampsia and thus higher risk for a medically indicated preterm birth). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth by maternal race and maternal gestational age after adjusting for confounders including maternal education, maternal age, smoking, drug/alcohol use, and infant gender. Of 173,822 deliveries captured in the intergenerational birth cohort, 71,676 (41.2%) women met inclusion criteria for this study. Of the entire cohort, 30.0% (n = 21,467) were non-Hispanic Black and 70.0% were non-Hispanic White mothers. Compared to non-Hispanic White mothers, non-Hispanic Black mothers were more likely to have been born late preterm (6.8% vs 3.7%) or early preterm (2.8 vs 1.0%), P preterm were not at an increased risk of early or late preterm delivery compared to non-Hispanic White mothers born term. The risk of early preterm birth was most

  6. Adolescent perceptions of teen births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W

    2008-01-01

    To investigate teens' perceptions of the costs and rewards of teen births, potential interventions to prevent teen pregnancy, and the presence of someone with whom teens could discuss sexuality. Seventeen focus groups were conducted to solicit individual views, group interactions, and shared meanings. Purposive methods accessed a sample of teens considered at risk of teen pregnancy based on their membership in selected community service and teen groups. Teen parents and nonparents (n = 120), from 12 to 19 years of age, were asked about their lives and stresses and the costs and rewards related to teen births. This study yielded rich data about the consequences of teen births. Data were organized in the domains of Impact on relationships, Impact on vocation, and Impact on self. The data reflected the cost and reward themes in each domain. Though teens believed that there were positives of teen births, early childbearing was considered "hard" in many aspects. These perceptions may be used to guide programs, policies, messages, and curricula with the intent to prevent teen pregnancy. These initiatives may be more effective if informed by teens and guided by their perceptions.

  7. Birth control pills - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from taking birth control pills include: Blood clots Heart attack High blood pressure Stroke Birth control pills without estrogen are much less likely to cause these problems. The risk is higher for women ...

  8. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about ... is called preterm labor (or premature labor). A birth that occurs before 37 weeks is considered a ...

  9. Birth control pill - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. ...

  10. Vaginal birth - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100198.htm Vaginal birth - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... vaginal delivery. Please keep in mind that every birth is unique, and your labor and delivery may ...

  11. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth At Tertiary Care Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neebha Ojha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers.  Results: During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4% were low birth weight and 47(6.9% were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032. The signi cant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58, Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12. As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30 and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-.89 were signi cant risk factors.  Conclusions: Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were signi cant risk factors for preterm birth. Keywords: low birth weight; preterm birth; risk factors.

  12. Cranial birth trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Roth, C.; Politi, M.; Zimmer, A.; Reith, W.; Rohrer, T.

    2009-01-01

    Injuries to an infant that result during the birth process are categorized as birth trauma. Cranial injuries due to mechanical forces such as compression or traction include caput succedaneum, cephalhematoma, subgaleal hematoma and intracranial hemorrhaging. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is the consequence of systemic asphyxia occurring during birth. (orig.) [de

  13. Encyclopedia of Birth Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengel, Marian

    This encyclopedia brings together in more than 200 entries, arranged in A-to-Z format, a portrait of the complex modern issue that birth control has become with advances in medicine and biochemistry during the 20th century. It is aimed at both the student and the consumer of birth control. Entries cover the following topics: birth control…

  14. Birth Control Shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Shot KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Shot What's in this article? What Is ... español La inyección anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control shot is a long-acting form of ...

  15. Birth Control Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Pill KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Pill What's in this article? What Is ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a ...

  16. Birth Control Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Birth Control Ring KidsHealth / For Teens / Birth Control Ring What's in this article? What Is ... español Anillo vaginal anticonceptivo What Is It? The birth control ring is a soft, flexible, doughnut-shaped ...

  17. From Subordination to Hegemony On the Epistemological Legitimation of Mathematics in Natural Philosophy of XVII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ochoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the epistemological legitimation of mathematics in natural philosophy in the seventeenth century. In the Renaissance it was claimed that mathematics does not meet the Aristotelian criteria of scientificity, and that it did not explain the efficient and final causes. So, its critics, inspired by the Aristotelian tradition, rejected the first attempts to mathematize natural philosophy. The epistemological conditions involved in the debate are examined on the scientific nature of mathematics and its relevance to natural philosophy. A historiographical tour of the mathematization of nature is made to provide new weighing elements with respect to a historically and philosophically more conceptual characterization of the emergence of modern science.

  18. State , Citizenship and Participatory Democracy Between Managerial Reform and Legitimation of Social Power in Public Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marana Sotero De Sousa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article tries to point out the importance of participatory democracy for continuous affirmation of Law Democratic State, shrouded at modifications about citizenship in his evolution between State models following as suffered reforms under Brazilian Public Administration. Through qualitative methodology, especially with historical and hermeneutic procedures and bibliographical sources, the objective is develop the discussion about Popular Participation As legitimation instrument in the decisions that are limited in the administrator space. At the end, show the popular participation and citizens are fundamentals for current democratic model of state.

  19. Crime and Subjectivity: Reflections on the Discourses and Practices of Legitimizing Discriminatory Exercise of Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah de Sousa Malcher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We defend the importance of studying the discriminatory treatment of criminal law from the analysis of discourses on the subjectivities, resulting in dichotomy citizen/enemy. Rationalisations about the category of enemy in so-called "law of risk", seem to justify the unequal exercise of power punitive and the neutralization of individuals labelled as harmful and abnormal behavior, even if this is at the expense of principles, fundamental rights and guarantees of the rule of law. Such discourses also favors the neoliberal environment, to the extent that translate the entire conflitividade on punishment and legitimized stigmatization processes, criminalization of poverty and criminal selectivity.

  20. Population control I: Birth of an ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B

    1997-01-01

    Population control, as a major international development strategy, is a relatively recent phenomenon. However, its origins reach back to social currents in the 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in an organized birth control movement in Europe and the United States. The conflicts and contradictions in that movement's history presage many of today's debates over population policy and women's rights. Eugenics had a deep influence on the U.S. birth control movement in the first half of the 20th century. After World War II private agencies and foundations played an important role in legitimizing population control as a way to secure Western control over Third World resources and stem political instability. In the late 1960s the U.S. government became a major funder of population control programs overseas and built multilateral support through establishment of the U.N. Fund for Population Activities. At the 1974 World Population Conference, Third World governments challenged the primacy of population control. While their critique led population agencies to change their strategies, population control remained a central component of international development and national security policies in the United States.

  1. Birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate in Sucre, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Niall M H; Urioste, Marcelo L Arana; Saeed, Nadeem R

    2004-03-01

    To determine the birth prevalence of cleft lip and palate (CL +/- P) in the municipality of Sucre, Bolivia. To ascertain whether the birth prevalence in this region differs significantly from birth prevalence reported in similar populations and other racial groups. Twenty-eight clefts were identified among 22,746 live births between the years 1995 and 2001 in three maternity hospitals in the city. The total birth prevalence of CL +/- P was 1.23/1000 live births per year. There were 12 clefts of the lip alone (birth prevalence 0.53/1000 per year), 15 cleft lip and palate (0.66/1000 per year), and one cleft palate only (0.04/1000 per year). The birth prevalence was not significantly different from birth prevalence published previously in South American populations, although it is lower than previously published data from Bolivia. The birth prevalence of CL +/- P in this South American population was similar to published data in white subjects and between those found in black and oriental groups. The sex ratio and birth prevalence of simultaneous congenital malformations also did not differ from previously published figures.

  2. Early discharge following birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Ingrid M. S.; Kronborg, Hanne; Knight, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    of discharge after birth. Results In total 34% mothers were discharged within 12 hours (very early) and 25% between 13 and 50 hours (early), respectively. Vaginal birth and multiparity were the most influential predictors, as Caesarean section compared to vaginal birth had an OR of 0.35 (CI 0....... Smoking, favourable social support and breastfeeding knowledge were significantly associated with discharge within 12 hours. Finally time of discharge varied significantly according to region and time of day of birth. Conclusions Parity and birth related factors were the strongest predictors of early...

  3. Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Ho Kang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/B&gt; The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010. &lt;B&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960’s to 1990’s and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010. The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal age. &lt;B&gt;Results:&lt;/B&gt; The hospital unit data indicated the incidence of HBWI as 3 to 7% in the 1960’s and 1970’s and 4 to 7% in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Data from Statistics Korea indicated the percentages of HBWIs among total live births decreased over the years: 6.7% (1993, 6.3% (1995, 5.1 % (2000, 4.5% (2000, and 3.5% (2010. In HBWIs, the birth weight rages and percentage of incidence in infants’ were 4.0 to 4.4 kg (90.3%, 4.5 to 4.9 kg (8.8%, 5.0 to 5.4 kg (0.8%, 5.5 to 5.9 kg (0.1%, and &gt;6.0 kg (0.0% in 2000 but were 92.2%, 7.2%, 0.6%, 0.0%, and 0.0% in 2009. The male to female ratio of HBWIs was 1.89 in 1993 and 1.84 in 2010. In 2010, the mother's age distribution correlated with low (4.9%, normal (91.0%, and high birth weights (3.6%: an increase in mother's age resulted in an increase in the frequency of low birth weight infants (LBWIs and HBWIs. &lt;B&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/B&gt; The incidence of HBWIs for the past 50 years has been dropping in Korea. The older the mother, the higher was the risk of a HBWI and LBWI. We hope that these findings would be utilized as basic data that will aid those managing HBWIs.

  4. BIRTH WEIGHT : A COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P SRIVASTAVA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available India has a dubious distinction of belonging to the top bracket of countries with a very high under-5 Mortality Rate (U5MR of above 96/1000 live births. The U5MR considered the single most significant basic indicator of health status of a community, is proportional to the Infant Mortality Rate (IMR which in turn is contributed to directly and indirectly by the incidence of low Birth Weight (LB W.About 25 million LB W are born each year consisting 17% of all live births,nearly 95% of them in developing countries. About 26% of newborns are LBW in India, and indeed over 16% in those countries with very high U5MR.Both preterm and small-for-dates almost equally make up this category of vulnerable infants predisposed to asphyxia, feeding problems, anemia and growth failure.Considering the close relationship of birth weight with perinatal and infant morbidity as well as mortality, it is crucial to identify the liigh risk groups of low birth weight babies as early as possible.Unfortunately, in a community where 80% of newborns never get to have their weight measured, this itself is a tall order. In our society, the cry of the newborn is greeted with anxious queries about the sex of the baby and not his well­being and potential for healthy survival. The basic concept of the importance of birth weight is missing even among educated families. Indeed, it is as if the weighing machine has no place in the requirements at childbirth. In the absence of this basic facility, field workers and TBAs must report to other means to identify babies at risk. Mid-arm circumference, thigh circumference, foot length, and skin-fold thickness etc. are measurements that have been correlated satisfactorily with the baby’s weight. Simple tools like coloured strips have been developed and these show promise of applicability in field situation for identification of LB W by TBAs for early referral.

  5. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents ... about NICHD preeclampsia research in the sidebar.) Preterm Birth Preterm (premature) birth is birth before the baby ...

  6. The governmentalization of living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo; Rose, Nikolas

    2015-01-01

    of the twentieth century. As is well known, the compilation and tabulation of vital statistics – death-rates, birth-rates, morbidity rates – contributed to the birth of the ‘population’ in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The population is reformatted from the middle of the twentieth century by ‘modified...... life tables’ made up of disability weightings, health state valuations, quality of life scores, disease burden estimates, etc. The problem of morbid death gives way to that of morbid living, made calculable through a metrics of ‘severity’, ‘disability’ and ‘impairment’. A series of new indices...... and scales (e.g. the QALY and DALY) has contributed to a governmentalization of living, in the course of which the social and personal consequences of living with disease come to be an object of political concern, and made knowable, calculable and thereby amenable to various strategies of intervention. We...

  7. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both......Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...

  8. EU Engagement in the Arctic: Do the Policy Responses from the Arctic States Recognise the EU as a Legitimate Stakeholder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Hossain

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic states are bound in an institutional relationship by means of their actions through the Arctic Council (AC—an organisation created by the eight Arctic states. Although a number of its European Union (EU states are both members and observers in the AC, the EU is not, despite its clear stake in the Arctic, for of a number of reasons. The AC twice postponed the application of the EU in 2013; however, it granted the EU the right to observe the AC meetings as an “observer in principle.” In addition to the significant resource and commercial interests of the EU in the Arctic, it assumes a stewardship role in the Arctic. As the leader in combating global climate change, for example, the EU is committed to assuming responsibility for protecting the Arctic environment given that climate change does have a devastating impact in the Arctic. Moreover, the EU is also concerned about its and continental Europe's only indigenous people, the Sámi, a significant proportion of whom live in its Arctic member states of Finland and Sweden. Thus, in recent years, the EU has endorsed a series of policy documents concerning the Arctic. Against the background of this development, this article examines whether the policy responses of the Arctic states with regard to the EU's increased ambition to engage in Arctic matters make it a legitimate actor or stakeholder. The article concludes that even though the Arctic states, as the primary actors, determine the region's governance approach, they see also a general partnership role for the EU with regard to the common goals of knowledge-based responsible governance and sustainable development of the Arctic.

  9. Counterfeit drug penetration into global legitimate medicine supply chains: a global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A; York, Peter; Kubic, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Counterfeit medicines are a global public health risk. We assess counterfeit reports involving the legitimate supply chain using 2009-2011 data from the Pharmaceutical Security Institute Counterfeit Incident System (PSI CIS) database that uses both open and nonpublic data sources. Of the 1,510 identified CIS reports involving counterfeits, 27.6% reported China as the source country of the incident/detection. Further, 51.3% were reported as counterfeit but the specific counterfeit subcategory was not known or verifiable. The most prevalent therapeutic category was anti-infectives (21.1%) with most reports originating from health-related government agencies. Geographically, Asian and Latin American regions and, economically, middle-income markets were most represented. A total of 127 (64.8%) of a total of 196 countries had no legitimate supply chain CIS counterfeit reports. Improvements in surveillance, including detection of security breaches, data collection, analysis, and dissemination are urgently needed to address public health needs to combat the global counterfeit medicines trade. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. A tainted trade? Moral ambivalence and legitimation work in the private security industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumala, Angélica; Goold, Benjamin; Loader, Ian

    2011-06-01

    The private security industry is often represented - and typically represents itself - as an expanding business, confident of its place in the world and sure of its ability to meet a rising demand for security. But closer inspection of the ways in which industry players talk about its past, present and future suggests that this self-promotion is accompanied by unease about the industry's condition and legitimacy. In this paper, we analyse the self-understandings of those who sell security - as revealed in interviews conducted with key industry players and in a range of trade materials - in order to highlight and dissect the constitutive elements of this ambivalence. This analysis begins by describing the reputational problems that are currently thought to beset the industry and the underlying fears about its status and worth that these difficulties disclose. We then examine how security players seek to legitimate the industry using various narratives of professionalization. Four such narratives are identified - regulation, education, association and borrowing - each of which seeks to justify private security and enhance the industry's social worth. What is striking about these legitimation claims is that they tend not to justify the selling of security in market terms. In conclusion we ask why this is the case and argue that market justifications are 'closed-off' by a moral ambivalence that attaches to an industry trading in products which cannot guarantee to deliver the condition that its consumers crave. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  11. National HIV treatment guidelines in Tanzania and Ethiopia: are they legitimate rationing tools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, K A; Jerene, D; Norheim, O F

    2008-06-01

    To provide an ethical analysis of whether the Ethiopian and Tanzanian national HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines can be considered legitimate and fair rationing tools. Qualitative study and ethical analysis involving guideline documents and interviews with nine key members involved in the development of the guidelines. The analysis followed an editing organising style. The theoretical framework was a guideline-specific framework based on theories of just resource allocation in healthcare and conditions that ensure fair processes in guideline development. According to this framework, legitimate rationing requires reasons for patient selection to be explicit, public and relevant, and decisions must be open to question and revision. The only explicit rationing criteria that both guidelines recommended were clinical antiretroviral treatment indications. Explicit non-clinical rationing criteria were expressed in a separate Ethiopian implementation guideline. Neither of the guideline development processes fully satisfies minimal requirements of procedural fairness. There is a lack of transparency. The reasons for decisions are rarely given and are not publicly available. This reduces the opportunity for public questioning, debate and revisions. The guidelines were based on expert opinion and consensus. Recommendations from the WHO were copied without much discussion, disagreement or adjustment. The two national HIV treatment guidelines discussed are de facto mechanisms for rationing but were developed using methods that do not fully satisfy the requirements of fair processes.

  12. Is Contact with Children Related to Legitimizing Beliefs Toward Sex with Children Among Men with Pedophilia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geradt, Max; Jahnke, Sara; Heinz, Julia; Hoyer, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Among pedophilic men, social contact with children has been discussed as creating a risk situation for sexual abuse. Also, pedophilic men searching for such contact are seen as harboring more beliefs legitimizing sexual contact with children. However, social contact may also decrease false beliefs. We tested these competing views in an anonymous Internet survey with a non-forensic, non-clinical sample of 104 self-classified pedophilic men. Results showed that both increased social and physical contact were significantly linked to fewer legitimizing beliefs toward sex with children, even when controlling for past psychotherapy, educational level, social desirability, and age. Controlling for previous conviction for child sexual offenses reduced the effect for physical contact, but not for social contact. Exploratory analyses showed that either type of contact had no significant effect on total self-perceived risk of offending. However, pedophilic men with physical contact with children perceived a higher risk of more direct (i.e., child abuse) than indirect offenses (i.e., child pornography offenses) compared to pedophilic men without physical contact. Despite limitations of the correlational design and the only small to moderate effects, the results challenge the assumption that complete avoidance of contact with children is necessary for persons with pedophilia to reduce the risk of abusive behavior.

  13. Socioeconomic disparities in small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnik, Tracey; Yang, Seungmi; Kaufman, Jay S; Kramer, Michael S; Wilkins, Russell

    2017-11-15

    Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. Few studies, however, have considered maternal education and income simultaneously to better understand the mechanisms underlying perinatal health disparities. This analysis examines both maternal education and income and their association with the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. The study is based on 127,694 singleton live births from the 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort, a national cohort of births registered from May 2004 to May 2006 that were linked to the 2006 long-form Census. Unadjusted rates of small-for-gestational-age birth (sex-specific birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age) and preterm birth (before 37 completed weeks of gestation) were estimated across selected maternal characteristics. Logistic regression was used to estimate crude and covariate-adjusted risk ratios of both outcomes according to maternal education and income adequacy quintiles. Small-for-gestational-age birth was associated with both maternal education and income adequacy, while preterm birth was associated with maternal education only. These findings persisted after taking factors including maternal age, ethnicity, and marital status into account. The results suggest that the mechanism by which maternal education is associated with these outcomes is likely not through income, nor does income replace education as a potentially meaningful measure of socioeconomic position. The mechanisms underlying associations between socioeconomic position and perinatal health disparities are complex. The results of this study indicate that more than one socioeconomic factor may play a role.

  14. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared......BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...

  15. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  16. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customs traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been documented. An exploratory investigation of the extent to which some of these traditional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian mothers living in Johannesburg ...

  17. Adherence to traditional Indian customs surrounding birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract CustOITlS traditionally followed by Indian women during pregnancy, birth and early parenthood have been docUITlented. An exploratory investiga- tion of the extent to which some of these tradi- tional beliefs, customs and practices are currently adhered to was undertaken by interviewing Indian. ITlothers living in ...

  18. Discriminating Between Legitimate and Predatory Open Access Journals: Report from the International Federation for Emergency Medicine Research Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakti Hansoti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Open access (OA medical publishing is growing rapidly. While subscription-based publishing does not charge the author, OA does. This opens the door for “predatory” publishers who take authors’ money but provide no substantial peer review or indexing to truly disseminate research findings. Discriminating between predatory and legitimate OA publishers is difficult. Methods: We searched a number of library indexing databases that were available to us through the University of California, Irvine Libraries for journals in the field of emergency medicine (EM. Using criteria from Jeffrey Beall, University of Colorado librarian and an expert on predatory publishing, and the Research Committee of the International Federation for EM, we categorized EM journals as legitimate or likely predatory. Results: We identified 150 journal titles related to EM from all sources, 55 of which met our criteria for OA (37%, the rest subscription based. Of these 55, 25 (45% were likely to be predatory. We present lists of clearly legitimate OA journals, and, conversely, likely predatory ones. We present criteria a researcher can use to discriminate between the two. We present the indexing profiles of legitimate EM OA journals, to inform the researcher about degree of dissemination of research findings by journal. Conclusion: OA journals are proliferating rapidly. About half in EM are legitimate. The rest take substantial money from unsuspecting, usually junior, researchers and provide no value for true dissemination of findings. Researchers should be educated and aware of scam journals.

  19. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-07-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained significant when the analysis was restricted to production workers or first order live births.

  20. Patterns of birth weight at a community level

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    fill this gap and issues related to representativeness a community based study that identified a one-year live ... and type of latrine facility showed variation in low birth weight rates. These factors also showed independent and significant effect on birth weight patterns. ... were based on health facility records. According the ...

  1. References of birth weights for gestational age and sex from a large cohort of singleton births in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemfang Ngowa, Jean Dupont; Domkam, Irénée; Ngassam, Anny; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Dobgima Pisoh, Walter; Noa, Cyrille; Kasia, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  2. References of Birth Weights for Gestational Age and Sex from a Large Cohort of Singleton Births in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Dupont Kemfang Ngowa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the percentile charts of birth weights for gestational age and sex within the Cameroonian population. Methods. A review of medical records of infants born between January 2007 and December 2011 at the maternities of two hospitals in Cameroon, Central Africa. Multiple pregnancies, births of HIV infected women, stillbirths, and births with major fetal malformations were excluded. The smooth curves of birth weight for gestational age and sex were created using the Gamlss package under R.3.0.1 software. Results. The birth weights of 12837 live birth singleton infants born to HIV negative women between 28 and 42 weeks of gestation were analyzed to construct the birth weight curves for gestational age and sex. The smoothed percentile curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex of Cameroonian infants have demonstrated an increasing slope until 40 weeks and then a plateau. There was a varied difference of distribution in birth weights for gestational age between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants. Conclusion. We established the reference curves of birth weights for gestational age and sex for Cameroonians. The difference in birth weight curves noted between Cameroonian, Botswanan, American, and French infants suggests the importance of establishing the regional birth weight norms.

  3. Epidemiology of preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purisch, Stephanie E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is a worldwide epidemic with a global incidence of 15 million per year. Though rates of preterm birth in the United States have declined over the last decade, nearly 1 in 10 babies is still born preterm. The incidence, gestational age, and underlying etiology of preterm birth is highly variable across different racial and ethnic groups and geographic boundaries. In this article, we review the epidemiology of preterm birth in the United States and globally, with a focus on temporal trends and racial, ethnic, and geographic disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. UNIVERSITY, RELIGION AND THE COMPANIES: A STUDY OF RELIGIOUS LEGITIMATION LOGIC OF CAPITAL IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Ricardo Guindani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work results from a study at the doctoral level who investigated how the university helps to legitimize the logic of capital, through research in religious studies. Seven dissertations produced in two Brazilian universities were analyzed. While focusing on the creation of this issue today, we have not lost sight of how, since the Middle Ages, theology was used by the nobility and the clergy, preceding or current way of announcing the appropriation of this knowledge by the hegemonic class. Detected in the current context or a resumption of the tightening relationship between religion and market mediation University, now no longer in the service of the nobility and the clergy, but of entrepreneurs.

  5. Compulsory licensing in Canada and Thailand: comparing regimes to ensure legitimate use of the WTO rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lybecker, Kristina M; Fowler, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines two recent examples of compulsory licensing legislation: one globally embraced regime and one internationally controversial regime operating under the same WTO rules. In particular, we consider Canadian legislation and the use of compulsory licensing for HIV/AIDS drugs destined for a developing country. This is then contrasted with the conditions under which Thai authorities are pursuing compulsory licenses, the outcomes of their compulsory licenses, as well as the likely impact of the Thai policy. Finally, we construct a rubric to evaluate characteristics of a successful regime. This is used to analyze the Canadian and Thai regimes and frame the expected implications of each national policy. It is hoped that the assessment will guide changes to compulsory licensing design to ensure that legitimate regimes are embraced while illegitimate ones are disallowed.

  6. The legitimating fact in the transcendental deduction of the categories: on Dieter Henrich's reading of Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klotz

    Full Text Available This article reconstructs the principal moments of Dieter Henrich's work on Immanuel Kant's theoretical philosophy. Henrich seeks to clarify and regain the fundaments of Kant's theory of knowledge - from which his followers, according to him, have distanced themselves - based on the analysis of the "transcendental deduction of the categories". Firstly, Henrich investigates the proof structure of deduction, comparing the first and the second edition of Critique of Pure Reason. Secondly, he investigates, in the Kantian argument, the relationship between the identity principle of self-consciousness and objectivity. Finally, extending the comparison to Critique of Practical Reason, Henrich elucidates the program and methodology in deduction, showing that the idea of a legitimating fact, borrowed from the juridical notion of a deduction, becomes the fundamental element. We analyse the problems raised by the conception of a philosophical argument based on fundamental "facts".

  7. "An object of vulgar curiosity": legitimizing medical hypnosis in Imperial Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffram, Heather

    2012-01-01

    During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, German medical hypnotists sought to gain a therapeutic and epistemological monopoly over hypnosis. In order to do this, however, these physicians were required to engage in a complex multi-dimensional form of boundary-work, which was intended on the one hand to convince the medical community of the legitimacy and efficacy of hypnosis and on the other to demarcate their use of suggestion from that of stage hypnotists, magnetic healers, and occultists. While the epistemological, professional, and legal boundaries that medical hypnotists erected helped both exclude lay practitioners from this field and sanitize the medical use of hypnosis, the esoteric interests, and sensational public experiments of some of these researchers, which mimicked the theatricality and occult interests of their lay competitors, blurred the distinctions that these professionals were attempting to draw between their "legitimate" medical use of hypnosis and the "illegitimate" lay and occult use of it.

  8. Nationalism and legitimation for authoritarianism: A comparison of Nicholas I and Vladimir Putin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Cannady

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article draws parallels between Tsar Nicholas I and current Russian President Vladimir Putin with respect to their use of nationalism to justify statist policies and political authoritarianism. Building upon insights by Alexander Gerschenkron about the economic development of “backwards” states, it argues that both Nicholas and Putin have rhetorically used Western concepts such as nationalism and democracy to legitimize their rule but have modified them to give them more statist content. Under Nicholas, this was exemplified in the tripartite (Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality Official Nationality policy. Putin has emphasized patriotism, power, and statism to justify centralization of power and authoritarian policies. Putin's policies and rhetoric are strong analogs to those of Nicholas. Ultimately, the goal of this paper is to explain state-inspired Russian nationalism and how it has been aligned with authoritarian politics, as well as specifying similarities between present and past in Russia.

  9. Biofuels are (Not the Future! Legitimation Strategies of Sustainable Ventures in Complex Institutional Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A. Thompson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable ventures often lack legitimacy (perceived to be desirable and appropriate because various stakeholder groups use contradictory institutions (rules and norms to make their judgements, which leads to there being fewer resources available and higher failure rates. Using an institutional theory framework and a multi-case research design with 15 biofuel ventures operating in the Netherlands, this study asks how sustainable entrepreneurs attempt to gain legitimacy in these circumstances. Analysis reveals that the entrepreneurs use a combination of rhetorical, reconciliatory and institutional change strategies to obtain legitimacy from different stakeholder groups. These findings further our understanding of sustainable entrepreneurial behavior by revealing how and why different legitimation strategies are used in complex institutional environments.

  10. Legitimate family violence as represented in the print media: textual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Susan; Taylor, Julie

    2006-10-01

    This paper reports a study of how issues around the use of smacking by parents are represented in the print media. Our purpose was not to state a case for or against the use of smacking. Rather, within the contemporary social context we sought to answer the question, 'Why is smacking considered to be a legitimate part of parenting in the United Kingdom?' Although a number of government proposals aiming to ban the use of smacking by parents have been presented in the United Kingdom parliament and Scottish Executive, current legislation allows parents to use this form of physical discipline as long as it does not result in physical injury to the child. For the purposes of this discussion, smacking is considered as a social phenomenon rather than an activity simply to be favoured or to be opposed. A sample of 244 articles from five different United Kingdom newspapers was examined during 2004. Schema analysis that drew upon semiotics was used to analyse these print media representations about the use of legitimate violence by parents towards children. Newspaper reportage about the parental use of physical discipline has increased over the past 20 years. Only one newspaper (The Independent) published on this topic prior to 1994. The discourse about the use of physical discipline by parents has changed over time from one that focuses on the effectiveness of smacking to one that about the human rights of the child. The main themes identified in the print media discourse were the rights of the child, the effectiveness of smacking, long-term effects and consequences, and the role of the state. Media texts can influence and reinforce social dimensions of the label. The beliefs and attitudes of healthcare professionals and parents about smacking may be influenced by such representations.

  11. Legitimering gjennom (selektiv felles fortid: russisk bruk av historie i Ukraina-konflikten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minda Holm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Legitimation Through a (Selective Shared Past: Russia's Use of History in the Conflict in UkraineHow has Russia used history to justify its actions in the conflict in Ukraine? Through an analysis of official statements of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as speeches and remarks by Putin, this article argues that history has played an important but varying role in official rhetoric. With Crimea, the emphasis was on the ‘sanctity’ of the territory for Russian Orthodox identity, drawing on history dating back to the baptism of Prince Vladimir in 10th century AC. The shared past of the two states has not been as central in official Russian policy justification regarding Ukraine outside Crimea: the ‘brotherhood’ of the two nations has been noted repeatedly, but usually secondary to arguments pertaining to economic and political interests. The two world wars have been used as a cautionary tale, with Russia effectively seeking to delegitimize the new Ukrainian government by evoking carefully selected elements of its past. Finally, the author looks at the use of international precedence as a form of justification, turning the history of Western – US in particular – actions back on Russia’s critics. The official usage of history is placed within broader strategies of legitimation, as it is not enough to study propaganda and manipulation strategies as part of information warfare to explain how the Kremlin achieves support for its policies. The ‘thick’ historical narratives of Crimea play on elements linked to issues of national identity, making it difficult to dispute using the type of counter-propaganda and rebuttal of disinformation proposed by some.

  12. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  13. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  14. Resettlement and Birth Rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    effect on mothers' age at first birth (p < 0.001), the number of children born within the five years of the survey (p<0.001), and the total number of ... approach that compares reported numbers of births for settlers and non-settlers in ... 1Department of Geography, Sonoma State University, USA. 2. Department of Epidemiology ...

  15. Birth Control Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women can choose from many different types of birth control methods. These include, in order of most effective to least effective at preventing pregnancy: Female and male sterilization (female tubal ligation or occlusion, male vasectomy) — Birth control that prevents pregnancy for the rest of ...

  16. Extremely Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search FAQs Extremely Preterm Birth Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ173, June 2016 ... Labor and Birth (FAQ087) Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy (FAQ170) Patient Education ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient ...

  17. Elizabeth Belle's Birth Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Jessica; Boro, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, Jessica and Samuel Boro share the story of the birth of their daughter, Elizabeth Belle. With the physical and emotional support of her husband and her doula, this mother was able to cope with a long labor and have the natural birth she wanted. Her husband describes how important the doula was for him.

  18. birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours of life was more strongly associated with death than four traditional risk factors (birth weight, short gestation, male sex and the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome). Furthermore, mean pH in the first 12 hours was as strongly associated with death as was birth weight. Previous research in our neonatal population ...

  19. Narcissism and birth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyring, W E; Sobelman, S

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to clarify the relationship between birth-order position and the development of narcissism, while refining research and theory. The relationship between birth-order status and narcissism was examined with a sample of 79 undergraduate students (55 women and 24 men). These subjects were placed in one of the four following birth-order categories of firstborn, second-born, last-born, and only children. These categories were chosen given their significance in Adlerian theory. Each subject completed the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and a demographic inventory. Based on psychodynamic theory, it was hypothesized that firstborn children were expected to score highest, but statistical significance was not found for an association between narcissism and birth order. Further research is urged to investigate personality theory as it relates to parenting style and birth order.

  20. Variability in the management and outcomes of extremely preterm births across five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Lucy K; Blondel, Beatrice; Van Reempts, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore international variations in the management and survival of extremely low gestational age and birthweight births. DESIGN: Area-based prospective cohort of births SETTING: 12 regions across Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal and the UK PARTICIPANTS: 1449 live births and fetal de...

  1. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    -for-gestational-age (SGA), abdominal circumference, head circumference, and placental weight. METHODS: We analyzed birth size from the Danish Medical Birth Registry of 66 693 live-born children in the Danish National Birth Cohort according to the mother's self-reported information on occupational lifting from telephone...

  2. Availability of Reproductive Health Care Services at Schools and Subsequent Birth Outcomes among Adolescent Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madkour, Aubrey S.; Xie, Yiqiong; Harville, Emily W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Adverse birth outcomes are more common among adolescent versus adult mothers, but little is known about school-based services that may improve birth outcomes in this group. Methods: Data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were analyzed. Girls and women who gave birth to singleton live infants…

  3. Associations between maternal exposure to air pollution and traffic noise and newborn's size at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Andersen, Anne Marie Nybo; Ketzel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: From a national birth cohort we identified 75,166 live-born singletons born at term with information on the children's size at birth. Residential address history from conception until birth was collected and air pollution (NO2 and NOx) and road traffic noise was modeled at all addresses...

  4. Towards a protocol on fair compensation in cases of legitimate land tenure changes : Input document for a participatory process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, Leonardus; Galgani, Pietro; de Adelhart Toorop, Reinier; de Groot Ruiz, Adrian; van Maanen, Eise

    2016-01-01

    The Organising Committee of the Dutch Land Governance Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue has commissioned an investigation into the need and possibility to develop a protocol on fair compensation in cases of legitimate land tenure changes, with a focus on expropriation. This is in line with the Ministry’s

  5. Collective resistance despite complicity : High identifiers rise above the legitimization of disadvantage by the in-group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Moya, Gloria; Rodriguez-Bailon, Rosa; Spears, Russell; de Lemus, Soledad

    How do individuals deal with group disadvantage when their fellow in-group members conceive it as legitimate? Integrating research on the normative conflict model (Packer, 2008, Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev., 12, 50) and collective action, we expect high identifiers to reject the in-group norm of

  6. 'and to the Herte She Hireselven Smot' : The Loveris Maladye and the Legitimate Suicides of Chaucer's and Gower's Exemplary Lovers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobecki, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    1. III * Middle English: Excluding Chaucer -- Brown et al., 10.1093 ... In '"And to the herte she hireselven smot": The Loveris Maladye and the Legitimate Suicides of Chaucer's and Gower's Exemplary Lovers' (Mediaevalia ... nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp; nbsp; 2. Publications of the Medieval

  7. The Three Faces of Power: The U.S. Supreme Court's Legitimization of School Authority's Parental, Police, and Pedagogic Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrensal, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines legal and ethical ramifications of three roles of school authorities (agents-of-state, custodial, tutelary) legitimated in two Supreme Court decisions: "New Jersey v. T.L.0." (search and seizure) and "Vernonia v. Action" (drug use testing). (Contains 34 references.)(PKP)

  8. Birth control pills - progestin only

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you ...

  9. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Screening Tests for Birth Defects Home For Patients Search FAQs Screening Tests ... FAQ165, April 2014 PDF Format Screening Tests for Birth Defects Pregnancy What is a birth defect? What ...

  10. Evolution of the Birth Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2007-01-01

    Many birth professionals are discarding the birth plan as an outdated and ineffectual document. This column discusses the past limitations and present uses of the birth plan in an effort to enhance current teaching on how expectant parents can write and use this important document. Encouraging expectant parents to prepare two separate, but corresponding, birth plans—the “Discussion Birth Plan” and the “Hospital Birth Plan”—is proposed. Teaching suggestions and possible implications are explor...

  11. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT, THE MALE TO FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH AND BIRTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births – M/T has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Methods: Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by 137Cs were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Results: Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Discussion: Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  12. The Chernobyl accident, the male to female ratio at birth and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  13. Legitimizing Security in the Ivory Tower: Canadian University Corporate Security Services' Public Quest for Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Blair

    2016-05-01

    This article examines how university corporate security (UCS) services engage in legitimation work in their attempts to make their university communities (i.e., faculty, staff, students) and political masters (i.e., university administrators, boards of governors, senators) believe that they are honest, trustworthy, and caring and have authority that should be deferred to. This is accomplished through the analysis of interview and observational data collected as part of a research project exploring UCS services at five Canadian universities and an examination of how UCS services at 14 Canadian universities communicate using the social media service Twitter. These UCS services were found to primarily use Twitter for the purposes of soliciting or requesting information and for networking. In communicating through Twitter, UCS services engage in public legitimation work in which they make claims about and attempt to demonstrate their expertise, authority, and accountability. This article argues that both UCS services' particular legitimacy problem (i.e., their possession of both private and public attributes) and the interactive nature of public legitimation work create tensions that may serve to disrupt UCS services' ability to attain legitimacy. Cet article examine la manière dont les services de sécurité d'entreprise à l'université (SEU) s'engagent à légitimer leurs tentatives de persuader leurs communautés universitaires (c'est-à-dire le corps professoral, le personnel et les étudiants) ainsi que la haute administration (c'est-à-dire les administrateurs de l'université, le conseil des gouverneurs et les sénateurs) qu'ils sont honnêtes, attentifs, dignes de confiance, et qu'ils possèdent un niveau d'autorité auquel quiconque devrait se référer. Ceci sera accompli en analysant un corpus d'entrevues et d'observations dans le cadre d'un projet de recherche examinant les services de type SEU dans cinq universités canadiennes, ainsi qu'une étude sur

  14. 40 CFR 260.43 - Legitimate recycling of hazardous secondary materials regulated under § 260.34, § 261.2(a)(2)(ii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is discarded material and is a solid waste. In determining if their recycling is legitimate, persons....43 Section 260.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.43 Legitimate recycling of...

  15. Cost effects of preterm birth: a comparison of health care costs associated with early preterm, late preterm, and full-term birth in the first 3 years after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Josephine; Lehne, Moritz; Mischker, Andrea; Klinger, Normen; Zickermann, Claudia; Walker, Jochen

    2017-11-01

    Preterm birth is one of the main causes for infant morbidity and mortality. Apart from negative health outcomes, preterm birth also produces significant health care expenditures. This study evaluates the costs associated with preterm birth in different health sectors during the first 3 years of infants' lives. In a retrospective observational study based on claims data from a German statutory health insurance company, average costs for medication, hospital treatment, ambulatory treatment, and non-medical remedies during the first 3 years after birth were analyzed for early preterm, late preterm, and full-term births. Costs associated with preterm births were generally higher than for full-term births, with the highest costs for the hospital treatment of early preterm births. Cost differences tended to decrease in the second and third year after birth except for ambulatory treatment costs, which decreased for late preterm and full-term births but not for early preterm births. The study shows that preterm birth is associated with increased health care costs, particularly during the first year after birth, indicating that the implementation of adequate programs and policies for preventing preterm birth is not only desirable from a medical but also from a health economic perspective.

  16. Birthing postures and birth canal lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shunji

    2017-05-01

    This study was performed to assess the differences in the birth canal lacerations following the lateral and fours posture deliveries compared with those following the supine posture deliveries. We examined the birth canal lacerations of our "low risk" pregnant women under the midwife-led delivery care at Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital between April 2006 and March 2015. There were 3826, 1754 and 719 women who delivered with supine, lateral and fours postures. The rate of no laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.630, 95% CI 0.56-0.71, p < 0.01); however, the incidence of perineal laceration in the women who delivered with lateral posture was significant lower than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 0.856, 95% CI 0.76-0.90, p < 0.01). The incidence of perineal laceration of third- or fourth-degree in the women who delivered with fours posture was significant higher than that in the women who delivered with supine posture (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.2-4.2, p < 0.01). The current results may be to help for self-determination of birthing postures in prenatal women.

  17. Tritium releases, birth defects and infant deaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The AECB has published a report 'Tritium releases from the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station and Birth Defects and Infant Mortality in Nearby Communities 1971-1988' (report number INFO-0401). This presents the results of a detailed analysis of deaths and birth defects occurring in infants born to mothers living in the area (25 Km radius) of the Pickering nuclear power plant, over an 18-year period. The analysis looked at the frequency of these defects and deaths in comparison to the general rate for Ontario, and also in relation to airborne and waterborne releases of tritium from the power plant. The overall conclusion was that the rates of infant death and birth defects were generally not higher in the study population than in all of Ontario. There was no prevalent relationship between these deaths and defects and tritium releases measured either at the power plant or by ground monitoring stations t some distance from the facility

  18. Recovering from Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  19. Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know your pregnancy rights Getting ready for baby Birthing, breastfeeding, and parenting classes Breastfeeding Circumcision Health care for baby Making your home safe for baby Last-minute to-dos Childbirth ...

  20. Contraception and Birth Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... discuss birth control methods with one’s sexual partner. General methods of contraception include: Barrier —physically interferes with ...

  1. Preterm Labor and Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Pharmacology Condition Information NICHD Research Information Find a Study ... Pinterest Email Print Preterm Labor and Birth In general, a normal human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, ...

  2. Birth Control Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... and effective method of birth control. Most young women who use the patch have no side effects. ...

  3. Tanzania Dental Journal Vol. 14 No. 1, May 2007 Birth prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Abstract. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of cleft lip, cleft palate and cleft lip and palate in hospital live births in Dar es salaam, Tanzania. Study design: this was a retrospective study using hospital data. Materials and methods: The records of 75336 live births delivered at three public hospitals in ...

  4. Hypnotherapy for birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Maggie

    2014-05-01

    There are many misunderstandings about hypnotherapy for birth and how best to support a woman who has chosen to use it. This article brings together experiences of midwives who have attended women in labour using hypnotherapy, and aims to help birth professionals understand a bit more about hypnotherapy and how they can best support women who are using it. It is a personal account from a hypnotherapy trainer reflecting on her encounters with midwives as they share experiences of observing hypnotherapy in action.

  5. From performance to performativity: The legitimization of US security contracting and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahmann, Elke

    2017-12-01

    Discussions about the legitimacy of private security companies (PSCs) in multilateral military interventions abound. This article looks at how the United States has sought to legitimize the outsourcing of security services to PSCs through performance-based contracting and performance assessments. Both mechanisms aim to demonstrate the effective provision of publicly desirable outcomes. However, the immaterial and socially constructed nature of security presents major problems for performance assessments in terms of observable and measurable outcomes. Performance has therefore given way to performativity - that is, the repetitive enactment of particular forms of behaviour and capabilities that are simply equated with security as an outcome. The implications of this development for the ways in which security has been conceptualized, implemented and experienced within US interventions have been profound. Ironically, the concern with performance has not encouraged PSCs to pay increased attention to their impacts on security environments and civilian populations, but has fostered a preoccupation with activities and measurable capabilities that can be easily assessed by government auditors.

  6. The relation between the substantial law and procedural law in defending subjective rights and legitimate interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronela-Adriana Cernat

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that the Romanian Constitution mentions the "state of law" and "constitutional democracy", concomitantly specifying the essential values- human dignity, citizens' rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism- defended by the domestic legal order, it seems of a real practical interest to notice the concrete means established in order to protect the above mentioned values. As it has been mentioned before, the contentious administrative represents one of the most efficient ways under which the values constitutionally affirmed are guaranteed and defended. The contentious administrative basically answers the old question: "Quis custodiet custodes?", question that comprises one of the most difficult obstacles against the state of law actualization: to find the most efficient procedural ways for the state bodies able to use, directly or indirectly, the coercion force in order to make the citizens observe the laws, to be in their turn under the situation to observe the same laws. As the contentious administrative represents the courts of law activity meant to settle the conflicts whereas at least one of the parties is a public authority, we will try, while evoking procedural aspects, procedural means available for someone prejudiced by a public authority, to stress the weight of the procedural rules in guarantying and defending effectively the citizens' rights and legitimate interests.

  7. Alternative Approaches in Evaluating the EU SME Policy: Answers to the Question of Impact and Legitimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. GRUENWALD

    2014-08-01

    Findings:  OECD  and  EU  evaluations  do  not  determine  causal  relationships  between funding allocation and effects. The evaluations of the KfW and the German Ministry of Economics  use  an  empirical  quantitative  approach  and  determine  direct  causal relations. In  order to fulfil the requirements of legitimizing functions  for  the  SME  policy,  it  is  recommended  to  further  develop  the  EU  funding policy  and  evaluation  according  to  the  “German  model”  both  in  terms  of  the institutional  framework  and  in  terms  of  the  evaluation  of  impacts  through  funding policy measures. Definition  of  minimum  requirements  and  alternative possibilities  for  EU  SME  policy  evaluation  in  order  to  close  the  legitimisation  gap between the allocation of tax money and impact proof (cost-benefit ratio.

  8. The mechanisms of constitutional reform in and the legitimation of the peace agreements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Sañudo Ospina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Colombian state is about to close one of the worst chapters in its history: the war against FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia that has lasted for more than five decades. After more than three years of discussions, the parties have settled on important agreements such as the de-escalation of the armed conflict and transitional justice mechanisms. It is thus time for the State to use constitutional and legal means to incorporate the agreements into the national legal system. President Juan Manuel Santos has called for a plebiscite as the means to legitimate the peace agreements. As a surprise to many, the plebiscite did not obtain the votes needed for its implementation, leaving it’s future in uncertainty. The government is now considering other alternatives, such as pass it through congress, call for an open council meeting and even call for a new plebiscite. The main aim of this article is to analyze the mechanisms of constitutional reform existing in the Colombian legal system to validate the Havana Talks. Some concepts, and constitutional and legal regulations will be studied and various mechanisms of citizen participation and constitutional reform will be contrasted that may help to achieve the government expectations with the peace process.

  9. Medical pluralism and medical marginality: bone doctors and the selective legitimation of therapeutic expertise in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Helen

    2012-04-01

    Current health policy initiatives in India advocate medical pluralism and seek to address a lack of skilled human resources for health care provision. This qualitative study investigated a form of indigenous therapy that does not fit into officially recognised categories of 'Indian medicine' but is a popular source of informal medical care. Semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations of 30 'bone doctor' (haad vaidya) practices were conducted in the capital city of Rajasthan, north India in 2009-2010 together with historical analysis of changes in state policies for the registration of Indian medicine practitioners. Contestations over legitimacy among individual practitioners and hierarchies of authority between different medical traditions are shown to rest on conceptions of what constitutes authentic 'expertise'. The findings demonstrate a progressive restriction over time in official definitions of medical expertise, towards a reliance exclusively on formal qualifications rather than experientially acquired and inherited skills to demarcate legitimate therapeutic knowledge. This case study contributes to our understanding of the nature of non-professional expertise and its implications for pluralistic health care policy and the human resourcing of Indian health systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Legitimate Peripheral Participation as a Framework for Conversation Analytic Work in Second Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitte Rasmussen Hougaard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception, Conversation Analysis (CA has become not only a framework and a set of methods for studying the generic machinery of talk-in-interaction but also a celebrated, qualitative method for studying a wealth of phenomena and exploring and testing concepts and hypotheses from numerous disciplines, including linguistics, psychology, anthropology and Second Language Acquisition (SLA. CA is often resorted to as the key to resolving knots and dead-ends in these neighboring disciplines. Despite the very interesting results that such work admittedly produces, it is too often not accompanied by focused considerations of how the specific concerns from one field match with the aims that CA procedures have been developed for and hence with the procedures themselves. This paper takes recent applications of CA to the study of SLA as a case in point. It discusses a whether CA can shed light on "learning" as commonly defined in SLA and b whether the resort to a particular model of learning (LAVE & WENGER, 1991, Legitimate Peripheral Participation (LPP helps overcoming some of the problems with which CA work in SLA is confronted. It is hoped that the specific discussions of problems involved in the project, CA-for-SLA, will contribute to the ongoing, general discussion of qualitative research methods and their prospects and problems. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090247

  11. Ethics and "normal birth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin

    2012-12-01

    The concept of "normal birth" has been promoted as ideal by several international organizations, although debate about its meaning is ongoing. In this article, I examine the concept of normalcy to explore its ethical implications and raise a trio of concerns. First, in its emphasis on nonuse of technology as a goal, the concept of normalcy may marginalize women for whom medical intervention is necessary or beneficial. Second, in its emphasis on birth as a socially meaningful event, the mantra of normalcy may unintentionally avert attention to meaning in medically complicated births. Third, the emphasis on birth as a normal and healthy event may be a contributor to the long-standing tolerance for the dearth of evidence guiding the treatment of illness during pregnancy and the failure to responsibly and productively engage pregnant women in health research. Given these concerns, it is worth debating not just what "normal birth" means, but whether the term as an ideal earns its keep. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Birth Order and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Evelina; Svaleryd, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has established that birth order affects outcomes such as educational achievements, IQ and earnings. The mechanisms behind these effects are, however, still largely unknown. In this paper, we examine birth-order effects on health, and whether health at young age could be a transmission channel for birth-order effects observed later in life. We find no support for the birth-order effect having a biological origin; rather firstborns have worse health at birth. This disadvantag...

  13. The Influence of the Authoritarian Syndrome on the Process of Legitimation of Government Institutions in Today’s Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Борисовна Григорьева

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the influence of the authoritarian syndrome on the process of legitimization of various bodies and institutions of government, in particular, to establish and maintain a personal type of legitimation. The author offers the analysis of prospects for the transformation of Russian political regime, namely the transfer from the personal type of legitimacy of the political system to the structural type. It shows the dynamics of components of the authoritarian syndrome is widely spread in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1992 to 2012. The article describes a new approach to the authoritarianism, along with cultural, neo-institutional, institutional explanation of the reasons supporting the communication, trust, and an uncritical attitude to the president, stands authoritarian syndrome.

  14. Fathers' birth experience in relation to midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Cederlöf, Linnea; Widén, Sara

    2011-09-01

    The aim was to identify the proportion of fathers having a positive experience of a normal birth and to explore factors related to midwifery care that were associated with a positive experience. Research has mainly focused on the father's supportive role during childbirth rather than his personal experiences of birth. 595 new fathers living in a northern part of Sweden, whose partner had a normal birth, were included in the study. Data was collected by questionnaires. Odds Ratios with 95% confidence interval and logistic regression analysis were used. The majority of fathers (82%) reported a positive birth experience. The strongest factors associated with a positive birth experience were midwife support (OR 4.0; 95 CI 2.0-8.1), the midwife's ongoing presence in the delivery room (OR 2.0; 1.1-3.9), and information about the progress of labour (OR 3.1; 1.6-5.8). Most fathers had a positive birth experience. Midwifery support, the midwife's presence and sufficient information about the progress of labour are important aspects in a father's positive birth experience. The role of the midwife during birth is important to the father, and his individual needs should be considered in order to enhance a positive birth experience. Copyright © 2010 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The proliferation of sexual health: Diverse social problems and the legitimation of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Mamo, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Especially since the 1990s, the term sexual health has flourished in professional, commercial, and lay domains. Yet the more the phrase has become visible, the greater the mutability in its meanings. These developments matter for an understanding of healthism-the idea that modern individuals are enjoined to recognize a moral obligation to maximize their health. Theorists of healthism have paid relatively little attention to sexuality and its frequent rendering as controversial, illegitimate, or stigmatizing. We argue that because pairing "sexual" with "health" serves to legitimize and sanitize sexuality, the framing of sexual issues as matters of sexual health is widely appealing across multiple social arenas, and this appeal helps to explain both the proliferation of the term and the diversification of its uses. Secondly, we argue that while the polysemy of sexual health might suggest that the phrase lacks a clear meaning, in another sense the term is quite meaningful: content analysis of journal articles, newspaper articles, and websites shows that the semantics of sexual health can be categorized into six social problem niches, within which sexuality and health are construed in distinctive ways. For each social problem framing, we identify the implied meanings of both sexuality and health, the "opposite" of sexual health, the institutional action plans, the individual injunctions, and the presumed ontologies of bodies and selves. By focusing on how the conjoining of "sexual" and "health" changes the meanings of both terms, our analysis adds nuance to discussions of healthism: it challenges a singular conception of healthism and points to the need for clearer consideration of its different forms. At the same time, we call attention to the significance of "sexual healthism" as a particular example of the "will to health" while also highlighting implications of characterizing sexual issues as matters of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  17. Birth room images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn Jean

    2016-01-01

    and implications for practice: as images on the Internet inform and persuade society about stereotypical behaviours, the trends of our time and sociocultural norms, it is important to recognise images of the technological birth room on the Internet may be influential in dictating women's attitudes, choices......Objective: this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. Design: a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form...... of discourse analysis. Setting/participants: forty images of birth rooms were collected in 2013 from Google Images, Flickr, Wikimedia Commons and midwifery colleagues. The images were from obstetric units, alongside and freestanding midwifery units located in developed countries (Australia, Canada, Europe, New...

  18. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  19. The legitimation of the power process: experiences of small entrepreneurs in the region of Passo Fundo/RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Frasson Lima

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The legitimation of power among small entrepreneurs toward the employees was analyzed in the region of Passo Fundo/RS; it’s a process in which these entrepreneurs consolidate working relationships to perform their functions with self-confidence. A descriptive qualitative research was done and used as method of data collection a semi-structured interview, with observation and documental analysis. Four directors of franchises in the field of language education in the northern of Rio Grande do Sul participated in the research. The collected data were submitted to an interpretative analysis that made use of the academic frame to rescue the conception of power, its role and its fountainsin the organizations. The results reinforced the difficulties in measuring the legitimation of power. The phenomenon was investigated from an array of angles and a series of related factors were identified, provokingan evolution on its understanding.It was realized that the strategies of legitimation of the power vary according to the history and leadership style of the directors creating similar results in short term, but not always attending to professionalization and expansion matters.

  20. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  1. Maternal age and birth defects after the use of assisted reproductive technology in Japan, 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooki, Syuichi

    2013-01-01

    Older mothers are becoming more common in Japan. One reason for this is the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART). This study assesses the relationship between maternal age and the risk of birth defects after ART. Nationwide data on ART between 2004 and 2010 in Japan were analyzed. Diseases that were classified as code Q00-Q99 (ie, congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities) in the International Classification of Diseases, tenth edition, were selected. There were 219,185 pregnancies and 153,791 live births in total ART. Of these, 1943 abortions, stillbirths, or live births with birth defects were recorded. Percentage of multiple birth defects in total birth defects, the prevalence, crude relative risk and 95% confidence interval per 10,000 pregnancies and per 10,000 live births were analyzed according to the maternal age class (ie, 25-29, 30-34 (reference), 35-39, and 40+ years). Multiple birth defects were observed among 14% of the 25-29 year old class, and 8% among other classes when chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities per pregnancy and per live birth became significantly and rapidly higher in mothers in the age classes of 30-35 and 40+ years. Nonchromosomal birth defects per pregnancy decreased linearly with advanced maternal age, while the number of nonchromosomal birth defects per live birth formed a gradual U-shaped distribution. The prevalence per pregnancy of congenital malformations of the nervous system was significantly lower with advanced maternal age. The relative risk per live birth was significant regarding congenital malformations of the circulatory system for a maternal age of 40+ years. Some other significant associations between maternal age and birth defects were observed. Maternal age is associated with several birth defects; however, older maternal age in itself does not produce noticeable extra risk for nonchromosomal birth defects overall.

  2. Maternal Eating Disorders Influence Sex Ratio at Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Von Holle, Ann; Gendall, Kelly; Kveim Lie, Kari; Hoffman, Elizabeth; Mo, Xiaofei; Torgersen, Leila; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2008-01-01

    We explored sex ratio at birth, defined as the proportion of male live births, in women with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and eating disorders not otherwise specified-purging type (EDNOS-P) relative to a referent group in a large population based sample of 38,340 pregnant women in Norway. Poisson regressions were adjusted for mother’s age, pre-pregnancy BMI, lifetime smoking status, maternal education, income, marital status, gestational age, and parity. Lower pro...

  3. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease worldwide: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linde, Denise; Konings, Elisabeth E M; Slager, Maarten A; Witsenburg, Maarten; Helbing, Willem A; Takkenberg, Johanna J M; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W

    2011-11-15

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for nearly one-third of all major congenital anomalies. CHD birth prevalence worldwide and over time is suggested to vary; however, a complete overview is missing. This systematic review included 114 papers, comprising a total study population of 24,091,867 live births with CHD identified in 164,396 individuals. Birth prevalence of total CHD and the 8 most common subtypes were pooled in 5-year time periods since 1930 and in continent and income groups since 1970 using the inverse variance method. Reported total CHD birth prevalence increased substantially over time, from 0.6 per 1,000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 to 0.8) in 1930 to 1934 to 9.1 per 1,000 live births (95% CI: 9.0 to 9.2) after 1995. Over the last 15 years, stabilization occurred, corresponding to 1.35 million newborns with CHD every year. Significant geographical differences were found. Asia reported the highest CHD birth prevalence, with 9.3 per 1,000 live births (95% CI: 8.9 to 9.7), with relatively more pulmonary outflow obstructions and fewer left ventricular outflow tract obstructions. Reported total CHD birth prevalence in Europe was significantly higher than in North America (8.2 per 1,000 live births [95% CI: 8.1 to 8.3] vs. 6.9 per 1,000 live births [95% CI: 6.7 to 7.1]; p facilities, probably accounting for differences in reported birth prevalence between high- and low-income countries. Observed differences may also be of genetic, environmental, socioeconomical, or ethnic origin, and there needs to be further investigation to tailor the management of this global health problem. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The immune consequences of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Melville

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth occurs in 11% of live births globally and accounts for 35% of all newborn deaths. Preterm newborns have immature immune systems, with reduced innate and adaptive immunity; their immune systems may be further compromised by various factors associated with preterm birth.The immune systems of preterm infants have a smaller pool of monocytes and neutrophils, impaired ability of these cells to kill pathogens, and lower production of cytokines which limits T cell activation and reduces the ability to fight bacteria and detect viruses in cells, compared to term infants.Intrauterine inflammation is a major contributor to preterm birth, and causes premature immune activation and cytokine production. This can induce immune tolerance leading to reduced newborn immune function. Intrauterine inflammation is associated with an increased risk of early-onset sepsis and likely has long-term adverse immune consequences.Requisite medical interventions further impact on immune development and function. Antenatal corticosteroid treatment to prevent newborn respiratory disease is routine but may be immunosuppressive, and has been associated with febrile responses, reductions in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production, and increased risk of infection. Invasive medical procedures result in an increased risk of late-onset sepsis. Respiratory support can cause chronic inflammatory lung disease associated with increased risk of long-term morbidity.Colonisation of the infant by microorganisms at birth is a significant contributor to the establishment of the microbiome. Caesarean section affects infant colonisation, potentially contributing to lifelong immune function and wellbeing.Several factors associated with preterm birth alter immune function. A better understanding of perinatal modification of the preterm immune system will allow for the refinement of care to minimise lifelong adverse immune consequences.

  5. Birth Order Debate Resolved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    Critiques Rodgers et al.'s June 2000 research on the relation between birth order and intelligence, which suggests that it is a methodological illusion. Explains how the intellectual environment and the teaching function (whereby older children tutor younger ones) contribute to the growth of intellectual maturity, the first negatively and the…

  6. Finding Autonomy in Birth*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Rebecca; Kuppermann, Miriam; Little, Margaret; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Mitchell, Lisa M; Armstrong, Elizabeth M.; Harris, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Over the last several years, as cesarean deliveries have grown increasingly common, there has been a great deal of public and professional interest in the phenomenon of women ‘choosing’ to deliver by cesarean section in the absence of any specific medical indication. The issue has sparked intense conversation, as it raises questions about the nature of autonomy in birth. Whereas mainstream bioethical discourse is used to associating autonomy with having a large array of choices, this conception of autonomy does not seem adequate to capture concerns and intuitions that have a strong grip outside of this discourse. An empirical and conceptual exploration of how delivery decisions ought to be negotiated must be guided by a rich understanding of women’s agency and its placement within a complicated set of cultural meanings and pressures surrounding birth. It is too early to be ‘for’ or ‘against’ women’s access to cesarean delivery in the absence of traditional medical indications - and indeed, a simple pro- or con- position is never going to do justice to the subtlety of the issue. The right question is not whether women ought to be allowed to choose their delivery approach, but rather, taking the value of women’s autonomy in decision-making around birth as a given, what sorts of guidelines, practices, and social conditions will best promote and protect women’s full inclusion in a safe and positive birth process. PMID:19076937

  7. Better Births Initiative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ensuring that health professionals practise according to evidence-based standards is important since it affects the quality and cost of care patients receive. The purpose of this research was to use a focused change programme (the Better Births Initiative) to influence obstetric practice at 10 hospitals in Gauteng, South Africa.

  8. Early neonatal deaths with perinatal asphyxia in very low birth weight Brazilian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M F B; Moreira, L M O; Vaz dos Santos, R M; Kawakami, M D; Anchieta, L M; Guinsburg, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of early deaths associated with birth asphyxia of very low birth weight infants between 2005 and 2010, in Brazil. This population study enrolled all live births with birth weight from 400 to 1499 g, gestational age ⩾ 22 weeks, without malformations that died up to 6 days after birth with perinatal asphyxia. Asphyxia was defined if intrauterine hypoxia, asphyxia at birth or meconium aspiration syndrome were written in any line of the death certificate. Active search was carried out in 27 Brazilian federative units. For every 1000 live births of very low birth weight infants without congenital malformations, 40.25 and 32.38 died with birth asphyxia in the first week after birth, respectively, in 2005 and 2010 (Pasphyxia to early neonatal death of these infants was approximately 10 to 12% all study years. Reduction of birth asphyxia in very low birth weight infants is essential to reducing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

  9. [Trendency analysis of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight in China from 1996 to 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hao; He, Chunhua; Miao, Lei; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Li, Xiaohong; Shen, Liqin

    2015-02-01

    To study the secular trend and characteristics of infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight (IMRPL) in China from 1996 to 2013. Data used in this study was collected from the population-based Child's Health Surveillance Network of China. The Cochran-Armitage Trend test and Poisson regression were used to test the trend of IMRPL and explore the differences of the trend among different regions or areas. The nationwide IMRPL was 629.9 per 100 000 live births in 1996 and it decreased to 214.6 per 100 000 live births in 2013. The average annual decline rate was 6.14%, while the proportion of infant mortality due to premature birth or low birth weight in all infant deaths was on the rise with the average annual growth rate of 1.52%. And the proportion increased to 22.6% in 2013. IMRPLin rural and urban areas fell 28.1% and 66.6% respectively during 1996 and 2013. But the differences between urban and rural areas was obvious. During the same period, the average IMRPLin the central region was 1.40 times (95%CI:1.31-1.49) of that in the eastern region. And the average IMRPL in the western region was 2.25 times (95%CI:2.12-2.40) of that in the eastern region. The differences among different regions was obvious. Male infant mortality rate due to premature birth or low birth weight was 1.09 times (95%CI:1.05-1.14) of that in female infant from 1996 to 2013. The risk of IMRPL decreased substantially in China from 1996 to 2013. And the risk of IMRPL decreased more in rural areas than that in urban areas. The differences among different regions and areas were obvious. Premature birth or low birth weight as one of main factors has become a serious threat for health of Chinese children.

  10. Legality, legitimacy and formal and informal decision-making processes: when does a decision become legitimate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwetkoff, C.

    2004-01-01

    A few words on the purpose of this paper are given by way of introduction. A brief analysis will be made of the relationship between legality and legitimacy in relation to decision-making processes and within the context of the policies concerning the public management of technological risks. The aim is to raise questions and outline some reflections based on the theory of the state, from the perspective of the conditions of the institutionalization of power. I shall first clarify a few conceptual points. The notion of legality refers to the notion of compliance with legal standards, that is to say, with the law. Is the decision made by a person empowered by law so do to (legal competence)? Is it taken in compliance with legal procedure? And are the effects implicitly in keeping with the spirit of the law? The legitimacy of the power of those who govern, or the legitimacy of their decisions, is not determined solely by legal standards but rather, is a matter of individual and social representation or view. As Hobbes says, in essence, to govern is to convince: to convince people of the rightfulness of the source of the power of those who govern and of the action or public policies that they formulate. The paper is organised around three propositions: 1. The role of the legitimacy or social acceptability of public policies has always been an element of the way all political systems function. This role, however, occupies an increasingly important place on the political agenda in a societal decision-making context that has undergone irreversible changes. 2. Although the essence of the social legitimacy of public policies remains the same, the conditions, mechanisms and criteria evolve. 3. The critical centrality of social legitimacy, together with the evolution of the criteria for legitimate decision, today modify the decision-making mechanisms that were established in response to the requirements of classical democracy. We observe a political organisation i n the

  11. Effect of kangaroo method on the risk of hypothermia and duration of birth weight regain in low birth weight infants: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    I G. A. P. Eka Pratiwi; Soetjiningsih Soetjiningsih; I Made Kardana

    2009-01-01

    Background In Indonesia, the infant mortality rate in 2001 was 50 per 1000 live births, with 34.7% due to perinatal death. This perinatal death was associated with low birth weight (LBW) newborn, which was caused by prematurity, infection, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, and inadequate breast feeding. In developing countries, lack of facilities of LBW infant care leads to the utilization of kangaroo method as care to prevent hypothermia in LBW newborn. Objective To evaluate the differences of...

  12. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assisted living is for adults who need help with everyday tasks. They may need help with dressing, bathing, ... don't need full-time nursing care. Some assisted living facilities are part of retirement communities. Others are ...

  13. Planned Out-of-Hospital Birth and Birth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Tilden, Ellen L.; Snyder, Janice; Quigley, Brian; Caughey, Aaron B.; Cheng, Yvonne W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The frequency of planned out-of-hospital birth in the United States has increased in recent years. The value of studies assessing the perinatal risks of planned out-of-hospital birth versus hospital birth has been limited by cases in which transfer to a hospital is required and a birth that was initially planned as an out-of-hospital birth is misclassified as a hospital birth. Methods We performed a population-based, retrospective cohort study of all births that occurred in Oregon during 2012 and 2013 using data from newly revised Oregon birth certificates that allowed for the disaggregation of hospital births into the categories of planned in-hospital births and planned out-of-hospital births that took place in the hospital after a woman’s intrapartum transfer to the hospital. We assessed perinatal morbidity and mortality, maternal morbidity, and obstetrical procedures according to the planned birth setting (out of hospital vs. hospital). Results Planned out-of-hospital birth was associated with a higher rate of perinatal death than was planned in-hospital birth (3.9 vs. 1.8 deaths per 1000 deliveries, P = 0.003; odds ratio after adjustment for maternal characteristics and medical conditions, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 4.30; adjusted risk difference, 1.52 deaths per 1000 births; 95% CI, 0.51 to 2.54). The odds for neonatal seizure were higher and the odds for admission to a neonatal intensive care unit lower with planned out-of-hospital births than with planned in-hospital birth. Planned out-of-hospital birth was also strongly associated with unassisted vaginal delivery (93.8%, vs. 71.9% with planned in-hospital births; P<0.001) and with decreased odds for obstetrical procedures. Conclusions Perinatal mortality was higher with planned out-of-hospital birth than with planned in-hospital birth, but the absolute risk of death was low in both settings. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human

  14. Searching for a legitimate television journalism: quality criteria in the critic work of Arthur da Távola in the 1970s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mauricio da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1970s, the TV reviews published by Artur da Távola rose a new discursive place for TV journalism: instead of the approach with an impoverishing entertainment, a legitimate discourse through technology. This article discusses how Távola legitimated television journalism through a discourse of quality compared to other media, showing power struggles around the representation of reality, emotional speech and compared with everyday life.

  15. Multilevel factors influencing preterm birth in an urban setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba W. Masho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Racial disparity in preterm is a major problem in the US. Although significant strides have been made in identifying some of the risk factors, the complexities between community and individual factors are not understood. This study examines the influence of individual and community level factors affecting preterm birth among Black and White women in an urban setting. A 10-year live birth registry dataset from a mid-sized, racially diverse city was analyzed (N = 30,591. Data were geocoded and merged with block group level Census data. Five hierarchical models were examined using PROC GLIMMIX. Education, illicit drug use, pregnancy complications, previous preterm birth, paternal presence, inadequate and adequate plus prenatal care, and poverty were associated with preterm births in both Blacks and Whites. In Black women, increasing maternal age, maternal smoking, and a previous infant death were significant predictors of preterm births, which was not the case for White women. Residing in medium or high poverty neighborhoods resulted in 19% and 28% higher odds, respectively, of preterm birth for Black women. In addition to individual level factors, neighborhood poverty is an important risk factor influencing preterm birth. It is essential to engage multisectoral agencies in addressing factors influencing preterm birth.

  16. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  17. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it, too. Back to top What is the Cost for Assisted Living? Although assisted living costs less than nursing home ... Primarily, older persons or their families pay the cost of assisted living. Some health and long-term care insurance policies ...

  18. Birth control - slow release methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007555.htm Birth control - slow release methods To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Certain birth control methods contain man-made forms of hormones. ...

  19. “Top-down” vs. “Bottom-up”: A Dichotomy of Paradigms for the Legitimation of Public Power in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dellavalle Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public power has been justified by resorting to two different kinds of legitimation: one coming from above, the other emerging from the governed. While legitimation “from above” implies that those who are vested with executive power are qualified in their function because of their allegedly higher competences, “bottom-up” legitimacy always presupposes that only citizens can properly decide on their destiny. After giving a brief account of how both legitimation strategies have developed in the history of political ideas, attention is focused on the theories regarding the legitimacy of public power in the European Union. Indeed, both strands of legitimation of public power are represented here with original proposals, according to the specificity of the supranational condition. But even more interesting is that the research into the characteristics of supranational integration has been one of the most significant fields in which the legitimation “from above” has reappeared in Western thought after a rather long period of marginality, now taking the shape of a technocratic justification. In the main section of the article, the reasons in favour of a democratic “bottom-up” legitimation of the European public power are analyzed first, then those which recur to the so-called “output legitimacy” – in other words to technocratic arguments. The last section of the contribution is dedicated to an overall assessment of the different positions.

  20. Birth defects data for 8 California counties by county, maternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, and infant gender for the years 2000-2006.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts, rates, and confidence intervals of 12 selected birth defects among live births during 2000-2006 within eight California counties:...

  1. Ecological analysis of secular trends in low birth weight births and adult height in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Naho; Urayama, Kevin Yuji; Yoshii, Keisuke; Subramanian, S V; Yokoya, Susumu

    2017-10-01

    Japan, which currently maintains the highest life expectancy in the world and has experienced an impressive gain in adult height over the past century, has suffered a dramatic twofold increase in low birth weight (LBW) births since the 1970s. We observed secular trends in birth characteristics using 64 115 249 live births included the vital statistics (1969-2014), as well as trends in average height among 3 145 521 adults born between 1969 and 1996, included in 79 surveys conducted among a national, subnational or community population in Japan. LBW rates exhibited a U-shaped pattern showing reductions until 1978-1979 (5.5%), after which it increased. Conversely, average adult height peaked for those born during the same period (men, 171.5 cm; women, 158.5 cm), followed by a reduction over the next 20 years. LBW rate and adult height showed a strong inverse correlation (men, r=-0.98; women, r=-0.88). A prediction model based on birth and economical characteristics estimated the national average of adult height would continue to decline, to 170.0cm (95% CI 169.6 to 170.3) for men and 157.9cm (95% CI 157.5 to 158.3) for women among those born in 2014. Adult height in Japan has started to decline for those born after 1980, a trend that may be attributed to increases in LBW births over time. Considering the known association between shorter adult height and adverse health outcomes, evidence of population-level decline in adult health due to long-term consequences of increasing LBW births in Japan is anticipated. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  3. The effect of mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight on risk of urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Thomas J; Litman, Heather J; Tennstedt, Sharon L; Link, Carol L; McKinlay, John B

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship between symptoms of urinary incontinence (UI) and mode of delivery, parity, and birth weight, data were obtained from a population-based random sample of 3,205 black, Hispanic, and white women age 30-79 in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. Measures include UI symptoms [>or=3 (moderate/severe) Sandvik's severity index]; reproductive history [live birth(s), no live births, never pregnant]; mode of delivery for live births (>or=1 vaginal birth, cesarean delivery only); parity (1, 2, >or=3); and maximum birth weight of live births (or=4,000 g). Using logistic regression, women having >or=1 vaginal delivery had twice the odds of UI compared to women with no pregnancies (P = 0.002) or only cesarean deliveries (P = 0.032). There was no difference in odds of UI between cesarean delivery only and never pregnant, by parity or birth weight. Vaginal delivery contributes to risk of UI for black, Hispanic, and white women.

  4. Living Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at anyone who is interested in learning more about living technology, whether coming from business, the government, policy centers, academia, or anywhere else. Its purpose is to help people to learn what living technology is, what it might develop into, and how it might impact...... our lives. The phrase 'living technology' was coined to refer to technology that is alive as well as technology that is useful because it shares the fundamental properties of living systems. In particular, the invention of this phrase was called for to describe the trend of our technology becoming...... increasingly life-like or literally alive. Still, the phrase has different interpretations depending on how one views what life is. This book presents nineteen perspectives on living technology. Taken together, the interviews convey the collective wisdom on living technology's power and promise, as well as its...

  5. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  6. A Case Study of Legitimate Literacies: Teens' "Small World" and the School Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is a dual-site ethnographic case study of the lived information literacy experiences of students in their junior year of high school relative to their school library and librarians. What began as an investigation of an apparent gap in understanding between the views of teens and school librarians regarding "information…

  7. Dis(en)abled: Legitimating Discriminatory Practice in the Name of Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Liz

    2016-01-01

    This article explores tensions between the policies and practice of inclusion and the lived experiences of disabled young people in education. Drawing on the narratives of two young men who participated in a small pilot study, it utilises theoretical concepts related to disability, structure and agency, and power and control, as it explores the…

  8. Does the Sole Description of a Tax Authority Affect Tax Evasion? - The Impact of Described Coercive and Legitimate Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Barbara; Hofmann, Eva; Gangl, Katharina; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Following the classic economic model of tax evasion, taxpayers base their tax decisions on economic determinants, like fine rate and audit probability. Empirical findings on the relationship between economic key determinants and tax evasion are inconsistent and suggest that taxpayers may rather rely on their beliefs about tax authority’s power. Descriptions of the tax authority’s power may affect taxpayers’ beliefs and as such tax evasion. Experiment 1 investigates the impact of fines and beliefs regarding tax authority’s power on tax evasion. Experiments 2-4 are conducted to examine the effect of varying descriptions about a tax authority’s power on participants’ beliefs and respective tax evasion. It is investigated whether tax evasion is influenced by the description of an authority wielding coercive power (Experiment 2), legitimate power (Experiment 3), and coercive and legitimate power combined (Experiment 4). Further, it is examined whether a contrast of the description of power (low to high power; high to low power) impacts tax evasion (Experiments 2-4). Results show that the amount of fine does not impact tax payments, whereas participants’ beliefs regarding tax authority’s power significantly shape compliance decisions. Descriptions of high coercive power as well as high legitimate power affect beliefs about tax authority’s power and positively impact tax honesty. This effect still holds if both qualities of power are applied simultaneously. The contrast of descriptions has little impact on tax evasion. The current study indicates that descriptions of the tax authority, e.g., in information brochures and media reports, have more influence on beliefs and tax payments than information on fine rates. Methodically, these considerations become particularly important when descriptions or vignettes are used besides objective information. PMID:25923770

  9. Does the sole description of a tax authority affect tax evasion?--the impact of described coercive and legitimate power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Barbara; Hofmann, Eva; Gangl, Katharina; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Kirchler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Following the classic economic model of tax evasion, taxpayers base their tax decisions on economic determinants, like fine rate and audit probability. Empirical findings on the relationship between economic key determinants and tax evasion are inconsistent and suggest that taxpayers may rather rely on their beliefs about tax authority's power. Descriptions of the tax authority's power may affect taxpayers' beliefs and as such tax evasion. Experiment 1 investigates the impact of fines and beliefs regarding tax authority's power on tax evasion. Experiments 2-4 are conducted to examine the effect of varying descriptions about a tax authority's power on participants' beliefs and respective tax evasion. It is investigated whether tax evasion is influenced by the description of an authority wielding coercive power (Experiment 2), legitimate power (Experiment 3), and coercive and legitimate power combined (Experiment 4). Further, it is examined whether a contrast of the description of power (low to high power; high to low power) impacts tax evasion (Experiments 2-4). Results show that the amount of fine does not impact tax payments, whereas participants' beliefs regarding tax authority's power significantly shape compliance decisions. Descriptions of high coercive power as well as high legitimate power affect beliefs about tax authority's power and positively impact tax honesty. This effect still holds if both qualities of power are applied simultaneously. The contrast of descriptions has little impact on tax evasion. The current study indicates that descriptions of the tax authority, e.g., in information brochures and media reports, have more influence on beliefs and tax payments than information on fine rates. Methodically, these considerations become particularly important when descriptions or vignettes are used besides objective information.

  10. Birth defects surveillance in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Li; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Wang, He; Mao, Meng

    2011-11-01

    Birth defects are a global public health problem because of their large contribution to infant mortalities and disabilities. It is estimated that 4%-6% of Chinese newborns are affected by birth defects every year. Surveillance is a basic approach to understanding the occurrence and associated factors of birth defects. The Ministry of Health of China initiated a national hospital-based birth defects monitoring system 20 years ago. Nearly every province in this country has established its own surveillance system in the past. The authors reviewed the result of the monitoring system at different administrative levels in China. Available publications on the surveillance of birth defects and data from national and provincial birth defects surveillance systems were reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of the surveillance systems. According to the 2009 data, the national hospital-based birth defects surveillance system monitored over 1.3 million births, which accounted for more than 8% of births in China. In addition, 30 provincial hospital-based surveillance programs covered a birth population of more than 3.6 million (22% of births in China). Great achievements have been made in terms of case ascertainment, data quality control, and online reporting. But the surveillance systems in China still have some limitations. A short ascertainment period may miss some internal anomalies, inherited metabolic diseases, and malformed fetus aborted before the 28th gestational week. Discrepancies in antenatal or postnatal diagnosis of birth defects between surveillance institutes may affect the detection rate and introduce biases. Absence of baseline data and lack of integrated database systems limit the application of surveillance data to etiological studies and affect the process of decision-making. The surveillance system for birth defects is prerequisite to propose, conduct and assess any interventions for the disease. To meet the need of study and prevention of birth defects

  11. Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiríksdóttir, Védís Helga; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg; Kaestner, Robert; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Study design The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation. PMID:24324602

  12. Live Births after Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection in the Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection has revolutionised the management of male infertility. We report two cases that demonstrate the successful application of this technology in Nigeria in the management of both oligospermia and azoospermia. The first case relates to the treatment of a 31-year-old woman who required ...

  13. Case Report: A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been employed to achieve fertilization in some cases of male subfertility e.g. severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Assisted reproductive techniques to aid conception in cases of retrograde ejaculation have been described extensively elsewhere but there is paucity of knowledge ...

  14. A Healthy Live Birth Following ICSI with Retrograde Ejaculated Sperm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Retrograde ejaculation, sometimes called dry orgasm, refers to the medical condition when semen enters the urinary bladder. (retrograde) instead of emerging through the penis after orgasm (antegrade). In some instances, a very minute quantity of antegrade semen appears in the ejaculate and may or may not be devoid of ...

  15. A variant of pentalogy of cantrell in a live birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... was an associated chromosomal abnormality, trisomy 21, this apparently contributed to the decision to terminate the pregnancy. Usually, if a diagnosis is made by ultrasound, chromosomal analysis is always recommended. Associations with trisomy 18, trisomy 13 and Turner syndrome have been reported.

  16. Live birth after laparotomy for ruptured heterotopic cornual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Heterotopic pregnancy is the coexistence of an intrauterine and extrauterine gestation.It is a rare occurrence especially in a natural conception. Its incidence is however increasing with the advent of assisted reproductive techniques. Case Presentation: A rare case of triplet heterotopic cornual gestation ...

  17. The European Court legitimates access of Italian couples to assisted reproductive techniques and to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Frati, Paola; Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Gulino, Matteo; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-07-01

    On 28 August 2012, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) issued a judgment regarding the requirements for the legitimate access of couples to assisted reproductive techniques (ART) and to pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). This judgment concerns the case of an Italian couple who found out after their first child was born with cystic fibrosis that they were healthy carriers of the disease. When the woman became pregnant again in 2010 and underwent fetal screening, it was found that the unborn child also had cystic fibrosis, whereupon she had the pregnancy terminated on medical grounds. In order to have the embryo genetically screened prior to implantation under the procedure of PGD, the couple sought to use in vitro fertilisation to have another child. Since article 1 of the Italian law strictly limits access to ART to sterile/infertile couples or those in which the man has a sexually transmissible disease, the couple appealed to the European court, raising the question of the violation of articles 8 and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The applicants lodged a complaint that they were not allowed legitimate access to ART and to PGD to select an embryo not affected by the disease. The European Court affirmed that the prohibition imposed by Italian law violated article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Focusing on important regulatory and legal differences among EU Nations in providing ART treatments and PGD, we derived some important similarities and differences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage in low-birth-weight ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of periventricular-intraventricular haemorrhage (PV-IVH) aInong very-low-birthweight infants at Baragwanath Hospital has not been well docwnented. In this prospective study, a total of 282 live-born infants with birth weights of 1 000 - 1 749 g were studied over a 41/2-month period. Every infant had at least ...

  19. Factors associated with low birth weight among neonates born at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: a cross-sectional analytic study was therefore conducted to estimate prevalence and distribution and determine the factors associated with LBW in the hospital.LBW was defined as birth of a live infant less than 2500g.We collected data using a semi-structured questionnaire and review of health records. A total 327 ...

  20. Healthy Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Menu Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works ... Scientist Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Expand Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works ...

  1. Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be higher than in other supported-living environments. Adult Foster Care Foster care homes generally provide ... board, and some help with activities of daily living. This is provided by ... more home-like environment. Regulations for foster care vary by state, and ...

  2. Birth weight centiles by gestational age for twins born in south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Prasanna; Antonisamy, Belavendra; Mathews, Jiji; Benjamin, Santhosh; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Kuruvilla, Anil; Mathai, Mathews

    2016-03-24

    Birth weight centile curves are commonly used as a screening tool and to assess the position of a newborn on a given reference distribution. Birth weight of twins are known to be less than those of comparable singletons and twin-specific birth weight centile curves are recommended for use. In this study, we aim to construct gestational age specific birth weight centile curves for twins born in south India. The study was conducted at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, south India. The birth records of all consecutive pregnancies resulting in twin births between 1991 and 2005 were reviewed. Only live twin births between 24 and 42 weeks of gestation were included. Birth weight centiles for gestational age were obtained using the methodology of generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Centiles curves were obtained separately for monochorionic and dichorionic twins. Of 1530 twin pregnancies delivered during the study period (1991-2005), 1304 were included in the analysis. The median gestational age at birth was 36 weeks (1st quartile 34, 3rd quartile 38 weeks). Smoothed percentile curves for birth weight by gestational age increased progressively till 38 weeks and levels off thereafter. Compared with dichorionic twins, monochorionic twins had lower birth weight for gestational age from after 27 weeks. We provide centile values of birth weight at 24 to 42 completed weeks of gestation for twins born in south India. These charts could be used both in routine clinical assessments and epidemiological studies.

  3. Commodifying Indigeneity: How the Humanization of Birth Reinforces Racialized Inequality in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Rosalynn Adeline

    2017-12-01

    This article examines the humanized birth movement in Mexico and analyzes how the remaking of tradition-the return to traditional birthing arts (home birth, midwife-assisted birth, natural birth)-inadvertently reinscribes racial hierarchies. The great irony of the humanized birth movement lies in parents' perspective of themselves as critics of late capitalism. All the while, their very rejection of consumerism bolsters ongoing commodification of indigenous culture and collapses indigeneity, nature, and tradition onto one another. While the movement is quickly spreading across Mexico, indigenous women and their traditional midwives are largely excluded from the emerging humanized birth community. Through ethnographic examples, the article suggests that indigenous individuals are agentive actors who appropriate cards in decks stacked against them. Examples of resistance emerge within a context of power and political economy that often capitalizes on images of indigeneity while obscuring the lives, experiences, and opinions of indigenous people. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  4. [The effect of birth weight on the early postnatal vitality of piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, S; Lutter, C; Wähner, M; Puppe, B

    1994-10-01

    Investigations with 1248 newborn piglets in 7 farms showed a high significant influence of birth weight on parameters of early postnatal vitality. The duration between birth and first standing up was by two times, the time between birth and first udder contact by 3.5 times and the duration between birth and first colostrum intake was by 4 times longer in piglets with a low birth weight ( 2200 g). The drop in rectal temperature up to 30 minutes after birth reached 4.5 Kelvin in lightweight piglets, whereas their litter mates with a high body weight at birth had a value of 0.85 K (p vitality of newborn piglets and has a high prognostic value in relation to the risk of losses and the live weight development of neonates.

  5. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inequality in access to health care in Cambodia: socioeconomically disadvantaged women giving birth at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita

    2015-03-01

    Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia. © 2011 APJPH.

  7. Famine, third-trimester pregnancy weight gain, and intrauterine growth: the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, A. D.; Ravelli, A. C.; Lumey, L. H.

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study were analyzed to assess the influence of acute famine on the relation of maternal weight gain to birth weight, length, and ponderal index. Records were examined for 734 women receiving at least one month of prenatal care and delivering live-born

  8. Preterm birth time trends in Europe: A study of 19 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Szamotulska, K.; Drewniak, N.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Chalmers, J.; Sakkeus, L.; Irgens, L.; Gatt, M.; Gissler, M.; Blondel, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources. Setting Nineteen European countries. Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. Methods Annual risk ratios of

  9. pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... and reliability of routinely collected growth data. In addition, a birth data collection form ... with the survival, health, well-being, growth and development of children living in an urban environment. ..... Mc1ntyre J, De Beet M. Birth to Ten: child health in South Africa in the. 199Os, rationale and methods of a ...

  10. Between Sumak Kawsay and Institutional Good Living. The social discourses of Good Living in rural areas of Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alaminos Chica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The strategies of building alternative measures of development have been established from a disconnected approach of very significant elements such as the legitimation or the dynamics of change of capitalism. In this research we study a particular case for a proposal of measuring development from the concept of Sumak Kawsay. This concept brings together very special properties which, although characterized by the same criteria as its alternatives (multidimensionality, segmentation, balance and subjectivity, resort to the novel use of a myth, that legitimizes communitary ways of living that are different to the most widespread lifestyles. This paper presents a discourse analysis of the conceptions about Good Living that can be extracted from the texts of interviews and other group dynamics carried out in the peasant communities of Nabón, a rural canton of the South of Ecuador. The analysis results a relational structure in which the limits and contents of an adaptive or hybrid discourse are defined, which is the product of the interaction between two opposing discourses: Sumak Kawsay (community and traditional and goverment’s Institutional Good Living (societal and modern. This interaction allows to expose and to explain the set of contradictions detected; and the emergence of new categories that establish the limits of this adaptive discourse on Good Living: bad living, good dying or quality of life. In this way, the positions of the internal fractures of the populations are explained, as well as their strategies for subsistence and negotiation with government authorities.

  11. Is the economic crisis affecting birth outcome in Spain? Evaluation of temporal trend in underweight at birth (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varea, Carlos; Terán, José Manuel; Bernis, Cristina; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the impact of the current European economic crisis on health. In Spain, since 2008, there have been increasing levels of impoverishment and inequality, and important cuts in social services. The objective is to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on underweight at birth in Spain. Trends in underweight at birth were examined between 2003 and 2012. Underweight at birth is defined as a singleton, term neonatal weight lesser than -2 SD from the median weight at birth for each sex estimated by the WHO Standard Growth Reference. Using data from the Statistical Bulletin of Childbirth, 2 933 485 live births born to Spanish mothers have been analysed. Descriptive analysis, seasonal decomposition analysis and crude and adjusted logistic regression including individual maternal and foetal variables as well as exogenous economic indicators have been performed. Results demonstrate a significant increase in the prevalence of underweight at birth from 2008. All maternal-foetal categories were affected, including those showing the lowest prevalence before the crisis. In the full adjusted logistic regression, year-on-year GDP per capita remains predictive on underweight at birth risk. Previous trends in maternal socio-demographic profiles and a direct impact of the crisis are discussed to explain the trends described.

  12. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppold, Claire; Nomura, Shuhei; Sawano, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Akihiko; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hill, Sarah; Kanazawa, Yukio; Anbe, Hiroshi

    2017-05-19

    Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (<2500 g at birth) and preterm births (<37 weeks gestation at birth) were compared pre- and post-disaster, and regression models were conducted to assess for associations between these outcomes and evacuation and food avoidance. A total of 1101 live singleton births were included. There were no increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38-1.21). No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  13. Birth Outcomes after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster: A Long-Term Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Leppold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in population birth outcomes, including increases in low birthweight or preterm births, have been documented after natural and manmade disasters. However, information is limited following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster. In this study, we assessed whether there were long-term changes in birth outcomes post-disaster, compared to pre-disaster data, and whether residential area and food purchasing patterns, as proxy measurements of evacuation and radiation-related anxiety, were associated with post-disaster birth outcomes. Maternal and perinatal data were retrospectively collected for all live singleton births at a public hospital, located 23 km from the power plant, from 2008 to 2015. Proportions of low birthweight (<2500 g at birth and preterm births (<37 weeks gestation at birth were compared pre- and post-disaster, and regression models were conducted to assess for associations between these outcomes and evacuation and food avoidance. A total of 1101 live singleton births were included. There were no increased proportions of low birthweight or preterm births in any year after the disaster (merged post-disaster risk ratio of low birthweight birth: 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.64–1.51; and preterm birth: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.38–1.21. No significant associations between birth outcomes and residential area or food purchasing patterns were identified, after adjustment for covariates. In conclusion, no changes in birth outcomes were found in this institution-based investigation after the Fukushima disaster. Further research is needed on the pathways that may exacerbate or reduce disaster effects on maternal and perinatal health.

  14. The impact of smoke-free legislation on educational differences in birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Britt; Auger, Nathalie; Kaufman, Jay S

    2015-10-01

    Smoke-free legislation may have positive effects on birth outcomes. Given that smoking and secondhand smoke during pregnancy vary with socioeconomic position, legislation may have greater effects in some socioeconomic groups. For this study, we evaluated the impact of a 2006 ban on smoking in public places in the Canadian province of Quebec on preterm birth, small-for-gestational-age birth and birth weight, and on educational differences in these birth outcomes. We analysed data on singleton births in Quebec between 2003 and 2010. Logistic regression was used to model the association of smoke-free legislation with preterm birth (legislation. Interaction terms were included to assess differential effects by level of maternal education. Smoke-free legislation was associated with average reductions of 3.1 preterm births (95% CI 0.1 to 6.0), 2.3 very preterm births (95% CI 0.9 to 3.7), 5.9 small-for-gestational-age births (95% CI 2.6 to 9.3) and 1.0 low birthweight infants (95% CI 0.4 to 1.6) per 1000 live births, as well as a 17.1 g increase in mean birth weight (95% CI 10.7 to 23.6). Legislation was associated with improved birth outcomes in all categories of maternal education. Smoke-free legislation in Quebec was associated with reductions in preterm and small-for-gestational-age births, and an increase in birth weight. There was no compelling evidence that legislation impacted educational gradients in birth outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The birth of joseph gabriel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Anne Touhill

    2013-01-01

    In this column, a mother shares the story of the birth of her first child. With confidence in the process of birth and in her ability to give birth, and with the support, confidence, and encouragement of her mother and sisters, Anne manages to cope with strong contractions through a busy day. Finally, her husband realizes how fast labor is progressing. Baby Joseph was born less than 2 hours after arrival at the hospital.

  16. Roentgenodiagnosis of vertebrae birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord is the new problem of child neutropathology. Basic roentgenological symptoms of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord of different localizations have been described for the first time. These data are compared with neurological, electrophysiological, and Morphological data, that enables not only to describe each symptom, but also to evaluate its clinical significance. Roeptgenological classification of birth injuries of vertebrae and spinal cord in children is suggested

  17. Comparative primate obstetrics: Observations of 15 diurnal births in wild gelada monkeys (Theropithecus gelada) and their implications for understanding human and nonhuman primate birth evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga; Lee, Laura M; Fashing, Peter J; Nurmi, Niina O; Stewart, Kathrine M; Turner, Taylor J; Barry, Tyler S; Callingham, Kadie R; Goodale, C Barret; Kellogg, Bryce S; Burke, Ryan J; Bechtold, Emily K; Claase, Megan J; Eriksen, G Anita; Jones, Sorrel C Z; Kerby, Jeffrey T; Kraus, Jacob B; Miller, Carrie M; Trew, Thomas H; Zhao, Yi; Beierschmitt, Evan C; Ramsay, Malcolm S; Reynolds, Jason D; Venkataraman, Vivek V

    2017-05-01

    The birth process has been studied extensively in many human societies, yet little is known about this essential life history event in other primates. Here, we provide the most detailed account of behaviors surrounding birth for any wild nonhuman primate to date. Over a recent ∼10-year period, we directly observed 15 diurnal births (13 live births and 2 stillbirths) among geladas (Theropithecus gelada) at Guassa, Ethiopia. During each birth, we recorded the occurrence (or absence) of 16 periparturitional events, chosen for their potential to provide comparative evolutionary insights into the factors that shaped birth behaviors in humans and other primates. We found that several events (e.g., adopting standing crouched positions, delivering infants headfirst) occurred during all births, while other events (e.g., aiding the infant from the birth canal, licking infants following delivery, placentophagy) occurred during, or immediately after, most births. Moreover, multiparas (n = 9) were more likely than primiparas (n = 6) to (a) give birth later in the day, (b) isolate themselves from nearby conspecifics while giving birth, (c) aid the infant from the birth canal, and (d) consume the placenta. Our results suggest that prior maternal experience may contribute to greater competence or efficiency during the birth process. Moreover, face presentations (in which infants are born with their neck extended and their face appearing first, facing the mother) appear to be the norm for geladas. Lastly, malpresentations (in which infants are born in the occiput anterior position more typical of human infants) may be associated with increased mortality in this species. We compare the birth process in geladas to those in other primates (including humans) and discuss several key implications of our study for advancing understanding of obstetrics and the mechanism of labor in humans and nonhuman primates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. After-birth and before-birth personhood: why the baby should live.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepffler, Nikolaus Johannes; O'Malley, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    The basic human experience of the atrocities in the first half of the 20th century has significantly strengthened the recognition of human dignity and human rights for all born people at the political level. Therefore, the Charter of the United Nations in 1945 and its Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, Article 1 affirms: 'All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights'. This article provides an ethical justification of why we in this political consensus should not waver, and why we should grant the right to life to all born human infants. Moreover, there is an ethical justification to granting the right to life even to unborn human beings, who already bear a human face.

  19. Postpartum Care Services and Birth Features of The Women Who Gave Birth in Burdur in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binali Catak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In the study, it is aimed to evaluate postpartum care services and the delivery characteristics of the women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the study, the data is used about \\\\\\"Birth and Postpartum Care\\\\\\" of the research \\\\\\" Birth, Postpartum Care Services, and Nutritional Status of Children of the women who are giving birth in Burdur in 2009 \\\\\\". The population of the planned cross-sectional study are women who gave birth in Burdur in 2009. For the determination of the population, a list of women who gave birth in 2009 were used which was requested from family physicians. The reported number of women was 2318. The sample size representing the population to be reached was calculated as 1179. The data were collected using face-to-face interviews and were analyzed using SPSS package program. RESULTS: The mean age of the women was 27.1 (± 5.5 with an average size of households 4.3 (± 1.2. 22.1% of the women live with large families and 64.4% live in the village. 8.0% of the women were relatives with their husbands, 52.8% have arranged marriage and 1.3% have no official marriage. 1 in every 4 women is housewive, 1.8% have no formal education, 76.4% have no available social and 7.1% have no available health insurance. The average number of pregnancies of women is 2.1 (± 1.2 and number of children is 1.8 (± 0.8. Spontaneous abortion, induced abortion, stillbirth and death rate of children under 5 years of age are respectively 16.4%, 6.6%, 2.7%, 3.4%. 99.8% of the women have given birth in hospital, % 67.3 had medical supervision, 62.8% had cesarean birth. The average days of hospital stay after birth is 1.9 (± 3.1. 4.8% of the women after being discharged from the hospital have not received Postpartum Care (DSB. Of the women who have received DSB service, 2.2% had taken this service at home by family physician / family health stuff, 33.9% by obstetrician in practice. 92.2% of the women 1 time, 15

  20. Do Physical Activity Patterns Across the Lifecourse Impact Birth Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Flory, Sara; Sun, Haichun; DeBate, Rita; Bleck, Jennifer; Thompson, Erika; Merrell, Laura

    2015-08-01

    The significant impact of physical activity during, or immediately prior to pregnancy on a range of pregnancy and birth outcomes has been established. However, lifecourse theory posits that the antecedents of poor outcomes occur across a larger trajectory of time. The objective of this study was to examine whether physical activity patterns over the lifecourse impact birth outcomes. The sample (n = 1,713) was derived from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and limited to women who had their first, singleton live birth between Waves III and IV; respondents who had missing data were excluded. Outcome variables included preterm birth (Physical activity was categorized as follows: long-term physically active (active at Waves I and III); short-term physically active (active at only Wave I or III); and not physically active (not active at Waves I and III). Survey-weighted logistic regression controlled for socio-demographic and established predictors of poor birth outcomes. Women categorized as long-term physically active had lower rates of preterm births (12.2 vs. 18.7 %) and low birth weight (9.1 vs. 11.1 %) compared to women categorized as not physically active. However, when controlling for covariates, adjusted analysis revealed that physical activity consistency only predicted preterm birth (aOR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.33-0.91). Findings suggest that physical activity patterns across the lifecourse may decrease risk of preterm birth. Implications include efforts supporting patterns of physical activity over longer periods of time prior to pregnancy.

  1. Implications of teen birth for overweight and obesity in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tammy; Choi, HwaJung; Richardson, Caroline R; Davis, Matthew M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether teen birth was independently associated with overweight and obesity in a US cohort. We examined whether teen birth is independently associated with overweight and obesity in a multiyear US cohort using the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US civilian, noninstitutionalized population. We performed multinomial logistic regression adjusting for survey cohort, age at survey, race, education, and parity. We included women 20-59 years old at the time of survey, with at least 1 live birth, not currently or recently pregnant (unweighted, n = 5220; weighted, n = 48.4 million). Our outcome measure was the effect of teen birth on subsequent overweight and obesity. In bivariate analyses, women with a teen birth were significantly more likely than women without a teen birth to be overweight (relative risk ratios [RRRs], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-1.90) or obese (RRR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.56-2.16) at the time of the survey. In multivariate models, women with a teen birth remained significantly more likely to be overweight (adjusted RRR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.10-1.62) or obese (adjusted RRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.09-1.61) than women without a teen birth. For women in the United States, giving birth as a teen is associated with subsequent overweight/obese status later in life. To inform clinical and policy interventions with the goal to improve the long-term health of teenage mothers, future studies must examine modifiable physiological and sociomedical reasons for early child-bearing and later risk of obesity. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictors and birth outcomes: An investigation of birth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Birth and emergency preparedness is a safe motherhood strategy which encourages early decision making and minimizes delays in health care seeking in the event of obstetric complications. The aim of this study was to determine individual level factors influencing birth and emergency preparedness. Methods: A ...

  3. Information and manipulative techniques as a part of the process of legitimation of political power in Ukraine: an attempt to analyze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havrylyuk Svitlana Ivanivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article attempts to analyse the impact of information and manipulative technologies in the process of legitimation of the political power in Ukraine. It is proved that implemented information-manipulative technologies are the key factors of political legitimation and influence the political behaviour of citizens. The article analyses relationship between the applied information and manipulative technologies and perception of political reality of citizens, their political behaviour, electoral results. The necessity of changing the paradigm of legitimacy achieve of political actors in Ukraine is substantiated because of the refusal of politicians, technologists, media (and their owners from destructive legitimation technologies based on the use of information and manipulation technologies. It revealed the importance of a joint search for the subjects of democratic policy instruments of political consolidation of the Ukrainian society.

  4. Healthy living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bones, heart, and lungs, tones muscles, improves vitality, relieves depression, and helps you sleep better. Talk ... has a problem with alcohol. Many people whose lives have been affected by alcohol get benefit from ...

  5. Bachelor Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, Sondra

    1974-01-01

    Male high school students in a Bachelor Living Class observed methods of child care including bottle feeding, spoon feeding, changing diapers, and method of holding. The purpose was for the students to grasp a better understanding of child development. (EK)

  6. Live Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets Act Against AIDS Live Well Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Being aware of your overall health beyond HIV can ...

  7. Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to gain an understanding of the requirements for a PSA to be considered a Living PSA. The presentation is divided into the following topics: Definition; Planning/Documentation; Task Performance; Maintenance; Management. 4 figs

  8. The Male-female Birth Ratio in California and the 1992 April Riots in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, V

    2015-06-01

    Male live births slightly exceed female live births. This is usually expressed as M/F, the ratio of male to total live births. A multitude of external influences have been shown to reduce this ratio, including stress provoked through witnessing violent events; M/F dips occur three to four months later. The April 1992 Los Angeles riots constituted six days of extreme civil unrest in the city of Los Angeles. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether M/F dipped in California following this event. Monthly male and female live births for California were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the State of California for 1992 and for January 1993. This study analysed 649 073 live births; M/F was lowest in August 1992 (0.5085). This was significantly lower than for the period after (September 1992 to January 1993, p = 0.044). The ratio of male to total live births was higher in January to July 1992 than in August 1992, but this difference was not statistically significant. Stress has been shown to reduce M/F through an excess of male fetal loss during gestation and/or from gender-biased conception favouring females. Only the former mechanism is supported by these findings. This is the first time that violent events at state level have been shown to have potentially influenced M/F.

  9. Birth order and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenheim, Jeremy A; McMahon, George; Northstone, Kate; Mandel, Yossi; Kaiserman, Igor; Stone, Richard A; Lin, Xiaoyu; Saw, Seang Mei; Forward, Hannah; Mackey, David A; Yazar, Seyhan; Young, Terri L; Williams, Cathy

    2013-12-01

    An association between birth order and reduced unaided vision (a surrogate for myopia) has been observed previously. We examined the association between birth order and myopia directly in four subject groups. Subject groups were participants in (1) the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; UK; age 15 years; N = 4401), (2) the Singapore Cohort Study of Risk Factors for Myopia (SCORM; Singapore; age 13 years; N = 1959), (3) the Raine Eye Health Study (REHS; Australia; age 20 years; N = 1344), and (4) Israeli Defense Force Pre-recruitment Candidates (IDFC; Israel; age 16-22 years; N = 888,277). The main outcome was odds ratios (OR) for myopia in first-born versus non-first-born individuals after adjusting for potential risk factors. The prevalence of myopia was numerically higher in first-born versus non-first-born individuals in all study groups, but the strength of evidence varied widely. Adjusted ORs (95% confidence intervals, CIs) were: ALSPAC, 1.31 (1.05-1.64); SCORM, 1.25 (0.89-1.77); REHS, 1.18 (0.90-1.55); and IDFC, 1.04 (1.03-1.06). In the large IDFC sample, the effect size was greater (a) for the first-born versus fourth- or higher-born comparison than for the first-born versus second/third-born comparison (p 4000 participants provided strong statistical support for the association. The available evidence suggested the relationship was independent of established risk factors such as time outdoors/reading, and thus may arise through a different causal mechanism.

  10. Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Kevin M; McGuinness, Seamus G; Cleary, Eimear; Jefferies, Janis; Owens, Christabel; Kelleher, Cecily C

    2017-04-13

    Background: Suicide is a significant public health concern, which impacts on health outcomes. Few suicide research studies have been interdisciplinary. We combined a psychobiographical autopsy with a visual arts autopsy, in which families donated stories, images and objects associated with the lived life of a loved one lost to suicide. From this interdisciplinary research platform, a mediated exhibition was created ( Lived Lives ) with artist, scientist and families, co-curated by communities, facilitating dialogue, response and public action around suicide prevention. Indigenous ethnic minorities (IEMs) bear a significant increased risk for suicide. Irish Travellers are an IEM with social and cultural parallels with IEMs internationally, experiencing racism, discrimination, and poor health outcomes including elevated suicide rates (SMR 6.6). Methods: An adjusted Lived Lives exhibition, Lived Lives: A Pavee Perspective manifested in Pavee Point, the national Traveller and Roma Centre. The project was evaluated by the Travelling Community as to how it related to suicide in their community, how it has shaped their understanding of suicide and its impacts, and its relevance to other socio-cultural contexts, nationally and internationally. The project also obtained feedback from all relevant stakeholders. Evaluation was carried out by an international visual arts research advisor and an independent observer from the field of suicide research. Results: Outputs included an arts-science mediated exhibition with reference to elevated Irish Traveller suicide rates. Digital online learning materials about suicide and its aftermath among Irish Travellers were also produced. The project reached its target audience, with a high level of engagement from members of the Travelling Community. Discussion: The Lived Lives methodology navigated the societal barriers of stigma and silence to foster communication and engagement, working with cultural values, consistent with an adapted

  11. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  12. Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.

  13. [Pressure or legitimization? Power and alternatives in the planning and adoption of health reforms in Costa Rica, 1988-1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoni, Juliana Martínez

    2006-01-01

    Policies are made in response to the rationale of pressure and legitimization, which join forces in many different ways. This work analyzes the planning and adoption of the health reforms undertaken in Costa Rica between 1988 and 1998. It questions whether political parties, international financial institutions and the technical and bureaucratic elites in each sector can be taken as sufficiently explanatory of themselves. Empirical evidence would suggest that apart from investigating the individual interests of the agents involved, one must also consider the sector reforms that are actually available internationally. The paper draws this discussion into the larger scenario of policy making in Latin America and draws links between this and other stages in policy making and other moments in the construction of the State.

  14. Revealing smuggled nuclear material covered by a legitimate radioisotope shipment using CdTe-based gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lakosi, L; Zsigrai, J; Safar, J

    2003-01-01

    Illicit trade of nuclear materials (NM) represents a serious challenge to radiation monitoring upon scenarios, when legitimate radioisotope shipments are used to obscure the weak radiation of NM. Planar and hemispherical Cd(Zn)Te detectors with a portable mini-multichannel analyzer were proven to be suitable, in measuring times of 10 min order, for revealing the presence of low-enriched or natural U-bearing reactor fuel pellets in amounts of kg order, placed beside transport containers of lead or depleted uranium, which contain high activity sup 6 sup 0 Co (10 GBq range) or sup 1 sup 9 sup 2 Ir (TBq range) radioisotope sources. Such a hand-held or portable device may help authorities combating illicit trafficking of nuclear materials.

  15. The Road to Become a Legitimate Scholar: A Case Study of International PhD Students in Science and Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Bøgelund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the doctoral education process is to create and legitimize scholarly researchers. This transformation, from student to scholar, is widely discussed in the literature. However, recent rapid changes in university culture have resulted in less time for supervision, stricter completion deadlines, and a greater focus on efficiency and productivity. This has had an impact on this transition process, and this impact has not been widely studied. The aim of this article is to understand the consequences of the current trends for PhD students and the education of PhD students in general. The article is based on interviews with 14 international students from two different research programs at the Faculty of Engineering and Science at Aalborg University in Denmark. The case of international PhD students in a western setting is singled out as a challenging case for becoming a legitimate scholar, since they face the additional challenge of becoming socialised into their new foreign setting. Overall, the study concludes that the transition process of doctoral students is affected by the way different supervisors deal with current university trends and how PhD students fit or do not fit into their knowledge production practices. The study identifies matches or mismatches in a knowledge production perspective, quality of contact, and degree of independence of the PhD student as factors that influence whether a transition process can be marked as sound, troublesome, or lacking. Finally, the study identifies an overall risk of neglecting the more interdependent types of international PhD students. Suggestions are given as how to address this risk.

  16. Influence of birth weight on differences in infant mortality by social class and legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, D A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421

  17. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  18. Maternal employment and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively f...... explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates....

  19. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    western Johannesburg and also at the. Donald Gordon Medical Centre. Neonatal skin, like the respiratory system, bears the brunt of the extreme change in external environment that characterises birth. NEONATES. 488 CME September 2004 Vol.22 No.9. NEONATES (BIRTH – 1 MONTH). Fig. 1. Café-au-lait macule. Fig. 2.

  20. Birth defects surveillance·

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-07-01

    Jul 1, 1989 ... A pilot birth defects surveillance system was established in. 1982 as part of an epidemiological baseline study pertaining to potential changes in water quality in the Cape Peninsula. The methodology used for reporting birth defects for two information systems, one hospital-based and the other popu-.

  1. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  2. Institutional racism, neighborhood factors, stress, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Dara D; Hogan, Vijaya K; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the risk of preterm birth may be explained by various factors, and previous studies are limited in examining the role of institutional racism. This study focused on the following questions: what is the association between preterm birth and institutional racism as measured by residential racial segregation (geographic separation by race) and redlining (black-white disparity in mortgage loan denial); and what is the association between preterm birth and reported stress, discrimination, and neighborhood quality. We used data from a clinic-based sample of pregnant women (n = 3462) participating in a stress and pregnancy study conducted from 1999 to 2004 in Philadelphia, PA (USA). We linked data from the 2000 US Census and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data from 1999 to 2004 and developed measures of residential redlining and segregation. Among the entire population, there was an increased risk for preterm birth among women who were older, unmarried, tobacco users, higher number of previous births, high levels of experiences of everyday discrimination, owned their homes, lived in nonredlined areas, and areas with high levels of segregation measured by the isolation index. Among black women, living in a redlined area (where blacks were more likely to be denied mortgage loans compared to whites) was moderately associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth (aRR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6, 0.99). Residential redlining as a form institutional racism and neighborhood characteristic may be important for understanding racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy and preterm birth.

  3. Birth-related mid-posterior rib fractures in neonates: a report of three cases (and a possible fourth case) and a review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Rick R.; Bilo, Rob A. C.; Robben, Simon G. F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Posterior rib fractures in young children have a high positive predictive value for non-accidental injury (NAI). Combined data of five studies on birth trauma (115,756 live births) showed no cases of rib fractures resulting from birth trauma. There have, however, been sporadic cases

  4. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. RESIDENTIAL RADON AND BIRTH DEFECTS: A POPULATION-BASED ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter H; Lee, MinJae; Lupo, Philip J; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Cortez, Ruben K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Associations have been reported between maternal radiation exposure and birth defects. No such studies were found on radon. Our objective was to determine if there is an association between living in areas with higher radon levels and birth defects. METHODS The Texas Birth Defects Registry provided data on all birth defects from 1999–2009 from the entire state. Mean radon levels by geologic region came from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey. The association between radon and birth defects was estimated using multilevel mixed effect Poisson regression. RESULTS Birth defects overall were not associated with residential radon levels. Of the 100 other birth defect groups with at least 500 cases, 14 were significantly elevated in areas with high mean radon level in crude analyses, and 9 after adjustment for confounders. Cleft lip with/without cleft palate had an adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of 1.16 per 1 picoCurie/liter (pCi/l) increase in exposure to region mean radon, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08, 1.26. Cystic hygroma / lymphangioma had an aPR of 1.22 per 1 pCi/l increase, 95% CI 1.02, 1.46. Other associations were suggested but not as consistent: three skeletal defects, Down syndrome, other specified anomalies of the brain, and other specified anomalies of the bladder and urethra. CONCLUSIONS In the first study of residential radon and birth defects, we found associations with cleft lip w/wo cleft palate and cystic hygroma / lymphangioma. Other associations were suggested. The ecological nature of this study and multiple comparisons suggest that our results be interpreted with caution. PMID:25846606

  6. Birth of ball lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowke, J. J.; Smith, D.; Nelson, K. E.; Crompton, R. W.; Murphy, A. B.

    2012-10-01

    Many observations of ball lightning report a ball of light, about 10 cm in diameter, moving at about walking speed, lasting up to 20 s and frequently existing inside of houses and even aeroplanes. The present paper reports detailed observations of the initiation or birth of ball lightning. In two cases, navigation crew of aircraft saw ball lightning form at the windscreen inside the cockpit of their planes. In the first case, the ball lightning occurred during a thunderstorm, with much lightning activity outside of the plane. In the second case, large "horns" of electrical corona were seen outside of the plane at the surface of the radome, just prior to the formation of the ball lightning. A third case reports ball lightning formed inside of a house, during a thunderstorm, at a closed glass window. It is proposed, based on two-dimensional calculations of electron and ion transport, that ball lightning in these cases is driven and formed by atmospheric ions impinging and collecting on the insulating surface of the glass or Perspex windows. This surface charge can produce electric fields inside of the cockpit or room sufficient to sustain an electric discharge. Charges of opposite sign to those outside of the window accumulate on the inside surface of the glass, leaving a ball of net charge moving inside of the cockpit or room to produce a pulsed discharge on a microsecond time scale.

  7. Historic Royal events and the male to female ratio at birth in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2015-08-01

    The male to female ratio of live births is expressed as the ratio of male live births divided by total live births (M/T). Factors which reduce M/T include toxins, stress and privation. Britain remains enamoured of the Monarchy. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether Royal events influenced M/T in the UK. Live births were analysed in relation to the birth of Prince Charles (1948), the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II (1952), the Silver Jubilee (1977), the wedding of Diana Spencer to Charles, Prince of Wales (July 1981), the birth of Prince William (1982), the death of Lady Diana (August 1997), the wedding of Kate Middleton to Prince William (2011) and the Golden Jubilee (2002). This study analysed 29,293,240 live births. There was a significant dip in M/T in the Coronation year (p=0.03). M/T dipped significantly in relation to the Royal Wedding, commencing a year before (p<0.0001). There were no significant M/T changes in relation to the Silver and Golden Jubilees. The birth of Prince William in 1982 resulted in a rise in M/T in the following year only (p=0.016). Analysis by quarter in relation to Lady Diana's death showed a decline in M/T 4-5 months later in the first quarter of 1998 (p=0.046). The anticipation and stress leading to the Coronation and Royal Wedding may have depressed M/T. Increased coital rates associated with exuberance in relation to Prince William's birth may have raised M/T. Lady Diana's death was temporally associated with a decline in M/T. Royalty events may affect M/T ratios in Britain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search English Español When Your Baby Has a Birth Defect KidsHealth / For Parents / When Your Baby Has ... to help you and your child. What Are Birth Defects? Birth defects (also called congenital anomalies) are ...

  9. Facial nerve palsy due to birth trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventh cranial nerve palsy due to birth trauma; Facial palsy - birth trauma; Facial palsy - neonate; Facial palsy - infant ... to this condition. Some factors that can cause birth trauma (injury) include: Large baby size (may be ...

  10. Changes in the newborn at birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth - changes in the newborn ... heart and flows through the baby's body. At birth, the baby's lungs are filled with fluid. They ... gastrointestinal system doesn't fully function until after birth. In late pregnancy, the baby produces a tarry ...

  11. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  12. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMIbirth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  13. Trends in Repeat Births and Use of Postpartum Contraception Among Teens - United States, 2004-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Deborah L; Pazol, Karen; Cox, Shanna; Smith, Ruben A; Bower, Katherine; Kapaya, Martha; Fasula, Amy; Harrison, Ayanna; Kroelinger, Charlan D; D'Angelo, Denise; Harrison, Leslie; Koumans, Emilia H; Mayes, Nikki; Barfield, Wanda D; Warner, Lee

    2017-04-28

    Teen* childbearing (one or more live births before age 20 years) can have negative health, social, and economic consequences for mothers and their children (1). Repeat teen births (two or more live births before age 20 years) can constrain the mother's ability to take advantage of educational and workforce opportunities (2), and are more likely to be preterm or of low birthweight than first teen births (3). Despite the historic decline in the U.S. teen birth rate during 1991-2015, from 61.8 to 22.3 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years (4), many teens continue to have repeat births (3). The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Academy of Pediatrics both recommend that clinicians counsel women (including teens) during prenatal care about birth spacing and postpartum contraceptive use (5), including the safety and effectiveness of long-acting reversible methods that can be initiated immediately postpartum. To expand upon prior research assessing patterns and trends in repeat childbearing and postpartum contraceptive use among teens with a recent live birth (i.e., 2-6 months after delivery) (3), CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System natality files (2004 and 2015) and the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS; 2004-2013). The number and proportion of teen births that were repeat births decreased from 2004 (82,997; 20.1%) to 2015 (38,324; 16.7%); in 2015, the percentage of teen births that were repeat births varied by state from 10.6% to 21.4%. Among sexually active teens with a recent live birth, postpartum use of the most effective contraceptive methods (intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants) increased from 5.3% in 2004 to 25.3% in 2013; however, in 2013, approximately one in three reported using either a least effective method (15.7%) or no method (17.2%). Strategies that comprehensively address the social and health care needs of teen parents can facilitate access to and use of

  14. Awareness-Raising, Legitimation or Backlash? Effects of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on Education Systems in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Justin J. W.; Edelstein, Benjamin; Blanck, Jonna M.

    2016-01-01

    Global discourse about human rights, education for all, and inclusive education has altered social norms relating to dis/ability and schooling, especially through awareness-raising, by legitimating advocates' positions and by facilitating policy reforms. Affected by societal and educational change, special education systems and their participants…

  15. "Compensatory Legitimation" in Greek Educational Policy: An Explanation for the Abortive Educational Reforms in Greece in Comparison with Those in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persianis, Panayiotis

    1998-01-01

    Examines the political dynamics of planning and implementing educational reforms in Greece, with comparisons to France. Argues that, as in France, the state's concern for "compensatory legitimation" provides a better tool than those advanced by sociologists or historians for explaining Greece's many failed educational reforms. Compares…

  16. Economic Education within the BME Research Community: Rejoinder to "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarta, Carlos J.

    2016-01-01

    Carlos Asarta comments here that Arbaugh, Fornaciari, and Hwang (2016) are to be commended for their work ("Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory" "Journal of Management Education," Dec 2016, see EJ1118407). Asarta says that they make several…

  17. Rediscovering Paideia and the Meaning of a Scholarly Career: Rejoinder to "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacopoulou, Elena P.

    2016-01-01

    In "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory," authors J.B. Arbaugh, Charles J. Fornaciari, and Alvin Hwang ("Journal of Management Education," December 2016 vol. 40 no. 6 p654-691, see EJ1118407) used citation analysis to track the development of…

  18. Progress in the Legitimacy of Business and Management Education Research: Rejoinder to "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.

    2016-01-01

    In this rejoinder to "Identifying Research Topic Development in Business and Management Education Research Using Legitimation Code Theory," published in the "Journal of Management Education," Dec 2016 (see EJ1118407), Donald R. Bacon discusses the similarities between Arbaugh et al.'s (2016) findings and the scholarship…

  19. Different actors, different factors: On the discretion in EU multi-level food safety governance to base food safety decisions on science and other legitimate factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szajkowska, A.

    2011-01-01

    According to the principle of risk analysis established by Regulation 178/2002, food safety measures in the EU and Member States must be based on scientific risk assessment. Apart from science, however, decision makers should take into account other legitimate factors, such as societal, ethical or

  20. Risk Assessment of Adverse Birth Outcomes in Relation to Maternal Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hao Weng

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have investigated correlations of maternal age with birth outcomes, an extensive assessment using age as a continuous variable is lacking. In the current study, we estimated age-specific risks of adverse birth outcomes in childbearing women.National population-based data containing maternal and neonatal information were derived from the Health Promotion Administration, Taiwan. A composite adverse birth outcome was defined as at least anyone of stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, macrosomia, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and small for gestational age (SGA. Singletons were further analyzed for outcomes of live birth in relation to each year of maternal age. A log-binomial model was used to adjust for possible confounders of maternal and neonatal factors.In total, 2,123,751 births between 2001 and 2010 were utilized in the analysis. The risk of a composite adverse birth outcome was significantly higher at extreme maternal ages. In specific, risks of stillbirth, neonatal death, preterm birth, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight were higher at the extremes of maternal age. Furthermore, risk of macrosomia rose proportionally with an increasing maternal age. In contrast, risk of SGA declined proportionally with an increasing maternal age. The log-binomial model showed greater risks at the maternal ages of 30 years for a composite adverse birth outcome.Infants born to teenagers and women at advanced age possess greater risks for stillbirth, preterm birth, neonatal death, congenital anomaly, and low birth weight. Pregnancies at advanced age carry an additional risk for macrosomia, while teenage pregnancies carry an additional risk for SGA. The data suggest that the optimal maternal ages to minimize adverse birth outcomes are 26∼30 years.