WorldWideScience

Sample records for legislation regulations costs

  1. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  2. 48 CFR 231.205-22 - Legislative lobbying costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislative lobbying costs. 231.205-22 Section 231.205-22 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-22 Legislative lobbying costs. (a) Costs associated with...

  3. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  4. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  5. A 1992 update on legislation and regulations affecting power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the major energy and related environmental legislation and regulations affecting power generation and recent developments in these areas, including: The growth of non-utility electricity generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA); The Clean Air Act and the Amendments of 1990 (CAAA); Proposed legislation to implement the National Energy Strategy (NES); The EPA WEPCO decision, the Court of Appeals ruling on the EPA decision and attempts at a 'WEPCO Fix' in both legislation (NES) and new EPA regulations. 16 refs

  6. Summary of international principles of legislative regulation of media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Nesteryak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the basic international principles of legislative regulation of the media and the settlement of regulatory relations in the field of information on the basis of a comprehensive theoretical and methodological analysis of the international legislation concerning human rights and freedoms in the sphere of information and the settlement information relations, principles and mechanisms of regulation and control of resources mass communication. International legal acts in the field of information: the Convention of United Nations, resolutions and recommendations of the Council of Europe Parliamentary Assembleia and declarations, resolutions and recommendations of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe more influence on the formation and development of the global information society. Only the Council of Europe, of which Ukraine is a member, adopted more than one hundred legal documents relating to the management of information relations, human rights and freedoms in the information sphere. Ukraine’s membership in public international organizations (UN, Council of Europe confirms its status as an integral part of the European and global media space, and commits to implement into national law the provisions of international agreements and related legislation. At the same time, taking international experience and standards should take into account national specifics, in particular: the conditions of post-totalitarian environment of functioning of mass media, the mentality of Ukrainian society and the authorities, and other features of adaptation of international law to domestic realities.

  7. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  8. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  9. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  10. The influence of legislative changes on quality and costs in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogusz-Czerniewicz, M.; Swiezewski, A.; Malicki, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: On 24 December 2002, in compliance with EURATOM Directive 97/43, the Minister of Health issued an ordinance on rules and regulations of safe application of ionising radiation for medical purposes and methods of internal control over observance of the rules and regulations. The ordinance obliges managers of institutions which apply ionising radiation for medical purposes (radiotherapy, X-ray diagnostics, nuclear medicine) to implement, maintain and develop the Quality Management System (QMS). On 25 August 2005, the Minister of Health issued an ordinance on rules and regulations of safe application of ionising radiation with reference to all types of medical exposure which overruled the ordinance of 24.12.2002. Aim: The purpose of this paper was (i) the comparative analysis of the aforementioned ordinances in the context of three selected aspects: internal audits, external audits and the system of quality management, and (ii) the analysis of the rise in labour costs, services, depreciation and materials in 2002 -2005, as a result of the implementation of the aforementioned legal rules and regulations. Materials and methods: A comparative analysis of the two a fore mentioned ordinances of the Minister of Health was performed: concerning (i) external clinical audits, (ii) internal clinical audits and (iii) requirements of the quality management system. The total cost of implementation of such rules and regulations (in particular the cost of the Quality Management System) has been calculated based on an analysis of labour costs, depreciation, materials and services in 2002 - 2005. Results: Legislative changes in the scope of safe application of ionising radiation for medical purposes enhance not only the organisation of health care institutions applying radiotherapy, but also the rise in costs of the organisations as a result of implementation of the changes, e.g. through (i) the costs of salaries for work groups or consulting companies implementing QMS, (ii

  11. Empirical knowledge in legislation and regulation : A decision making perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers the pros and cons of the empirical approach to legislation from the vantage point of empirical decision making research. It focuses on methodological aspects that are typically not considered by legal scholars. It points out weaknesses in the empirical approach that are

  12. Smoke-Free Medical Facility Campus Legislation: Support, Resistance, Difficulties and Cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gary Wheeler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although medical facilities restrict smoking inside, many people continue to smoke outside, creating problems with second-hand smoke, litter, fire risks, and negative role modeling. In 2005, Arkansas passed legislation prohibiting smoking on medical facility campuses. Hospital administrators (N=113 were surveyed pre- and post-implementation. Administrators reported more support and less difficulty than anticipated. Actual cost was 10-50% of anticipated cost. Few negative effects and numerous positive effects on employee performance and retention were reported. The results may be of interest to hospital administrators and demonstrate that state legislation can play a positive role in facilitating broad health-related policy change.

  13. Legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations in the arab counties a comparative analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the developments taking place in nuclear sciences and technologies during the twentieth century and the resulting increase of useful applications of these technologies, the international efforts aiming at helping different countries to establish nuclear safety systems. This was also increased through the promulgation of legislations that render the practices, which could be accompanied with exposure to ionizing radiations, more safe within a firm legal system that is also backed by promulgating suitable executive regulations. Most Arab countries are keen to promulgate their legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations and protection against their dangers. Those legislations usually get their genesis and provisions from the international recommendations as well as from the general legal system of the country. The present work consists of four chapters. The first chapter deals with the definition of legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations. Chapter two discusses the international trend to promulgate legislations for protection against ionizing radiations. Chapter three includes an analytical comparative study on the legislations that regulates the work with ionizing radiations in the Arab countries. Finally, chapter four deals with the legislations for protection against ionizing radiations in the Arab Republic of Egypt

  14. Effects of animal productivity on the costs of complying with environmental legislation in Dutch dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berentsen, P.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of animal productivity on the costs of complying with environmental legislation in Dutch dairy farming P. B. M. Berentsen, Farm Management Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands Available online 20 November 2003. Abstract Dutch dairy farmers have to

  15. First experiences with NORM regulations in the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauke, Michael; Katzlberger, C.; Haider, W.; Ringer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives a brief overview of important aspects of the recently implemented NORM ordinance in the Austrian Radiation Protection Legislation. It describes first experiences from pilot studies and dose assessments in this field. The field of application of this ordinance is defined by a list of work activities which might cause a significant increase in the exposure of workers and of members of the public. This list includes work activities, which potentially increase the exposure due to radon or uranium, thorium and their progenies and work activities, where residues with elevated levels of natural radionuclides may lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers and the public. The first level of a dose assessment is the determination of activity concentrations in materials. It is assumed that the dose of workers does not exceed 1 mSv per year, if the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below 1 Bq/g. A notification of the workplace to the radiation protection authority is sufficient in this case. Otherwise a detailed dose assessment considering all relevant exposure pathways has to be performed as well as radiation protection measures and organisational measures, if needed. If the results of the dose assessment show higher levels than 6 mSv per year, radiation protection measures like personal dosimeters and periodical medical examination and reporting to the radiation protection authority are obligatory. A similar dose assessment procedure has to be applied for residues. The residues are allowed to be disposed as conventional waste, as long as the dose assessment shows a dose lower than 1 mSv per year. Otherwise the residues have to be treated as radioactive waste. Only accredited or certified institutions may perform authorised dose assessments. The Austrian Agency for Food and Health Safety performed pilot studies in this field for getting more experience in the field of dose assessment and to get an overview of the

  16. Environmental legislation and the regulation of waste management in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This study examines the regulatory aspects of waste management in Sweden, with a particular emphasis on regulating organic compounds produced by waste-to-energy facilities. Since the early 1960s, waste-to-energy has played a significant role in managing waste in Sweden. In 1993, more than 50% of the municipal solid waste available for treatment or disposal following source separation efforts was processed in one of the 21 waste-to-energy facilities operating in Sweden. This report examines Sweden`s regulatory environment, its history of setting emission limits on waste management facilities, and the current status of regulations.

  17. European regulation of cross-border hate speech in cyberspace: The limits of legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the complexities of regulating hate speech on the Internet through legal frameworks. It demonstrates the limitations of unilateral national content legislation and the difficulties inherent in multilateral efforts to regulate the Internet. The paper highlights how the US's commitment to free speech has undermined European efforts to construct a truly international regulatory system. It is argued that a broad coalition of citizens, industry and government, employing technol...

  18. New Federal Cost Accounting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, George J.; Handzo, Joseph J.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a new set of indirect cost accounting procedures which must be followed by school districts wishing to recover any indirect costs of administering federal grants and contracts. Also discusses the amount of indirect costs that may be recovered, computing indirect costs, classifying project costs, and restricted grants. (Author/DN)

  19. Heavy metals in toys and low-cost jewelry: critical review of U.S. and Canadian legislations and recommendations for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guney, Mert; Zagury, Gerald J

    2012-04-17

    High metal contamination in toys and low-cost jewelry is a widespread problem, and metals can become bioavailable, especially via oral pathway due to common child-specific behaviors of mouthing and pica. In this review, the U.S., Canadian, and European Union (EU) legislations on metals in toys and jewelry are evaluated. A literature review on content, bioavailability, children's exposure, and testing of metals in toys and low-cost jewelry is provided. A list of priority metals is presented, and research needs and legislative recommendations are addressed. While the U.S. and Canadian legislations put emphasis on lead exposure prevention, other toxic elements like arsenic and cadmium in toy materials are not regulated except in paint and coatings. The EU legislation is more comprehensive in terms of contaminants and scientific approach. Current toy testing procedures do not fully consider metal bioavailability. In vitro bioaccessibility tests developed and validated for toys and corresponding metal bioaccessibility data in different toy matrices are lacking. The U.S. and Canadian legislations should put more emphasis on metal bioavailability and on other metals in addition to lead. A two-step management approach with mandatory testing of toys for total metal concentrations followed by voluntary bioaccessibility testing could be implemented.

  20. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esco, R.; Biete, A.; Pardo, J.; Carceller, J.A.; Veira, C.; Palacios, A.; Vazquez, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  1. Russian Language Testing and Integrated Examination for Foreign Citizens in Russia: Legislation Background and Legal Regulation Specific Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhikova, Anzhela

    2015-01-01

    The Russian Federation faces active law-making and legislative activities aimed at providing legal grounds for qualifying educational level of foreign nationals entering the country with the purpose to work and apply for citizenship. The article deals with the current legislation and regulations in their relationship with each other, their impact…

  2. [The systematic review of the social services legislative regulation among elderly citizens and disabled persons in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkireva, A S; Shestakov, V P; Svintsov, A A; Raduto, V I; Bogdanov, E A; Chernova, G I; Cherniakina, T S

    2014-01-01

    The systematic review and data analysis of the social services legislative regulation among elderly citizens and disabled persons in Russian Federation was submitted. The structure of the consolidated legislation on social services among citizens of advanced age was defined. The Russian legislative database in all subjects of the Russian Federation was analyzed. Analytical results thus obtained made it possible to designate the subjective rights of elderly citizens in the field of social services, the lists of bases for providing social services, different kinds of these services according to the consolidated legislation in all subjects of the Russian Federation, and various legal organizational forms providing these social services also.

  3. Is principle based legislation smart choice for capital market’s regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Stražišar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crisis in 2008 posted numerous questions about the reasons and triggers. In past three years world’s economic literature has been full of academic articles analysing each reason or trigger and scientific explanations of possible connections. Majority outcome was, that key factor was excessive use of derivatives and synthetic financial products, which were under regulated or not regulated at all. The outcome was that countries with developed financial markets introduced new regulations and controls in the field of derivatives and synthetic financial products. Term “systemic risk” was introduced in global financial market. But will this approach really prevent such global crisis? Submission is divided in three parts. First part deals with the theory of principle based regulation. Principle based regulation was firstly introduced in UK and latter accepted by European Union in the field of capital markets. It was a way, together with the Lamfalussy process, to make EU regulation acceptable for all member states. Instead of detailed prescribed behaviour, legislation texts prescribe only desirable goals. Implementation is left to each state or, even worse, to each supervised subject. So the implementation should depend on the capital market’s development, capital product’s structure, tradition, investment companies’ size etc. From a distant view, principle based legislation could be seen as a great legislation writing’s technique. It could be seen as an effective solution to regulate a fast developing field without need to change the regulation. But is it true? Second part of the submission addresses the legal questions and problems, connected to the principle based regulation starting with the validity of regulations. Broad definitions in Market in financial instruments Directive (MiFID, introduced for fast adaptation to new financial products and instruments, are now turning into dinosaurs. Contrary to US’s fast

  4. The Cost of Railroad Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, Giovanni; Sharp, Paul R.

    commodities until the First World War. We demonstrate that this reflected changes in transportation costs which in turn in the long run depended on productivity growth in railroads. 1920 marked a change in this relationship, however, and between the First and Second World Wars we find considerable...

  5. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the costs to the Canadian nuclear industry of the present Atomic Energy Control Board regulatory activities was carried out to provide a framework for a socio-economic impact analysis of AECB regulations. Regulaory costs in uranium mining and milling, fuel fabrication, power generation, the nuclear fuel cycle as a whole, and radioisotope use are studied. The cost of safety measures which industry would still undertake in the absence of government regulations ('prudent operator' costs) are not included. (L.L.)

  6. Regulating web content: the nexus of legislation and performance standards in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  8. [The analysis of international legislation in the field of regulation of functional foods claims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagriantseva, O V; Mazo, V K; Shatrov, G N

    2012-01-01

    It is known that manufacturers quite often put into foodstuff marking or advertisement the information about its beneficial action into the consumers health, i.e. about its functional qualities. However in Russian Federation the rules are regulated using of term "functional foods" doesn't established. In the review of legislation acts which are regulated of using claims in the foodstuff marking or advertisement in the different countries have been shown that claims concerning of energy and nutritional values of foods (beneficial nutrition claims) should be used in compliance with established rules without additional investigations. Food health claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and (or) functional foods claims for children must maintain in compliance with established procedure. Only claims that have scientific evidence about its beneficial for health could be recommended for approval. Thereupon insistent necessity in development, discussion and approval regulation in the field of using Claims concerning the functional qualities of foods (described rules of using beneficial nutrition claims and claims referring to the reduction of disease risk and to children's development and growth) in Russian Federation and United Customs Union (EurAsEU) are obvious.

  9. AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The amendment to the Regulations was published on 24 October 1991 (SOR/91-590,Canada Gazette Part II, Vol.125, No 23). It modifies the list of institutions exempted from paying cost recovery fees (licence fees) to the Atomic Energy Control Board. The exemptions now include educational and health care institutions as well as Departments. (NEA)

  10. Regulating the Sustainability of Forest Management in the Americas: Cross-Country Comparisons of Forest Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Monges Zalazar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy directives in terms of legislative, planning, operational, environmental/ecological, social, and economic aspects and classify them by the type of policy obligation: (1 non-discretionary laws or rules; or (2 discretionary, voluntary directives; and, further, by the type of policy approach: (1 a specific technology or practice required or recommended; (2 a process or system requirement or recommendation; or (3 a performance or outcome based requirement or recommendation. Protection of at-risk species and riparian buffers are required in all countries and include specific prescriptions in most; forest management planning and secure, legal land title or tenancy are commonly required; and mandatory processes to protect soil and water quality are customary. Less common requirements include forest monitoring and social and economic aspects, and, when in place, they are usually voluntary. Implications for improved policies to achieve sustainable forest management (SFM are discussed.

  11. LEGISLATIVE STUDY ON THE GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON SOME ECONOMIC RECOVERY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSTAN Ionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the most significant elements related to the direct enactment by the executive authority – following the most difficult moments of the financial crisis (2009-2010 – of some key measures in determining the economic recovery/growth. Special attention is given to the problem of growth strengthening and sustainable competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, as well as to the issue of stimulating the set up and development of micro enterprises by junior entrepreneurs. Considering things from the legal perspective, we also stop upon the legislative measures taken by the Government to support SME access to financial guarantees and credits. Obviously, in the context following the peak of the financial crisis, we took into consideration the regulation on stimulating the development of new jobs and the regime of state aids, as well. This latter issue includes, we believe, the most important references to State aid schemes on stimulating the investments with a major impact in the economy, the ‘de minimis’ aid for the investments made by small and medium-sized enterprises, and also to the issues arising from the implementation of a State aid scheme to support the investments which promote the regional development by creating jobs.

  12. Utility regulation and the legislative process in Oregon: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This case study discusses the strategies employed by the Public Utility Commissioner and the Oregon Department of Energy in the design, passage and implementation of a set of energy conservation bills. Information is included on the development of new legislation for energy conservation and management, on developing public acceptance of such legislation, and the cooperation received from utility companies to affect implementation. The lessons in strategy and tactics and the skillful use of the legislative process to get the package of bills enacted should have immediate value for those about to undertake a similar effort in their state. (LCL)

  13. Acute mental health care according to recent mental health legislation Part II. Activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse van Rensburg, A B; Jassat, W

    2011-03-01

    This is the second of three reports on the follow-up review of mental health care at Helen Joseph Hospital (HJH). Objectives for the review were to provide realistic estimates of cost for unit activities and to establish a quality assurance cycle that may facilitate cost centre management. The study described and used activity-based costing (ABC) as an approach to analyse the recurrent cost of acute in-patient care for the financial year 2007-08. Fixed (e.g. goods and services, staff salaries) and variable recurrent costs (including laboratory' 'pharmacy') were calculated. Cost per day, per user and per diagnostic group was calculated. While the unit accounted for 4.6% of the hospital's total clinical activity (patient days), the cost of R8.12 million incurred represented only 2.4% of the total hospital expenditure (R341.36 million). Fixed costs constituted 90% of the total cost. For the total number of 520 users that stayed on average 15.4 days, the average cost was R1,023.00 per day and R15748.00 per user. Users with schizophrenia accounted for the most (35%) of the cost, while the care of users with dementia was the most expensive (R23,360.68 per user). Costing of the application of World Health Organization norms for acute care staffing for the unit, projected an average increase of 103% in recurrent costs (R5.1 million), with the bulk (a 267% increase) for nursing. In the absence of other guidelines, aligning clinical activity with the proportion of the hospital's total budget may be an approach to determine what amount should be afforded to acute mental health in-patient care activities in a general regional hospital such as HJH. Despite the potential benefits of ABC, its continued application will require time, infrastructure and staff investment to establish the capacity to maintain routine annual cost analyses for different cost centres.

  14. Chemical characterization of emissions from modern two-stroke mopeds complying with legislative regulation in Europe (EURO-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T; Farfaletti, A; Montero, L; Martini, G; Manfredi, U; Larsen, B; Santi, G De; Krasenbrink, A; Astorga, C

    2010-01-01

    In view of a new amendment to the European legislative regulation on emissions from two-stroke mopeds a study was carried out to comprehensively characterize exhaust gases of mopeds complying current EURO-2 emission standards. Three mopeds with different engine types (carburetor, direct injection, and electronic carburetion system ECS) where investigated by applying two different driving cycles, the legislative cycle ECE47 and the worldwide motorcycle test cycle WMTC. Thereby, particulate matter (PM), regulated compounds, carbonyls, volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), and particle-associated polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analyzed and ozone formation potentials (OFP) as well as toxicity equivalents (TEQ) determined. The ECE47 emission factors for almost all species and moped types were much higher in the nonregulated, prior cold phase than in the hot phase, which is considered for legislation. Great differences for the mopeds could be observed for NO(x), VOC, and PM, whereas discrepancies between the driving cycles ECE47 and WMTC were smaller. In addition, a positive influence on exhaust composition caused by technical modifications of the ECS engine was determined. Results indicate that regulation of total hydrocarbons (THC) alone might not be sufficient to regulate PM, especially for direct injection engines. Moreover, recommendations for a revised future test protocol are demonstrated and discussed, whereby the cold phase and the hot phase are taken into account.

  15. COST - EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS IN CONTEXT OF THE NEW LEGISLATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Sas Mihaela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author presents some aspects of a broader analysis on the macroeconomic effects it generates new energy regulations on energy efficiency in the European Union. Are presented for this purpose EU targets for achieving targets 20% reduction in energy consumption by 2020 and improve the prospect of cuts in 2030. In a time when environmental concerns, economic and social becoming increasingly important, being represented by climate change or the endangering energy security, resource depletion or ability to pay energy bills, reduce energy consumption in buildings and industrial sector of strategic importance, both nationally and internationally. In addition to efforts to build new buildings and industrial facilities with low energy requirements, obtained from conventional sources of energy is essential to address the high levels of consumption of existing buildings and facilities. Improving the energy efficiency of the existing buildings and facilities is essential not only for achieving national targets for energy efficiency in the medium term, but also to meet long-term objectives of the strategy on climate change and the transition to a competitive, low carbon dioxide by 2030. The analysis consists in determining and assessing costs, benefits on energy efficiency in the European Union and national level. In Romania the gradual liberalization of the electricity market and gas is unsustainable in the context of the energy sector, which faces a variety of challenges, including high energy losses. In the medium term, the energy market liberalization leads to an appreciable increase in electricity prices, gas and heat, a process that takes place very late and that will put high pressure on the capacity of all energy consumers (industrial and residential to pay energy bills. An obvious solution, but not convenient, is to reduce energy consumption through energy efficiency or by reducing energy losses. The article ends with the

  16. A discussion of the impact of US chemical regulation legislation on the field of toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kristie; Beck, Nancy; Sandusky, Chad; Willett, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    Proposals for revising the principal United States law governing industrial chemicals, the Toxic Substances Control Act, have been under consideration in the US Congress for the past several years, and some version of such legislation may be passed in the near future. Concurrently, a desire to move away from current testing methods for ethical, scientific, and practical reasons has led to multi-million dollar investments in in vitro and computational toxicology methods and programs. Legislative language has the potential to endorse this transition and facilitate its fruition, or conversely enshrine in vivo testing methods for the foreseeable future. New legislation also has the potential to substantially increase the numbers of animals used in toxicity tests in the near term. However, there are a number of policies that, used effectively, can reduce the overall number of animals used in new toxicity tests. We present recent legislative proposals in the context of current testing programs and discuss their potential impacts on animal use, test method innovation, and achievement of desired legislative objectives. Discussions like these are essential to judiciously select policies that reduce the use of animals in toxicity testing and protect human health and the environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. International and National Legislative Regulations Aiming at Preventing Sexual Abuse against Children, as Well as the Protection of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a short “history” of the evolution over time of internationallegal regulations concerning child rights and the protection of children against any actof physical, emotional or sexual abuse. The concerns of European bodies in this respectare also highlighted, as are the objectives of the legislation in different countries, whichare mainly aimed at sanctioning abuses committed against children and, in particular,the punishment of acts of sexual abuse.

  18. The Parity Paradigm: Can Legislation Help Reduce the Cost Burden of Oral Anticancer Medications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircher, Sheetal M; Meeker, Caitlin R; Nimeiri, Halla; Geynisman, Daniel M; Zafar, S Yousuf; Shankaran, Veena; de Souza, Jonas; Wong, Yu-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased development and use of oral anticancer medications, which sometimes leads to high cost sharing for patients. Drug parity laws require insurance plans to cover oral anticancer medications with the same cost sharing as intravenous/injected chemotherapy or have a capped limit on out-of-pocket costs. There are currently 36 enacted state laws (plus the District of Columbia) addressing drug parity, but no federal laws. In this policy perspective piece, we discuss the history, opportunities, and limitations of drug parity laws in oncology. We also discuss the implications of provisions of the Affordable Care Act and other proposed policy reforms on financing oral chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulating nanomaterials: bottlenecks and perspectives in EU legislation on chemicals and products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelezang-Stoute, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines some of the challenges that nanomaterials involve for the EU legislator, due to the specific features of these materials and their uncertain risks for human health and the environment. The reporting and information requirements for the marketing of nanomaterials form a focal

  20. THE POSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF LOCAL REGULATIONS (DISTRICT REGULATION DISTRICT/MUNICIPALITY AS AN INSTRUMENT OF REGIONAL AUTONOMY WITHIN A SYSTEM OF LEGISLATION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jumadi -

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available General understanding of the law indicates that the product areas that are made bythe local government, in no way can be separated from the system perundamginvitationnationally. Local regulations made by independent government units(autonomous and Environment Authority an independent anyway. Therefore, doneagainst higher level legislation should not be solely based on pertingkatan, but ratheron the environment authority. in Indonesia is beside as further the elaboration oflegislation on it which produces district regulation delegasian, as well as the specialconditions in passenger areas that generate self-contained district regulation.

  1. Energy law. An anthology of the most important legislation and regulations. 9. new rev. ed.; Energierecht. Textsammlung der wichtigsten Rechtsvorschriften und Regelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The book under consideration is a current anthology of the most important legislation and regulations on energy law and contains the energy economy law, competition law, general conditions of supply and the tax law.

  2. The Position and Functions of Local Regulations (District Regulation) District/municipality as an Instrument of Regional Autonomy Within a System of Legislation in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    -, Jumadi

    2016-01-01

    General understanding of the law indicates that the product areas that are made bythe local government, in no way can be separated from the system perundamginvitationnationally. Local regulations made by independent government units(autonomous) and Environment Authority an independent anyway. Therefore, doneagainst higher level legislation should not be solely based on pertingkatan, but ratheron the environment authority. in Indonesia is beside as further the elaboration oflegislation on it w...

  3. 77 FR 67366 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-09

    ...; Information Collection; Travel Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration (GSA... requirement concerning Travel Costs. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this collection of...- 0088, Travel Costs by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http://www.regulations.gov...

  4. Legislation and regulation of nuclear activities. Volume 2. Texts published by the Legal Affairs Department of the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second edition of the 1983 compilation of legislative texts and regulations published by the french Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). It provides a comprehensive source of knowledge and information on nuclear energy laws. Since the first edition environmental aspects have been pointed out. Texts upon transportation have been added. Public enquires procedures have been modified since 1983 law to improve transparency. This volume has five chapters: (E) environment and man protection; (F) wastes; (G) responsibility and damage repair; (H) knowledge acquisition, protection and broadcast; (I) international cooperation. (D.L.)

  5. Legitimacy in the Regulation of the Right to Life: Tensions Between the Legislative and the Judiciary in the Implementation of the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Losurdo Losurdo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial of ADPF 54 by the Supreme Court had the effect of regulating the beginning of the constitutional protection of life, silenced in the Federal Constitution of 1988 and in the ordinary legislation. However, the presentation of a legislative proposal for criminalizing the termination of pregnancy, due to the diagnosis of fetal anencephaly, provokes rising tensions about the limits of the judicial and legislative powers in the implementation of fundamental rights. In this study, these tensions will be analyzed in the light of comparative law, in order to understand how the regulation of the right to life is disciplined in other democratic States.

  6. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Heon Jin; Oh, Ho Chul

    2004-02-01

    Since the present nuclear safety regulation has some legal problems that refer to special issues and contents of regulatory provisions, this report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation to solve the problems. In addition, this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation

  7. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Heon Jin; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Since the present nuclear safety regulation has some legal problems that refer to special issues and contents of regulatory provisions, this report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation to solve the problems. In addition, this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation.

  8. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul

    2003-02-01

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea

  9. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea.

  10. Regulating district heating in Romania: Legislative challenges and energy efficiency barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poputoaia, Diana; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Many states in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE) possess extensive district heating (DH) networks that were constructed during the days of communist rule in order to provide a universally accessible energy service that supported Soviet development policies. But the post-communist transition was marked by the exacerbation of the sector's numerous technical, economic, regulatory and environmental problems, accompanied by its abandonment in favour of alternative methods of domestic heating. Recent efforts to increase the use of DH in ECE as a result of environmental and energy security concerns have taken place in an absence of critical, context-sensitive research. The purpose of this paper is to explore the legal aspects of post-communist DH reforms in Romania, with the aim of identifying some of the governance challenges faced by state authorities in managing the sector. In broader terms, we seek to explore the extent to which the Romanian legislative framework is in a position to promote energy efficiency in DH. This has been achieved via an analysis of formal policy documents, government decrees, strategic documents and laws pertaining to this sector, as published and subsequently amended in the Official Gazette. The conclusions of the paper identify the key regulatory issues in the sector-especially with respect to the tariff setting process and the division of competences among different organisations in it-while suggesting a set of policy steps and general restructuring approaches that could help overcome the current situation.

  11. Estimating the costs of AECB regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    An attempt is made to answer questions relating to the feasibility of determining costs imposed by regulatory activities of the Atomic Energy Control Board, and to provide a conceptual and methodological framework for an actual cost study of existing AECB requirments. (L.L.)

  12. 76 FR 68040 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Labor Relations Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...-AL39 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Labor Relations Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD), General... amended on October 30, 2009. This E.O. treats as unallowable the costs of any activities undertaken to... Government contracting by providing that certain costs that are not directly related to the contractor's...

  13. Regulating the sustainability of forest management in the Americas: Cross-country comparisons of forest legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen McGinley; Raquel Alvarado; Frederick Cubbage; Diana Diaz; Pablo J. Donoso; Laercio Antonio Jacovine Goncalves; Fabiano Luiz de Silva; Charles MacIntyre; Elizabeth. Monges Zalazar

    2012-01-01

    Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy...

  14. Regulation of health practitioners by trade practices and fair trading legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2009-02-01

    In a variety of situations, particularly those characterised by commerciality, corporate structures and unregistered practitioners, there are major limitations to traditional regulation by health boards and councils, as well as hearings by external tribunals. Part of the difficulty lies with the ability of external bodies to award compensation to complainants/notifiers proved to have suffered adverse consequences from proven unprofessional conduct. This column advances suggestions for reform of the powers of external tribunals to redress this deficit. It also reviews the benefits of an associated form of regulation by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and offices of fair trading to enable consumer protection. It reviews recent decisions in the Federal Court of Australia and the Supreme Court of Victoria in such matters as well as recommendations in 2008 by the Victorian Health Services Commissioner.

  15. Controlling the process: legislation and guidance regulating the decontamination of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Val

    2009-12-01

    The reprocessing of medical devices, in particular surgical instruments, is an extremely technical and highly regulated industry. There are many guidance documents, and European and international standards that cover different aspects of decontamination. This article provides an outline of the main documents covering the critical elements of reprocessing which aim to ensure that reusable medical devices are provided which are fit for purpose and safe for patient use.

  16. New legislative regulations, problems, and future perspectives, with a particular emphasis on surgical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakorafas George

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Major changes in the residency-training systems are currently under way worldwide. New laws regulating the maximum number of work-hours per week are already enforced in the USA and are soon to be enforced in the European Union (EU; they apply to residents in training, as well as to practising specialists in the USA. These changes are expected to influence training imparted to resident doctors, quality of care given to hospitalised patients and functioning of hospitals, in general. The implications of the new regulations are likely to be magnified by the gradual decrease in the number of young people willing to take up Medicine as a career and even more so by the decrease in the number of medical graduates who choose to take up Surgery as their specialty. This communication describes the new situation that has developed (especially in general surgery with the recent regulations and intends to suggest possible solution to the important problems that are likely to arise.

  17. Regulation of Legislation in Utilization of Foreign Health Workers (FHW in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Juni Angkasawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the impact of AFTA 2010 (Asean Free Trade Area is a broader aspect of global world trade. Trade flows not only occur on public goods but also services, including health workers which now can freely get access to various countries. Objective:The aim of this study was to review policies on the employment of foreign health workers (FHW in order to provide recommendations on specific matters concerning legal protection to people who utilize health services and were treated by FHW. Methods:The method of this study was conducting a policy review with a normative and predictive approaches. This review depicted a clear and deep understanding of the form and implementation of policies related to planning, utilization as well as guidance and supervision of foreign health workers (FHW in Indonesia. Results: This study discovered that there were 7 (seven fundamental policies to regulate FHW that covers licensing, certification and registration, competence, area of activities, time restriction, compensation and sanction. Recommendation: This study recommends a socialization on FHW regulations. In addition, the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Manpower, Ministry of Home Affairs and the immigration office need to enhance their commitment to promote FHW regulations.

  18. The methodologies and instruments of vehicle particulate emission measurement for current and future legislative regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Arai, Masataka; Xu, Min

    2015-09-01

    Since the health risks associated with fine particles whose aerodynamic diameters are smaller than 2.5 μm was first proven, regulations restricting particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from internal combustion engines have become increasingly severe. Accordingly, the gravimetric method of PM mass measurement is facing its lower limit of detection as the emissions from vehicles are further reduced. For example, the variation in the adsorption of gaseous components such as hydrocarbons from unburned fuel and lubricant oil and the presence of agglomerated particles, which are not directly generated in engine combustion but re-entrainment particulates from walls of sampling pipes, can cause uncertainty in measurement. The PM mass measurement systems and methodologies have been continuously refined in order to improve measurement accuracy. As an alternative metric, the particle measurement programme (PMP) within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) developed a solid particle number measurement method in order to improve the sensitivity of particulate emission measurement from vehicles. Consequently, particle number (PN) limits were implemented into the regulations in Europe from 2011. Recently, portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for in-use vehicle emission measurements are also attracting attention, currently in North America and Europe, and real-time PM mass and PN instruments are under evaluation.

  19. The methodologies and instruments of vehicle particulate emission measurement for current and future legislative regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuki, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Arai, Masataka; Xu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Since the health risks associated with fine particles whose aerodynamic diameters are smaller than 2.5 μm was first proven, regulations restricting particulate matter (PM) mass emissions from internal combustion engines have become increasingly severe. Accordingly, the gravimetric method of PM mass measurement is facing its lower limit of detection as the emissions from vehicles are further reduced. For example, the variation in the adsorption of gaseous components such as hydrocarbons from unburned fuel and lubricant oil and the presence of agglomerated particles, which are not directly generated in engine combustion but re-entrainment particulates from walls of sampling pipes, can cause uncertainty in measurement. The PM mass measurement systems and methodologies have been continuously refined in order to improve measurement accuracy. As an alternative metric, the particle measurement programme (PMP) within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) developed a solid particle number measurement method in order to improve the sensitivity of particulate emission measurement from vehicles. Consequently, particle number (PN) limits were implemented into the regulations in Europe from 2011. Recently, portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for in-use vehicle emission measurements are also attracting attention, currently in North America and Europe, and real-time PM mass and PN instruments are under evaluation. (topical review)

  20. 78 FR 71558 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... information on the damage susceptibility of vehicles when they have visited dealerships? c. Have there been... method for reporting simple and understandable motor vehicle damage susceptibility information to... and repair of crash damage, the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings (MVICS) Act, Public Law 92...

  1. Features of Responsibility for Commission of Tax Crimes Regulation under the Criminal Legislation of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Gruzinskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author discusses features of regulating liability for tax offenses in British criminal law. Author researches question of taxation criminalization. Author emphasizes that it is important to separate tax evasion (illegal different ways from tax optimization (within the law. Author analyzes concept of "tax fraud", which can be defined as the deliberate actions of person to reduce taxes and committed through falsification of documents relevant to the tax authorities. In addition author considers tax fraud and other forms of criminal actions on the tax system under the British law, including tax cuts, tax resistance and refusal to pay taxes. Author concludes that forms of British economic crime compositions, depending on the way they were committed differentiates criminal liability. This question is more relevant in the process of punishment individualization because not all fraudulent evasion techniques will actually produce a much greater danger to society than "passive avoidance".

  2. 75 FR 5169 - Insurance Cost Information Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ..., Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy and Consumer Programs, NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE...'s Office of International Policy, Fuel Economy, and Consumer Programs (202) 366-0846 to receive a... through the NHTSA Web page at: http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/ . From there, click on the Laws/Regulations tab...

  3. The Right to Freedom of Expression and its Regulation in National and International Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varvara Licuţa COMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In international commercial disputes the extension of jurisdiction concerns the situation where a court extended its jurisdiction to the detriment of another abroad. Such an extension would not work but with an absolute breach of jurisdiction of other states. However, one cannot ignore the fact that article 25 of Regulation (EC no. 44/2001 on jurisdiction, recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters refers to mandatory reporting lack of competence whenever the court finds that a claim is another instance of a Member State of the Union shall have exclusive jurisdiction, text that indicate that incidental or accessory applications remain in the national court seized of the original proceedings. Although in theory it was argued that the lis pendens - related actions has no effect on international trade dispute, we can note that in relation to European Union member states lis pendens creates a special case of mandatory suspension of the case, while related actions a special case of voluntary suspension.

  4. Disclosure Regulation in Duopoly Markets: Proprietary Costs and Social Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable

  5. Regulating the Dutch pharmaceutical market: improving efficiency or controlling costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Rutten, F.H.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Dutch pharmaceutical market, which is heavily regulated by the government. Through the regulation of prices and promoting prudent use, the Dutch government tries to bring down the cost of pharmaceuticals, which increases every year at a higher rate than total health

  6. Barriers to access to opioid medicines: a review of national legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Lisman, John A; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas; Payne, Sheila; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2016-01-01

    Control measures designed to prevent the misuse of opioid medicines can often unintentionally restrict legitimate medical use, leaving patients with cancer in pain. This study aimed to develop and validate an assessment instrument based on WHO policy guidelines to systematically identify legal and regulatory barriers to opioid access in 11 European countries (Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Turkey) as part of the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe project. Relevant legislation and regulations were independently assessed by three reviewers and potential barriers were identified within nine categories including prescribing, penalties, and others. Potential barriers were identified in all countries, ranging from 22 potential barriers (Cyprus) to 128 potential barriers (Lithuania). The total number of barriers in a single category varied from one (Slovenia, usage category) to 49 (Greece, prescribing category). Differences, such as prescription validity, varied within one category, ranging from 5 days (Hungary) to 13 weeks (Cyprus). The results of this Review should give rise to a national review and revision of provisions that impede access to opioids, disproportionate to their (intended) benefit in preventing misuse, in these 11 European countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SOR/93-163 AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (Cost Recovery Fees Regulations 1990 and subsequent amendments have been revoked and replaced by those new Regulations of 30 march 1993 which entered into force on 1 April 1993. The regulations were first made in 1990 in order to carry out the Government's policy of introducing the principle of ''user pay'' for the cost incurred by the AECB in its regulatory activities. The objective of the policy was to shift the cost of Government regulatory efforts for the taxpayer at large to those who most benefited from or whose activities were the reason for such effort. This new version of the Regulations reflects licensees' comments, e.g. extension of the period for review of proposed fees, and sets out increases in the fees. (NEA)

  8. The Canadian Government perspective on cost-effective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.K.; Iwankow, C.

    1996-01-01

    Fiscal constraint, globalization of markets, and accelerated technological change have resulted in a new focus on the cost-effectiveness of government activities and, in turn, on methods of policy evaluation. An exploration of regulatory problems, and the use of regulation as a public policy instrument, reveals a commonalty of experience in all industrialized countries. This paper provides a brief synopsis of the Government of Canada's perspective on cost-effective regulation. To understand cost-effective regulation, this paper examines the principles of regulatory reform which underlie the current strategy of the federal government (collaborative decision-making mechanisms., methods of clear policy evaluation, and well defined lines of accountability). It discusses the nature of, and rationale for, government regulation, the reasons for regulatory reform in the economy, and the principal aims of Canadian regulatory reform and regulatory policy assessment. It does so by specifically addressing the role of cost-benefit analysis in the process of regulatory assessment - a method which involves systematically identifying, and quantifying where possible, the social benefits and costs associated with alternative public policy actions - with a particular focus on regulation which affects the Canadian nuclear industry. (author). 51 refs

  9. The "déjà vu effect:" evaluation of United States medical device legislation, regulation, and the Food and Drug Administration's contentious 510(k) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    With the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, Congress granted FDA authority to regulate medical devices by implementing a risk-based regulatory framework. Several years prior to this legislation, the Cooper Committee reviewed the medical device regulatory landscape and uncovered weaknesses that could be detrimental to public health. However, only after several high-profile incidents involving unsafe medical devices did Congress respond with strong legislation. Since 1976, additional medical device legislative revisions have been enacted to address deficiencies highlighted by various groups representing Congress, FDA, and industry. A repetitive conclusion from these groups has been that the 510(k) program is incapable of serving as a premarket evaluation of safety and effectiveness under the existing statutory framework. However, these legislative revisions did not change the statutory framework despite these repeated findings. In 2009, CDRH convened separate groups to again review the 510(k) program. While more comprehensive than previous initiatives, the observed deficiencies and the proposed recommendations are remarkably similar to those identified by their predecessors. This cyclical review of the medical device regulatory landscape whereby the same observations and recommendations are repeated yet the output of such review does not yield major legislative revision of the existing statutory framework can be described as the "déjà vu effect." This will continue unless Congress enacts legislation that implements a new statutory framework with a different standard other than substantial equivalence. In the past, Congress has implemented major legislation only after a public health crisis. Hopefully this will not be the driving force in the future.

  10. A Factorization Approach to the Linear Regulator Quadratic Cost Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milman, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    A factorization approach to the linear regulator quadratic cost problem is developed. This approach makes some new connections between optimal control, factorization, Riccati equations and certain Wiener-Hopf operator equations. Applications of the theory to systems describable by evolution equations in Hilbert space and differential delay equations in Euclidean space are presented.

  11. Cost of meeting geothermal liquid effluent disposal regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, K.D.; Currie, J.W.; Price, B.A.; Rogers, E.A.

    1981-06-01

    Background information is presented on the characteristics of liquid wastes and the available disposal options. Regulations that may directly or indirectly influence liquid waste disposal are reviewed. An assessment of the available wastewater-treatment systems is provided. A case study of expected liquid-waste-treatment and disposal costs is summarized. (MHR)

  12. Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Scholten, Willem; Lisman, John A; Subataite, Marija; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2017-06-01

    Barriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify specific access barriers for patients with opioid dependence in legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries. This study builds on a previous analysis of legislation and regulations as part of the EU 7th Framework Access To Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. An in-depth analysis was undertaken to determine specific barriers for patients with opioid dependence in need of opioid analgesics or opioid agonist therapy (OAT). For each country, the number and nature of specific potential barriers for these patients were assessed according to eight categories: prescribing; dispensing; manufacturing; usage; trade and distribution; affordability; penalties; and other. An additional keyword search was conducted to minimize the omission of barriers. Barriers in an additional category, language, were recorded qualitatively. Countries included Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey. Ten of the 11 countries (all except Estonia) showed specific potential barriers in their legislation and regulations. The total number of barriers varied from two (Slovenia) to 46 (Lithuania); the number of categories varied from one (Slovenia) to five (Lithuania). Most specific potential barriers were shown in the categories 'prescribing', 'usage' and 'other'. The total number in a single category varied from one to 18 (Lithuania, prescribing). Individual differences between countries in the same specific potential barrier were shown; for example, variation in minimum age criteria for admission to OAT ranging from 15 (Lithuania, in special cases) to 20 years (Greece). All countries had stigmatizing language in their legislation

  13. The hidden cost of investment. The impact of adjustment costs on firm performance measurement and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nick, Sebastian; Wetzel, Heike

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we address a major problem in the measurement of firm performance and the regulation of natural monopolies, namely the intertemporal character of long-term investment decisions. In specific, we focus on the impact of adjustment costs of investments on estimates of firms' technical and cost inefficiency. We apply nonparametric dynamic data envelopment analysis to investigate the dynamic inefficiency of electricity distribution and transmission companies in the US during the years 2004 to 2011 and compare our results with their static counterparts. Our empirical findings reveal that ignoring long-term investments and their corresponding adjustment costs does significantly distort both firm-specific and industrial inefficiency estimates and may thus create misleading incentives for the regulated firms to cut investments.

  14. Cost Benefit Analyses of Developing a Legislation to Attract Non-Resident High Net Worth Individuals to Use Estonian Private Foundation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Kaarlep

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global level, the high net worth population is expanding, and the wealth of high net worth individuals (HNWI is increasing rapidly. For various reasons, high net worth families and individuals are searching for vehicles to assist them in safeguarding and conveniently managing their wealth. Private foundations represent one useful avenue for achieving this end, and the use of private foundations has become increasingly popular in recent years, particularly in European countries. Many countries have laws which regulate private foundations and several are looking for adjusting or introducing legislation. In this article, authors analysing benefits for a country like Estonia in case the country increases the attractiveness of its jurisdiction for non-residents who are looking for establishment of a private foundation. The article comes to the conclusion that to be competitive, a country cannot collect tax revenues from private foundations established by non-residents except from income originated in the very same country. However, the country can earn benefits from revenues received by companies rendering services to non-residents and their private foundations. The article demonstrates that service fees a country earns and taxes collected from these fees would be substantial enough to make necessary changes to legislation beneficial for a country.

  15. Overcoming Gridlock: The Council Presidency, Legislative Activity and Issue De-Coupling in the Area of Occupational Health and Safety Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Warntjen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A member state of the European Union can use its term as the Council president to make progress on pending but stalled proposals which it would like to see adopted. This case study of the directive on the risk arising from physical agents shows how a Council presidency can use issue subtraction, additional meetings and compromise proposals to overcome gridlock in the Council. There is a notable difference in terms of legislative activity between the presidencies of high regulation and low regulation countries. High regulation countries put forward compromise proposals and scheduled additional meetings to resolve outstanding issues. The case study also demonstrates the importance of issue subtraction. The original proposal was gridlocked in the Council for five years. Only after the original proposal was split up into several dossiers (issue de-coupling was it possible to reach agreement.

  16. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  17. The decommissioning of nuclear plant: timing, cost and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility, costs and timing of decommissioning full-scale nuclear reactors is examined in the context of the tighter environmental regulation that will inevitably grow up in this area. It is concluded that delayed decommissioning may result from waste disposal site constraints rather than conscious intention, that taking account of the interests of future generations is unlikely to place very heavy burdens on the present generation, and that a balance of environmental considerations, mediated through regulatory and political processes, is likely to predominate in determining the future course of decommissioning decisions. (Author)

  18. [Legal and medico-legal issues in adolescent medicine. A critical review of the present regulation and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R

    2001-02-01

    During the last years the Italian Government has taken many different initiatives to protect the adolescents rights to benefit from physical, psychical and social well-being. In particular, various projects concerning the promotion and the support of the school, the family, sport, mass-media, judicial and medical infrastructures, have been organised, promoted and financed. However, it is not always possible to assure a real safeguarding of teenagers rights; this especially happens because the problem concerning the autonomous capacity of minors to consent (or non consent) to the medical treatment is much debated. However, many contradictions still persist about the effective duration of the pediatric age. All the same, it must be noted that the Legislator apparently realised that not only the physical, psychological and social maturity proceed by steps, but also the legal capacity.

  19. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONCEPTS REGARDING THE EXECUTION OF COMPLEMENTARY PUNISHMENTS APPLIED TO NATURAL PERSONS WITHIN THE REGULATION OF THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA DANIELA MUNTEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim at analyzing the complementary punishments applied to natural persons as regulated by the new criminal legislation, our motivation being the numerous amendments brought by the new criminal legislation, respectively the increase of the number of complementary punishments, the change of their enforcement starting moment and such other changes that we intend to debate in this study. Considering the changes brought to the starting moment of the complementary punishment enforcement, we focused mainly on the enforcement and execution of complementary punishments applied to natural persons, exemplifying the execution manner of each punishment, respectively: in the context of applying the complementary punishment regarding the forbiddance of rights, military degradation or the newest complementary punishment to be applied to natural persons, the publishing of the judgment of conviction. The amendments to the starting moment of the complementary punishment enforcement were brought as a result of introducing the punishment by fine and criminal punishments which may be executed on probation, in addition to which a complementary punishment may be applied. Regarding the enforcement of judgments, we have to mention the fact that it constitutes an autonomous stage of the criminal trial, governed by the regulations provided under the Criminal Procedure Act. Nevertheless, not all activities related to the enforcement of judgments are included in this stage, but only the ones triggering the start of the judgment enforcement. Such aspect imposes itself, taking into consideration the distinction between the enforcement of a judgment and the actual execution of the punishment. Regarding the effective execution of a punishment, activity performed outside the criminal trial, it is subordinated, on one hand, to the regulations provided under the criminal law, and on the other hand, to the regulations regarding the execution of punishments and of

  20. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  1. Internet pharmacy: issues of access, quality, costs, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y

    2003-02-01

    Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.

  2. Two wind power prognosis criteria and regulating power costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus S.; Ravn, Hans F.; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2003-01-01

    . Basically, the choice is between focusing on predicting the energy content of the wind and focusing on the cost of buying regulating power to compensate for the prognosis errors. It will be shown that it can be expected that the two power curves thus estimated will differ, and that therefore also the hourly...... wind power production predicted will differ. In turn this will influence the operation and economics of the system. The consequences of this are illustrated by application to the integration of wind power in the Danish parts of the Nordpool area, using recent data. Using a regression analysis......The objective of the present work is to investigate the consequences of the choice of criterion in short-term wind power prognosis. This is done by investigating the consequences of choice of objective function in relation to the estimation of the power curve that is applied in the prognoses...

  3. Regulating the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies: a qualitative and descriptive analysis of the impact of Israeli legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanholtz-Gannot, Rachel; Yankellevich, Ariel

    2017-09-26

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law was amended in 2010 to require the disclosure of payments above 2500 NIS from pharmaceutical companies (PCs) to medical personnel and organizations. We examined if the law had an impact on the relationship between physicians in the Israeli health system and the pharmaceutical industry. We conducted 42 in-depth semi-structured interviews with representatives of relevant stakeholders regarding the effects and extent of the law and the interviewees' attitudes about regulating the relationship between physicians and PCs. In addition, we analyzed reports on payments from PCs to various components of the health system. The majority of interviewees agreed that transparency is important to the relationship between PCs and physicians and none of them opposed the disclosure of payments. Most interviewees reported to have witnessed a change in the regulatory climate of the relationship between PCs and physicians, prompted mostly by self-regulatory measures of the pharmaceutical industry. The most significant change in this relationship appeared to be the enactment of contractual relations between PCs and physicians. There was a pervasive feeling that self-regulation is more effective than state regulation. The impact of the law on the behavior of individual physicians was claimed to be limited at best. Suggested causes were lack of awareness of the law, particularly among physicians; ambiguous definition of "payments" and loopholes in the law that attract other forms of remuneration to physicians and lack of enforcement of the law. According to reports published by the Ministry of Health, Pharma Israel, and the Israeli Medical association, although there had been some disclosure of payments by both donors and beneficiaries, there were inconsistencies between the total payments disclosed by PCs and those disclosed by their beneficiaries. There is a broad agreement that transparency is important to the PCs-physicians relationship. In

  4. 76 FR 14570 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ...] RIN 9000-AL58 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices... Regulation (FAR) to align it with a Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board clause, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns. DATES: Effective Date: March 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER...

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  6. 75 FR 3236 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... Accounting Standards Administration AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services Administration... extension of a previously approved information collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards... include pertinent rules and regulations related to the Cost Accounting Standards along with necessary...

  7. THE OPPORTUNITY COST OF FOOD SAFETY REGULATION - AN OUTPUT DIRECTIONAL DISTANCE FUNCTION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Bo-Hyun; Hooker, Neal H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a novel methodology to measure the impact of food safety regulation. An output directional distance function approach is applied to estimate the opportunity cost of food safety regulation and the shadow price of food risk. Such measures should be included as part of the overall cost of compliance for a more precise comparison of the benefits and costs of food safety regulation. Further, comparing the implicit shadow price of food risk and willingness to pay for food safety...

  8. Comparative analysis in the field of customs offenses and criminal regulations in certain states in relation to the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Octavian Pasat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study tries to highlight the specificity of the criminal laws of foreign states in the area of customs criminalization. The author discusses the criminal regulations in the laws of some Western European, Central European, Asian states, as well as in the legislation of some ex-Soviet states. The analysis carried out aims at: investigating the incriminating framework in the field of criminal offenses in the criminal law of some foreign states; determining the similarities and differences between criminal laws under analysis; identifying the legal problems by comparing the incriminating framework registered in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova with those included in the criminal laws analyzed; taking good practice. Different research methods were used in the study, including: analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction. However, the most used method was comparative considering the specifics of the subject under investigation. In order to intensify the fight against the phenomenon of crime in the customs sphere, some proposals have been advanced to improve the legal framework of incrimination. All this is a consequence of taking good practices from the comparative analysis of criminal regulations in the field of customs offenses.

  9. Regulation, Ownership, and Costs: A Historical Perspective from Indian Railways

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Bogart; Latika Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between operational costs and state ownership in Indian railways between 1874 and 1912. We find the move to state ownership significantly decreased working expenses. The cost declines are not driven by anticipation effects, changes in reporting standards, or long run trends. Rather, the evidence suggests the colonial Government of India reduced operational costs by cutting labor costs. Our surprising results can be explained by the undemocratic colonial nat...

  10. 75 FR 25165 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... Reporting system requirements for major defense acquisition programs and major automated information system... summarized as follows: The objective of the rule is to set forth Cost and Software Data Reporting System...

  11. 75 FR 71560 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting System (DFARS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... also asked what allowance is provided for contractors with accounting software that does not... RIN 0750-AG46 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Cost and Software Data Reporting... Regulation Supplement (DFARS) to address DoD Cost and Software Data Reporting system requirements for Major...

  12. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Cubbage; S. Koesbandana; P Mac Donagh; R. Rubilar; G Balmelli; V. Morales Olmos; R. De La Torre; M. Murara; V.A. Hoeflich; H. Kotze; R Gonzalez; O. Carrero; G. Frey; T. Adams; J. Turner; R. Lord; J. Huang; C. MacIntyre; Kathleen McGinley; R. Abt; R. Phillips

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America e Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay e were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each...

  13. 78 FR 13675 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration. A notice was published in the...- 0129, Cost Accounting Standards Administration by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov : http...

  14. 77 FR 27550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ...] RIN 9000-AM25 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Revision of Cost Accounting Standards Threshold AGENCY... standards in order to implement a recent rule of the Cost Accounting Standards Board and statutory...-59, FAR Case 2012- 003. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Cost Accounting Standards (CAS...

  15. Towards Uniformity of Radiation Protection Legislation in a Multi-jurisdictional country- the Australian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Australia is a federation of nine jurisdictions, each with independent radiation protection legislation. The existing legislative non-uniformity across the jurisdictions has constituted an impediment for operators who must comply with differing legislative requirements in different jurisdictions. To address this issue, a National Competition Policy Review of Radiation Protection Legislation took place in 2000/2001. It has produced 19 Recommendations, which addressed objectives of the legislation, the need to regulate, alternative regulatory approaches, national uniformity, licensing and registration, strict and prescriptive standards, advertising and promotional activities, compliance costs and cost recovery issues. The Review has recommended that jurisdictions should retain the regulatory approach to achieve radiation protection objectives rather than leave them to be decided by market forces. But the approach should be performance-based, i.e. outcome-focused rather than prescriptive. An Implementation Plan of the Recommendations has been created which, by the end of 2004, will produce the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The Directory, which will become a consolidated repository of radiation protection standards, guidelines, codes of practice and administrative principles will provide a uniform national framework for radiation protection legislation in Australia. It will provide guidance for the jurisdictions redrawing their legislations. Because of its central role in shaping future legislation, the Directory will contain only those provisions, which have passed a formal process (process for issue resolution) concluded by an approval by the Australian Health Ministers Conference. Such process will also expedite the uniform adoption nationwide of legislative trends emerging from international radiation protection recommendations and standards. This Australian model might be a viable example for other multi-jurisdictional countries to consider

  16. Costs for frequency reserve and regulation power options in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The price for ancillary services that ensures an efficient use of resources is equal to the marginal costs of providing these services. In an expanding hydro power system there are two optimal designs for expansion; one design is optimal when ancillary services are not to be provided and another design is optimal when these services are to be provided. The right price for ancillary services cover the net difference in costs between the two designs. The difference in design in an expanding system is specific for that particular system and hence no general number can be specified. In an expanding hydro power system, the efficient price typically covers parts of the marginal investment costs for excess capacity in turbine and generator, but no investment costs for waterways and reservoirs

  17. Colombian legislation for air contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-01-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms

  18. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard [Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Mac Donagh, Patricio [Universidad Nacional de Misiones (UNAM), Lisandro de la Torre s/n, CP 3380, Eldorado, Misiones (Argentina); Rubilar, Rafael [Universidad de Concepcion, Victoria 631, Casilla 160-C - Correo 3, Concepcion (Chile); Balmelli, Gustavo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuria, INIA Tacuarembo, Ruta 5, Km 386, Tacuarembo (Uruguay); Olmos, Virginia Morales [Weyerhaeuser Company, La Rosa 765, Melo (Uruguay); De La Torre, Rafael [CellFor, 247 Davis Street, Athens, GA (United States); Murara, Mauro [Universidade do Contestado, R. Joaquim Nabuco, 314 Bairro Cidade Nova, Porto Uniao, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso [Universidade Federal do Parana, Av. Pref. Lothario Meissner, 900, 80210-170, Jardim Botanico, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Kotze, Heynz [Komatiland Forests (Pty) Ltd, P.O. Box 14228, Nelspruit (South Africa); Frey, Gregory [World Bank, 1818 H. Street NW, Washington, DC (United States); Adams, Thomas; Turner, James [New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd., Scion, 49 Sala St., Rotorua (New Zealand); Lord, Roger [Mason, Bruce, and Girard, Inc., 707 SW Washington St., Portland, Oregon (United States); Huang, Jin [Abt Associates, 4550 Montgomery Avenue, Bethesda, MD (United States); McGinley, Kathleen [International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, c/o 920 Main Campus Dr. Suite 300, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  19. Global timber investments, wood costs, regulation, and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubbage, Frederick; Koesbandana, Sadharga; Gonzalez, Ronalds; Carrero, Omar; MacIntyre, Charles; Abt, Robert; Phillips, Richard; Mac Donagh, Patricio; Rubilar, Rafael; Balmelli, Gustavo; Olmos, Virginia Morales; De La Torre, Rafael; Murara, Mauro; Hoeflich, Vitor Afonso; Kotze, Heynz; Frey, Gregory; Adams, Thomas; Turner, James; Lord, Roger; Huang, Jin; McGinley, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    We estimated financial returns and wood production costs in 2008 for the primary timber plantation species. Excluding land costs, returns for exotic plantations in almost all of South America - Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela, and Paraguay - were substantial. Eucalyptus species returns were generally greater than those for Pinus species in each country, with most having Internal Rates of Return (IRRs) of 20% per year or more, as did teak. Pinus species in South America were generally closer to 15%, except in Argentina, where they were 20%. IRRs were less, but still attractive for plantations of coniferous or deciduous species in China, South Africa, New Zealand, Indonesia, and the United States, ranging from 7% to 12%. Costs of wood production at the cost of capital of 8% per year were generally cheapest for countries with high rates of return and for pulpwood fiber production, which would favor vertically integrated firms in Latin America. But wood costs at stumpage market prices were much greater, making net wood costs for open market wood more similar among countries. In the Americas, Chile and Brazil had the most regulatory components of sustainable forest management, followed by Misiones, Argentina and Oregon in the U.S. New Zealand, the United States, and Chile had the best rankings regarding risk from political, commercial, war, or government actions and for the ease of doing business. Conversely, Venezuela, Indonesia, Colombia, and Argentina had high risk ratings, and Brazil, Indonesia, and Venezuela were ranked as more difficult countries for ease of business. (author)

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  1. The Hidden Cost of Regulation: The Administrative Cost of Reporting Serious Reportable Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchfield, Bonnie B; Acharya, Bijay; Mort, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    More than half of the 50 states (27) and the District of Columbia require reporting of Serous Reportable Events (SREs). The goal is to hold providers accountable and improve patient safety, but there is little information about the administrative cost of this reporting requirement. This study was conducted to identify costs associated with investigating and reporting SREs. This qualitative study used case study methods that included interviewing staff and review of data and documents to investigate each SRE occurring at one academic medical center during fiscal year 2013. A framework of tasks and a model to categorize costs was created. Time was summarized and costs were estimated for each SRE. The administrative cost to process 44 SREs was estimated at $353,291, an average cost of $8,029 per SRE, ranging $6,653 for an environmental-related SRE to $21,276 for a device-related SRE. Care management SREs occurred most frequently, costing an average $7,201 per SRE. Surgical SREs, the most expensive on average, cost $9,123 per SRE. Investigation of events accounted for 64.5% of total cost; public reporting, 17.2%; internal reporting, 10.2%; finance and administration, 6.0%; and 2.1%, other. Even with 26 states mandating reporting, the 17.2% incremental cost of public reporting is substantial. Policy makers should consider the opportunity costs of these resources, averaging $8,029 per SRE, when mandating reporting. The benefits of public reporting should be collectively reviewed to ensure that the incremental costs in this resource-constrained environment continue to improve patient safety and that trade-offs are acknowledged. Copyright © 2017 The Joint Commission. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  3. The Impact of Regulation and Supervision Compliance Costs to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This relationship is, however, found not to be strong. The computed coefficient of determination indicates that compliance costs represent about 3% only of the bank earnings variation in the country. This implies that a large proportion of the variation is explained by other variables. African Journal of Finance and ...

  4. Chapter No.2. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    UJD as the central body of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the field of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' the preparation of rest regulations has continued. Following drafts of 5 were prepared regulations in 2001 and then they were sent for comments to various ministries by UJD: (a) Regulation on safety requirements for design of nuclear installations; (b) Regulation on safety requirements for commissioning and operation of nuclear installations; (c) Regulation on safety documentation; (d) Regulation on periodic safety assessment; (e) Regulation on safety requirements for siting of nuclear installations. Two following UJD safety guides were published in 2001 as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations': (a) BNS I. 11.2/1999 'Requirements for performance of safety analyses for ATWS' (b) BNS II.3.1/2000 'Evaluation of acceptability of faults detected during the operation inspection of nuclear installation selected equipment'. As UJD is responsible for performance of such reviews according to law No. 264/1999 Coll. on conformance assessment of products about 10 drafts of technical standards were reviewed. UJD provided documentation to the Slovak Republic position document related to Chapter 14 - Energy which was submitted to the European Union (EU). The set of recommendations related to nuclear safety was elaborated by the special working group on atomic question which was established by the EU Council. Their implementation is required as a prerequisite to close negotiations on Chapter 14 - Energy. The schedule of necessary safety related measures was agreed in co-operation with the SE a.s. and the Ministry of Economy and submitted as additional information for negotiations to the EC. The negotiations on Chapter 14 - Energy were successfully closed in October 2001. The activities in the area of Chapter 22 - Environment were concentrated on submission of necessary data

  5. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Velde Gabrielle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD. A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1 physician-based education and activation, 2 a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers, and 3 the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February

  6. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  7. 2011 SREB Legislative Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Gale F., Comp.

    2011-01-01

    The "2011 Legislative Briefing" is a topical summary of state budget and legislative actions that affect elementary, secondary and higher education across the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region. It outlines actions in areas such as tax and spending legislation, assistance to local districts, tuition and fees, student…

  8. Chapter 3. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) as central body of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the filed of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' there are 16 binding regulations under preparation. In 199 the following regulations were issued by UJD (1) Regulation No. 29/1999 Collection laws (Coll. l.) by which a list special materials and equipment is published. It came into force on 1 March 1999; (2) ) Regulation No. 30/1999 Coll. l. which defines details on maximum limits on quantities for nuclear materials for which there is no presumption of causing nuclear damage. It came into force on 1 March 1999; (3) Regulation No. 186/1999, which determines details to assure physical protection of nuclear installations, nuclear materials and radioactive waste. It came into force on 1 August 1999; (4) Regulations No. 187/1999 Coll. l. on professional competence of employees of nuclear installations. It came into force on 1 August 1999; (5) Regulation No. 198/1999 Coll. l. on accounting and inspection of nuclear materials. It came into force on 1 September 1999; (6) Regulation No. 245/1999 Coll. l. on emergency planning in case in incident or accident. It came into force on 1 October 1999; (7) Regulation No. 246/1999 Coll. l. on documentation of nuclear installations for decommissioning. It came into force on 1 October; (8) Regulation No. 284/1999 Coll. l. on details on transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. It came into force on 15 November 1999. Six UJD safety guide were published last year as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations'. UJD provides documentation for screening process of Energy sector and Environment sector as contribution to the accession process to the European Union. The most important subject within the negotiations with the European Commission were safety and operation of the NPP V-1 Bohunice. UJD grants

  9. Cost of Capital in Price-regulated Companies: the Case of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priit Sander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In case of price-regulated companies it is the role of appropriate government agencies to introduce clear, internally consistent, theoretically sound, and unambiguous methodology for finding the regulative cost of capital. The aim of the paper is to describe and analyze the cost of capital estimation methodology for regulated companies in Estonia and discuss some issues arising in applying this methodology. The current paper focuses on two topical issues associated with the estimation of regulative cost of capital in Estonia: estimation of market risk premium and inclusion of currency risk premium into the cost of capital. Current turmoil in financial markets has increased investors’ risk aversion as well as level of risks.

  10. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  11. Regulated Slow Steaming in Maritime Transport. An Assessment of Options, Costs and Benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, J.; Nelissen, D. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Hon, G.; Wang, H. [The International Council for Clean Transportation ICCT, Beijing (China); Tsimplis, M. [University of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    This report studies the legal and technical constraints to possible mandatory speed regulation for ships. It also analyses the design of these regulations and the costs and benefits. The report shows that slow steaming has significant environmental benefits, and, in most scenarios, economic benefits as well. Regulated slow steaming is legally feasible and feasible to implement. Regulated slow steaming has a number of advantages: it is the most cost effective way to reduce ship emissions, and if implemented correctly, it is cost free to the shipping industry as a whole and entails marginal incremental logistic and supply chain costs to consumers; regulated slow steaming ensures that emissions in the shipping sector will be reduced, regardless of the fuel price and demand for shipping; a cap on speed would reduce the risk of an otherwise likely spike in emissions if ships were to speed up in response to a recovery in demand; a cap set today around current average ship speeds will have little impact on industry in the short term; and regulated slow steaming is relatively easy to monitor and enforce, and may have a lower administrative burden than some of the recently proposed market-based measures. There are also disadvantages to regulated slow steaming: A restriction on speed reduces market flexibility; because of the perceived loss of market flexibility, regulated slow steaming appears to be widely opposed by shipping companies and shippers; it may not be cost-effective for all ships, on all routes or for all ship types; it reduces the cost-effectiveness of other means of fuel efficiency improvements and may result in less innovation; since it prescribes a specific measure it would run contrary to the goal-based approach to shipping environmental policy favoured in recent years; and while regulated slow steaming, if implemented carefully, need not impose additional costs on the shipping sector as a whole, neither would it raise revenues for use in fighting climate

  12. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  13. e-ready legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line; Baaner, Lasse

    In general, digital society challenges traditional modes of legislation and rulings. Dissimilar compositions of the legislation and non-comparable spatial representations of the legal content makes traditional legislation unfit for e-Government. Lacking attention may lead to the undermining...... of the trustworthiness of administration systems. On the other hand, a successful adaption of legislation to a digital setup could help promote good service towards citizens and businesses, and according to land administration theories maybe even promote societal sustainability in large. Based on studies on Denmark......, different challenges within digital land administration solutions are demonstrated. This paper discusses how legislation needs to change in order to be ‘e-Ready’....

  14. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  15. 77 FR 63804 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Indirect Cost Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... cost accounting information normally prepared by organizations under sound management and accounting... Paperwork Reduction Act, the Regulatory Secretariat will be submitting to the Office of Management and... Information Collection 9000- 0069, Indirect Cost Rates, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov...

  16. Costs of compliance with EU regulations and competitiveness of the EU dairy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezlepkina, I.; Jongeneel, R.; Brouwer, F.M.; Dillen, K.; Meister, A.; Winsten, J.; Roest, de K.; Demont, M.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of cross-compliance mechanism in the European Union with its 2003 CAPreform might affect the costs of production and thus competitiveness of the EU. Little evidence is available to asses the costs of compliance with regulations and it implication for trade. In this study a farm

  17. SOR 90-190, 22 March 1990, AECB Cost Recovery Fees Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    These Regulations entered into force on 1 April 1990. They were made pursuant to the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and prescribe the legal obligations to pay fees imposed on applicants for and holders of licences from the Atomic Energy Control Board - AECB. The purpose of the Regulations is to shift the cost of government service from the general taxpayer to the users and to those who specifically benefit from the services. (NEA) [fr

  18. On roots and nature of the normative regulation of the criminal offence of theft in the tradition of Tsar Dusan legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Ognjen B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the comparison between several norms of the Crimi­nal Offence of Theft in the tradition of Tsar Dusan legislation and certain provisions of the Roman law was performed. On this occa­sion, the issue of robbery, theft of fruits and complicity to theft were treated in particular.

  19. Regulating Human Trafficking by Prostitution Policy? : An Assessment of the Dutch and Swedish Prostitution Legislation and its Effects on Women's Self-determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, Nicolle; Althoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Is the Nordic model of combating the trafficking of women for sexual purposes to be followed by all member states of the eu? At the moment, the member states still differ considerably in their legislative approaches towards prostitution and the extent to which this is linked to the combat against

  20. [International reference prices and cost minimization analysis for the regulation of medicine prices in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacca, Caludia; Acosta, Angela; Rodriguez, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    To suggest a scheme of decision making on pricing for medicines that are part of Free Regulated Regime, a regulation way of the pharmaceutical pricing policy in Colombia. It includes two regulation tools: international reference prices and a cost minimization analysis methodology. Following the current pricing policy, international reference prices were built with data from five countries for selected medicines, which are under Free Regulated Regime. The cost minimization analysis methodology includes selection of those medicines under Free Regulated Regime with possible comparable medicines, selection of comparable medicines, and treatment costs evaluation. As a result of the estimate of International Reference Prices, four medicines showed in the domestic pharmaceutical market a bigger price than the Reference Price. A scheme of decision-making was design containing two possible regulation tools for medicines that are part of Free Regulated Regime: estimate of international reference prices and cost minimization analysis methodology. This diagram would be useful to assist the pricing regulation of Free Regulated Regime in Colombia. As present results shows, international reference prices make clear when domestic prices are higher than those of reference countries. In the current regulation of pharmaceutical prices in Colombia, the international reference price has been applied for four medicines. Would be suitable to extend this methodology to other medicines of high impact on the pharmaceutical expenditure, in particular those covered by public funding. The availability of primary sources about treatment costs in Colombia needs to be improved as a requirement to develop pharmaco-economic evidence. SISMED is an official database that represents an important primary source of medicines prices in Colombia. Nevertheless, having into account that SISMED represents an important advantage of transparency in medicines prices, it needs to be improved in quality and data

  1. Cost estimation using ministerial regulation of public work no. 11/2013 in construction projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumsari, Putri; Juliastuti; Khalifah Al’farisi, Muhammad

    2017-12-01

    One of the first tasks in starting a construction project is to estimate the total cost of building a project. In Indonesia there are several standards that are used to calculate the cost estimation of a project. One of the standards used in based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013. However in a construction project, contractor often has their own cost estimation based on their own calculation. This research aimed to compare the construction project total cost using calculation based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013 against the contractor’s calculation. Two projects were used as case study to compare the results. The projects were a 4 storey building located in Pantai Indah Kapuk area (West Jakarta) and a warehouse located in Sentul (West Java) which was built by 2 different contractors. The cost estimation from both contractors’ calculation were compared to the one based on the Ministerial Regulation of Public Work No. 11/2013. It is found that there were differences between the two calculation around 1.80 % - 3.03% in total cost, in which the cost estimation based on Ministerial Regulation was higher than the contractors’ calculations.

  2. Consideration of environmental externality costs in electric utility resource selections and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottinger, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A surprising number of state electric utility regulatory commissions (half) have started to require consideration of environmental externality costs in utility planning and resource selection. The principal rationale for doing so is that electric utility operations impose very real and large damages to human health and the environment which are not taken into account by traditional utility least cost planning, resource selection procedures, or by government pollution regulation. These failures effectively value the residual environmental costs to society of utility operations at zero. The likely future prospect for more stringent governmental pollution regulation renders imprudent the selection of resources without taking environmental externality costs into consideration. Most regulatory commissions requiring environmental externality consideration have left it to the utilities to compute the societal costs, although a few have either set those costs themselves or used a proxy adder to polluting resource costs (or bonus for non-polluting resources). These commissions have used control or pollution mitigation costs, rather than societal damage costs, in their regulatory computations. This paper recommends that damage costs be used where adequate studies exist to permit quantification, discusses the methodologies for their measurement, and describes the means that have been and might be used for their incorporation

  3. Digital Privacy Legislation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Foulds; Magda Huisman; Gunther R. Drevin

    2013-01-01

    Privacy is regarded as a fundamental human right and it is clear that the study of digital privacy is an important field. Digital privacy is influenced by new and constantly evolving technologies and this continuous change makes it hard to create legislation to protect people's privacy from being exploited by misuse of these technologies. This study aims to benefit digital privacy legislation efforts by evaluating the awareness and perceived importance of digital privacy legislation among...

  4. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Access to Legislation in Europe: Overview and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Mockus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses problems facing electronic legislation development (especially legislation processes of publishing acts in EU and EFTA member countries.All European countries were publishing acts officially on paper until the end of year 2000. The way of publishing acts officially was the same in all Europe countries, except that some counties had one “official journal” in which legal acts and other official documents and legal notices were published, and other countries had separate legal gazettes for acts publishing and an official gazette for publishing other official documents and legal notices.At the beginning of 2001 Norway started to publish acts officially in digital form, and only 12-20 times a year paper editions to present the statutes and regulations enacted since the publication of the previous issue are published. In 2002 Estonia decided to finish the publishing of paper editions, and started to publish acts only electronically. Till 2011 more than 10 European countries started to publish acts officially in digital format.Author discusses the advantages, principles, and legitimate expectation of electronic legislation. For future electronic legislation information systems developments the following principles should be a guide: broad/universal and equal access to legislation, reliability of the means of publicity, integrity of information, easy access to the requisite information. The advantages of digital act forms, and internet based publications are instantaneous outreach to the public, free of charge, information easily accessible and retrievable, voluminous technical acts easier to handle, no printing costs, more environmentally-friendly, more and more people use ICT to seek information, no time constraints to the availability of data, legal certainty will be granted.The author thinks that before creating future digital legislation information systems, some procedures shall be done. If we want to have pan

  6. Access to Legislation in Europe: Overview and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Mockus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses problems facing electronic legislation development (especially legislation processes of publishing acts in EU and EFTA member countries. All European countries were publishing acts officially on paper until the end of year 2000. The way of publishing acts officially was the same in all Europe countries, except that some counties had one “official journal” in which legal acts and other official documents and legal notices were published, and other countries had separate legal gazettes for acts publishing and an official gazette for publishing other official documents and legal notices. At the beginning of 2001 Norway started to publish acts officially in digital form, and only 12-20 times a year paper editions to present the statutes and regulations enacted since the publication of the previous issue are published. In 2002 Estonia decided to finish the publishing of paper editions, and started to publish acts only electronically. Till 2011 more than 10 European countries started to publish acts officially in digital format. Author discusses the advantages, principles, and legitimate expectation of electronic legislation. For future electronic legislation information systems developments the following principles should be a guide: broad/universal and equal access to legislation, reliability of the means of publicity, integrity of information, easy access to the requisite information. The advantages of digital act forms, and internet based publications are instantaneous outreach to the public, free of charge, information easily accessible and retrievable, voluminous technical acts easier to handle, no printing costs, more environmentally-friendly, more and more people use ICT to seek information, no time constraints to the availability of data, legal certainty will be granted. The author thinks that before creating future digital legislation information systems, some procedures shall be done. If we want to have pan

  7. Regional differences in electricity distribution costs and their consequences for yardstick regulation of access prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, M.; Wild, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we estimate an average-cost function for a panel of 59 Swiss local and regional electricity distribution utilities as a basis for yardstick regulation of the distribution-network access prices. Shleifer (1985) proposed yardstick competition in terms of price to regulate local monopolies producing a homogeneous good. The regulated price for the individual firms depends on the average costs of identical firms. The yardstick competition concept can also be applied to firms that produce heterogeneous goods if these goods differ only in observable characteristics. To correct the yardstick for heterogeneity the regulator can use a multivariate estimation of an average-cost function. In the case of electricity distribution, the heterogeneity of output consists mainly of different characteristics of the distribution service areas. In this paper we follow Shleifer's suggestion to estimate a multivariate average-cost function that can be employed by the regulatory commission to benchmark network access prices at the distribution level. Several exogenous variables measuring the heterogeneity of the service areas were included in the cost model specification. We find that the regional differences of the service areas - e.g. area shares of forests, agricultural areas or unproductive land and population density - significantly influence electricity distribution costs

  8. Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation. Collections. 35. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, Eberhard

    2018-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation covers the following issues: The German constitution, the atomic energy act, subordinate process regulations, radiation protection regulation, X-ray regulation, financial security regulation, cost regulations, safety delegate and reporting regulations, law on the installation of a Federal Office for nuclear disposal security, site selection law, final repository advance financing, radioactive waste transport regulation, disposal fund law, regulation on the payment receipt according to the disposal fund law, transitional disposal law, transparency law, run-off liability law, law on the installation of the Federal office for radiation protection, radiation protection law, food irradiation law, regulation on drug treatment with radioactivity or ionizing radiation, Paris agreement on nuclear liabilities and additional agreement, joint protocol on the application of the Vienna and Paris agreements, environmental compatibility assessment law, criminal code (partial), state competence regulations on the execution of regulations according the atomic energy act.

  9. Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation. Collections. 35. ed.; Atomgesetz mit Verordnungen. Textsammlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Eberhard (ed.)

    2018-03-01

    The Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation covers the following issues: The German constitution, the atomic energy act, subordinate process regulations, radiation protection regulation, X-ray regulation, financial security regulation, cost regulations, safety delegate and reporting regulations, law on the installation of a Federal Office for nuclear disposal security, site selection law, final repository advance financing, radioactive waste transport regulation, disposal fund law, regulation on the payment receipt according to the disposal fund law, transitional disposal law, transparency law, run-off liability law, law on the installation of the Federal office for radiation protection, radiation protection law, food irradiation law, regulation on drug treatment with radioactivity or ionizing radiation, Paris agreement on nuclear liabilities and additional agreement, joint protocol on the application of the Vienna and Paris agreements, environmental compatibility assessment law, criminal code (partial), state competence regulations on the execution of regulations according the atomic energy act.

  10. Financial viability of perinatal centers in the longer term, taking legislative requirements into account. An examination of the cost-revenue structure of a Level I perinatal center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Michael P; Kraml, Florian; Wagner, Stefanie; Hack, Carolin C; Schulze, Christine; Faschingbauer, Florian; Winkler, Mathias; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Debate is currently taking place over minimum case numbers for the care of premature infants and neonates in Germany. As a result of the Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesauschuss, G-BA) guidelines for the quality of structures, processes, and results, requiring high levels of staffing resources, Level I perinatal centers are increasingly becoming the focus for health-economics questions, specifically, debating whether Level I structures are financially viable. Using a multistep contribution margin analysis, the operating results for the Obstetrics Section at the University Perinatal Center of Franconia (Universitäts-Perinatalzentrum Franken) were calculated for the year 2009. Costs arising per diagnosis-related group (DRG) (separated into variable costs and fixed costs) and the corresponding revenue generated were compared for 4,194 in-patients and neonates, as well as for 3,126 patients in the outpatient ultrasound and pregnancy clinics. With a positive operating result of € 374,874.81, a Level I perinatal center on the whole initially appears to be financially viable, from the obstetrics point of view (excluding neonatology), with a high bed occupancy rate and a profitable case mix. By contrast, the costs of prenatal diagnostics, with a negative contribution margin II of € 50,313, cannot be covered. A total of 79.4% of DRG case numbers were distributed to five DRGs, all of which were associated with pregnancies and neonates with the lowest risk profiles. A Level I perinatal center is currently capable of covering its costs. However, the cost-revenue ratio is fragile due to the high requirements for staffing resources and numerous economic, social, and regional influencing factors.

  11. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  12. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  13. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As orginally...

  14. The 2007 Legislative Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey; Gaines, Gale F., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    "The 2007 Legislative Briefing" is a topical summary of actions during the 2006 legislative sessions that affect education in the 16 SREB states. Topics include state budgets and the economy, tax and revenue, school finance, teacher compensation, licensure, certification and evaluation of teachers, strengthening elementary and secondary…

  15. Storage of oil above ground for underground: Regulations, costs, and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lively-Diebold, B.; Driscoll, W.; Ameer, P.; Watson, S.

    1993-01-01

    Some owners of underground storage tank systems (USTs) appear to be replacing their systems with aboveground storage tank systems (ASTs) without full knowledge of the US Government environmental regulations that apply to facilities with ASTs, and their associated costs. This paper discusses the major federal regulatory requirements for USTs and ASTS, and presents the compliance costs for new tank systems that range in capacity from 1,000 to 10,000 gallons. The costs of two model UST system and two model AST systems are considered for new oil storage capacity, expansion of existing capacity, and replacement of an existing UST or AS T. For new capacity, ASTs are less expensive than USTs, although ASTs do have significant regulatory compliance costs that range from an estimated $8,000 to $14,000 in present value terms, depending on the size and type of system. For expanded or replacement capacity, ASTs are in all but one case less expensive than USTS; the exception is the expansion of capacity at an existing UST facility. In this case, the cost of a protected steel tank UST system is comparable to the cost of an AST system. Considering the present value of all costs over a 30 year useful life, the cost for an AST with a concrete dike is less than the cost of an AST with an earthen dike, for the tank sizes considered. This is because concrete dikes are cost competitive for small tanks, and the costs to clean up a release are higher for earthen dikes, due to the cost of disposal and replacement of oil-contaminated soil. The cost analyses presented here are not comprehensive, and are intended primarily for illustrative purposes. Only the major costs of tank purchase, installation, and regulatory compliance were considered

  16. Cost-benefit comparison of nuclear and nonnuclear health and safety protective measures and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, E.P.; Mauro, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    This article compares the costs and benefits of health and safety measures and regulations in the nuclear and nonnuclear fields. A cost-benefit methodology for nuclear safety concerns is presented and applied to existing nuclear plant engineered safety features. Comparisons in terms of investment costs to achieve reductions in mortality rates are then made between nuclear plant safety features and the protective measures and regulations associated with nonnuclear risks, particularly with coal-fired power plants. These comparisons reveal a marked inconsistency in the cost effectiveness of health and safety policy, in which nuclear regulatory policy requires much greater investments to reduce the risk of public mortality than is required in nonnuclear areas where reductions in mortality rates could be achieved at much lower cost. A specific example of regulatory disparity regarding gaseous effluent limits for nuclear and fossil-fuel power plants is presented. It is concluded that a consistent health and safety regulatory policy based on uniform risk and cost-benefit criteria should be adopted and that future proposed Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory requirements should be critically evaluated from a cost-benefit viewpoint

  17. Fertility Regulation in Kazakhstan : The Role of Providers and the Public Financial Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Manju; Chao, Shiyan; Arystanova, Gulzada; Rakhimova, Meruert

    2006-01-01

    This study examines fertility regulation in Kazakhstan, with dual emphases on providers' attitudes toward abortion and the public financial costs of abortion provision. Though abortion incidence declined sharply in the 1990s in Eastern European countries and in the former Soviet republics, it stagnated at relatively high levels in the early 2000s, accounting for a substantial proportion of...

  18. Effect of increased regulation on capital costs and manual labor requirements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paik, S.; Schriver, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the impact of increasing governmental regulation on capital costs and labor requirements for constructing light water reactor (LWR) electric power plants. The principal factors contributing to these increases are: (1) market conditions and (2) increased regulation. General market conditions include additional costs attributable to price inflation of equipment, material, labor, and the increased cost of money. The central objective of this work is to estimate the impact of increasing regulation on plant costs and, conversely, on output. To do this it is necessary to isolate two opposing sets of forces which have been in operation during the period of major regulatory expansion: learning based upon plant design experience and economies of scale with increasing size (generating capacity) of newer plants. Conceptual models are specified to capture the independent effects of increasing regulation, learning, and economies of scale. Empirical results were obtained by estimating the models on data collected from industry experience during the 1967-1980 period. 23 refs

  19. Detailed analysis of costs of historical providers to be taken into account in natural gas regulated prices from the 1 July 2017. Report, 24 May 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This publication first proposes an analysis of Engie costs regarding gas sale regulated prices. This comprises a presentation of the Engie cost structure, an analysis of coverage of costs by sales incomes, a presentation of supply costs and conditions for Engie, an analysis of supply-excluded provisional costs (distribution costs, transport costs, storage costs, commercial costs). The second part proposes a brief cost analysis for 5 other historical providers regarding regulated prices

  20. Herbal products: Marketing strategies and legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooyenga, P.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Groen, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing of herbal products in the European Union (EU) has been regulated under national legislation for years, leading to differences in legal status of these herbal products. In one member state, a product may be regulated as a food supplement, while in the other member state the same product is

  1. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  2. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  3. Regulatory risks associated with nuclear safety legislation after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident in Japan. Focus on legal structure of the nuclear reactor regulation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety regulations enforced after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Act face the following regulatory problems that involve potential risk factors for nuclear businesses; 1) 'entity based regulation' unable to cope with business cessation or bankruptcy of the entity subject of regulation, 2) potential risk of the Nuclear Regulation Authority's inappropriate involvement in nuclear industry policy beyond their duty, and 3) compliance of backfits under vague regulations. In order to alleviate them, this report, through analyzing these regulatory problems from the view point of sound development of the nuclear industry, proposes the following regulatory reforms; (1) To clarify the rule for industry policy in nuclear regulations and enable the authority, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, to choose most appropriate industrial policy measure. (2) Through establishing safety goals as measures to promote continuous improvement of nuclear safety regulations, to stimulate timely adjustments of the regulations, and to introduce a legal mechanism into the nuclear regulation systems under which validity of administrative law and its application can be checked. (author)

  4. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  5. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm(2) ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. Objectives. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm(2) for the 12 fragrance substances...... that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Materials and Methods. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual...... maximum concentration/dose was determined for each fragrance substance. Results. The predetermined maximum patch test concentrations/doses could be tested for all 12 fragrance substances, with no observable adverse reactions being noted. Conclusions. For each fragrance substance investigated...

  6. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  7. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  8. The legislation of nuclear disposal. Text booklet with an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The book on the legislation of nuclear waste disposal covers the following issues: Part A: Introduction in the site selection law. Part B: Set of regulations: Constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany (extract), Guideline 2011/70 EURATOM on the responsible and safe disposal of spent fuel elements, common agreement on the safety of spent fuel treatment and on the safety of radioactive waste conditioning, law on search and selection of final repository site for heat generating radioactive wastes (site selection law), law on the civil use of nuclear energy and the protection against its hazards (Atomic Law AtG), federal mining act (BBergG), law on environmental impact assessment (UVPG), Law on supplementary regulations and legal remedies in environmental matters according EU guideline 2003/35EG, law on the construction of a Federal authority for nuclear disposal (BfkEEG), regulation on the protection against ionizing radiation hazards (Strahlenschutzverordnung), regulation on the transport of radioactive wastes or spent fuel elements. Regulation on the commissioning processes of facilities according paragraph 7 Atomic law, regulation on the definition of a development freeze for site protection for a final disposal, regulation on the warranty of nuclear safety and radiation protection, implementing rule for the nuclear safety warranty, regulation on the advance financing for the construction of Federal facilities for safeguarding and final disposal of radioactive wastes. Cost regulation for the Atomic Law.

  9. Impact of the legislation on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Douglas Lee points out that the question of nuclear waste will not go away. Nuclear waste is with us and consumers should support legislation to deal with the problem once and for all. The spent fuel is growing, and twenty-nine nuclear plants will face onsite storage problems in this decade. If these plants shut down, consumers will face higher electric generating costs if a switch to a more expensive fuel is necssary, or if the utilities are forced to purchase power of the grid. The cost of waste disposal under this proposed legislation will amount to about 75 cents per month for those electric customers serviced by nuclear plants

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  11. 75 FR 17854 - Travel Expenses of State Legislators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... expenses, but not other deemed business travel expenses, on specified legislative days. These regulations... state legislators' deductions for business travel expenses and suggested that the proposed regulations... from home and may be entitled to deduct actual business travel expenses under the general rules of...

  12. Tobacco Regulation and Cost-Benefit Analysis: How Should We Value Foregone Consumer Surplus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen G; Norton, Edward C; Smith, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    Recent tobacco regulations proposed by the Food and Drug Administration have raised a thorny question: how should the cost-benefit analysis accompanying such policies value foregone consumer surplus associated with regulation-induced reductions in smoking? In a model with rational and fully informed consumers, this question is straightforward. There is disagreement, however, about whether consumers are rational and fully informed, and the literature offers little practical guidance about what approach the FDA should use if they are not. In this paper, we outline the history of the FDA's recent attempts to regulate cigarettes and other tobacco products and how they have valued foregone consumer surplus in cost-benefit analyses. We advocate replacing the approach used in most of this literature, which first calculates health gains associated with regulation and then "offsets" them by some factor reflecting consumer surplus losses, with a more general behavioral public finance framework for welfare analysis. This framework applies standard tools of welfare analysis to consumer demand that may be "biased" (that is, not necessarily rational and fully informed) without requiring specific assumptions about the reason for the bias. This framework would require estimates of both biased and unbiased consumer demand; we sketch an agenda to help develop these in the context of smoking. The use of this framework would substantially reduce the confusion currently surrounding welfare analysis of tobacco regulation.

  13. Tobacco Regulation and Cost-Benefit Analysis: How Should We Value Foregone Consumer Surplus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen G.; Norton, Edward C.; Smith, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent tobacco regulations proposed by the Food and Drug Administration have raised a thorny question: how should the cost-benefit analysis accompanying such policies value foregone consumer surplus associated with regulation-induced reductions in smoking? In a model with rational and fully informed consumers, this question is straightforward. There is disagreement, however, about whether consumers are rational and fully informed, and the literature offers little practical guidance about what approach the FDA should use if they are not. In this paper, we outline the history of the FDA’s recent attempts to regulate cigarettes and other tobacco products and how they have valued foregone consumer surplus in cost-benefit analyses. We advocate replacing the approach used in most of this literature, which first calculates health gains associated with regulation and then “offsets” them by some factor reflecting consumer surplus losses, with a more general behavioral public finance framework for welfare analysis. This framework applies standard tools of welfare analysis to consumer demand that may be “biased” (that is, not necessarily rational and fully informed) without requiring specific assumptions about the reason for the bias. This framework would require estimates of both biased and unbiased consumer demand; we sketch an agenda to help develop these in the context of smoking. The use of this framework would substantially reduce the confusion currently surrounding welfare analysis of tobacco regulation. PMID:29404381

  14. The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

  15. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm2 ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruynzeel, Derk; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Matura, Mihaly; Orton, David; Vigan, Martine

    2012-03-01

    According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm2 for the 12 fragrance substances that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual maximum concentration/dose was determined for each fragrance substance. The predetermined maximum patch test concentrations/doses could be tested for all 12 fragrance substances, with no observable adverse reactions being noted. For each fragrance substance investigated, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm2) be used for aimed and screening patch testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Investigation of the Practices, Legislation, Supply Chain, and Regulation of Opioids for Clinical Pain Management in Southern Africa: A Multi-sectoral, Cross-National, Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namisango, Eve; Allsop, Matthew J; Powell, Richard A; Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Luyirika, Emmanuel B K; Kiyange, Fatia; Mukooza, Edward; Ntege, Chris; Garanganga, Eunice; Ginindza-Mdluli, Mavis Ntombifuthi; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Mondlane, Lidia Justino; Harding, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces an increasing incidence and prevalence of life-limiting and life-threatening conditions. These conditions are associated with a significant burden of pain linked to high morbidity and disability that is poorly assessed and undertreated. Barriers to effective pain management partly relate to lack of access to opioid analgesia and challenges in their administration. To identify country-specific and broader regional barriers to access, as well as the administration of opioids, and generate recommendations for advancing pain management in Southern Africa. A parallel mixed methods design was used across three countries: Mozambique, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Three activities were undertaken: 1) a review of regulatory and policy documentation, 2) group interviews, and 3) a self-administered key informant survey. Barriers to accessing opioid analgesics for medical use include overly restrictive controlled medicines' laws; use of stigmatizing language in key documents; inaccurate actual opioid consumption estimation practices; knowledge gaps in the distribution, storage, and prescription of opioids; critical shortage of prescribers; and high out-of-pocket financial expenditures for patients against a backdrop of high levels of poverty. Policies and relevant laws should be updated to ensure that the legislative environment supports opioid access for pain management. Action plans for improving pain treatment for patients suffering from HIV or non-communicable diseases should address barriers at the different levels of the supply chain that involve policymakers, administrators, and service providers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  18. Modeling the cost and benefit of proteome regulation in a growing bacterial cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pooja; Pandey, Parth Pratim; Jain, Sanjay

    2018-04-16

    Escherichia coli cells differentially regulate the production of metabolic and ribosomal proteins in order to stay close to an optimal growth rate in different environments, and exhibit the bacterial growth laws as a consequence. We present a simple mathematical model of a growing-dividing cell in which an internal dynamical mechanism regulates the allocation of proteomic resources between different protein sectors. The model allows an endogenous determination of the growth rate of the cell as a function of cellular and environmental parameters, and reproduces the bacterial growth laws. We use the model and its variants to study the balance between the cost and benefit of regulation. A cost is incurred because cellular resources are diverted to produce the regulatory apparatus. We show that there is a window of environments or a 'niche' in which the unregulated cell has a higher fitness than the regulated cell. Outside this niche there is a large space of constant and time varying environments in which regulation is an advantage. A knowledge of the 'niche boundaries' allows one to gain an intuitive understanding of the class of environments in which regulation is an advantage for the organism and which would therefore favour the evolution of regulation. The model allows us to determine the 'niche boundaries' as a function of cellular parameters such as the size of the burden of the regulatory apparatus. This class of models may be useful in elucidating various tradeoffs in cells and in making in-silico predictions relevant for synthetic biology. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  20. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  1. Equity, tariffing, regulation: analysis of the cost allocation policies of an electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzina, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an analysis in terms of equity of policies of tariffing regulation and cost allocation of a multi-products electric company (organized as a natural monopoly) is proposed. The goal is double. In a standard point of view, the first goal is to show that today's literature in the domains of public economy, industrial organization and regulation (traditionally based on efficiency considerations) is able to supply reading keys for the analysis of moral philosophy problems. In a positive point of view, the second goal is to demonstrate that the equity criterion is operational enough to judge tariffing management practices in a particular industrial environment and can be used as a regulatory instrument by an ethics-concerned authority. The document is organized in two parts. An ethical and economical analysis of the equity concepts between allocation efficiency, production efficiency and tariffing practices of companies is proposed first. A particular equity concept is considered which is ready to be implemented for the regulation of a public utility, and the ins and outs expected with an equity theory of tariffing practices are evoked. In a second part, an analysis of goal conflicts between the authority and the regulated company is made in a point of view of equity regulation and cost allocation. An improved equity criterion is defined first, from which a measure is built and becomes a tool for the regulatory authority. Then, its use by a regulatory authority fully informed or encountering information asymmetry problems are analyzed in order to show its stakes on the cost allocation and tariffing policies of the company. (J.S.)

  2. 75 FR 34283 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2009-025, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Regulation (FAR) to align the FAR with the revised Cost Accounting Standards (CAS) Board clause, Disclosure and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns. DATES: Effective Date: June 16, 2010... and Consistency of Cost Accounting Practices-Foreign Concerns, in CAS- covered contracts and...

  3. The work with ionizing radiation in the RJU (Special Work Legislation for the Union employees), according to the Law 8270 and respective regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, O.L.; Rigolon, L.S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    This work analyzes the grant of a salary bonus due the work with X-rays and radioactive substances as well as the additional payment due to ionizing irradiation for the RJU-covered Union employees, according to the law 8270 of Dec, 91 and respective regulation (decree 877 of July 7,93) Technical criteria are suggested to calculate the potential radiation dose in order to establish the percentage increase corresponding to the additional payment due to ionizing irradiation, as defined by specific regulation. (author). 4 refs

  4. New European commission regulation on variations to the terms of marketing authorization for medicinal products and its impact on Croatian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinac, Adrijana Ilić; Tomić, Sinisa; Simicić, Mirna

    2010-09-01

    Variations introduced to medicinal product documentation must not affect the quality, efficacy, and safety of the product. Croatian Medicinal Products Act and accompanying ordinances are largely aligned with the EU regulations. The EU has now tried to simplify the issue of variations with a new Regulation, creating differences in the definition of and approach to resolving certain types of variations between Croatia and the EU. These differences could hinder the approval procedure for variations in Croatia, particularly for medicines already approved in the EU. Amending the Croatian Ordinance on medicines already authorised in the EU would be one way of maintaining the efficiency of the Croatian regulatory system.

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    facilities; Management systems; Radioactive waste management: Safety of radioactive waste repositories; 7 - Slovak Republic, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Amendment to the Atomic Act; 8 - Slovenia, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Amendments to the Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning): Decree on activities involving radiation; 9 - Sweden, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Major revision of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations; 10 - United States, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Commission policy statement setting principles to use to promote effective government-to-government interactions with American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes and encourage and facilitate Tribal involvement in areas of NRC jurisdiction; Nuclear installations: NuScale Power, LLC submits design certification application for small modular reactor (SMR) to the NRC; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning): NRC publishes draft guidance document for the development of principal design criteria for non-light water cooled nuclear reactors

  6. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  7. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  8. Notoriety for Profit Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    this study is a relatively new and important area in victimology known as "Notoriety For Profit Legislation". The study contains descrip- tions...in the area of victimology require further study. I BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bard, Morton, and Dawn Sangrey. The Crime Victims Book. New York: Basic Books

  9. Chapter 3. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) as the central authority of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the field of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' a preparation of remaining 8 decrees have continued. In 2000 the following decrees were issued by UJD: (1) Decree No. 31/2000 Coll on events at nuclear installations. It came into force on 15 February 2000. (2) Decree No. 190/2000 Coll by which details of radioactive waste management and spent fuel management are regulated. It came into force on 1-st July 2000. The following six decrees are at the process of preparation: (a) Decree on quality assurance of nuclear installations, (b) Decree on safety requirements for design of nuclear installations, (c) Decree on safety requirements for commissioning and operation of nuclear installations, (d) Decree on safety documentation, (e) Decree on periodic safety assessment, (f) Decree on safety requirements for siting of nuclear installations. Following five UJD safety guides were published in 2000 as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations': (1) BNS I.9.1/1999 Safety of nuclear facilities during decommissioning (issued in April 2000). (2) BNS III.4.1/2000 Requirements on UJD SR permit issue for fuel use in WWER 440 reactors (issued in September 2000). (3) BNS III.4.3/2000 Requirements on assessment of fuel loading for WWER 440 reactors (issued in September 2000). (4) BNS I.2.6/2000 UJD SR requirements on chapter 4 of Safety analysis report 'Core design' (issued in September 2000). (5) NS I.4.2/1996 Use of PSA methodology in the process of regulation by regulatory authority (issued in September 2000). About thirty-five drafts of technical standards were reviewed as UJD is responsible for performance such review according to the law No. 264/1999 Coll. on conformance assessment of products. UJD provided necessary documentation for negotiation positions of the

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  11. Regulatory and policy implications of Federal legislation on utility DSM programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M.E.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Griffiths, D. [Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission, Harrisburg, PA (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This paper reviews some potential consequences of recent Federal legislation to demand-side management (DSM) at utilities. The legislation discussed are the 1992 Energy Policy Act (EPAct), the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, and FERC Order No. 636. Examples of specific activities regarding DSM in Pennsylvania are included for illustration. Each of the Federal laws under discussion is unique in terms of origin, goals, and focus. Nevertheless, they all focus on the regulated energy industries such that their effects tend to combine to force massive changes. In die regulated electric and natural gas industries, this synergy is compounding the complexity of management and, at least in the short term, contributing to increases in the cost of doing business. In the long term, these Federal initiatives are likely to lead to a massive reassessment of state-regulated energy sources in production and end use, and their environmental consequences. The overall effect of all three pieces of legislation is to increase competition among the state-regulated utilities. The differences between competitive and regulated industries are noted in a effort to explain the effect of inducing competition among energy utilities. This has particular relevance to utility-sponsored energy-efficiency programs such as DSM and other customer assistance activities. This paper has three objectives. First, it outlines the contents of the Federal legislation regarding utility DSM programs. Second, it explains some of the impacts of these laws and regulations on utility programs, particularly the likely effects of the emerging competitive utility market. Third, it seeks to understand where and how action will be needed to carry out many of the provisions of these laws in the most cost-effective manner.

  12. Can re-regulation reservoirs and batteries cost-effectively mitigate sub-daily hydropeaking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J.; Nowak, W.; Anindito, Y.; Olivares, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    To compensate for mismatches between generation and load, hydropower plants frequently operate in strong hydropeaking schemes, which is harmful to the downstream ecosystem. Furthermore, new power market structures and variable renewable systems may exacerbate this behavior. Ecological constraints (minimum flows, maximum ramps) are frequently used to mitigate hydropeaking, but these stand in direct tradeoff with the operational flexibility required for integrating renewable technologies. Fortunately, there are also physical methods (i.e. re-regulation reservoirs and batteries) but to date, there are no studies about their cost-effectiveness for hydropeaking mitigation. This study aims to fill that gap. For this, we formulate an hourly mixed-integer linear optimization model to plan the weekly operation of a hydro-thermal-renewable power system from southern Chile. The opportunity cost of water (needed for this weekly scheduling) is obtained from a mid-term programming solved with dynamic programming. We compare the current (unconstrained) hydropower operation with an ecologically constrained operation. The resulting cost increase is then contrasted with the annual payments necessary for the physical hydropeaking mitigation options. For highly constrained operations, both re-regulation reservoirs and batteries show to be economically attractive for hydropeaking mitigation. For intermediate constrained scenarios, re-regulation reservoirs are still economic, whereas batteries can be a viable solution only if they become cheaper in future. Given current cost projections, their break-even point (for hydropeaking mitigation) is expected within the next ten years. Finally, less stringent hydropeaking constraints do not justify physical mitigation measures, as the necessary flexibility can be provided by other power plants of the system.

  13. Specific legislation on biobanks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Merino, Isabel Ma; Consuegra, Irene; Jiménez, José Luís; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2015-06-01

    Spain has enacted specific legislation concerning biobanks. This legislation regulates how biobanks should be set up, how they should operate, and the requirements they need to comply with. The main objective of this legislation is to keep a good balance between scientific progress and respect for the rights and freedom of individuals participating in research. Therefore, this legislation lays down a series of basic principles, for instance, the principle to inform donors accurately i) on the deposit of samples in terms of the objectives and implications of their donation and on the need to obtain written consents; ii) on the obligation to establish consistent procedures to guarantee the confidentiality of personal data associated with and obtained from biological samples; iii) on the concept of free sample donation either by donors or by biobanks; iv) on the need for consistent procedures to deposit samples and data in biobanks; and v) for acts of donation and data for research projects to be performed correctly. Although this Spanish legislation fulfills its objectives, it has some drawbacks; mainly it overprotects research participants. This issue should be analyzed in future revisions of the legislation.

  14. The European legislative framework for audit committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    In 2014 the European Union reformed the regulatory framework of statutory audits in Directive 2014/56/EC and Regulation (EU) Nr. 537/2014. Part of the new legislation addresses the composition and responsibilities of the audit committee of public-interest entities. This contribution studies the

  15. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  17. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  18. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  19. Risks, regulation responsibilities and costs in nuclear waste management: a preliminary survey in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy produces radioactive waste which may present risks of pollution for man and his environment. Their protection must be ensured by technical or institutional controls. The report examines the second, i.e. the administrative, legal and financial measures, dealing with the management of radioactive waste in existence or under consideration within the Member States of the European Community. The following aspects are studied: laws and regulations, authorities concerned, costs and financing of radioactive waste management, civil liability, national policies, international aspects of radioactive waste management

  20. Economic consideration of nuclear safety and cost benefit analysis in nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y. S.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, K. W.; Song, I. J.; Park, D. K.

    2001-01-01

    For the optimization of nuclear safety regulation, understanding of economic aspects of it becomes increasingly important together with the technical approach used so far to secure nuclear safety. Relevant economic theories on private and public goods were reviewed to re-illuminate nuclear safety from the economic perspective. The characteristics of nuclear safety as a public good was reviewed and discussed in comparison with the car safety as a private safety good. It was shown that the change of social welfare resulted from the policy change induced can be calculated by the summation of compensating variation(CV) of individuals. It was shown that the value of nuclear safety could be determined in monetary term by this approach. The theoretical background and history of cost benefit analysis of nuclear safety regulation were presented and topics for future study were suggested

  1. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  2. Interstate dispensing: a case for uniform, intuitive legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole L; King, Michelle A; Hope, Denise L

    2014-09-01

    Australian health practitioner registration is national, whereas legislation regarding the handling of medicines is governed by individual States and Territories. To align with the July 2010 national registration scheme some legislative modifications were made concerning scheduled drugs and poisons, but many differences between jurisdictions remain. In Queensland, the Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 (Qld) allows for dispensing of controlled drugs written by interstate prescribers but not lower scheduled specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs. The aim of this study was to assess awareness of seemingly counterintuitive legislation by pharmacists practising in South-East Queensland. Of 125 Gold Coast pharmacies contacted, 54 (43.2%) agreed to participate. The majority of pharmacists (88.9%) had good knowledge regarding controlled drugs. In contrast, they demonstrated confusion regarding specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs (51.9% correct awareness). Uniform legislation between jurisdictions or more intuitive legislation would ease practitioner confusion.

  3. Legislating interprofessional collaboration: A policy analysis of health professions regulatory legislation in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; Orchard, Carole; Khalili, Hossein; Brunton, Laura; Leslie, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Changes to Ontario's health professions regulatory system were initiated through various legislative amendments. These amendments introduced a legislative obligation for health regulatory colleges to support interprofessional collaboration (IPC), collaborate where they share controlled acts, and incorporate IPC into their quality assurance programs. The purpose of this policy analysis was to identify activities, strategies, and collaborations taking place within health professions regulatory colleges pertaining to legislative changes related to IPC. A qualitative content analysis of (1) college documents pertaining to IPC (n = 355) and (2) interviews with representatives from 14 colleges. Three themes were identified: ideal versus reality; barriers to the ideal; and legislating IPC. Commitment to the ideal of IPC was evident in college documents and interviews. Colleges expressed concern about the lack of clarity regarding the intent of legislation. In addition, barriers stemming from long-standing issues in practice including scope of practice protection, conflicting legislation, and lack of knowledge about the roles of other health professionals impede IPC. Government legislation and health professional regulation have important roles in supporting IPC; however, broader collaboration may be required to achieve policy objectives.

  4. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  5. Unintended consequences of health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, James H

    2011-10-01

    Unintended consequences of health care legislation threaten the financial and social well-being of the United States. Examples of major legislation resulting in unintended and unforeseen consequences include the Social Security Amendments Acts of 1989 and 1993 (the Stark laws), the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, and the Social Security Amendments Act of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid). Each of these has had unintended financial and social outcomes. Spending for Medicare and Medicaid now equals an unsustainable 23% of the federal budget. Major reasons for unintended consequences include failure to appreciate the complexity of the issues, the open-ended nature of medical advances with attendant increases in costs, the inducement of change in behaviors in response to legislation, and the moral hazard of people spending other people's money. Actions that should be considered to avoid unintended consequences include more involvement of health professionals in the design of legislation, the inclusion of triggers to target review of legislatively defined programs, and the setting of time limits for sun-setting legislation. The ACR has played an important advocacy role and should continue to offer input to legislators, federal policymakers, and other stakeholders. Many opportunities exist to address the current financial situation by reducing the amount of unnecessary care delivered. Both major US political parties need to find the political will to compromise to chart the way forward. Some level of sacrifice is likely to be necessary from patients and providers and other stakeholders. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  7. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  8. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  9. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  10. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  11. 76 FR 70037 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. DATES: The withdrawal is...

  12. Audit report on GDF Suez supply costs in natural gas sale regulated tariffs. 4 April 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    After a recall of the context and objectives of this audit performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation or CRE (legal framework, previously published opinion), this report first presents and comments the main evolutions of the European supply portfolio of GDF Suez in 2012: long term contracts to be negotiated again on significant volumes, a diversified portfolio with 30 per cent of short term purchases. In the second part, it analyses the adequacy between noticed and provisional supply costs on the one hand, and those estimated by means of the tariff formula for the calculation of natural gas sale regulated tariffs on the other hand. The third part gives recommendations regarding future decisions on the evolution of GDF-Suez natural gas regulated sale tariffs: discussion of the relevance of the formula used since January 2013, of perspectives for reviewing this tariff formula, of market share to be integrated, should the occasion occur, in the modified formula, and of the supply range to be taken into account

  13. Efficient lighting in buildings: The lack of legislation in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, António Manuel; Martins, António Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of building designers is conditioned by the existing legislation and regulations in the national context in which they operate. However, in the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight, and therefore, designers are not stimulated to adopt solutions that make use of the existing potential of sunlight availability. In the same way, it is difficult to understand the lack of specific regulation, with quantified targets, limiting power density of artificial lighting installed inside buildings. The present opportunity, generated by the need to carry out the revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation, should be used to fill the existing gap in national legislation regarding those matters. In this paper the authors present some proposals for future legislation that will have as central purpose the utilization of efficient lighting systems and the promotion of architectural solutions that optimize the use of daylighting. It is possible, and desirable, to add new directives to national legislation that contribute to the improvement of Portuguese buildings, characterized by its good performance in terms of daylight availability, and at the same time, increasing the energy efficiency and reducing the energy consumption of lighting systems installed in those buildings. - Highlights: • In the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight. • Lack of specific regulation limiting power density of artificial lighting. • Revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation. • Some proposals for future legislation. • Improvement of Portuguese buildings promoting energy efficiency

  14. Cost containment of pharmaceutical use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, A B; Morgall, J M; Grímsson, A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Iceland was the first Nordic country to liberalise its drug distribution system, in March 1996. Subsequent regulation in January 1997 increased patients' share of drug costs. The objectives of this study were to test the assumptions that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership would...... reimbursement costs before and after the legislation and regulation took effect. A control variable (the number of office visits to general practitioners) was tested to assess other events in the health care arena. Monthly data on these variables were provided by the Icelandic State Social Security Institute...... for January 1993 to August 1998 for reimbursement costs and to December 1998 for office visits to general practitioners. RESULTS: Reimbursement costs have risen steadily throughout the period under study. The interrupted time series analysis did not show a substantial effect from the legislative change...

  15. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of regulation changes in the northern EU area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-11-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the automatic identification system (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO (International Maritime Organization)-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 29%, from 320 kt to 231 kt, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 17%, from 72 kt to 61 kt. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the south-eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 87% in SOx emissions and a reduction of 48% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all IMO-registered shipping varied between 13% and 69%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  16. Audit report on GDF Suez's supply costs and non-supply related costs in natural gas regulated sale tariffs - May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    After having recalled the legal context of objectives of this audit performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), this report proposes an analysis of GDF Suez's dissociated accounting which showed that costs are covered by natural gas regulated sale tariffs. In the second part, it comments the current market indexing used in tariff formula, comments current and present negotiations and their consequences for the market indexing share in long term contracts, discusses the issue of tariff volatility related to an increased market indexing share, discusses the possible re-examination of indices at the occasion of formula reviewing, and outlines that the diversified supplier portfolio allows optimisation operations. The third part addresses non-supply related costs: evolution of different infrastructure costs (related to distribution, transport, and storage) to be taken into account in regulated sale tariffs, evolution of commercial costs. Some recommendations are then made regarding the perspective of a tariff formula revision, and the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs

  17. Social cost-efficient service quality-Integrating customer valuation in incentive regulation: Evidence from the case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, Christian; Jamasb, Tooraj; Mueller, Christine; Wissner, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    In order to overcome the perverse incentives of excessive maintenance reductions and insufficient network investments arising with incentive regulation of electricity distribution companies, regulators throughout Europe have started regulating service quality. In this paper, we explore the impact of incorporating customers' willingness-to-pay for service quality in benchmarking models on cost efficiency of distribution networks. Therefore, we examine the case of Norway, which features this approach to service quality regulation. We use the data envelopment analysis technique to analyse the effectiveness of such regulatory instruments. Moreover, we discuss the extent to which this indirect regulatory instrument motivates a socially desired service quality level. The results indicate that internalising external or social cost of service quality does not seem to have played an important role in improving cost efficiency in Norwegian distribution utilities.

  18. It's About Time for Autism Reform Legislation in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Brian J

    2015-05-01

    On 3 April 2014, Governor Gary Herbert signed into law a health insurance reform bill that requires private insurers to cover autism therapy. Specifically, SB57 requires state-regulated health plans to cover applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy. While early diagnosis and intervention can reduce the long-term cost of autism, families are finding themselves bankrupt in order to pay for ABA therapy. Currently, 37 states, and the District of Columbia have enacted insurance reform laws. Ensuring that children with autism receive proper therapy is a serious public health issue. Utah was right to pass reform legislation because it properly benefits and safeguards the interests of affected children in promoting their well-being and participation in society.

  19. Economic benefits, external costs and the regulation of unconventional gas in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronshaw, Ian; Grafton, R. Quentin

    2016-01-01

    We review the economic benefits and external costs of unconventional gas production (UCG) in the United States from a policy perspective. Based on an overview of state regulation in Pennsylvania, a state that has witnessed very rapid growth of gas production over the past 5 years, and global experiences we present 10 key principles that are proposed to reduce the risks and to increase the net rewards of UCG. Application of these principles has the potential to reduce the risks of UCG, especially at a local level, while maximizing the benefits of gas developments. - Highlights: • SWOT summary of unconventional gas developments. • Risks and returns of unconventional gas highlighted. • 10 principles given to reduce risks and increase rewards of gas extraction.

  20. Governance, veterinary legislation and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, M

    2012-08-01

    This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.

  1. Nuclear legislation and regulation - enactment and authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, E.

    1975-01-01

    Definition, development, and essential contents of the Atomic Energy Act. Main problems: integration of nuclear energy, control by the government, radiation protection, liability, insurance, international safe gurds. Brief outline of the German Atomic Energy Act. (HP) [de

  2. LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Zhyzhko

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic regulatory documents controlling the foreign investments in Ukraine are considered and the recommendations for their improvement are proposed. Main disadvantages of present situation retarding the investing in Ukraine are analyzed.

  3. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  4. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  5. Legislative aspects of RAPS supply by Australian electricity utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Regan, S.; Watt, M. [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

    1995-11-01

    The supply of power to residents of remote areas is an increasingly difficult issue for electricity utilities. The pressure on utilities to take a more commercial orientation rests uneasily with the significant losses many make on their rural networks. At the same time, recent developments in stand-alone power supply systems (RAPS) have made them a technically and economically viable alternative to remote grid extensions connections that are often both costly for the customer and uneconomic for the distributors. This paper reports on a recent review of electricity legislation in all Australian States and Territories which focused on issues relating to utility supply via RAPS systems, rather than grid connection. A study undertaken for NSW in 1994 indicated a number of impediments to the supply of electricity by alternative means, including existing regulations, pricing structures, lack of information and the culture and structure of the electricity distribution industry. However, the situation differs from State to State, both in the scope for grid alternatives and in the legislative framework under which supply authorities operate. Clarifying the situation in each State will facilitate the use of alternative means of supply, where these are appropriate. It will also assist the Australian electricity industry to diversify its functions and modes of operation to meet the rapid changes occurring in its marketplace, including industry restructuring, environmental constraints and changing customer service requirements. (author). 1 tab., 2 photos., 1 ref.

  6. Multidimensional Screening with Complementary Activities: Regulating a Monopolist with Unknown Cost and Unknown Preference for Empire Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Laussel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the optimal regulation of a monopolist when intrinsic efficiency (intrinsic cost and empire building tendency (marginal utility of output are private information, but actual cost (the difference between intrinsic cost and effort level is observable. This is a problem of multidimensional screening with complementary activities. Results are not only driven by the prior probabilities of the four possible types, but also by the relative magnitude of the uncertainty along the two dimensions of private information. If the marginal utility of output varies much more (less across managers than the intrinsic marginal cost, there is empire building (efficiency dominance. In that case, an inefficient empire builder produces more (less and at lower (higher marginal cost than an efficient money-seeker. It is only when variabilities are similar that there may be the natural ranking of activities (empire builders produce more, while efficient managers produce at a lower cost.

  7. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    - Poland: Organisation and structure; 7 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation, Nuclear security (Entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; Act No. 91/2016 Coll. on Criminal Responsibility of Legal Persons), Liability and compensation (Newly adopted Civil Procedural Code); 8 - Slovenia: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - including nuclear emergency planning (Decree on the program of the systematic monitoring of working and living environments and raising awareness about measures to reduce public exposure to natural radiation sources; Rules on authorised experts for radiation and nuclear safety); 9 - United States: General legislation, regulations and instruments (Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved a final rule amending licensing, inspection and annual fee regulations to establish a variable annual fee structure for light-water small modular reactors)

  8. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  9. 77 FR 69441 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...; Information Collection; Cost Accounting Standards Administration AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning cost accounting standards administration. Public comments are particularly... Information Collection 9000- 0129, Cost Accounting Standards Administration by any of the following methods...

  10. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  11. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  12. Legislation and regulatory infrastructure for the safety of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    The essential generic characteristics of a national legislative and regulatory system for the safety of radioactive waste management are defined and discussed. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management as well as other relevant international legal instruments and guidelines are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the following characteristics of a national legislative and regulatory system: (i) definition of responsibilities, (ii) financing of future costs, (iii) nuclear and radiation safety requirements, (iv) siting and licensing procedures, (v) regulatory functions, and (vi) international co-operation. It is concluded that there exists an internationally endorsed basis for establishing effective national legislation and regulatory infrastructures for the safety of radioactive waste management. It is underlined that the continuing internationalization of the nuclear industry stresses the need for national legislation and regulatory infrastructure to be based on such internationally endorsed principles and standards. It is pointed out that regulators are accountable to the public and have to gain public trust by being active in the public arena, demonstrating their competence and integrity. Finally, prescriptive and goal-oriented international safety regimes are briefly discussed in the light of experience so far gained with the Convention on Nuclear Safety. (author)

  13. Volatile organic compound emissions from wastewater treatment plants in Taiwan: legal regulations and costs of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Hsu, Shu-Kang; Chou, Ming-Shean

    2008-09-01

    This study assessed volatile organic compound (VOC) emission characteristics from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in five Taiwanese industrial districts engaged in numerous manufacturing processes, including petrochemical, science-based industry (primarily semiconductors, photo-electronics, electronic products and biological technology), as well as multiple manufacturing processes (primarily pharmaceuticals and paint manufacturing). The most aqueous hydrocarbons dissolved in the wastewater of Taiwanese WWTPs were acetone, acrylonitrile, methylene chloride, and chloroform for the petrochemical districts; acetone, chloroform, and toluene for the science-based districts; and chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons for the multiple industrial districts. The aqueous pollutants in the united WWTPs were closely related to the characteristics of the manufacturing plants in the districts. To effectively prevent VOC emissions from the primary treatment section of petrochemical WWTPs, the updated regulations governing VOC emissions were issued by the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration in September 2005, legally mandating a seal cover system incorporating venting and air purification equipment. Cost analysis indicates that incinerators with regenerative heat recovery are optimal for treating high VOC concentrations, exceeding 10,000 ppm as CH(4), from the oil separation basins. However, the emission concentrations, ranging from 100 to 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from the other primary treatment facilities and bio-treatment stages, should be collected and then injected into the biological oxidation basins via existing or new blowers. The additional capital and operating costs required to treat the VOC emissions of 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from primary treatment facilities are less than USD 0.1 for per m(3) wastewater treatment capacity.

  14. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  15. Trends in outdoor recreation legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Siehl

    1980-01-01

    The two decades which have passed since the era of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) have been active and fruitful in terms of Federal recreation legislation. The Commission and its final report "Outdoor Recreation for America" strongly influenced the burst of recreation legislation in the 1960's. Even today, the studies prepared...

  16. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  17. 78 FR 73451 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... costs to the Government in exchange for little or no value. Response: Research indicates the cost of... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules... by adding paragraph (m)(1) to read as follows: [[Page 73454

  18. 76 FR 60357 - Federal Regulations; OMB Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Circulars, OFPP Policy Letters, and CASB Cost Accounting Standards Included in the Semiannual Agenda of..., and Cost Accounting Standards Board (CASB) Cost Accounting Standards. OMB Circulars and OFPP Policy...,'' ``proposed rule,'' and ``final rule'' stages. CASB Cost Accounting Standards are issued under authority...

  19. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation; Maritimes Umweltstrafrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Grundlagen und deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  20. 78 FR 27307 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules--Clarification Regarding Information Collection Requirements; Correction AGENCY...

  1. Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined.

  2. Retrospective Study of the Costs of EPA Regulations: A Report of Four Case Studies (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report discusses the factors that may account for differences between projected and actual regulatory costs and presents the findings of four case studies that attempt to assess compliance cost retrospectively.

  3. 77 FR 2680 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Definition of Cost or Pricing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    .... 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of...--CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 3. Section 215.403 is amended by revising the section heading to read as follows...

  4. 77 FR 76939 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Definition of Cost or Pricing Data (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ..., distributive impacts, and equity). E.O. 13563 emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits... adding ``subject to certified cost or pricing data'' in its place. PART 215--CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION 0...

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  6. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. © 2014 AWHONN.

  7. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  8. Documentation of Accounting Records in Light of Legislative Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    K. V. BEZVERKHIY

    2017-01-01

    Legislative reforms in accounting aim to simplify accounting records and compilation of financial reports by business entities, thus increasing the position of Ukraine in the global ranking of Doing Business. This simplification is implied in the changes in the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records, entered into force to the Resolution of the Ukrainian Ministry of Finance. The objective of the study is to analyze the legislative innovations involved. The review of changes in docum...

  9. 78 FR 31550 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...; Submission for OMB Review; Travel Costs AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... collection requirement concerning Travel Costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 67366..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0088, Travel Costs by any...

  10. 78 FR 13606 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Unallowable Fringe Benefit Costs (DFARS Case...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... emphasizes the importance of quantifying both costs and benefits, of reducing costs, of harmonizing rules... small percentage of the entities receiving these awards would be submitting covered proposals containing... services. * * * * * (m)(1) Fringe benefit costs incurred or estimated that are contrary to law, employer...

  11. Minimum Wage Legislation, Enforcement and Labour Outcomes in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Minimum Wage Legislation, Enforcement and Labour Outcomes in Argentina, Costa Rica and South Africa. Labour market regulations, particularly minimum wage policies, remain highly contentious and poorly understood issues, both within academic and policy circles. Some argue that such regulations are effective ...

  12. Evaluating current knowledge of legislation and practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    maze of various legislative enactments and regulations. Specifically in. Gauteng, according to the Gauteng Health Care Waste Management. Regulations in terms of the Environment Conservation Act 73 of. 1989, the definition of 'pathological waste' includes human fetuses. [6]. This means that all fetal material resulting from ...

  13. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  14. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  15. Montgomery County Council Legislation - Bills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Council enacts local public laws for the ‘peace, good government, health, and welfare of the county’. The bills dataset contains all legislation considered by...

  16. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  17. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section compiles the presentations of the following texts sorted by country. Armenia - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: New design safety requirements adopted, New seismic hazard assessment guidelines adopted; France - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: Decree No. 2012-1248 of 9 November 2012 authorising the ITER Organisation to create the 'ITER' basic nuclear installation in Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (Bouches-du-Rhone); - Nuclear security: Law No. 2012-1473 of 28 December 2012 authorizing the approval of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Complementary safety assessments. Follow-up of the stress tests carried out on French nuclear power plants. Action Plan of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - December 2012; - International cooperation: Decree No. 2012-1178 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of the Republic of Tunisia for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed in Tunis on 23 April 2009; Decree No. 2012-1180 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of Mongolia in the field of nuclear energy (with annex), signed in Ulaanbaatar on 14 October 2010; Germany - General legislation: Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act to expedite the retrieval of radioactive waste from and to decommission the Asse II Mine (2013); Act to amend the Act on Environmental Legal Remedies and other environmental provisions (2013); - Radiation protection: General administrative rules on Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2012); - Nuclear Safety: Safety requirements for nuclear power plants (2012); - Transport of radioactive material: International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (2010, 2012); - Regulations on nuclear trade (including non-proliferation): Export List (2013); Greece

  18. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  19. Self-Regulation and Economic Stress in Children of Hispanic Immigrants and Their Peers: Better Regulation at a Cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadyen-Ketchum, Lisa Schlueter; Hurwich-Reiss, Eliana; Stiles, Allison A.; Mendoza, Marina M.; Badanes, Lisa S.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: Although there is a well-established relationship between economic stress and children's self-regulation, few studies have examined this relationship in children of Hispanic immigrants (COHIs), a rapidly growing population. In a sample of preschool children (N = 165), we examined whether economic stress predicted teacher…

  20. Estimation of avoidable skin cancers and cost-savings to government associated with regulation of the solarium industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Nicholas; Gordon, Louisa; Gies, Peter; Green, Adèle C

    2009-03-01

    In Australia there is growing concern about the expanding solarium industry, and the additive effect of persons seeking exposure to artificial ultraviolet radiation (UVR) against already intense background levels of solar UVR. We estimated the numbers of potential skin cancers prevented through regulation of solaria and the associated cost-savings to the Federal Government. A lifetime decision-analytic model was created using relative risk estimates based on a meta-analysis of the literature assessing the link between skin cancer risk and solarium use. The costs were limited to those incurred by Medicare Australia, for the medical care of individuals treated for skin cancer. With stricter regulations, we estimated between 18 and 31 melanomas, 200-251 squamous cell carcinomas and associated costs of $AU 256,054 would be avoided per 100,000 persons. Our base findings were sensitive to estimates for prevalence of use, skin cancer risk and discounting rates. Continued growth in the Australian solarium industry is likely to inflate the already substantial skin cancer burden. Subject to some limitations, our study indicates that by successfully enforcing solarium regulations to prohibit use by minors and by those with fair skin colour, the Federal Government could expect favourable cost and health benefits.

  1. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  2. Analysis of a global random stratified sample of nurse legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Fernández-Fernández, M P; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2015-06-01

    To identify, compare and contrast the major component parts of heterogeneous stratified sample of nursing legislation. Nursing legislation varies from one jurisdiction to another. Up until now no research exists into whether the variations of such legislation are random or if variations are related to a set of key attributes. This mixed method study used a random stratified sample of legislation to map through documentary analysis the content of 14 nursing acts and then explored, using quantitative techniques, whether the material contained relates to a number of key attributes. These attributes include: legal tradition of the jurisdiction; model of regulation; administrative approach; area of the world; and the economic status of the jurisdiction. Twelve component parts of nursing legislation were identified. These were remarkably similar irrespective of attributes of interest. However, not all component parts were specified in the same level of detail and the manner by which the elements were addressed did vary. A number of potential relationships between the structure of the legislation and the key attributes of interest were identified. This study generated a comprehensive and integrated map of a global sample of nursing legislation. It provides a set of descriptors to be used to undertake further quantitative work and provides an important policy tool to facilitate dialogue between regulatory bodies. At the individual nurse level it offers insights that can help nurses pursue recognition of credentials across jurisdictions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  3. 77 FR 58103 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... is determined that an upward adjustment is not required at this time. The historical estimates remain...; Submission for OMB Review; Corporate Aircraft Costs AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning corporate aircraft costs. A notice was published in the Federal Register at 77 FR 20012...

  4. 78 FR 43203 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Contract Funding-Limitation of Costs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... notification typically involves an observation of the contractors accounting and financial reporting system... probable cost overruns carries with it a duty to maintain an accounting and financial reporting system...; Contract Funding--Limitation of Costs/Funds AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services...

  5. Emission Control Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative-Fuel Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Quanlu; Sperling, Daniel; Olmstead, Janis

    1993-01-01

    Although various legislation and regulations have been adopted to promote the use of alternative-fuel vehicles for curbing urban air pollution problems, there is a lack of systematic comparisons of emission control cost-effectiveness among various alternative-fuel vehicle types. In this paper, life-cycle emission reductions and life-cycle costs were estimated for passenger cars fueled with methanol, ethanol, liquified petroleum gas, compressed natural gas, and electricity. Vehicle emission es...

  6. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  7. [Current legislation in the healthcare system 2015/2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martenstein, I; Wienke, A

    2016-05-01

    The energy of the legislator in the healthcare system was barely stoppable in 2015. Many new laws have been brought into force and legal initiatives have also been implemented. The Hospital Structure Act, the Treatment Enhancement Act, amendments of the official medical fee schedules for physicians, the Prevention Act, the E-Health Act, the Anti-corruption Act, the hospital admission guidelines and amendments of the model specialty training regulations are just some of the essential alterations that lie ahead of the medical community. This article gives a review of the most important new legislative regulations in the healthcare system and presents the fundamental consequences for the practice.

  8. MODEL-BASED VALIDATION AND VERIFICATION OF ANOMALIES IN LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An anomaly in legislation is absence of completeness, consistency and other desirable properties, caused by different semantic, syntactic or pragmatic reasons. In general, the detection of anomalies in legislation comprises validation and verification. The basic idea of research, as presented in this paper, is modelling legislation by capturing domain knowledge of legislation and specifying it in a generic way by using commonly agreed and understandable modelling concepts of the Unified Modelling Language (UML. Models of legislation enable to understand the system better, support the detection of anomalies and help to improve the quality of legislation by validation and verification. By implementing model-based approach, the object of validation and verification moves from legislation to its model. The business domain of legislation has two distinct aspects: a structural or static aspect (functionality, business data etc., and a behavioural or dynamic part (states, transitions, activities, sequences etc.. Because anomalism can occur on two different levels, on the level of a model, or on the level of legislation itself, a framework for validation and verification of legal regulation and its model is discussed. The presented framework includes some significant types of semantic and syntactic anomalies. Some ideas for assessment of pragmatic anomalies of models were found in the field of software quality metrics. Thus pragmatic features and attributes can be determined that could be relevant for evaluation purposes of models. Based on analogue standards for the evaluation of software, a qualitative and quantitative scale can be applied to determine the value of some feature for a specific model.

  9. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  10. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    In Spain, the socioeconomic losses due to natural hazards (floods, earthquakes or landslides) are considerable, and the indirect costs associated with them are rarely considered because they are very difficult to evaluate. The prevention of losses due to natural hazards is more economic and efficient through legislation and spatial planning rather than through structural measures, such as walls, anchorages or structural reinforcements. However, there isn't a Spanish natural hazards law and national and regional sector legislation make only sparse mention of them. After 1978, when the Spanish Constitution was enacted, the Autonomous Communities (Spanish regions) were able to legislate according to the different competences (urban planning, environment or civil protection), which were established in the Constitution. In the 1990's, the Civil Protection legislation (national law and regional civil protection tools) dealt specifically with natural hazards (floods, earthquakes and volcanoes), but this was before any soil, seismic or hydrological studies were recommended in the national sector legislation. On the other hand, some Autonomous Communities referred to natural hazards in the Environmental Impact Assessment legislation (EIA) and also in the spatial and urban planning legislation and tools. The National Land Act, enacted in 1998, established, for the first time, that those lands exposed to natural hazards should be classified as non-developable. The Spanish recast text of the Land Act, enacted by Royal Legislative Decree 2/2008, requires that a natural hazards map be included in the Environmental Sustainability Report (ESR), which is compulsory for all master plans, according to the provisions set out by Act 9/2006, known as Spanish Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Consequently, the environmental legislation, after the aforementioned transposition of the SEA European Directive 2001/42/EC, is the legal framework to prevent losses due to natural hazards

  11. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  12. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  13. 40 CFR 1508.17 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislation. 1508.17 Section 1508.17 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.17 Legislation. Legislation includes a bill or legislative proposal to Congress developed by or with the significant...

  14. Report on ENGIE's regulated tariffs for gas sale - Audit supply costs and non-supply related costs. Deliberation of the Commission for energy regulation on the 25 May 2016 bearing approval of the audit report on supply costs and non-supply related costs as basis for the calculation of the evolution of ENGIE's regulated tariffs for natural gas sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladoucette, Philippe De; Edwige, Catherine; Gassin, Helene; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-01

    After a recall of the context and objectives of the analysis performed by the French Commission for Energy Regulation (CRE), and a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions, this report first proposes an assessment for 2015 by discussing the share of consumptions provided under the regulated tariff with respect to those provided on the retail market, the evolution of these tariffs, by noticing that ENGIE costs have been covered by income associated with sales at regulated tariffs. The second part addresses perspectives of evolution for supply costs by outlining the existence of market indexing, the lack of factors which would justify an evolution of gas price indexing level, and a possible reviewing of indices at the moment of revision of the indexing formula. The third part addresses the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs. It notices the impact of recent evolution of infrastructure costs, some lack of information regarding provisional trade costs, and a significant decrease of these costs for 2016

  15. Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyssen, Peter J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

  16. Model Legislation on Student Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education in the States, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Because of the radical variance in residency requirements from state to state and sometimes from institution to institution, and because of several court cases involving this issue, the Education Commission of the States appointed a Committee to develop (1) a statement of principles for consideration in drafting legislation in connection with…

  17. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  18. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  19. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemoğlu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA’s authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. PMID:25550419

  20. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  1. 78 FR 60173 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Allowability of Legal Costs for Whistleblower Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... (NDAA) for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 that addresses the allowability of legal costs incurred by a contractor... a finding of contractor liability where the proceeding involves an allegation of fraud or similar... involve an allegation of fraud or similar misconduct; * * * * * BILLING CODE 6820-EP-P ...

  2. 76 FR 18260 - Draft 2011 Report to Congress on the Benefits and Costs of Federal Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... analysis'' when quantification is not possible, with such analysis defined as the specification of how high... should consider the use of cost- effectiveness analysis and, specifically, the development of estimates... technological means. 6. In order to promote trade and exports, agencies should promote regulatory cooperation...

  3. The effect of CO2 regulations on the cost of corn ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevin, R. J.; Mueller, S.

    2008-04-01

    To explore the effect of CO2 price on the effective cost of ethanol production we have developed a model that integrates financial and emissions accounting for dry-mill corn ethanol plants. Three policy options are modeled: (1) a charge per unit of life cycle CO2 emissions, (2) a charge per unit of direct biorefinery emissions only, and (3) a low carbon fuel standard (LCFS). A CO2 charge on life cycle emissions increases production costs by between 0.005 and 0.008 l-1 per 10 Mg-1 CO2 price increment, across all modeled plant energy systems, with increases under direct emissions somewhat lower in all cases. In contrast, a LCFS increases the cost of production for selected plant energy systems only: a LCFS requiring reductions in average fuel global warming intensity (GWI) with a target of 10% below the 2005 baseline increases the production costs for coal-fired plants only. For all other plant types, the LCFS operates as a subsidy. The findings depend strongly on the magnitude of a land use change adder. Some land use change adders currently discussed in the literature will push the GWI of all modeled production systems above the LCFS target, flipping the CO2 price from a subsidy to a tax.

  4. Environmental Legislation in China: Achievements, Challenges and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Mu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the environmental legislation of many developed countries, China’s environmental legislation was initiated late, beginning in 1979, but nevertheless has obtained considerable achievements. As many as thirty environmental laws have provided rules regarding prevention and control of pollution, resource utilization, and ecological protection in China. However, China’s environmental legislation still faces a series of challenges and problems, including that the sustainable development concept has not yet been fully implemented, as well as presence of gaps and non-coordination phenomena between laws and regulations, unclear responsibility, imperfect system design, imbalance between rights and obligations, higher impacts resulted from the GDP-centralized economy, lack of operability and instruments in the legal content, as well as difficulty of public participation. In contrast, China’s environmental legislation has improved, as a result of learning from experience in developed countries and introducing innovations stimulated by domestic environmental pressure. Looking into the future, increased attention to environmental protection and ecological consciousness paid by China’s new leaders will bring a valuable opportunity to China’s further development concerning environmental legislation. In the future, there are prospects for the gradual improvement of legal approaches, continuous improvements of legislation to mitigate environmental problems, and more opportunities to strengthen public participation can be predicted.

  5. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: Cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Velde, G.; Cote, P.; Bayoumi, A.M.; Cassidy, J.D.; Boyle, E.; Shearer, H.M.; Stupar, M.; Jacobs, C.; Ammendolia, C.; Carette, S.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the

  6. Economic Costs and Adaptations for Alternative Regulations of California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy K. Tanaka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Stacy K. Tanaka, Christina R. Connell–Buck, Kaveh Madani, Josue Medellín-Azuara, Jay R. Lund, and Ellen Hanakdoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2014v9iss2art4Water exports from California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta are an environmental concern because they reduce net outflows of fresh water from the Delta, and can entrain fish and disrupt flows within the Delta. If exports were no longer pumped from within the Delta, the regulatory issue becomes one of maintaining appropriate flows into and out of the Delta. This paper presents the results of two sets of hydro-economic optimization modeling runs, which were developed to represent a range of modified Delta operations and their economic and operational effects on California’s water supply system. The first set of runs represents decreasing export capacity from the Delta. The second set increases minimum net Delta outflow (MNDO requirements. The hydro-economic model seeks the least–cost statewide water management scheme for water supply, including a wide range of resources and water management options. Results show that reducing exports or increasing MNDO requirements increase annual average statewide water scarcity, scarcity costs, and operating costs (from greater use of desalination, wastewater recycling, water treatment, and pumping. Effects of reduced exports are especially concentrated in agricultural communities in the southern Central Valley because of their loss of access to overall water supply exports and their ability to transfer remaining water to southern California. Increased outflow requirements increase water scarcity and associated costs throughout California. For an equivalent amount of average Delta outflows, statewide costs increase more rapidly when exports alone are reduced than when minimum outflow requirements are increased and effects are more widely distributed statewide.

  7. Fighting falsified medicines with paperwork - a historic review of Danish legislation governing distribution of medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borup, Rasmus; Kaae, Susanne; Minssen, Timo; Traulsen, Janine

    2016-01-01

    Many areas of pharmaceutical legislation in the European Union (EU) are harmonised in order to promote the internal market and protect public health. Ideally, harmonisation leads to less fragmented regulation and cross-border complexities. This study, however, focuses on an increasingly harmonised legislative area that is subject to increases in requirements and complexities: the distribution of medicines. This study compared Danish legislation governing the distribution of medicines before and after Denmark joined the EU in order to assess the impact of EU harmonisation, as well as to evaluate whether the drastic increases in requirements mandated by the Falsified Medicines Directive of 2011 correspond to a new approach to governing the pharmaceutical supply chain. A review was conducted of 115 applicable Danish laws, executive orders and guidelines from 1913 to 2014. Legal requirements were organised according to the year they were published and the companies they affected. Greater changes in legislative requirements were developed through inductive content analysis. Early legislation positioned pharmacies as gatekeepers, requiring them to identify and stop medicines of substandard quality. Legislation to regulate the supply chain was slow to materialise. After Denmark joined the EU, the scope of legislation widened to include all actors in the supply chain, and the quantity of legislation increased dramatically. Simultaneously, requirements became more specific, thereby promoting a formalistic interpretation and focusing the attention of companies and authorities on predefined areas with little room to implement innovative solutions. Over time, documentation became the focus of legislation, requiring companies to provide documentary evidence for their compliance with legislation. The Falsified Medicines Directive continues these trends by increasing requirements for documentation and promoting a formalistic interpretation. The legislative approach adopted since

  8. Legislative and technical aspects of mutagenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, V W; Flamm, W G

    1975-08-01

    A brief account is given of the history of the legislative acts that give responsibility to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ensuring the safety of foods, drugs, and cosmetics. Within the present legislative framework the FDA has the authority to impose regulations which are designed to ensure the safety of all foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The existing legislative authority is adequate for this purpose; however, the difficulty lies instead with technology and the inadequacy of scientific perspective in the emerging area of mutagenicity testing. Earlier efforts in development of mutagenicity screening systems culminated only a few years ago in the proposal to use the host-mediated assay, somatic cell cytogenetics, and dominant lethal tests collectively. Subsequent research efforts indicated that there were serious practical and scientific deficiencies in using this approach. More recently a new proposal, the tier system, has been suggested as an alternative measure. The proposed tier system at FDA consists of three testing levels of increasing complexity. The first tier is an initial screening effort using techniques having maximum sensitivity that are also useful for large-scale, rapid testing. The second tier is designed to identify and confirm that the presumptive mutagens detected in the first tier are truly mutagenic for higher organisms, most especially, for mammals. The third tier would be devoted to explicit genetic tests in mammals designed to ascertain the imposed risk to man by the introduction of a mutagen in our environment. The FDA is currently involved in a number of research activities in the area of mutagenicity safety screening which will explore the adequacies and possible deficiencies of the tier system approach. These efforts are described for our in-house activities, our contract activities, and our cooperative and collaborative activities with other government agencies and institutions.

  9. A multioutput cost function for port terminals : some guidelines for regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    Cargo handling in ports is a multi-output activity, as freight can arrive in many forms such as containers, bulk, rolling stock, or non-containerized general cargo. Port regulation is not an easy task considering the diversity of activities that occu...

  10. Recent Developments in EU Environmental Policy and Legislation (Jan.)

    OpenAIRE

    Gordeeva, Yelena

    2015-01-01

    The article briefly describes the significant political initiatives and acts of legislation in the environmental field adopted from June until November, 2014 Hasselt University 2030 Climate and Energy Policy; EU timber regulation; “Circular Economy” Package; New European Commission; Fuel Quality Directive; EU Air Quality Directive; Lima Climate Conference; water reuse

  11. Fraud in the provision of travel services – a consequence of gaps in the legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klymenko Olga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents analysis of the Ukrainian legislation in the field of tourism and the impact of existing legislative gaps on the commitment of fraud in the provision of travel services. The issue of legal regulation of criminal legal security of the tourism industry was considered. Means of combating crimes in this area were defined and prospects for improving national legislation on tourism activities were outlined.

  12. The costs of uncertainty: regulating health and safety in the Canadian uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.

    1982-04-01

    Federalism, and particularly federal/provincial jurisdictional relationships, have led to considerable uncertainty in the regulation of occupational health and safety and of environmental protection in the Canadian uranium mining industry. The two principal uranium producing provinces in Canada are Saskatchewan and Ontario. Since 1978, in an attempt to avoid constitutional issues, both these provinces and the federal government as well have proceeded unilaterally with health and safety reforms for the industry. In Saskatchewan this has resulted in areas of overlapping jurisdiction, which have led to uncertainty over the legal enforceability of the provincial regulations. In Ontario, the province has left significant gaps in the protection of both workers and the environment. Little progress can be expected in eliminating these gaps and overlaps until the current administrative and jurisdictional arrangements are understood

  13. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention in nat...... depends on the community’s resource endowments. These endowments are defined not only in terms of users’ current wealth accumulation but also from their expected ability to extract utility from natural resources over time....

  14. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  15. Legislators Urge Carbon Emissions Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    Legislators from the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries met on 14-15 February in Washington, D.C., to discuss the future of the global climate and strategies to mitigate temperature increases resulting from global warming. The world faces a ``double challenge-how to reduce damaging carbon emissions while still meeting the energy demand that the world's poor need to escape poverty,'' said World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz during a keynote talk.

  16. An estimated cost of lost climate regulation services caused by thawing of the Arctic cryosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Goodstein, Eban S; Huntington, Henry P

    2013-12-01

    Recent and expected changes in Arctic sea ice cover, snow cover, and methane emissions from permafrost thaw are likely to result in large positive feedbacks to climate warming. There is little recognition of the significant loss in economic value that the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, snow, and permafrost will impose on humans. Here, we examine how sea ice and snow cover, as well as methane emissions due to changes in permafrost, may potentially change in the future, to year 2100, and how these changes may feed back to influence the climate. Between 2010 and 2100, the annual costs from the extra warming due to a decline in albedo related to losses of sea ice and snow, plus each year's methane emissions, cumulate to a present value cost to society ranging from US$7.5 trillion to US$91.3 trillion. The estimated range reflects uncertainty associated with (1) the extent of warming-driven positive climate feedbacks from the thawing cryosphere and (2) the expected economic damages per metric ton of CO2 equivalents that will be imposed by added warming, which depend, especially, on the choice of discount rate. The economic uncertainty is much larger than the uncertainty in possible future feedback effects. Nonetheless, the frozen Arctic provides immense services to all nations by cooling the earth's temperature: the cryosphere is an air conditioner for the planet. As the Arctic thaws, this critical, climate-stabilizing ecosystem service is being lost. This paper provides a first attempt to monetize the cost of some of those lost services.

  17. When renewable energy met sustainable growth. Regulation, cost reduction, and the rise of renewable energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Historically and famously fossil-fuel dependent, the U.S. energy and electricity mixes are evolving quickly as costs fall for renewables, regulations mandate their implementation, and fiscal policy incentivizes their installation. The investment and production tax credits (ITC and PTC) as well as power purchase agreements (PPAs) are well-known for their contributions to the development of solar and wind capacity, and the recent extensions of these credits has led to a positive outlook for continued growth in installations and generation. In addition, the green power market is experiencing record participation, as tracking the positive environmental externalities of renewable power has become important to meet renewable portfolio standards, which mandate implementation of renewable energy by state. Cost reduction is further taking place globally due to technological advances and economies of scale, which serves as another key driver for development. Of course, challenges are still present, particularly due to a plentiful and inexpensive domestic fossil fuel supply, uneven application of regulation and incentives state-by-state, and the uncertainty of continued political support. Even so, a progressive lowering of traditional barriers is leading to the potential for widespread deployment of renewables across the American landscape. (author)

  18. Progress in Slovak nuclear legislation in 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the legislative area, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic focused on 3 basic topics. First, the Slovak Atomic Act (Act No. 541/2004 on peaceful use of nuclear energy) was amended to include provisions of Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom. The key changes concerned the definition of a nuclear installation, introduction of a definition of safety culture, detailed specification of administrative, technical, organisational and financial requirements for licensees aimed to ensure nuclear safety quality management. Second, preparatory work was done on 2 new regulations: regulation on the requirements for nuclear safety and regulation on quality management. Third, regulations encompassing changes in the Atomic Act were prepared. (orig.)

  19. Tracking Diurnal Variation in Photosynthetic Down-Regulation Using Low Cost Spectroscopic Instrumentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin van Leeuwen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE has gained wide interest as an input to modeling forest gross primary productivity (GPP. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI has been identified as a principle means to inform LUE-based models, using airborne and satellite-based observations of canopy reflectance. More recently, low-cost electronics have become available with the potential to provide for dense in situ time-series measurements of PRI. A recent design makes use of interference filters to record light transmission within narrow wavebands. Uncertainty remains as to the dynamic range of these sensors and performance under low light conditions, the placement of the reference band, and methodology for reflectance calibration. This paper presents a low-cost sensor design and is tested in a laboratory set-up, as well in the field. The results demonstrate an excellent performance against a calibration standard (R2 = 0.9999 and at low light conditions. Radiance measurements over vegetation demonstrate a reversible reduction in green reflectance that was, however, seen in both the reference and signal wavebands. Time-series field measurements of PRI in a Douglas-fir canopy showed a weak correlation with eddy-covariance-derived LUE and a significant decline in PRI over the season. Effects of light quality, bidirectional scattering effects, and possible sensor artifacts on PRI are discussed.

  20. Tracking diurnal variation in photosynthetic down-regulation using low cost spectroscopic instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Martin; Kremens, Robert L; van Aardt, Jan

    2015-05-05

    Photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE) has gained wide interest as an input to modeling forest gross primary productivity (GPP). The photochemical reflectance index (PRI) has been identified as a principle means to inform LUE-based models, using airborne and satellite-based observations of canopy reflectance. More recently, low-cost electronics have become available with the potential to provide for dense in situ time-series measurements of PRI. A recent design makes use of interference filters to record light transmission within narrow wavebands. Uncertainty remains as to the dynamic range of these sensors and performance under low light conditions, the placement of the reference band, and methodology for reflectance calibration. This paper presents a low-cost sensor design and is tested in a laboratory set-up, as well in the field. The results demonstrate an excellent performance against a calibration standard (R2 = 0.9999) and at low light conditions. Radiance measurements over vegetation demonstrate a reversible reduction in green reflectance that was, however, seen in both the reference and signal wavebands. Time-series field measurements of PRI in a Douglas-fir canopy showed a weak correlation with eddy-covariance-derived LUE and a significant decline in PRI over the season. Effects of light quality, bidirectional scattering effects, and possible sensor artifacts on PRI are discussed.

  1. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacetl J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jaroslav Kacetl,1 Petra Maresova2 1Department of Applied Linguistics, 2Department of Economics, Faculty of Informatics and Management, University of Hradec Kralove, Hradec Kralove, Czech Republic Introduction: The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas.Aim: This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens.Methods: The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU and the US.Results: Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body – the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement. Keywords: senior citizen, medical devices, legislation, ethical aspects

  2. Report on gas sales regulated tariffs of historical providers (others than GDF Suez). Analysis of supply costs and of non-supply related costs - May 2015. Deliberation of the Commission for Energy Regulation of the 27 May 2015 bearing approval of the report of analysis of supply and non-supply related costs used as a basis for the calculation of the evolution of natural gas sales regulated tariffs of historical providers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwige, Catherine; Padova, Yann; Sotura, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    After a presentation of the context and objectives of works performed by the CRE (the French commission for energy regulation), and a synthetic presentation of the main conclusions, this report first proposes an assessment for 2014 by presenting and discussing the distribution of costs taken into account in regulated tariffs of historic providers, and by noticing that the CRE is able to give its opinion on cost coverage by revenues only for a limited number of providers. The second part proposes an analysis of provider supply conditions and their evolution perspectives. The last part addresses the perspectives of evolution of non-supply related costs

  3. The relevance of introducing opposition proceedings into the Serbian trademark legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the quality of certain legal procedures applied in domestic trademark legislation in the light of harmonizing our legislation with those of the EU. Trademark Law in the Republic of Serbia (2009 does not rely on opposition proceedings as a phase in the process of trademark registration and a tool that would ensure that only those trademarks that fulfill the necessary conditions are granted legal protection. Intellectual Property Office examines the so-called relative grounds for trademark registration refusal but does so ex officio, thus preventing the holders of trademark rights from benefiting from a relatively inexpensive and effective opposition procedure regarding the registration of a second trademark which violates their previously established rights. In contrast to our trademark laws, EU Council Regulation 207/2009 on Community Trademarks of February 26, 2009 (CTMR -Community trademark regulation enforces opposition proceedings as the most important phase in the process of trademark registration. European experience shows that opposition proceedings carry significant benefits for the process of trademark application. First of all, they allow the holders of previously established trademark rights to avoid long and costly court proceedings whose purpose is to dispute trademarks that violate the owner's rights. Also, state agencies authorizing in trademark approval no longer need to monitor registered trademarks.

  4. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  5. Case study of the effects of public safety regulation on the construction costs of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Regulations intended to reduce the number of accidents at nuclear plants and the discharge of sulfur and particulate wastes at coal-fired power plants have become an important cause of construction cost escalation. Measuring the costs of these regulatory interventions is a difficult research task. The three-unit Bruce Mansfield coal-fired plant and the two-unit Beaver Valley nuclear power station located in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, provide a unique opportunity for a case study of the costs of regulation in the construction of both kinds of plants. The units of each plant were built sequentially over a period of intensifying regulation. The method used to measure the costs of public safety regulation in the construction of each kind of plant is to determine the connections between the issuances of the regulatory agencies (EPA and NRC) and cost escalations of succeeding units. The small cost escalations of the Mansfield 3 unit, in comparison to the massive costs of the Beaver Valley 2 unit, suggest that the design and construction of new coal-fired plants are not disrupted by regulatory interventions nearly as extensively as are nuclear units. Certain technical features of Beaver Valley 2, especially its small size and a design that is identical to the first unit's, further contribute to its cost escalations

  6. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows for greater policy change.......This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent...

  7. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how institutional constraints affect legislative activism and how legislative activism in turn affects policy change through an analysis of the European Union's legislative process. The argument revolves around the key role of the European Commission in advancing...... policy change, and emphasises that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from the period 1984–2012, the article shows...... that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposals, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU's legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity...

  8. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  9. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemoğlu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-03-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packaging and, most recently, of a proposed rule that would assert FDA's authority over tobacco products other than cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. Given the controversy over the FDA's approach to assessing net economic benefits in its proposed and final rules on GWLs and the importance of having economic impact analyses prepared in accordance with sound economic analysis, a group of prominent economists met in early 2014 to review that approach and, where indicated, to offer suggestions for an improved analysis. We concluded that the analysis of the impact of GWLs on smoking substantially underestimated the benefits and overestimated the costs, leading the FDA to substantially underestimate the net benefits of the GWLs. We hope that the FDA will find our evaluation useful in subsequent analyses, not only of GWLs but also of other regulations regarding tobacco products. Most of what we discuss applies to all instances of evaluating the costs and benefits of tobacco product regulation and, we believe, should be considered in FDA's future analyses of proposed rules. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. The marginal cost of operation: a parameter for evaluating and regulating of the generation work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, W.M.; Mendes, L.N.F.; Almeida Gattass, E. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Generator System is predominantly hydroelectric, with some reservoirs having a pluri annual regularization, providing a large storage capacity of potential power for the system. This water storage allows the reduction of the alertly effect from the natural flow over the hydraulic resources for electric power production. Due to this structural characteristic, the main operation problem of the system refers to a strategical determination of storage energy utilization and, consequently, the thermal generation level. This paper examines the theoretical concepts referring to the survey of this operation strategies and analyses the factors for improving. These concepts are also extended for the interconnected electric subsystems case, mainly the interchange effect over the operation strategies of each subsystem. Finally, the natural flow sample influence over the marginal cost is analysed, comparing the obtained values with the historical sample and synthetical series of affluence. (C.G.C.). 7 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  12. 38 CFR 13.3 - State legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State legislation. 13.3... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.3 State legislation. Field facility Directors are authorized to... regarding any proposed legislation relating to fiduciary matters will be taken without the approval of the...

  13. 46 CFR 67.132 - Special legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special legislation. 67.132 Section 67.132 Shipping... legislation. (a) Vessels not otherwise entitled to be operated in the coastwise trade or in the fisheries may obtain these privileges as a result of special legislation by the Congress of the United States. (b) In...

  14. 29 CFR 11.14 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legislation. 11.14 Section 11.14 Labor Office of the... Administrative Procedures § 11.14 Legislation. Notwithstanding any provisions of this part, environmental assessments or impact statements prepared in connection with requests for new legislation or modification of...

  15. 50 CFR 80.3 - Assent legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assent legislation. 80.3 Section 80.3... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.3 Assent legislation. A State may participate in the benefits of the Act(s) only after it has passed legislation which assents to the provisions...

  16. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  17. 33 CFR 276.5 - Legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislative history. 276.5 Section 276.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Legislative history. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the reports by the Senate Committee on...

  18. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  19. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  20. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...... variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote....

  1. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, April 1993--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-09-01

    This is the seventh report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the April 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period April 1, 1993--August 31, 1993. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. A copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  2. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  3. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  4. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  5. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation. [WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted.

  6. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, September 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthley, J.A.; Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1994-07-01

    This is the eighth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the September 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period September 1, 1993--June 30, 1994. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of August 1994. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 and 1994 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices and changes in federal regulations pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  7. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  8. Research on the Legislation of Chinese Space Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongwen

    2002-01-01

    1 Need and necessity for the legislation of Chinese space activities --Complying with UN treaties and principles on outer space --Adapting to the requirements of market economy --Promoting the further development of Chinese space activities --Developing international space cooperation 2 Research method for legislation of Chinese space activities The research method is ROCCIPI. This method was introduced into China with the project "Legislation Supports Economy Reform" supported by the UN Office of Development Planning - By analyzing the correlations among the seven factors: Rule, Opportunity, Capacity, Communication, Interest, Process and Ideology, the optimal legal measures can be found . Such analysis and research works on the master law of Chinese space activities have been made in the paper. 3 Research of international treaties &principles on outer space, and of national space laws of other countries. Studies have been made in this paper on many aspects of international outer space laws, such as framework, development stage, current characteristics, new problems will be faced with in new century, and development tendency in the future, etc. Based on the investigation and study of national space laws of other countries, analyses and researches on national space law have been made in the paper from some aspects, such as legislative purpose, legislative aim, legislative form, legislative content and etc, and some enlightenments, which can be used for reference in the legislation of Chinese Space Laws, are found. 4 Framework of Chinese Space Laws The jurisdiction of Chinese Space Laws lies in three areas: space technology - space applications and space science. Chinese Space Laws are divided into 3 levels: Master law, Administration Regulations of the State Council of the P.R.C, Rules of governmental sectors. 5 Conclusions and Suggestions --The legislation of Chinese Space Activities should be strengthened --More attentions should be paid to the research work in

  9. Development of the competitive business in the context of environmental legislation in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesić, Mirjana; Kalambura, Sanja; Bacun, Dubravka

    2014-03-01

    Environmental protection has a key role in the context of crisis management. It is not just about development of the industry of environmental protection and implementation of new ways of management in innovative solutions in solving problems. Important area of improvement is also revision of environmental legislation aiming at simplification and reduction of costs of procedures for the business. This paper discusses problems of business sector in Croatia related to transposition of demanding environmental EU regulation, it suggests improvements such as simplification of special waste management systems, of environmental impact assessments processes, environmental permitting etc. The paper considers revision of environmental protection not by lowering environmental standards, but by introducing transparent and compromising models between business and environmental protection, based on sustainable development, with control mechanisms which don't impact functioning of business sector (and its competitiveness), therefore allowing successful protection of environment and its renewable and non-renewable resources.

  10. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  11. Critical Care Nurses' Knowledge of Confidentiality Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Angela B; Kjervik, Diane K

    2016-05-01

    Health care legislation can be difficult to understand and apply in critical situations where patients may not be physically capable of autonomous control of confidential health information. Nurses are often the first to encounter confidential information about patients. To explore critical care nurses' knowledge of federal and North Carolina state legislation regarding confidentiality. This descriptive, qualitative study included 12 critical care nurses who were asked to describe their knowledge of federal confidentiality legislation and specific knowledge of North Carolina's confidentiality legislation. Critical care nurses were knowledgeable about federal confidentiality laws but demonstrated a need for further education about state-specific legislation. Nurses' application of confidentiality legislation demonstrates their knowledge of confidentiality legislation. To continue the trusting relationship that nurses have traditionally held with patients and patients' families, it is imperative for nurses to remain current about confidentiality legislation. Through education both before and after licensure, correct application of legislation can be achieved. Further research can aid in exploring the intersection between health care legislation and ethics. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. [New Croatian legislation on tissue banking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busić, Mirela

    2007-12-01

    regarding quality and safety for procurement, testing, processing and distribution of human tissues and cells for therapeutic purposes according to the required standards; Ordinance on Storing Personal Data of Donors and Recipients of Human Body Parts (OG 141/05), Ordinance on Cooperation with Related Foreign and International Organisations for the Purpose of Exchanging Organs and Human Tissues for Transplantation (OG 141/05), Ordinance on Measures to Ensure Safety and Quality of Human Body Parts for Medical Use COG 143/05), Ordinance on Distribution Principles of Unrelated Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cells and the Register of Potential Bone Marrow Donors COG 151/05), Ordinance on Distribution Criteria of Human Body Parts and Compilation of a National Waiting List (OG 152/05), Ordinance on the Method of Storage and Transportation of Human Body Parts Intended for Transplantation COG 152/05), Ordinance on Keeping Medical Documentation on Performed Removals and Transplants of Human Body Parts COG 152/05), Ordinance on Notification Procedures of the Death of Eligible Human Body Part Donors for Therapeutic Purposes (OG 152/05), Ordinance on the Work of Tissue Banks with and Supervision over Health Care Institutes or Divisions of Health Care Institutes COG 1/06), Ordinance on Method, Procedure and Medical Criteria for Death Determination of Body Part Donors for Transplants COG 3/06), and Ordinance on the Work of Coordinators in the Procedure of Removal and Transplantation of Human Body Parts for Therapeutic Purposes COG 51/06). The Croatian legislation is greatly consistent with the legislation of the European Union regarding this field. In the above mentioned law and decrees, Croatia has a legal foundation for regulating this field in compliance with EU standards.

  13. Conhecimento dos farmacêuticos sobre legislação sanitária e regulamentação da profissão Pharmacists' knowledge of sanitary legislation and professional regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Rodrigues da Silva

    2004-06-01

    exercício da profissão, sem ameaças penais ou prejuízo da população.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the profile of pharmacists employed as technical supervisors in drugstores and evaluate their knowledge regarding certain aspects of the legislation controlling drugstores and the profession in general. METHODS: Based on 175 drugstores in the city of Ribeirão Preto, southeastern Brazil, 100 pharmacists/technical supervisors were randomly selected. Data collection was done by means of in-person interviews, and was guided by a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and attitudes. Data were processed and analyzed using Epi Info and Stata software. Associations were sought between dependent and independent variables using Pearson's chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Most pharmacists were women (64%, aged 22-29 years (47%, graduated approximately three years prior to data collection, trained to work in the pharmaceutical industry (36% or in clinical analysis (29%. Pharmacist's knowledge of sanitary legislation was considered as insufficient for 28% of subjects, regular for 50%, and good for 22%. Low levels of knowledge were observed regarding the legal requirement for the presence of a pharmacist during the entire drugstore opening hours, pharmacists' attributions, sale of antibiotics, and penicillin administration. It was found that most professionals have difficulties handling the concepts of 'generic' and 'similar' drugs. Low level of knowledge was not associated with any of the independent variables, indicating that this is a generalized phenomenon, i.e., one present among pharmacists of all age groups and both sexes, irrespective of the time since graduation, institution attended, and modality of graduation, among others. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that training in the field of drug pharmaceutical care, during undergraduate studies and, especially, during traineeship in pharmacies and drugstores is deficient. It is necessary to divulge information concerning

  14. Low-Cost Air Quality Monitoring Methods to Assess Compliance With Smoke-Free Regulations: A Multi-Center Study in Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Bleymann, Kayleigh; Lyall, Elaine; Aslam, Fouad; Bam, Tara Singh; Chowdhury, Ishrat; Daouda, Elhadj Adam; Espinosa, Mariana; Romo, Jonathan; Singh, Rana J; Semple, Sean

    2016-05-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have enacted legislation banning smoking in public places, yet enforcement remains challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology (the Dylos DC1700) to provide objective evidence of smoke-free (SF) law compliance in hospitality venues in urban LMIC settings, where outdoor air pollution levels are generally high. Teams measured indoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and systematically observed smoking behavior and SF signage in a convenience sample of hospitality venues (bars, restaurants, cafes, and hotels) covered by existing SF legislation in Mexico, Pakistan, Indonesia, Chad, Bangladesh, and India. Outdoor air PM2.5 was also measured on each sampling day. Data were collected from 626 venues. Smoking was observed during almost one-third of visits with substantial differences between countries-from 5% in India to 72% in Chad. After excluding venues where other combustion sources were observed, secondhand smoke (SHS) derived PM2.5 was calculated by subtracting outdoor ambient PM2.5 concentrations from indoor measurements and was, on average, 34 µg/m(3) in venues with observed smoking-compared to an average value of 0 µg/m(3) in venues where smoking was not observed (P hospitality venues in LMICs. Air quality monitoring can provide objective scientific data on SHS and air quality levels in venues to assess the effectiveness of SF laws and identify required improvements. Equipment costs and high outdoor air pollution levels have hitherto limited application in LMICs. This study tested the feasibility of using a validated low-cost methodology in hospitality venues in six LMIC urban settings and suggests this is a viable method for improving knowledge about SHS exposure and can provide indicative data on compliance with SF legislation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and

  15. Reforming Labor Legislation of the Belarus Republic: some problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motina E. V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several directions of reforming the Belarusian labor legislation are considered in this article, taking into account so urgent politics of flexicurity. For that reason causes of giving flexibility to legal regulation of employment agreement termination are explored. The conclusion is made about the necessity of taking into account the objective criteria of differentiation by determining the specifics of separate employers’ categories in the situation of labor relations termination

  16. Pension legislation for federal public servants in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jardim, Maria Aparecida Chaves [UNESP; Jard, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the creation of pension funds for federal civil servants in Brazil, analyzing the existing legislation and regulation on this issue. To this end, it takes off based on the genesis of the Brazilian private pension plans, logging the emergence of private funds as well as the existence of various laws and constitutional amendments prior to Law 12.618/2012, which provided for the pension funds system for Brazilian federal public servants. It also identifies proponents and opp...

  17. Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) (Amendment) Bill 2016: Legislative Bill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Rock, Noel

    2016-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Irish Parliament). An Act to amend sections 49 and 51 of the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 to ensure the powers exercised by the Central Bank of Ireland to make...... regulations, conferred by the Central Bank (Supervision and Enforcement) Act 2013 are fit for purpose; and to provide for related matters....

  18. Framework legislation for non-communicable diseases: and for the Sustainable Development Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2017-01-01

    'Framework legislation' refers to legislation that sets out structures for governance and accountability or other processes for guiding the decisions and actions taken by government or the executive. Framework legislation for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) provides the opportunity for countries to focus their political commitment, to set national targets, and a time-frame for achieving them, and to create cross-sectoral governance structures for the development and implementation of innovative policies. Although they extend well beyond NCDs, the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) create similar demands for effective national governance. A similar case might, therefore, be made for framework legislation for the health-related SDGs or for legislation to govern particular aspects, such as managing commercial relationships with the private sector or managing conflicts of interest. This article considers the possible benefits of framework legislation, including what issues might be appropriate for inclusion in a framework law. The absence of framework legislation should neither be seen as an excuse for inaction, nor is framework legislation a substitute for detailed regulation of areas such as sanitation and water quality, tobacco and alcohol control, food safety, essential medicines or poisons. The ultimate test for framework legislation will be its capacity to provide a catalyst for action and to accelerate progress towards national and global health goals.

  19. Regulatory, legislative, and policy updates with anticoagulant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanikos, John; Buckley, Leo F; Aldemerdash, Ahmed; Terry, Kimberly J; Piazza, Gregory; Connors, Jean M; Goldhaber, Samuel Z

    2015-04-01

    Thromboembolism afflicts millions of patients annually in the United States and is associated with a significant cost burden. Recent advances in oral anticoagulation have provided clinicians with more options for management of these diseases. Accordingly, regulatory, legislative, and policy-making organizations have intervened with the aim of improving patient outcomes, ensuring patient safety, and reducing costs. There have been a number of recent developments in surveillance, litigation, and regulatory oversight that clinicians should recognize. In this review article we summarize key updates related to the management of anticoagulant therapy as it relates to thrombosis prevention and treatment.

  20. Turkish nuclear legislation: Developments for a nuclear newcomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Erinc; Schneider, Horst

    2013-01-01

    The scope of legal investigation in this article focuses on nuclear legislation with regard to siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of NPPs, taking into account the main issues of nuclear safety, security, safeguards, radiological protection and nuclear third party liability. The state of existing legislation and, furthermore, of drafts published or announced related to substantive regulations and organisational aspects are at the centre of this article. International conventions and agreements, national legislation consisting of the constitution, laws, decrees and regulations as binding norms and otherwise, directives and non-binding guides provide the legal structure for nuclear activities. The evaluation of Turkish nuclear legislation with regard to the accomplishment of the obligations under, in particular, the CNS and Euratom directives, leads finally to the perspective on the specific issues that should be addressed in the regulation of nuclear energy for Turkey's future energy needs and to ensure conformity with international standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). A brief discussion of Turkish energy legislation and institutional structure is necessary, because NPPs also need a licence for electricity production under Turkey's energy legislation. The Turkish government is aiming for greater privatisation in the energy sector. The current electricity market is governed, on the one hand, by the Electricity Market Law and Electricity Market License Regulation, which requires NPPs to have an electricity production licence and, on the other hand, by specific institutions. In terms of the Electricity Market Law, private legal entities who wish to obtain an electricity generation licence must 'be established as incorporated or limited liability companies in accordance with the provisions of the Turkish Commercial Law'. The relevant institutions in Turkey's energy sector include: the Energy

  1. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation -the UK approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The case for flexibility in the formulation of radiation protection legislation and that for precise invariable requirements which are applicable to all users of ionising radiations are presented. It is asserted that greater participation on the part of persons affected in the shaping of legislation brings with it a commitment to flexibility if consensus is to be achieved. The nature of the participative and consultative processes in the UK is described. The means by which flexibility will be inbuilt into future UK legislation are discussed, taking as examples, three particular areas: a) Notification of use of ionising radiations, where flexibility needs to be introduced to take care of improved knowledge of potential risk, the avoidance of bureaucratic procedures, and the wide variation in practice from one work activity to another; b) The definition of controlled areas, where flexibility is needed to cope with the wide range of potential use situations, yet if controlled areas are to be the route to defining Category A workers, where that flexibility must be restrained to ensure proper categorysation and effective enforcement; c) The criteria for the need to appoint and for the selection of radiation protection advisers where flexibility must be invoked to ensure that any particular task is matched by the quality of the radiation protection adviser concerned. It is concluded that the proposed UK legislation will achieve flexibility where this is appropriate and cost-effective and on the other hand demand adherence to strictly expressed levels of exposure where that is appropriate. (author)

  2. Rare disease patients in China anticipate the sunlight of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J J; Song, P P; Tang, W

    2013-06-01

    It is estimated that there are over ten million rare disease patients in China currently. Due to a lack of effective drugs and reimbursement regulations for medical expenses the diseases bring most patients enormous physical suffering and psychological despair. Past experience in other countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union have shown that legislation is the critical step to improve the miserable situation of rare disease patients. Laws and regulations for rare diseases in these countries prescribe a series of incentives for research and development of orphan drugs which turn out to obviously allow these drugs to flourish. Legislation has also established a drug reimbursement system to reduce the medical burden of the patients. These measures effectively protect the rights and interests of patients with rare diseases. In China, legislation for rare diseases has begun to attract the attention of authorities. It is anticipated that relevant laws and regulations will be established as early as possible to provide safeguards for rare disease patients in China.

  3. Nuclear regulation in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomain, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The current state of nuclear regulations in the USA is examined. Since Three Mile Island the regulation of the nuclear power industry has been undergoing a noticeable transition. It will be argued here that the transition is characterized by two indicia. First, the primary focus of state and federal regulators has been on the financial aspects of the industry: this is best seen in the context of decisions allocating the costs of nuclear plant cancellations. Second, decisionmaking power has been decentralized: although the regulatory history of nuclear power demonstrates the tradition of centralized decisionmaking power (i.e., formerly the primary decisionmaking body was the Atomic Energy Commission), now States share decisionmaking power with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. In Section 1 a brief legislative history of nuclear regulation is presented to establish the assertion that nuclear regulation, both de jure and de facto, was centralized. Next, Section 2 canvasses recent United States Supreme Court opinions regarding nuclear regulation. The Court frequently acts as policymaker through the consequences of its opinions, if not by its intent. In the area of nuclear policymaking, the Court has paid allegiance recently both to the tradition of centralization and to the movement toward decentralization. This dualism is reflected in other federal court decisions as well which will be briefly mentioned. Continuing the analysis of Federal regulation, Section 3 examines the current reform efforts of the NRC. Section 4 presents an examination of State responses to nuclear plant cancellations. In this section, State administrative agency and court decisions will be examined and recent State legislation will be discussed. (author)

  4. REGULATION OF A RIGHT TO A SALARY IN THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS OF ILO AND UN AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LEGISLATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhošev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the salary as the most important legal institute, element and principle of the labour relations. Before we approach the analysis of the legal regime of the salary, we will define the term labour relations. This paper puts special emphasis on the terminology of the notion salary, as well as the legal nature of the legal regime of the salary. Additionally, in this paper the most important international legal instruments of ILO, UN and The European Council are analyzed for salary regulation and ban on compensation discrimination. In this context, the most important legal acts in the Republic of Macedonia are analyzed which regulate the legal institute salary, i.e. the minimum wage (The Constitution, Labour Law, and Law on Minimum Wage.

  5. Agriculture, trade and the environment: Linkages in the dairy sector - a comparative study of the cost impact of manure management regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M. S.; Gyldenkærne, S.

    2003-01-01

    as the regulations that concern the storage, disposal and application of manure because nutrient overload is commonly viewed as the key environmental issue of the livestock industry. We identify and compare regulations in Denmark and the Netherlands (both part of the European Union) with Canada (case of Ontario......), Switzerland, Japan and New Zealand. Using Denmark as a baseline case, we analyze how the regulatory requirements in the other countries would affect producer costs....

  6. Agricultural phosphorus legislation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amery, F.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural fields can cause eutrophication and ecological deterioration of surface waters. Although there is no general European Phosphorus Regulation or Directive, some European Member States address the agricultural phosphorus losses via national or regional

  7. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, November 1992--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-04-01

    This is the sixth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the November 1992 Legislative and Legal Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation report and describes activities for the period November 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. NCSL is working to bring on-line a data base that contains abstracts of state laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of July 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. Hard copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains summaries of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness and general nuclear waste issues are described. Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation. A recent court decision is also summarized

  8. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  9. Regulating the nursing associate profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasper, Alan

    2017-11-23

    Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, University of Southampton, discusses the Government's consultation on changes to the Nursing and Midwifery Order 2001 and the legislation to regulate nursing associates.

  10. Peak Load Regulation and Cost Optimization for Microgrids by Installing a Heat Storage Tank and a Portable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of electricity demands, many traditional distributed networks cannot cover their peak demands, especially in the evening. Additionally, with the interconnection of distributed electrical and thermal grids, system operational flexibility and energy efficiency can be affected as well. Therefore, by adding a portable energy system and a heat storage tank to the traditional distributed system, this paper proposes a newly defined distributed network to deal with the aforementioned problems. Simulation results show that by adding a portable energy system, fossil fuel energy consumption and daily operation cost can be reduced by 8% and 28.29%, respectively. Moreover, system peak load regulating capacity can be significantly improved. However, by introducing the portable energy system to the grid, system uncertainty can be increased to some extent. Therefore, chance constrained programming is proposed to control the system while considering system uncertainty. By applying Particle Swarm Optimization—Monte Carlo to solve the chance constrained programming, results show that power system economy and uncertainty can be compromised by selecting appropriate confidence levels α and β. It is also reported that by installing an extra heat storage tank, combined heat and power energy efficiency can be significantly improved and the installation capacity of the battery can be reduced.

  11. Minimum Nurse Staffing Legislation and the Financial Performance of California Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Harless, David W; Pink, George H; Mark, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of minimum nurse staffing ratios on California acute care hospitals’ financial performance. Data Sources/Study Setting Secondary data from Medicare cost reports, the American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey, and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) are combined from 2000 to 2006 for 203 hospitals in California and 407 hospitals in 12 comparison states. Study Design The study employs a difference-in-difference analytical approach. Hospitals are grouped into quartiles based on pre-regulation nurse staffing levels in adult medical-surgical and pediatric units (quartile 1 = lowest staffing). Differences in operating margin, operating expenses per day, and inpatient operating expenses per discharge for California hospitals within a staffing quartile during the period of regulation are compared to differences at hospitals in comparison states during the same period. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Hospital data from Medicare cost reports are merged with nurse staffing measures obtained from AHA and from OSPHD. Principal Findings Relative to hospitals in comparison states, operating margins declined significantly for California hospitals in quartiles 2 and 3. Operating expenses increased significantly in quartiles 1, 2, and 3. Conclusions Implementation of minimum nurse staffing legislation in California put substantial financial pressure on some hospitals. PMID:22150627

  12. Minimum nurse staffing legislation and the financial performance of California hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Kristin L; Harless, David W; Pink, George H; Mark, Barbara A

    2012-06-01

    To estimate the effect of minimum nurse staffing ratios on California acute care hospitals' financial performance. Secondary data from Medicare cost reports, the American Hospital Association's (AHA) Annual Survey, and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD) are combined from 2000 to 2006 for 203 hospitals in California and 407 hospitals in 12 comparison states. The study employs a difference-in-difference analytical approach. Hospitals are grouped into quartiles based on pre-regulation nurse staffing levels in adult medical-surgical and pediatric units (quartile 1=lowest staffing). Differences in operating margin, operating expenses per day, and inpatient operating expenses per discharge for California hospitals within a staffing quartile during the period of regulation are compared to differences at hospitals in comparison states during the same period. Hospital data from Medicare cost reports are merged with nurse staffing measures obtained from AHA and from OSPHD. Relative to hospitals in comparison states, operating margins declined significantly for California hospitals in quartiles 2 and 3. Operating expenses increased significantly in quartiles 1, 2, and 3. Implementation of minimum nurse staffing legislation in California put substantial financial pressure on some hospitals. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Risk, uncertainty and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, John R

    2011-12-13

    This paper reviews the relationship between scientific evidence, uncertainty, risk and regulation. Risk has many different meanings. Furthermore, if risk is defined as the likelihood of an event happening multiplied by its impact, subjective perceptions of risk often diverge from the objective assessment. Scientific evidence may be ambiguous. Scientific experts are called upon to assess risks, but there is often uncertainty in their assessment, or disagreement about the magnitude of the risk. The translation of risk assessments into policy is a political judgement that includes consideration of the acceptability of the risk and the costs and benefits of legislation to reduce the risk. These general points are illustrated with reference to three examples: regulation of risk from pesticides, control of bovine tuberculosis and pricing of alcohol as a means to discourage excessive drinking.

  14. Legislative background of food and nutrition policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Andreeva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of effective policy aimed at improving nutrition practices is highly recognized by the global community. METHODS: Analysis of Ukrainian legislative documents was conducted to clarify the situation in the field of policy initiatives and legislation devoted to nutrition in Ukraine. Documents in force adopted from 1991 to 2011 including key words “nutrition”, “health”, “concept”, and “food products” were reviewed.RESULTS: We reviewed 55 legislative acts related to nutrition and identified several groups: 18 documents are related to organization of supply, regimen, norms of nutrition in state establishments or for special populations; 12 documents related to economic and technological regulation of food preparation, quality control and distribution; 3 documents regulating nutritious and safety norms of food products for children under 3 years; 14 documents aimed to control food safety, quality and accessibility; 6 other documents partly referred to nutrition, including 4 Concepts of healthy lifestyles. Some of the principles of healthy eating are declared in the “Concept of improving food security and quality of nutrition of the population” approved by the Cabinet of Ministers in 2004. Principles of maintaining breastfeeding, activities aimed to reduce iodine deficiency among population as well as school educational program “Foundations of health” were those few governmental activities, which supported some of the ideas declared in the Concept. CONCLUSION: Great attention of policymakers is paid to regulation of production, distribution of food, its quality control, affordability of products for special population groups, especially children. Not much attention is devoted in the official documents to creating and maintaining the healthy eating practices of the population. Mechanisms aimed to form healthy eating practices are not specified in the legislative documents. No regulatory documents to

  15. Legislative and ethical aspects of introducing new technologies in medical care for senior citizens in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacetl, Jaroslav; Maresova, Petra

    2016-01-01

    The majority of developed countries are currently experiencing demographic aging. The most frequently expressed concerns related to the changing age structure are the increased costs of social and medical care, a lack of labor force in the job market, and financial sustainability of the pension system. These concerns are often based on the pessimistic view of population aging. This view understands aging as a prolonged period of illness and suffering. On the other hand, optimists believe that a longer life span is a result of increased quality of life and better health care. The quality of life may be improved not only by medicaments, but also by rapidly developing area of medical devices, which allow better care for seniors in many areas. This contribution aims to assess the legislative environment and ethical questions related to the use of medical devices, especially medical devices, in medical care for senior citizens. The methods used in this study are literature reviews of legislative and ethical environment in the European Union (EU) and the US. Main findings of this study result from assessing the state of medical device regulations in Europe and the US. Namely, the US regulation seems to be better arranged, which is probably due to the fact that there is only one responsible body - the US Food and Drug Administration, which is responsible for all medical device regulations. On the other hand, in the EU, talks about new legislation are led by ministers from all the EU member states and it may take a long time before all the EU countries come to an agreement.

  16. Development of Food Legislation Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of systems are presented in the perspective of the development of food legislation to give an impression of the features found in food law and the reasons they have taken certain forms. Legislation on food is not only widely distributed in time but also in space. The assurance of safe food

  17. 43 CFR 26.4 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislation. 26.4 Section 26.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUTH CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.4 Legislation. State programs must meet all of the requirements of section 4...

  18. Special Education Legislation and Policy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Shirley R.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the historical context in which Canadian legislation and policy for children with special needs has evolved. The potential for the rights of students with special needs in light of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is outlined. The role of the Federal and Provincial governments in legislation and policy vis-à-vis…

  19. 28 CFR 61.7 - Legislative proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the environment, that subunit shall prepare a legislative environmental impact statement in... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.7 Legislative proposals. (a) Each subunit of the... to Congress which may have an effect on the environment shall, in the early stages of development of...

  20. EU's new pharmacovigilance legislation: considerations for biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Begoña; Zuñiga, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Biosimilars are biological medicines, the active substances of which are highly similar to those of biologics that have already been authorized. As for any other medicine, the applicant of the biosimilar marketing authorization must submit a risk-management plan (RMP)/pharmacovigilance plan. The pharmacovigilance plan should take into account risks identified during product development, the potential risks and how those risks will be addressed after authorization of the product.Recently, new European Pharmacovigilance legislation has been implemented, ensuring proper risk management through the recording of suspected adverse drug reactions and data collection from all stakeholders. The new regulation entails a reduction of the administrative burden on companies and regulatory agencies, as obligations of the responsible parties are clearly established and duplication of effort avoided.This article analyzes the new European Pharmacovigilance System requirements, with special focus on those medicines requiring additional monitoring, such as biosimilars, which are priorities for pharmacovigilance. Further, it provides the new obligations to marketing authorization holders, such as the continuous benefit-risk assessment.

  1. Enforcement tool or strategicinstrument? The initiation of ex-post legislative evaluationsbythe European Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voorst, Stijn; Mastenbroek, Ellen

    2017-12-01

    Whereas the European Commission officially intends to periodically evaluate all major European Union legislation in force, in practice it only evaluates a minority of major regulations and directives. This article tries to explain the variation in the initiation of such ex-post legislative evaluations by the Commission with the help of two theoretical motives: an enforcement motive and a strategic motive. Based on two novel datasets and binary logistic regression analysis, the results show that the type and complexity of the legislation, the presence of an evaluation clause and the evaluation capacity of the responsible Directorates-General enhance the chances of evaluation. These findings indicate that ex-post legislative evaluations are at least partly driven by the Commission's need to enforce legislation.

  2. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  3. A descriptive analysis of state legislation and policy addressing clinical trials participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Claudia R; Mishra, Shiraz I; Weinberg, Armin D

    2009-05-01

    This report describes state policy and legislation related to clinical trials participation and Maryland's model to enhance clinical trial availability and participation. Descriptive review of state policy and legislation related to coverage for clinical trials costs based on data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) State Cancer Legislative Database, the American Cancer Society, and NCI; additionally, discussion of Maryland's comprehensive multilevel clinical trial model comprising policy initiatives, community engagement, research, education, and infrastructure support. Twenty-four states have mandated clinical trial coverage through specific legislation or agreements since 1994. Covered benefits varied among the states. Besides cost and insurance barriers, there is a need to address important patient, physician and researcher, and structural barriers to clinical trial participation. Maryland provides a comprehensive model to address the multi-faceted clinical trial participation determinants as it tracks state and federal policy, documents trial barriers, and conducts community education.

  4. Impact of hazardous waste handling legislation on nuclear installations and radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosten, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The United States has enacted complex legislation to help assure proper handling of hazardous waste and the availability of funds to cover the expenditures. There are a number of uncertainties concerning the impact of this legislation, and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency and the states, upon nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. This report provides an overview of the U.S. hazardous waste legislation and examines the outlook for its application to the nuclear industry (NEA) [fr

  5. Mobile banking services in the East African community (EAC): challenges to the existing legislative and regulatory frameworks in the EAC

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaga, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Principal research question: What are the effective legislative and regulatory responses to mobile banking services in the East African Community (EAC)? Keywords: Convergence, legislation, regulation, Mobile banking services, East African Community. Hypothesis: There is a lack of effective and robust legislative and regulatory framework in the EAC that addresses the mobile banking services. Purpose – This paper addresses issues affecting mobile money in the East African Community (EA...

  6. Charles Lucas and medical legislation in eighteenth century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, S

    2015-09-01

    Charles Lucas, apothecary, physician and MP, was instrumental in facilitating legislation in Ireland in 1765 that established a nationwide network of hospitals in Ireland. This legislation was unique in contemporary Europe, and by the end of the century, there was a hospital in every county in the country. His work as an apothecary provided him with the knowledge to attempt to address the problems in the apothecaries' trade, and his 1741 pamphlet, Pharmacomastix, provided the framework for the 1761 Irish Apothecaries Act, which attempted to address these issues. It was, however, 1791 before nationwide regulation of the Irish apothecaries' trade was implemented following the establishment of the Apothecaries Hall, and this was 24 years before similar regulatory legislation was passed in Britain. Lucas sought enhanced regulation of the apothecaries' trade to provide better quality drugs and medicines for the general public, and he tried to ensure that untrained quacks did not practise as apothecaries, unbeknownst to their patients. He was aware that his proposals would meet with opposition, but he had the courage to pursue these without any element of personal gain. In medical terms, Charles Lucas was man ahead of his time.

  7. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  8. Hydrological heritage within protection of geodiversity in Serbia: Legislation history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Sava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a summary of the history of development of legislation in the field of geodiversity in Serbia. An important segment of this theme is the relationship of man to the protection of water and its phenomena - hydrological diversity and hydrological heritage. Although the historical development of nature protection as complex, socially significant, professional and scientific field is relatively long and in a sense shows the constant progress, the fact is that today's legislation in this sphere unreasonably delays for the reality and needs, and this is especially noticeable when comes to protection of geodiversity and water phenomena - hydrological heritage. This paper, through the attempt of the representation of development of a broad field of the geodiversity and hydrological heritage protection in the light of its legal and institutional introduction into social frameworks, in particular points to the existing problems that are reflected in the current regulation - the Nature Protection Act.

  9. Legislative aspects of the development of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marešová, Petra; Klímová, Blanka; Krejcar, Ondřej; Kuča, Kamil

    2015-09-01

    European industry of medical device technologies represents 30% of all worlds sales. New health technologies bring effective treatment approaches, help shorten stays in hospital1),bring better treatment results and accelerate rehabilitation which leads to the earlier patients recovery.Legislative aspects are one of the key areas influencing the speed of development of medical devices and their launching. The aim of this article is to specify current state of legislation in the development of medical devices in the European Union in comparison with the market leaders such as China, Japan and USA.The best established market of medical devices is in the USA. Both Japan and China follow the USA model. However, a non-professional code of ethics in China in some respect contributes to the decrease of quality of medical devices, while Japan as well as the EU countries try really hard to conform to all the regulations imposed on the manufacturing of medical devices.

  10. Seminar on present and future Spanish Legislation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Proceedings of the Seminar contain the papers presented and the conclusions of each Session. The topics cover Spanish nuclear legislation including the licensing of nuclear power plants and control, analysed in the context of legislation in other fields and the new requirements since Spain joined the European Communities. Other papers deal with the origin and evolution of Spanish nuclear law, the competent international organizations and the nuclear third party liability regime set in place by the international conventions in that field. Also discussed are the national regulations on radioactive waste management and the competent authorities. Finally, a revision of the Spanish Nuclear Energy Act is considered necessary in the light of developments since its inception [fr

  11. Considerations Regarding the Impact of Legislative Inflation on Economic Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Ramon D. BUTCULESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the impact of legislative inflation upon the activities of the commercial agents.  A clear and transparent legal framework is required in order for the economic system to be efficient and to grow. Unfortunately, the large amount of norms that come into force monthly, if not weekly and regulate the activities of the moral persons, and in particular, the activities of the economic agents determine a high grade of informational entropy at a systemic level. This study tackles the possibility of improving the legal communication of norms by reducing legislative inflation. Firstly, the communication stream is analysed, and then the possibilities for improving such communication are brought forward.

  12. Legislation for higher education disabled students in Brazil and Portugal: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ricardo Lins Vieira de Melo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make a critical analysis of legislation regulating the inclusion of disabled students in higher education in Brazil and Portugal. Based on a documentary study, conducted between September and November 2015, the legal standards in recent decades have been analyzed. The results point out different stages of construction of the inclusion policy in the researched countries. It is emphasized that there is a significant variety of norms in the Brazilian context to ensure that these students have equal opportunities, and a scarcity of regulations in Portugal. The legislation has been referred to as an important factor for the development of inclusive education; however it is noteworthy that the existence of legislation does not necessarily imply it is actually complied. Besides legislation, removing barriers for the full participation and learning of disabled students involves awareness, investment in resources, public policy makers and managers’ scientific knowledge to ensure a quality education throughout life for all people.

  13. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  14. [Legislations on radiation in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Act was the first law for the prevention of radiation damage in Japan, and was enforced in 1955. The law focused on the research, development and promotion of the use of atomic energy. With an increase in the importing of radioactive isotopes from foreign countries, the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes was established under the jurisdiction of the Science and Technology Agency in 1957 and enforced in 1958. The Nuclear Regulation Authority began as an extra-ministerial committee of the Ministry of the Environment in 2012 and has jurisdiction in the area of ionizing radiations regulations.Substantial regulation has been provided by the Labor Standards Act, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards was established as the eleventh ordinance of the Ministry of Labor in 1959. There have been many revisions to the Ordinance, including revisions following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. This paper explains the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes, the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards, and workmen's accident authorization.

  15. Harmonisation of Slovenian nuclear legislation with EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, M.

    1999-01-01

    Slovenia as a member of the first group of candidates countries which started the accession negotiations with the European Union. The extensive work started in 1998 to align the domestic legislation with the legislation of the European Union. The activities related to the accession of Slovenia to EU in the area of nuclear legislation are carried out in different national working groups. The main part of activities is in working groups: energy and environment, but there are some topics, which are covered in other groups, like control of dual-use materials in the group of External Relations, research in reactor physics, nuclear engineering and fusion in the group Science and Technology

  16. On the successful integration of the implemented principles into the fiscal legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Valerijs JAKUŠEVS

    2013-01-01

    The study is carried out within the boundaries of the research “Taxation policy of the Republic of Latvia within the context of the principle of equity”. The objective of the study is to prepare a theoretical basis for the successful implementation of the state taxation policy considering the presently widespread usage of electronic means of data processing, transfer and storage, as well as to develop the legislative principles of self-regulation for the fiscal legislation in order to prepare...

  17. Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs

  18. Why do bacteria regulate public goods by quorum sensing?-How the shapes of cost and benefit functions determine the form of optimal regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann, Silja; Krishna, Sandeep; Kerr, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    as a function of population size (the optimal production curve, OPC) depends crucially on the cost and benefit functions of the public good and that the OPC will fall into one of two categories: Either it is continuous or it jumps from zero discontinuously at a critical population size. If, e.g., the public...... good has accelerating returns and linear cost, then the OPC is discontinuous and the best strategy thus to ramp up production sharply at a precise population size. By using the example of public goods with accelerating and diminishing returns (and linear cost) we are able to determine how the two...

  19. 10 CFR 51.88 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposals for legislation. 51.88 Section 51.88 Energy...) Legislative Environmental Impact Statements-Proposals for Legislation § 51.88 Proposals for legislation. The... proposals for legislation. final environmental impact statements—general requirements ...

  20. Enforcement tool or strategic instrument? The initiation of ex-post legislative evaluations by the European Commission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorst, S. van; Mastenbroek, E.

    2017-01-01

    Whereas the European Commission officially intends to periodically evaluate all major European Union legislation in force, in practice it only evaluates a minority of major regulations and directives. This article tries to explain the variation in the initiation of such ex-post legislative

  1. Experience of Internal and External Education Quality Rate: Esg and the Legislation of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikanorov Ivan N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overview of regulation of internal and external education quality rate has been presented. The development of regulation an independent assessment of higher education in Russia in the context of ESG has been considered. Authors noticed, that instruments of internal and external quality rate interact in Russian legislation insufficiently.

  2. Canadian parents' attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation in provinces with and without legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Degroot, J; Macpherson, A; Fuselli, P; Macarthur, C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to survey Canadian parents on their attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation and to compare responses from parents living in provinces with and without legislation. A national survey of 1002 parents of children aged under 18 years was conducted. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses from the surveyed parents in the different jurisdictions. Responses from parents living in provinces with legislation (n = 640) and without legislation (n = 362) were as follows: concern for injury (63% vs. 68%, nonsignificant [NS]); believe helmets are effective (98% vs. 98%, NS); child always wears a helmet (74% vs. 69%, NS); support legislation for children (95% vs. 83%, p legislation for all ages (85% vs. 75%, p legislation decreases the amount of time their child bicycles (5% vs. 8%, NS). Parents are highly supportive of bicycle helmet legislation in Canada. They believe that bicycle helmets are effective and that legislation does not decrease the amount of time a child spends bicycling. There was also a high level of support for legislation across all ages, and for police enforcement.

  3. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  4. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  8. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  16. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  17. State legislators' beliefs about legislation that restricts youth access to tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nell H; Goldstein, Adam O; Flynn, Brian S; Cohen, E Joanna E; Bauman, Karl E; Solomon, Laura J; Munger, Michael C; Dana, Greg S; McMorris, Laura E

    2003-04-01

    Better understanding of the cognitive framework for decision making among legislators is important for advocacy of health-promoting legislation. In 1994, the authors surveyed state legislators from North Carolina, Texas, and Vermont concerning their beliefs and intentions related to voting for a hypothetical measure to enforce legislation preventing the sale of tobacco to minors, using scales based on the theory of planned behavior. Attitude (importance), subjective norm (whether most people important to you would say you should or should not vote for the law), perceived behavioral control (ability to cast one's vote for the law), and home state were independently and significantly related to intention to vote for the law's enforcement. The results, including descriptive data concerning individual beliefs, suggest specific public health strategies to increase legislative support for passing legislation to restrict youth tobacco sales and, more generally, a framework for studying policy making and advocacy.

  18. Good things do not always come in threes: On the excess cost of overlapping regulation in EU climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhringer, Christoph; Keller, Andreas; Bortolamedi, Markus; Rahmeier Seyffarth, Anelise

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990's the European Union (EU) aims at pushing global climate policy. The objective is to promote international cooperation by the adoption of substantial EU-wide greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and their least-cost implementation. Our quantitative impact assessment of the EU Climate and Energy Package shows that the myriad of instruments used in the EU to curb greenhouse gas emissions is doomed to generate substantial excess cost. We conclude that EU climate and energy policy should better disentangle its choices of objectives, targets, and policy instruments on rigorous economic grounds in order to improve the coherence and overall cost-effectiveness of policy initiatives. - Highlights: •EU Climate and Energy Package almost quintuples costs for EU-wide emission abatement. •The main source of excess cost of EU climate policy are energy efficiency mandates.

  19. Harmonization of Legislation against Organized Crime in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Edwin Martínez Ventura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of organized crime in Central America, the countries in this continental sub-region have enacted a great deal of internal legislation, and have ratified international treaties at the universal, regional and Central American level, particularly after the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime took effect in 2000.This abundance of laws is very positive, and is an expression of these Central American States’ intent to fulfill their supranational obligations and provide security for their inhabitants. However, it is also negative in that it has led to dispersion, dislocation, discrepancies and inaccuracies regarding the prevailing legal regulations, because national laws have been developed with different concepts, structures, approaches, scope and definitions.Despite these conditions that are adverse to legal harmonization, Central America can move forward with matching its legislation against organized crime. Actually, there already exists an extensive common legal framework in this area, expressed in the fact that most international treaties on Organized Crime have come into force at the universal, regional and subregional levels, ratified by all or most countriesPolitical will is the common denominator that should mediate all efforts of harmonization and alignment of legislation in Central America; it is essential for proposing steps that are based on a common strategy or program.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1359

  20. The international legal framework for national nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmund, M.

    1992-01-01

    To what extent the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy will continue to be accepted by the international public also depends upon whether and how the international regime for the peaceful and safe utilization of nuclear energy can be effectively enforced on a global scale, and upon the stability of this system in the future and its constant adaption to the newest state of the art. Basic elements of international law of relevance to national nuclear legislation are: 1. The non-proliferation system, including the safeguards system within the framework of the IAEA; 2. Regulations that directly concern the safe handling of fissile material, and the safety of installations, products, wastes, transportation etc.; 3. Regulation governing the aversion of immediately threatening hazards and international cooperation in the event of disasters; 4. Regulations governing liability for damages in connection with the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy and responsibility under international law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Legislative frameworks for corn flour and maize meal fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhumula, Phillip; Dary, Omar; Guamuch, Monica; Tom, Carol; Afidra, Ronald; Rambeloson, Zo

    2014-04-01

    Corn flour and maize meal fortification can benefit the consumer when the added nutrient contents are in amounts appropriate to address nutrient gaps. Legislative instruments (standards and regulations) are needed to provide guidance to the producers and food control authorities. We reviewed a number of national standards and regulations of fortified corn flour and maize meal and identified constraints; contrary to current belief, the practice of using minimum contents or ranges of nutrients has caused confusion, misinterpretation, and conflict, and should therefore be abandoned. On the basis of the findings, a model of fortification legislation is proposed, in which the additional content and the expected average nutrient content in a final product are recommended as the main parameters for quality control and enforcement. For labeling, the average content, or one adjusted to the expected content of the product at the market, can be applied. Variation in micronutrient contents should still be checked to ensure homogeneity but with adherence to clear procedures of sampling and testing, which should be part of the standards and regulations. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Documentation of Accounting Records in Light of Legislative Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. BEZVERKHIY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislative reforms in accounting aim to simplify accounting records and compilation of financial reports by business entities, thus increasing the position of Ukraine in the global ranking of Doing Business. This simplification is implied in the changes in the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records, entered into force to the Resolution of the Ukrainian Ministry of Finance. The objective of the study is to analyze the legislative innovations involved. The review of changes in documentation of accounting records is made. A comparative analysis of changes in the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records is made by sections: 1 General; 2 Primary documents; 3 Accounting records; 4 Correction of errors in primary documents and accounting records; 5 Organization of document circulation; 6 Storage of documents. Methods of analysis and synthesis are used for separating the differences in the editions of the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records. The result of the study has theoretical and practical value for the domestic business enterprise sector.

  3. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  4. [Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczyńiska, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. 'Iherefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments.

  5. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  6. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  7. Physical activity opportunities in Canadian childcare facilities: a provincial/territorial review of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia; Ismail, Ali; van Zandvroort, Melissa M

    2012-05-01

    Preschoolers spend a substantial portion of their day in childcare; therefore, these centers are an ideal venue to encourage healthy active behaviors. It is important that provinces'/territories' childcare legislation encourage physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to review Canadian provincial/territorial childcare legislation regarding PA participation. Specifically, this review sought to 1) appraise each provincial/territorial childcare regulation for PA requirements, 2) compare such regulations with the NASPE PA guidelines, and 3) appraise these regulations regarding PA infrastructure. A review of all provincial/territorial childcare legislation was performed. Each document was reviewed separately by 2 researchers, and the PA regulations were coded and summarized. The specific provincial/territorial PA requirements (eg, type/frequency of activity) were compared with the NASPE guidelines. PA legislation for Canadian childcare facilities varies greatly. Eight of the thirteen provinces/territories provide PA recommendations; however, none provided specific time requirements for daily PA. All provinces/territories did require access to an outdoor play space. All Canadian provinces/territories lack specific PA guidelines for childcare facilities. The development, implementation, and enforcement of national PA legislation for childcare facilities may aid in tackling the childhood obesity epidemic and assist childcare staff in supporting and encouraging PA participation.

  8. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE NEW COMMUNITY LEGISLATION REGARDING THE EUROPEAN PRIVATE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Nicoleta VÂLCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission has proposed a new legal form for European companies and for the privateEuropean society, or “Societas Privata Europaea” (SPE. The advantages of this new legal form are a greaterflexibility and lower costs for small and medium enterprises who wish to pursue activities in other states of theEuropean Union than they are registered. According to the Regulation submitted to discussion, the specificity of theEuropean Private Society in terms of its legal form is that, on the one hand, it undertakes a number of features of jointstock companies, such as the method of formation of governing bodies (the two, dual and unitary systems beingaccepted, but are retained also specific elements to the limited liability companies, meaning the fact that shares maynot be offered for public trading. In terms of how social responsibility and contribution in proportion to the capital, thisfeature included in the Regulation is found in both legal forms. By this time the Community legislature has followed thenew legal form of company are not subject to mandatory capital requirements high so provided in this respect theamount of 1 euro, so that provides to the contrary is inconsistent w ith the rationale that has outlined the relevantCommunity legislation by a company widely permissive.Concluding, the article subject to comment retains those provisions of the new Community act defining thespecific new limited liability company establis hing the European elements while giving the European businessenvironment the interest for it.

  9. Risks and risk assessment according to British legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieweg, K.

    1980-01-01

    The most important rules of the large number of legal regulations and other norms relating to risk control of technical installations discussed as far as their approach is quantitative: the regulations of the Health and Safety at Work Act of 1974, of the Factories Act of 1961, the Hazardous Installations (Notification and Survey) Regulation, the Canvey-Island Study, regulations referring to Atomic Energy Law and the administrative practice, legal regulations in the field of navigation, regulations concerning planning legislation including the Windscale-Study. In Great Britain, the power of decision in the field of technical safety has been clearly assigned to the administrative authorities. The legislature refrained from going into details in the stipulation of legal regulations, judicial control has not been provided for, or has only little relevance in practice. The prevailing goal is to reach decisions by consensus, taking every effort to solve conflicts of interest by mutual agreements. Methods and criteria in risk assessment have been modified according to technological knowledge and developments. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Government Legislation and Regulations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    For centuries, customary or traditional laws have covered the use of biological resources throughout the world. As human population levels increase in all societies, voluntary actions governed by cultural practices are frequently insufficient to protect biodiversity, leading to...

  11. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  12. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  14. Legislative framework on establishing emergency response plan in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Valcic, I.; Biscan, R.

    2000-01-01

    To give an overview of the legislative framework, which defined emergency planning in Croatia in the case of a nuclear accident, it's necessary to look at all international recommendations and obligations and the national legislation, acts and regulations. It has to be emphasized that Croatia signed three international conventions in this field, and by that took over some responsibilities and obligations. Beside that, it is also in Croatian interest to follow the recommendations of international institutions such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA standards and technical documents). On the other hand, national legislation in this field consists of several laws, which cover nuclear safety measures, governmental organization, natural disasters and acts (decree, decisions) of responsible authority for emergency planning in the case of a nuclear accident (Ministry of Economy). This paper presents an overview of the international and Croatian legislation which influenced the emergency planning in the case of a nuclear accident. (author)

  15. Speciation and legislation - Where are we today and what do we need for tomorrow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, T.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1999-01-01

    species in which the elements are bound. The international legislation concerning contaminants in food is presently being established in the Coder Alimentarius, which is an independent United Nations organisation under the joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Development of the Coder General Standard......In international legislation concerning trace elements in food, in the environment or in occupational health most regulations are based on the total element contents, and are frequently given as maximum limits or guideline levels. In contrast, only few regulations pay attention to the molecular...

  16. Features Of Legislation On The Bank Account Agreement Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Y. Katvickaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the basic stages of legislation on bank accounts in Russia development are analyzed. Author research features of accounts regulation in Russian Empire, Soviet Union and in modern conditions. It is noted that active development of operations on bank accounts and emergence of new types of bank accounts in Russia takes place in the second half of the XIX century. Account, at that time was considered as a kind of deposits on demand. In the Soviet period legal regulation of bank accounts and transactions on them was conducted by a quite extensive array of regulations that were adopted by various government agencies. One of the types of bank deposit agreements was the bank account agreement, according to which the banks, on behalf of customers carried out various types of payment transactions. In respect to concentration of considerable mass of payments in credit institutions it became possible to organize of non-cash payments. During the Soviet period of formation and development of civil law contract of bank accounts was an independent civil contract, other than a bank deposit agreement, which was intended to serve citizens and was a separate type of civil contract. In modern conditions for the proper understanding and legal interpretation of legal acts concerning the legal regulation of bank account agreement it is important to know position of the Constitutional Court in respect to this position and judicial practice. It is concluded that in Russian legislation and practice exists a fairly long history of legal regulation of operations with bank accounts. Accumulated practice requires further scientific analysis.

  17. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  18. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  19. Nuclear legislation in central and eastern europe and the NIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the current state of legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the central and eastern European countries (CEEC) and the New Independent States (NIS). It also contains information on the national bodies responsible for the regulation and control of nuclear energy. The nuclear energy sector has not escaped from the changes that have affected the political, economic and social climates over the past fifteen years. Under the former socialist regime, activities in this field came within the sole remit of the State administration. In the legal area, it had not been deemed necessary in most of these countries to enact laws guaranteeing democratic control of electronuclear programmes and establishing a clear distinction between activities promoting this source of energy and regulatory control, while ensuring that safety imperatives take priority over all other considerations. With the arrival of new political forces came the will to remedy this situation promptly by creating new regulatory structures and drafting legislative texts based on those used in western countries. This evolution was all the more necessary given that, at the same time, the new policy of accountability had revealed safety defects in numerous nuclear installations in these countries, thus rendering international assistance indispensable. From the legal point of view, the outcome of these years of effort is remarkably positive: almost all countries of Eastern Europe pursuing electronuclear programmes have established institutions capable of exercising efficient control over nuclear power plants and other installations. Accession to the international conventions which form the backbone of nuclear law has become widespread. Modern legislation is henceforth in place in almost all of these states. (author)

  20. Smoke-free legislation and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-11-17

    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world's population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike.

  1. Regulating Market Entry of Low-Cost Private Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards a Theory of Private Education Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Donald R.; Cooper, Rachel; Lusk-Stover, Oni

    2018-01-01

    This study provides a comparative assessment of policies governing private schools in twenty countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Findings suggest that current regulatory systems are failing to adequately address the negative externalities and failures of private schooling markets. Insufficient capacity on the part of governments is a contributor to uneven policy implementation and creates opportunities for rent-seeking and corruption. Onerous market entry regulations offer constraints on the gro...

  2. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  3. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The benefists of outdoor recreation and the need for recreation inventories and monitoring are described in various policy and legislation documents at the European level. The objective of this paper is to analyse how these recreational aspects are reflected at the national level in core forest...... indicates that a consistent forest recreation monitoring system, linked to sustainable forest management, as describes for example in the Helsinki process, should be better transferred into national policuy and legislation. Compareable data across Europe could then provide a sound base for making decisions...

  4. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    European Union research has made great strides in understanding the dynamics of the European Union decision-making process. In contrast to this progress, the dynamics unfolding after the enactment of a European Union secondary legislative act has largely been ignored. Some of these acts remain...... revisions of European Union legislative acts are more likely to occur. Based on an analysis of the revision histories of 158 major European Union acts in the time period between 1958 and 2003, we find significant support for this hypothesis....

  5. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  6. Points for Improvement in Mexican Legislation on Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel Sánchez, S.; Carreño Padilla, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to underline the specific points needed still to be improved on safeguards in the Mexican legal framework. The problem: Mexico proposed the Tlatelolco Treaty which was before the TNP. So the Mexican legislation on safeguards should to be one of the best around the world, but there are still points to be improved, such as a specific regulation on the topic. Justification: Remembering that the exact sciences need of the law in order to be applied in a desirable way. I mean, the safeguards could be well conceived and well worked from the physics and mathematics point of view, but in order to be followed in any country, it is necessary the right legal framework. Hypothesis: What has Mexico now in its legislation on safeguards and what remains to be done (what is pending in the Mexican legal scope of the safeguards)? Objectives: – To propose legal solutions to correct the weakness of the Mexican legal framework on Safeguards; taking into account my own experience drafting the Mexican regulation on safeguards from 2008 for the Mexican Government in my nuclear law firm “Martínez and Maciel”. – To propose a legal framework on safeguards for Mexico as it is understood by the IAEA. – To update the legal frame work on safeguards in Mexico linking it to the Back end of the spent fuel. (Considering that sooner or later the Mexican Government will have to define its politic on this topic). (author)

  7. Impact of clean air legislation on the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    As the 1990s begin, the petroleum refining and marketing industry faces an unprecedented number of environmental issues that, combined, will bring major changes in the fundamentals of the business by the turn of the century. The following background on the history of environmentally driven change in the oil business provides a broad view of current environmental laws and regulations, while addressing timing and general impacts on the downstream segment. It will then focus on the Clean Air Act of 1990, providing information on the range of areas this comprehensive legislative initiative will regulate. Finally, the discussion narrows to the mobile source provisions of the act. It is through this section that the most foundational changes in our business will occur. In this paper the nature of those changes are discussed, and a short list of issues with potential for significant impact on a global basis are covered

  8. Legislation on university technology transfer and research management 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This book deals with legislation on university technology transfer in 2012, which includes invention promotion act, legislation on technology transfer and promotion of industrialization, legislation on industrial education and industrial cooperation, and special legislation on venture business. It lists the legislation related research and development by government department : fundamental law of scientific technique, law on evaluation and management of domestic research development business, national science and technology council and the patent office.

  9. VD: is society willing to meet the price of realistic legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovsky, L E

    1972-12-23

    A significant question at this time is whether there is any rationale for venereal disease (VD) legislation and legislation for all communicable diseases. VD legislation, to be effective, needs to reflect the causes of the spread of the disease. The causes would appear to rest on an increase in sexual activity and indiscriminate sexual activity among vast numbers of people throughout the world rather than an increase in the activity of the disease itself. Causes include increased population mobility and migration, urbanization, higher birthrates increasing the youthful and most sexually active part of the population, the discarding of traditional values, the removal of the fear of pregnancy by modern contraceptives, and a lack of knowledge concerning the nature of VD. Early legislation tried to control at least 1 cause of the spread of VD, i.e., prostitution. Legislation was also directed against homosexuality. 1 method of attacking indiscriminate sexual activity was to legislate against advertisements for curing VD. Legislation has also attempted to control individuals infected by making it an offense to communicate VD. The Criminal Code of Canada and VD regulations throughout the world are illustrative of such efforts. There has been no success in gaining convictions. Clearly, private activities cannot be controlled by law, but a legislative requirement for a premarital examination for VD is realistic since marriage is a public act. To combat the majority of cases, most jurisdictions have chosen compulsory reporting, tracing of contact, and control--all by force of law. Legislation varies from country to country as to what information is reported, to whom and under what conditions, but the basic system in those countries which employ a compulsory contract tracing system is the same in that to a large degree it depends for its success on the private physician. Legislation fails because it has tried to force the private physician to be a public officer. Unrealistic

  10. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  11. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  12. Legislation, Empirical Research and Juridical Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotel, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the incorporation of empirical research into legislation from a juridical law perspective. Juridical law is characterized by four elements: autonomous and artificial reasoning; making statements to authorize factual actions; mobilizing helpers of the proponent and de-mobilizing

  13. Buffalo City learners' knowledge of abortion legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP) Act legalised abortion on request in South Africa until up to 12 weeks of gestation and thereafter under specified conditions. Within the context of liberal legislation, accurate information is a necessary (although not sufficient) requirement for women to exercise ...

  14. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  15. Parental Perceptions of the 2014 SEND Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John; Pell, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    The study researched parent's experiences of The Children and Families Act 2014 in Hull and the East Riding of Yorkshire. A sample of parents using KIDS Services in the area were surveyed by questionnaire, both before and after the legislation came into force. Nearly half of the parents were aware of a change in Special Educational Needs and…

  16. Networking Concepts and Cooperation among Legislative Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that military rule does not provide the appropriate environment for the growth and development of legislative libraries. Cooperation and not competition is stated as the driving philosophy for library networks and cooperation. Resource sharing is the premise for participation in library network. Network ...

  17. The need for hate crime legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South. Africa and convener of ... risk for developing a variety of mental health problems including ..... organisation has expressed an interest in support- ing South Africa by providing experts for related training.57. Regardless of whether hate crime legislation is adopted in South ...

  18. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  19. Quality legislation: lessons for Ontario from abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillard, Jérémy; Tipper, Brenda; Klazinga, Niek

    2012-01-01

    While the Excellent Care for All Act, 2010 (ECFA Act) provides a comprehensive approach to stimulating quality improvement in healthcare, there are other examples of legislations articulating strategies aimed at the same goal but proposing different approaches. This paper reviews quality of care

  20. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  1. Industrial Relations Legislation: A Creative Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Malcolm

    1976-01-01

    One specific area of industrial relations training is considered--that of meeting the implications of change as a result of the current theme of joint involvement in proposed industrial relations legislation. This will demand new approaches for industry in England. (Author/BP)

  2. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  3. North Carolina Sexual Offender Legislation: Policy Placebo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Amy Dellinger; Hill, Julie Sprinkle; Gilbert, Griff

    2012-01-01

    Current legislation at the state and federal level is largely based on the premise that we can best protect children by prohibiting sexual offenders' access to children through the use of residency restrictions, employment sanctions, and community notification. While well intentioned, these policies are short sighted and based more on public…

  4. 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    that peace, order and good governance shall be promoted both at the Federal and State levels. Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. Introduction. The National Assembly is the highest law making and representative body in Nigeria. It is the. Constitutional ...

  5. Is there a foundation in South African legislation to require students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student involvement in patient care has been debated for many decades. There is an increasing body of literature calling for greater respect for patients' rights in a teaching environment. South African legislation already gives patients certain rights, including the right to non-medical information such as the costs of ...

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities: Armenia, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Ireland, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Armenia: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New procedure for investigation of nuclear power plant operational events, New requirements for the accounting of radiation sources). Australia: Radioactive waste management (New law regarding the development of a radioactive waste management facility). Austria: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Substantive changes to nuclear safety and radiation protection requirements). Belgium: Nuclear security (New requirements for the protection of critical infrastructures); Nuclear safety (Changes to safety measures for nuclear facilities); Nuclear safety and radiation protection (New requirements regarding the detection of orphan sources, New requirements regarding medical uses of radiation, A new framework for monitoring radon exposure). Brazil: Nuclear security (Establishment of new nuclear security organisation). France: Liability and compensation (Increase in the amount of operator liability in case of nuclear incident); General legislation (New comprehensive requirements for basic nuclear installations, New report by the Court of Auditors (Cour des Comptes) on the costs of nuclear energy). Germany: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Amendments to the Radiation Protection Ordinance and to the X-Rays Ordinance); Transport of radioactive material (New consolidated versions of Ordinances on the Transport of Dangerous Goods); International trade (Changes to the list of foreign trade laws and regulations, Changes to the basic legal instruments governing foreign trade). Hungary: Nuclear safety and radiation protection (Changes to nuclear safety requirements); General legislation (Modification of Act CXVI of 1996 on Atomic Energy). India: Liability and compensation (Final versions of recent liability and compensation legislation available online). Ireland: Transport of radioactive material (New regulations relating to the transport of dangerous goods by road). Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  7. Current economic cost, the ARENH (Regulated Access to the Historic (EDF) Nuclear Energy Supplier) price, the differential rent and the scarcity rent of nuclear power: some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to explain the ARENH mechanism, the regulated price at which the EDF (France's historic monopoly supplier) must sell part of its production to its competitors in the framework of the Nome Act (New Organisation of the Electricity Market). This price by its nature is different from the Current Economic Cost (CEC) of nuclear power, as estimated by France's Government Accounting Office in its report submitted in January 2012. These two approaches revert to the problem of the determination of the scarcity rent of nuclear power in the context of the liberalised European market, in which nuclear power benefits from a 'cost' advantage relative to thermal electricity generated from fossil fuels. Furthermore, scarcity rent is not the same thing as differential rent. Selling a nuclear kWh at the price of a 'gas' kWh at certain times results in a differential rent enabling nuclear generated power to cover fixed costs. One can only speak of scarcity rent for nuclear power when the price at which the kWh is sold allows the recovery of more than is necessary to cover overall costs of nuclear power and it is this scarcity rent and its allocation that is the subject of debate. (author)

  8. 78 FR 12967 - Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation; Cost of Service Rules...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 76 [MM Docket No. 00-10; FCC 01-123 and MM Docket No. 93-215; FCC 95-502] Establishment of Class A TV Service and Cable Television Rate Regulation... Federal Communications Commission published requirements related to Establishment of Class A TV Service...

  9. Energy and Cost Saving of a Photovoltaic-Phase Change Materials (PV-PCM System through Temperature Regulation and Performance Enhancement of Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hasan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research seeks to maintain high photovoltaic (PV efficiency and increased operating PV life by maintaining them at a lower temperature. Solid-liquid phase change materials (PCM are integrated into PV panels to absorb excess heat by latent heat absorption mechanism and regulate PV temperature. Electrical and thermal energy efficiency analysis of PV-PCM systems is conducted to evaluate their effectiveness in two different climates. Finally costs incurred due to inclusion of PCM into PV system and the resulting benefits are discussed in this paper. The results show that such systems are financially viable in higher temperature and higher solar radiation environment.

  10. An evaluation of the FDA's analysis of the costs and benefits of the graphic warning label regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Warner, Kenneth E; Acemoğlu, Daron; Gruber, Jonathan; Laux, Fritz; Max, Wendy; Newhouse, Joseph; Schelling, Thomas; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 gave the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory authority over cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products and authorised it to assert jurisdiction over other tobacco products. As with other Federal agencies, FDA is required to assess the costs and benefits of its significant regulatory actions. To date, FDA has issued economic impact analyses of one proposed and one final rule requiring graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigare...

  11. Energy management. Measures on consumption-, and cost reduction, financing programs, regulations; Energiemanagement. Massnahmen zur Verbrauchs- und Kostenreduzierung, Foerderprogramme, Vorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessel, Volker

    2008-07-01

    The book informs quickly and soundly on possibilities to reduce energy cost by load management and optimization of facilities, on fundamentals of energy management and valuable frame conditions, on relevant laws and important financing programs. (orig./GL) [German] Das Buch informiert schnell und fundiert ueber die Moeglichkeiten zur Reduzierung der Energiekosten durch Lastmanagement und Anlagenoptimierung, ueber die Grundlagen des Energiemanagements und gueltige Rahmenbedingungen, ueber relevante Gesetze und wichtige Foerderprogramme. (orig.)

  12. Understanding State Regulation of Biosimilars and Effect on Prescribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale, Katerina; Awosika, Olabola; Rengifo-Pardo, Monica; Ehrlich, Alison

    2017-10-01

    Biologics are a mainstay of treatment for many dermatologic conditions, however the high costs can be prohibitive for many patients. A growing market of biosimilar drugs is emerging with the hope of providing patients access to more affordable medications. While the FDA has created an abbreviated licensure pathway for these drugs, states are still in the process of creating regulations regarding their substitution for reference biologics. This article looks to raise awareness of the current federal regulations and the differences among state regulations regarding the use of biosimilars. Fifty percent of states have passed legislation regarding procedures for substitution of biosimilars in the pharmacy. All states require biosimilars to have FDA-approved "interchangeable" status, however states vary on other requirements such as: prescriber and patient notification, pharmaceutical record keeping, publicly-accessible list of interchangeable products, and cost regulations. Some of the issues surrounding biosimilar regulation include difficulty obtaining interchangeability status from the FDA, resistance to the physician notification requirement, and concern for traceability of adverse reactions. Physicians must be aware of current federal and state regulations regarding biosimilars and help inform policy makers of the potential benefits and shortcoming of biosimilar legislation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(10):995-1000..

  13. [Costs versus benefits of oral nutritional supplements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, G; Tapia, M J; Colomo, N

    2009-01-01

    Health economics pretends to assign resources that are short in essence and that may be used for other purposes. Health costs analysis pretends to compare the pros and cons of several options among which an election can be made in order to obtain greater benefits with lower costs. The current legislation on prescription of enteral nutrition entails confusing definitions about the administration route and the requirements of home-based enteral nutrition, without a specific regulation comprising the prescription of oral supplements (OS). From the year 2000 to 2007, the consumption of homebased enteral nutrition in Andalusia increased considerably; the costs generated being multiplied by 37. Although the number of persons that daily consumed supplements was higher than the number of diets through nasogastric tube (DT) during the years evaluated, the costs derived from OS surpassed those of DT from the year 2005 due to the combination of two factors: a progressive increase in the number of persons to whom supplements were prescribed, and on the other hand the incorporation of more expensive specific formulations. The use of oral supplements seems to be cost/effective in hospitalized surgical patients (during the pre- and postsurgical period) and possibly in hospitalized malnourished elderly, especially after performing a hyponutrition screening. Although they may be effective, under other circumstances, such as ambulatory patients, studies with an adequate methodology are necessary in order to adopt clinical decisions based on evidence and cost analysis.

  14. Institutional and legislative issues of emergency management policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiriev, B

    2001-12-14

    The emergency management policy as an organic component of the national development policy in contemporary Russia exists only for a slight more than a decade. However, its basic trends and directions could be revealed. In the legislative area covering technological accidents involving hazardous materials these include increasing differentiation of acts in terms of issue coverage, gradual integration of legislation via enforcement of the so-called systemic (umbrella) acts and increasing incorporation of specific acts, and keeping dominance of federal emergency acts. In addition, emergency legislation and policy programs on communities' protection against major hazards drift from alleviation-oriented towards more mitigation-focused. Meanwhile, the bulk of the existing acts are still specific laws and regulations, which consider most emergency response. In institutional realms the key direction of emergency policy development involved organization and progress of the Unified State System for Emergency Prevention and Elimination of the Russian Federation (USEPE) with EMERCOM as a key coordinator and actor in handling technological hazards and accidents. The detailed analysis of USEPE organizational pattern and operation modes including institutional structure, key functions, means and forces and operation routines is provided. It is argued that the system's logic and flexible organizational framework only to some extent contribute to effective mitigation of the major emergencies and/or disasters. In no less extent it depends on the existing socioeconomic conditions, which have been for a long time unfavorable in Russia and thus seriously constrain the USEPE effectiveness. This provides for ambiguous integral evaluation of the emergency management policy in the 1990s and early 2000s.

  15. Government capacities and stakeholders: what facilitates ehealth legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Newly established high-technology areas such as eHealth require regulations regarding the interoperability of health information infrastructures and data protection. It is argued that government capacities as well as the extent to which public and private organizations participate in policy-making determine the level of eHealth legislation. Both explanatory factors are influenced by international organizations that provide knowledge transfer and encourage private actor participation. Methods Data analysis is based on the Global Observatory for eHealth - ATLAS eHealth country profiles which summarizes eHealth policies in 114 countries. Data analysis was carried out using two-component hurdle models with a truncated Poisson model for positive counts and a hurdle component model with a binomial distribution for zero or greater counts. Results The analysis reveals that the participation of private organizations such as donors has negative effects on the level of eHealth legislation. The impact of public-private partnerships (PPPs) depends on the degree of government capacities already available and on democratic regimes. Democracies are more responsive to these new regulatory demands than autocracies. Democracies find it easier to transfer knowledge out of PPPs than autocracies. Government capacities increase the knowledge transfer effect of PPPs, thus leading to more eHealth legislation. Conclusions All international regimes – the WHO, the EU, and the OECD – promote PPPs in order to ensure the construction of a national eHealth infrastructure. This paper shows that the development of government capacities in the eHealth domain has to be given a higher priority than the establishment of PPPs, since the existence of some (initial) capacities is the sine qua non of further capacity building. PMID:24410989

  16. The paradoxes of application of the legislation on personal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Bobrova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of legislation on personal data and it’s enforcement in the educational process in higher educational institutions.The purpose of the article is highlight controversies in legislation on personal data, generating mistakes in enforcement during the educational procedures.The description of methodology. The author uses methods of complex analysis, synthesis, as well as formal-logical and formal-legal methods.The main results and scope of their application. The practice of interpreting the concepts of “personal data”, “confidential personal data”, “official secret”, “publicly available personal data” is extremely contradictory.Currently, there are hundreds departmental regulatory legal acts about various aspects of the protection of official secrets. Analysis of these acts shows that the rules aimed at preserving the confidentiality of official information regulate the following aspects of the functioning of state and municipal bodies, institutions and organizations: (a ensuring access to official information; (b providing state and municipal services; (c document flow and record keeping; (d staffing; (e anti-corruption; (f use of information systems; (g interaction with the media; (h prevention of conflicts of interest.The study load cannot be attributed to the personal data, that requires the consent of the teacher to be processed. The study load is nothing more than publicly available information, arising from the principles of collegiality of educational process management, competitiveness of education, its openness and transparency, that are established in the legislation on education.Conclusions. Extended interpretation of confidential personal data and inclusion of the teaching load to it is unacceptable. This contributes to conflicts of interest, corrupt factors and devaluation of higher education.

  17. International medical law and its impact on the ukrainian health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Udovyka, Larysa; Dichko, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Ukrainian state has an urgent necessity of rapid search for essentially new legal and organizational forms of the healthcare system, reform of the legal regulation of healthcare services provision. In the context of European integration, the advancement of the medical industry reform is closely related to consideration of international standards and norms of health care. The aim: To study the impact of international medical law on the Ukrainian health care legislation. Materials and methods: International and Ukrainian regulations and documents on health care were used in the research. System and structural, functional and legal comparative methods as well as systematization, analysis and synthesis were determinative in the research process. Review: Systematization of international documents on health care was made. The major problems in the Ukrainian health care legislation were determined in terms of their conformity with the international legislative norms. The expediency of the Medical Code adoption was grounded and its structure was defined. Conclusions: Most health care international acts are ratified by Ukraine and their provisions are implemented in the legislation. Simultaneously, there is a row of problems, which hinder the Ukrainian health care development and place obstacles in the way of European integration. To remove these obstacles, it is expedient to create a codified act - the Medical Code, which would systematize the provisions of the current medical laws and regulations and fill in the existing gaps in the legal regulation of health care.

  18. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raguzin Igor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  19. Achieving fire-safe cigarette legislation through coalition-based legislative advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam O; Grant, Ernest; McCullough, Anna; Cairns, Bruce; Kurian, Ann

    2010-02-01

    Advocates who work for tobacco control legislation through coalition-based policy advocacy have access to a broad base of support and resources that are critical to overcoming the tobacco industry lobby. This article provides an example of how a coalition-based advocacy strategy that engaged a diverse group of stakeholders and was supported by a national coordinating movement achieved state level fire-safe cigarette legislation in a tobacco-producing and manufacturing state.

  20. Environmental regulation, productive efficiency and cost of pollution abatement: a case study of the sugar industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, M N; Kumar, Surender; Paul, Mahua

    2006-04-01

    In this paper the input distance function is estimated for the Indian Sugar industry under alternative assumptions of weak and strong disposability of bad outputs. The estimated distance function is used to make the estimates of environmental efficiency, Malmquist productivity index and shadow prices of pollutants. The technical efficiency measure estimated under the assumption of weak disposability of bad outputs is utilized to test the Porter hypothesis. Marginal costs of pollution abatement functions are estimated for different pollutants of water. Pollutant specific taxes are computed using the tax-standards method.

  1. Design-Build in Public School Construction: A Post Hearing Briefing. A Report of the Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Legislative Audit Committee.

    The California legislature's Joint Legislative Audit Committee has issued a report on the design-build versus the design-bid-build process and offers a hybrid approach combining the two systems as a way of achieving the greatest cost efficiency at the least risk on public agencies. The cost benefits of faster delivery of the design-build method…

  2. Evaluation of EU legislation on blood: a bioethical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrini C

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carlo Petrini Bioethics Unit, Office of the President, National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy Abstract: A review of the European Union (EU regulations concerning blood, tissues, and cells of human origin is under way in the EU. From the ethical point of view, the non-remuneration of donations and the ban on deriving gain from human biological materials are of particular significance. While the basic ethical principles involved in the procurement, preservation, and use of these materials are the same, their practical application should be adapted to the specific context of each material. In the case of donation and use of blood, in particular, the issue of legitimate reimbursements to donors and for transfusion centers has to be managed in accordance with the principle of non-commercialization. There is also a need for strict rules to avoid possible commercial spillover effects from blood-derived products. The author proposes ethical criteria regarding reimbursements to donors, costs associated with processing, and the development (and possible marketing of products. Keywords: bioethics, blood, legislation, Europe, transfusion

  3. Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act : Legislative History of the Act to Assist the Electrical Consumers of the Pacific Northwest through use of the Federal Columbia River Power System to Achieve Cost-Effective Energy Conservation : P.L. 96-501, 94 Stat. 2697.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act became effective when it was signed into law by President Carter on December 5, 1980. This ended a four-year debate over legislation designed to plan and coordinate the region's energy future. This legislative history is an abbreviated version taken from the larger historical file maintained by the BPA Law Library. It is intended to assist BPA personnel and others who are studying the Northwest Power Act and working on its implementation. The documents included were selected for their value in determining what Congress meant in enacting the statute and to provide the researcher with a starting point for further investigation. These documents include: a history of the Act, a chronology of the legislative action leading to passage of the law; a section-by-section analysis of the Act; the Congressional Records of Senate and House debates on the bill and its amendments, and a list of Congressional committee hearings.

  4. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  5. Critical analysis of the Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas P, Elkin; Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document analyses the Colombian mining legislation, Act 685 of 2001, based on the reasons expressed by the government and the miners for its conceit and approval. The document tries to determine the developments achieved by this new Mining Code considering international mining competitiveness and its adaptation to the constitutional rules about environment, indigenous communities, decentralization and sustainable development. The analysis formulates general and specific hypothesis about the proposed objectives of the reform, which are confronted with the arguments and critical evaluations of the results. Most hypothesis are not verified, thus demonstrating that the Colombian mining legislation is far from being the necessary instrument to promote mining activities, making it competitive according to international standards and adapted to the principles of sustainable development, healthy environment, community participation, ethnic minorities and regional autonomy

  6. Tanning Salon Compliance Rates in States With Legislation to Protect Youth Access to UV Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa S; Buhalog, Brittany; Blumenthal, Laura; Stratman, Erik J

    2018-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has classified tanning beds as carcinogenic. Most states have enacted legislation to prevent or create barriers for minors accessing tanning establishments. Determining tanning salon compliance with legislation would provide an indication of the influence of legislation at preventing exposure to the carcinogen in minors. To investigate compliance rates in the 42 states and the District of Columbia with legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors and to identify differences in compliance based on population, regional location, salon ownership, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. This investigation was a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted between February 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, by callers posing as minors attempting to schedule a tanning appointment. The setting was tanning salons in the 42 states and the District of Columbia that currently have legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors. Included in the study were 427 tanning salons, 10 randomly selected from each state or territory with tanning legislation. Overall compliance of tanning salons with state tanning legislation and differences in compliance based on community population, regional location, independent vs chain tanning salon, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. Of the 427 tanning salons surveyed, overall noncompliance with state legislation was 37.2% (n = 159). There were more noncompliant tanning salons in rural locations (45.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-53.7%; P = .009), southern regions of the United States (49.4%; 95% CI, 41.4%-57.4%; P = .001), independently owned salons (43.9%; 95% CI, 37.3%-50.6%; P = .003), states with younger age groups being regulated (53.5%; 95% CI, 45.7%-61.2%; P legislation aimed at limiting tanning bed use among US minors is unsatisfactory, indicating that additional efforts to enforce the laws and education of the harmful effects of UV tanning are

  7. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  8. State Firearm Legislation and Nonfatal Firearm Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Mills, Brianna; Young, Bessie; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether stricter state-level firearm legislation was associated with lower hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries. Methods. We estimated discharge rates for hospitalized and emergency department–treated nonfatal firearm injuries in 18 states in 2010 and used negative binomial regression to determine whether strength of state firearm legislation was independently associated with total nonfatal firearm injury discharge rates. Results. We identified 26 744 discharges for nonfatal firearm injuries. The overall age-adjusted discharge rate was 19.0 per 100 000 person-years (state range = 3.3–36.6), including 7.9 and 11.1 discharges per 100 000 for hospitalized and emergency department–treated injuries, respectively. In models adjusting for differences in state sociodemographic characteristics and economic conditions, states in the strictest tertile of legislative strength had lower discharge rates for total (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.82), assault-related (IRR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.99), self-inflicted (IRR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.14, 0.24), and unintentional (IRR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.84) nonfatal firearm injuries. Conclusions. There is significant variation in state-level hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries, and stricter state firearm legislation is associated with lower discharge rates for such injuries. PMID:26066935

  9. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  10. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  11. Handgun Legislation and Changes in Statewide Overall Suicide Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D; Anestis, Joye C; Butterworth, Sarah E

    2017-04-01

    To examine the extent to which 4 laws regulating handgun ownership were associated with statewide suicide rate changes. To test between-group differences in statewide suicide rate changes between 2013 and 2014 in all 50 states and the District of Columbia with and without specific laws, we ran analyses of covariance. We found significant differences in suicide rate changes from 2013 to 2014 in states with mandatory waiting periods and universal background checks relative to states without such laws. States with both laws differed significantly from those with neither. No significant differences in rate changes were noted for open carry restrictions or gun lock requirements. Some state laws regulating aspects of handgun acquisition may be associated with lower statewide suicide rates. Laws regulating handgun storage and carrying practices may have a smaller effect, highlighting that legislation is likely most useful when its focus is on preventing gun ownership rather than regulating use and storage of guns already acquired. Public Health Implications. The findings add to the increasing evidence in support of a public health approach to the prevention of suicide via firearms, focusing on waiting periods and background checks.

  12. An analytical hierarchy process-based study on the factors affecting legislation on plastic bags in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongguo; Zhao, Fu

    2017-08-01

    Annually, a large number of used plastic shopping bags are released into the environment, posing significant threats to public health and wildlife. Owing to these concerns, many local, regional, and national governments around the world have passed legislation to ban or restrict the use of plastic shopping bags. However, in the USA there are only 18 states that have approved plastic bag bans/fees, and even within these states these regulations do not cover all cities or counties. There are many factors that could affect the development and implementation of these regulations. This article employs an analytical hierarchy process to analyse the factors that could impact the enactment of plastic bag regulations. Five impact factors are identified based on statistical data, that is, geographical location, interest of industry achievable, cost of living, level of economic development, and educational level of population. The weights of the five impact factors are determined and it is found that the possibility of banning or restricting plastic bags in general follows a certain pattern among all states.

  13. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  14. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEATHER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the current legislation and compliance issues leather waste in different waste groups according to relevant legislation and shows that, although seemingly harmless waste of skin sometimes contain dangerous compounds. As presented risks to human health were some restricted substances in leather. Since 2001 Romania had preoccupation in national legislation on waste management, but some categories, such as leather waste are not framed to this category. Also, another goal is implementing the EU management/storage strategy of industrial waste. Unfortunately, Romania imports huge quantities of used clothing and shoes. Transport, storage and use of them are poor, and many of these are subsequently stored waste by the fact that it is even sometimes improperly discarded. The paper also shows the statistics on waste management in the Bihor County by activity of national economy and by activity of industry at level of CANE REV.2 Section. Analyzing the postings on Internet regarding the sale and purchase of leather wastes in Romania, it was found that there are the following 'categories' of wastes: leather goods, leather from coats, leather from footwear industry, suede, leather, leather resulting from the production of upholstery. It was found that most car buyers use waste leather upholstery. It is recommended that production companies to highlight more transparent their inventory textile and leather waste on types for those interested (including online can access/capitalize them.

  15. Students' Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Smoke-Free Universities: Changes Since Enactment of Vietnamese Tobacco Control Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Cook, Margaret; Johnstone, Kelly; Capra, Mike; Lan, Vu Thi Hoang

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, legislation in Vietnam regulated smoking in public areas. Included was a ban on indoor smoking at universities. Since awareness and attitude are moderators of the effectiveness of smokefree policy, ou aim was to assess changes in students' knowledge and attitude tosecond hand smoke (SHS) and awareness and support of smoke-free legislation at four Vietnamese universities, one year after legislative changes. A two-phase cross sectional study of undergraduate students using self-administered questionnaires (based on the Global Adult Tobacco Survey and the Thrasher survey) was conducted at the introduction of the legislation and one year thereafter. One-year post legislation there were significant increases in knowledge of smoke-free legislation and awareness of universities as smoke-free environments. There was a significant increase in knowledge of harmful effects of SHS on diseases such as examples in the heart and lung, including lung cancer, and miscarriage. Students expressed strong support of smoke-free environments in universities, hospitals, schools, workplaces, public transport, libraries, cinemas and theatres; support was also increased post legislation. Changes were seen in attitude to SHS, and rights of non-smokers and smokers. Positive changes have occurred in knowledge and attitude toward smoke-free environments and SHS in universities since enactment of Vietnamese tobacco control legislation.

  16. Baseload coal investment decisions under uncertain carbon legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule A; Lave, Lester B

    2007-05-15

    More than 50% of electricity in the U.S. is generated by coal. The U.S. has large coal resources, the cheapest fuel in most areas. Coal fired power plants are likely to continue to provide much of U.S. electricity. However, the type of power plant that should be built is unclear. Technology can reduce pollutant discharges and capture and sequester the CO2 from coal-fired generation. The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for large scale commercial deployment of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems (e.g., loan guarantees and project tax credits). This analysis examines whether a new coal plant should be Pulverized Coal (PC) or IGCC. Do stricter emissions standards (PM, SO2, NOx, Hg) justify the higher costs of IGCC over PC? How does potential future carbon legislation affect the decision to add carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology? Finally, can the impact of uncertain carbon legislation be minimized? We find that SO2, NOx, PM, and Hg emission standards would have to be far more stringent than twice current standards to justify the increased costs of the IGCC system. A C02 tax less than $29/ton would lead companies to continuing to choose PC, paying the tax for emitted CO2. The earlier a decision-maker believes the carbon tax will be imposed and the higher the tax, the more likely companies will choose IGCC w/CCS. Having government announce the date and level of a carbon tax would promote more sensible decisions, but government would have to use a tax or subsidy to induce companies to choose the technology that is best for society.

  17. HARMONIZATION OF UKRAINIAN LABOUR LEGISLATION ACCORDANCE WITH ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodianka LIUBOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the necessity of harmonization of the Ukrainian labour legislation in accordance with Acquis communautaire. The main legal acts in the sphere of Ukrainian labour legislation are analyzed. Special attention in the article is devoted to the critics of the Draft Labour Code of Ukraine, also marked its contradictions, positive sides and shortcomings are indicated. Potential dangers of the protection of labour rights in Ukraine connected with the lack of regulation of activity of trade unions are identified. The conditions necessary for the successful implementation of international labour standards and principles in Ukrainian national law are proposed.

  18. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met......, waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have...

  19. Post-accession compliance with EU gender equality legislation in post-communist new member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Sedelmeier

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the transposition of EU legislation on gender equality at the workplace in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Slovenia, as well as the enforcement powers of their national equality institutions. It does not find significant differences between post- and pre-accession compliance. Overall compliance can be considered good in Hungary, Lithuania, and Slovenia, while it is considerably worse in the Czech Republic – both pre- and post-accession. As an explanation for these variations in legal transposition and enforcement bodies, the paper finds two equifinal paths towards correct transposition of EU gender equality legislation and strong enforcement bodies: either the absence of high adjustment costs, or the combination of strong social democratic governments and NGOs with special expertise in EU gender equality legislation.

  20. The cost of believing emotions are uncontrollable: Youths' beliefs about emotion predict emotion regulation and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brett Q; Lwi, Sandy J; Gentzler, Amy L; Hankin, Benjamin; Mauss, Iris B

    2018-04-05

    As humans, we have a unique capacity to reflect on our experiences, including emotions. Over time, we develop beliefs about the nature of emotions, and these beliefs are consequential, guiding how we respond to emotions and how we feel as a consequence. One fundamental belief concerns the controllability of emotions: Believing emotions are uncontrollable (entity beliefs) should reduce the likelihood of trying to control emotional experiences using effective regulation strategies like reappraisal; this, in turn, could negatively affect core indices of psychological health, including depressive symptoms. This model holds particular relevance during youth, when emotion-related beliefs first develop and stabilize and when maladaptive beliefs could contribute to emerging risk for depression. In the present investigation, a pilot diary study (N = 223, aged 21-60) demonstrated that entity beliefs were associated with using reappraisal less in everyday life, even when controlling for possible confounds (i.e., self-efficacy, pessimism, stress exposure, stress reactivity). Then, two studies examined whether entity beliefs and associated impairments in reappraisal may set youths on a maladaptive trajectory: In a cross-sectional study (N = 136, aged 14-18), youths with stronger entity beliefs experienced greater depressive symptoms, and this link was mediated by lower reappraisal. This pattern was replicated and extended in a longitudinal study (N = 227, aged 10-18), wherein youth- and parent-reported depressive symptoms were assessed 18 months after assessing beliefs. These results suggest that entity beliefs about emotion constitute a risk factor for depression that acts via reappraisal, adding to the growing literature on emotion beliefs and their consequences for self-regulation and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of recent and forthcoming emission regulations in the northern European emission control area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-06-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 33%, from 322 ktons to 217 ktons, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 20%, from 74 ktons to 59 ktons. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the South-Eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 85% in SOx emissions and a~reduction of 50% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all shipping varied between 10% and 63%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  2. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  3. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  4. Legislative Framework Required for Africa's M-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa......This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa...

  5. Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Goszczyńska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. Therefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments. Med Pr 2013;64(4:593–608

  6. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2008-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  7. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2009-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  8. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)

  9. The relationship between administrative court control and legislative control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The legislator can determine the extent of control of administrative courts by reduction of substantive conditions. The author has the opinion that the judicial control cannot be stricter than the legislative control. For the range of the control of administrative courts is decisive, to what extent the legislator is forced to proper legislative settlements. In this context the author discusses the Kalkar-decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1978. (CW) [de

  10. Politics is local: State legislator voting on restrictive voter identification legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth C McKee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marked increase in restrictive voter identification (ID laws since the 2010 elections reveals the extreme partisan polarization in those state legislatures advancing this reform. Unlike previous studies that examine state-level factors expected to influence passage of restrictive voter ID bills, this study is the first to investigate the question using the state legislator as the unit of analysis. Multivariate analysis of the voting behavior of state legislators shows which kinds of district-level factors increase or decrease their likelihood of supporting stricter voter ID laws. Given the differentiable coalitions favoring Democratic and Republican candidates, certain partisan-aligned district demographics influence state lawmaker support for restrictive voter ID legislation. Race in particular is a major cleavage conditioning support for restrictive voter ID laws. Unlike the mixed findings generated by macro-level studies, this article provides convincing evidence that the size of the black district population negatively influences the likelihood that a Democratic legislator votes in favor of a restrictive voter ID bill, but positively affects the probability that a Republican lawmaker votes yes. The findings in this study illuminate the contextual factors that influence legislator voting on this salient election reform.

  11. 40 CFR 1506.8 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposals for legislation. 1506.8 Section 1506.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.8 Proposals for legislation. (a) The NEPA process for proposals for legislation (§ 1508.17...

  12. 31 CFR 0.212 - Influencing legislation or petitioning Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Influencing legislation or... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.212 Influencing legislation or... Congress to favor or oppose any legislation. This prohibition does not apply to the official handling...

  13. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  14. 29 CFR 783.28 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 783.28 Section 783.28 Labor... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Legislative History and Judicial Construction of the Exemptions § 783.28 General legislative history. As originally enacted in 1938, section 13(a)(3) of the Fair Labor...

  15. A Critique of the Key Legislative Framework Guiding Civil Liberties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key legislative framework presented in this paper is within the areas of media and access to information, individual rights and freedoms, as well as legislation pertaining to the conduct of elections. In some cases, colonial legislation that politicians claimed to have repealed was reincarnated, as the post-colonial dispensation ...

  16. Senate begins clean air legislation debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on Senate debate on the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989. Topics include acid rain provisions, administration objections, costs of the bill including disparity of costs in different regions and cost-sharing proposals, and the effects the current energy policy will have on the bill. Presidential, Senate, and subcommittee views on the bill are presented

  17. Sexual and reproductive rights in Argentina: New legislative trends and physician opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Nicolás Campana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available If tracing the trajectory of right to health in Argentina over the last decade, we can see how the new legislation grants increasing importance to the voluntary will of patients. Argentine citizens are increasingly able to make decisions regarding everything related to the care of their own bodies and health. This undoubtedly causes a shift in the traditional role of physicians, who historically have made decisions regarding healthcare for the population. This article will focus on how sexual and reproductive rights have started to be regulated in the country, and then compare the current legislation with the opinion of doctors living in the city of Cordoba (Argentina, to see if healthcare professionals are in accordance with these new legislative trends.

  18. It's about Time for Autism Reform Legislation in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    On 3 April 2014, Governor Gary Herbert signed into law a health insurance reform bill that requires private insurers to cover autism therapy. Specifically, SB57 requires state-regulated health plans to cover applied behavior analysis (ABA) therapy. While early diagnosis and intervention can reduce the long-term cost of autism, families are finding…

  19. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  20. Politeness Indicators in Nigeria Legislative Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Unoalegie Bola Agbara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In every human interaction, interlocutors strive to maintain appropriate decorum and politeness in order to avoid undue feeling of not being ‘nice’ or being insensitive to co-participant’s self-esteem or image. This culture of being ‘nice’ is expressed not only through verbal codes, but also through non-verbal cues such as pitch, tone, voice modulation, facial expression and other forms of body language. Nigeria legislative House reflects the uniqueness of Nigeria as a multicultural nation with about two hundred and fifty ethnic groups. Each tribe has a unique way of expressing ‘nice’ (politeness. This paper examines how Nigerian legislators from different ethnic groups acknowledge the self-esteem of other legislators during senate debates. The study used Scollon and Scollon’s politeness principle which states that in every interaction there is a continuous ‘face’ (self-image negotiation and this ‘face’ which is made up of two aspects - involvement and independent- must be balanced during interactions because ‘face’ is a paradoxical concept. The interest of this study is to identify and to explain how politicians, who though are in opposition, acknowledge the self-esteem of others. Six hansards were sampled from 2009 to 2010, one bill from each quarter of the year. It was discovered that speakers almost always punctuate their contributions to debate with different types of politeness indicators as a means of acknowledging both the involvement and dependent face wants of participants. The politeness indicators often used by senators include address forms which are used not only as vocative (to the presiding senator but also as designative (for reference to a third person mentioned in the speech, first person plural pronouns, rhetorical (speech politeness markers and ritualized utterances.

  1. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  2. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  3. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... framework for a novel food in a regulatory context. Once admitted, edible insects require proper rules to assure consumers and stakeholders of their benefits and safety. This overview highlights the need to develop clearer legislation to govern the future production and consumption of new food in Europe...

  4. [International trends in laboral risk legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vigil, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    It had been established that labor damage are: laboral injuries, professional diseases and others diseases related with laboral conditions. All of them are referred to as diseases or damages suffered as a consequence of a laboral relations. It is implicated that the damage occurs in the place or during a laboral scheduled time with a causal direct relation. There is a trend in the Spanish laboral legislation, which is controversial in laboral medicine, because it includes a Law for the Prevention of Laboral Risks that consider also to the chronic diseases as a cause no traumatic of a laboral risk to conditioned a damage during the laboral journey.

  5. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  6. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  7. A review of conservation legislation in Nepal: Past progress and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Joel T.; Kattel, Bijaya

    1992-11-01

    Nepal is considered a leader among developing nations with regard to conservation legislation and programs; it was among the first Asian nations to develop national conservation legislation, sign CITES, and develop a national conservation strategy. We review the history of modern conservation law in Nepal from the Rana period (early 1950s) to the present. The early legislation focused mainly on strict preservation of areas and species; this phase culminated in the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Subsequent legislation has evolved more in the direction of an integrated, holistic approach to conservation and is beginning to incorporate the participation of local people; subsequent amendments to the 1973 act allowed greater rights to rural villagers, and the designation of conservation areas in addition to the more strictly defined protected areas (national parks, wildlife reserves, etc.). Our review of conservation legislation suggests that Nepal has had many successes to date; the country has a protected area system covering over 10% of its land area, and many target species are recovering in parks and reserves. There are also some causes of concern, including staff shortages, financial constraints within the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, and the fact that there is little legal infrastructure outside of protected areas to enforce conservation laws; further, some aspects of hunting regulations are in need of revision. Primary needs include a comprehensive review of these policies and a nationalized strategy to ameliorate the shortcomings.

  8. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation; Irradiacion de Alimentos. Legislacion Vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdejo S, M. [Secretaria de Salud. Subsecretaria de Regulacion y Fomento Sanitario. Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos. Mariano Escobedo No. 366- 4o. Piso. Col. Nueva Anzures. Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named `Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives` standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  9. Market, Legislation Make Wind an Attractive Investment in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-06-01

    This brochure, part of the SEP Stellar Projects series, covers development of wind energy in Texas due to favorable legislation and public policy and favorable market forces. Those odd shaped structures popping up out in West Texas aren't funny looking oil rigs and they're not genetically altered cotton plants. They're wind turbines, an old technology with a 21st century update. Once too expensive for commercial production, the addition of computers to wind turbines and the rise in fossil fuel prices has brought the cost of wind-generated electricity in line with other power sources. A push by the 1999 Legislature to restructure the retail electric power market put in place rules that encourage wind generation. One rule requires Texas utilities to get an additional 2,000 megawatts of their power from renewable resources such as wind and solar power by 2009. Rules easing the cost of transmitting electricity from remote areas also aid the development of wind farms in West Texas.

  10. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or “Right‐to‐Try” Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Jelena P.; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E.; Adamo, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and “Right‐to‐Try” legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. Methods FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. Results The FDA EA program includes Single Patient‐Investigational New Drug (SP‐IND), Emergency SP‐IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. “Right‐to‐Try” legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. Conclusion The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP‐IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. PMID:25588691

  11. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or "Right-to-Try" Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, M E Blair; Berglund, Jelena P; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E; Adamo, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and "Right-to-Try" legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. The FDA EA program includes Single Patient-Investigational New Drug (SP-IND), Emergency SP-IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. "Right-to-Try" legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP-IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Economic Effects of Legislative Framework Changes in Groundwater Use Rights for Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Prosperi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, groundwater resource is a public good, and the entitlement of use rights by the public authority to final users differs according to a country-specific legislative framework. In Italy, groundwater extraction has been regulated through non-tradable private licenses. At present, the public authority needs to reform the current legislative framework, in order to comply with the Water Framework Directive, aimed at the enhancement of the efficiency of the resource use. This research analyzes the effects of reforming the current framework based on non-tradable use rights, by comparing two different liberalization scenarios: an intra-sector market, and a regional market. Although positive economic benefits are generally expected from the liberalization of use rights at aggregated level, we want to analyze whether effects of the legislative framework causes uneven changes on some farm groups. The empirical case study refers to the Fortore river basin (South of Italy, where groundwater covers about 50–80% of current needs, and informal (though illegal water markets across neighbor farmers already exist. From the findings, there is no evidence that the exchange liberalization of groundwater use rights leads to gains in terms of the value added and the farmer’s revenue. In addition, in the case of an auction system regulated by the public authority, farmers whose water productivity is higher may be able to gain, while others may suffer some losses. In this case, resistances from farmers’ associations towards the legislative framework reform may arise.

  13. A blueprint for legislative action : consensus recommendations for U.S. Climate Protection Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In January 2007, we issued our Call for Action in which we joined together to call for prompt enactment of national legislation in the United States to slow, stop and reverse the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the shortest time reas...

  14. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: a framework based on safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Patrick; da Silva, Miguel Fernandes; Pettman, Simon

    2006-04-03

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  15. European regulations on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: A framework based on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, Patrick; Fernandes da Silva, Miguel; Pettman, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the legislation that is relevant in the marketing of functional foods in the European Union (EU), how this legislation was developed as well as some practical consequences for manufacturers, marketers and consumers. It also addresses some concrete examples of how the EU's safety requirements for food products have impacted a range of product categories. In the late nineties, research into functional ingredients was showing promising prospects for the use of such ingredients in foodstuffs. Due mainly to safety concerns, these new scientific developments were accompanied by an urgent call for legislation. The European Commission 2000 White Paper on Food Safety announced some 80 proposals for new and improved legislation in this field. Among others, it foresaw the establishment of a General Food Law Regulation, laying down the principles of food law and the creation of an independent Food Authority endowed with the task of giving scientific advice on issues based upon scientific risk assessment with clearly separated responsibilities for risk assessment, risk management and risk communication. Since then, more than 90% of the White Paper proposals have been implemented. However, there is not, as such, a regulatory framework for 'functional foods' or 'nutraceuticals' in EU Food Law. The rules to be applied are numerous and depend on the nature of the foodstuff. The rules of the general food law Regulation are applicable to all foods. In addition, legislation on dietetic foods, on food supplements or on novel foods may also be applicable to functional foods depending on the nature of the product and on their use. Finally, the two proposals on nutrition and health claims and on the addition of vitamins and minerals and other substances to foods, which are currently in the legislative process, will also be an important factor in the future marketing of 'nutraceuticals' in Europe. The cornerstone of EU legislation on food products, including

  16. COMPARATIVE LEGISLATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE BRIBERY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronting socially unacceptable activities, especially corruptive criminal acts, including bribing, makes an important issue of every regulated legal system. The crucial part of such policies are the criminal polices. In this paper, the author deals with the criminal legislation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, related to the matters of active bribing as one of the basic forms of corruptive behaviour. While comparing the way the penal system is regulated in the said country, the author comments basic similarities and differences of the passive bribing legal regulation in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Croatia.

  17. ROUNDTABLE SESSION 2: DOES LEGISLATION WORK IN PROTECTING VULNERABLE SPECIES?

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    HOLDICH D. M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of discussions held at the Innsbruck CRAYNET meeting and the answers given to a subsequent questionnaire sent out to the National Co-ordinators of the 11 countries/regions, it is clear that most European countries aim at trying to protect their indigenous crayfish species (ICS from overexploitation, habitat modification, pollution, and spread of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS and crayfish plague. Two detailed case studies are given for Austria and England plus a summary of the questionnaires. These clearly illustrate the different attitudes of countries to protecting and managing their ICS and NICS. The situation is highly complex and differs depending upon whether or not there is a tradition for eating crayfish. Consequently, harmonisation of national and regional regulations for ICS and NICS in Europe may not be possible in the short term. In many cases legislation has not prevented further destruction of populations of ICS and the spread of NICS. However, without such legislation the situation could have been a lot worse and some ICS could already have become critically endangered. The continued efforts by the crayfish community and national authorities have resulted in a scenario where there are still some countries without NICS, and in most European countries there are specific areas with numerous, viable populations of ICS that are considered valuable and are protected by the authorities as well as by local people. The situation has recently been improved by providing protection for Austropotamobius torrentium under Annex II of the EU Habitats Directive. A major objective must be to develop methods for eradicating nuisance populations of NICS before they spread any further.

  18. SYSTEMIC REFORM OF CHINESE ANTICORRUPTION LEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE

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    Liu Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of ongoing systematic reform of Chinese anticorruption legislation and practice of its enforcement.The purpose of the article is to formulate ways of improvement Chinese anti-corruption legislation.The methods of legislation analysis and synthesis of legislative gaps and contradictions are used.The results, scope of application. Nowadays, China is moving from the struggle against corruption by political means to the struggle by legal means. In attempt to construct a system of anti-corruption legislation, China is actively forming a dualistic normative system and a mechanism for the interaction between party norms and state legislation. A multilevel vertical-integrated system of anti-corruption legislation with "The anti-corruption law" as a core was created; the Party is stressing the priority status of preventive legislation and the auxiliary role of legislation on control over power. This system should became the basis for building Chinese anti-corruption legislation. The author formulated a system of principles of Chinese anti-corruption legislation, including the principles of efficiency, consistency, economy and gradualism. The importance of the anti-corruption legislative program, the task formulated in 2015, is underlined. The list of the main anti-corruption legislative acts has been determined, including legislation in the aspects "do not dare to take [bribes]", "cannot take [bribes]" and "do not want to take [bribes]". The problem of improving the legislation in the "do not dare to take" aspect have been specially considered, including improvement of criminal legislation, adoption of the law on accountability and responsibility of public servants, as well as the adoption of an anti-corruption law. The main alternatives and problems of improving legislation in the context of "not being able to take" are considered, such as adoption of laws on declaration of property of public servants

  19. The Legislative Process as a Safeguard of the Public Servant´S Right to Go on Strike

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    Edilene Lôbo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The right to go on strike can only be realized after a specific national bill – such law has been denied for decades. Acknowledged the omission it should be remedied. The Supreme Court, nonetheless, declared the legislative gap but created, by analogy, rules and procedural issues, bestowing upon the remaining courts discretion to establish a stricter regime and erga omnes effect replacing the legislator. This work criticizes the right´s regulation through judicial rulings removed from the legislative process. The methodology utilized, supported by Estate´s  functions  separation  and  democratic  process  theories,  consisted  in  exam  of legislation, court rulings AND specialized literature.

  20. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires concernant la protection de la population et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)