WorldWideScience

Sample records for legislation regulations classification

  1. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation

  2. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the nuclear and environmental licensing, and emergency preparedness legislation.

  3. Legislation and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder

  4. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  5. Legislation on and regulation of nuclear activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This work is a compilation of legislative texts and regulations published by the Atomic Energy Commission's Legal Affairs Department (CEA). It provides a comprehensive source of knowledge and information on nuclear energy law. Legislative texts published over the last forty years, are collected and analytically indexed. The publication covers both French regulations and regulations of international organisations such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and Euratom. It is divided into eight different chapters, dealing with regulations relevant to international and national institutions, nuclear installations, third party liability, protection of persons and the environment, etc. A chronological table of the texts of international and national laws is also included in this work. (NEA) [fr

  6. Invalidity of contract: legislative regulation and types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Іванович Крат

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Invalidity contracts always attracted attention researchers. Without regard to it, in modern conditions there is an enormous layer of the problems related to invalidity contract, that to require a doctrine and utilitarian comprehension. The article is sanctified to research invalidity contract. In the article analyses problems of the legislative regulation and types of invalidity contract through the prism of judicial practice. In the Civil code of Ukraine, a voidable contract sets as a common rule. A voidable of the contract is incarnated in the so-called «virtual» invalidity when only the most typical grounds are enumerated. However, even such approach does not allow to overcome all possible cases that arise up in practice. Such situation touches possibility of voidable contracts concluded with the purpose of to shut out the appeal of claim to the property of the debtor. Therefore it follows to set general rules in relation to voidable contracts of the debtor. A nullity of the contract takes place only in the case when there is the direct pointing of law on the qualification of that or another contract as the nullity. The nullity of contract in the Civil code of Ukraine is constructed by means of «textual» invalidity. There are no single attempts to use the construction of «virtual» invalidity in judicial practice when there is the direct pointing of law on the qualification of that or another contract as the nullity, that is impermissible. Methodologically incorrectly to carry out identifying of invalidity contract and obligation with the aim of providing of application of different after the rich in content filling norms.

  7. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  8. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  9. Post engineered nanomaterials lifespan: nanowastes classification, legislative development/implementation challenges, and proactive approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 NANOLCA Symposium, "Safety issues and regulatory challenges of nanomaterials", San Sebastian, Spain, 3-4 May 2012 Post engineered nanomaterials lifespan: nanowastes classification, legislative development/implementation challenges, and proactive...

  10. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) developed a methodology and the NRA SR Chairman's Regulation that sets out a uniform administration procedure in collecting administration fees, for the purpose of applying the Act of the National council of the Slovak Republic on Administration Fees. Pursuant to the Act on Czech-Slovak technical standards, NRA SR has a function of an uneglectable participant in commenting on draft Slovak technical standards (STN). A total of 101 drafts were reviewed. The standard drafts in most cases concerned taking European standards and international standards over into the STN system, with respect to the Slovak Republic integration into the European Union. Coordination of technical standardization is assessed by the Council for Technical Standardization that is established at the Slovak Institute of Technical Standardization. The NRA SR's staff member takes part at meetings of the Council. In the third year of their existence, NRA SR started to issue their own publications that should provide legal and qualified information about peaceful use of nuclear power. NRA SR in co-operation with VUJE a.s. Trnava issued the first publication 'Selected legal documents on peaceful use of nuclear power (general binding legal regulations)'. The publication contains texts or extracts from 21 regulations

  11. Risk based regulation: a convenient concept for legislation and regulation in the field of technical risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Legislation and regulation concerning risk activities are traditionally based on deterministic safety measures. This may lead to inefficient results: sometimes the law requires safety measures which are - from an economic viewpoint - not justified because of their poor cost-effectiveness; sometimes it does not require safety measures although they would be very efficient. The risk based regulation approach wants to make the law more efficient and to get more safety at less costs. Legislation and regulation should be based on terms of risk rather than on deterministic rules. Risk should be expressed in quantitative terms and risk regulation should be based on the cost-effectiveness of safety measures. Thus a most efficient (in the sense of the economic analysis of the law) strategy for safety and environmental law could be established. The approach is economically reasonable and theoretically convincing. Its practical implementation however raises a lot of technical and legal questions. The project 'Risk Based Regulation' (1996-1999), sponsored by the Swiss National Fund for Scientific Research, intends to evaluate the practical feasibility of the approach from a technical and a legal view. It contains a general part which describes the risk based regulation approach and its legal and technical questions, case studies which try to practically implement the risk based regulation approach; the case studies are: storage and management of explosives in the army, storage and management of explosives for non-military purposes, safety at work, accident prevention in the non-professional field (mainly road accidents), fire protection, transportation of dangerous goods, waste disposal: traditional waste, waste disposal: radioactive waste, nuclear energy (reactor safety), a synthesis with recommendations for the future legislation and regulation in the field of technical risks. The paper presents the project and its preliminary results. (author)

  12. Empirical knowledge in legislation and regulation : A decision making perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers the pros and cons of the empirical approach to legislation from the vantage point of empirical decision making research. It focuses on methodological aspects that are typically not considered by legal scholars. It points out weaknesses in the empirical approach that are

  13. Legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations in the arab counties a comparative analytical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Baroudy, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the developments taking place in nuclear sciences and technologies during the twentieth century and the resulting increase of useful applications of these technologies, the international efforts aiming at helping different countries to establish nuclear safety systems. This was also increased through the promulgation of legislations that render the practices, which could be accompanied with exposure to ionizing radiations, more safe within a firm legal system that is also backed by promulgating suitable executive regulations. Most Arab countries are keen to promulgate their legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations and protection against their dangers. Those legislations usually get their genesis and provisions from the international recommendations as well as from the general legal system of the country. The present work consists of four chapters. The first chapter deals with the definition of legislations for regulating the work with ionizing radiations. Chapter two discusses the international trend to promulgate legislations for protection against ionizing radiations. Chapter three includes an analytical comparative study on the legislations that regulates the work with ionizing radiations in the Arab countries. Finally, chapter four deals with the legislations for protection against ionizing radiations in the Arab Republic of Egypt

  14. First experiences with NORM regulations in the Austrian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauke, Michael; Katzlberger, C.; Haider, W.; Ringer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper gives a brief overview of important aspects of the recently implemented NORM ordinance in the Austrian Radiation Protection Legislation. It describes first experiences from pilot studies and dose assessments in this field. The field of application of this ordinance is defined by a list of work activities which might cause a significant increase in the exposure of workers and of members of the public. This list includes work activities, which potentially increase the exposure due to radon or uranium, thorium and their progenies and work activities, where residues with elevated levels of natural radionuclides may lead to a significant increase in the exposure of workers and the public. The first level of a dose assessment is the determination of activity concentrations in materials. It is assumed that the dose of workers does not exceed 1 mSv per year, if the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides are below 1 Bq/g. A notification of the workplace to the radiation protection authority is sufficient in this case. Otherwise a detailed dose assessment considering all relevant exposure pathways has to be performed as well as radiation protection measures and organisational measures, if needed. If the results of the dose assessment show higher levels than 6 mSv per year, radiation protection measures like personal dosimeters and periodical medical examination and reporting to the radiation protection authority are obligatory. A similar dose assessment procedure has to be applied for residues. The residues are allowed to be disposed as conventional waste, as long as the dose assessment shows a dose lower than 1 mSv per year. Otherwise the residues have to be treated as radioactive waste. Only accredited or certified institutions may perform authorised dose assessments. The Austrian Agency for Food and Health Safety performed pilot studies in this field for getting more experience in the field of dose assessment and to get an overview of the

  15. Compendium of federal and state radioactive materials transportation laws and regulations: Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The Transportation Legislative Database (TLDB) is an on-line information service containing detailed information on legislation and regulations regarding the transportation of radioactive materials in the United States. The system is dedicated to serving the legislative and regulatory information needs of the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies; state, tribal, and local governments; the hazardous materials transportation industry; and interested members of the general public. In addition to the on-line information service, quarterly and annual Legal Developments Reports are produced using information from the TLDB. These reports summarize important changes in federal and state legislation, regulations, administrative agency rulings, and judicial decisions over the reporting period. Information on significant legal developments at the tribal and local levels is also included on an as-available basis. Battelle's Office of Transportation Systems and Planning (OTSP) will also perform customized searches of the TLDB and produce formatted printouts in response to specific information requests

  16. The effects of regulation, legislation and policy on consumption of edible insects in the global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilderspin, Dana Elisabeth; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz

    2018-01-01

    With an expanding edible insect industry, regulators, legislators, and policy-makers face increasingly difficult decisions regarding trade, production, harvesting, and consumption. It is becoming clearer that no panacea or one-size-fits-all solutions exist for regulating the industry, and that so...

  17. [Legislative regulation of production and turnover of products for people with different diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritul'skaia, N V; Motuzka, Iu N; Antiushko, D L

    2013-01-01

    This article presents results of analysis of existing regulatory documents and approaches to the legislative regulation of production and turnover of special dietary products for people with specific diseases in EU, Ukraine and Russian Federation. According to the EU legislation, production and turnover of food products for nutritional support of people during specific diseases and the rehabilitation period are regulated by the Commission Directive 1999/21/EC, 2009/39/ES, by Regulation Commission (EU) No 953/2009 and documents of Codex Committee. Special food products for people with specific diseases in Ukrainian legislation are classified as nutrition products for special dietary use and are regulated by the following Laws of Ukraine "On the safety and quality of food", "On ensuring of sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population", "On Consumer Rights Protection", "On advertising" and by other non-legislative acts. According to the current legislation of the Russian Federation, the products for people with specific diseases are classified as healthy dietary food products. The basis of the legal framework are federal laws "On the quality and safety of food", "On the sanitary-epidemiological welfare of the populations", "On technical regulations and technical regulations of the Customs Union "On Food Safety" and "On the safety of certain types of specialized food products, including healthy dietary food products and therapeutic dietary food products". There is no common approach to the legal regulation of production and turnover of products for people with specific diseases in the world. The proposals for further harmonization of regulatory control in this area have been developed.

  18. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  19. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  20. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  1. European regulation of cross-border hate speech in cyberspace: The limits of legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the complexities of regulating hate speech on the Internet through legal frameworks. It demonstrates the limitations of unilateral national content legislation and the difficulties inherent in multilateral efforts to regulate the Internet. The paper highlights how the US's commitment to free speech has undermined European efforts to construct a truly international regulatory system. It is argued that a broad coalition of citizens, industry and government, employing technol...

  2. Classification of research reactors and discussion of thinking of safety regulation based on the classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenxiu; Zhu Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Research reactors have different characteristics in the fields of reactor type, use, power level, design principle, operation model and safety performance, etc, and also have significant discrepancy in the aspect of nuclear safety regulation. This paper introduces classification of research reactors and discusses thinking of safety regulation based on the classification of research reactors. (authors)

  3. Russian Language Testing and Integrated Examination for Foreign Citizens in Russia: Legislation Background and Legal Regulation Specific Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhikova, Anzhela

    2015-01-01

    The Russian Federation faces active law-making and legislative activities aimed at providing legal grounds for qualifying educational level of foreign nationals entering the country with the purpose to work and apply for citizenship. The article deals with the current legislation and regulations in their relationship with each other, their impact…

  4. Is principle based legislation smart choice for capital market’s regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Stražišar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crisis in 2008 posted numerous questions about the reasons and triggers. In past three years world’s economic literature has been full of academic articles analysing each reason or trigger and scientific explanations of possible connections. Majority outcome was, that key factor was excessive use of derivatives and synthetic financial products, which were under regulated or not regulated at all. The outcome was that countries with developed financial markets introduced new regulations and controls in the field of derivatives and synthetic financial products. Term “systemic risk” was introduced in global financial market. But will this approach really prevent such global crisis? Submission is divided in three parts. First part deals with the theory of principle based regulation. Principle based regulation was firstly introduced in UK and latter accepted by European Union in the field of capital markets. It was a way, together with the Lamfalussy process, to make EU regulation acceptable for all member states. Instead of detailed prescribed behaviour, legislation texts prescribe only desirable goals. Implementation is left to each state or, even worse, to each supervised subject. So the implementation should depend on the capital market’s development, capital product’s structure, tradition, investment companies’ size etc. From a distant view, principle based legislation could be seen as a great legislation writing’s technique. It could be seen as an effective solution to regulate a fast developing field without need to change the regulation. But is it true? Second part of the submission addresses the legal questions and problems, connected to the principle based regulation starting with the validity of regulations. Broad definitions in Market in financial instruments Directive (MiFID, introduced for fast adaptation to new financial products and instruments, are now turning into dinosaurs. Contrary to US’s fast

  5. New legislative regulations for ensuring radiation protection using ionizing radiation sources in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.

    2018-01-01

    European Commission Directive No. 2013/59 / EURATOM laying down basic safety requirements for the provision of radiation protection regulates the provision of radiation protection for workers with radiation sources and residents in all areas of use of ionizing radiation sources. This Directive also addresses radiation protection in the use of ionizing radiation sources in medicine. The European Commission Directive regulates the requirements for radiation protection but also extends to its scope and provisions on the use of medical radiation sources (so-called m edical exposure ) in the scope of further legislation in the field of health care, which has to be amended and modified or possibly issued new. It was necessary in the preparation of the new act on radiation protection to amend simultaneously Act no. 576/2004 on the provision of health care and services related to provision of health care and Act no. 578/2004 on Health care Providers, Health care Professionals and Organizations in Health Care and to prepare a series of implementing regulations not only to the Law on Radiation Protection but also to the Laws governing the Provision of Health Care. The paper presents changes to existing legislation on radiation protection in medical radiation and new requirements for the construction and operation of health workplaces with radiation sources, the protection of the health of patients, the requirements for instrumentation used for medical radiation and radiological instrumentation tests. (authors)

  6. Regulating web content: the nexus of legislation and performance standards in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Regulations and classification advice: transport safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.; Owen, K.

    1990-01-01

    The packaging of radioactive material for transport must conform with the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These regulations are extensive and complex and require specialist interpretation. Packaging must be designed to contain the material, to limit radiation to safe levels, and to maintain the material in a safe state under both normal and accident conditions. British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) developed the TRANAID expert system to provide automated expert advice on the subject. It is used at BNFL and by other users internationally. The system was produced to meet an internal BNFL emphasis on accurate consistent and reliable interpretation of the complex IAEA regulations; and to provide a commercial product which would meet an external need. TRANAID provides reliable and consistent advice on safe transport procedures which reduce the workload on scarce skilled personnel, and allows them to concentrate on their primary task of packaging design. TRANAID also avoids overclassifying radioactive shipments, which would lead to the use of more expensive packaging than strictly is required. The IAEA regulations are applied internationally, and so there is a large potential worldwide market. The indications from the initial response are that future sales and use are expected to more than cover the investment. Other non-quantifiable benefits include the provision of consistent advice within a uniform approach, the safe-guarding of knowledge of the IAEA regulations, training and improvement in the expertise of users, improved management control, and enhancement of the professional image of BNFL. (author)

  8. Harmonization of legislation and regulations to achieve food safety: US and Canada perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Larry; Nicholson-Keener, Sophia M; Koutchma, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Trade in food and food ingredients among the nations of the world is rapidly expanding and, with this expansion, new supply chain partners, from globally disparate geographic regions, are being enrolled. Food and food ingredients are progressively sourced more from lesser developed nations. Food safety incidents in the USA and Canada show a high unfavorable correlation between illness outbreaks and imported foods. In the USA, for example, foodborne disease outbreaks caused by imported food appeared to rise in 2009 and 2010, and nearly half of the outbreaks, associated with imported food, implicated foods imported from areas which previously had not been associated with outbreaks. Projecting supply chains into new geographical regions raises serious questions about the capacity of the new supply chain partners to provide the requisite regulatory framework and sufficiently robust public health measures for ensuring the safety of the foods and foodstuffs offered for international trade. The laws, regulation and legislation among the many nations participating in the global food trade are, at best, inconsistent. These inconsistencies frequently give rise to trade disputes and cause large quantities of food to be at risk of destruction on the often dubious pretext that they are not safe. Food safety is often viewed through a political or normative lens. Often as not, this lens has been wrought absent scientific precision. Harmonization of food safety legislation around sound scientific principles, as advocated by the US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), would ultimately promote trade and likely provide for incremental improvement in public health. Among the priority roles of most national governments are the advancement of commerce and trade, preservation of public health and ensuring domestic tranquility. Achieving these priorities is fundamental to creating and preserving the wealth of nations. Countries such as the Netherlands, Canada, Germany, Japan and the USA

  9. National Legislation and Regulations in the Uranium Legacy Radiation Safety of the Former USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, V.V.; Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Seregin, V.A.; Kiselev, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    experience will be gained to be applied in other Eurasian Economic Community member states. Harmonization of national legislation and regulations in radiation safety is provided for.

  10. LEGISLATIVE STUDY ON THE GOVERNMENT REGULATION ON SOME ECONOMIC RECOVERY MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOSTAN Ionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the most significant elements related to the direct enactment by the executive authority – following the most difficult moments of the financial crisis (2009-2010 – of some key measures in determining the economic recovery/growth. Special attention is given to the problem of growth strengthening and sustainable competitiveness of small and medium enterprises, as well as to the issue of stimulating the set up and development of micro enterprises by junior entrepreneurs. Considering things from the legal perspective, we also stop upon the legislative measures taken by the Government to support SME access to financial guarantees and credits. Obviously, in the context following the peak of the financial crisis, we took into consideration the regulation on stimulating the development of new jobs and the regime of state aids, as well. This latter issue includes, we believe, the most important references to State aid schemes on stimulating the investments with a major impact in the economy, the ‘de minimis’ aid for the investments made by small and medium-sized enterprises, and also to the issues arising from the implementation of a State aid scheme to support the investments which promote the regional development by creating jobs.

  11. Coordination of Croatian National Legislative with EU Commission Regulation on the Application of Euratom Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Medakovic, S.

    2012-01-01

    Having regard to the Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) in the view of increasing quantities of nuclear materials produced, used, carried and recycled in the Community, and also development of trade in these materials, especially in the scope of the successive enlargements of the EU, it is essential to ensure effectiveness of safeguards. Commission Regulation on the application of Euratom safeguards of 8 February 2005 is a comprehensive regulation dealing with basic technical characteristics and particular safeguard provisions of installations for the production, separation, reprocessing, storage or other use of source material or special fissile material, as well as nuclear material accountancy, transfer between states and some specific provisions. Croatia signed the 'Agreement Between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)' and a few years later 'Protocol Additional' to this Agreement that stipulates strict obligations of the Republic of Croatia under Safeguards in connection with NPT. Also, in Croatia is on power 'Act on Radiological and Nuclear Safety' which, beside others, establishes measures for ensuring the safe performance of practices involving ionising radiation sources, nuclear activities, radioactive waste disposal and the physical protection of ionising radiation sources and nuclear facilities. But on power is also 'Ordinance on control of the nuclear materials and special equipment' which refers to an old 'Act on nuclear safety', and also takes into account provisions of the NPT and 'Protocol Additional' regarding safeguards. A new ordinance should be promulgated in accordance with new act. As a new act also should be corrected before Croatia joins EU, an extensive job must be done in adjusting Croatian national legislative to Euratom safeguards.(author).

  12. Utility regulation and the legislative process in Oregon: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    This case study discusses the strategies employed by the Public Utility Commissioner and the Oregon Department of Energy in the design, passage and implementation of a set of energy conservation bills. Information is included on the development of new legislation for energy conservation and management, on developing public acceptance of such legislation, and the cooperation received from utility companies to affect implementation. The lessons in strategy and tactics and the skillful use of the legislative process to get the package of bills enacted should have immediate value for those about to undertake a similar effort in their state. (LCL)

  13. 7 CFR 27.80 - Fees; classification, Micronaire, and supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....80 Section 27.80 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Costs of...

  14. Chemical characterization of emissions from modern two-stroke mopeds complying with legislative regulation in Europe (EURO-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T; Farfaletti, A; Montero, L; Martini, G; Manfredi, U; Larsen, B; Santi, G De; Krasenbrink, A; Astorga, C

    2010-01-01

    In view of a new amendment to the European legislative regulation on emissions from two-stroke mopeds a study was carried out to comprehensively characterize exhaust gases of mopeds complying current EURO-2 emission standards. Three mopeds with different engine types (carburetor, direct injection, and electronic carburetion system ECS) where investigated by applying two different driving cycles, the legislative cycle ECE47 and the worldwide motorcycle test cycle WMTC. Thereby, particulate matter (PM), regulated compounds, carbonyls, volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), and particle-associated polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were analyzed and ozone formation potentials (OFP) as well as toxicity equivalents (TEQ) determined. The ECE47 emission factors for almost all species and moped types were much higher in the nonregulated, prior cold phase than in the hot phase, which is considered for legislation. Great differences for the mopeds could be observed for NO(x), VOC, and PM, whereas discrepancies between the driving cycles ECE47 and WMTC were smaller. In addition, a positive influence on exhaust composition caused by technical modifications of the ECS engine was determined. Results indicate that regulation of total hydrocarbons (THC) alone might not be sufficient to regulate PM, especially for direct injection engines. Moreover, recommendations for a revised future test protocol are demonstrated and discussed, whereby the cold phase and the hot phase are taken into account.

  15. Regulating nanomaterials: bottlenecks and perspectives in EU legislation on chemicals and products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelezang-Stoute, E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines some of the challenges that nanomaterials involve for the EU legislator, due to the specific features of these materials and their uncertain risks for human health and the environment. The reporting and information requirements for the marketing of nanomaterials form a focal

  16. Peculiarities of creation of extra large agricultural companies under conditions of insufficient legislative regulation in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Borodina, Elena

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural transformations in Ukraine resulted in division of tracts of land and creation of large number of small private land owners. Since December 1999 these processes were developing with especially high speed after adoption of Presidential Decree "On emergency actions aimed at acceleration of reorganization of agricultural sector of economics", which has become fundamental legislative act in conducting land and agricultural reforms. During the first year after adoption of the abovemen...

  17. Energy law. An anthology of the most important legislation and regulations. 9. new rev. ed.; Energierecht. Textsammlung der wichtigsten Rechtsvorschriften und Regelungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The book under consideration is a current anthology of the most important legislation and regulations on energy law and contains the energy economy law, competition law, general conditions of supply and the tax law.

  18. Legislation and regulation of nuclear activities. Volume 2. Texts published by the Legal Affairs Department of the Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the second edition of the 1983 compilation of legislative texts and regulations published by the french Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). It provides a comprehensive source of knowledge and information on nuclear energy laws. Since the first edition environmental aspects have been pointed out. Texts upon transportation have been added. Public enquires procedures have been modified since 1983 law to improve transparency. This volume has five chapters: (E) environment and man protection; (F) wastes; (G) responsibility and damage repair; (H) knowledge acquisition, protection and broadcast; (I) international cooperation. (D.L.)

  19. Legitimacy in the Regulation of the Right to Life: Tensions Between the Legislative and the Judiciary in the Implementation of the Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Losurdo Losurdo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The trial of ADPF 54 by the Supreme Court had the effect of regulating the beginning of the constitutional protection of life, silenced in the Federal Constitution of 1988 and in the ordinary legislation. However, the presentation of a legislative proposal for criminalizing the termination of pregnancy, due to the diagnosis of fetal anencephaly, provokes rising tensions about the limits of the judicial and legislative powers in the implementation of fundamental rights. In this study, these tensions will be analyzed in the light of comparative law, in order to understand how the regulation of the right to life is disciplined in other democratic States.

  20. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Heon Jin; Oh, Ho Chul

    2004-02-01

    Since the present nuclear safety regulation has some legal problems that refer to special issues and contents of regulatory provisions, this report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation to solve the problems. In addition, this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation

  1. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Heon Jin; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Since the present nuclear safety regulation has some legal problems that refer to special issues and contents of regulatory provisions, this report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation to solve the problems. In addition, this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation.

  2. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul [Chongju Univ., Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea.

  3. Legislation for the countermeasures on special issues of nuclear safety regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Byung Sun; Lee, Mo Sung; Chung, Gum Chun; Kim, Hak Man; Oh, Ho Chul

    2003-02-01

    Since the present legal system on nuclear safety regulation has some problems that refer to contents of regulatory provisions, this mid-report has preformed research on the legal basic theory of nuclear safety regulation. And then secondly this report analyzed the problems of each provisions and suggested the revision drafts on the basis of analyzing problems and the undergoing theory of nuclear safety regulation. In order to interpret easily this report finally took the cases of judicial precedents on nuclear safety regulation in USA, Germany, Japan and Korea

  4. Health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain: The legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esco, R.; Biete, A.; Pardo, J.; Carceller, J.A.; Veira, C.; Palacios, A.; Vazquez, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Decree 1566/1998 of July 17th establishes the criteria on quality in radiation therapy and is a cornerstone in Spanish regulation of this medical field. The Royal Decree gives some rules that, from a medical point of view, are considered as a good practice. Radiation protection of patients is necessary to achieve a high quality radiation oncology treatments. That is the reason why Royal decree 1566/1998 is titled 'quality criteria in radiation therapy'. A quality control program must be tailored to every single radiation oncology department and, for this reason, its standardization is difficult. Nevertheless, some medical procedures are defined by the royal decree and such procedures are the minimum criteria that all the departments must follow in the development of its own quality control program. The authors make some reflections about health regulations about radiation oncology in Spain, pointing out that a legislative dilemma between radiation protection and treatment of cancer due to application of the legislative rules may occur. The social and medical cost of rigid bureaucratic procedures is pointed out. A large amount of equipment controls and measurements takes time that could be used in treating patients. This is more important in an environment of limited technical and human resources. (author)

  5. Regulating district heating in Romania: Legislative challenges and energy efficiency barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poputoaia, Diana; Bouzarovski, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Many states in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE) possess extensive district heating (DH) networks that were constructed during the days of communist rule in order to provide a universally accessible energy service that supported Soviet development policies. But the post-communist transition was marked by the exacerbation of the sector's numerous technical, economic, regulatory and environmental problems, accompanied by its abandonment in favour of alternative methods of domestic heating. Recent efforts to increase the use of DH in ECE as a result of environmental and energy security concerns have taken place in an absence of critical, context-sensitive research. The purpose of this paper is to explore the legal aspects of post-communist DH reforms in Romania, with the aim of identifying some of the governance challenges faced by state authorities in managing the sector. In broader terms, we seek to explore the extent to which the Romanian legislative framework is in a position to promote energy efficiency in DH. This has been achieved via an analysis of formal policy documents, government decrees, strategic documents and laws pertaining to this sector, as published and subsequently amended in the Official Gazette. The conclusions of the paper identify the key regulatory issues in the sector-especially with respect to the tariff setting process and the division of competences among different organisations in it-while suggesting a set of policy steps and general restructuring approaches that could help overcome the current situation.

  6. Responding to Changes in Building Legislation. Updating Training for the Building Regulations 1985 and Supporting Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert; Phillips, Alan

    A project sought to develop a means of updating and retraining those required to comply with Britain's 1985 Building Regulations, which are substantially different from the previous ones in regard to procedures and technical content. The training needs analysis conducted indicated that the new training should be flexible and use practical and…

  7. Regulating the sustainability of forest management in the Americas: Cross-country comparisons of forest legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen McGinley; Raquel Alvarado; Frederick Cubbage; Diana Diaz; Pablo J. Donoso; Laercio Antonio Jacovine Goncalves; Fabiano Luiz de Silva; Charles MacIntyre; Elizabeth. Monges Zalazar

    2012-01-01

    Based on theoretical underpinnings and an empirical review of forest laws and regulations of selected countries throughout the Americas, we examine key components of natural forest management and how they are addressed in the legal frameworks of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, and the U.S. We consider forest policy...

  8. Regulation of health practitioners by trade practices and fair trading legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2009-02-01

    In a variety of situations, particularly those characterised by commerciality, corporate structures and unregistered practitioners, there are major limitations to traditional regulation by health boards and councils, as well as hearings by external tribunals. Part of the difficulty lies with the ability of external bodies to award compensation to complainants/notifiers proved to have suffered adverse consequences from proven unprofessional conduct. This column advances suggestions for reform of the powers of external tribunals to redress this deficit. It also reviews the benefits of an associated form of regulation by the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission and offices of fair trading to enable consumer protection. It reviews recent decisions in the Federal Court of Australia and the Supreme Court of Victoria in such matters as well as recommendations in 2008 by the Victorian Health Services Commissioner.

  9. New legislative regulations, problems, and future perspectives, with a particular emphasis on surgical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakorafas George

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Major changes in the residency-training systems are currently under way worldwide. New laws regulating the maximum number of work-hours per week are already enforced in the USA and are soon to be enforced in the European Union (EU; they apply to residents in training, as well as to practising specialists in the USA. These changes are expected to influence training imparted to resident doctors, quality of care given to hospitalised patients and functioning of hospitals, in general. The implications of the new regulations are likely to be magnified by the gradual decrease in the number of young people willing to take up Medicine as a career and even more so by the decrease in the number of medical graduates who choose to take up Surgery as their specialty. This communication describes the new situation that has developed (especially in general surgery with the recent regulations and intends to suggest possible solution to the important problems that are likely to arise.

  10. Regulation of Legislation in Utilization of Foreign Health Workers (FHW in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Juni Angkasawati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the impact of AFTA 2010 (Asean Free Trade Area is a broader aspect of global world trade. Trade flows not only occur on public goods but also services, including health workers which now can freely get access to various countries. Objective:The aim of this study was to review policies on the employment of foreign health workers (FHW in order to provide recommendations on specific matters concerning legal protection to people who utilize health services and were treated by FHW. Methods:The method of this study was conducting a policy review with a normative and predictive approaches. This review depicted a clear and deep understanding of the form and implementation of policies related to planning, utilization as well as guidance and supervision of foreign health workers (FHW in Indonesia. Results: This study discovered that there were 7 (seven fundamental policies to regulate FHW that covers licensing, certification and registration, competence, area of activities, time restriction, compensation and sanction. Recommendation: This study recommends a socialization on FHW regulations. In addition, the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Manpower, Ministry of Home Affairs and the immigration office need to enhance their commitment to promote FHW regulations.

  11. Features of Responsibility for Commission of Tax Crimes Regulation under the Criminal Legislation of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina I. Gruzinskaya

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, author discusses features of regulating liability for tax offenses in British criminal law. Author researches question of taxation criminalization. Author emphasizes that it is important to separate tax evasion (illegal different ways from tax optimization (within the law. Author analyzes concept of "tax fraud", which can be defined as the deliberate actions of person to reduce taxes and committed through falsification of documents relevant to the tax authorities. In addition author considers tax fraud and other forms of criminal actions on the tax system under the British law, including tax cuts, tax resistance and refusal to pay taxes. Author concludes that forms of British economic crime compositions, depending on the way they were committed differentiates criminal liability. This question is more relevant in the process of punishment individualization because not all fraudulent evasion techniques will actually produce a much greater danger to society than "passive avoidance".

  12. Regulatory control, legislation and framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathy, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    The legislation and regulations, a regulatory authority to authorise and inspect the regulated activities and to enforce the legislation and regulations, sufficient financial and man-power resources are the essential parts of a national infrastructure to implement the Basic Safety Standards. The legal framework consists of legislation (Act passed by Parliament) and the regulations (framed by the government and endorsed by the Parliament). This paper is primarily deals with the the legal framework set up in India for atomic energy activities

  13. Comparison of legislation, regulations and national health strategies for palliative care in seven European countries (Results from the Europall Research Group): a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beek, Karen; Woitha, Kathrin; Ahmed, Nisar; Menten, Johan; Jaspers, Birgit; Engels, Yvonne; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Vissers, Kris; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2013-07-17

    According to EU policy, anyone in need of palliative care should be able to have access to it. It is therefore important to investigate which palliative care topics are subject to legislation and regulations in Europe and how these are implemented in (national) health care plans. This paper aims to deliver a structured overview of the legislation, existing regulations and the different health care policies regarding palliative care in seven European countries. In 2008 an inventory of the organisation of palliative care was developed by the researchers of the Europall project. Included were two open questions about legislation, regulations, and health policy in palliative care. This questionnaire was completed using palliative care experts selected from Belgium, England, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain. Additionally, (grey) literature on palliative care health policy and regulations from the participating countries was collected to complete the inventory. Comparative analysis of country specific information was performed afterwards. In all countries palliative care regulations and policies existed (either in laws, royal decrees, or national policies). An explicit right to palliative care was mentioned in the Belgium, French and German law. In addition, access to palliative care was mentioned by all countries, varying from explicit regulations to policy intentions in national plans. Also, all countries had a national policy on palliative care, although sometimes mainly related to national cancer plans. Differences existed in policy regarding palliative care leave, advance directives, national funding, palliative care training, research, opioids and the role of volunteers. Although all included European countries have policies on palliative care, countries largely differ in the presence of legislation and regulations on palliative care as well as the included topics. European healthcare policy recommendations should support palliative care access

  14. The "déjà vu effect:" evaluation of United States medical device legislation, regulation, and the Food and Drug Administration's contentious 510(k) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    With the Medical Device Amendments of 1976, Congress granted FDA authority to regulate medical devices by implementing a risk-based regulatory framework. Several years prior to this legislation, the Cooper Committee reviewed the medical device regulatory landscape and uncovered weaknesses that could be detrimental to public health. However, only after several high-profile incidents involving unsafe medical devices did Congress respond with strong legislation. Since 1976, additional medical device legislative revisions have been enacted to address deficiencies highlighted by various groups representing Congress, FDA, and industry. A repetitive conclusion from these groups has been that the 510(k) program is incapable of serving as a premarket evaluation of safety and effectiveness under the existing statutory framework. However, these legislative revisions did not change the statutory framework despite these repeated findings. In 2009, CDRH convened separate groups to again review the 510(k) program. While more comprehensive than previous initiatives, the observed deficiencies and the proposed recommendations are remarkably similar to those identified by their predecessors. This cyclical review of the medical device regulatory landscape whereby the same observations and recommendations are repeated yet the output of such review does not yield major legislative revision of the existing statutory framework can be described as the "déjà vu effect." This will continue unless Congress enacts legislation that implements a new statutory framework with a different standard other than substantial equivalence. In the past, Congress has implemented major legislation only after a public health crisis. Hopefully this will not be the driving force in the future.

  15. Methodical approaches to development of classification state methods of regulation business activity in fishery

    OpenAIRE

    She Son Gun

    2014-01-01

    Approaches to development of classification of the state methods of regulation of economy are considered. On the basis of the provided review the complex method of state regulation of business activity is reasonable. The offered principles allow improving public administration and can be used in industry concepts and state programs on support of small business in fishery.

  16. Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Renee Clary and James Wandersee describe the beginnings of "Classification," which lies at the very heart of science and depends upon pattern recognition. Clary and Wandersee approach patterns by first telling the story of the "Linnaean classification system," introduced by Carl Linnacus (1707-1778), who is…

  17. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  18. Classification of low energy houses in Danish Building Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The new Danish Building Regulations (Building Regulations, 2005) introduces the total energy consumption, i.e. energy use for heating, ventilation, cooling and domestic hot water, for buildings as a measure for the energy efficiency of new buildings, i.e. moving away from the former U-value demands....... In addition to the minimum requirements for new buildings, the new Building Regulations also specify requirements for characterizing a building as either low energy building class 1 or low energy building class 2. This paper describes a type-house that is presently being built in Denmark. The type......-house easily meets the requirements for being categorized as a low energy building class 1, and the paper investigates how much U-values can be increased if the type-house were to fulfil the requirements for a low energy building class 2 or a building that just fulfils the minimum demands....

  19. Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discusses definitions of the term “classification” and the related concepts “Concept/conceptualization,”“categorization,” “ordering,” “taxonomy” and “typology.” It further presents and discusses theories of classification including the influences of Aristotle...... and Wittgenstein. It presents different views on forming classes, including logical division, numerical taxonomy, historical classification, hermeneutical and pragmatic/critical views. Finally, issues related to artificial versus natural classification and taxonomic monism versus taxonomic pluralism are briefly...

  20. Barriers to access to opioid medicines for patients with opioid dependence: a review of legislation and regulations in eleven central and eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, Marjolein J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Jünger, Saskia; Radbruch, Lukas; Scholten, Willem; Lisman, John A; Subataite, Marija; Schutjens, Marie-Hélène D B

    2017-06-01

    Barriers linked to drug control systems are considered to contribute to inequitable access to controlled medicines, leaving millions of people in pain and suffering. Most studies focus on access to opioids for the treatment of severe (cancer) pain. This study aims to identify specific access barriers for patients with opioid dependence in legislation and regulations of 11 central and eastern European countries. This study builds on a previous analysis of legislation and regulations as part of the EU 7th Framework Access To Opioid Medication in Europe (ATOME) project. An in-depth analysis was undertaken to determine specific barriers for patients with opioid dependence in need of opioid analgesics or opioid agonist therapy (OAT). For each country, the number and nature of specific potential barriers for these patients were assessed according to eight categories: prescribing; dispensing; manufacturing; usage; trade and distribution; affordability; penalties; and other. An additional keyword search was conducted to minimize the omission of barriers. Barriers in an additional category, language, were recorded qualitatively. Countries included Bulgaria, Cyprus, Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Turkey. Ten of the 11 countries (all except Estonia) showed specific potential barriers in their legislation and regulations. The total number of barriers varied from two (Slovenia) to 46 (Lithuania); the number of categories varied from one (Slovenia) to five (Lithuania). Most specific potential barriers were shown in the categories 'prescribing', 'usage' and 'other'. The total number in a single category varied from one to 18 (Lithuania, prescribing). Individual differences between countries in the same specific potential barrier were shown; for example, variation in minimum age criteria for admission to OAT ranging from 15 (Lithuania, in special cases) to 20 years (Greece). All countries had stigmatizing language in their legislation

  1. Overcoming Gridlock: The Council Presidency, Legislative Activity and Issue De-Coupling in the Area of Occupational Health and Safety Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Warntjen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A member state of the European Union can use its term as the Council president to make progress on pending but stalled proposals which it would like to see adopted. This case study of the directive on the risk arising from physical agents shows how a Council presidency can use issue subtraction, additional meetings and compromise proposals to overcome gridlock in the Council. There is a notable difference in terms of legislative activity between the presidencies of high regulation and low regulation countries. High regulation countries put forward compromise proposals and scheduled additional meetings to resolve outstanding issues. The case study also demonstrates the importance of issue subtraction. The original proposal was gridlocked in the Council for five years. Only after the original proposal was split up into several dossiers (issue de-coupling was it possible to reach agreement.

  2. Legislation and patients' rights: some necessary remarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic-Zornic, Hajrija

    2007-12-01

    The essence of a patient's rights and legislation framework requires an answer to the question on how legislation can work towards better defining, respecting, protecting and effectiveness of these rights. First, it is necessary to give a short introduction to patients' rights, their definition and different classifications. In the long list of human rights, patients' rights obviously take one of the very important places. Human life and health are the values, which, in comparison with all other human values, are considered as values of the highest rank. Patients' rights represent a legal expression of something, which every person basically and naturally expects from a doctor, medical staff, and from a health care system in general. The subject of the second part of this paper presents the intention, scope and conception of necessary legislation. How should it be considered - in a wider sense or as a special law? Some theoretical and practical questions regarding interaction between medical ethics regulation, confidentiality, and legislation are discussed as well. In the European context there are numerous examples of laws with the specific purpose of protecting patients' rights. Special attention and critical review will be paid to the situation of patients' rights in Serbia. The paper concludes with the point that the role of legislation is evidently important, but the traditional view should be replaced with a new one, due to the reason that modem health law puts the protection of patients' rights on a higher level. De lege lata, the whole system of health law in its diversity (civil, penal and administrative) is characterized by better understanding of rights, duties and legal relations, either through regulation or the protection of patients' rights.

  3. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  4. [Legal and medico-legal issues in adolescent medicine. A critical review of the present regulation and legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, T L; Buffone, M R

    2001-02-01

    During the last years the Italian Government has taken many different initiatives to protect the adolescents rights to benefit from physical, psychical and social well-being. In particular, various projects concerning the promotion and the support of the school, the family, sport, mass-media, judicial and medical infrastructures, have been organised, promoted and financed. However, it is not always possible to assure a real safeguarding of teenagers rights; this especially happens because the problem concerning the autonomous capacity of minors to consent (or non consent) to the medical treatment is much debated. However, many contradictions still persist about the effective duration of the pediatric age. All the same, it must be noted that the Legislator apparently realised that not only the physical, psychological and social maturity proceed by steps, but also the legal capacity.

  5. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL CONCEPTS REGARDING THE EXECUTION OF COMPLEMENTARY PUNISHMENTS APPLIED TO NATURAL PERSONS WITHIN THE REGULATION OF THE NEW CRIMINAL LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA DANIELA MUNTEANU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim at analyzing the complementary punishments applied to natural persons as regulated by the new criminal legislation, our motivation being the numerous amendments brought by the new criminal legislation, respectively the increase of the number of complementary punishments, the change of their enforcement starting moment and such other changes that we intend to debate in this study. Considering the changes brought to the starting moment of the complementary punishment enforcement, we focused mainly on the enforcement and execution of complementary punishments applied to natural persons, exemplifying the execution manner of each punishment, respectively: in the context of applying the complementary punishment regarding the forbiddance of rights, military degradation or the newest complementary punishment to be applied to natural persons, the publishing of the judgment of conviction. The amendments to the starting moment of the complementary punishment enforcement were brought as a result of introducing the punishment by fine and criminal punishments which may be executed on probation, in addition to which a complementary punishment may be applied. Regarding the enforcement of judgments, we have to mention the fact that it constitutes an autonomous stage of the criminal trial, governed by the regulations provided under the Criminal Procedure Act. Nevertheless, not all activities related to the enforcement of judgments are included in this stage, but only the ones triggering the start of the judgment enforcement. Such aspect imposes itself, taking into consideration the distinction between the enforcement of a judgment and the actual execution of the punishment. Regarding the effective execution of a punishment, activity performed outside the criminal trial, it is subordinated, on one hand, to the regulations provided under the criminal law, and on the other hand, to the regulations regarding the execution of punishments and of

  6. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  7. Catalogue and classification of technical safety standards, rules and regulations for nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, N.; Becker, K.; Bashir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The present report is an up-dated version of the report 'Catalogue and Classification of Technical Safety Rules for Light-water Reactors and Reprocessing Plants' edited under code No EUR 5362e, August 1975. Like the first version of the report, it constitutes a catalogue and classification of standards, rules and regulations on land-based nuclear power reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The reasons for the classification system used are given and discussed

  8. The Legal Regulation of Health-Resort Treatment of Employees Under the Legislation of Subjects of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anufrieva A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the rules for health-resort treatment of employees established at the level of subjects of the Russian Federation, determines the place of these rules in the system of current legal regulation of health-resort treatment and also it evaluates their significance in the social security of employees

  9. Classification of Hydrogels Based on Their Source: A Review and Application in Stem Cell Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, Maziyar M.; Sorokina, Lioudmila V.; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Mukhtar, Farrukh; Shirdar, Mostafa Rezazadeh; Shahidi, Mahnaz; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2017-08-01

    Stem cells are recognized by their self-renewal ability and can give rise to specialized progeny. Hydrogels are an established class of biomaterials with the ability to control stem cell fate via mechanotransduction. They can mimic various physiological conditions to influence the fate of stem cells and are an ideal platform to support stem cell regulation. This review article provides a summary of recent advances in the application of different classes of hydrogels based on their source (e.g., natural, synthetic, or hybrid). This classification is important because the chemistry of substrate affects stem cell differentiation and proliferation. Natural and synthetic hydrogels have been widely used in stem cell regulation. Nevertheless, they have limitations that necessitate a new class of material. Hybrid hydrogels obtained by manipulation of the natural and synthetic ones can potentially overcome these limitations and shape the future of research in application of hydrogels in stem cell regulation.

  10. Reverberation time in class rooms – Comparison of regulations and classification criteria in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit; Brunskog, Jonas; Hoffmeyer, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory requirements or guidelines for classroom reverberation time exist in all five Nordic countries and in most of Europe – as well as other acoustic criteria for schools, e.g. concerning airborne and impact sound insulation, facade sound insulation and installation noise. There are several...... reasons for having such requirements: Improving learning efficiency for pupils and work conditions for teachers and reducing noise levels, thus increasing comfort for everyone. Instead of including acoustic regulatory requirements for schools directly in the building regulations, Iceland, Norway...... and Sweden have introduced acoustic quality classes A, B, C and D in national standards with class C referred to as regulatory requirements. These national classification standards are dealing with acoustic classes for several types of buildings. A classification scheme also exists in Finland...

  11. Regulating the relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies: a qualitative and descriptive analysis of the impact of Israeli legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanholtz-Gannot, Rachel; Yankellevich, Ariel

    2017-09-26

    The Israeli National Health Insurance Law was amended in 2010 to require the disclosure of payments above 2500 NIS from pharmaceutical companies (PCs) to medical personnel and organizations. We examined if the law had an impact on the relationship between physicians in the Israeli health system and the pharmaceutical industry. We conducted 42 in-depth semi-structured interviews with representatives of relevant stakeholders regarding the effects and extent of the law and the interviewees' attitudes about regulating the relationship between physicians and PCs. In addition, we analyzed reports on payments from PCs to various components of the health system. The majority of interviewees agreed that transparency is important to the relationship between PCs and physicians and none of them opposed the disclosure of payments. Most interviewees reported to have witnessed a change in the regulatory climate of the relationship between PCs and physicians, prompted mostly by self-regulatory measures of the pharmaceutical industry. The most significant change in this relationship appeared to be the enactment of contractual relations between PCs and physicians. There was a pervasive feeling that self-regulation is more effective than state regulation. The impact of the law on the behavior of individual physicians was claimed to be limited at best. Suggested causes were lack of awareness of the law, particularly among physicians; ambiguous definition of "payments" and loopholes in the law that attract other forms of remuneration to physicians and lack of enforcement of the law. According to reports published by the Ministry of Health, Pharma Israel, and the Israeli Medical association, although there had been some disclosure of payments by both donors and beneficiaries, there were inconsistencies between the total payments disclosed by PCs and those disclosed by their beneficiaries. There is a broad agreement that transparency is important to the PCs-physicians relationship. In

  12. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  13. The classification and labeling of nanomaterials according to Regulation 1272/2008 (CLP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessandrelli, Maria; Di Prospero Fanghella, Paola; Polci, Maria Letizia

    2015-01-01

    From a regulatory standpoint for nanomaterials it may take parameters and specific information requirements can describe their properties. Regulation (EC) No. 1272/2008 (CLP) is closely linked to Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006 (REACH, which stands for Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals), directly applicable to suppliers who manufacture, import, use or distribute chemical substances and mixtures and which aims to ensure the free movement of substances, mixtures and articles always in accordance with a high level of human health and the environment. REACH and CLP cover substances, in any size, shape or physical state, but does not include any specific definition or provision relating to nanomaterials. The moment when a substance is produced or marketed in the form of nanomaterials, the registration dossier needs to be updated to include the different classification and labeling of the substance in the nano form. [it

  14. Swiss legislation on radioactive waste management. Obligations under the state treaty; national legal regulations; roles of the players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehlmann, W.

    2008-01-01

    On December 23, 1959, the Swiss Parliament adopted the ''Federal Act on Atomic Energy and Radiation Protection.'' The Nuclear Power Act of March 21, 2003 constitutes a comprehensive legal regime on radioactive waste. The article outlines the obligations incurred by Switzerland under the state treaty in the ''Joint Agreement on the Safety of Management of Spent Fuel Elements and the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management'' as well as their practical implementation. For the management of radioactive waste, the Nuclear Power Act envisages the concept of underground geologic storage to be transferred into a repository after a phase of observation. The underground geologic store requires a framework permit to be issued by the Federal Council and approved by Parliament. In Switzerland, framework permits are subject to facultative referenda, i.e., there is the possibility of a plebiscite. Article 5 of the Nuclear Power Ordinance regulates the competences in the procedure to build a repository: ''The Federation, in a substantive plan, lays down the objectives and criteria for storing radioactive waste in underground geologic stores in a way binding on the authorities.'' The structure and the duties and obligations of the players involved as set out in the ''Underground Geologic Storage'' plan establish a credible basis of the ongoing site selection procedure and further steps to be taken in building an underground store in Switzerland. (orig.)

  15. On the Improvement of the Legislation Regulating the Powers of Public Authorities in the Field of Procurement of Goods, Works and Services for State and Municipal Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny V. Solomonov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a systematic analysis of the powers of public authorities, as well as legislation on contract system in the field of procurement of goods, works and services for state and municipal needs, the Authors come to a conclusion about the need to improve the existing legislation in this field of public relations.

  16. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - France: General legislation, regulations and instruments; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); International co-operation; 2 - India: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Liability and compensation; 3 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Transport of radioactive material; Nuclear trade (including non-proliferation); 4 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); Radioactive waste management; 5 - Luxembourg: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning); 6 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; General legislation, regulations and instruments; 7 - Spain: Radioactive materials (including physical protection); Radioactive waste management; 8 - United States: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  17. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  18. Sound insulation and reverberation time for classrooms - Criteria in regulations and classification schemes in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic regulations or guidelines for schools exist in all five Nordic countries. The acoustic criteria depend on room uses and deal with airborne and impact sound insulation, reverberation time, sound absorption, traffic noise, service equipment noise and other acoustic performance...... have become more extensive and stricter during the last two decades. The paper focuses on comparison of sound insulation and reverberation time criteria for classrooms in regulations and classification schemes in the Nordic countries. Limit values and changes over time will be discussed as well as how...... not identical. The national criteria for quality level C correspond to the national regulations or recommendations for new-build. The quality levels A and B are intended to define better acoustic performance than C, and D lower performance. Typically, acoustic regulations and classification criteria for schools...

  19. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  20. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... of a rationalization process, incl., a road map, recommending that there should be 7 universities in Moldova: 3 regional universities and 4 universities in Chisinau (capital); following the principle of clear demarcation between state regulation and institutional university autonomy, specifies universities powers...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  1. Romanian Nuclear Liability Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, R.

    2006-01-01

    The regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in the Romanian legislation is defined especially by the Law no. 703/2001 on civil liability for nuclear damage, as well as the Government Decision no. 894/2003 for the approval of the Norms for the enforcement of Law no. 703/2001. These two documents constitute the legal framework that regulates the third party civil liability for nuclear damages. The paper is proposing to present the main elements of the relatively recent legal framework, namely: the principles content in the international acts on civil liability for nuclear damages, the subject to whom such law applies, the regime of civil liability for nuclear damages in Romania and provisions regarding the terrorist acts.(author)

  2. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  3. Legislative policy in Brazil : limits and possibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Paula F.

    2018-01-01

    This doctoral thesis discusses the limits and possibilities for developing a new legislative-regulatory policy in Brazil, understood as a public policy whose purpose is to improve the process of drafting legislation and regulation and to increase the quality of rules. It considers the

  4. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  5. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  6. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  7. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  8. Regulating Human Trafficking by Prostitution Policy? : An Assessment of the Dutch and Swedish Prostitution Legislation and its Effects on Women's Self-determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeegers, Nicolle; Althoff, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Is the Nordic model of combating the trafficking of women for sexual purposes to be followed by all member states of the eu? At the moment, the member states still differ considerably in their legislative approaches towards prostitution and the extent to which this is linked to the combat against

  9. On roots and nature of the normative regulation of the criminal offence of theft in the tradition of Tsar Dusan legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Ognjen B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the comparison between several norms of the Crimi­nal Offence of Theft in the tradition of Tsar Dusan legislation and certain provisions of the Roman law was performed. On this occa­sion, the issue of robbery, theft of fruits and complicity to theft were treated in particular.

  10. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  11. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  12. Legislation and supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this part next aspects are described: (1) Legislative and supervision-related framework (reviews of structure of supervisory bodies; legislation; state supervision in the nuclear safety area, and state supervision in the area of health protection against radiation are given); (2) Operator's responsibility

  13. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As orginally...

  14. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-01-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  15. Regulatory risks associated with nuclear safety legislation after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident in Japan. Focus on legal structure of the nuclear reactor regulation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear safety regulations enforced after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Act face the following regulatory problems that involve potential risk factors for nuclear businesses; 1) 'entity based regulation' unable to cope with business cessation or bankruptcy of the entity subject of regulation, 2) potential risk of the Nuclear Regulation Authority's inappropriate involvement in nuclear industry policy beyond their duty, and 3) compliance of backfits under vague regulations. In order to alleviate them, this report, through analyzing these regulatory problems from the view point of sound development of the nuclear industry, proposes the following regulatory reforms; (1) To clarify the rule for industry policy in nuclear regulations and enable the authority, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, to choose most appropriate industrial policy measure. (2) Through establishing safety goals as measures to promote continuous improvement of nuclear safety regulations, to stimulate timely adjustments of the regulations, and to introduce a legal mechanism into the nuclear regulation systems under which validity of administrative law and its application can be checked. (author)

  16. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  17. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm(2) ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    Background. According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. Objectives. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm(2) for the 12 fragrance substances......, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm(2) ) be used for aimed and screening patch testing....... that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Materials and Methods. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual...

  18. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  19. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  20. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  1. Investigation of the Practices, Legislation, Supply Chain, and Regulation of Opioids for Clinical Pain Management in Southern Africa: A Multi-sectoral, Cross-National, Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namisango, Eve; Allsop, Matthew J; Powell, Richard A; Friedrichsdorf, Stefan J; Luyirika, Emmanuel B K; Kiyange, Fatia; Mukooza, Edward; Ntege, Chris; Garanganga, Eunice; Ginindza-Mdluli, Mavis Ntombifuthi; Mwangi-Powell, Faith; Mondlane, Lidia Justino; Harding, Richard

    2018-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces an increasing incidence and prevalence of life-limiting and life-threatening conditions. These conditions are associated with a significant burden of pain linked to high morbidity and disability that is poorly assessed and undertreated. Barriers to effective pain management partly relate to lack of access to opioid analgesia and challenges in their administration. To identify country-specific and broader regional barriers to access, as well as the administration of opioids, and generate recommendations for advancing pain management in Southern Africa. A parallel mixed methods design was used across three countries: Mozambique, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Three activities were undertaken: 1) a review of regulatory and policy documentation, 2) group interviews, and 3) a self-administered key informant survey. Barriers to accessing opioid analgesics for medical use include overly restrictive controlled medicines' laws; use of stigmatizing language in key documents; inaccurate actual opioid consumption estimation practices; knowledge gaps in the distribution, storage, and prescription of opioids; critical shortage of prescribers; and high out-of-pocket financial expenditures for patients against a backdrop of high levels of poverty. Policies and relevant laws should be updated to ensure that the legislative environment supports opioid access for pain management. Action plans for improving pain treatment for patients suffering from HIV or non-communicable diseases should address barriers at the different levels of the supply chain that involve policymakers, administrators, and service providers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Patch test concentrations (doses in mg/cm2 ) for the 12 non-mix fragrance substances regulated by European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruze, Magnus; Svedman, Cecilia; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bruynzeel, Derk; Goossens, An; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Matura, Mihaly; Orton, David; Vigan, Martine

    2012-03-01

    According to EU legislation, 26 fragrance substance allergens must be labelled on cosmetic products. For 12 of them, the optimal patch test concentration/dose has not been evaluated. To establish the optimal patch test doses in mg/cm2 for the 12 fragrance substances that are not included in fragrance mix I or II in the European baseline patch test series. Patch testing with the 12 fragrance substances was performed in a stepwise manner encompassing up to five rounds in at least 100 dermatitis patients for each round. Before patch testing, an individual maximum concentration/dose was determined for each fragrance substance. The predetermined maximum patch test concentrations/doses could be tested for all 12 fragrance substances, with no observable adverse reactions being noted. For each fragrance substance investigated, it is recommended that half of the maximum patch test dose (mg/cm2) be used for aimed and screening patch testing. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Food additives used in meat processing according to the Polish and European Union legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uradziński, J; Weiner, M

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the legal regulations related to the use of food additives in meat production in Poland and the European Union. The Polish legal definition of food additives is given as well as the classification of permitted food additives added to food and stimulants by their technological function. In addition, a definition of processing aids in the food industry is included. It shows that Polish legislation includes food additives used to ensure or improve food nutritional value, whereas in the EU legislation, these substances are not included in the list of food additives. Moreover, the Council Directives include food additive specific purity criteria, whereas the Polish regulations do not mention the legal regulations of this issue in practice. The European Union use mechanisms and procedures for the introduction of new food additives into internal markets as well as controlling the circulation of additives. The Polish legislation in practice, however, does not determine approval or methods for the introduction of new food additives to the market. Legal regulations on the monitoring of food additives no exist.

  4. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  5. Legislation for nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Shozo

    2012-01-01

    Fukushima nuclear disaster accident clarified problems on nuclear-related legislation and its application. Legislation for nuclear disaster (LNA) could not respond to severe accident because assumed size of accident was not enough. After emergency event corresponding to the article 15 of LNA, was reported by the operator, more than two hours passed by the issuance of Emergency State Declaration. Off-site center could not work at all. This article reviewed outline of LNA and introduced discussion on the reform of legislation and its application. Reform discussion should be focused on swift and effective response readiness to emergency: 1) operator's substantial nuclear emergency drilling, (2) reinforcement of government's headquarters for emergency response, (3) after nuclear emergency, government's headquarters remained to enhance resident's safety from radiation hazard and (4) enactment of nuclear emergency preparedness guidelines for local communities. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  7. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  8. 32 CFR 2700.22 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Derivative Classification § 2700.22 Classification guides. OMSN shall... direct derivative classification, shall identify the information to be protected in specific and uniform...

  9. Working with Your Legislative Delegation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safransky, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to work with legislative delegation to get positive legislation passed. Most school districts have a person who is responsible for working with the legislators and informing them of the district's position on bills and issues that arise in each legislative session. Even if one has a full-time or part-time…

  10. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    facilities; Management systems; Radioactive waste management: Safety of radioactive waste repositories; 7 - Slovak Republic, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Amendment to the Atomic Act; 8 - Slovenia, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Amendments to the Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning): Decree on activities involving radiation; 9 - Sweden, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Major revision of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations; 10 - United States, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Commission policy statement setting principles to use to promote effective government-to-government interactions with American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes and encourage and facilitate Tribal involvement in areas of NRC jurisdiction; Nuclear installations: NuScale Power, LLC submits design certification application for small modular reactor (SMR) to the NRC; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning): NRC publishes draft guidance document for the development of principal design criteria for non-light water cooled nuclear reactors

  11. Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001

  12. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  13. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  15. Foreign trade legislation, war weapons control legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hucko, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    The volume contains, in addition to an introduction into the matter, the texts of the Foreign Trade Act (FTA), the War Weapons Control Act and all relevant ordinances. Foreign trade transactions of the Federal Republic of Germany are essentially, but not exclusively, governed by the FTA. They are strongly influenced by the legislation of the European Communities which in the form of directives are immediately effective here, and in the form of guidelines oblige the German lawgiver or ordinance giver to translate them into practice, mostly by appropriate modifications of the foreign trade ordinance, the import and export lists. It is not the war weapons which are the problem, but the so-called dual-use goods, namely articles, technologies and knowledge which, as a rule, serve civil purposes, which, however, may be used also to produce weapons, in particular ABC weapons or rockets. Nowadays we are concerned about several third-world states which are obsessed by the wish to build their own atomic bomb. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. Validity range of centrifuges for the regulation of nanomaterials: from classification to as-tested coronas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlleben, Wendel

    2012-12-01

    Granulometry is the regulatory category where the differences between traditional materials and nanomaterials culminate. Reported herein is a careful validation of methods for the quantification of dispersability and size distribution in relevant media, and for the classification according to the EC nanodefinition recommendation. Suspension-based techniques can assess the nanodefinition only if the material in question is reasonably well dispersed. Using dispersed material of several chemical compositions (organic, metal, metal-oxide) as test cases we benchmark analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), hydrodynamic chromatography, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) against the known content of bimodal suspensions in the commercially relevant range between 20 nm and a few microns. The results validate fractionating techniques, especially AUC, which successfully identifies any dispersed nanoparticle content from 14 to 99.9 nb% with less than 5 nb% deviation. In contrast, our screening casts severe doubt over the reliability of ensemble (scattering) techniques and highlights the potential of NTA to develop into a counting upgrade of DLS. The unique asset of centrifuges with interference, X-ray or absorption detectors—to quantify the dispersed solid content for each size interval from proteins over individualized nanoparticles up to agglomerates, while accounting for their loose packing—addresses also the adsorption/depletion of proteins and (de-)agglomeration of nanomaterials under cell culture conditions as tested for toxicological endpoints.

  17. Validity range of centrifuges for the regulation of nanomaterials: from classification to as-tested coronas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlleben, Wendel

    2012-01-01

    Granulometry is the regulatory category where the differences between traditional materials and nanomaterials culminate. Reported herein is a careful validation of methods for the quantification of dispersability and size distribution in relevant media, and for the classification according to the EC nanodefinition recommendation. Suspension-based techniques can assess the nanodefinition only if the material in question is reasonably well dispersed. Using dispersed material of several chemical compositions (organic, metal, metal-oxide) as test cases we benchmark analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC), dynamic light scattering (DLS), hydrodynamic chromatography, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) against the known content of bimodal suspensions in the commercially relevant range between 20 nm and a few microns. The results validate fractionating techniques, especially AUC, which successfully identifies any dispersed nanoparticle content from 14 to 99.9 nb% with less than 5 nb% deviation. In contrast, our screening casts severe doubt over the reliability of ensemble (scattering) techniques and highlights the potential of NTA to develop into a counting upgrade of DLS. The unique asset of centrifuges with interference, X-ray or absorption detectors—to quantify the dispersed solid content for each size interval from proteins over individualized nanoparticles up to agglomerates, while accounting for their loose packing—addresses also the adsorption/depletion of proteins and (de-)agglomeration of nanomaterials under cell culture conditions as tested for toxicological endpoints.

  18. The European legislative framework for audit committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    In 2014 the European Union reformed the regulatory framework of statutory audits in Directive 2014/56/EC and Regulation (EU) Nr. 537/2014. Part of the new legislation addresses the composition and responsibilities of the audit committee of public-interest entities. This contribution studies the

  19. Regulation framework and evolution; Cadre reglementaire et evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daublanc, J. [Ministere de l`Amenagement du Territoire et de l`Environnement, 75 - Paris (France). Bureau de l`Atmosphere et de la Maitrise de l`energie et des Transports

    1996-12-31

    The general regulations concerning combustion plants in France are reviewed, and the legislation on classified plants is detailed: classification methods, regulatory directives for activities to be declared (boilers, turbines and motors,...) and for those to be authorized (large thermal plants, refining plants and other processes), waste management. The legislation on air pollution concerning thermal energy utilization and pollutant emissions is also presented, together with incentive measures and international protocols. European Union actions for environment are also examined, with directives on air quality and industrial pollution. National, European and international legislation prospectives are also mentioned

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  1. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  2. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  3. A preliminary assessment of the Normative Framework regulating MAR schemes in Europe: the EU Directives and their Implementation in nine National Legislations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo E. Bonfanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of MAR schemes within the European Union is not a new phenomenon, on the contrary it dates back to the beginning of the XIX century. Despite being widely adopted and currently the object of extensive studies, this tool is not soundly regulated and so far very little research has been conducted on the normative framework regulating MAR at the regional and at the national level. This paper draws upon the findings of a Report which represents one of the deliverables identified by MARSOL, a EU FP7 project launched in December 2013 that aims at demonstrating that MAR shall be regarded as a viable approach to address the predicted water shortages over the long term. Through a survey which involved a number of national experts, the researchers involved in the drafting of the Report have collected relevant data concerning the national legal frameworks of nine EU countries that adopt MAR schemes. The results of the questionnaire have been processed using a qualitative and comparative approach and have been duly included in the legal analysis, which covers the implementation at the national level of the two EU Directives relevant for MAR Schemes, i.e. the Water Framework Directive and its “daughter”, the Groundwater Directive. This paper shall be considered as the outcome of a preliminary investigation which covered only a limited number of European countries, it is expected that the research will be carried out as to include a larger number of EU Member States (MSs, alongside the most relevant extra EU countries.

  4. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  5. Synthesis of Automated Vehicle Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    This report provides a synthesis of issues addressed by state legislation regarding automated vehicles (AV); AV technologies are rapidly evolving and many states have developed legislation to govern AV testing and deployment and to assure safety on p...

  6. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  7. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  9. 45 CFR 604.200 - Agency and legislative liaison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency and legislative liaison. 604.200 Section 604.200 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 604.200 Agency and legislative liaison. (a...

  10. 45 CFR 1230.200 - Agency and legislative liaison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency and legislative liaison. 1230.200 Section 1230.200 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 1230.200 Agency and legislative...

  11. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.

  12. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  13. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  14. The legislative perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the United States Congress has only recently become interested in the issue of ballistic missile proliferation. It was primarily as a result of the outcome of the debate over chemical weapons legislation that Congress joined the issue of ballistic missile proliferation in the matter of restraints on foreign countries, particularly those based in Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) countries. This paper addresses the following questions: Is it Congress's place to enforce compliance with international agreements? More importantly, will such measures have the desired effect?

  15. Legislation, women, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    Governmental policies and legislation aimed at validating the dual role of women as mothers and wage earners can significantly strengthen breastfeeding promotion efforts. Examples of such laws and policies are maternity leave, breastfeeding breaks at the workplace, allowances for pregnant women and new mothers, rooming-in at hospitals, child care at the worksite, flexible work schedules for new mothers, and a national marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. The International labor Organization (ILO) has played an important role in setting international standards to protect working mothers. The ILO defines minimal maternity protection as encompassing: a compulsory period of 6 weeks' leave after delivery; entitlement to a further 6 weeks of leave; the provision during maternity leave of benefits sufficient for the full and healthy maintenance of the child; medical care by a qualified midwife or physician; authorization to interrupt work for the purpose of breastfeeding; and protection from dismissal during maternity leave. In many countries there is a lack of public awareness of existing laws or policies; i.e., working women may not know they are entitled to maternity leave, or pediatricians may not know that the government has developed a marketing code for breastmilk substitutes. Overall, the enactment and enforcement of legislation can ensure the longterm effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion by raising the consciousness of individuals and institutions, putting breastfeeding activities in the wider context of support for women's rights, recognizing the dual roles of women, and institutionalizing and legitimating support for breastfeeding.

  16. Efficient lighting in buildings: The lack of legislation in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, António Manuel; Martins, António Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of building designers is conditioned by the existing legislation and regulations in the national context in which they operate. However, in the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight, and therefore, designers are not stimulated to adopt solutions that make use of the existing potential of sunlight availability. In the same way, it is difficult to understand the lack of specific regulation, with quantified targets, limiting power density of artificial lighting installed inside buildings. The present opportunity, generated by the need to carry out the revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation, should be used to fill the existing gap in national legislation regarding those matters. In this paper the authors present some proposals for future legislation that will have as central purpose the utilization of efficient lighting systems and the promotion of architectural solutions that optimize the use of daylighting. It is possible, and desirable, to add new directives to national legislation that contribute to the improvement of Portuguese buildings, characterized by its good performance in terms of daylight availability, and at the same time, increasing the energy efficiency and reducing the energy consumption of lighting systems installed in those buildings. - Highlights: • In the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight. • Lack of specific regulation limiting power density of artificial lighting. • Revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation. • Some proposals for future legislation. • Improvement of Portuguese buildings promoting energy efficiency

  17. A review on recent progress in observations, sources, classification and regulations of PM2.5 in Asian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sneha; Yadav, Ankit; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Kumar, Prashant

    2016-11-01

    Natural and human activities generate a significant amount of PM 2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) into the surrounding atmospheric environments. Because of their small size, they can remain suspended for a relatively longer time in the air than coarse particles and thus can travel long distances in the atmosphere. PM 2.5 is one of the key indicators of pollution and known to cause numerous types of respiratory and lung-related diseases. Due to poor implementation of regulations and a time lag in introducing the vehicle technology, levels of PM 2.5 in most Asian cities are much worse than those in European environments. Dedicated reviews on understanding the characteristics of PM 2.5 in Asian urban environments are currently missing but much needed. In order to fill the existing gaps in the literature, the aim of this review article is to describe dominating sources and their classification, followed by current status and health impact of PM 2.5 , in Asian countries. Further objectives include a critical synthesis of the topics such as secondary and tertiary aerosol formation, chemical composition, monitoring and modelling methods, source apportionment, emissions and exposure impacts. The review concludes with the synthesis of regulatory guidelines and future perspectives for PM 2.5 in Asian countries. A critical synthesis of literature suggests a lack of exposure and monitoring studies to inform personal exposure in the household and rural areas of Asian environments.

  18. The new Italian IVF legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2004-08-01

    Last February, the Italian Parliament gave final approval to a new Law regulating assisted reproduction technology. The new legislation fell short of the expectations of infertile couples and of all specialists in the field. There are three problems with the new Italian law; they involve social issues, human rights and the application of technology. The present paper focuses on the fact that the new rules infringe upon basic human rights and the proper application of IVF technology, because they mandate procedures that are against the best interest of the woman seeking pregnancy. The main point of controversy is the combination of a mandatory limit of three embryos for transfer, and an obligation to reimplant all produced embryos; cryopreservation of excess embryos is prohibited. Obviously, this decreases the chances of most women to achieve pregnancy, while at the same time it increases the number and complexity of procedures they need to undergo and may expose some to an unacceptable increase in the risk of multiple pregnancy. The new law is inspired by the desire to protect every newly produced embryo; this is a commendable aim, although it is in total opposition to a law passed over 25 years ago that liberalized voluntary termination of first trimester pregnancies. This means that today Italy has a law that protects every early, pre-implantation embryo, and another that allows the 'suppression' of every post-implantation one. From a technical point of view, given the low level of human fecundity, the only way to prevent the 'loss' of even one preimplantation embryo is to simply ban IVF altogether, an option that Italian legislators obviously did not have the courage to opt for. The tragedy is that Italian infertile couples are now confronted with new rules that not only severely limit the ability of physicians to correctly apply IVF technology, but are so confused that, depending on the interpretation, anyone may try to nullify the main ideological premise upon

  19. LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Zhyzhko

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic regulatory documents controlling the foreign investments in Ukraine are considered and the recommendations for their improvement are proposed. Main disadvantages of present situation retarding the investing in Ukraine are analyzed.

  20. Nuclear legislation and regulation - enactment and authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, E.

    1975-01-01

    Definition, development, and essential contents of the Atomic Energy Act. Main problems: integration of nuclear energy, control by the government, radiation protection, liability, insurance, international safe gurds. Brief outline of the German Atomic Energy Act. (HP) [de

  1. Disposal facilities for radioactive waste - legislative requirements for siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova-Mihaylova, Radosveta

    2015-01-01

    The specifics of radioactive waste, namely the content of radionuclides require the implementation of measures to protect human health and the environment against the hazards arising from ionizing radiation, including disposal of waste in appropriate facilities. The legislative requirements for siting of such facilities, and classification of radioactive waste, as well as the disposal methods, are presented in this publication

  2. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  3. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  4. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    - Poland: Organisation and structure; 7 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation, Nuclear security (Entry into force of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; Act No. 91/2016 Coll. on Criminal Responsibility of Legal Persons), Liability and compensation (Newly adopted Civil Procedural Code); 8 - Slovenia: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - including nuclear emergency planning (Decree on the program of the systematic monitoring of working and living environments and raising awareness about measures to reduce public exposure to natural radiation sources; Rules on authorised experts for radiation and nuclear safety); 9 - United States: General legislation, regulations and instruments (Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved a final rule amending licensing, inspection and annual fee regulations to establish a variable annual fee structure for light-water small modular reactors)

  5. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents a summary of the recent national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country and topic: - Algeria: Nuclear security. - France: Radioactive waste management; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation; International co-operation. - Germany: International trade. - Indonesia: Nuclear security, General legislation. - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; General legislation. - Lithuania: Nuclear security; Nuclear safety and radiological protection. - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; Environmental protection. - Switzerland: Radioactive waste management. - United Arab Emirates: Liability and compensation. - United States: Radioactive waste management; Licensing and regulatory infrastructure

  6. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  7. Classification of H2O2 as a Neuromodulator that Regulates Striatal Dopamine Release on a Subsecond Time Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Here we review evidence that the reactive oxygen species, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), meets the criteria for classification as a neuromodulator through its effects on striatal dopamine (DA) release. This evidence was obtained using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to detect evoked DA release in striatal slices, along with whole-cell and fluorescence imaging to monitor cellular activity and H2O2 generation in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). The data show that (1) exogenous H2O2 suppresses DA release in dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens shell and the same effect is seen with elevation of endogenous H2O2 levels; (2) H2O2 is generated downstream from glutamatergic AMPA receptor activation in MSNs, but not DA axons; (3) generation of modulatory H2O2 is activity dependent; (4) H2O2 generated in MSNs diffuses to DA axons to cause transient DA release suppression by activating ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels on DA axons; and (5) the amplitude of H2O2-dependent inhibition of DA release is attenuated by enzymatic degradation of H2O2, but the subsecond time course is determined by H2O2 diffusion rate and/or KATP-channel kinetics. In the dorsal striatum, neuromodulatory H2O2 is an intermediate in the regulation of DA release by the classical neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as other neuromodulators, including cannabinoids. However, modulatory actions of H2O2 occur in other regions and cell types, as well, consistent with the widespread expression of KATP and other H2O2-sensitive channels throughout the CNS. PMID:23259034

  8. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report looks at the impact of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the developing State oil spill regulations on the tanker and coastal barge markets, and at the implications for the future of the U.S. seaborne petroleum trades. The analysis relied on a dual approach. Because much of the legislation, both State and Federal, is still evolving--particularly with respect to implementing regulations--as yet there can be no definitive assessment of its impact. Consequently a quantitative analysis of fleets, trades, and vessel movements, was complemented by extensive interviews. Discussions have been held with oil companies large and small, shipowners, charterers, insurance companies, classification societies, and a variety of public and private institutions active in the maritime industry. All interviews were conducted in confidence: no individual views are identified in the report. (AT)

  9. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for

  10. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  11. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  12. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reviews the recent National legislative and regulatory activities: Algeria (Establishment of a nuclear security centre); Armenia (Amendment to the Law of the Republic of Armenia on the Safe Utilization of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes); Brazil (creation of a Support Centre for Safety and Radiation Protection - Centro de Apoio a Seguranca Fisica Nuclear e Radiologica - CENASF); Canada (enacting of the Nuclear Terrorism Act,4 which amends the Criminal Code, creating four new Criminal Code offences related to nuclear terrorism; proposal to replace the existing Nuclear Liability Act with the increase of the amount of compensation available to address civil nuclear damage); France (National plan for the management of radioactive materials and waste - PNGMDR; Law No.2013-580 of 4 July 2013 authorising approval of the agreement between France and Monaco on the management of Monegasque radioactive waste in the French territory; Decree No.2013-675 of 25 July 2013 publishing an agreement of co-operation between France and Saudi Arabia for the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes); Germany (Act for retrieving radioactive waste from and decommissioning the Asse II Mine); Greece (Decree transposing Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom); Ireland (Adoption of European Communities Regulations on Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Use of Transportable Pressure Equipment); Luxembourg (Transposition of Council Directive 2011/70/Euratom of 19 July 2011 establishing a Community framework for the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste); Poland (New requirements for employees concerning radiological protection; New detailed requirements for nuclear facility siting, design, commissioning and operation, organisational unit commissioning, periodical safety assessment, decommissioning and fund contributions; New regulation on subsidies related to nuclear safety and radiological protection; New requirements on transparency of

  13. Nuclear legislation in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents the status of nuclear legislation in the Czech Republic, specifying the fields of nuclear activities covered, partially covered and uncovered by the present legislation. The licensing process and the competence and powers of the State Office for Nuclear Safety are also briefly described

  14. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  15. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  16. Radiation safety in the nuclear medicine department: impact of the UK Ionising Radiations Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    The new 1985 regulations and guidance on radiation protection in the U.K. are discussed in relation to the needs for controlled areas in the nuclear medicine department and patient wards, admittance to hospital to comply with legislation, classification of workers, patient waiting rooms, handling flood sources, pregnancy and breast feeding. (U.K.)

  17. Coping with EU environmental legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner; de Graaf, Kars; Purdy, Ray

    2015-01-01

    A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... on coherence and accessibility with respect to environmental legislation and that such issues deserve more attention in the transposition process.......A ‘burden reducing’ agenda has spurred an increased interest in how EU environmental legislation is transposed into national legislation—most prominently reflected in the principle of ‘no gold-plating’. Yet, an important question is to what extent transposition principles and practices may ensure...... a coherent and accessible body of environmental legislation, while at the same time ensuring adequate transposition of EU environmental legislation. This article analyses the existence, or emergence, of transposition principles and practices in three Member States—the United Kingdom, the Netherlands...

  18. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... regulations to allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option...

  19. Maritime environmental penal law. International and German legislation; Maritimes Umweltstrafrecht. Voelkerrechtliche Grundlagen und deutsches Recht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eller, Jan Frederik

    2017-07-01

    The book on maritime environmental penal law discusses the following issues: part I: introduction into the importance of oceanic environment and its thread, requirement of protective measures,; part II: focus of the study and terminology: oceanic pollution, maritime environmental legislation, international legislation; part 3: international legislative regulations concerning the protection of maritime environment: avoidance of environmental pollution, maritime legislative agreements, existing protective institutions; part 4: state penal power concerning maritime environmental protection; part 5: statutory offense according to German legislation; perspectives for regulations concerning criminal acts on sea.

  20. Bulgarian energy legislation. Status quo and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denchev, P.

    1996-01-01

    The author gives a general survey of the present situation and the development tendencies in the Bulgarian nuclear legislation. The latest amendments of the Atomic Energy Act passed by the Bulgarian Parliament are discussed. Special attention is paid to the ratification of the following four groups of international documents: 1) The Convention on Nuclear Safety; 2) The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the Joint Protocol on the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 3) The Convention for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; 4) The European Energy Charter and its Protocol on Energy Efficiency. The need of adoption of new legislative documents regulating the supply of radioactive materials according to the EURATOM Treaty is stressed

  1. Antinomy in Legislation in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Arifin Mochtar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of reality for laws as a production of Parliament and President was canceled by the Constitutional Court, occur as a result of the legislation matter that plural reflects the injustice and legal uncertainty. The high number of judicial review becomes signal less accommodation of citizen interests and rights in a legislation product. The absence of arrangement harmony made by Parliament gives impact on plural legislation sued. This paper attempts to describe some debate antinomy that characterizes the existence of legislation in Indonesia. The analysis showed, antinomy-conflict-norm in the legislation is one thing that is difficult to avoid, especially given the poor-legislative process in the parliament today. In each establishment of legislation, synchronization and norms harmonization is not a major pressing point, but defeated by transnational politics inter-faction in the parliament that actually looked more dominant. But when these norms conflict constituted a rule of law which are simultaneous, dynamic, and meet legal ideals, would not be a problem. As long as not to cause harm to the fulfillment of constitutional rights of citizens.

  2. Сoncept of national legislative initiative and its types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Л. Крутько

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available . National legislative initiative is a new instrument of popular wills demonstration as compared to different forms of direct democracy. In most of developed democracies this institution regulated at the constitutional/ legislative level. But in the modern Ukraine its constitutional legal regulation is absent, due disregard of its possibilities and lack of understanding of its essence. Paper objective. This article an aim is to analyze in details the definition of «national legislative initiative» and determinate its basic types according to theoretical insights and foreign current law. Recent research and publications analysis. The domestic and foreign scholars works on scientific research of national legislative initiative institution such as V.N. Rudenko, O.M. Mudra, V.M. Shapoval, V.F. Nesterovich, J. F. Zimmerman and etc. Their works were foundational at the time of writing. Paper main body. With the help of big definition dictionary and new encyclopedic dictionary it was found the etymology of the concept «initiative» which is characterized as the basis, also found meaning of «legislative initiative», «national initiative» and «national legislative initiative». It was argued impossibility an identification of «national initiative» with «national legislative initiative». The current definitions of the national legislative initiative were analyzed in the article. It was noted that suggested terms were limited only by identification of institute’s apparent indicator and withhold essence. This is precisely why four types of the national legislative initiative’s realization are briefly examined for the complex determination of the definition. These types depending on what role the legislator are assigning to citizen, who are the main actors of initiative. And on the basis of this analysis the author provided his own definition of «the national legislative initiative». The author had notes that the proposed definition was not

  3. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  4. Flexibility in radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.; Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The UK approach to radiation protection legislation is described in detail. The advantages are outlined of a flexible approach whereby the objectives of the legislation are clearly identified but the means of achieving these are left open or qualified by terms such as 'where reasonably practicable'. The roles and viewpoints of management and unions in such an approach are discussed especially with respect to legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act. Specific topics include requirements for notification of use, criteria for controlled areas and the tasks of the radiation protection adviser. (UK)

  5. Documentation of Accounting Records in Light of Legislative Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    K. V. BEZVERKHIY

    2017-01-01

    Legislative reforms in accounting aim to simplify accounting records and compilation of financial reports by business entities, thus increasing the position of Ukraine in the global ranking of Doing Business. This simplification is implied in the changes in the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records, entered into force to the Resolution of the Ukrainian Ministry of Finance. The objective of the study is to analyze the legislative innovations involved. The review of changes in docum...

  6. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section compiles the presentations of the following texts sorted by country. Armenia - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: New design safety requirements adopted, New seismic hazard assessment guidelines adopted; France - Licensing and regulatory infrastructure: Decree No. 2012-1248 of 9 November 2012 authorising the ITER Organisation to create the 'ITER' basic nuclear installation in Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (Bouches-du-Rhone); - Nuclear security: Law No. 2012-1473 of 28 December 2012 authorizing the approval of the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Complementary safety assessments. Follow-up of the stress tests carried out on French nuclear power plants. Action Plan of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) - December 2012; - International cooperation: Decree No. 2012-1178 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of the Republic of Tunisia for the development of peaceful uses of nuclear energy, signed in Tunis on 23 April 2009; Decree No. 2012-1180 of 22 October 2012 publishing the Cooperation Agreement between the government of the French Republic and the government of Mongolia in the field of nuclear energy (with annex), signed in Ulaanbaatar on 14 October 2010; Germany - General legislation: Bill to amend the Atomic Energy Act to expedite the retrieval of radioactive waste from and to decommission the Asse II Mine (2013); Act to amend the Act on Environmental Legal Remedies and other environmental provisions (2013); - Radiation protection: General administrative rules on Section 47 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (2012); - Nuclear Safety: Safety requirements for nuclear power plants (2012); - Transport of radioactive material: International Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (2010, 2012); - Regulations on nuclear trade (including non-proliferation): Export List (2013); Greece

  7. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  8. Legislative coalitions with incomplete information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Tiberiu; Laver, Michael

    2017-03-14

    In most parliamentary democracies, proportional representation electoral rules mean that no single party controls a majority of seats in the legislature. This in turn means that the formation of majority legislative coalitions in such settings is of critical political importance. Conventional approaches to modeling the formation of such legislative coalitions typically make the "common knowledge" assumption that the preferences of all politicians are public information. In this paper, we develop a theoretical framework to investigate which legislative coalitions form when politicians' policy preferences are private information, not known with certainty by the other politicians with whom they are negotiating over what policies to implement. The model we develop has distinctive implications. It suggests that legislative coalitions should typically be either of the center left or the center right. In other words our model, distinctively, predicts only center-left or center-right policy coalitions, not coalitions comprising the median party plus parties both to its left and to its right.

  9. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  10. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  11. Legislative Bargaining and Incremental Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dhammika Dharmapala

    2002-01-01

    The notion of 'incrementalism', formulated by Aaron Wildavsky in the 1960's, has been extremely influential in the public budgeting literature. In essence, it entails the claim that legislators engaged in budgetary policymaking accept past allocations, and decide only on the allocation of increments to revenue. Wildavsky explained incrementalism with reference to the cognitive limitations of lawmakers and their desire to reduce conflict. This paper uses a legislative bargaining framework to u...

  12. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  13. Information gathering for CLP classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Marcello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation 1272/2008 includes provisions for two types of classification: harmonised classification and self-classification. The harmonised classification of substances is decided at Community level and a list of harmonised classifications is included in the Annex VI of the classification, labelling and packaging Regulation (CLP. If a chemical substance is not included in the harmonised classification list it must be self-classified, based on available information, according to the requirements of Annex I of the CLP Regulation. CLP appoints that the harmonised classification will be performed for carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to reproduction substances (CMR substances and for respiratory sensitisers category 1 and for other hazard classes on a case-by-case basis. The first step of classification is the gathering of available and relevant information. This paper presents the procedure for gathering information and to obtain data. The data quality is also discussed.

  14. Appeal for legislation on greater safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports.

  15. THEORETICAL ASPECTS REGARDING THE OBLIGATION AS PROVIDED BY THE ROMANIAN LEGISLATION AND THE DOCTRINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan NAZAT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the latest amendments of the Romanian civil legislation performed through the Civil code of 2009, as further amended, I consider useful to provide the lecturers with a theoretical overview over one of the most important institution in our legal environment, i.e. the obligation. The analyse will start with an introduction comprising the definition of the obligation as provided by the Civil code aand the doctrina, will continue with the structure of the obligation and, further, will offer an overview of its sources, identifying, inter alia, the articles in the Civil code where such sources are regulated (e.g. contract, law. In the end, the paper will provide a doctrinaire classification of the obligation, outlining the main categories of the obligations.

  16. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  17. Hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Oscar; Velasco, Josefa; Martinez-Capel, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hydrological classification constitutes the first step of a new holistic framework for developing regional environmental flow criteria: the "Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)". The aim of this study was to develop a classification for 390 stream sections of the Segura River Basin based on 73 hydrological indices that characterize their natural flow regimes. The hydrological indices were calculated with 25 years of natural monthly flows (1980/81-2005/06) derived from a rainfall-runoff model developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Public Works. These indices included, at a monthly or annual basis, measures of duration of droughts and central tendency and dispersion of flow magnitude (average, low and high flow conditions). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated high redundancy among most hydrological indices, as well as two gradients: flow magnitude for mainstream rivers and temporal variability for tributary streams. A classification with eight flow-regime classes was chosen as the most easily interpretable in the Segura River Basin, which was supported by ANOSIM analyses. These classes can be simplified in 4 broader groups, with different seasonal discharge pattern: large rivers, perennial stable streams, perennial seasonal streams and intermittent and ephemeral streams. They showed a high degree of spatial cohesion, following a gradient associated with climatic aridity from NW to SE, and were well defined in terms of the fundamental variables in Mediterranean streams: magnitude and temporal variability of flows. Therefore, this classification is a fundamental tool to support water management and planning in the Segura River Basin. Future research will allow us to study the flow alteration-ecological response relationship for each river type, and set the basis to design scientifically credible environmental flows following the ELOHA framework.

  18. UK legislation on radiological health and safety. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H D

    1983-02-01

    A brief survey is given of current UK legislation on radiological health and safety in areas in which ''Ionising Radiations Regulations 1982'' do not apply. Such areas in which separate Acts or Regulations for ionising radiations operate include: 1) Factories Act Regulations; 2) the disposal of radioactive wastes; 3) the transport of radioactive materials by air, sea, road, rail and post; 4) nuclear reactors and allied plants; 5) schools and further educational establishments and 6) research laboratories.

  19. [Current legislation in the healthcare system 2015/2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martenstein, I; Wienke, A

    2016-05-01

    The energy of the legislator in the healthcare system was barely stoppable in 2015. Many new laws have been brought into force and legal initiatives have also been implemented. The Hospital Structure Act, the Treatment Enhancement Act, amendments of the official medical fee schedules for physicians, the Prevention Act, the E-Health Act, the Anti-corruption Act, the hospital admission guidelines and amendments of the model specialty training regulations are just some of the essential alterations that lie ahead of the medical community. This article gives a review of the most important new legislative regulations in the healthcare system and presents the fundamental consequences for the practice.

  20. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  1. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  2. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  3. ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION ON TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIBINCEA Lilia;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On June 27, 2014 there was signed an Association Agreement between the Republic of Moldova, on one hand and the European Union and the European Atomic Energy Community and its Member States, on the other hand (hereinafter - the Association Agreement. The Association Agreement entered into force on 1 July 2016. The signing of the Association Agreement was as a result of the close ties between the parties established by the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement between the European Communities and their Member States, on the one hand, and the Republic of Moldova on the other hand, which develops within the European Neighborhood policy and the Eastern Partnership, as well as recognition of the shared desire of the parties to further develop, strengthen and expand their relationships. The Association Agreement contributes to the development of trade and economic relations between the parties. The Republic of Moldova is obliged to take necessary measures to ensure compliance with the objectives of Union's regulations and to follow the principles and practices set out in the relevant acquis of the Union. The Republic of Moldova will also gradually include relevant acquis of the Union in its legislation, in accordance with the provisions of the Association Agreement. The legislative background regulatory EU trade is subject studies only a small circle of researchers, approaches and sequential episodic in character, without being integrated into a systemic study, complex, integrated. The objectives of the research are to analyze the most important EU regulations on trade.

  4. Colombian legislation for air contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-01-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms

  5. Classifying Classifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debus, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyzes seventeen game classifications. The classifications were chosen on the basis of diversity, ranging from pre-digital classification (e.g. Murray 1952), over game studies classifications (e.g. Elverdam & Aarseth 2007) to classifications of drinking games (e.g. LaBrie et...... al. 2013). The analysis aims at three goals: The classifications’ internal consistency, the abstraction of classification criteria and the identification of differences in classification across fields and/or time. Especially the abstraction of classification criteria can be used in future endeavors...... into the topic of game classifications....

  6. ACHP | News | Legislation Passes Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Clinton. "Bipartisan approval of this legislation by an overwhelming margin reflects the Bingaman, former Senator Pete Domenici, and Senators Hillary Clinton and Richard Burr." At a Capitol , who introduced the House version; Sen. Hillary Clinton and former Sen.Pete Domenici, who introduced

  7. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  8. The Impact of FEP Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Arvil

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, had three express focuses: (1) on urban poverty among blacks in the non-south; (2) on the enforcement of Fair Employment Practice (FEP) legislation and its effect on the economic position of blacks and other minority groups; and, (3) on guidelines…

  9. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  10. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. Methods National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. Results The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. Conclusions A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. PMID:27903958

  11. Practical implications of developments in legislation on food irradiation in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neyssen, Peter J.G.

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation legislation is very different in most member-states of the EU. For many years there was the desire by many interested groups to harmonise this legislation. As the member-states had a different view on irradiated foods, often based on their existing regulation, it took many years and revised drafts to come to a harmonised regulation acceptable to the majority. The background on the development of this EU-legislation and the final draft is discussed. Some information is also given on the possible influence of WTO (SPS- and TBT-agreements) and Codex Alimentarius on this EU-legislation. (author)

  12. Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, David H.

    1979-01-01

    Highlights the issues to be dealt with during the 96th Congress including the establishment of a Department of Education, reauthorization of the Higher Education Act and related programs, and funding for fiscal 1980 and 1981. (JMF)

  13. Environmental Legislation in China: Achievements, Challenges and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Mu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the environmental legislation of many developed countries, China’s environmental legislation was initiated late, beginning in 1979, but nevertheless has obtained considerable achievements. As many as thirty environmental laws have provided rules regarding prevention and control of pollution, resource utilization, and ecological protection in China. However, China’s environmental legislation still faces a series of challenges and problems, including that the sustainable development concept has not yet been fully implemented, as well as presence of gaps and non-coordination phenomena between laws and regulations, unclear responsibility, imperfect system design, imbalance between rights and obligations, higher impacts resulted from the GDP-centralized economy, lack of operability and instruments in the legal content, as well as difficulty of public participation. In contrast, China’s environmental legislation has improved, as a result of learning from experience in developed countries and introducing innovations stimulated by domestic environmental pressure. Looking into the future, increased attention to environmental protection and ecological consciousness paid by China’s new leaders will bring a valuable opportunity to China’s further development concerning environmental legislation. In the future, there are prospects for the gradual improvement of legal approaches, continuous improvements of legislation to mitigate environmental problems, and more opportunities to strengthen public participation can be predicted.

  14. New Ontario power legislation aims to protect consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-09-01

    New legislation designed to improve regulation of the electricity sector in Ontario was introduced by the provincial government in June 2000, the first such legislation since the government mandated an open electricity market with the Energy Competition Act of 1998. The new legislation is described as narrowly focused on putting limits on local power rate increases. The legislation was introduced in combination with a directive to the Ontario Energy Board, and is designed to ensure that the Board approves municipal electric utility rates only when certain conditions are met. The Energy Minister was at great pains to point out that the legislation should not be interpreted as the government interfering in the marketplace, it is merely to help the utility wires side of the business during a two-year transition period. Municipal authorities reacted unfavorably to the legislation because it appears to require them to return significant assets to their utilities, assets that they considered as theirs under municipal restructuring. Energy Probe, an environmental advocacy group, suggested an alternative to the legislation, i. e., the government should allow the price increases requested by the municipal utilities to go through, but to leave consumers whole, it should impose a windfall profits tax on municipal governments, use the proceeds to reduce debt retirement taxes in the electricity bill, a leftover from Ontario Hydro's debt and stranded nuclear waste liabilities, and eliminate the province's own electricity tax on consumers. No direct reaction has been received from the Minister to date. If the legislation is passed in its present form it will prevent municipalities from using windfall profits from their utilities to justify rate hikes.

  15. Comment: Some Remarks on Ethiopia's New Cybercrime Legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia has been enacting various pieces of legislation, since recently, to regulate some aspects of the digital environment. The Cybercrime Proclamation of 2016 (Computer Crime Proclamation No.958/2016) is the most recent addition to the legal regime that criminalizes a range of cybercrimes. It has also introduced a ...

  16. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  17. Legislative Branch: FY2014 Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    for the renovation of the Cannon House Office Building and the condition of the Rayburn building, the effect of the sequester on overtime work, plans...provided by the Joint Committee on Taxation for all revenue legislation (Balanced Budget and Emergency Deficit Control Act of 1985, P.L. 99-177...Committee, the Joint Committee on Taxation , the Office of the Attending Physician, and the Office of Congressional Accessibility Services. The FY2012

  18. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Progress in Slovak nuclear legislation in 2011-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In the legislative area, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic focused on 3 basic topics. First, the Slovak Atomic Act (Act No. 541/2004 on peaceful use of nuclear energy) was amended to include provisions of Council Directive 2009/71/Euratom. The key changes concerned the definition of a nuclear installation, introduction of a definition of safety culture, detailed specification of administrative, technical, organisational and financial requirements for licensees aimed to ensure nuclear safety quality management. Second, preparatory work was done on 2 new regulations: regulation on the requirements for nuclear safety and regulation on quality management. Third, regulations encompassing changes in the Atomic Act were prepared. (orig.)

  20. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  1. Re-enactment of power economy legislation failed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2002-01-01

    Comment on the failed vote in the German Federal Parliament about the re-enactment of power economy legislation. The amendments were mainly intended to translate into national law the EU Single Market Directive of June 22, 1998 about common regulations of the gas market. The legislative process had included a mediation procedure between the two chambers of parliament, i.e. the Bundestag and the Bundesrat, had been rejected once more by the Bundesrat, and was to have been adopted by an absolute majority vote of the Bundestag, the so-called Chancellor's majority, still in this parliamentary term. (orig.)

  2. From pricing regulations of the feed-in scheme (EEG) through to financial security under the Atomic Energy Act (AtG): the German legal system for the energy sector in the context of EC legislation on state aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehling, J.

    2001-01-01

    This contribution is a comprehensive analysis of EC law on state aid and resulting possible impacts on the German legal system for the energy sector. The analysis reveals that, depending on the legal interpretation of Art. 87 of the EC Treaty, further non-compliance issues such as that currently under debate in connection with German legislation supporting market penetration of electricity from renewable energy sources, may arise in the future. Further examples referred to are the German system of liability reserves for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, and the system of third party liability for nuclear power plant operators. The author addresses various problem areas and uses characteristic examples in explaining conceivable matters of conflict. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Impact of the legislation on electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Long, M.

    1982-01-01

    The possible impact of Federal nuclear waste legislation on electric utilities is discussed. The proposed legislation will set forth a well defined program enabling utilities with nuclear plants to make long term plans under a statutory mandate committed to an available technology and implementation timetable. The legislation includes the necessary specificity for the utility companies to fulfill their responsibilities in describing their waste disposal plans to their customers, the concerned public, and state and local legislators

  4. US legislative proposals for nuclear export controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the topics covered are: Congress' perception of proliferation; completed legislation for non-proliferation; partially complete legislative initiatives in the 94th Congress; non-proliferation measures defeated or vetoed; and legislation for non-proliferation in the 95th Congress

  5. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  6. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  7. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  8. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  9. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote.......Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...

  10. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF LAKES MANAGEMENT IN POLISH WATER LAW RELATED TO THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN POLISH AND EUROPEAN UNION LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARSZELEWSKI M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Proper management of water resources has got significant social and economic dimension. For this reason, it is an essential element of almost every national law, European Union law, and also international law in a broad sense. Legislative authority, during legislature process, should allway s balance private and public interests to adopt compromised solutions. Furthermore these solutions must be determined mostly by hydrology to be appropriate to the nature of waters and environment. Because of mentioned issues, it is very undesirable state of affairs when law simply does not fit to the object of its regulation. In Water Law Act of 2001 Polish legislator classifies lakes, depending upon the type of watercourse (natural or man-made flowing into or out of the lake, among either flowing water or stagnant one. This regulation is against hydrological classification of lakes. Moreover this legal act introduces different treatment of dammed lakes in the context of public access to the lakeshores. Indicated problems have got significant impact on many aspects such as ownership of lakes, obligations of the owners of the lakes, lakes and environmental protection and, mentioned above, right to public acces to the lakes.

  11. Waterpipe tobacco smoking legislation and policy enactment: a global analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; El Kadi, Lama; Mugharbil, Sanaa; Nakkash, Rima

    2015-03-01

    (1) To review how current global tobacco control policies address regulation of waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS). (2) To identify features associated with enactment and enforcement of WTS legislation. (1) Legislations compiled by Tobacco Control Laws (www.tobaccocontrollaws.org). (2) Weekly news articles by 'Google Alerts' (www.google.com/alerts) from July 2013 to August 2014. (1) Countries containing legislative reviews, written by legal experts, were included. Countries prohibiting tobacco sales were excluded. (2) News articles discussing aspects of the WHO FCTC were included. News articles related to electronic-waterpipe, crime, smuggling, opinion pieces or brief mentions of WTS were excluded. (1) Two reviewers independently abstracted the definition of "tobacco product" and/or "smoking". Four tobacco control domains (smokefree law, misleading descriptors, health warning labels and advertising/promotion/sponsorship) were assigned one of four categories based on the degree to which WTS had specific legislation. (2) Two investigators independently assigned at least one theme and associated subtheme to each news article. (1) Reviewed legislations of 62 countries showed that most do not address WTS regulation but instead rely on generic tobacco/smoking definitions to cover all tobacco products. Where WTS was specifically addressed, no additional legislative guidance accounted for the unique way it is smoked, except for in one country specifying health warnings on waterpipe apparatuses (2) News articles mainly reported on noncompliance with public smoking bans, especially in India, Pakistan and the UK. A regulatory framework evaluated for effectiveness and tailored for the specificities of WTS needs to be developed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, April 1993--August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-09-01

    This is the seventh report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the April 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period April 1, 1993--August 31, 1993. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. A copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  13. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  14. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  15. 32 CFR 2400.15 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Derivative Classification § 2400.15 Classification guides. (a) OSTP shall issue and maintain classification guides to facilitate the proper and uniform derivative classification of information. These guides shall...

  16. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification challenges. 9.8 Section 9.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.8 Classification... classification status is improper are expected and encouraged to challenge the classification status of the...

  17. 7 CFR 28.911 - Review classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review classification. 28.911 Section 28.911... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification and Market News Service for Producers Classification § 28.911 Review classification. (a) A producer may request one review...

  18. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  19. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Problems in the post-mining regions of Eastern Europe range from degraded land and landscapes, huge insecure dumps, surface cracks, soil pollution, lowering groundwater table, deforestation, and damaged cultural potentials to socio economic problems like unemployment or population decline. There is no common prescription for tackling the development of post-mining regions after mine closure nor is there a common definition of good practices or policy in this field. Key words : waste management, legislation, EU Directive, post mining Rosia Montana is a common oh 16 villages; one of them is also called Rosia Montana, a traditional mining Community, located in the Apuseni Mountains in the North-Western Romania. Beneath part of the village area lays one of the largest gold and silver deposits in Europe. In the Rosia Montana area mining had begun ever since the height of the Roman Empire. While the modern approach to mining demands careful remediation of environmental impacts, historically disused mines in this region have been abandoned, leaving widespread environmental damage. General legislative framework Strict regulations and procedures govern modern mining activity, including mitigation of all environmental impacts. Precious metals exploitation is put under GO no. 190/2000 re-published in 2004. The institutional framework was established and organized based on specific regulations, being represented by the following bodies: • The Ministry of Economy and Commerce (MEC), a public institution which develops the Government policy in the mining area, also provides the management of the public property in the mineral resources area; • The National Agency for the development and implementation of the mining Regions Reconstruction Programs (NAD), responsible with promotion of social mitigation measures and actions; • The Office for Industry Privatization, within the Education Ministry, responsible with privatization of companies under the CEM; • The National

  20. Some remarks on the Austrian radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the provisions of the Austrian Radiation Protection Law and Radiation Protection Ordinance differ from those recommended by ICRP and IAEO. This is particularly true for the definition of working conditions, the categorization of radiation areas and the classification of radiation workers. It is suggested that the responsible authorities when considering a revision of the legislation in the light of ICRP 26 and the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards, also study the desirability of adapting the currently applicable provisions to the universally accepted international norms. (Auth.)

  1. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, September 1993--June 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthley, J.A.; Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1994-07-01

    This is the eighth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the September 1993 report on Legislative Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation and describes activities for the period September 1, 1993--June 30, 1994. NCSL currently is updating an on-line data base that contains abstracts of federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of August 1994. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. This report contains the current status of legislation introduced in the 1993 and 1994 state legislative sessions, not previously reviewed in past reports. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness are described. (General nuclear waste legislation with no transportation element is no longer tracked.) Also included are Federal Register notices and changes in federal regulations pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation

  2. Impact of changed legislation on skin tests: the present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimek, Ludger; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen; Kugler, Alexa; Muraro, Antonella; Hellings, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    To discuss the impact of current European Union regulations on the availability of commercially available skin test allergens in European member states. European Union legislations now define diagnostic allergens to be medicine requiring market authorization of every individual diagnostic allergen

  3. Transportation legislative data base : state radioactive materials transportation statute compilation, 1989-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-30

    The Transportation Legislative Data Base (TLDB) is a computer-based information service containing summaries of federal, state and certain local government statutes and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials in the United...

  4. Assessment of the accessibility legislation in Spain and its effective application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Hernández-Galán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of legislation on accessibility does not always imply it is enforced effectively. This article aims to answer the following question: Is the existence of accessibility legislation enough to make physical environments truly accessible?This study assesses the current Spanish legislation as well as any existing voluntary regulations in the country. This assessment is done chronologically, so as to show the historical evolution of the accessibility regulations in Spain.In order to determine whether accessibility legislation has been truly effectively enforced, the issue is studied as it affects Spanish municipalities with respect to urban planning, public buildings, public transportation and websites. The conclusion of this study is that the existence of accessibility legislation per se is not enough to ensure its practical application, and ultimately, to render physical environments, products and services accessible to the majority of the population regardless of their functional capabilities.

  5. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  6. Conhecimento dos farmacêuticos sobre legislação sanitária e regulamentação da profissão Pharmacists' knowledge of sanitary legislation and professional regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Rodrigues da Silva

    2004-06-01

    exercício da profissão, sem ameaças penais ou prejuízo da população.OBJECTIVE: To characterize the profile of pharmacists employed as technical supervisors in drugstores and evaluate their knowledge regarding certain aspects of the legislation controlling drugstores and the profession in general. METHODS: Based on 175 drugstores in the city of Ribeirão Preto, southeastern Brazil, 100 pharmacists/technical supervisors were randomly selected. Data collection was done by means of in-person interviews, and was guided by a questionnaire evaluating knowledge and attitudes. Data were processed and analyzed using Epi Info and Stata software. Associations were sought between dependent and independent variables using Pearson's chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. RESULTS: Most pharmacists were women (64%, aged 22-29 years (47%, graduated approximately three years prior to data collection, trained to work in the pharmaceutical industry (36% or in clinical analysis (29%. Pharmacist's knowledge of sanitary legislation was considered as insufficient for 28% of subjects, regular for 50%, and good for 22%. Low levels of knowledge were observed regarding the legal requirement for the presence of a pharmacist during the entire drugstore opening hours, pharmacists' attributions, sale of antibiotics, and penicillin administration. It was found that most professionals have difficulties handling the concepts of 'generic' and 'similar' drugs. Low level of knowledge was not associated with any of the independent variables, indicating that this is a generalized phenomenon, i.e., one present among pharmacists of all age groups and both sexes, irrespective of the time since graduation, institution attended, and modality of graduation, among others. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that training in the field of drug pharmaceutical care, during undergraduate studies and, especially, during traineeship in pharmacies and drugstores is deficient. It is necessary to divulge information concerning

  7. European union legislation in medical application of ionizing radiation and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlic-Razumenic, N.; Pavlovic, R.; Plecas, I.

    1999-01-01

    The most important aspects of the latest EU legislation concerning medical application of ionizing radiation, with the special emphasis on nuclear medicine are presented in this paper. The EU member countries will start to apply this regulation on 13 th May 2000. Our legislation is already adjusted to IAEA standards and ICRP Recommendation. Those regulations are of special concerns in the Radioisotope Laboratory of The Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences. (author)

  8. Access to Legislation in Europe: Overview and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Mockus

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses problems facing electronic legislation development (especially legislation processes of publishing acts in EU and EFTA member countries. All European countries were publishing acts officially on paper until the end of year 2000. The way of publishing acts officially was the same in all Europe countries, except that some counties had one “official journal” in which legal acts and other official documents and legal notices were published, and other countries had separate legal gazettes for acts publishing and an official gazette for publishing other official documents and legal notices. At the beginning of 2001 Norway started to publish acts officially in digital form, and only 12-20 times a year paper editions to present the statutes and regulations enacted since the publication of the previous issue are published. In 2002 Estonia decided to finish the publishing of paper editions, and started to publish acts only electronically. Till 2011 more than 10 European countries started to publish acts officially in digital format. Author discusses the advantages, principles, and legitimate expectation of electronic legislation. For future electronic legislation information systems developments the following principles should be a guide: broad/universal and equal access to legislation, reliability of the means of publicity, integrity of information, easy access to the requisite information. The advantages of digital act forms, and internet based publications are instantaneous outreach to the public, free of charge, information easily accessible and retrievable, voluminous technical acts easier to handle, no printing costs, more environmentally-friendly, more and more people use ICT to seek information, no time constraints to the availability of data, legal certainty will be granted. The author thinks that before creating future digital legislation information systems, some procedures shall be done. If we want to have pan

  9. Access to Legislation in Europe: Overview and Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Mockus

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses problems facing electronic legislation development (especially legislation processes of publishing acts in EU and EFTA member countries.All European countries were publishing acts officially on paper until the end of year 2000. The way of publishing acts officially was the same in all Europe countries, except that some counties had one “official journal” in which legal acts and other official documents and legal notices were published, and other countries had separate legal gazettes for acts publishing and an official gazette for publishing other official documents and legal notices.At the beginning of 2001 Norway started to publish acts officially in digital form, and only 12-20 times a year paper editions to present the statutes and regulations enacted since the publication of the previous issue are published. In 2002 Estonia decided to finish the publishing of paper editions, and started to publish acts only electronically. Till 2011 more than 10 European countries started to publish acts officially in digital format.Author discusses the advantages, principles, and legitimate expectation of electronic legislation. For future electronic legislation information systems developments the following principles should be a guide: broad/universal and equal access to legislation, reliability of the means of publicity, integrity of information, easy access to the requisite information. The advantages of digital act forms, and internet based publications are instantaneous outreach to the public, free of charge, information easily accessible and retrievable, voluminous technical acts easier to handle, no printing costs, more environmentally-friendly, more and more people use ICT to seek information, no time constraints to the availability of data, legal certainty will be granted.The author thinks that before creating future digital legislation information systems, some procedures shall be done. If we want to have pan

  10. Receptive Congress, Resistant Executive: The Legislative Fight for Tribal Colleges in the '80s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Gregory G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the legislative difficulties encountered in the struggle for tribal college funding in the 1980s, including executive classification of Native American higher education as nontrust, decreasing funds despite increased enrollment, and opposition from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. (18 citations) (YKH)

  11. Classifying VAT Legislation for Automation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek; Nielsen, Morten Ib; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    The paper offers a framework for partitioning articles in legal documents pertaining to value added tax (VAT) into categories suitable for subsequent integration in computerized systems for automatically deriving VAT rates. The importance of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system supporting...... 2006 on the common system of value added tax is presented. The classification of VAT articles is important in order to allow for easier VAT modeling for ERP systems. Better VAT modeling should eventually lead to lower cost of implementing changes in VAT legislature....

  12. REGULATION OF A RIGHT TO A SALARY IN THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL INSTRUMENTS OF ILO AND UN AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION IN THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR LEGISLATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Majhošev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the salary as the most important legal institute, element and principle of the labour relations. Before we approach the analysis of the legal regime of the salary, we will define the term labour relations. This paper puts special emphasis on the terminology of the notion salary, as well as the legal nature of the legal regime of the salary. Additionally, in this paper the most important international legal instruments of ILO, UN and The European Council are analyzed for salary regulation and ban on compensation discrimination. In this context, the most important legal acts in the Republic of Macedonia are analyzed which regulate the legal institute salary, i.e. the minimum wage (The Constitution, Labour Law, and Law on Minimum Wage.

  13. Reforming Labor Legislation of the Belarus Republic: some problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motina E. V.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several directions of reforming the Belarusian labor legislation are considered in this article, taking into account so urgent politics of flexicurity. For that reason causes of giving flexibility to legal regulation of employment agreement termination are explored. The conclusion is made about the necessity of taking into account the objective criteria of differentiation by determining the specifics of separate employers’ categories in the situation of labor relations termination

  14. Turkish nuclear legislation: Developments for a nuclear newcomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ercan, Erinc; Schneider, Horst

    2013-01-01

    The scope of legal investigation in this article focuses on nuclear legislation with regard to siting, construction, operation and decommissioning of NPPs, taking into account the main issues of nuclear safety, security, safeguards, radiological protection and nuclear third party liability. The state of existing legislation and, furthermore, of drafts published or announced related to substantive regulations and organisational aspects are at the centre of this article. International conventions and agreements, national legislation consisting of the constitution, laws, decrees and regulations as binding norms and otherwise, directives and non-binding guides provide the legal structure for nuclear activities. The evaluation of Turkish nuclear legislation with regard to the accomplishment of the obligations under, in particular, the CNS and Euratom directives, leads finally to the perspective on the specific issues that should be addressed in the regulation of nuclear energy for Turkey's future energy needs and to ensure conformity with international standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). A brief discussion of Turkish energy legislation and institutional structure is necessary, because NPPs also need a licence for electricity production under Turkey's energy legislation. The Turkish government is aiming for greater privatisation in the energy sector. The current electricity market is governed, on the one hand, by the Electricity Market Law and Electricity Market License Regulation, which requires NPPs to have an electricity production licence and, on the other hand, by specific institutions. In terms of the Electricity Market Law, private legal entities who wish to obtain an electricity generation licence must 'be established as incorporated or limited liability companies in accordance with the provisions of the Turkish Commercial Law'. The relevant institutions in Turkey's energy sector include: the Energy

  15. The harmonization of banking legislation in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkëlqesa Çitaku

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to assess the current legislation of banking in the European Union. The process of unification in Europe is also followed by efforts to harmonize and unify the laws of the member states. In the field of banking industry the precondition for harmonization of laws is the integration of internal market with the free movement of capital. The regulation and supervision of banks in EU still remains fragmented. European member states still have diverse regulations concerning the role of the state. The European Commission has the important function of proposing EU legislation on financial services including banks and ensuring that EU law is properly applied throughout the EU. Banks are considered as a key industry enabling all the economic activities via depositing, crediting and arranging of payments. A number of secondary legislation has been adopted by the EU institutions to harmonize the national banking law of Member States. The principles and objectives set by the European Commission Treaty depend on four EU freedoms with the aim of effective and open market including banks. Therefore it was a continuous process of harmonization of national banking regulation via secondary law since the 70’s.

  16. Rare disease patients in China anticipate the sunlight of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J J; Song, P P; Tang, W

    2013-06-01

    It is estimated that there are over ten million rare disease patients in China currently. Due to a lack of effective drugs and reimbursement regulations for medical expenses the diseases bring most patients enormous physical suffering and psychological despair. Past experience in other countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union have shown that legislation is the critical step to improve the miserable situation of rare disease patients. Laws and regulations for rare diseases in these countries prescribe a series of incentives for research and development of orphan drugs which turn out to obviously allow these drugs to flourish. Legislation has also established a drug reimbursement system to reduce the medical burden of the patients. These measures effectively protect the rights and interests of patients with rare diseases. In China, legislation for rare diseases has begun to attract the attention of authorities. It is anticipated that relevant laws and regulations will be established as early as possible to provide safeguards for rare disease patients in China.

  17. [Problems of safety regulation under radioactive waste management in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monastyrskaia, S G; Kochetkov, O A; Barchukov, V G; Kuznetsova, L I

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the requirements of Federal Law N 190 "About radioactive waste management and incorporation of changes into some legislative acts of the Russian Federation", as well as normative-legislative documents actual and planned to be published related to provision of radiation protection of the workers and the public have been done. Problems of safety regulation raised due to different approaches of Rospotrebnadzor, FMBA of Russia, Rostekhnadzor and Minprirody with respect to classification and categorization of the radioactive wastes, disposal, exemption from regulatory control, etc. have been discussed in the paper. Proposals regarding improvement of the system of safety regulation under radioactive waste management and of cooperation of various regulatory bodies have been formulated.

  18. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  19. Legislative developments in radioactive materials transportation, November 1992--March 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.B.; Cummins, J.

    1993-04-01

    This is the sixth report prepared by the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL) on developments in radioactive materials transportation. It updates information contained in the November 1992 Legislative and Legal Developments in Radioactive Materials Transportation report and describes activities for the period November 1, 1992--March 31, 1993. NCSL is working to bring on-line a data base that contains abstracts of state laws and regulations relating to the transportation of radioactive materials. The data base will be operated by NCSL under a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Limited availability of on-line capability is anticipated by the end of July 1993. Users approved by DOE and NCSL will have access to the data base. Hard copy of any legislation listed in this report can be obtained by contacting the people listed below. This report contains summaries of legislation introduced in the 1993 state legislative sessions. Bills that address nuclear materials transportation and the broader area of hazardous materials transportation are grouped by state according to their status--enacted, pending or failed. In addition, bills that deal with emergency preparedness and general nuclear waste issues are described. Also included are Federal Register notices pertinent to radioactive waste and hazardous materials transportation. A recent court decision is also summarized

  20. Legislative background of food and nutrition policy in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Andreeva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of effective policy aimed at improving nutrition practices is highly recognized by the global community. METHODS: Analysis of Ukrainian legislative documents was conducted to clarify the situation in the field of policy initiatives and legislation devoted to nutrition in Ukraine. Documents in force adopted from 1991 to 2011 including key words “nutrition”, “health”, “concept”, and “food products” were reviewed.RESULTS: We reviewed 55 legislative acts related to nutrition and identified several groups: 18 documents are related to organization of supply, regimen, norms of nutrition in state establishments or for special populations; 12 documents related to economic and technological regulation of food preparation, quality control and distribution; 3 documents regulating nutritious and safety norms of food products for children under 3 years; 14 documents aimed to control food safety, quality and accessibility; 6 other documents partly referred to nutrition, including 4 Concepts of healthy lifestyles. Some of the principles of healthy eating are declared in the “Concept of improving food security and quality of nutrition of the population” approved by the Cabinet of Ministers in 2004. Principles of maintaining breastfeeding, activities aimed to reduce iodine deficiency among population as well as school educational program “Foundations of health” were those few governmental activities, which supported some of the ideas declared in the Concept. CONCLUSION: Great attention of policymakers is paid to regulation of production, distribution of food, its quality control, affordability of products for special population groups, especially children. Not much attention is devoted in the official documents to creating and maintaining the healthy eating practices of the population. Mechanisms aimed to form healthy eating practices are not specified in the legislative documents. No regulatory documents to

  1. Model Legislation for GAAP and GASB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissell, George E.

    1987-01-01

    The use of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) by all state and local governments may require legislation. Findings from a survey of states to get data on current accounting and financial reporting practices are summarized. Model legislation to provide uniformity in accounting and reporting is presented. (MLF)

  2. Military legislation: explaining military officers' writing deficiencies

    OpenAIRE

    Borysov, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In performing jobs related to national security and defense, personnel must comply with rules and decisions communicated in the form of written legislation, which includes directives, memos, instructions, manuals, standard operating procedures, and reports. Incorrect understanding of legislative provisions may lead to disastrous consequences, making clear communication through these documents paramount. The vast majority of military of...

  3. Standardization and workers' protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliesch, G.

    1979-01-01

    There are distinct laws guaranteeing the protection of workers in the social and medical field, but the protection of workers in the technical field is based on a simple, general clause relating to technical standards, i.e. to a confusing variety of regulations. The author therefore asks for DIN standards to be set up in order to achieve a consistent and uniform set of rules and regulations. He furthermore points out that it is up to the government to initiate appropriate procedures within the framework of constitutional law towards solving the essential problem, namely that of directly incorporating technical expert knowledge in legal provisions. (HSCH) [de

  4. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  5. Sharpened legislation on market abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsson, Christian; Andersen, Per Conradi

    2005-01-01

    The article deals with Norway's relationship with the EU directive on market abuse, the dir 2003/6/EC, which instructs the member countries to implement common rules against insider trading and market manipulation in markets for financial instruments. This is very important for the electric power market since regulation of trade with power derivatives will be much more comprehensive than before

  6. Queensland's proposed surrogacy legislation: an opportunity for national reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tammy

    2010-02-01

    Surrogacy has existed since Biblical times when Hagar, the maidservant of the infertile Sarah, acted as a surrogate to bear Sarah and her husband, Abraham, a son. Despite the longevity of the practice of surrogacy, modern society has been reluctant to embrace surrogacy arrangements due to the ethical and sometimes practical debates they spark. This reluctance is evidenced by the general lack of legislative support for surrogacy arrangements in Australia and worldwide. In 2009 it was announced that Queensland will decriminalise altruistic surrogacy. While this decision is a step towards bringing Queensland in line with other Australian jurisdictions, it also has the potential to open up a Pandora's Box of legal and ethical issues. This article provides a snapshot of the anticipated new Queensland surrogacy legislation together with a brief overview of the regulation of surrogacy in all Australian jurisdictions. Recommendations are made as to whether there is a need for further reform of surrogacy regulation in certain Australian jurisdictions and if so, whether the proposed Queensland legislation constitutes an appropriate model on which to base such reform.

  7. EU legislations affecting safety data availability of cosmetic ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.

  8. Impact of hazardous waste handling legislation on nuclear installations and radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosten, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The United States has enacted complex legislation to help assure proper handling of hazardous waste and the availability of funds to cover the expenditures. There are a number of uncertainties concerning the impact of this legislation, and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency and the states, upon nuclear installations and radioactive waste management. This report provides an overview of the U.S. hazardous waste legislation and examines the outlook for its application to the nuclear industry (NEA) [fr

  9. Towards Uniformity of Radiation Protection Legislation in a Multi-jurisdictional country- the Australian Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    Australia is a federation of nine jurisdictions, each with independent radiation protection legislation. The existing legislative non-uniformity across the jurisdictions has constituted an impediment for operators who must comply with differing legislative requirements in different jurisdictions. To address this issue, a National Competition Policy Review of Radiation Protection Legislation took place in 2000/2001. It has produced 19 Recommendations, which addressed objectives of the legislation, the need to regulate, alternative regulatory approaches, national uniformity, licensing and registration, strict and prescriptive standards, advertising and promotional activities, compliance costs and cost recovery issues. The Review has recommended that jurisdictions should retain the regulatory approach to achieve radiation protection objectives rather than leave them to be decided by market forces. But the approach should be performance-based, i.e. outcome-focused rather than prescriptive. An Implementation Plan of the Recommendations has been created which, by the end of 2004, will produce the National Directory for Radiation Protection. The Directory, which will become a consolidated repository of radiation protection standards, guidelines, codes of practice and administrative principles will provide a uniform national framework for radiation protection legislation in Australia. It will provide guidance for the jurisdictions redrawing their legislations. Because of its central role in shaping future legislation, the Directory will contain only those provisions, which have passed a formal process (process for issue resolution) concluded by an approval by the Australian Health Ministers Conference. Such process will also expedite the uniform adoption nationwide of legislative trends emerging from international radiation protection recommendations and standards. This Australian model might be a viable example for other multi-jurisdictional countries to consider

  10. Seminar on present and future Spanish Legislation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Proceedings of the Seminar contain the papers presented and the conclusions of each Session. The topics cover Spanish nuclear legislation including the licensing of nuclear power plants and control, analysed in the context of legislation in other fields and the new requirements since Spain joined the European Communities. Other papers deal with the origin and evolution of Spanish nuclear law, the competent international organizations and the nuclear third party liability regime set in place by the international conventions in that field. Also discussed are the national regulations on radioactive waste management and the competent authorities. Finally, a revision of the Spanish Nuclear Energy Act is considered necessary in the light of developments since its inception [fr

  11. Legislative aspects of the development of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marešová, Petra; Klímová, Blanka; Krejcar, Ondřej; Kuča, Kamil

    2015-09-01

    European industry of medical device technologies represents 30% of all worlds sales. New health technologies bring effective treatment approaches, help shorten stays in hospital1),bring better treatment results and accelerate rehabilitation which leads to the earlier patients recovery.Legislative aspects are one of the key areas influencing the speed of development of medical devices and their launching. The aim of this article is to specify current state of legislation in the development of medical devices in the European Union in comparison with the market leaders such as China, Japan and USA.The best established market of medical devices is in the USA. Both Japan and China follow the USA model. However, a non-professional code of ethics in China in some respect contributes to the decrease of quality of medical devices, while Japan as well as the EU countries try really hard to conform to all the regulations imposed on the manufacturing of medical devices.

  12. European legislation on radioactive waste management - opportunities and areas of uncertainty in case of shared competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, O.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish the regularities characterizing the European legislative framework for the radioactive waste management, the basic principles, legislative mechanism and relevant alternative methods of co-regulation and self-regulation, as well as characterization of areas of uncertainty in the radioactive waste management in case of shared competence and capabilities to improve the system involved in management of dangerous to health and the environment wastes from nuclear applications. Subject of study is the EU legislative framework on the management of radioactive waste, in particular the possibilities of existing mechanisms to achieve balance in the distribution of powers between the Community and national legislation regarding the responsibilities related to the radioactive waste management

  13. Legislation for higher education disabled students in Brazil and Portugal: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ricardo Lins Vieira de Melo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make a critical analysis of legislation regulating the inclusion of disabled students in higher education in Brazil and Portugal. Based on a documentary study, conducted between September and November 2015, the legal standards in recent decades have been analyzed. The results point out different stages of construction of the inclusion policy in the researched countries. It is emphasized that there is a significant variety of norms in the Brazilian context to ensure that these students have equal opportunities, and a scarcity of regulations in Portugal. The legislation has been referred to as an important factor for the development of inclusive education; however it is noteworthy that the existence of legislation does not necessarily imply it is actually complied. Besides legislation, removing barriers for the full participation and learning of disabled students involves awareness, investment in resources, public policy makers and managers’ scientific knowledge to ensure a quality education throughout life for all people.

  14. Changes in European legislation make it timely to introduce a transparent market surveillance system for cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodén, Marie; Ungerth, Louise; Serup, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Marketing of cosmetics often makes strong claims linked to active ingredients. This is especially so for anti-ageing products, where the presentation and content of "active" ingredients may create new difficulties in their classification as cosmetics or medicinal products. A recent change in European legislation classifies a product as medicinal by virtue of its "function", in addition to the previous definition of "presentation" (i.e. marketing linked to diseases). Thus, formulations that also restore, correct or modify physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action should henceforth be covered by the Medicinal Products Directive. A cosmetic product must be suitable for its purpose and should not lead to adverse reactions that are disproportional in relation to its intended effect. However, the forthcoming ban on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients and the new European regulation, REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals), which aims to ensure a high level of chemical safety to protect human health and the environment, will probably have limited impact on the safety assessment of cosmetics. In order to enable consumers to make informed purchasing decisions, greater transparency in the process of assessing the performance of cosmetics is needed. Introduction of a more transparent system, enabling consumers and professionals to examine the scientific evidence for the claimed effect and the safety assessment of cosmetics, is therefore timely. Lack of transparency increases the risk of consumers wasting money on cosmetics that do not deliver the desired effects. This may jeopardize public trust in the cosmetic industry.

  15. Tradition and change in power industry legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, J.F.; Boerner, B.; Friauf, K.H.; Salzwedel, J.; Selmer, P.

    1986-01-01

    On September 24-25, 1985 the 15th conference of the Institute for Energy Law took place in Cologne. This book contains five of the lectures held at the conference. They deal with the following subjects: Constitutional restrictions of autonomous energy policy of the Land governments; compulsory connection to and use of district heating; is there any necessity for amending the anti-trust law for reasons of energy policy; environmental law - planning law - gaps in the legislation concerning the energy sector; Energy Industry Law - are there legislative deficiencies, or is it an adequate, correct legislative instrument. (HSCH) [de

  16. The legislation of nuclear disposal. Text booklet with an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeddinck, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The book on the legislation of nuclear waste disposal covers the following issues: Part A: Introduction in the site selection law. Part B: Set of regulations: Constitutional law of the Federal Republic of Germany (extract), Guideline 2011/70 EURATOM on the responsible and safe disposal of spent fuel elements, common agreement on the safety of spent fuel treatment and on the safety of radioactive waste conditioning, law on search and selection of final repository site for heat generating radioactive wastes (site selection law), law on the civil use of nuclear energy and the protection against its hazards (Atomic Law AtG), federal mining act (BBergG), law on environmental impact assessment (UVPG), Law on supplementary regulations and legal remedies in environmental matters according EU guideline 2003/35EG, law on the construction of a Federal authority for nuclear disposal (BfkEEG), regulation on the protection against ionizing radiation hazards (Strahlenschutzverordnung), regulation on the transport of radioactive wastes or spent fuel elements. Regulation on the commissioning processes of facilities according paragraph 7 Atomic law, regulation on the definition of a development freeze for site protection for a final disposal, regulation on the warranty of nuclear safety and radiation protection, implementing rule for the nuclear safety warranty, regulation on the advance financing for the construction of Federal facilities for safeguarding and final disposal of radioactive wastes. Cost regulation for the Atomic Law.

  17. A survey on new nuclear legislative documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiripus, Vlad

    2005-01-01

    The paper is an overview of 21 legislative documents concerning the nuclear field in Romania published in the 'Official Gazette' of Romania (Monitorul Oficial al Romaniei) between February 2, 2005 and September 12, 2005. A list of these documents is as follows: 1. Standards concerning the requirements of the quality management systems for product manufacturing and services for nuclear facilities; 2. The Agreement of July 19, 2004 between Romanian Nuclear Agency, AN, the Romanian National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control, CNCAN, and US Department of Energy, DOE, referring to cooperation in the combat against nuclear weapon and technologies proliferation; 3. Governmental Ordinance on continuation of the Cernavoda NPP Unit 2 construction in the frame of the 5x700 MW Cernavoda NPP Project. Within the Ordinance provisions are given concerning the exportation of heavy water produced by Heavy Water Plant of Romanian Authority for Nuclear Activities; 4. Environmental License for Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti; 5. Ministry of Economy and Trade Order concerning the reports of data on environmental protection by industrial agents implied in nuclear power production and nuclear fuel fabrication; 6. Governmental Decision (Gov. D.) on criteria for ensuring individual protection of Romanian citizens working in units presenting nuclear, radiologic, chemical or biological risk; 7. Law referring to the Agreement with EURATOM on information exchange in radiological emergency (EUCURIE) and tasks of National Center for Coordination of Interventions in case nuclear accident or radiological emergency; 8. Ministerial Order referring to Generic procedures concerning the data acquisition, validation and actions in case of radiological emergency; 9. Methodological norms on planning, preparation and interventions in case of nuclear accident or radiologic emergency; 10; A CNCAN Order referring to Norms for classification of radioactive wastes in Romania; 11. General provisions

  18. Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs

  19. 22 CFR 9.6 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Derivative classification. 9.6 Section 9.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.6 Derivative classification. (a) Definition. Derivative classification is the incorporating, paraphrasing, restating or...

  20. 14 CFR 298.3 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification. 298.3 Section 298.3... REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS General § 298.3 Classification. (a) There is hereby established a classification of air carriers, designated as “air taxi operators,” which...

  1. 32 CFR 1602.7 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification. 1602.7 Section 1602.7 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.7 Classification. Classification is the exercise of the power to determine claims or questions with respect to...

  2. 32 CFR 1602.13 - Judgmental Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Judgmental Classification. 1602.13 Section 1602.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.13 Judgmental Classification. A classification action relating to a registrant's claim for...

  3. 22 CFR 9.4 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 9.4 Section 9.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.4 Original classification. (a) Definition. Original classification is the initial determination that certain information...

  4. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original classification. 2500.3 Section... SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information. ...

  5. Speciation and legislation - Where are we today and what do we need for tomorrow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, T.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt

    1999-01-01

    In international legislation concerning trace elements in food, in the environment or in occupational health most regulations are based on the total element contents, and are frequently given as maximum limits or guideline levels. In contrast, only few regulations pay attention to the molecular s...

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  7. The Emerging Legislative Role in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Changes in the capacity, internal distribution of power, habits of work, and composition of state legislators have increased their involvement and assertiveness in educational policy formation, oversight, and control. (Author/MLF)

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  10. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  11. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  13. Page | 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    NAUJILJ 9 (2) 2018. Page | 133 ... Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. ... Representatives is led by a Speaker.6 The election of the leadership of the senate is entirely the affair of.

  14. SRP scientific meeting: recent legislation - achievements and future challenges, London, 9 October 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallani, Barbara

    2001-12-01

    . Patrick Nelis (Baker Hughes Inc.) talked about what has been done towards achieving compliance with IRR99 in the non-nuclear industry. Patrick summarised the approach taken to radiation protection by his multi-national oil services company and discussed the difficulties in developing consistently a radiation protection programme in many different countries when national legislation is prescriptive. He concluded his talk by stressing the need for more consistency in enforcement across sectors, especially when there is a lack of sector-specific guidance. Rick Hallard (BNFL Sellafield) talked about the implementation of IRR99 in the nuclear industry from an operator's point of view. Rick mentioned some of the changes in IRR99 that have had a significant effect on radiological protection at Sellafield, amongst those the appointment and role of RPAs, the importance of prior risk assessment, the development of detailed contingency plans, the increased focus on local rules and the current review of historic controlled areas. IRR99 is generally perceived as a natural evolution from IRR85 and previous regulations. James Taylor (HSE) gave an inspector's view of the implementation of IRR99 based on inspection and enforcement activity over the past 18 months. James identified the improvements in radiological protection practices and the increased profile of radiation protection before presenting some of the failures encountered in his work. Failure to follow the guidance on prior risk assessment, lack of adequate training, misuse of the term radiation protection supervisor, inadequate designation of areas and under- or over-classification of workers were the most common. Suggestions for improvements were addressed at the end of the talk. A discussion followed the talks and the delegates had the opportunity to ask questions and/or comment on issues related to the implementation of IRR99. Cathy Griffiths (Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield) chaired the first afternoon

  15. Changing social policy: Grassroots to legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemiska, Liz; McCann, Eileen M; Mancuso, Margaret

    2002-05-01

    Health care in the United States has evolved into a multimillion dollar business. As the health care industry has grown, so too has government regulation and involvement. As both insurers and patients vie to get the most for their health care dollars, federal and state governments attempt to mediate, prevent fraud and abuse, and protect all parties involved. Consumers feel the effects of this "tug of war" in the form of higher copayments, premiums, and out-of-pocket costs, as well as denial of coverage. This denial of coverage sparked a very successful grassroots effort to stop commercial insurers in the state of Connecticut from defining ostomy supplies as cosmetic and thus denying reimbursement. A tremendous amount of collaboration between Connecticut WOC nurses, state legislators, local American Cancer Society advocates, United Ostomy Association chapter members, and health care providers resulted in a powerful mobilization and support for House Bill No. 5120. This bill went beyond defining ostomy supplies as medically necessary but also set a minimum rate for reimbursement. Social policy changed, improving the lives of Connecticut citizens with an ostomy. Although many people fear they do not have the power to make necessary changes in government, this experience proved otherwise. The collaboration that occurred was patient advocacy at its best. This article describes the process that allowed this successful collaboration to take place with the hope that others will be inspired to get involved with patient advocacy through political involvement. It is the intention of this work to capture the essence of dedication of a grassroots campaign involving a small group of well-organized, highly focused participants who were responsible for changing public health care policy in the state of Connecticut.

  16. The economic impact of merger control legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Onega, Steven

    2007-01-01

    We construct a unique dataset of legislative reforms in merger control legislation that occurred in nineteen industrial countries in the period 1987-2004, and investigate the economic impact of these changes on stock prices. In line with the hypothesis that merger control should challenge anticompetitive mergers and thus limit future monopolistic profits, we find that the strengthening of merger control decreases the stock prices of non-financial firms. In contrast, we find that bank stock pr...

  17. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  18. Fungi in the legislation of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančević Boris N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and protection of fungi have lately been considered as extremely important elements of the environmental conservation, and numerous environmental, scientific, medical, economic, cultural, ethical, and other reasons for such attitude exist today. This paper presents an overview of official regulations on the protection of fungi in the Republic of Serbia from the Act of Protection of 1991 until today. The paper lists and analyses the good and bad provisions of individual legal regulations. It registers the effects of the adopted regulations on the actual efficiency of protection of endangered species of fungi (macrofungi, mushrooms, and considers the impact of chronological development of legislation on the population of fungi in nature, and presents general measures to improve protection of mushrooms in the future. These measures primarily include reliable information and study of fungi as a basis for their effective protection based on scientific knowledge. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-179079

  19. The Brazilian market of herbal medicinal products and the impacts of the new legislation on traditional medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Cecília Bezerra; Lana, Túlio Nader; Perfeito, João Paulo Silvério; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2018-02-15

    the herbal medicinal products (HMP) market is expanding in the world, an expansion that has not occurred in Brazil when considering the number of licensed products. Despite being a megadiverse country, the number of HMP licensed in Brazil is small, and the number of HMP obtained from native species is even smaller. A new legislation for herbal products licensing, which divides the products into two categories, Herbal Medicine (HM) and Traditional Herbal Product (THP) was launched in Brazil focusing on traditional use, as well as a law regulating the use of biodiversity and traditional knowledge. to evaluate the situation of HMP licensed in Brazil and to make a comparison with the data obtained in 2008 and 2011, discussing the evolution of the licensed products and the possible impacts of the new legislation. a survey was carried out in the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (Anvisa) database to verify the HMP licensed in Brazil in September 2016. The data obtained were compared with two surveys previously published. There are 332 single, and 27 combined HM, totaling 359 HM licensed in Brazil. There is no THP notified in Anvisa's system yet. There are 214 HM classified as nonprescription (OTC), while 145 are sold under prescription, one of them with prescription retention. There are 101 plant species licensed as active in HM in Brazil, 39 of which are native, adapted or cultivated. The most licensed plant species is Mikania glomerata Spreng., with 25 HM licensed. The article includes tables with plant species that have derivatives licensed as simple and combined HM, their therapeutic classification, the native plant species indication and the distribution of the companies by Brazilian regions. There are few licensed HM in Brazil, and this number has been decreasing in recent years. It is expected that the data obtained, together with the changes promoted in sanitary and environmental rules, will help to develop and regulate HMP chain in Brazil. Copyright © 2017

  20. Preventing non-communicable disease in Oman, a legislative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahlani, Sabah; Mabry, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable disease (NCD) is a major global concern and is projected to increase by 15% over the next 10 years. NCD is the leading cause of mortality in Oman and other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Some of the most successful interventions to address NCD include legislations like banning smoking in public places. A desk review of available policies and legislations related to the behavioural risk factors of NCD from the GCC and from Oman was conducted with a focus on policies and legislations related to food, physical activity and tobacco. The review identified numerous documents; most were policies and resolutions related to tobacco control. Although only a few documents were laws, a majority were issued by non-health sectors. This policy review is the first effort in the GCC to consolidate information on the regulatory framework for the three key risk behaviours in the region, tobacco use, unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. Further work is needed to strengthen the regulatory framework, at both the national and regional levels, to strengthen tobacco control as well as to improve dietary patterns and physical activity levels. Given that a bulk of laws, regulations and policies are beyond the scope of the health sector, significant advocacy efforts are required to generate a multisectoral response. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Harmonization of Legislation against Organized Crime in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Edwin Martínez Ventura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of organized crime in Central America, the countries in this continental sub-region have enacted a great deal of internal legislation, and have ratified international treaties at the universal, regional and Central American level, particularly after the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime took effect in 2000.This abundance of laws is very positive, and is an expression of these Central American States’ intent to fulfill their supranational obligations and provide security for their inhabitants. However, it is also negative in that it has led to dispersion, dislocation, discrepancies and inaccuracies regarding the prevailing legal regulations, because national laws have been developed with different concepts, structures, approaches, scope and definitions.Despite these conditions that are adverse to legal harmonization, Central America can move forward with matching its legislation against organized crime. Actually, there already exists an extensive common legal framework in this area, expressed in the fact that most international treaties on Organized Crime have come into force at the universal, regional and subregional levels, ratified by all or most countriesPolitical will is the common denominator that should mediate all efforts of harmonization and alignment of legislation in Central America; it is essential for proposing steps that are based on a common strategy or program.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5377/rpsp.v1i2.1359

  2. Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballereau, P.

    1999-01-01

    The different regulations relative to nuclear energy since the first of January 1999 are given here. Two points deserve to be noticed: the decree of the third august 1999 authorizing the national Agency for the radioactive waste management to install and exploit on the commune of Bures (Meuse) an underground laboratory destined to study the deep geological formations where could be stored the radioactive waste. The second point is about the uranium residues and the waste notion. The judgment of the administrative tribunal of Limoges ( 9. july 1998) forbidding the exploitation of a storage installation of depleted uranium considered as final waste and qualifying it as an industrial waste storage facility has been annulled bu the Court of Appeal. It stipulated that, according to the law number 75663 of the 15. july 1965, no criteria below can be applied to depleted uranium: production residue (possibility of an ulterior enrichment), abandonment of a personal property or simple intention to do it ( future use aimed in the authorization request made in the Prefecture). This judgment has devoted the primacy of the waste notion on this one of final waste. (N.C.)

  3. Documentation of Accounting Records in Light of Legislative Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. BEZVERKHIY

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislative reforms in accounting aim to simplify accounting records and compilation of financial reports by business entities, thus increasing the position of Ukraine in the global ranking of Doing Business. This simplification is implied in the changes in the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records, entered into force to the Resolution of the Ukrainian Ministry of Finance. The objective of the study is to analyze the legislative innovations involved. The review of changes in documentation of accounting records is made. A comparative analysis of changes in the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records is made by sections: 1 General; 2 Primary documents; 3 Accounting records; 4 Correction of errors in primary documents and accounting records; 5 Organization of document circulation; 6 Storage of documents. Methods of analysis and synthesis are used for separating the differences in the editions of the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records. The result of the study has theoretical and practical value for the domestic business enterprise sector.

  4. California Attorney General opines: California's nuclear legislation unconstitutional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabin, V.

    1979-01-01

    The California Attorney General found three sections of the state's nuclear regulation code to be in violation of Federal authority and the State Constitution. Legislation and court cases since 1946 are quoted to support the Attorney General's position. The Warren--Alquist Act, which requires a demonstrated technology for reprocessing fuel rods or disposing of high-level wastes before a nuclear plant can be licensed, is unconstitutional because it usurps Federal control and allows the state to permanently block nuclear facility construction and certification. States' rights in the area of radiological health and safety are supplanted by the Federal government

  5. [Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczyńiska, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. 'Iherefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments.

  6. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  7. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  8. RUSSIAN FAMILY LAW LEGISLATION: REVOLUTION, COUNTER-REVOLUTION, EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADEZHDA TARUSINA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the political and legal aspects of the first decrees of the Soviet government  from 1917 and the codified acts on marriage and family from 1918 and 1926 as large and small  “revolutions” in Russian and Soviet family law. These acts put Russia forward into progressive  positions in comparison with comparable European and American law of that time. The article  analyzes the repressive, “counterrevolutionary” decisions of 1930s and 1940s that pushed family  law, particularly in the sphere of marriage and the legal status of children born out of wedlock,  back to pre-revolutionary imperial standards. It also reviews the normative legal acts on marriage  and the family dating from the “Khrushchev thaw” period. The article identifies the contradictory  and conflicting approaches of legal scholars and legislators to the methodology of legal regulation  of family relations in different periods of political and social history, as well as in our times. The  quality of Russia’s current family legislation, which mainly evolved during the political, economic  and social reforms of the late 20th century, is also assessed. The article traces the influence of  Soviet family law on the content of similar legislation elsewhere in Eastern Europe and the  countries of the former Soviet Union, where there are various levels of legal sovereignty. Their independent legal positions, which are worth comparing with Russia’s family-law doctrine and  legislation, are revealed. The article investigates and evaluates both successful and partially  unsuccessful attempts of modern Russian legislators to adapt the current Family Code and other federal laws regulating family relations to new challenges in the sphere of marriage and family. It speculates on three tendencies of family law doctrine: a certain adherence to the revolutionary ideas of 1917, an orientation toward a return to traditional family

  9. Risks and risk assessment according to British legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieweg, K.

    1980-01-01

    The most important rules of the large number of legal regulations and other norms relating to risk control of technical installations discussed as far as their approach is quantitative: the regulations of the Health and Safety at Work Act of 1974, of the Factories Act of 1961, the Hazardous Installations (Notification and Survey) Regulation, the Canvey-Island Study, regulations referring to Atomic Energy Law and the administrative practice, legal regulations in the field of navigation, regulations concerning planning legislation including the Windscale-Study. In Great Britain, the power of decision in the field of technical safety has been clearly assigned to the administrative authorities. The legislature refrained from going into details in the stipulation of legal regulations, judicial control has not been provided for, or has only little relevance in practice. The prevailing goal is to reach decisions by consensus, taking every effort to solve conflicts of interest by mutual agreements. Methods and criteria in risk assessment have been modified according to technological knowledge and developments. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Physical activity opportunities in Canadian childcare facilities: a provincial/territorial review of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia; Ismail, Ali; van Zandvroort, Melissa M

    2012-05-01

    Preschoolers spend a substantial portion of their day in childcare; therefore, these centers are an ideal venue to encourage healthy active behaviors. It is important that provinces'/territories' childcare legislation encourage physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to review Canadian provincial/territorial childcare legislation regarding PA participation. Specifically, this review sought to 1) appraise each provincial/territorial childcare regulation for PA requirements, 2) compare such regulations with the NASPE PA guidelines, and 3) appraise these regulations regarding PA infrastructure. A review of all provincial/territorial childcare legislation was performed. Each document was reviewed separately by 2 researchers, and the PA regulations were coded and summarized. The specific provincial/territorial PA requirements (eg, type/frequency of activity) were compared with the NASPE guidelines. PA legislation for Canadian childcare facilities varies greatly. Eight of the thirteen provinces/territories provide PA recommendations; however, none provided specific time requirements for daily PA. All provinces/territories did require access to an outdoor play space. All Canadian provinces/territories lack specific PA guidelines for childcare facilities. The development, implementation, and enforcement of national PA legislation for childcare facilities may aid in tackling the childhood obesity epidemic and assist childcare staff in supporting and encouraging PA participation.

  11. 7 CFR 28.910 - Classification of samples and issuance of classification data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Classification...

  12. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  13. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  15. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  16. Tissue Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Leemput, Koen; Puonti, Oula

    2015-01-01

    Computational methods for automatically segmenting magnetic resonance images of the brain have seen tremendous advances in recent years. So-called tissue classification techniques, aimed at extracting the three main brain tissue classes (white matter, gray matter, and cerebrospinal fluid), are now...... well established. In their simplest form, these methods classify voxels independently based on their intensity alone, although much more sophisticated models are typically used in practice. This article aims to give an overview of often-used computational techniques for brain tissue classification...

  17. Legislative framework on establishing emergency response plan in the case of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, N.; Valcic, I.; Biscan, R.

    2000-01-01

    To give an overview of the legislative framework, which defined emergency planning in Croatia in the case of a nuclear accident, it's necessary to look at all international recommendations and obligations and the national legislation, acts and regulations. It has to be emphasized that Croatia signed three international conventions in this field, and by that took over some responsibilities and obligations. Beside that, it is also in Croatian interest to follow the recommendations of international institutions such as International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA standards and technical documents). On the other hand, national legislation in this field consists of several laws, which cover nuclear safety measures, governmental organization, natural disasters and acts (decree, decisions) of responsible authority for emergency planning in the case of a nuclear accident (Ministry of Economy). This paper presents an overview of the international and Croatian legislation which influenced the emergency planning in the case of a nuclear accident. (author)

  18. The South African legislative environment, in critical need of scientific evidence based alignment for airborne control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fleming, EJ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available , in both South Africa and internationally.  The existing legislation will be assembled to determine those regulations that affect the built environment specifically in relation to airborne infection control measures  researching literature nationally... maintained often leads to systems, such as air conditioning, failing. Regulations do not accommodate this reality and air quality becomes compromised as soon as the system fails due often to the design regulations being implemented that only address air...

  19. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... representation of this issue because a selection of food grade insect species may be available on the European market in the coming years. However, European legislation does not explicitly address edible insects. Consequently, this has left a grey area, allowing different interpretations of the legislation among....... Particular attention will be paid to the evolution of legislation and to the experiences of both EU and non-EU countries. In recent years, a number of different stakeholders have supported the legalization of edible insect consumption in Europe, but market permission is just the first step towards a new...

  20. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  1. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  2. Nuclear legislation in central and eastern europe and the NIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This study presents the current state of legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in the central and eastern European countries (CEEC) and the New Independent States (NIS). It also contains information on the national bodies responsible for the regulation and control of nuclear energy. The nuclear energy sector has not escaped from the changes that have affected the political, economic and social climates over the past fifteen years. Under the former socialist regime, activities in this field came within the sole remit of the State administration. In the legal area, it had not been deemed necessary in most of these countries to enact laws guaranteeing democratic control of electronuclear programmes and establishing a clear distinction between activities promoting this source of energy and regulatory control, while ensuring that safety imperatives take priority over all other considerations. With the arrival of new political forces came the will to remedy this situation promptly by creating new regulatory structures and drafting legislative texts based on those used in western countries. This evolution was all the more necessary given that, at the same time, the new policy of accountability had revealed safety defects in numerous nuclear installations in these countries, thus rendering international assistance indispensable. From the legal point of view, the outcome of these years of effort is remarkably positive: almost all countries of Eastern Europe pursuing electronuclear programmes have established institutions capable of exercising efficient control over nuclear power plants and other installations. Accession to the international conventions which form the backbone of nuclear law has become widespread. Modern legislation is henceforth in place in almost all of these states. (author)

  3. Changes in waste legislation – What can be expected

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available • Draft Waste Classification and Management Regulations • Draft Standards for Assessment of Waste for Landfill Disposal • Draft National Standard for Disposal of Waste to Landfill • Conclusions © CSIR 2013 www.csir.co.zaSlide 2... with the different waste streams on behalf of DEA • Repeal section 78 dealing with appeals which are dealt with under NEMA • Insertion of transitional arrangements for review of landfill permits issued under ECA © CSIR 2013 www...

  4. 7 CFR 30.31 - Classification of leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification of leaf tobacco. 30.31 Section 30.31... REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.31 Classification of leaf tobacco. For the purpose of this classification leaf tobacco shall...

  5. Impact of the legislation on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Douglas Lee points out that the question of nuclear waste will not go away. Nuclear waste is with us and consumers should support legislation to deal with the problem once and for all. The spent fuel is growing, and twenty-nine nuclear plants will face onsite storage problems in this decade. If these plants shut down, consumers will face higher electric generating costs if a switch to a more expensive fuel is necssary, or if the utilities are forced to purchase power of the grid. The cost of waste disposal under this proposed legislation will amount to about 75 cents per month for those electric customers serviced by nuclear plants

  6. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  7. Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation. Collections. 35. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, Eberhard

    2018-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation covers the following issues: The German constitution, the atomic energy act, subordinate process regulations, radiation protection regulation, X-ray regulation, financial security regulation, cost regulations, safety delegate and reporting regulations, law on the installation of a Federal Office for nuclear disposal security, site selection law, final repository advance financing, radioactive waste transport regulation, disposal fund law, regulation on the payment receipt according to the disposal fund law, transitional disposal law, transparency law, run-off liability law, law on the installation of the Federal office for radiation protection, radiation protection law, food irradiation law, regulation on drug treatment with radioactivity or ionizing radiation, Paris agreement on nuclear liabilities and additional agreement, joint protocol on the application of the Vienna and Paris agreements, environmental compatibility assessment law, criminal code (partial), state competence regulations on the execution of regulations according the atomic energy act.

  8. Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation. Collections. 35. ed.; Atomgesetz mit Verordnungen. Textsammlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Eberhard (ed.)

    2018-03-01

    The Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation covers the following issues: The German constitution, the atomic energy act, subordinate process regulations, radiation protection regulation, X-ray regulation, financial security regulation, cost regulations, safety delegate and reporting regulations, law on the installation of a Federal Office for nuclear disposal security, site selection law, final repository advance financing, radioactive waste transport regulation, disposal fund law, regulation on the payment receipt according to the disposal fund law, transitional disposal law, transparency law, run-off liability law, law on the installation of the Federal office for radiation protection, radiation protection law, food irradiation law, regulation on drug treatment with radioactivity or ionizing radiation, Paris agreement on nuclear liabilities and additional agreement, joint protocol on the application of the Vienna and Paris agreements, environmental compatibility assessment law, criminal code (partial), state competence regulations on the execution of regulations according the atomic energy act.

  9. Points for Improvement in Mexican Legislation on Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel Sánchez, S.; Carreño Padilla, A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to underline the specific points needed still to be improved on safeguards in the Mexican legal framework. The problem: Mexico proposed the Tlatelolco Treaty which was before the TNP. So the Mexican legislation on safeguards should to be one of the best around the world, but there are still points to be improved, such as a specific regulation on the topic. Justification: Remembering that the exact sciences need of the law in order to be applied in a desirable way. I mean, the safeguards could be well conceived and well worked from the physics and mathematics point of view, but in order to be followed in any country, it is necessary the right legal framework. Hypothesis: What has Mexico now in its legislation on safeguards and what remains to be done (what is pending in the Mexican legal scope of the safeguards)? Objectives: – To propose legal solutions to correct the weakness of the Mexican legal framework on Safeguards; taking into account my own experience drafting the Mexican regulation on safeguards from 2008 for the Mexican Government in my nuclear law firm “Martínez and Maciel”. – To propose a legal framework on safeguards for Mexico as it is understood by the IAEA. – To update the legal frame work on safeguards in Mexico linking it to the Back end of the spent fuel. (Considering that sooner or later the Mexican Government will have to define its politic on this topic). (author)

  10. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  11. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact

  12. Impact of clean air legislation on the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    As the 1990s begin, the petroleum refining and marketing industry faces an unprecedented number of environmental issues that, combined, will bring major changes in the fundamentals of the business by the turn of the century. The following background on the history of environmentally driven change in the oil business provides a broad view of current environmental laws and regulations, while addressing timing and general impacts on the downstream segment. It will then focus on the Clean Air Act of 1990, providing information on the range of areas this comprehensive legislative initiative will regulate. Finally, the discussion narrows to the mobile source provisions of the act. It is through this section that the most foundational changes in our business will occur. In this paper the nature of those changes are discussed, and a short list of issues with potential for significant impact on a global basis are covered

  13. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  14. Philosophocal and legislation aspects of surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakariadze, A

    2011-06-01

    Among current bioethical issues one of the most dilemmatic is an issue of surrogacy. It causes great moral, ethical and legal debate. The article aims to show philosophical and legislation aspects of surrogacy. The meaning of "motherhood", "kinship", "liberty" in connection with surrogacy is analyzed. The article provides an overview of Georgian Orthodox Church on surrogate motherhood.

  15. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    in force in their original form for several years while others are revised soon after their enactment. What factors account for this variation? We empirically analyze the proposition that in the presence of ‘legislative drift,’ i.e. the intertemporal variation of decision-makers’ preferences, major...

  16. Colombian mining legislation; Legislacion minera colombiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-07-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001.

  17. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  18. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  19. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  20. The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article shall present a detailed and critical review of the legislative and institutional framework of environmental protection and pollution control in the oil and gas sector in Nigeria; it shall conclude with some recommendations for a better, more efficient and effective environmental protection and pollution control regime ...

  1. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  2. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  3. Legislating health care coverage for the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A; Feldman, G; Gallner, I; Tysor, M

    1985-01-01

    Because the unemployed and their families are often likely to develop stress-related health problems, ensuring them access to health care is a public health issue. Congressional efforts thus far to legislate health coverage for the unemployed have proposed a system that recognizes people's basic need for coverage but has several limitations.

  4. Legislation on university technology transfer and research management 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This book deals with legislation on university technology transfer in 2012, which includes invention promotion act, legislation on technology transfer and promotion of industrialization, legislation on industrial education and industrial cooperation, and special legislation on venture business. It lists the legislation related research and development by government department : fundamental law of scientific technique, law on evaluation and management of domestic research development business, national science and technology council and the patent office.

  5. Legislative and regulatory strategies to reduce childhood unintentional injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieber, R A; Gilchrist, J; Sleet, D A

    2000-01-01

    Laws and regulations are among the most effective mechanisms for getting large segments of the population to adopt safety behaviors. These have been applied at both the state and federal levels for diverse injury issues. Certain legal actions are taken to prevent the occurrence of an otherwise injury-producing event, while other legal actions are designed to prevent injury once an event has occurred. At the federal level, effective laws and regulations have been directed at dangers posed by unsafe manufactured products or motor vehicle design. At the state level, effective safety laws and regulations have been directed at encouraging safety behaviors and regulating the use of motor vehicles or other forms of transportation. In this article, six legislative efforts are described to point out pros and cons of the legislative approach to promoting safety. Three such efforts are aimed at preventing injury-producing events from occurring: mandating child-resistant packaging for prescription drugs and other hazardous substances, regulating tap water temperature by presetting a safe hot-water heater temperature at the factory, and graduated licensing. Three other examples illustrate the value and complexities of laws designed to prevent injuries once an injury-producing event does occur: mandatory bicycle helmet use, sleep-wear standards, and child safety seat use. This article concludes with specific recommendations, which include assessing the value of laws and regulations, preventing the rescission of laws and regulations known to work, refining existing laws to eliminate gaps in coverage, developing regulations to adapt to changing technology, exploring new legal means to encourage safe behavior, and increasing funding for basic and applied research and community programs. Further reductions in childhood injury rates will require that leaders working in the field of injury prevention together provide the creativity to devise new safety devices and programs, incentives

  6. Changes in Tax Legislation and Social Responsibility of Taxpayers and Legislative Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štager Vesna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the cost of tax compliance which arises for taxpayers from tax complexity and the constant changes in tax legislation. A socially responsible institution for the fiscal aggression is the Financial Administration of the Republic of Slovenia, as its powers and responsibilities creates the tax position of individuals, businesses and the entire economy. The aim of our research is to encourage socially responsible behaviour of legislation institutions in adopting the tax legislation, which will help to improve the social responsibility of taxpayers and increase tax compliance.

  7. The Effects of Motorcycle Helmet Legislation on Craniomaxillofacial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Nicholas S; Newbury, Patrick A; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Davis, Alan T; Mann, Robert J; Polley, John W; Girotto, John A

    2017-06-01

    Motorcycle helmet legislation has been a contentious topic for over a half-century. Benefits of helmet use in motorcycle trauma patients are well documented. In 2012, Michigan repealed its universal motorcycle helmet law in favor of a partial helmet law. The authors describe the early clinical effects on facial injuries throughout Michigan. Retrospective data from the Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program trauma database were evaluated. Included were 4643 motorcycle trauma patients presenting to 29 Level I and II trauma centers throughout Michigan 3 years before and after the law repeal (2009 to 2014). Demographics, external cause of injury codes, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnosis codes, and injury details were gathered. The proportion of unhelmeted trauma patients increased from 20 percent to 44 percent. Compared with helmeted trauma patients, unhelmeted patients were nearly twice as likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.90), including fractures (relative risk, 2.02) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.94). Unhelmeted patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale score and higher Injury Severity Scores. Patients presenting after helmet law repeal were more likely to sustain craniomaxillofacial injuries (relative risk, 1.46), including fractures (relative risk, 1.28) and soft-tissue injuries (relative risk, 1.56). No significant differences were observed for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, or Glasgow Coma Scale score (p > 0.05). This study highlights the significant negative impact of relaxed motorcycle helmet laws leading to an increase in craniomaxillofacial injuries. The authors urge state and national legislators to reestablish universal motorcycle helmet laws.

  8. Government capacities and stakeholders: what facilitates ehealth legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Newly established high-technology areas such as eHealth require regulations regarding the interoperability of health information infrastructures and data protection. It is argued that government capacities as well as the extent to which public and private organizations participate in policy-making determine the level of eHealth legislation. Both explanatory factors are influenced by international organizations that provide knowledge transfer and encourage private actor participation. Methods Data analysis is based on the Global Observatory for eHealth - ATLAS eHealth country profiles which summarizes eHealth policies in 114 countries. Data analysis was carried out using two-component hurdle models with a truncated Poisson model for positive counts and a hurdle component model with a binomial distribution for zero or greater counts. Results The analysis reveals that the participation of private organizations such as donors has negative effects on the level of eHealth legislation. The impact of public-private partnerships (PPPs) depends on the degree of government capacities already available and on democratic regimes. Democracies are more responsive to these new regulatory demands than autocracies. Democracies find it easier to transfer knowledge out of PPPs than autocracies. Government capacities increase the knowledge transfer effect of PPPs, thus leading to more eHealth legislation. Conclusions All international regimes – the WHO, the EU, and the OECD – promote PPPs in order to ensure the construction of a national eHealth infrastructure. This paper shows that the development of government capacities in the eHealth domain has to be given a higher priority than the establishment of PPPs, since the existence of some (initial) capacities is the sine qua non of further capacity building. PMID:24410989

  9. The paradoxes of application of the legislation on personal data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Bobrova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of legislation on personal data and it’s enforcement in the educational process in higher educational institutions.The purpose of the article is highlight controversies in legislation on personal data, generating mistakes in enforcement during the educational procedures.The description of methodology. The author uses methods of complex analysis, synthesis, as well as formal-logical and formal-legal methods.The main results and scope of their application. The practice of interpreting the concepts of “personal data”, “confidential personal data”, “official secret”, “publicly available personal data” is extremely contradictory.Currently, there are hundreds departmental regulatory legal acts about various aspects of the protection of official secrets. Analysis of these acts shows that the rules aimed at preserving the confidentiality of official information regulate the following aspects of the functioning of state and municipal bodies, institutions and organizations: (a ensuring access to official information; (b providing state and municipal services; (c document flow and record keeping; (d staffing; (e anti-corruption; (f use of information systems; (g interaction with the media; (h prevention of conflicts of interest.The study load cannot be attributed to the personal data, that requires the consent of the teacher to be processed. The study load is nothing more than publicly available information, arising from the principles of collegiality of educational process management, competitiveness of education, its openness and transparency, that are established in the legislation on education.Conclusions. Extended interpretation of confidential personal data and inclusion of the teaching load to it is unacceptable. This contributes to conflicts of interest, corrupt factors and devaluation of higher education.

  10. International medical law and its impact on the ukrainian health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Udovyka, Larysa; Dichko, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Ukrainian state has an urgent necessity of rapid search for essentially new legal and organizational forms of the healthcare system, reform of the legal regulation of healthcare services provision. In the context of European integration, the advancement of the medical industry reform is closely related to consideration of international standards and norms of health care. The aim: To study the impact of international medical law on the Ukrainian health care legislation. Materials and methods: International and Ukrainian regulations and documents on health care were used in the research. System and structural, functional and legal comparative methods as well as systematization, analysis and synthesis were determinative in the research process. Review: Systematization of international documents on health care was made. The major problems in the Ukrainian health care legislation were determined in terms of their conformity with the international legislative norms. The expediency of the Medical Code adoption was grounded and its structure was defined. Conclusions: Most health care international acts are ratified by Ukraine and their provisions are implemented in the legislation. Simultaneously, there is a row of problems, which hinder the Ukrainian health care development and place obstacles in the way of European integration. To remove these obstacles, it is expedient to create a codified act - the Medical Code, which would systematize the provisions of the current medical laws and regulations and fill in the existing gaps in the legal regulation of health care.

  11. What Legislators Need to Know about Long-Term Care Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, David

    This booklet discusses the potential importance to states of long-term care insurance, describes general policy characteristics, and summarizes state actions to both regulate and promote long-term care insurance. It is intended as a resource for legislators and others involved in long-term care financing and public policy formulation. Long-term…

  12. The role of cognitive reasoning and decision making and user testing in the enhancement of communication of legislative messages in a digital age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Nkunika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legislative drafting is an essential means devised for the facilitation of the implementation of government policies by governments in various jurisdictions. The drafting of legislation has to take into account the various users of the legislation and balance their various interests while maintaining the policy objectives for which the legislation is enacted.  The changing needs of the users of legislation have necessitated the revision of the manner in which regulatory messages are communicated to users more effectively.  The changing needs of users consequently require constant analysis in order to ensure that the legislation developed is increasingly capable of more effective implementation. Legislation has traditionally been viewed as a complex and technical myriad of words that are beyond the attainment of an ordinary user despite it being designed to regulate the very fabric of the user’s existence in a civilised society. Further, legislation has in some instances been criticised from being too detached from the aspiration of the people that it regulates. This challenge is further exacerbated by the fact that compliance with increasingly complex legislation is becoming more and more essential as society continues to evolve and be influenced by technology and other factors that require a revision of the traditional view and utility of legislation. The changing uses of legislation and the increasing diversity of its users has given rise to the increased need to test the usability of legislation in order to ensure that the regulatory messages that it presents are usable by the various audiences at which it is targeted, on a cognitive level, in order to ensure its universal application to the greatest extent possible. This discussion aims to examine the role of cognitive reasoning and decision making as well as user testing in the legislative drafting process and how this can be used to ensure more effective communication of regulatory

  13. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  14. Critical analysis of the Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas P, Elkin; Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document analyses the Colombian mining legislation, Act 685 of 2001, based on the reasons expressed by the government and the miners for its conceit and approval. The document tries to determine the developments achieved by this new Mining Code considering international mining competitiveness and its adaptation to the constitutional rules about environment, indigenous communities, decentralization and sustainable development. The analysis formulates general and specific hypothesis about the proposed objectives of the reform, which are confronted with the arguments and critical evaluations of the results. Most hypothesis are not verified, thus demonstrating that the Colombian mining legislation is far from being the necessary instrument to promote mining activities, making it competitive according to international standards and adapted to the principles of sustainable development, healthy environment, community participation, ethnic minorities and regional autonomy

  15. No let-up in transport legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutteridge, J M

    1978-02-01

    A discussion covers problems connected with the change from the current U.K. road transport legislation based on the 1968 U.K. Transport Act to the European Economic Community transport rules, which will go in effect Jan. 1 1978, with a three-year adjustment period, including the shortening of the drivers' working day from 10 to 8 hr with a four-hour limit of continuous driving, and 48 hr weekly and 92 hr fortnightly driving limits; the 450 km/day distance limit for drivers of articulate vehicles and vehicles exceeding 20 tons gross (except where a tachograph is used); new system of driver's license categories and professional competence examinations; proposed new taxation rules; and a special legislation for dangerous loads, e.g., for oil transport, including the mandatory use of hazard information marking of road tanks and the expected additional licensing of drivers.

  16. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  17. Recent tendency of Nuclear Third Party Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohara, Fumiaki

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear accidents in Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have a great influence on Nuclear Third Party Legislation of many countries. Nuclear Third Party Law of Japan is due to expire as at 31st, December, 1989, under the recent circumstances in which threre exist pros and cons to nuclear installations among people. This report describes the outline of Japanese Nuclear Law compared with foreign ones and the prospect of its revision. (author)

  18. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  19. Labour legislations in India: tourism industry dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Rajasekharan

    2012-01-01

    Labour laws shape industrial relations addressing the socio-economic security of the working class. The legislative framework of labour conditions the working conditions, employer-employee relations, mode of wage payments, provide social security, class and protect the interests of special categories of working class. The paper discusses various labour statutes of India that are applicable to tourism. Almost all labour laws prevailing in the country were enacted even before tourism attained i...

  20. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  1. European and German food legislation facing uncommon foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Nils Th; Klein, Günter; López, Antonio Martínez

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, uncommon foodstuff (UFS, i.e., traditional foods from specific European regions and uncommon ethnic foods from non-EU countries) have been contributing to a diversification of the food supply. E-commerce and specialized retail shops are the main sources for UFS. This article discusses the legal bases for UFS introduction and evaluation. By means of 35 representative UFS, this article analyses the possibilities of trade and veterinary inspection of these products in Germany, comparing European Union and national food legislation with the many idiosyncrasies the UFS presents. Conservatory legislation bans the trade with endangered species (primates, cetaceans, songbirds), but for many other species, this is a complex matter that may ban only subpopulations from trade. Although introduction of legal UFS is regulated (yet complicated), the lack of appropriate definitions, intra-European trade harmonization, and of sufficient scientific knowledge hampers a satisfactory evaluation of many UFSs, for example, reptile meat or terrestrial insects. In these cases, official inspection would only be very basic.

  2. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  3. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEATHER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the current legislation and compliance issues leather waste in different waste groups according to relevant legislation and shows that, although seemingly harmless waste of skin sometimes contain dangerous compounds. As presented risks to human health were some restricted substances in leather. Since 2001 Romania had preoccupation in national legislation on waste management, but some categories, such as leather waste are not framed to this category. Also, another goal is implementing the EU management/storage strategy of industrial waste. Unfortunately, Romania imports huge quantities of used clothing and shoes. Transport, storage and use of them are poor, and many of these are subsequently stored waste by the fact that it is even sometimes improperly discarded. The paper also shows the statistics on waste management in the Bihor County by activity of national economy and by activity of industry at level of CANE REV.2 Section. Analyzing the postings on Internet regarding the sale and purchase of leather wastes in Romania, it was found that there are the following 'categories' of wastes: leather goods, leather from coats, leather from footwear industry, suede, leather, leather resulting from the production of upholstery. It was found that most car buyers use waste leather upholstery. It is recommended that production companies to highlight more transparent their inventory textile and leather waste on types for those interested (including online can access/capitalize them.

  4. Tanning Salon Compliance Rates in States With Legislation to Protect Youth Access to UV Tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Melissa S; Buhalog, Brittany; Blumenthal, Laura; Stratman, Erik J

    2018-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has classified tanning beds as carcinogenic. Most states have enacted legislation to prevent or create barriers for minors accessing tanning establishments. Determining tanning salon compliance with legislation would provide an indication of the influence of legislation at preventing exposure to the carcinogen in minors. To investigate compliance rates in the 42 states and the District of Columbia with legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors and to identify differences in compliance based on population, regional location, salon ownership, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. This investigation was a cross-sectional telephone survey conducted between February 1, 2015, and April 30, 2016, by callers posing as minors attempting to schedule a tanning appointment. The setting was tanning salons in the 42 states and the District of Columbia that currently have legislation restricting tanning bed use in minors. Included in the study were 427 tanning salons, 10 randomly selected from each state or territory with tanning legislation. Overall compliance of tanning salons with state tanning legislation and differences in compliance based on community population, regional location, independent vs chain tanning salon, age group being regulated, and time since the law was enacted. Of the 427 tanning salons surveyed, overall noncompliance with state legislation was 37.2% (n = 159). There were more noncompliant tanning salons in rural locations (45.5%; 95% CI, 37.5%-53.7%; P = .009), southern regions of the United States (49.4%; 95% CI, 41.4%-57.4%; P = .001), independently owned salons (43.9%; 95% CI, 37.3%-50.6%; P = .003), states with younger age groups being regulated (53.5%; 95% CI, 45.7%-61.2%; P legislation aimed at limiting tanning bed use among US minors is unsatisfactory, indicating that additional efforts to enforce the laws and education of the harmful effects of UV tanning are

  5. SPORT FOOD ADDITIVE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Prokopenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.

  6. Discussion on the safety classification of nuclear safety mechanical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wei

    2010-01-01

    The purpose and definition of the equipment safety classification in nuclear plant are introduced. The differences of several safety classification criterions are compared, and the object of safety classification is determined. According to the regulation, the definition and category of the safety functions are represented. The safety classification method, safety classification process, safety class interface, and the requirement for the safety class mechanical equipment are explored. At last, the relation of the safety classification between the mechanical and electrical equipment is presented, and the relation of the safety classification between mechanical equipment and system is also presented. (author)

  7. HARMONIZATION OF UKRAINIAN LABOUR LEGISLATION ACCORDANCE WITH ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodianka LIUBOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article proves the necessity of harmonization of the Ukrainian labour legislation in accordance with Acquis communautaire. The main legal acts in the sphere of Ukrainian labour legislation are analyzed. Special attention in the article is devoted to the critics of the Draft Labour Code of Ukraine, also marked its contradictions, positive sides and shortcomings are indicated. Potential dangers of the protection of labour rights in Ukraine connected with the lack of regulation of activity of trade unions are identified. The conditions necessary for the successful implementation of international labour standards and principles in Ukrainian national law are proposed.

  8. The veterinary surgeon in natural disasters: Italian legislation in force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passantino, A; Di Pietro, C; Fenga, C; Passantino, M

    2003-12-01

    Law No. 225/1992 established a National Service of Civil Protection, with the important role of 'safeguarding life, goods, settlements and the environment from damage deriving from natural disasters, catastrophes and calamities' (art. 1). This law arranges civil protection as a co-ordinated system of responsibilities administrated by the state, local and public authorities, the world of science, charitable organisations, the professional orders and other institutions, and the private sector (art. 6). The President of the Republic's Decree No. 66/1981 'Regulation for the application of Law No. 996/1970, containing norms for relief and assistance to populations hit by natural disasters--Civil Protection' mentions veterinary surgeons among the people that are called upon to intervene. In fact, in natural disasters the intervention of the veterinary surgeon is of great importance. The authors examine these laws and other legislation relating to the National Service of Civil Protection.

  9. Legislation concerning alcohol and drug intake in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Goszczyńska

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is likely that the complex law concerning alcohol and drugs in the workplace is one of the reasons for unwillingness to resolve the problem of intake of such psychoactive substances by employees. Therefore, the author made an attempt to depict Polish legislation in this field based on the review of legal acts and regulations, as well as on their extensive judiciary interpretation. Such an information can be used by employers in developing their workplace policy of diminishing the intake of psychoactive substances by employees. This information can also be helpful for the bodies supporting workplaces in solving problems derived from alcohol and drugs consumption, such as occupational medicine specialists and local governments. Med Pr 2013;64(4:593–608

  10. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2008-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  11. Requirements for personal dosimetry in new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragan, P.

    2009-01-01

    New Slovak legislation in an area of radiation protection is covering basics for surveillance and an evaluation of occupational doses, a general guidance for a workplace monitoring - law No. 355/2007 Coll., governmental decree No. 345/2006 Coll. adapting directive 96/29/EURATOM and ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. For users is necessary more detailed regulation and guidance with objective to ensure unified procedures for monitoring and evaluation of measured occupational doses. The draft of reference levels for occupational monitoring will be presented as useful example for most of workplaces with sources of ionizing radiation. The new ordinance No. 545/2007 Coll. is adopting new requirements for using of two personal dosimeters mainly in interventional radiology and for using extremity dosimeters. (author)

  12. 5 CFR 2500.5 - Derivative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Derivative classification. 2500.5 Section 2500.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATION, EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT INFORMATION SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.5 Derivative classification. The Office of Administration serves only as the...

  13. 32 CFR 1602.2 - Administrative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative classification. 1602.2 Section 1602.2 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.2 Administrative classification. A reclassification action relating to a registrant's claim...

  14. Legislative Framework Required for Africa's M-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa......This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa...

  15. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  16. From wastewater to fertilisers--Technical overview and critical review of European legislation governing phosphorus recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukari, Sirja; Hermann, Ludwig; Nättorp, Anders

    2016-01-15

    The present paper is based on an analysis of the EU legislation regulating phosphorus recovery and recycling from wastewater stream, in particular as fertiliser. To recover phosphorus, operators need to deal with market regulations, health and environment protection laws. Often, several permits and lengthy authorisation processes for both installation (e.g. environmental impact assessment) and the recovered phosphorus (e.g. End-of-Waste, REACH) are required. Exemptions to certain registration processes for recoverers are in place but rarely applied. National solutions are often needed. Emerging recovery and recycling sectors are affected by legislation in different ways: Wastewater treatment plants are obliged to remove phosphorus but may also recover it in low quantities for operational reasons. Permit processes allowing recovery and recycling operations next to water purification should thus be rationalised. In contrast, the fertiliser industry relies on legal quality requirements, ensuring their market reputation. For start-ups, raw-material sourcing and related legislation will be the key. Phosphorus recycling is governed by fragmented decision-making in regional administrations. Active regulatory support, such as recycling obligation or subsidies, is lacking. Legislation harmonisation, inclusion of recycled phosphorus in existing fertiliser regulations and support of new operators would speed up market penetration of novel technologies, reduce phosphorus losses and safeguard European quality standards.

  17. The relationship between administrative court control and legislative control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The legislator can determine the extent of control of administrative courts by reduction of substantive conditions. The author has the opinion that the judicial control cannot be stricter than the legislative control. For the range of the control of administrative courts is decisive, to what extent the legislator is forced to proper legislative settlements. In this context the author discusses the Kalkar-decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1978. (CW) [de

  18. Legislative amendments and informal politics in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross, James P.; Hermansson, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    the Commission’s proposals and the final legislative outcome passed by the European Union. It does so by implementing minimum edit distance algorithms to measure changes between legislative proposals and outcomes. The findings suggest that legislative amendments are determined by the formal and informal...... institutional structures in which negotiations take place and characteristics of the proposal itself. Our conclusions contribute to the ongoing debate on the nature and distribution of legislative powers in the European Union....

  19. Child sex tourism: extending the borders of sexual offender legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Holt, Ben W; Rabun, John S; Phillips, Gary; Scott, Charles L

    2011-01-01

    Child sex tourism, the act of traveling to engage in sexual acts with minors, plagues developing nations worldwide. Several laws have been passed internationally in recent years designed to curtail this practice. Government entities and human rights organizations have driven these efforts. United States citizens represent a significant proportion of participants in child sex tourism. The PROTECT Act of 2003 prohibits United States citizens from participating in sexual acts with minors while traveling, and establishes extraterritorial jurisdiction. The case of Michael Lewis Clark, the first United States citizen convicted under this legislation, is highlighted. Child sex tourism poses unique issues to courts that will require ongoing clarification as challenges arise. This article discusses potential future challenges, describes strategies to address this problem, and relates this issue to psychiatry. Mental health providers may have the role of evaluating both the victims and perpetrators of child sex tourism. The authors propose a classification system for offenses and an initial list of topics to discuss with victims. The authors also describe the proper mechanism for reporting United States citizens suspected of participating in child sex tourism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)

  1. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  2. 29 CFR 783.28 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 783.28 Section 783.28 Labor... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Legislative History and Judicial Construction of the Exemptions § 783.28 General legislative history. As originally enacted in 1938, section 13(a)(3) of the Fair Labor...

  3. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  4. A Critique of the Key Legislative Framework Guiding Civil Liberties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key legislative framework presented in this paper is within the areas of media and access to information, individual rights and freedoms, as well as legislation pertaining to the conduct of elections. In some cases, colonial legislation that politicians claimed to have repealed was reincarnated, as the post-colonial dispensation ...

  5. Nuclear legislation system and nuclear program outlook in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensri, Apisara; Morev, Mikhail N.; Imazu, Hidenori; Kosako, Toshiso; Iimoto, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    In Thailand, radioactive materials are widely used for the industry, medicine, research and development fields. Reported here are background and recent developments in the national nuclear legislation system, including regulation of radiation safety and current status of nuclear program in Thailand. Under the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, the Thai Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) is authorized to approve regulations respecting, the conversion, enrichment, processing, reprocessing, possession, import, export, use, packaging, transport, management and storage of nuclear materials. The most recent developments are related to the New Ministerial Regulation on Licensing Requirements Procedures and Nuclear Material, By-Product or Atomic Energy Processing B. E 2550 (A. D. 2007) issued under the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, B. E. 2504 (A. D. 1961). Currently, the Thai Cabinet is discussing the draft new Atomic Energy for Peace Act which is to revise the Act. The draft Act is to sets forth criteria for protecting individuals, society and the environment from radiation hazards with the perspective for anticipated nuclear power sector development in Thailand. (author)

  6. Grants to Political Groups in the Spanish Legislative Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro González-Juliana Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes, from the perspective of Administrative Law, one of the sources of public funding of political parties in Spain: the grants to Political Groups in the Legislative Assemblies. This paper focuses on the study of the legal status of those grants, which have received little attention from the legal literature, despite its importance and despite the fact that they are poorly regulated. In this regard, this paper analyzes the legal nature of those grants and it concludes that they are authentic public subsidies. On the basis of this conclusion, the fundamental aspects of those grants become the subject of the study: the requirements and obligations of Political Groups, the procedure for the award of the grants, the control activity and the refund of the grant. As a result, this analysis makes clear the limits and errors of the meager regulation contained in parliamentary Regulations. Last, but not least, several solutions are proposed, taking the General Subsidies Act as a reference.

  7. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  8. Acid rain legislation and local areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.H.B.

    1992-01-01

    This study explores the local economic impacts of the phase I requirements of the 1990 acid rain legislation. This legislation allows electric utilities to adopt least cost ways of reducing sulfur dioxide pollution. The impact on employment, income and size distribution of income due to a switch to low sulfur coal is examined for a selected number of high sulfur coal producing counties in southern Illinois. In order to achieve the above objectives a generalized non-survey input-output model, IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning), is employed to estimate first- and second-order employment and income effects of a switch to low sulfur coal. Two models, I and II, are constructed to provide these estimates. In Model I, income is generated and adjusted to reflect income retained and spent within the four county region. In Model II, no adjustment is made for flows into and out of the region. In addition to adjustments in income, adjustments in direct employment impacts were made in both models to account for retirements. Scenarios reflecting different degrees of coal switching, low and high switching options, were examined under both models. With regards to size distribution impacts, a newly developed operational model compatible with IMPLAN and developed by Rose et al (1988) was employed. This model is a member of a class of models collectively termed extended input-output models. As in the case of employment and income, allowance was made for income generated, retained and spent within the four counties in the assessment of income distribution impacts. The findings indicate that the adverse effects of a switch to low sulfur coal under the 1990 acid rain legislation will primarily hurt the coal mining industry. Coal mining employment and income will be adversely affected. Employment and income declines in other industries in the region will be fairly slight. Second, income distribution becomes slightly more equal for the local area due to acid rain control

  9. Politeness Indicators in Nigeria Legislative Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Unoalegie Bola Agbara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In every human interaction, interlocutors strive to maintain appropriate decorum and politeness in order to avoid undue feeling of not being ‘nice’ or being insensitive to co-participant’s self-esteem or image. This culture of being ‘nice’ is expressed not only through verbal codes, but also through non-verbal cues such as pitch, tone, voice modulation, facial expression and other forms of body language. Nigeria legislative House reflects the uniqueness of Nigeria as a multicultural nation with about two hundred and fifty ethnic groups. Each tribe has a unique way of expressing ‘nice’ (politeness. This paper examines how Nigerian legislators from different ethnic groups acknowledge the self-esteem of other legislators during senate debates. The study used Scollon and Scollon’s politeness principle which states that in every interaction there is a continuous ‘face’ (self-image negotiation and this ‘face’ which is made up of two aspects - involvement and independent- must be balanced during interactions because ‘face’ is a paradoxical concept. The interest of this study is to identify and to explain how politicians, who though are in opposition, acknowledge the self-esteem of others. Six hansards were sampled from 2009 to 2010, one bill from each quarter of the year. It was discovered that speakers almost always punctuate their contributions to debate with different types of politeness indicators as a means of acknowledging both the involvement and dependent face wants of participants. The politeness indicators often used by senators include address forms which are used not only as vocative (to the presiding senator but also as designative (for reference to a third person mentioned in the speech, first person plural pronouns, rhetorical (speech politeness markers and ritualized utterances.

  10. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    situations. The Ethics Committees' approval of the trial justified by their competence and authority, combined with the NOK´s insight into the patient's wishes may be a relevant and feasible alternative to the current consent procedure. FUNDING: This work was supported by the European Regional Development......INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  11. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    in the field of outdoor recreation, and reveal similarities, differences, gaps and future needs. Among the main findings is a contradiction between the expressed political importance of outdoor recreation at the national level, and the absence of binding commitments for action. The majority of the countries...... surveyed recognise and express outdoor recreation in some form of political and/or legislative way. However, recreation monitoring or measurements are rarely mentioned in relevant policies or acts at the national, regional or local level, perhaps due to a l ack of political will or resources. The analysis...

  12. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  13. GMOs in Russia: Research, Society and Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, I V; Georgiev, P G; Skryabin, K G; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2016-01-01

    Russian legislation lags behind the rapid developments witnessed in genetic engineering. Only a scientifically based and well-substantiated policy on the place of organisms that are created with the use of genetic engineering technologies and an assessment of the risks associated with them could guarantee that the breakthroughs achieved in modern genetic engineering technologies are effectively put to use in the real economy. A lack of demand for such breakthroughs in the practical field will lead to stagnation in scientific research and to a loss of expertise.

  14. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  15. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  16. Classification in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper surveys classification research literature, discusses various classification theories, and shows that the focus has traditionally been on establishing a scientific foundation for classification research. This paper argues that a shift has taken place, and suggests that contemporary...... classification research focus on contextual information as the guide for the design and construction of classification schemes....

  17. Classification of the web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges faced by investigations into the classification of the Web and outlines inquiries that are needed to use principles for bibliographic classification to construct classifications of the Web. This paper suggests that the classification of the Web meets challenges...... that call for inquiries into the theoretical foundation of bibliographic classification theory....

  18. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation; Irradiacion de Alimentos. Legislacion Vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdejo S, M. [Secretaria de Salud. Subsecretaria de Regulacion y Fomento Sanitario. Direccion de Riesgos Radiologicos. Mariano Escobedo No. 366- 4o. Piso. Col. Nueva Anzures. Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named `Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives` standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  19. The Indian civil liability for nuclear damage act, 2010. Legislation with flaws?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    1. India has had no special legislation so far about liability under civil law for nuclear damage. Instead, the general law about damages outside of contractual provisions applied. 2. The ambitious Indian civil nuclear program requires intensified international cooperation. The potential partners in that cooperation demand that liability regulations be adopted on the basis of the principles of the international nuclear liability conventions so as to grant legal assurance to their export industries. 3. In May 2010, draft liability legislation was introduced into the Indian parliament. Final deliberations were held on August 30, 2010. On September 21, 2010, the President confirmed the draft legislation, thereby making it law. The draft legislation had been a matter of dispute in India from the outset. 4. The law applies to nuclear facilities owned or controlled by the Indian central government. Only the government or government institutions or state-owned companies can be owners of a nuclear facility. The owner is liable without fault having to be proven. The details of liability follow the provisions of the liability conventions. 5. The law provides for legal channelling of liability to the owner of a nuclear facility. 6. Regular courts of law have no competence to rule about claims for damages under the law. Instead, a 'Claims Commissioner' appointed ad hoc by the government, or a 'Nuclear Claims Commission,' are competent. 7. The 2010 Indian nuclear liability law is a piece of legislation with deficiencies. Key elements are incompatible with the principles of international nuclear liability regimes. (orig.)

  20. A review of conservation legislation in Nepal: Past progress and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Joel T.; Kattel, Bijaya

    1992-11-01

    Nepal is considered a leader among developing nations with regard to conservation legislation and programs; it was among the first Asian nations to develop national conservation legislation, sign CITES, and develop a national conservation strategy. We review the history of modern conservation law in Nepal from the Rana period (early 1950s) to the present. The early legislation focused mainly on strict preservation of areas and species; this phase culminated in the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Subsequent legislation has evolved more in the direction of an integrated, holistic approach to conservation and is beginning to incorporate the participation of local people; subsequent amendments to the 1973 act allowed greater rights to rural villagers, and the designation of conservation areas in addition to the more strictly defined protected areas (national parks, wildlife reserves, etc.). Our review of conservation legislation suggests that Nepal has had many successes to date; the country has a protected area system covering over 10% of its land area, and many target species are recovering in parks and reserves. There are also some causes of concern, including staff shortages, financial constraints within the Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, and the fact that there is little legal infrastructure outside of protected areas to enforce conservation laws; further, some aspects of hunting regulations are in need of revision. Primary needs include a comprehensive review of these policies and a nationalized strategy to ameliorate the shortcomings.

  1. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  2. 7 CFR 58.132 - Basis for classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basis for classification. 58.132 Section 58.132 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Milk § 58.132 Basis for classification. The quality classification of raw milk for manufacturing...

  3. 7 CFR 1001.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1001.44 Section 1001... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1001.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  4. 7 CFR 1033.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1033.44 Section 1033... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE MIDEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1033.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  5. 7 CFR 1007.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1007.44 Section 1007... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1007.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  6. 7 CFR 1126.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1126.44 Section 1126... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE SOUTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1126.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  7. 7 CFR 1030.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1030.44 Section 1030... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1030.44 Classification of producer milk...

  8. 7 CFR 1131.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1131.44 Section 1131... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE ARIZONA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1131.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  9. 7 CFR 1124.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1124.44 Section 1124... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1124.44 Classification of producer milk...

  10. 7 CFR 1006.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1006.44 Section 1006... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE FLORIDA MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1006.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  11. 7 CFR 1032.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1032.44 Section 1032... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE CENTRAL MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1032.44 Classification of producer milk. See...

  12. 7 CFR 1005.44 - Classification of producer milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Classification of producer milk. 1005.44 Section 1005... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Classification of Milk § 1005.44 Classification of producer milk...

  13. 22 CFR 9.5 - Original classification authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification authority. 9.5 Section 9.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.5 Original classification authority. (a) Authority for original classification of information as Top Secret may be exercised...

  14. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or “Right‐to‐Try” Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Jelena P.; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E.; Adamo, Joan E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and “Right‐to‐Try” legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. Methods FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. Results The FDA EA program includes Single Patient‐Investigational New Drug (SP‐IND), Emergency SP‐IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. “Right‐to‐Try” legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. Conclusion The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP‐IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. PMID:25588691

  15. Access to Investigational Drugs: FDA Expanded Access Programs or "Right-to-Try" Legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbein, M E Blair; Berglund, Jelena P; Weatherwax, Kevin; Gerber, David E; Adamo, Joan E

    2015-10-01

    The Food and Drug Administration Expanded Access (EA) program and "Right-to-Try" legislation aim to provide seriously ill patients who have no other comparable treatment options to gain access to investigational drugs and biological agents. Physicians and institutions need to understand these programs to respond to questions and requests for access. FDA EA programs and state and federal legislative efforts to provide investigational products to patients by circumventing FDA regulations were summarized and compared. The FDA EA program includes Single Patient-Investigational New Drug (SP-IND), Emergency SP-IND, Intermediate Sized Population IND, and Treatment IND. Approval rates for all categories exceed 99%. Approval requires FDA and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, and cooperation of the pharmaceutical partner is essential. "Right-to-Try" legislation bypasses some of these steps, but provides no regulatory or safety oversight. The FDA EA program is a reasonable option for patients for whom all other therapeutic interventions have failed. The SP-IND not only provides patient access to new drugs, but also maintains a balance between immediacy and necessary patient protection. Rather than circumventing existing FDA regulations through proposed legislation, it seems more judicious to provide the knowledge and means to meet the EA requirements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. COMPARATIVE LEGISLATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACTIVE BRIBERY IN THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Confronting socially unacceptable activities, especially corruptive criminal acts, including bribing, makes an important issue of every regulated legal system. The crucial part of such policies are the criminal polices. In this paper, the author deals with the criminal legislation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, related to the matters of active bribing as one of the basic forms of corruptive behaviour. While comparing the way the penal system is regulated in the said country, the author comments basic similarities and differences of the passive bribing legal regulation in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Croatia.

  17. Present situation and problems of nuclear-security-related legislation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Kazutomo

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows surveys of current Japanese regulations relevant to nuclear security, including regulations for nuclear damage compensation. It also shows the regulatory issues still left unresolved, particularly the question of whether existing laws are broad enough, or whether new legislation will be needed. The largest unresolved issue is how to establish a system of physical protection of nuclear materials for broader nuclear security purposes within a system that was originally introduced only to control nuclear proliferation. Such a system will necessitate a radical revision of the relevant law. Moreover, the current regulations have left unresolved the physical protection of radioactive materials used in research, medical, and non-nuclear-power-related industrial operations. Japanese legislation has already authorized an integrated Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Its mandate should include introduction of a physical protection system for currently unregulated radioactive materials. This will also necessitate a radical revision of the relevant law. Comprehensive consideration should also be given to transportation of nuclear materials away from the site of nuclear material processing businesses. Current regulation also leaves this issue unresolved. There is a possibility that consistent protective measures may not be possible across transportation modes even under the recent legislation that authorized reorganization of nuclear regulatory authorities. (author)

  18. Protective legislation, ionizing radiation and health: a new appraisal and international survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellman, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Restrictive regulations (protective legislation) on employment conditions of female workers limiting maximum hours of work and prohibiting certain toxic exposures have existed for decades. In some countries, such as the United States, Canada and the Nordic countries, the growth of civil rights and equal opportunity legislation has led to their elimination, either in fact or in practice, and only a small number of disparate regulations for male and female workers still exist. Most other industrialized countries, as well as the International Labour Office of the United Nations, still have active restrictive rules for women's employment. However, restrictive regulation is an area of active policy debate around the world. International examples of the debate on protective legislation are given here. A specific case study of the occupational health standards governing exposure to ionizing radiation is used and its technical rationale discussed as an illustration of the basic issues. These include: overbroad categorization of all women as potential childbearers, no matter what their childbearing intentions; failure to recognize the full range of potential adverse health effects to males; disparate application of the restrictive regulations, generally to occupations or areas of employment that are traditionally held by men, while traditional female jobs with the same exposures are excluded from the regulatory restriction

  19. use of library and information services for legislative research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    library or the other depending on the classification scheme in use by that particular ... Dewey Decimal Classification Scheme known as the DDC; it uses numbers such ... Universal Decimal Classification scheme known as UDC, and a host of ...

  20. Legislation governing pluripotent stem cells in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pepper

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most exciting areas of medical research involves the use of stem cells for the treatment of patients with a variety of diseases and for tissue repair. Although stem cell research is accelerating rapidly in many countries, it has in the past been limited in South Africa (SA; very little has been done in this country to explore the great potential offered by stem cells to address the high disease burden. Stem cell therapy has however been practised for many years, in SA and worldwide, in the form of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mainly for haematological malignancies. From a therapeutic perspective, two types of stem cells can be defined: pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. Pluripotent cells derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts (either from in vitro fertilisation or following somatic cell nuclear transfer are called embryonic stem (ES cells, while those derived by reprogramming adult cells are called induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells. Adult stem cells include haematopoietic, mesenchymal and neural stem cells.The purpose of this article is to critically examine the SA legislation with regard to elements that impact on pluripotent stem cell research and the use of pluripotent stem cells for therapeutic purposes. This includes (but is not limited to legislation from the National Health Act (Chapter 8 in particular and its regulations, and deals with matters related to research on embryos in the stem cell context, somatic cell nuclear transfer, reproductive and therapeutic cloning and the generation and therapeutic use of iPS and ES cells.

  1. Harmonization of Legislation of a Candidate Country with EU Legislation: Insights from the Prism of the Citizens of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdula Azizi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the majority of the Western Balkan countries remain although they have expressed a willingness to join the EU, it is considered necessary to examine the topic of harmonization of national legislation of these countries with the EU legislation. So while until now, to this problem is not devoted adequate attention in scientific circles, it is considered necessary to explain and analyze the theoretical aspect of the harmonization of the legislation of the candidate countries with EU legislation, while they also learned things fr survey was conducted with the citizens of Macedonia where they express their opinions on the harmonization of Macedonian legislation and government policies related to Euro hope that in the future this work will encourage research and other activities related to government policy on the harmonization of national legislation with EU legislation.

  2. Legal protection of pet animals in domestic legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidić-Trninić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the author's analysis is the issue of legal protection of pet animals. Through analysis of applicable provisions contained in the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia, on one hand, and the fundamental principles and provisions set out in the European Convention for the Protection of Pet animals, on the other hand, this paper attempts to point out the degree of legal protection that pet animals are awarded under domestic legal regulations, as well as to answer the question of compatibility of the national legislation with the international standards set out in the mentioned European Convention regarding the above mentioned question. In addition, since the legal protection of pet animals is also regulated by relevant by-laws in our law, the analysis of certain aspects of protection provided to pet animals, specifically the Decision of the city of Novi Sad on keeping of domesticated animals, the paper attempts to draw attention to compliance of the solutions adopted in this legal act, with the fundamental principles of protection, provided to pets by laws or the Act on Animal Welfare of Serbia. Finally, in order to provide a more comprehensive insight in terms of achievement of the legal protection of pets in Serbian law, the paper analyzes the types of unlawful conduct of the owner or the holder of the animals, as well as their respective sanctioning prescribed in specific laws or bylaws.

  3. Plea for European Price Anderson legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, T.

    1992-01-01

    The paper analyses the essential features and the basic differences in nuclear liability and coverage in the United States where the problem is governed by the Price-Anderson legislation, and the Member States of the European Community which adhere to the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy. The paper undertakes to show that it is possible to introduce into the European Community certain elements of the American regime, in particular the solidarity of nuclear operators and the retroactive premium coverage without violating the basic principles of the Paris Convention. Consequently the paper advocates the adoption of such rules in Europe as a step towards harmonisation of nuclear coverage and safety and a means to reduce government interference. (author)

  4. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  5. New U.S. nuclear export legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patermann, C.

    1978-01-01

    The new 1978 Export Control Act of the United States of America introduces a comprehensive arrangement of the criteria, responsibilities and procedures associated with nuclear exports, especially under the nonproliferation aspect. After a detailed analysis of the multitude of provisions it must be feared that, merely as a result of the high degree of formalization, bureaucratization and politicalization of these procedures, the U.S. can henceforth no longer be regarded as a reliable source of nuclear materials and facilities. An aspect received abroad with particular anguish is the fact that this unilateral aggravation of export controls was initiated after the start of the two-year INFCE program for international fuel cycle evaluation and that the new legislation forces the American government to renegotiate existing agreements on cooperation with the receiver countries under the threat of a delivery stop. (orig.) [de

  6. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  7. Comparison of occupational noise legislation in the Americas: An overview and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge P Arenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The workplace contributes significantly to the total dose of daily noise to which a person is subjected. Therefore, millions of people around the world are exposed to potentially dangerous noise levels and consequently, there is an urgent, global need for legislation to adequately protect the auditory health of workers. Occupational noise legislation has been adopted in many of the countries with different degrees of comprehensiveness and varying levels of sophistication. This paper presents a global view of current legislation on occupational noise in the 22 countries that make up the Americas, that is, Latin America, Canada, and the United States. Upon analysis of the legislation, there are notable differences among countries in the defined values for permissible exposure limit (PEL and exchange rate. Of the countries that have regulations, the majority (81% use a PEL of 85 dBA. A PEL of 85 dBA and the 3-dB exchange rate are currently used by 32% of the nations in the Americas. Most nations limit impulsive noise exposure to a peak unweighted sound pressure level of 140 dB (or dBC, while a few use slightly lower limits. However, 27% of the countries in the region still have not established regulations with respect to permissible noise levels and exchange rates. This fact is leaving millions of workers in the Americas unprotected against occupational noise. Provide an overview and analysis of the current legislation on occupational noise in the 22 countries that make up the Americas. The information on legislation, regulations, and standards discussed in this paper were obtained directly from official government sources in each country, the International Labour Organization database, or through various colleagues in each country. (1 There are notable differences among countries in the defined values for PEL and exchange rate. (2 Of the countries that have regulations, the majority (81% use a PEL of 85 dBA. A PEL of 85 dBA and the 3-dB exchange

  8. The Legislative Process as a Safeguard of the Public Servant´S Right to Go on Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lôbo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The right to go on strike can only be realized after a specific national bill – such law has been denied for decades. Acknowledged the omission it should be remedied. The Supreme Court, nonetheless, declared the legislative gap but created, by analogy, rules and procedural issues, bestowing upon the remaining courts discretion to establish a stricter regime and erga omnes effect replacing the legislator. This work criticizes the right´s regulation through judicial rulings removed from the legislative process. The methodology utilized, supported by Estate´s  functions  separation  and  democratic  process  theories,  consisted  in  exam  of legislation, court rulings AND specialized literature.

  9. Register of legislative and regulatory dispositions relative to the radiation protection of the population and workers against the dangers of ionizing radiations; Recueil des dispositions legislatives et reglementaires concernant la protection de la population et des travailleurs contre les dangers des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    This collection of legislative arrangements concerns the protection of population and workers against the risks of ionizing radiations. Each chapter is divided in two parts: a legislative part and a statutory or regulation part. We find the different chapters in relation with protection of populations, protection of workers, public health and labour laws. (N.C.)

  10. Parliamentary debates on death with dignity in Argentina: the rights of terminal patients on the legislative agenda, 1996-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan Pedro; Villarejo, Agustina; Brage, Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the regulation on terminal patients' rights in Argentina at two points in time: the first attempts to regulate end-of-life rights (1996), and the "death with dignity" law passed by the National Congress (2011-2012). Comparative analysis allows us to observe variations among the individuals and situations included in the legislation, as well as in the conceptualization of autonomy and the interventions that is considered lawful refuse. The political context and the differential way that "death with dignity" entered the legislative agenda in each period determined the public's construction of the problem and thus the extent and result of the debates.

  11. NORM regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  12. A critical examination of the definition of 'psychoactive effect' in Australian drug legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Seear, Kate; Lancaster, Kari

    2017-02-01

    As the number of new 'psychoactive substances' detected globally has risen exponentially, the policy response of assessing and prohibiting each new substance individually has become increasingly unworkable. In an attempt to disrupt the availability of new as-yet-unscheduled substances, Ireland (2010), Poland (2011), Romania (2012), New Zealand (2013), Australia (2015) and the United Kingdom (2016) have enacted generic or blanket ban legislation that prohibits all 'psychoactive substances' that are not already regulated or belong to exempt categories. How such generic legislation defines 'psychoactive substance' is therefore crucial. While there is a growing critical literature relating to blanket bans of 'psychoactive substances', the Australian legislation is yet to be described or critically analysed. In this commentary, we aim to draw the attention of local and international drug policy scholars to Australia's newest legislative approach to 'psychoactive substances'. Using the Australian experience as a case study, we first describe and trace the origins of this generic banning approach, especially focusing on how 'psychoactive effect' came to be defined. Then, we critically examine the assumptions underpinning this definition and the possibilities silenced by it, drawing on the work of poststructuralist and critical scholars. In doing so, we explore and raise a series of questions about how this legislation works to stabilise drugs, drug harms and drug effects, as well as addiction realities; how the category of 'psychoactive substances' is produced through this legislation; and some of the material-discursive effects which accompany this rendering of the 'problem'. We offer this commentary not as a comprehensive discussion of each of these elements but rather as a starting-point to promote further discussion and debate within the drug policy field. To this end, we conclude with a suggested research agenda that may help guide such future work. Copyright © 2016

  13. Law status of journalists and bloggers in the newest information legislation of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustina Anna Georgievna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out a comparative analysis of Russian national rights and responsibilities of journalists and bloggers, distinguishes fundamental differences in the legal status of the subject of information relations, determines the trend of development of the Russian legislation activity regulation of participants of information relations in the Russian segment of the Internet. On August 1, 2014 the Law on bloggers entered into force that, on the one hand fixed the differences between journalism as a profession and the blogosphere as a kind of social activity. On the other hand, at the legislative level it has solved the problem of the responsible attitude to bloggers - often influential and popular sources of information - to the broadcasting of messages. It is obvious that in Russian Federation it is being actively formed a system of legal regulation of information relations on the Internet, existed for many years legal gaps in this area are gradually disappearing.

  14. Fighting Falsified Medicines with Paperwork – A Historic Review of Danish Legislation Governing Distribution of Medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Rasmus; Kaae, Susanne; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Many areas of pharmaceutical legislation in the European Union (EU) are harmonised in order to promote the internal market and protect public health. Ideally, harmonisation leads to less fragmented regulation and cross-border complexities. This study, however, focuses on an increasingly harmonise...... the drastic increases in requirements mandated by the Falsified Medicines Directive of 2011 correspond to a new approach to governing the pharmaceutical supply chain....

  15. The Intention of the Legislator and the Intention of the Parties in Contractual Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Marin Marilena

    2012-01-01

    The innovative character of the proposed topic aims at the analysis of several atypical conventions, the so-called “unnamed” contracts, and the contracts "without law", notion taken from the French law. In the field of contracts, starting from the general theory of law and the general theory of obligations and continuing with the contractual liability in various branches of law, the legislation did not experience new normative regulations, but the evolution of juridical practice has imposed v...

  16. The impact of legislation on divorce: a hazard function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, M P

    1995-01-01

    "The paper examines the impact of the introduction of no-fault divorce legislation in Australia. The approach used is rather novel, a hazard model of the divorce rate is estimated with the role of legislation captured via a time-varying covariate. The paper concludes that contrary to U.S. empirical evidence, no-fault divorce legislation appears to have had a positive impact upon the divorce rate in Australia." excerpt

  17. The legislative consequences of internal conflict and inter-party divisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Haber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Governments must respond quickly to pressing economic and societal problems. However, institutional rules, public opinion and unanticipated world events often delay the legislative process. Building on theories of legislative decision-making and intra-party politics, this paper shows that the speed at which bills pass is also driven by the governing party’s internal cohesiveness and its ideological distance to the opposition. Governing parties that are internally divided have greater difficulty in forming the legislative majorities necessary to pass laws quickly, especially if their preferences are further away from the opposition. I test these hypotheses using a novel collection of laws passed in the UK Parliament and conference speeches given by Labour and Conservative party members over a 10-year period. I use automated text classification techniques to determine the relative location of actors’ preferences and the level of intra-party disagreement. I then predict the duration of lawmaking based on the government’s recent internal level of conflict and its distance to the opposition. The results complement mounting evidence that parties’ internal policy divisions hold important implications for parties’ performance in government.

  18. 15 CFR 2008.9 - Classification guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification guides. 2008.9 Section 2008.9 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE...

  19. Classification of veldfire risk in South Africa for the administration of the legislation regarding fire management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, FJ

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Kruger_2006_D.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 40176 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Kruger_2006_D.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 V International Conference... that sustainable economic, social and natural resources development must be integrated locally and so that it complies with national policies and frameworks. This paper V International Conference on Forest Fire Research D. X. Viegas (Ed.), 2006 2 examines a...

  20. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  1. Information Privacy: Culture, Legislation and User Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cockcroft

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003

  2. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  3. Stricter antitrust legislation?; Verschaerfung des Kartellrechts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-15

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  4. Legislative and political aspects of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the Senate bill on waste disposal the definition for high-level waste was based on the source of the waste. High-level waste was defined as the liquids and solids resulting from reprocessing. The other terms defined in that bill that are crucial for any legislation dealing with high-level waste are storage and disposal. In the Senate bill, the definition of storage specifically mentioned transuranic (TRU) waste, but it did not include TRU waste in the definition of disposal. In the four House versions of the nuclear waste bill, the definition of high-level waste are addressed more carefully. This paper discusses the following four House committee's versions particularly pointing out how TRU waste is defined and handled: (1) Science Committee bill; (2) Interior Committee bill; (3) Commerce Committee bill; and (4) Armed Service Committee bill. The final language concerning TRU waste will depend on the next series of conference between these Committees. After resolving any differences, conferences will be held between the House and Senate. Here a concensus bill will be developed and it will go to the Rules Committee and then to the floor

  5. Legislation and regulatory infrastructure for the safety of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    The essential generic characteristics of a national legislative and regulatory system for the safety of radioactive waste management are defined and discussed. The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management as well as other relevant international legal instruments and guidelines are discussed. Special emphasis is given to the following characteristics of a national legislative and regulatory system: (i) definition of responsibilities, (ii) financing of future costs, (iii) nuclear and radiation safety requirements, (iv) siting and licensing procedures, (v) regulatory functions, and (vi) international co-operation. It is concluded that there exists an internationally endorsed basis for establishing effective national legislation and regulatory infrastructures for the safety of radioactive waste management. It is underlined that the continuing internationalization of the nuclear industry stresses the need for national legislation and regulatory infrastructure to be based on such internationally endorsed principles and standards. It is pointed out that regulators are accountable to the public and have to gain public trust by being active in the public arena, demonstrating their competence and integrity. Finally, prescriptive and goal-oriented international safety regimes are briefly discussed in the light of experience so far gained with the Convention on Nuclear Safety. (author)

  6. Nuclear Legislation in OECD and NEA Countries. Regulatory and Institutional Framework for Nuclear Activities - Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This country profile provide comprehensive information on the regulatory and Institutional Framework governing nuclear activities as well as a detailed review of a full range of nuclear law topics, including: mining regime; radioactive substances; nuclear installations; trade in nuclear materials and equipment; radiation protection; radioactive waste management; non-proliferation and physical protection; transport; and nuclear third party liability. The profile is complemented by reproductions of the primary legislation regulating nuclear activities in the country. Content: I. General Regulatory Regime: 1. Introduction; 2. Mining Regime; 3. Radioactive Substances, Nuclear Fuel and Equipment; 4. Nuclear Installations (Licensing and inspection, including nuclear safety; Emergency response); 5. Trade in Nuclear Materials and Equipment (Trade governed by nuclear energy legislation; Trade governed by radiation protection legislation; Trade governed by export/import control legislation); 6. Radiation Protection; 7. Radioactive Waste Management; 8. Non-Proliferation and Physical Protection; 9. Transport; 10. Nuclear Third Party Liability; II. Institutional Framework: 1. Regulatory and Supervisory Authorities: A. Ministerial Level (Ministry of Health and Social Affairs; Ministry of Trade and Industry; Ministry of Foreign Affairs; Other Ministries); B. Subsidiary Level: (The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA; The Norwegian Nuclear Emergency Organisation); 2. Public and Semi-Public Agencies - Institute for Energy Technology - IFE

  7. Popular Legislative Initiative for Spain Surrogacy: A Study of the Role of Notary in Contract Surrogacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Sales Pallarés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the Popular Legislative Initiative to regulate surrogacy in Spain. It is proposed to regulate this contractual figure guaranteeing the rights of all parties involved in the process by bringing this feature in the figure of the notary. Therefore, this article analyzes this notarial tutelage of the surrogacy contract. It will consider whether the functions of the Notary make possible this proposal or if it would be necessary to make changes either in the draft law on notary functions well.

  8. Spanish legislation situation about sea water desalination; Situacion legal de las aguas desaladas en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangas del Campo, A.B.; Lopez de Toledo y de la Maza, S.; Perez Clavijo, S.; Vizcaino Blanco, S.

    2007-07-01

    This report analyzes present-day Spanish legislation situation referring to water coming from sea water desalination. It describes the evolution of corresponding regulations and the changes that during last few years have taken place on them. These changes are due to both national and autonomic hydraulic policies, themselves conditioned and limited by actual hydric reality in the country. These waters, before considered as private, become now public by their inclusion in the present Water Law for the private use of hydraulic public domain. this lays out the in force settings to be developed in the new Regulations of Hydraulic Public Domain. (Author)

  9. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    A committee of experts appointed by the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs has proposed a comprehensive draft regulation, concerning the legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. The first section of the proposed regulation sets forth guidelines for control in facilities where workers handle radioactive materials or radiation equipment. This includes the duties of the managers of such places to ensure adequate radiation protection and also the maximum recommended doses (whole body and individual organs) for radiation workers. The second section deals with the monitoring regulations for radiation workers who may be exposed to doses in excess of 500 mRem/y. The third section outlines the nature of the mechanical supervision required, i.e. routine and special examinations. Finally the committee also proposed six miscellaneous recommendations for radiation protection. (UK)

  10. Effect of smoke-free legislation on Ticino gastronomy revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Peter J; Hartung, Uwe; Fiordelli, Maddalena

    2012-12-01

    To provide evidence on the effects of smoke-free laws on gastronomy revenue in a European setting based on objective data. Damage to gastronomy revenue is a widely used argument against smoke-free legislation. Gastronomy revenue in Ticino is compared with the rest of Switzerland before and after Ticino banned smoking from gastronomy in April 2007, being the first (and at the time of the study only) Swiss canton to do that. The study uses breakdowns by cantons of taxable revenue of gastronomy branches and retailers (for comparison) provided by the Swiss tax authorities for the years 2005-2008. Revenues of restaurants and bars were not damaged by the Ticino smoke-free law. Decreases in Ticino happened before the smoke-free law came into effect. Evidence for night clubs is inconclusive. The absence of detrimental effects on restaurant and bar revenue corroborates the gist of research on the subject from other countries. The argument that the decline of bar and restaurant sales prior to the implementation of the ban might have occurred in anticipation of the new regulation is not considered tenable.

  11. Right-to-Know legislation and the chemist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburg-Rinn, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 Congress passed the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. It sought a fundamental change environmental problem solving. Frustrated by the lack of progress achieved through regulation, Congress decided to give information directly to the people, hoping for change. AND HAS CHANGE COME exclamation point Major chemical manufacturers have promised drastic reductions in their releases. State right-to-known and pollution prevention legislation has been passed. The CMA has called for a major shift in the way the chemical industry has approached its business. In the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 it is stated that there are significant opportunities for industry to reduce or prevent pollution at the source through cost effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use. The Administrator of EPA has called for a 50% reduction in the releases of 17 major chemicals over the next several years. To achieve these national goals and requirements the chemist will play an essential role. And don't expect this push to die down. Already there are calls for more information dissemination, more public access exclamation point

  12. [Conflicts between nursing ethics and health care legislation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Terés-Vidal, Lourdes; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Molina, Fidel; Gastaldo, Denise; Otero-García, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamics Of Social Legislation In Russian Empire In The Beginnings Of XX Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya G. Semionkina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present article regulations adopted in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century and defining direction of social legislation development are considered. Norms that regulated state contempt of the lower ranks and members of their families in Russia, and also laws on social insurance are considered. There was no complete system of state social contempt in the Russian Empire. Help to needed was usually provided by numerous non-state charitable structures and societies, thus many of them were under patronage of the imperial family members. This help was provided, first - selectively, second - its size usually was very small. In general, specifics of the legislative ensuring of social support were defined by the features of development of entire legal system of the Russian Empire during this period, including, dynamics of normative legal acts adoption. Author draws a conclusion about preservation of the class character in the organization of the state contempt in the Russian Empire. In 1912 in the Russian Empire acts that directed creation of the system of social insurance for social protection of persons, victims of injuries and mutilations at the factory enterprises, and members of their family’s were adopted. Adoption of the acts regulating social insurance can be considered as a positive step in development of the social orientated legislation. But these acts were far from perfect, and first of all because their action extended on smaller part of the country's working population. According to the author, adoption of the legislation on social insurance became a basic step on the way of modern forms of the organization of the social help creation.

  14. Increased Incidence of Spinal Abscess and Substance Abuse after Implementation of State Mandated Prescription Drug Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Problems encountered in embodying the principles of ICRP-26 and the revised IAEA safety standards into UK national legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the United Kingdom procedures and format for safety legislation and goes on to show how the necessary legislation for radiological protection will fit into the general framework. The United Kingdom, as a member of the European Community and EURATOM, is bound to implement the Euratom Directive on radiological protection within the next few years. The latest draft of the Directive takes account of the recommendations of ICRP-26 and further, a recent draft of the revised IAEA Basic Safety Standards is a composite of both the Directive and ICRP-26. Thus, the effect of embodying the principles of the Directive is to embody the principles of ICRP-26 and the Basic Safety Standards. Some of the problems which have been met are described and in particular there is discussion of the problems arising from the incorporation of the three ICRP-26 facets of dose control, namely justification, optimization and limitation, into a legislative package. The UK system of evolving safety legislation now requires considerable participation by all the parties affected (or by their representatives). This paper indicates that the involvement of persons affected, coupled with a legislative package which consists of a hierarchy of (a) regulations; (b) codes of practice; and (c) guidance notes, will result in the fundamental principles of ICRP-26 being incorporated into UK legislation in a totally acceptable way. (author)

  16. 12 CFR 1229.2 - Determination of a Bank's capital classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... classification. 1229.2 Section 1229.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CAPITAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Federal Home Loan Banks § 1229.2 Determination of a Bank's capital classification. (a) Quarterly determination. The Director shall determine the capital classification for each...

  17. 75 FR 17854 - Travel Expenses of State Legislators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... residence within the taxpayer's legislative district as the taxpayer's tax home. In addition, as a result of... section 162(h), a matter of Federal law. See Morgan v. Commissioner, 309 U.S. 78, 81 (1940) (``If it is... place of residence within the legislative district represented by the taxpayer is the taxpayer's home...

  18. Game Theory and Educational Policy: Private Education Legislation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a game theory analysis of legislating private education in China, based on set of primary and secondary documents related to this issue. The article argues that shaping educational legislation is a dynamic, repeated game of negotiation, cooperation, and/or competition on multiple occasions among various interested actors,…

  19. Equal pay legislation and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite equal pay legislation dating back 50 years, American women still earn 22% less than their male counterparts. In the UK, with its Equal Pay Act of 1970, and France, which legislated in 1972, the gap is 21% and 17% respectively, and in Australia it remains around 17%. Thus, the gender pay gap continues to be an important policy issue.

  20. And Affirmative Speeches Shall "Not" Serve as Legislative Intent!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Follert, Vincent F.

    Legislative intent as a debate tactic is drawn from the judicial system as a fundamental concept in the interpretation of statutes. Two paradigms for the application of legislative intent have emerged: (1) the courts will examine the affirmative proposal after enactment to bring it into line with the intent of the affirmative team, and (2) the…

  1. Brazilian nuclear legislation. Revision n.1/2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Gilberto Cardoso de

    2002-01-01

    This work intends to facilitate the access to the Brazilian nuclear legislation and other legal instruments, foreseeing the use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in health, work and environment areas up to 2002. Legislation on the civil liability of nuclear damage, the law of licensing taxes, controlling and inspection are also included

  2. The Political Economy of Collective Labour Legislation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Y. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a seminal analysis of collective labour legislation in Taiwan. A chronological review of Taiwan’s legislative process suggests that the context of incorporation, institutional framework, mechanisms for delivering reforms, and sequence of reforms together shape the legislative outcomes of labour reforms at the collective level. While most labour legislation was revised and passed after the preceding sequence of economic transition, the reform of collective labour rights was greatly constrained by the flexible labour-market structure. In order for politicians to form new alliances with labour organizations, legislation of collective labour rights was a strategy to cultivate support during electoral periods. Consequently, the industrial relations changed following the enactment of substantial reform-oriented labour legislation. Theore-tically, the historical analysis of legislative procedure unveils evolutionary reform paths for collective labour rights in new democracies. At the same time, empirically, Taiwan demonstrates an alternative reform path in combination with incremental steps and progressive agendas. For new democracies of small economy, a window of opportunity for the progress in collective labour legislation remains open today, albeit with limitations.

  3. Enabling legislation and regulatory determinations for a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha-Vinh, Phuong

    1975-01-01

    Broad definition of the scope of enabling legislation, identification of branches of laws involved in the licensing and regulatory control, overview of some typical licensing practices and provisions, some specific legislative or regulatory requirements including financial security to over nuclear liability. (HP) [de

  4. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  5. Attending National Library Legislative Day: Why Is It Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robyn

    2009-01-01

    Prior to this year, the National Library Legislative Day never really held much importance for the author as a school library media specialist. However, this feeling changed after she attended her first National Library Legislative Day in May of 2008. The goal of this day is to allow everyday practicing professionals to speak with their national…

  6. Evidence and argument in policymaking: development of workplace smoking legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to identify factors that affect the passage of public health legislation by examining the use of arguments, particularly arguments presenting research evidence, in legislative debates regarding workplace smoking restrictions. Methods We conducted a case-study based content analysis of legislative materials used in the development of six state workplace smoking laws, including written and spoken testimony and the text of proposed and passed bills and amendments. We coded testimony given before legislators for arguments used, and identified the institutional affiliations of presenters and their position on the legislation. We compared patterns in the arguments made in testimony to the relative strength of each state's final legislation. Results Greater discussion of scientific evidence within testimony given was associated with the passage of workplace smoking legislation that provided greater protection for public health, regardless of whether supporters outnumbered opponents or vice versa. Conclusion Our findings suggest that an emphasis on scientific discourse, relative to other arguments made in legislative testimony, might help produce political outcomes that favor public health.

  7. 12 CFR 411.200 - Agency and legislative liaison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency and legislative liaison. 411.200 Section 411.200 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 411.200 Agency and legislative liaison. (a) The prohibition on the use of...

  8. Legislative and regulatory framework of radioactive waste management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper intent is to present an update on the Romanian legislative and regulatory framework in the area of radioactive waste management. Based on the experiences gained by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control in the past years, the recent legislative initiatives related to the coherent radwaste management policy at the national level are presented. (author)

  9. Guidance on classification for reproductive toxicity under the globally harmonized system of classification and labelling of chemicals (GHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nigel P; Boogaard, Peter J; Bremer, Susanne; Buesen, Roland; Edwards, James; Fraysse, Benoit; Hallmark, Nina; Hemming, Helena; Langrand-Lerche, Carole; McKee, Richard H; Meisters, Marie-Louise; Parsons, Paul; Politano, Valerie; Reader, Stuart; Ridgway, Peter; Hennes, Christa

    2013-11-01

    The Globally Harmonised System of Classification (GHS) is a framework within which the intrinsic hazards of substances may be determined and communicated. It is not a legislative instrument per se, but is enacted into national legislation with the appropriate legislative instruments. GHS covers many aspects of effects upon health and the environment, including adverse effects upon sexual function and fertility or on development. Classification for these effects is based upon observations in humans or from properly designed experiments in animals, although only the latter is covered herein. The decision to classify a substance based upon experimental data, and the category of classification ascribed, is determined by the level of evidence that is available for an adverse effect on sexual function and fertility or on development that does not arise as a secondary non-specific consequence of other toxic effect. This document offers guidance on the determination of level of concern as a measure of adversity, and the level of evidence to ascribe classification based on data from tests in laboratory animals.

  10. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  11. Theoretical and Practical Issues of Systematization of Russian Energy Legislation When Bringing It into a Coherent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Lyubov' I.; Ivanova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the problems stated in the paper is conditioned by the need to develop and adopt a new concept of legislation, which would have fixed the starting positions and the principles of legal regulation of relations in the sphere of fuel and energy complex, including the forms of Russia's participation in international projects in the…

  12. [Assisted fertilization: meditations on the new legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, E; Manzur, A

    1997-02-01

    We review philosophical and controversial aspects of assisted fertilization. This exercise is necessary considering the discussion of a bill in the Parliament that intends to regulate these technologies in our Country. We review the definition of life beginning and the cost-benefit problem of adoption as an alternative to assisted fertilization.

  13. Projected legislation on radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Should be regulatory proposals contained in the draft of a law to change the legal regulations concerning nuclear power (as of September 1, 1992) be put into effect, this would mean an essential conceptual change concerning radioactive waste management. The contribution examines the essential changes and comes to the following conclusion: 1. At present there is a need for concretization of regulations concerning reactor decommissioning by means of amendments of laws, legal regulations and administrative regulations. The set of rules concerning nuclear technology must be adapted to the specific situation in which reactor decommissioning, reactor dismantling and confinement are involved. 2. No convincing reacons for privatizing the construction and operation of radwaste repositories exist. The advantages of such a change in course are not apparent. 3. Direct radwaste disposal should be legally defined in clear terms as an independent and cumulative process of waste disposal (in addition to and apart from radwaste repositing and re-processing). Hereby the utilization of radioactive waste products should continue to be given priority. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Systematic review of qualitative literature on occupational health and safety legislation and regulatory enforcement planning and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachen, Ellen; Kosny, Agnieszka; Ståhl, Christian; O'Hagan, Fergal; Redgrift, Lisa; Sanford, Sarah; Carrasco, Christine; Tompa, Emile; Mahood, Quenby

    2016-01-01

    The ability of occupational health and safety (OHS) legislation and regulatory enforcement to prevent workplace injuries and illnesses is contingent on political, economic, and organizational conditions. This systematic review of qualitative research articles considers how OHS legislation and regulatory enforcement are planned and implemented. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed, English-language articles published between 1990 and 2013 yielded 11 947 articles. We identified 34 qualitative articles as relevant, 18 of which passed our quality assessment and proceeded to meta-ethnographic synthesis. The synthesis yielded four main themes: OHS regulation formation, regulation challenges, inspector organization, and worker representation in OHS. It illuminates how OHS legislation can be based on normative suppositions about worker and employer behavior and shaped by economic and political resources of parties. It also shows how implementation of OHS legislation is affected by "general duty" law, agency coordination, resourcing of inspectorates, and ability of workers to participate in the system. The review identifies methodological gaps and identifies promising areas for further research in "grey" zones of legislation implementation.

  15. Authorship in Croatian copyright legislation from 1846 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Velagić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate and present concepts of the author and his/her copyright work in copyright legislation that entered into force in Croatia from 1846 to 2007. 17 legal documents (acts, corrigenda, amendments were investigated using the content analysis method. The analysis of the results gives an insight into various cultural and sociological dimensions of authorship in the given time-frame. Special attention was paid to definitions of the author and his/her copyright work, examples of copyright works and exceptions related to the duration of copyright for different kinds of copyright works. As there had been no systematic overview of such legal documents in the available literature, they were briefly described in the first part of the paper, highlighting the important articles that stress the role of authors and their copyright work. In the analysis and summary we provide a systematic overview of the main concepts, with a special review of copyright laws in relation to new technologies and artistic forms: it is their relationship that testifies to the complexity of the term 'copyright work'. The paper shows that the basic perception of the author, his/her copyright works and their relations in the analysed copyright legislation has not changed significantly during this period of time. All legal documents refer to the examples of copyright work, and in 1957 a definition of copyright work was included, according to which copyright work is every spiritual (later referred to as intellectual creation. The concept of the author is strongly linked with the concept of author's copyright work. Various examples of copyright works allow us to see the difference between works that are permanent (e.g. literary works, music works, art works and works that are yet to be protected by copyright thanks to the development of technology and new features of artistic expression (e.g. photography, movies, computer programs. The process of

  16. Financing family planning services: is categorical legislation still needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarlane, D R; Meier, K J

    1991-01-01

    Federal and state funds have provided for family planning services in American since the 1960s. Since 1976, services have been funded principally through federal statutes Title X of the Public Health Service Act and Titles V, XIX, and XX of the Social Security Act as well as various state appropriations. While these statutes aim to ensure that women of lower socioeconomic status enjoy access to reproductive health care services, levels of public expenditure in this area vary widely among states. In 1987, public family planning expenditures/woman at risk ranged from $60.16 in Wisconsin to $9.41 in Florida. Within this range of expenditures, the relative importance of each funding source per state varies widely. States with the most robust Title XIX programs, Medicaid, however, have highest per woman family planning expenditures. Upon reviewing the complement of public funding sources and how they are spent at the state level, the authors argue that categorical legislation is still needed to protect access to contraceptive services in America. In particular, of funds from supporting statues, Medicaid is distributed most equitable across the country. These funds paid for 36% of all public outlays for family planning in 1987. Without categorical legislation, however, Medicaid is insufficient to maintain the national family planning effort; the 1987 contribution of $10.49/woman at risk of unwanted pregnancy was insufficient to provide minimum services. Title X requires grantees to follow regulations which ensure state uniformity of quality and service distribution; submission of annual 5-year plans to Congress on how family planning goals will be achieved; and also authorizes monies for training and research. Despite political attacks, family planning funding must remain separate from maternal and child health programs. Such independence will keep these services politically visible; allow use of the more extensive family planning delivery system; catalyze states to

  17. 76 FR 59031 - Classification Challenge Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... more clearly reflect the current CIA organizational structure and policies and practices, and to... more clearly reflect the current CIA organizational structure, record system configuration, and...

  18. Environmental legislation as the legal framework for mitigating natural hazards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Jesús; Arana, Estanislao; Jiménez Soto, Ignacio; Delgado, José

    2015-04-01

    through land use planning. However, most of the Spanish master plans approved after 2008 don't include a natural hazards map or/and don't classify the areas exposed to natural hazards as non-developable. Restrictions or prohibitions for building in natural hazard-prone areas are not usually established in the master plans. According to the jurisprudence, the environmental legislation prevails over spatial and urban planning regulations. On the other hand, the precedence of the national competence in public security would allow reclassification or the land, independently of the political or economic motivations of the municipal government. Despite of the technical building code or the seismic building code where some recommendations for avoiding "geotechnical" or seismic hazards are established, there are not compulsory guidelines to do technical studies/hazard maps for floods or landslides. The current legislation should be improved, under a technical point of view, and some mechanisms for enforcing the law should be also considered.

  19. Development of Ukrainian legislation on sanitary protection of water resources in the XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю. А. Чуприна

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The article investigates the formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. The relevance of this article due to the need to systematize the individual areas of water law, including the protection of water and sanitation of the twentieth century. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The article devoted to the study of formation in Ukraine of legal regulation of the state sanitary control of water, the process of creating of general and special jurisdiction for its implementation, as well as the regulation regime, methods and tools for health protection of waters of different categories. Paper objective. The relevance of this article due to the need to identify viable methods and instruments of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water during the formation of the main areas of water legislation of Ukraine in the twentieth century. Terms used in the legal protection of water, sanitary water use rules, the bodies of sanitary supervision, the state sanitary inspection. Conclusions. Research in the field of water legislation, and therefore the individual concerned and its protection issues, many scientists were engaged as ecologists and environmentalists. However, the special historical and legal work in a range twentieth century. no. This gap makes it difficult to analyze the current state of affairs in the field of sanitary protection of water. Detection of historical stages of development of water legislation in this area, identifying the main patterns and dynamics of legal regulation of sanitary protection of water in specific historical circumstances will improve the current regime of water protection. The author analyzes the main laws and regulations in the field of materials of

  20. Asteroid taxonomic classifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on three taxonomic classification schemes developed and applied to the body of available color and albedo data. Asteroid taxonomic classifications according to two of these schemes are reproduced

  1. Legislation and regulations for prevention of legionella in drinking and hot water. Explanation of care obligation, alternate techniques and risk assessment. Fact sheet; Wet- en regelgeving Legionellapreventie in drink- en warmtapwater. Uitleg over zorgplicht, alternatieve technieken en risico-analyse. Informatieblad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The reason for this fact sheet is the revision of the drinking water regulations, including the regulations for the prevention of legionella, July 1, 2011. Many market parties consider the regulations as complex, even after the revision. This fact sheet provides more clarity [Dutch] Aanleiding voor dit informatieblad is de op 1 juli 2011 herziene drinkwaterregelgeving, inclusief de voor legionellapreventie relevante bepalingen. Veel marktpartijen ervaren deze regelgeving, ook na herziening, als complex. Dit informatieblad verschaft meer duidelijkheid.

  2. IMPROVING PATENT PROTECTION OF INVENTIVE ACTIVITY IN THE CONTEXT OF EU LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Philyk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: clarify legal nature of relations emerging in connection with registration of patent law objects. In this article the authors research special features of legal regulation of inventive activity. In particular, they consider several issues of patenting the patent law objects and clarify legal nature of relations arose during registration of the rights to the patent law objects. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction inventive activity Results: during the research the authors focus their attention to the drawbacks of the effective legislation and form the main directions of the effective legislation improvement in accordance with international law in the context of the patent law objects protection. Special attention is devoted to analysis of the main threats of the patent law violations and ways to overcome them. Conclusions: the results confirming improving the efficiency of the system of intellectual property protection through institutional changes and changes in the legal regulation of inventive activity and results will have a positive impact on the reform of the system of intellectual property protection in Ukraine.

  3. Petroleum Legislation and Administration: Past, Present, Future and Impact on Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofurhie, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The need to exploit the vast petroleum resources of the country in an optimally efficient manner demands a versatile, responsive, workable legislation and its administration.Therefore, Government enacted the Mineral Oils Act of 1914, which regulates the right to search and develop mineral oil efficiently. Specifically, Section 6 (1) (a) provided that Shell Darcy, a British company, had the sole right to operate the Nigerian province as its concession thereby disqualifying other non-British companies from exploration opportunities.The 1914 Act was modified in 1958 to accommodate non-British companies to compete for acreage. Thus, exploration activities increased thereby generating more reserves. Furthermore, exploration activities improved in the frontier areas because government granted the operators incentives, which expensed one exploratory and two appraisal wells as an offset against PPT.The Government promulgated the Petroleum Act of 1969 to ensure good management of the abundant petroleum resources found in the Niger Delta basin. The Act vests the ownership and control of all petroleum resources in the state. The marginal fields legislation strives to encourage more participation by indigenous companies, while at the same time boosting national producible reserves through a farm-in arrangement with concessionaires. Legislations on deep-water exploration have encouraged exploration activities in that terrain though it poses a great challenge to technology. Government's desire to eradicate environmental pollution and improve revenue has led it to enact legislations that would properly position Nigerian gas to compete favourably in the world market. Joint studies by government and operators in viable options for utilizing uncommitted gas through projects such as Gas-to Liquid, NGL and IPP are on-going.Although many of the Legislations have not changed by a large margin, their dynamic administration accommodates their reviews to match increasingly difficult safety

  4. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  5. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  6. Classification with support hyperplanes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I. Nalbantov (Georgi); J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractA new classification method is proposed, called Support Hy- perplanes (SHs). To solve the binary classification task, SHs consider the set of all hyperplanes that do not make classification mistakes, referred to as semi-consistent hyperplanes. A test object is classified using

  7. Standard classification: Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a draft standard classification of physics. The conception is based on the physics part of the systematic catalogue of the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek and on the classification given in standard textbooks. The ICSU-AB classification now used worldwide by physics information services was not taken into account. (BJ) [de

  8. The Impact of Legislative Factor in the Identity of Modern Residential Urban in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Faris Dhumad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Residential has developed and changed in different periods of time with successive and gradual shifts, as it cast a shadow over the characterization of modern urbanism in Iraq. The semi-total absence of the governing legislation of urbanization as well as the weakness of the State's role of supervisory in addition to neglecting urban heritage contributed in offering a strange environment in relation to its traditional identity. That was increased by the pressure of the using urban environment as a result of the increasing of population as well as the growth of people’s needs. The research aims to provide an objective view for a mechanism of the application of urban legislation to monitor the implementation of the business relating to the urban structure in general and specifically the urban residential areas in order to preserve the traditional identity of the modern Iraqi city. For the purpose of treating the problem of research and to achieve its goals, the research supposes that the legislative system is based on a pyramid arrangement in its vocabulary, which is flexible in its application, and are drawn from objective reality, it can produce urban residential with local identity. The elements of the practical influential process of the legislative factor identified by the planning legislation, laws, regulations, controls and limitations, supervision and oversight. And then draw theoretical indicators which affect the urban environment, namely: proportionately, essence and appearance, construction and the sky line, the scale and size, bearings, cover-up, opening-up and containment through the study of a number of legislative irregularities in neighborhoods and residential areas that produced these indicators. For applying and testing these indicators practically, two selective neighborhoods in Al Rabeea'a District in Baghdad has been chosen and with a précised field survey the search findings are: the poverty of Urban elements

  9. Eutanasia y legislación Euthanasia and Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manuel Padovani Cantón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se hace una revisión de los conceptos relacionados con la eutanasia, como son Distanasia y Ortotanasia y de los diferentes tipos de Eutanasia, como la Voluntaria, la no voluntaria y la Involuntaria, la Eutanasia Eugenésica. Se valoran las distintas posibilidades desde el punto de vista jurídico, donde puede estar regulada o no; la regulada puede serlo por norma penal, en ese caso la regulación puede ser como figura delictiva típica o dentro de otro tipo legal, y de la regulación no penal puede serlo por normas administrativas y puede tratarse de regulaciones permisivas o no permisivas. Se valoran estas posibilidades, exponiendo como tipifica en el Código Penal Cubano y cual es el criterio de los autores. A continuación se exponen algunos ejemplos de países donde se ha tratado o logrado tipificar la Eutanasia de forma diferente, exponiendo los resultados de un estudio hecho en Holanda antes de la despenalización de la Eutanasia y como se comportó la atención a pacientes terminales en ese año. Finalmente se expone el criterio de los autores en torno a la regulación legal de la Eutanasia.Concepts related to Euthanasia as Disthanasia and Ortothanasia are reviewed as well as the different types of Euthanasia, such as the Voluntary Euthanasia, the non Voluntary Euthanasia and the Involuntary Euthanasia, the Eugenesic Euthanasia. The different possibilities from the legal point of view are assessed; the Euthanasia may be regulated or not, the first type of Euthanasia may be regulated by penal rules. i.e., the regulation may be a typical delictive figure or to be within another legal type and in case of not penal regulation, it may be by administrative rules and in such case it may be treated of permissive regulations or not. These possibilities are valuated exposing how they are classified in the Cuban Penal Code and which is the authors´s criterion. The countries where the classification of Euthanasia has been treated or attained from

  10. The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China-legislative and market responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, C.; Dietmar, R.; Eugster, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of new legislation on collection, recycling and disposal of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) as well as the scaling-up and privatisation of the WEEE processing industry, are indications of major changes for WEEE management in China. However, China's attempts to regulate the industry and establish a financially viable, environmentally benign and safe WEEE management system are facing significant challenges. The existence of an extensive informal sector, combined with a lack of environmental awareness among WEEE collectors, recyclers and consumers, are contributing to China's difficulties in developing a financially and environmentally sound recycling and disposal system. This paper discusses the current status of WEEE recycling and disposal in China, and its impacts on the environment, human health, and the economy. It also examines the legislative and market responses to the WEEE issue, and how these will be affected by Chinese attitudes and practices towards WEEE recycling

  11. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  12. Criteria for the use of monoclonal antibodies, legislation and ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The criteria governing the in vivo use of monoclonal antibodies in humans are based upon a number of legal requirements with respect to radiation hygiene, pharmaceutical legislation, radiopharmaceutical legislation and regulations with respect to products arising from biotechnology. This in itself has led to a complicated situation which has undoubtedly restricted the development of valuable diagnostic and potential therapeutic agents. From the ethical point of view there are also important considerations, firstly with respect to the methods of producing antibodies, which has resulted in the discontinuation of the raising of antibodies in murine ascites, and secondly in consideration of the ethics of administering labelled antibodies to healthy volunteers and to patients who may not necessarily benefit personally from the procedure. These factors must be evaluated in the light of the EEC document 'Good clinical practice for trials in medicinal products in the European Community from the CPMP working party on Efficacy of Medicinal Products'. (author)

  13. Contributions from assited human reproduction techniques' socio-legal research to the legislative field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s intention is to share some of the main results of two field-based research projects regarding assisted human reproduction practices in Argentina. Both projects have been developed in a dynamic legislative context involving medical coverage regulation, parentage determination and the right to know one's origins for children born with third party genetic material. Also, in this context, the Draft Civil and Commercial Code reform introduced two figures that were then removed in the parliamentary debate: post mortem fertilization and surrogate motherhood. All these issues concerning the use of assisted human reproduction challenge the legal field and are addressed in these research projects, one of them more from an explorative perspective and the other from a qualitative one. Therefore, this article aims to introduce some of the measured variables and the findings obtained to serve as relevant contributions to achieve a more appropriate legislation according with the medical and social reality.

  14. Firearm Legislation and Fatal Police Shootings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisto, Aaron J; Ray, Bradley; Phalen, Peter L

    2017-07-01

    To examine whether stricter firearm legislation is associated with rates of fatal police shootings. We used a cross-sectional, state-level design to evaluate the effect of state-level firearm legislation on rates of fatal police shootings from January 1, 2015, through October 31, 2016. We measured state-level variation in firearm laws with legislative scorecards from the Brady Center, and for fatal police shootings we used The Counted, an online database maintained by The Guardian. State-level firearm legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of fatal police shootings (incidence rate ratio = 0.961; 95% confidence interval = 0.939, 0.984). When we controlled for sociodemographic factors, states in the top quartile of legislative strength had a 51% lower incidence rate than did states in the lowest quartile. Laws aimed at strengthening background checks, promoting safe storage, and reducing gun trafficking were associated with fewer fatal police shootings. Legislative restrictions on firearms are associated with reductions in fatal police shootings. Public Health Implications. Although further research is necessary to determine causality and potential mechanisms, firearm legislation is a potential policy solution for reducing fatal police shootings in the United States.

  15. Accountability legislation: Implications for financial and performance reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Rixon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to first examine the implications of accountability legislation on the financial and performance reporting of a public sector agency in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador and secondly, to compare the level of accountability with Stewart’s (1984 ladder of accountability. This paper is based on the first phase of a two-phase study. The first phase focuses on the initial impacts of accountability legislation on agencies and the challenges created by the legislation’s ‘one size fits all’ approach. The second phase of this study will examine the impact of the legislation on stakeholders after it has been in operation for five years. The second phase will include interviews with stakeholders to ascertain the level of satisfaction with the new legislation. The first phase of the study is significant since it highlights how governments could consider stakeholder needs when drafting such legislation. This research contributes to the body of literature on stakeholder accountability since there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the impact of accountability legislation on public sector agencies. An important contribution of this paper is the introduction of a framework for legislated accountability reporting. The main theoretical frameworks used to analyse the findings are Stewart’s (1984 ladder of accountability in conjunction with Friedman and Miles (2006 ladder of stakeholder management and engagement.

  16. An analysis of state legislation on community trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy; Lankford, Tina; Chriqui, Jamie; Evenson, Kelly R; Kruger, Judy; Tompkins, Nancy; Voorhees, Carolyn; Zieff, Susan; Aytur, Semra; Brownson, Ross

    2010-03-01

    Trails provide opportunities for recreation, transportation and activity. The purpose of this article is to describe state legislation related to community trails, to analyze legislation content, and to evaluate legislation on inclusion of evidence-informed elements. State trail legislation from 2001 to 2008 was identified using online legislative databases. An analysis of evidence-informed elements included in the legislation was conducted. These elements included: funding, liability, accessibility, connectivity, and maintenance. Of the total 991 trail bills, 516 (52.0%) were appropriations bills, of which 167 (32.2%) were enacted. We analyzed 475 (48%) nonappropriation trail bills of which 139 (29.3%) were enacted. The percentage of enactment of appropriations bills decreased over time while enactment of nonappropriations trail bills increased. Over half of the nonappropriations trail bills included at least 1 evidence-informed element, most commonly funding. Few bills contained liability, connectivity, accessibility, or maintenance. There is opportunity for providing evidence-informed information to policy-makers to potentially influence bill content. The number of bills with a funding element demonstrates that fiscal support for trails is an important policy lever that state legislatures may use to support trails. Lastly, trails should be considered in over-all state-level physical activity legislation to provide opportunities for communities to be active.

  17. Classification of refrigerants; Classification des fluides frigorigenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document was made from the US standard ANSI/ASHRAE 34 published in 2001 and entitled 'designation and safety classification of refrigerants'. This classification allows to clearly organize in an international way the overall refrigerants used in the world thanks to a codification of the refrigerants in correspondence with their chemical composition. This note explains this codification: prefix, suffixes (hydrocarbons and derived fluids, azeotropic and non-azeotropic mixtures, various organic compounds, non-organic compounds), safety classification (toxicity, flammability, case of mixtures). (J.S.)

  18. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  19. Legislator voting and behavioral science theory: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Vernick, Jon S; Reiney, Erin V; Gielen, Andrea C

    2012-11-01

    To examine the application of behavioral science theories to explain the voting behavior of legislators for public health policies. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that examined factors associated with legislator support, intention to vote, or actual votes on public health policies, emphasizing those grounded in behavior science theory. Twenty-one papers met our inclusion criteria, and 6 were explicitly grounded in a behavioral science theory. Behavioral science theories, and the theory of planned behavior in particular, provide a framework for understanding legislator voting behavior and can be used by advocates to advance pro-health policies.

  20. Legislative impacts on Savannah River waste management operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Today everyone has to be prepared to meet the challenges presented by new legislative actions. The Savannah River Plant is also impacted by this legislation as the exclusive nature of the Atomic Energy Act slowly erodes. This paper discusses the management of three types of radioactive waste from the production of defense nuclear materials and the impacts of major environmental legislation on the handling of these wastes. The paper briefly discusses the major environmental statutes, covers the statutes impact on the technical processes and, finally, considers the nontechnical impact of the statutes

  1. Mineral resources of Slovakia, questions of classification and valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baláž Peter

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the Constitution of Slovak Republic, mineral resources of Slovakia are in the ownership of Slovak Republic. In 1997, 721 exclusive mineral deposits of mineral fuels, metals and industrial minerals were registered in Slovakia. The classification for economic and uneconomic reserves/resources requires an annual updating, concerning changes of market mineral prices and mine production costs. In terms of economic valuation of mineral resources, a new United Nations international classification for reserves/resources appears as a perspective alternative. Changes of geological and mining legislation are necessary for real valuation of Slovak mineral resources.

  2. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Sospedra, Isabel; Baladía, Eduard; Arranz, Laura; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2017-11-08

    The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1) Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2) Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3) Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids.

  3. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1 Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2 Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3 Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids.

  4. Current Status of Legislation on Dietary Products for Sportspeople in a European Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, Laura; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocío

    2017-01-01

    The consumption of nutritional ergogenic aids is conditioned by laws/regulations, but standards/regulations vary between countries. The aim of this review is to explore legislative documents that regulate the use of nutritional ergogenic aids intended for sportspeople in a Spanish/European framework. A narrative review has been developed from official websites of Spanish (Spanish Agency of the Consumer, Food Safety, and Nutrition) and European (European Commission and European Food Safety Authority) bodies. A descriptive analysis of documents was performed. Eighteen legislative documents have been compiled in three sections: (1) Advertising of any type of food and/or product; (2) Composition, labeling, and advertising of foods; (3) Nutritional ergogenic aids. In spite of the existence of these legal documents, the regulation lacks guidance on the use/application of nutritional ergogenic aids for sportspeople. It is essential to prevent the introduction or dissemination of false, ambiguous, or inexact information and contents that induce an error in the receivers of the information. In this field, it is worth highlighting the roles of the European Food Safety Authority and the World Anti-Doping Agency, which provide information about consumer guidelines, prescribing practices, and recommendations for the prudent use of nutritional ergogenic aids. PMID:29117104

  5. The potential impact of proposed hazardous air pollutant legislation on the US refining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The Administration has recently submitted a Clean Air Act Bill to Congress which would significantly modify the regulatory treatment of industrial hazardous air pollutants (air toxics). The adverse economic impacts of this legislation on the petroleum refining industry could be substantial. Depending on how EPA interprets the legislative language, the capital costs of compliance for the proposed bill could range from $1.3 to $15.0 billion. At the upper end of the range, costs of this order of magnitude would be over 2.5 times larger than the combined estimated cost of EPAs gasoline volatility (RVP) regulations and the proposed diesel sulfur content regulations. Potential compliance costs could be as much as $0.40 per barrel processed for large, complex refineries and as much as $0.50 per barrel for some small, simple refineries. For perspective, total refining costs, including a normal return on investment, are $4--5 per barrel. Because foreign refineries supplying the US will not be affected by the US air toxics regulations, US refineries may not be able to raise prices sufficiently to recover their compliance costs. For this reason, the air toxic legislation may put US refineries at an economic disadvantage relative to foreign competitors. Even under the best petroleum product market conditions, costs of $0.40 to $0.50 per barrel processed could reduce US Gulf refiner cash operating margins by as much as 29 percent. Under less favorable market conditions, such as the mid-80's when refiners were losing money, the hazardous air pollutant regulations could greatly increase US refiner operating losses and potentially lead to closure of some marginal refineries

  6. CONCORDAT PROCEDURE. LEGISLATIVE AND JURISPRUDENTIAL HIGHLIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tofan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Insolvency Code has revived theoreticians’ and practitioners’ discussions, equally. The voluntary arrangements procedure is considered a legal solution for the prevention and recovery from commercial actors’ financial difficulty. The current legal framework establishes a number of imperative conditions for the implementation of this procedure, but in many cases, the application of the current regulation generated different conclusions. In less than half a year, since the entry into force of the law, the practice for each court varied. The paper synthesizes separate opinions and proposes solutions for shaping a more precise legal framework.

  7. Classification and disposal of radioactive wastes: History and legal and regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    This document discusses the laws and regulations in the United States addressing classification of radioactive wastes and the requirements for disposal of different waste classes. This review emphasizes the relationship between waste classification and the requirements for permanent disposal

  8. 7 CFR 27.87 - Fees; classification and Micronaire determination information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY... Regulations Costs of Classification and Micronaire § 27.87 Fees; classification and Micronaire determination... costs prescribed in this subpart, the cost of tolls incurred in such transmission. ...

  9. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  10. The EU Legislative Framework Against Money Laundering and Terrorist Finance:A Critical Analysis in the Light of Evolving Global Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, William; Mitsilegas, Valsamis

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the evolution of the EU anti-money laundering legislative framework (which in recent years has also included measures to counter terrorist finance), by focusing in particular on recent legislation such as the third money laundering Directive and the Regulation on controls of cash entering the EU, both adopted in 2005. The analysis highlights the relationship between these instruments and international initiatives in the field (in particular FATF standards), and addresses...

  11. Educational Policy Making in the State Legislature: Legislator as Policy Expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Sue Wells; Geske, Terry G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the legislator's role as education policy expert in the legislative policymaking process. In a study of Louisiana state legislators, analysis of variance was used to determine expert legislators' degree of influence in formulating educational policy, given differences in policy types, information sources, and legislators' work roles.…

  12. Annual report 2011 the Norwegian energy regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeiland, Arne; Lund, Per Tore

    2012-07-01

    The report provides an overview of the current regulation of the electricity and district heating markets in Norway, and explains relevant market developments. An overview of legislative amendments, research work and international participation is also presented in the report (Author)

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  14. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  17. Trade policy-making in a model of legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, B.; McLaren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-190 ISSN 0022-1996 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : trade policy * multilateral legislative bargaining * political economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.443, year: 2013

  18. Military Retirement, Concurrent Receipt, and Related Major Legislative Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henning, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    .... The change to the system that has generated the most recent legislative activity involves whether some or all military retirees should be allowed to receive both military retired pay and any VA...

  19. Legislation, standards and methods for mercury emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Mercury is an element of growing global concern. The United Nations Environment Programme plans to finalise and ratify a new global legally-binding convention on mercury by 2013. Canada already has legislation on mercury emissions from coal-fired utilities and the USA has recently released the new Mercury and Air Toxics Standard. Although other countries may not have mercury-specific legislation as such, many have legislation which results in significant co-benefit mercury reduction due to the installation of effective flue-gas cleaning technologies. This report reviews the current situation and trends in mercury emission legislation and, where possible, discusses the actions that will be taken under proposed or impending standards globally and regionally. The report also reviews the methods currently applied for mercury control and for mercury emission measurement with emphasis on the methodologies most appropriate for compliance. Examples of the methods of mercury control currently deployed in the USA, Canada and elsewhere are included.

  20. Enabling legislation and regulatory determinations for a nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong

    1977-01-01

    General remarks on objectives and scope of enabling legislation, on the regulatory body and on the IAEA activities and assistance in regulatory matters e.g. the IAEA Safety Guides which are in preparation. (HP) [de