WorldWideScience

Sample records for legislation encouraging research

  1. Encouraging research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    In support of the Burmese Government's effort to encourage scientific research and teaching, the Agency provided, under the United Nations Development Programme, the services of an expert in nuclear chemistry. He stayed for three months at the Rangoon Arts and Science University. As a result a radiochemistry laboratory has been set up, where radioisotopes are used in chemical research and where radiochemistry is taught to fourth-year bachelor of science students

  2. Emerging Researcher Awards encourages innovation and leadership

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-10

    EcoHealth Student: Emerging Researcher Awards encourages innovation and leadership. May 10, 2011. Ecosystems and Human Health. Addressing critical population health and environment issues through an ecohealth approach is a common vision shared by four individuals from vastly different parts of the world.

  3. Sexting: Current Research Gaps and Legislative Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Fawn; Jaishankar, K; Agustina, Jose R.

    2017-01-01

    'Sexting, the portmanteau of Sex and Texting, has become a hot topic of debate between the legislators, researchers, educators, parents and teens' (Jaishankar, 2009, para 1). In spite of the considerable and growing body of literature on sexting, there are significant gaps in the current research. A review of research to date also reveals a dearth of cross-national and cross-cultural research on the topic of sexting. Notably, legal and ethical issues abound with the current method for punishi...

  4. Legislation, Empirical Research and Juridical Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotel, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the incorporation of empirical research into legislation from a juridical law perspective. Juridical law is characterized by four elements: autonomous and artificial reasoning; making statements to authorize factual actions; mobilizing helpers of the proponent and de-mobilizing

  5. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...

  6. Encouragement of effective research and development partnerships ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    donors and governments, is rooted in two key issues. Firstly the need to make more efficient and effective use of increasingly limited financial resources and secondly that the perceived ineffective public sector agricultural research and extension organisations and systems could only be improved if ways of supporting them ...

  7. Research on psychological encouragement in business management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kebing

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of society, the competition in the market is aggravating day by day. The loyalty of employees to the enterprises is decreasing. With the constant improvement of the employees' abilities, the willingness of job-hopping and the needs of employees become more diversified. Employees as an important driving force for the development of enterprises is the basic and necessary factor to support the operation of enterprises. In the face of increasingly fierce market competition, enterprises must use reasonable ways to motivate their employees and maintain the sense of belonging and trust with their employees. Continuous development to enhance staff treatment, so that employees dedicated to enterprise development services [1]. This article briefly discusses the exploration and research on the practical thinking of psychological incentive in business management.

  8. Legislation on university technology transfer and research management 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    This book deals with legislation on university technology transfer in 2012, which includes invention promotion act, legislation on technology transfer and promotion of industrialization, legislation on industrial education and industrial cooperation, and special legislation on venture business. It lists the legislation related research and development by government department : fundamental law of scientific technique, law on evaluation and management of domestic research development business, national science and technology council and the patent office.

  9. Legislation hampers medical research in acute situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Hassager, Christian; Bro-Jeppesen, John

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Informed consent in incapacitated adults is permitted in the form of proxy consent by both the patients' closest relative (next of kin, NOK) and general practitioner (GP). In research in acute situations not involving pharmaceuticals, Danish legislation allows for randomisation...... and subsequent proxy consent, as soon as possible. The aim of this study was to describe the delay associated with obtaining consent and to assess whether consent from NOK or GP/Danish Health and Medicines Authority is obtained with delays beyond the intervention. METHODS: In a prospective study, 171 comatose...... days (IQR: 6-23, max. 527 days). CONCLUSION: NOK fully accepted participation in a clinical trial after OHCA with short delays in consent. Consent from GPs was associated with long delays beyond the intervention, which make GPs less appropriate for proxy consent of incapacitated adults in acute...

  10. Four simple recommendations to encourage best practices in research software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Rafael C.; Kuzak, Mateusz; Alhamdoosh, Monther

    2017-01-01

    Scientific research relies on computer software, yet software is not always developed following practices that ensure its quality and sustainability. This manuscript does not aim to propose new software development best practices, but rather to provide simple recommendations that encourage the ad...

  11. use of library and information services for legislative research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Keywords: Legislature, National Assembly, Library services, Legislative research, Information. Introduction. Information has ... offers core services for learning and research. It plays the role of support to the legislative learning .... Nisbet ,J and Schucksmith (1986) Learning strategies. London: Rutledge and Kegan Paul.

  12. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the legislation activities of the UJD are presented. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (UJD) of the Slovak Republic, as the central body, performs legislative activities within its competence and defines binding criteria in the area of nuclear safety. In the area of nuclear safety the Act No.130/1998 Coll. 'on peaceful use of nuclear energy' (Atomic Act) is the principal document which came into force on July 1, 1998. Based on the Atomic Act UJD issued decrees on special materials and installations, limits for maximum quantities of nuclear materials at which nuclear damage is not presumed. Furthermore, the regulations are issued which deal with provision of physical protection of nuclear material and radioactive waste, professional ability of employees at nuclear installations, registration and control of nuclear materials, emergency planning for the case of an incident or an events on nuclear installations at their decommissioning, transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. Simultaneously, other 6 regulations are just before the before the completion and they are in various stages of the of the legislative process. In addition, UJD performs remarkable activities in legislative area by preparation of comments to drafts of other relating generally binding legal provisions of the Slovak Republic. UJD also acts as the participant of the review procedure in the area of technical standards and publication. UJD also issues documents which have character of the recommendations, so called safety guides. These guides contain methods and approach how to meet safety requirements presented in binding documents, as acts and decrees. In accordance with the Atomic act it is possible to use nuclear energy or make business in the area of nuclear energy only the basis of the authorisation issued by UJD. Authorisations are following

  13. Research on the Legislation of Chinese Space Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongwen

    2002-01-01

    1 Need and necessity for the legislation of Chinese space activities --Complying with UN treaties and principles on outer space --Adapting to the requirements of market economy --Promoting the further development of Chinese space activities --Developing international space cooperation 2 Research method for legislation of Chinese space activities The research method is ROCCIPI. This method was introduced into China with the project "Legislation Supports Economy Reform" supported by the UN Office of Development Planning - By analyzing the correlations among the seven factors: Rule, Opportunity, Capacity, Communication, Interest, Process and Ideology, the optimal legal measures can be found . Such analysis and research works on the master law of Chinese space activities have been made in the paper. 3 Research of international treaties &principles on outer space, and of national space laws of other countries. Studies have been made in this paper on many aspects of international outer space laws, such as framework, development stage, current characteristics, new problems will be faced with in new century, and development tendency in the future, etc. Based on the investigation and study of national space laws of other countries, analyses and researches on national space law have been made in the paper from some aspects, such as legislative purpose, legislative aim, legislative form, legislative content and etc, and some enlightenments, which can be used for reference in the legislation of Chinese Space Laws, are found. 4 Framework of Chinese Space Laws The jurisdiction of Chinese Space Laws lies in three areas: space technology - space applications and space science. Chinese Space Laws are divided into 3 levels: Master law, Administration Regulations of the State Council of the P.R.C, Rules of governmental sectors. 5 Conclusions and Suggestions --The legislation of Chinese Space Activities should be strengthened --More attentions should be paid to the research work in

  14. Encouraging innovation in business relationships - A research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, E.A.; Frambach, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    How do buyer-supplier relationships affect innovation? This study suggests that the relational exchange norms of flexibility, information sharing, and solidarity (the bright side) encourage buyer innovation. However, negative (dark side) aspects of relationships with suppliers-loss of supplier

  15. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals’ pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers. PMID:28178270

  16. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roach

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  17. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  18. An action research approach to practice, service and legislative change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Elise; Hegney, Desley G; Francis, Karen

    2013-11-01

    To describe the action research approach taken to engage a multidisciplinary group of health professionals and managers from five rural health services with government officers in redesigning their emergency care services and informing legislative change. The diminishing size of the medical workforce across rural Victoria in Australia captured the Victorian state government's attention when this threatened the sustainability of emergency care services in rural and remote hospitals in 2006. The government funded the collaborative practice model pilot between 2006 and 2008 to develop and test an alternative model of emergency care service in which nurses practised at a more advanced and autonomous level. Data were sourced from a combination of interviews, focus groups and patient records. Qualitative data were analysed using convergent interview and thematic analysis. Quantitative data were analysed using frequencies and cross tabulations. The three critical success factors owing to action research are presented. It provided a politically safe approach to service, policy and legislative change, ensured collaboration permeated the endeavour and helped to shift the focus from a technical to an emancipatory approach to action research. Action research was key to the success achieved by the participants in changing clinical practice, service delivery and the Victorian Drugs Poisons and Controlled Substances Act (1981) to authorise registered nurses to supply medicines. This paper offers an approach that nurses in practice, management and government can take to drive changes at practice, service and legislative levels in advanced nursing practice.

  19. Encouraging Volunteer Participation in Health Research: The Role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health research mainly relies on volunteers to generate data. Volunteer participants not only help provide necessary information to solve problems but also contribute to free participation which in turn helps the research wheel to continue. People mainly contribute to different nonprofit organizations by giving money for ...

  20. An approach to measuring and encouraging research translation and research impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searles, Andrew; Doran, Chris; Attia, John; Knight, Darryl; Wiggers, John; Deeming, Simon; Mattes, Joerg; Webb, Brad; Hannan, Steve; Ling, Rod; Edmunds, Kim; Reeves, Penny; Nilsson, Michael

    2016-08-09

    Research translation, particularly in the biomedical area, is often discussed but there are few methods that are routinely used to measure it or its impact. Of the impact measurement methods that are used, most aim to provide accountability - to measure and explain what was generated as a consequence of funding research. This case study reports on the development of a novel, conceptual framework that goes beyond measurement. The Framework To Assess the Impact from Translational health research, or FAIT, is a platform designed to prospectively measure and encourage research translation and research impact. A key assumption underpinning FAIT is that research translation is a prerequisite for research impact. The research impact literature was mined to understand the range of existing frameworks and techniques employed to measure and encourage research translation and research impact. This review provided insights for the development of a FAIT prototype. A Steering Committee oversaw the project and provided the feedback that was used to refine FAIT. The outcome of the case study was the conceptual framework, FAIT, which is based on a modified program logic model and a hybrid of three proven methodologies for measuring research impact, namely a modified Payback method, social return on investment, and case studies or narratives of the process by which research translates and generates impact. As funders increasingly seek to understand the return on their research investments, the routine measurement of research translation and research impact is likely to become mandatory rather than optional. Measurement of research impact on its own is insufficient. There should also be a mechanism attached to measurement that encourages research translation and impact - FAIT was designed for this task.

  1. EcoHealth Student: Emerging Researcher Awards encourages ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    "An amalgamation of ideas and interests" brought Coll Hutchison, a doctoral student at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, to the world of ecohealth research. About to embark on work in the northeastern province of Misiones in Argentina, Hutchison plans to explore Mbya Guaraní mothers' perception of ...

  2. Encouraging primary care research: evaluation of a one-year, doctoral clinical epidemiology research course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liira, Helena; Koskela, Tuomas; Thulesius, Hans; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2016-01-01

    Research and PhDs are relatively rare in family medicine and primary care. To promote research, regular one-year research courses for primary care professionals with a focus on clinical epidemiology were started. This study explores the academic outcomes of the first four cohorts of research courses and surveys the participants' perspectives on the research course. An electronic survey was sent to the research course participants. All peer-reviewed scientific papers published by these students were retrieved by literature searches in PubMed. Primary care in Finland. A total of 46 research course participants who had finished the research courses between 2007 and 2012. Of the 46 participants 29 were physicians, eight nurses, three dentists, four physiotherapists, and two nutritionists. By the end of 2014, 28 of the 46 participants (61%) had published 79 papers indexed in PubMed and seven students (15%) had completed a PhD. The participants stated that the course taught them critical thinking, and provided basic research knowledge, inspiration, and fruitful networks for research. A one-year, multi-professional, clinical epidemiology based research course appeared to be successful in encouraging primary care research as measured by research publications and networking. Activating teaching methods, encouraging focus on own research planning, and support from peers and tutors helped the participants to embark on research projects that resulted in PhDs for 15% of the participants. Clinical research and PhDs are rare in primary care in Finland, which has consequences for the development of the discipline and for the availability of clinical lecturers at the universities. A clinical epidemiology oriented, one-year research course increased the activity in primary care research. Focus on own research planning and learning the challenges of research with peers appeared to enhance the success of a doctoral research course. A doctoral research course encouraged networking, and

  3. Using research data to impact consumer protection legislation: lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerster, Katherine D; Mayer, Joni A

    2013-09-01

    The Correlates of Indoor Tanning in Youth (CITY100) project evaluated individual, built-environmental, and policy correlates of indoor tanning by adolescents in the 100 most populous US cities. After CITY100's completion, the research team obtained supplemental dissemination funding to strategically share data with stakeholders. The primary CITY100 dissemination message was to encourage state-level banning of indoor tanning among youth. We created a user-friendly website to broadly share the most relevant CITY100 data. Journalists were a primary target audience, as were health organizations that would be well positioned to advocate for legislative change. CITY100 data were used to pass the first US state law to ban indoor tanning among those under 18 (CA, USA), as well as in other legislative advocacy activities. This paper concludes with lessons learned from CITY100 dissemination activities that we hope will encourage more health researchers to proactively address policy implications of their data and to design relevant, effective dissemination strategies.

  4. Research-informed evidence and support for road safety legislation: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Clegg; Debinski, Beata; Pollack, Keshia; Vernick, Jon; Bowman, Stephen; Samuels, Alicia; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Public opinion is influential in the policymaking process, making it important to understand the factors that influence popular support or opposition to public health policies. Researchers and policymakers tend to agree that scientific evidence can inform decision-making, but this influence has not been explored sufficiently, especially in the area of injury prevention. This paper considers the potential for the communication of evidence-based research and public health data to influence opinion about legislation that could reduce road-related injury. We conducted a nationally-representative online survey to assess public attitudes toward four road-safety laws; ignition interlock, school zone red-light cameras, restrictions on infotainment systems, and children's bicycle helmets. For each law, we assessed initial support and then provided a research-informed statistic on either the injury risk posed or the law's efficacy reducing risk and re-examined the law's support or opposition. The survey was completed by 2397 U.S. adults. Each law was initially supported by a majority of respondents, with greatest support for ignition interlock (74.4%) and children's bicycle helmets (74.8%). Exposure to research-informed statements increased legislative support for 20-30% of respondents. Paired analyses demonstrate significant increases toward supportive opinions when comparing responses to the initial and research-informed statements. The study demonstrates considerable public support for evidence-based road-related laws. Overall support was augmented by exposure to research data. Injury prevention practitioners can capitalize on this support in efforts to build support for legislation that would prevent injury. Researchers should be encouraged to expand their efforts to share research results with both the public and policymakers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Courts, legislators and human embryo research: lessons from Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binchy, William

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to the matter of human embryo research law plays a crucial role in its development by helping to set the boundaries of what may be done, the sanctions for acting outside those boundaries and the rights and responsibilities of key parties. Nevertheless, the philosophical challenges raised by human embryo research, even with the best will of all concerned, may prove too great for satisfactory resolution through the legal process. Taking as its focus the position of Ireland, this paper explores the distinctive constitutional approach taken on this issue and addresses the difficulty of translating sound philosophy into judicial decrees and the difficulty of establishing expert commissions to make law reform proposals on matters of profound normative controversy. It concludes that the Irish experience does have useful lessons for those in other countries who are concerned with the legal approach to research on human embryos and points to the desirability of a diversity of normative positions in order to enrich the quality of the analysis so as to encourage more informed debate in society.

  6. Using Interdisciplinary and Active Research to Encourage Higher Resolution Research and Prototyping in Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adream Blair-Early

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available University art and design programs are branching out and creating interdisciplinary programs and research centers that connect design students and faculty across various disciplines such as business, engineering, architecture, information studies, health sciences and education. A human-centered, problem-based approach to design research looks to position industry and academic leaders to work alongside students, community leaders, artists and non-profits to develop creative and innovative solutions to the challenges facing contemporary society. But product design benefits even more from practices that engage users throughout the entire design process, often called participatory design. Participatory design process utilizes user feedback throughout the design process to spur innovation and improve design quality. It is possible in the classroom to engage in participatory design and participatory prototyping through the use of inexpensive 3D printers and laser cutters as well as traditional hand tools, requiring only mastery of a few simple techniques and technology readily available on laptop computers. The class research being presented was conceived as part of a new interdisciplinary classroom research space call the Digital Craft Research Lab (DCRL housed within the department of Art and Design. Courses taught within the DCRL offer students, researchers and faculty continual access to both low resolution and high-resolution prototyping machinery and materials. This paper looks at the role of action and participatory research in a design course that created printed hand innovations in collaboration with a nine-year-old female user. Students were asked to work on modeling new designs as well as capturing the progress in a final open source book and models. This paper asks the question can the use of classroom collaboration, action research and work spaces encourage creativity, innovation, and critical thinking in student and professional

  7. Inclusive research: making a difference to policy and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelley; Minogue, Gerard; Hopklins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    While inclusive research has become an important stream in research with people with intellectual disabilities, there is a tension between the possibly empowering research process and the strength of the research itself to make social change happen. In this paper, we explore the contribution of two inclusive qualitative research studies in Australia and the Republic of Ireland to change in policy and legislation. Both studies used qualitative methods including life stories and focus groups to explore the issue of sexuality and relationships. In both studies, people with intellectual disabilities were actively involved in undertaking the research. Both studies revealed that it was difficult for people with intellectual disabilities to express their sexuality openly or to form adult relationships. Both studies were used by people with intellectual disabilities and their supporters to promote change in which they had a heard voice. This paper is about how people with intellectual disabilities and their supporters can use research which they have done to change policies and laws that affect them. When people with intellectual disabilities are doing research it is called inclusive research.We write about two research studies which were about the sexual lives and relationships of people with intellectual disabilities. One research study was in Australia and one was in the Republic of Ireland.In the Australian study, Living Safer Sexual Lives, 25 people with intellectual disabilities told their life stories and talked about sexuality and relationships.In the Irish study people with intellectual disabilities told life stories and talked with other people with intellectual disabilities about their sexuality and relationships in groups. These are called focus groups.In this paper we explore 4 questions that arose from these studies. Question 1. What impact does doing research have on the people who are involved in it? People with intellectual disabilities in Australia were

  8. What's the matter with Kansas? Legislative debates over stem cell research in Kansas and Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2009-03-01

    This paper examines the contextual factors shaping legislative debates affecting stem cell research in two states, Kansas and Massachusetts, which both permit therapeutic cloning for stem cell research but markedly vary in their legislative approach to the issue. In Kansas, restrictive legislation was proposed but effectively blocked by research proponents, while in Massachusetts permissive legislation was successfully implemented under the auspices of an act to promote stem cell research. The importance of university and industry involvement is highlighted in each case, as are the roles of enterprising and persistent policy entrepreneurs. Providing a close examination of the policy process attending the cloning debate in these states is intended to contribute to an enhanced understanding of the cloning-policy process as it has played out at the state level, with an eye toward informing legislative debates over related biotechnical advances in the future.

  9. The impact of European research ethics legislation on UK radiology research activity: a bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.A.; Toms, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there is evidence of a reduction in radiology research activity in the UK following the implementation of the European research ethics legislation, which came in to force in 2001 and has been widely criticised as an impediment to research. Materials and methods: A bibliometric analysis was performed by searching PubMed for all first-author publications from UK departments of 'radiology' or 'medical imaging' between 1995 and 2007. Results were subcategorized into those papers published in the highest cited general radiology journals and by publication type: original research, reviews, and case reports. Results: From 1995 to 2007 the total number of publications rose by 6.5% from 137 to 146 with the increase occurring in non-general radiology journals. Original articles fell from 18 in 1995 to 12 in 2003, but then rose to 24 by 2007 (33% rise). This dip was paralleled by a fall and then recovery in case report publications. The most dramatic change has been in the number of review articles, which has increased more than eightfold from seven in 1995 to 65 in 2007 to become the most common form of publication. Conclusion: The overall number of original scientific articles, published by first-author UK radiologists, has increased slightly over the last 12 years despite a temporary fall associated with the introduction of new research ethics legislation.

  10. Optimization programs of radiation protection applied to post-graduation and encouraging research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Denise S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 we started the automation and integration of radiological protection optimization programs, in order to offer unified programs and inter-related information in Portuguese, providing Brazilian radioactive facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information. The authors of this project extended it to postgraduate education, in order to encourage postgraduate students researches, expanding methods for enhancing student learning through the use of different combined resources, such as educational technology, information technology and group dynamics. This new methodology was applied in a postgraduate discipline at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Brazil, in the postgraduate discipline entitled Fundamental Elements of Radiological Protection (TNA-5732). Students have six weeks to assimilate a complex content of optimization, considering national and international standards, guidelines and recommendations published by different organizations over the past decades. Unlike traditional classes, in which students receive prompt responses, this new methodology stimulates discussion, encouraging collective thinking processes and promoting ongoing personal reflection and researches. Case-oriented problem-solving permitted students to play different roles, promoting whole-group discussions and cooperative learning, approaching theory and practical applications. Students discussed different papers, published in international conferences, and their implications according to current standards. The automation of optimization programs was essential as a research tool during the course. The results of this experience were evaluated in two consecutive years. We had excellent results compared to the previous 14 years. The methodology has exceeded expectations and will be also applied in 2013 to ionizing radiation monitoring postgraduate classes. (author)

  11. Uses of Research Evidence by State Legislators Who Prioritize Behavioral Health Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Dodson, Elizabeth A; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-12-01

    Disseminating behavioral health (BH) research to elected policy makers is a priority, but little is known about how they use and seek research evidence. This exploratory study aimed to identify research dissemination preferences and research-seeking practices of legislators who prioritize BH issues and to describe the role of research in determining policy priorities. The study also assessed whether these legislators differ from those who do not prioritize BH issues. A telephone-based survey was conducted with 862 state legislators (response rate, 46%). A validated survey instrument assessed priorities and the factors that determined them, research dissemination preferences, and research-seeking practices. Bivariate analyses were used to characterize and compare the two groups. Legislators who prioritized BH issues (N=125) were significantly more likely than those who did not to identify research evidence as a factor that determined policy priorities (odds ratio=1.91, 95% confidence interval=1.25-2.90, p=.002). Those who prioritized BH issues also attributed more importance to ten of 12 features of research, and the difference was significant for four features (unbiased, p=.014; presented in a concise way, p=.044; delivered by someone known or respected, p=.033; and tells a story, p=.030). Those who prioritized BH issues also engaged more often in eight of 11 research-seeking and utilization practices, and a significance difference was found for one (attending research presentations, p=.012). Legislators who prioritized BH issues actively sought, had distinct preferences for, and were particularly influenced by research evidence. Testing legislator-focused BH research dissemination strategies is an area for future research.

  12. Virtual Researcher on Call: encouraging the youth of today to become the researchers of tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cougler, Kevin

    2007-06-01

    Virtual Researcher On Call (VROC) is an educational initiative of Partners In Research and was created as an opportunity to connect current research and researchers with high school students in grades 9 to 12 throughout Canada. The concept was to use a web-based interface to optimize time requirements for this connection through the use of videoconferencing technology. In addition, this program was thought to match the opportunity for researchers to explain and showcase their work, interact with students who may potentially become the next generation of researchers and to increase the knowledge of the general public about the advances being made by Canadian Researchers and the benefits to the Canadian Society, and by extension to the world at large.

  13. Encouraging Teachers to Build Collaborations with Researchers; Examples From the Classroom (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bringing experts into our schools allows for highly engaging lessons, encourages career thinking, adds authenticity to the topic, and allows student's questions to be answered by experts. Researchers can physically visit classrooms or appear through presentation technologies, such as Skype, or Google Hangouts. Virtual visits allow students to see laboratories and field sites. Collaborating with scientists builds the connective tissue that helps all educators and our students learn more deeply. When K-12 teachers collaborate with scientists and graduate students, teachers learn more science, and scientists learn more teaching. This growth of background knowledge is a win-win situation and helps us meet the expectations of the Common Core State Standards. Teachers need to feel encouraged to contact their local or regional scientists for support. Reaching out into the universities to make contact with polar scientists or graduate students is a good place to start. Building professional networks allows PI's to address the 'broader impact' requirement on many grant applications, and helps spread the university's work in the polar regions out to the general public. These collaborations also give teachers expert insights and current data to build authentic lessons, and excite their students to seek careers in the sciences. This presentation will focus on three completed interactive opportunities I have built with researchers in my classroom. Students adding daily sediment to their sediment core, after communications from the field with scientist Heidi Roop in Alaska.

  14. [Extramural research funds and penal law--status of legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsenheimer, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    After decades of smooth functioning, the cooperation of physicians and hospitals with the industry (much desired from the side of the government in the interest of clinical research) has fallen in legal discredit due to increasingly frequent criminal inquires and proceedings for unduly privileges, corruption, and embezzlement. The discredit is so severe that the industry funding for clinical research is diverted abroad to an increasing extent. The legal elements of embezzlement assume the intentional violation of the entrusted funds against the interest of the customer. Undue privileges occur when an official requests an advantage in exchange for a service (or is promised one or takes one) in his or somebody else's interest. The elements of corruption are then given when the receiver of the undue privilege provides an illegal service or takes a discretionary decision under the influence of the gratuity. The tension between the prohibition of undue privileges (as regulated by the penal law) and the granting of extramural funds (as regulated by the administrative law in academic institutions) can be reduced through a high degree of transparency and the start of control possibilities--public announcement and authorization by the officials--as well as through exact documentation and observance of the principles of separation of interests and moderation. With the anti-corruption law of 1997, it is possible to charge of corruption also physicians employed in private institutions. In contrast, physicians in private practice are not considered in the above criminal facts. They can only be charged of misdemeanor, or called to respond to the professional board, on the basis of the law that regulates advertising for medicinal products (Heilmittelwerbegesetz).

  15. Reforming Current Legislation On the Import and Export of Research Materials

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. Voinov; Sh. A. Dzhabrailov; I. B. Khlebnikov

    2014-01-01

    The current procedure for importing and exporting materials for research and development activity prevents their prompt delivery, which leads to a decrease in the effectiveness of research and development activity conducted by Russian scientific and educational organizations. A simplified procedure for importing and exporting research materials (issuing a uniform permit required for importing and exporting research materials into and from the Russian Federation) is proposed at the legislative...

  16. The role of consent in medical research: breaking or building walls? A call for legislative reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangata, Yohanna Yanshiyi

    2011-12-01

    Research has been integral to the practice of medicine for almost as long as the discipline has existed. Until fairly recently research used to be conducted on human subjects without mandatory requirement for their consent. However, over time medical research became associated with significant cruelty resulting in an outcry for regulation of research actives. This resulted in significant legislation in place for monitoring. Today it is mandatory to obtain consent from subjects before embarking on medical research, and indeed treatment. Its significant regulatory role notwithstanding, the issue of consent at times becomes a hindrance to research. This paper examines the issue of consent in relation to medical research in the context of present legislation. It lays out the background to medical research with respect to purpose, scope, standard protocol and related issues; it then addresses the issue of consent in various scenarios, highlighting problems and the need for legislative reform. It is maintained that while regulatory measures have brought a lot of sanity to medical research and the medical profession, some measures are building walls inhibitory to research activities. Research being integral to the development and growth of healthcare delivery, there is need for reformation of current medical law for balance between patient protectionism and progress in medical research for effective patient care.

  17. Are peer reviewers encouraged to use reporting guidelines? A survey of 116 health research journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Hirst

    Full Text Available Pre-publication peer review of manuscripts should enhance the value of research publications to readers who may wish to utilize findings in clinical care or health policy-making. Much published research across all medical specialties is not useful, may be misleading, wasteful and even harmful. Reporting guidelines are tools that in addition to helping authors prepare better manuscripts may help peer reviewers in assessing them. We examined journals' instructions to peer reviewers to see if and how reviewers are encouraged to use them.We surveyed websites of 116 journals from the McMaster list. Main outcomes were 1 identification of online instructions to peer reviewers and 2 presence or absence of key domains within instructions: on journal logistics, reviewer etiquette and addressing manuscript content (11 domains.Only 41/116 journals (35% provided online instructions. All 41 guided reviewers about the logistics of their review processes, 38 (93% outlined standards of behaviour expected and 39 (95% contained instruction about evaluating the manuscript content. There was great variation in explicit instruction for reviewers about how to evaluate manuscript content. Almost half of the online instructions 19/41 (46% mentioned reporting guidelines usually as general statements suggesting they may be useful or asking whether authors had followed them rather than clear instructions about how to use them. All 19 named CONSORT for reporting randomized trials but there was little mention of CONSORT extensions. PRISMA, QUOROM (forerunner of PRISMA, STARD, STROBE and MOOSE were mentioned by several journals. No other reporting guideline was mentioned by more than two journals.Although almost half of instructions mentioned reporting guidelines, their value in improving research publications is not being fully realised. Journals have a responsibility to support peer reviewers. We make several recommendations including wider reference to the EQUATOR Network

  18. The beneficial applications of nuclear technology: an educational project to disseminate knowledge and encourage research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Denise S., E-mail: denise@radioatividades.com.br [Omiccron Programacao Grafica Ltda (Omiccron P.G.), Atibaia, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear technology is part of our everyday life and helps to improve the quality of our lifestyle in more ways than people realize. Nevertheless, the issue divides public opinion in Brazil and worldwide. There is still great misinformation about nuclear technology and peaceful uses of radiation. Most often, the media and social networks associate radiation to nuclear weapons or major accidents. Parents and teachers are often unaware of the matter. Any construction depends on a solid foundation and education is the foundation of every society. This project aims the dissemination of nuclear technology contents for teachers and students of Elementary and Secondary Education throughout Brazil. Whereas Internet access has increased strongly in Brazilian schools, this project provides various web-based short courses about nuclear technology and its beneficial applications in several areas, such as medicine, agriculture, industry and energy. The design, created according to modern concepts, presents different thematic roles which please children and youth. Since this project aims the dissemination of information, all courses are offered to the public at absolutely no cost. Still, the Project will provide a restricted area for teachers, with related material to develop in class. This educational project uses the combination of multiple technologies and last generation internet resources. All content can be accessed from any traditional internet connection, either for computers or mobile technologies. Our goal is to promote the benefits of nuclear technology for new generations, combating misinformation, omission of the media and knowledge fragmentation. Education transforms old prejudices and inspires new thoughts, stimulating development and encouraging scientific and technological research. (author)

  19. The beneficial applications of nuclear technology: an educational project to disseminate knowledge and encourage research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Denise S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear technology is part of our everyday life and helps to improve the quality of our lifestyle in more ways than people realize. Nevertheless, the issue divides public opinion in Brazil and worldwide. There is still great misinformation about nuclear technology and peaceful uses of radiation. Most often, the media and social networks associate radiation to nuclear weapons or major accidents. Parents and teachers are often unaware of the matter. Any construction depends on a solid foundation and education is the foundation of every society. This project aims the dissemination of nuclear technology contents for teachers and students of Elementary and Secondary Education throughout Brazil. Whereas Internet access has increased strongly in Brazilian schools, this project provides various web-based short courses about nuclear technology and its beneficial applications in several areas, such as medicine, agriculture, industry and energy. The design, created according to modern concepts, presents different thematic roles which please children and youth. Since this project aims the dissemination of information, all courses are offered to the public at absolutely no cost. Still, the Project will provide a restricted area for teachers, with related material to develop in class. This educational project uses the combination of multiple technologies and last generation internet resources. All content can be accessed from any traditional internet connection, either for computers or mobile technologies. Our goal is to promote the benefits of nuclear technology for new generations, combating misinformation, omission of the media and knowledge fragmentation. Education transforms old prejudices and inspires new thoughts, stimulating development and encouraging scientific and technological research. (author)

  20. Contributions from assited human reproduction techniques' socio-legal research to the legislative field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s intention is to share some of the main results of two field-based research projects regarding assisted human reproduction practices in Argentina. Both projects have been developed in a dynamic legislative context involving medical coverage regulation, parentage determination and the right to know one's origins for children born with third party genetic material. Also, in this context, the Draft Civil and Commercial Code reform introduced two figures that were then removed in the parliamentary debate: post mortem fertilization and surrogate motherhood. All these issues concerning the use of assisted human reproduction challenge the legal field and are addressed in these research projects, one of them more from an explorative perspective and the other from a qualitative one. Therefore, this article aims to introduce some of the measured variables and the findings obtained to serve as relevant contributions to achieve a more appropriate legislation according with the medical and social reality.

  1. [The legal question of the obtention of human stem cells for biomedical research. Legislation policy considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2006-01-01

    The future Law on Biomedical Research, whose draft bill has been approved by the Council of Ministers and that will soon begin its parliamentary process of approval, will regulate, among other matters, the research with embryos. Likewise, it will make a pronouncement on the so-called therapeutic cloning. This report makes a detailed analysis of different matters that must be borne in mind by the legislator in order to face the process of evaluation and approval of said Law in relation with the aforementioned matters. It makes a special analysis of the legal texts of an international nature to which Spain is unavoidably subjected to, in such a way that the legislative text that will finally be approved is not contrary to the dispositions that are within such.

  2. Commented review of the Colombian legislation regarding the ethics of health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopera, Mónica María

    2017-12-01

    The scope of ethics in health research transcends its legal framework and the regulations established in Resolution 8430 of 1993. These norms represent a fundamental tool to determine the minimum protection standards for research subjects, and, therefore, they should be known, applied properly, and reflect upon by all researchers in the field.Here I present and discuss from an analytical point of view the regulations that guide research in health. In this framework, health is understood as a multidimensional process, and research in health as a multidisciplinary exercise involving basic, clinical and public health research, collective health, and other related sciences.The main analytical categories are related to the principles and actors involved in research (regulatory authorities, ethical committees, and special or vulnerable subjects and populations), and to professional ethics codes, in addition to informed consents and data management.Despite the contribution of this legislation to the qualification of health research, my conclusion is that the national legislation in ethics for health research requires updating regarding technological and scientific developments, as well as specifications from the multiple types of health studies.

  3. Uses of research evidence in the state legislative process to promote active environments in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Hanna A; Gollust, Sarah E; Callanan, Rachel A; Weisman, Susan R; Benning, Sara J; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2014-01-01

    To describe how research evidence and non-research-based information are used in testimony and other legislative documents used in arguments for and against physical activity-related bills in Minnesota. Content analysis. Documents and oral testimony archived by the Minnesota State Legislature from 2007 to 2011. Not applicable. A coding instrument was developed to measure descriptive features of materials (e.g., length, document type) and the presence or absence of certain types of research evidence and non-research-based information. Frequencies of variables and measures of associations using Pearson χ (2) tests. Over a third (36%) of the sample contained research evidence, and 88% of the sample contained non-research-based information. Compared to materials related to physical activity, materials related to built environment were significantly less likely to reference research evidence. Despite an abundance of evidence, research evidence was present in only about one-third of the sample. There may be opportunities during legislative discussions on the built environment for obesity-related data to help make the case for sound policies.

  4. Variance in environmental legislation. Cause and effect on drilling fluid research and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jachnik, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    Drilling Fluids are presently undergoing a period of pronounced change. A significant proportion of new developments are due to legislation adopted within the last ten to fifteen years by the Paris Commission (Parcom)--involving the North Sea countries, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The environmental rules and laws passed by countries that are members of these respective organizations specify what is acceptable or not in environmental terms. Data is presented to show that a uniform or consensus approach to the selection of environmental criteria for the offshore oil industry appears to be lacking, with an ensuing effect on product research, mud system development and focus

  5. Infusing Science into Politics and Policy: The Importance of Legislators as an Audience in Mental Health Policy Dissemination Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Brownson, Ross C; Proctor, Enola K

    2017-03-01

    Legislators (i.e., elected Senators and House Representatives at the federal- and state-level) are a critically important dissemination audience because they shape the architecture of the US mental health system through budgetary and regulatory decisions. In this Point of View, we argue that legislators are a neglected audience in mental health dissemination research. We synthesize relevant research, discuss its potential implications for dissemination efforts, identify challenges, and outline areas for future study.

  6. Progress in assessing animal welfare in relation to new legislation: opportunities for behavioural researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Penny

    2014-08-30

    Recent revisions to international legislation and guidelines on the care and use of animals in research and testing emphasise the importance of minimising suffering and improving welfare. Achieving this requires effective systems for recognising, recording, analysing and assessing animal behaviour, in order to identify relevant indicators of pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm so that any suffering can be rapidly recognised and ameliorated. Behavioural researchers can assist by disseminating information on developments in techniques and approaches for recognising, observing, monitoring, analysing and interpreting behaviour, both within their own facilities and more widely. They can also help to facilitate better welfare assessment by continuing to develop systems for measuring behaviours - including indicators of positive welfare - while also ensuring that harms within behavioural research are minimised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The ENGAGE Workshop: Encouraging Networks between Geoscientists and Geoscience Education Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubenthal, M.; LaDue, N.; Taber, J.

    2015-12-01

    The geoscience education community has made great strides in the study of teaching and learning at the undergraduate level, particularly with respect to solid earth geology. Nevertheless, the 2012 National Research Council report, Discipline-based Education Research: Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering suggests that the geosciences lag behind other science disciplines in the integration of education research within the discipline and the establishment of a broad research base. In January 2015, early career researchers from earth, atmospheric, ocean, and polar sciences and geoscience education research (GER) gathered for the ENGAGE workshop. The primary goal of ENGAGE was to broaden awareness of discipline-based research in the geosciences and catalyze relationships and understanding between these groups of scientists. An organizing committee of geoscientists and GERs designed a two-day workshop with a variety of activities to engage participants in the establishment of a shared understanding of education research and the development of project ideas through collaborative teams. Thirty-three participants were selected from over 100 applicants, based on disciplinary diversity and demonstrated interest in geoscience education research. Invited speakers and panelists also provided examples of successful cross-disciplinary collaborations. As a result of this workshop, participants indicated that they gained new perspectives on geoscience education and research, networked outside of their discipline, and are likely to increase their involvement in geoscience education research. In fact, 26 of 28 participants indicated they are now better prepared to enter into cross-disciplinary collaborations within the next year. The workshop evaluation revealed that the physical scientists particularly valued opportunities for informal networking and collaborative work developing geoscience education research projects. Meanwhile, GERs valued

  8. Action Research to Encourage Pupils' Active Participation in the Sustainable School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsenou, Christina; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Liarakou, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to explore the contribution of action research to the development of active participation of pupils in the context of the sustainable school. Action research is looked at not simply as a methodological tool for the exploration of participation, but as a key element of the educational actions that promote the active participation…

  9. Encouraging student-driven clinical research in Germany: the CHIR-Net SIGMA network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frey Pia-Elena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence should define and guide modern clinical care, yet many relevant questions in surgical practice remain unconfirmed by substantial data. Evidence-based medicine requires both the implementation of its principles in day-to-day work and the acquisition of new evidence preferably by randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews. Meaningful clinical research, however, is challenging to conduct, and its overall infrastructure in Germany was, until recently, considered poor compared to other leading countries. Although this has been significantly improved after the establishment of the Study Center of the German Surgical Society (SDGC and the surgical clinical trial network CHIR-Net, limited focus has been put on the training, teaching, and recruitment of medical students to become competent clinical researchers and clinician scientists. To ensure continuing comprehensive clinical research in surgery, CHIR-Net aims to establish a student-driven multicenter research network in Germany, which is embedded in both the national CHIR-Net and the pan-European and international frameworks. Student-Initiated German Medical Audits (SIGMA is a product of the strong collaboration between clinical scientists and medical trainees, enabling students to contribute to high-quality clinical trials. Additionally, participants are offered extensive training to support the next generation of research-active clinicians. Starting on 2018, SIGMA will perform its first multicenter observational study in Germany.

  10. The European radioecology alliance: encouraging the coordination and integration of research activities in radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); European Radioecology Alliance Association, French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety - IRSN, 31 Avenue de la Division Leclerc, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France); Currivan, Lorraine [Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland - RPII (Ireland); Gariel, Jean-Christophe [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France); Hardeman, Frank [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Howard, Brenda [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC, UK (United Kingdom); Lukashenko, Sergey [Kazakhstan Republic Institute of Nuclear Physics - NNCRK (Kazakhstan); Lund, Ingemar [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority - SSM (Sweden); Sabatier, Laure [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA (France); Sachs, Susanne [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf - HZDR (Germany); Salomaa, Sisko [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority - STUK (Finland); Smith, James [University of Portsmouth - UoP (United Kingdom); Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Strand, Per [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Tschiersch, Jochen [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - HMGU (Germany); Hinton, Thomas [Strategy for Allied Radioecology - STAR Coordinator, IRSN (France); Vandenhove, Hildegarde [COordination and iMplementation of a pan-European instrumenT for radioecology - COMET Coordinator, SCK.CEN (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    The European Radioecology Alliance was established in 2009 with a firm conviction from its eight founding European organizations that joining forces would enhance the competence of radioecology science in Europe. The main objective of the Radioecology Alliance is to progressively strengthen the coordination and integration of research in the field of radioecology at national, European and international level. The integration of the European radioecology community will be a key aspect facing the upcoming EURATOM Horizon 2020 framework programme. In 2012, the Radioecology Alliance was officially constituted as an Association, and in June 2013 grew from 8 to 14 members from 10 different countries (Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Norway, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom). Within the framework of the Radioecology Alliance, a Network of Excellence in Radioecology STAR (Strategy for Allied Radioecology) was created in 2011 with financial support of the EC FP7. More recently, the project COMET (Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology) has been also funded by the EC to strengthen the pan-European research initiative on the radiation impact on man and the environment by facilitating the integration of the Research and Development activities in radioecology. The Radioecology Alliance, in close collaboration with STAR in the first phase, and more recently with COMET, has developed for the first time a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) on Radioecology. The SRA identifies three challenges: (1) To predict human and wildlife exposure more robustly by quantifying the key processes that most influence radionuclide transfers; (2) To determine ecological consequences under realistic exposure conditions and (3) To improve human and environmental protection by integrating radioecology. Within these 3 challenges, 15 research lines have been identified. After a consultation process which included not only the scientific community

  11. Engaged scholarship: encouraging interactionism in entrepreneurship and small-to-medium enterprise (SME) research

    OpenAIRE

    Simba, A; Ojong, N

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce a multi-layered theoretical framework to enable engaged scholarship to develop as a practice in entrepreneurship and small business research. To do so, it illuminates the salient features of engaged scholarship, collaborative learning and actor-network theory (ANT).\\ud Design/methodology/approach: The paper follows a narrative or traditional literature review design. Specifically, it adopts a thematic approach for summarising and synthesising...

  12. Action research and millennials: Improving pedagogical approaches to encourage critical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlam, Gwen; Smythe, Liz; Wright-St Clair, Valerie

    2018-02-01

    This article examines the effects of intergenerational diversity on pedagogical practice in nursing education. While generational cohorts are not entirely homogenous, certain generational features do emerge. These features may require alternative approaches in educational design in order to maximize learning for millennial students. Action research is employed with undergraduate millennial nursing students (n=161) who are co-researchers in that they are asked for changes in current simulation environments which will improve their learning in the areas of knowledge acquisition, skill development, critical thinking, and communication. These changes are put into place and a re-evaluation of the effectiveness of simulation progresses through three action cycles. Millennials, due to a tendency for risk aversion, may gravitate towards more supportive learning environments which allow for free access to educators. This tendency is mitigated by the educator modeling expected behaviors, followed by student opportunity to repeat the behavior. Millennials tend to prefer to work in teams, see tangible improvement, and employ strategies to improve inter-professional communication. This research highlights the need for nurse educators working in simulation to engage in critical discourse regarding the adequacy and effectiveness of current pedagogy informing simulation design. Pedagogical approaches which maximize repetition, modeling, immersive feedback, and effective communication tend to be favored by millennial students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. CHILDREN EXPOSED TO IPV. LEGISLATIVE CHANGES, RESEARCH AND GOOD PRACTICE IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosser Limiñana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children who live in contexts of intimate partner violence (IPV are also victims of this violence, whether they have witnessed it or they have been beaten themselves. The research has highlighted that exposure to IPV has significant repercussions on the psychosocial development of these children. This evidence demands the implementation of measures and programs aimed at intervening with them. The objective of this study is to assess the current situation of children exposed to IPV in Spain, both at a legislative level and at the level of research and intervention programs. The conclusion shows that, in recent years in Spain, we have been experiencing a significant change among researchers, governments and professionals, who are increasingly concerned about the care given to children exposed to IPV. It is also pointed out that there is a need to train professionals from different fields of intervention to tackle the challenge of working with these children, in order to improve their life conditions and to contribute to their overcoming of such difficulties.

  14. Developing a national health research system: participatory approaches to legislative, institutional and networking dimensions in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanda-Kapata Pascalina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For many sub-Saharan African countries, a National Health Research System (NHRS exists more in theory than in reality, with the health system itself receiving the majority of investments. However, this lack of attention to NHRS development can, in fact, frustrate health systems in achieving their desired goals. In this case study, we discuss the ongoing development of Zambia’s NHRS. We reflect on our experience in the ongoing consultative development of Zambia’s NHRS and offer this reflection and process documentation to those engaged in similar initiatives in other settings. We argue that three streams of concurrent activity are critical in developing an NHRS in a resource-constrained setting: developing a legislative framework to determine and define the system’s boundaries and the roles all actors will play within it; creating or strengthening an institution capable of providing coordination, management and guidance to the system; and focusing on networking among institutions and individuals to harmonize, unify and strengthen the overall capacities of the research community.

  15. Ensuring safety in autonomous vehicle legislation in Louisiana : [research project capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The states of Michigan, California, Nevada, and Florida, along with the District of Columbia, have : recently passed legislation to allow the use of autonomous motor vehicles on public roads in : their states under restricted conditions. Other states...

  16. Communication practices that encourage and constrain shared decision making in health-care encounters: Systematic review of conversation analytic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Victoria; Parry, Ruth; Seymour, Jane

    2017-12-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) is generally treated as good practice in health-care interactions. Conversation analytic research has yielded detailed findings about decision making in health-care encounters. To map decision making communication practices relevant to health-care outcomes in face-to-face interactions yielded by prior conversation analyses, and to examine their function in relation to SDM. We searched nine electronic databases (last search November 2016) and our own and other academics' collections. Published conversation analyses (no restriction on publication dates) using recordings of health-care encounters in English where the patient (and/or companion) was present and where the data and analysis focused on health/illness-related decision making. We extracted study characteristics, aims, findings relating to communication practices, how these functioned in relation to SDM, and internal/external validity issues. We synthesised findings aggregatively. Twenty-eight publications met the inclusion criteria. We sorted findings into 13 types of communication practices and organized these in relation to four elements of decision-making sequences: (i) broaching decision making; (ii) putting forward a course of action; (iii) committing or not (to the action put forward); and (iv) HCPs' responses to patients' resistance or withholding of commitment. Patients have limited opportunities to influence decision making. HCPs' practices may constrain or encourage this participation. Patients, companions and HCPs together treat and undertake decision making as shared, though to varying degrees. Even for non-negotiable treatment trajectories, the spirit of SDM can be invoked through practices that encourage participation (eg by bringing the patient towards shared understanding of the decision's rationale). © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Research on the fundamental principles of China's marine invasive species prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jiayu

    2014-12-15

    China's coastal area is severely damaged by marine invasive species. Traditional tort theory resolves issues relevant to property damage or personal injuries, through which plaintiffs cannot cope with the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. Several defects exist within the current legal regimes, such as imperfect management systems, insufficient unified technical standards, and unsound legal responsibility systems. It is necessary to pass legislation to prevent the ecological damage caused by marine invasive species. This investigation probes the fundamental principles needed for the administration and legislation of an improved legal framework to combat the problem of invasive species within China's coastal waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Evolution of Legislation in the Field of Medically Assisted Reproduction and Embryo Stem Cell Research in European Union Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Paolo Busardò

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Medically Assisted Reproduction (MAR, involving in vitro fertilisation (IVF, and research on embryos have created expectation to many people affected by infertility; at the same time it has generated a surplus of laws and ethical and social debates. Undoubtedly, MAR represents a rather new medical field and constant developments in medicine and new opportunities continue to defy the attempt to respond to those questions. In this paper, the authors reviewed the current legislation in the 28 EU member states trying to evaluate the different legislation paths adopted over the last 15 years and highlighting those EU countries with no specific legislation in place and MAR is covered by a general health Law and those countries in which there are no laws in this field but only “guidelines.” The second aim of this work has been to compare MAR legislation and embryo research in EU countries, which derive from different origins ranging from an extremely prohibitive approach versus a liberal one, going through a cautious regulatory approach.

  19. Encouraging translation and assessing impact of the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement: rationale and protocol for a research impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Shanthi; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Bailie, Ross Stewart; Bailie, Jodie; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Cunningham, Frances; Doran, Christopher; McPhail Bell, Karen; Searles, Andrew

    2017-12-04

    There is growing recognition among health researchers and funders that the wider benefits of research such as economic, social and health impacts ought to be assessed and valued alongside academic outputs such as peer-reviewed papers. Research translation needs to increase and the pathways to impact ought to be more transparent. These processes are particularly pertinent to the Indigenous health sector given continued concerns that Indigenous communities are over-researched with little corresponding improvement in health outcomes. This paper describes the research protocol of a mixed methods study to apply FAIT (Framework to Assess the Impact from Translational health research) to the Centre for Research Excellence in Integrated Quality Improvement (CRE-IQI). FAIT will be applied to five selected CRE-IQI Flagship projects to encourage research translation and assess the wider impact of that research. Phase I will develop a modified programme logic model for each Flagship project including identifying process, output and impact metrics so progress can be monitored. A scoping review will inform potential benefits. In phase II, programme logic models will be updated to account for changes in the research pathways over time. Audit and feedback will be used to encourage research translation and collect evidence of achievement of any process, output and interim impacts. In phase III, three proven methodologies for measuring research impact-Payback, economic assessment and narratives-will be applied. Data on the application of FAIT will be collected and analysed to inform and improve FAIT's performance. This study is funded by a nationally competitive grant (ID 1078927) from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council. Ethics approval was obtained from the University of Newcastle's Human Research Ethics Committee (ID: H-2017-0026). The results from the study will be presented in several peer-reviewed publications, through conference presentations and via

  20. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  1. Historical Research on Disaster Management Legislation in Iran Before Islamic Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Arab-Kheradmand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Various disasters are still inevitable and over the last two decades, affected lives of at least 800 million people. Iran is one of the most disaster-prone countries and about 90% of the country are at risks of earthquakes or floods. Thus, the disaster management in our country is a priority. In recent years, several protocols have been put forward to manage the emergencies and disasters. In this regard, the related laws and regulations crisis management are an integrated part of any crisis management which specifies each organization role. One of the important pitfalls in managing risk reduction approach, is the lack of proper laws and regulations and their implementation. Moreover, national guidelines and protocols provides the pathways for different areas of intervention. To solve this shortcoming, a historical review of legislation in this area is helpful. This study aims to review the legislative history of disaster management in Iran, the responsible organizations, and their strong and weak points. This study might help reduce vulnerabilities and boost coordination in crisis management.

  2. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  3. Does State Legislation Improve Nursing Workforce Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine; Smaldone, Arlene; Cohn, Elizabeth Gross

    2015-08-01

    A health-care workforce representative of our nation's diversity is a health and research priority. Although racial and ethnic minorities represent 37% of Americans, they comprise only 16% of the nursing workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of state legislation on minority recruitment to nursing. Using data from the National Conference of State Legislatures, American Association of Colleges of Nursing, and U.S. census, we compared minority enrollment in baccalaureate nursing programs of states (Texas, Virginia, Michigan, California, Florida, Connecticut, and Arkansas) before and 3 years after enacting legislation with geographically adjacent states without legislation. Data were analyzed using descriptive and chi-square statistics. Following legislation, Arkansas (13.8%-24.5%), California (3.3%-5.4%), and Michigan (8.0%-10.0%) significantly increased enrollment of Blacks, and Florida (11.8%-15.4%) and Texas (11.2%-13.9%) significantly increased enrollment of Hispanic baccalaureate nursing students. States that tied legislation to funding, encouragement, and reimbursement had larger enrollment gains and greater minority representation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Following previous research, drivers reported using cell phones : for benefits such as getting work done. The hypocrisy of using : cell phones while advocating restrictions appears to stem from : differences in the perceived safety risks of self vs. ...

  5. European legislation impedes critical care research and fails to protect patients' rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Rossel, Peter Johannes Hancke

    2011-01-01

    The European Clinical Trials Directive requires an informed consent from the patient or a proxy in drug trials. Although informed consent is a valuable tool to protect patients' rights in clinical trials, this requirement largely impedes research in critical care settings, and if pursued in this ......The European Clinical Trials Directive requires an informed consent from the patient or a proxy in drug trials. Although informed consent is a valuable tool to protect patients' rights in clinical trials, this requirement largely impedes research in critical care settings, and if pursued...

  6. Addressing adolescent pregnancy with legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Tiffany M; Folken, Lori; Seitz, Melody A

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is a concern among many women's health practitioners. While it is practical and appropriate to work to prevent adolescent pregnancy by educating adolescents in health care clinics, schools and adolescent-friendly community-based organizations, suggesting and supporting legislative efforts to reduce adolescent pregnancy can help address the issue on an even larger scale. This article aims to help nurses better understand current legislation that addresses adolescent pregnancy, and to encourage support of future adolescent pregnancy prevention legislation. © 2014 AWHONN.

  7. From Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience: Encouraging Innovation in Undergraduate Neuroscience Education by Supporting Student Research and Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Jean C.; Kerchner, Michael; Lom, Barbara; Ramirez, Julio J.; Wiertelak, Eric P.

    2006-01-01

    This article features the organization Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience. FUN was established by a group of neuroscientists dedicated to innovation and excellence in undergraduate neuroscience education and research. In the years since its inception, FUN has grown into a dynamic organization making a significant impact on the quality of…

  8. Owning My Thoughts Was Difficult: Encouraging Students to Read and Write Critically in a Tertiary Qualitative Research Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Janine L.; Allen, Ruth E. S.; Butler, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    This paper adds to the nascent literature on teaching research methods and what students learn from courses and assessment. Postgraduate students are often confronted with large amounts of reading, and the content of material can be intimidating. Convincing them also to engage critically with readings is even more difficult. We report on a…

  9. Guidance on radioactive waste management legislation for application to users of radioactive materials in medicine, research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This document, addressed primarily to developing countries, is restricted to management of radioactive wastes arising from uses of radionuclides in medicine, industry and research. It does not deal with wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle. Safeguards and physical protection are also outside the scope even though in some special cases it may be relevant; for instance, when fissile material is handled at research establishments. Information on nuclear fuel cycle waste management and waste transport can be found in a number of IAEA publications. The main aim of this document is to give guidance on legislation required for safe handling, treatment, conditioning and release or disposal of radioactive waste. It covers all steps from the production or import of radioactive material, through use, treatment, storage and transport, to the release or disposal of the waste either as exempted material or in special repositories. Management of radioactive wastes as a whole is optimized and kept at acceptable levels in accordance with the basic ICRP recommendations and the IAEA Basic Safety Standards. As a result of the new ICRP recommendations of 1991, the Agency is revising its Basic Safety Standards, the results of which may have some impact on the national regulations and necessitate updating of this document. 16 refs, 1 fig

  10. An audience research study to disseminate evidence about comprehensive state mental health parity legislation to US State policymakers: protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtle, Jonathan; Lê-Scherban, Félice; Shattuck, Paul; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C

    2017-06-26

    A large proportion of the US population has limited access to mental health treatments because insurance providers limit the utilization of mental health services in ways that are more restrictive than for physical health services. Comprehensive state mental health parity legislation (C-SMHPL) is an evidence-based policy intervention that enhances mental health insurance coverage and improves access to care. Implementation of C-SMHPL, however, is limited. State policymakers have the exclusive authority to implement C-SMHPL, but sparse guidance exists to inform the design of strategies to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, and more broadly, evidence-based treatments and mental illness, to this audience. The aims of this exploratory audience research study are to (1) characterize US State policymakers' knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and identify individual- and state-level attributes associated with support for C-SMHPL; and (2) integrate quantitative and qualitative data to develop a conceptual framework to disseminate evidence about C-SMHPL, evidence-based treatments, and mental illness to US State policymakers. The study uses a multi-level (policymaker, state), mixed method (QUAN→qual) approach and is guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, adapted to incorporate constructs from Aarons' Model of Evidence-Based Implementation in Public Sectors. A multi-modal survey (telephone, post-mail, e-mail) of 600 US State policymakers (500 legislative, 100 administrative) will be conducted and responses will be linked to state-level variables. The survey will span domains such as support for C-SMHPL, knowledge and attitudes about C-SMHPL and evidence-based treatments, mental illness stigma, and research dissemination preferences. State-level variables will measure factors associated with C-SMHPL implementation, such as economic climate and political environment. Multi-level regression will determine the relative strength of individual- and state

  11. Potential of criminological research in evaluation of victim-focused policy and legislation in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefunková Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For effective victim-focused legislation, evidence-based knowledge is essential, thus making criminological research of great importance. Victimization surveys represent a globally recognized type of criminological investigation. Although they are primarily focused on measuring the dark figure of crime, they can also provide a broad spectrum of information on victimization-related issues. The latest victimization survey was carried out in the Czech Republic by the Institute of Criminology and Social Prevention in 2013. Through face to face interviews, victimization was explored through eight selected offences in the period of 12 months prior the survey. The representative sample included 3000 respondents 15 years of age and older. The next round is planned for 2017. Since 2013, a new Act no. 45/2013 Coll., on Victims of Crime has come into effect in the Czech Republic. This paper will discuss how victimization surveys can enrich the knowledge on victimization-related issues and how they can help in the evaluation of criminal policy.

  12. Legislative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-23

    Recent State legislation on HIV-related issues is summarized. Connecticut enacted a bill imposing penalties when public servants and health care workers are deliberately exposed to body fluids. Louisiana passed a bill mandating HIV testing for each incoming State prison inmate. New York has several bills under consideration related to guardianship, confidentiality of crime victims who are potentially exposed to HIV, and disability benefits for firefighters and police officers who contract HIV, tuberculosis, or hepatitis in the line of duty. North Carolina has a new law aimed at serving additional clients in the State=s AIDS drug assistance program. Oregon is working on a bill authorizing HIV testing for all defendants who may have transmitted body fluids to a crime victim.

  13. Human cloning and stem cell research: engaging in the political process. (Legislation review: prohibition of Human Cloning Act 2002 and the research involving Human Embryos Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skene, Loane

    2008-03-01

    Committees appointed by governments to inquire into specific policy issues often have no further role when the Committee's report is delivered to government, but that is not always so. This paper describes the activities of members of the Australian Committee on human cloning and embryo research (the Lockhart Committee) to inform Parliament and the community about the Committee's recommendations after its report was tabled in Parliament. It explains their participation in the political process as their recommendations were debated and amending legislation was passed by Parliament. It illustrates a method of communication about scientific and policy issues that explores people's concerns and what they 'need to know' to make a judgment; and then responds to questions they raise, with the aim of facilitating discussion, not arguing for one view. The paper considers whether this type of engagement and communication is appropriate and could be used in other policy discussions.

  14. Implementing the legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverstrom, L.

    1982-01-01

    Leon Silverstrom explained how nuclear waste disposal legislation would be implemented. The legislation provides a framework that recognizes the tremendous number of views and opinions on the subject and provides a mechanism that will allow all these interests to be expressed before final decisions are reached. Implementing procedures are outlined for: (1) the final repository; (2) interim or last resort storage; (3) research and development; (4) the monitored retrievable storage phases. The whole process will involve: environmental assessments and licensing requirements for each phase; construction of a test and evaluation facility; provision for sharing information with the states and interested parties; and procedures for public hearings and state rejection of propoped sites

  15. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics. Some Thought-provoking and Critical Proposals to Encourage Scientific Debate on the Nature of Good Research in Medical Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haux, Reinhold; Kulikowski, Casimir A; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra N; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T

    2017-01-25

    Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes.

  16. Draft Legislative Proposals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa; Niculita, Angela

    2015-01-01

    the objectives of the legislative proposals; discusses risks and challenges that HE in Moldova faces today and in the next 10-15 years; identifies expected outcomes; identifies basic principles on which the process will be founded; proposes a new structure for the HE sector; offers an example...... and responsibilities; suggests a distinct separation between governance and management; suggests teaching and research funding formulae based on inputs and outputs; and outlines a new National Qualifications Framework....

  17. A LEGISLATIVE CASE STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION OF POLYVICTIMIZATION RESEARCH AND POLICY IMPLEMENTATION: MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONALS' DUTY TO ENGAGE IN PUBLIC POLICY ADVOCACY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison Journey; Patton, William Wesley

    2016-01-01

    One reason that scientific research takes so long to reach patients is that medical researchers and practitioners often lack training in public policy implementation theory and strategy. General medical and specific psychiatric ethical precepts in the United States and in international ethics codes invest public policy duties in psychiatric researchers and individual clinicians. This essay discusses those medical ethical rules and suggests means for training psychiatrists to meet their public health policy duties in legal fora. The discussion presents a case study of the evolution of polyvictimization research, its initial lack of implementation in clinical practice and public policy debates, and a detailed demonstration of the incorporation of polyvictimization research in informing legislative action. Through systematic efforts to expand training and involvement of psychiatrists, we can expedite the implementation of psychiatric research by marshalling individual psychiatrists to affect decisions in legislative, executive, and judicial proceedings. These individual efforts can occur synergistically with ongoing psychiatric and psychological organizations' efforts to better effect timely incorporation of evidence-based policies to improve mental health at the local, state, national, and international levels.

  18. Physical activity opportunities in Canadian childcare facilities: a provincial/territorial review of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia; Ismail, Ali; van Zandvroort, Melissa M

    2012-05-01

    Preschoolers spend a substantial portion of their day in childcare; therefore, these centers are an ideal venue to encourage healthy active behaviors. It is important that provinces'/territories' childcare legislation encourage physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to review Canadian provincial/territorial childcare legislation regarding PA participation. Specifically, this review sought to 1) appraise each provincial/territorial childcare regulation for PA requirements, 2) compare such regulations with the NASPE PA guidelines, and 3) appraise these regulations regarding PA infrastructure. A review of all provincial/territorial childcare legislation was performed. Each document was reviewed separately by 2 researchers, and the PA regulations were coded and summarized. The specific provincial/territorial PA requirements (eg, type/frequency of activity) were compared with the NASPE guidelines. PA legislation for Canadian childcare facilities varies greatly. Eight of the thirteen provinces/territories provide PA recommendations; however, none provided specific time requirements for daily PA. All provinces/territories did require access to an outdoor play space. All Canadian provinces/territories lack specific PA guidelines for childcare facilities. The development, implementation, and enforcement of national PA legislation for childcare facilities may aid in tackling the childhood obesity epidemic and assist childcare staff in supporting and encouraging PA participation.

  19. Encouraging environmentally strategic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Having moved beyond its initial absorption with controlling new technology, environmental policy today must focus more strongly on promoting the development and adoption of new technologies. World Resource Institute's (WRI) ongoing study of 'environmentally strategic technology' is addressed to this fundamental policy issue. The study proposes criteria for identifying such technology, offers a specific list, suggests the kinds of public policy changes necessary to encourage their development and finally presents a comparison of critical technology lists (from the White House, the European Community, Japan and the US Department of Defense). (TEC)

  20. Legislating for advocacy: The case of whistleblowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chanel L; O'Connor, Tom

    2017-05-01

    The role of nurses as patient advocates is one which is well recognised, supported and the subject of a broad body of literature. One of the key impediments to the role of the nurse as patient advocate is the lack of support and legislative frameworks. Within a broad range of activities constituting advocacy, whistleblowing is currently the subject of much discussion in the light of the Mid Staffordshire inquiry in the United Kingdom (UK) and other instances of patient mistreatment. As a result steps to amend existing whistleblowing legislation where it exists or introduce it where it does not are underway. This paper traces the development of legislation for advocacy. The authors argue that while any legislation supporting advocacy is welcome, legislation on its own will not encourage or enable nurses to whistleblow.

  1. The Great Ape Project: legislating for the control of the use of non-human hominids in research, testing and teaching--Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Neil

    2004-06-01

    The Animal Welfare Act 1999 (New Zealand), which commenced on January 1 2000, provides that the use of non-human hominids in research, testing or teaching is not permitted unless the Director-General of Agriculture approves the use, and then, only if the use is in the interests of the non-human hominid itself or its species. The Animal Welfare Act 1999 originated with two parliamentary bills. The first, a private member's bill in the name of Pete Hodgson MP, was tabled in 1997, and the second, a Government measure, was tabled a year later. Neither bill made any reference to non-human hominids. The Great Ape Project made submissions that non-human hominids be afforded similar rights to humans, i.e. not to be deprived of life, not to be subjected to torture or cruel treatment and not to be subjected to medical or scientific experimentation. Proponents and opponents of the measure argued for and against the tenet of introducing "rights" issues into what was essentially "welfare" legislation. These arguments are analysed, and the legislative process that enabled this modification is examined.

  2. 2011 SREB Legislative Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Gale F., Comp.

    2011-01-01

    The "2011 Legislative Briefing" is a topical summary of state budget and legislative actions that affect elementary, secondary and higher education across the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) region. It outlines actions in areas such as tax and spending legislation, assistance to local districts, tuition and fees, student…

  3. e-ready legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvingel, Line; Baaner, Lasse

    In general, digital society challenges traditional modes of legislation and rulings. Dissimilar compositions of the legislation and non-comparable spatial representations of the legal content makes traditional legislation unfit for e-Government. Lacking attention may lead to the undermining...... of the trustworthiness of administration systems. On the other hand, a successful adaption of legislation to a digital setup could help promote good service towards citizens and businesses, and according to land administration theories maybe even promote societal sustainability in large. Based on studies on Denmark......, different challenges within digital land administration solutions are demonstrated. This paper discusses how legislation needs to change in order to be ‘e-Ready’....

  4. The role of encouragement in primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Encouragement can be applied in several important segments: creation of a positive social and emotional atmosphere, creation of a positive learning environment, use of preventive techniques in some discipline-related situations, type of intervention when dealing with behavioral problems of students and in the strategy of strengthening students self-confidence. The paper deals with the frequency and manners in which encouragement is used. One of the primary segments in which encouragement is exercised is teacher-student relation, where both verbal and non-verbal encouragement approval, praise, reward and example have large rational and emotional significance. The research comprises the results of systematic observation of individual encouragement tools with their characteristics and functions in primary school teaching practice. The research has been conducted in three primary schools in Belgrade. The quantitative indicators show the reduced frequency of encouragement with the growing age of students. The collected results reveal that in relation to the tested variables the teacher’s personality plays an important role. This suggests the need for teachers to be instructed on the possibilities and conditions for the use of encouragement with primary school children.

  5. Sustainability or Colonialism? Legislative obstacles to research and development of natural products and patents on traditional knowledge in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Tomazini Pedrollo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHistorically, developed countries have benefited from the biodiversity and traditional knowledge of developing countries. Since the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD was approved, the world-view regarding access to biological resources has changed. This change marked the introduction of legal agreements regarding access to genetic resources, traditional knowledge and benefit sharing, seeking a fair return for owners and local communities. Unfortunately, as with most national laws, these legal devices complicated collection programs and research initiatives, and diminished the emphasis on the discovery of natural products. There remains a lack of discussion on the establishment of a fair international market value for the access to genetic resources. While Brazil still has advantages and opportunities in this arena, the issue sets barriers for research and development. The protective measures are being reviewed in the project bill 7735/2014, which brings improvements, yet it is still controversial. For this short communication we consulted journals, conference proceedings, as well as scientific and journalistic magazines to report some of the disastrous consequences of the implementation of national laws regarding CBD. We suggest a new focus for decision-making policies based on more efficient field inspections, the empowerment of traditional communities and further associated research in order to ensure the claims of CBD as well as to ratify the Nagoya Protocol.

  6. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  7. Digital Privacy Legislation Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Foulds; Magda Huisman; Gunther R. Drevin

    2013-01-01

    Privacy is regarded as a fundamental human right and it is clear that the study of digital privacy is an important field. Digital privacy is influenced by new and constantly evolving technologies and this continuous change makes it hard to create legislation to protect people's privacy from being exploited by misuse of these technologies. This study aims to benefit digital privacy legislation efforts by evaluating the awareness and perceived importance of digital privacy legislation among...

  8. Critical Care Nurses' Knowledge of Confidentiality Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Angela B; Kjervik, Diane K

    2016-05-01

    Health care legislation can be difficult to understand and apply in critical situations where patients may not be physically capable of autonomous control of confidential health information. Nurses are often the first to encounter confidential information about patients. To explore critical care nurses' knowledge of federal and North Carolina state legislation regarding confidentiality. This descriptive, qualitative study included 12 critical care nurses who were asked to describe their knowledge of federal confidentiality legislation and specific knowledge of North Carolina's confidentiality legislation. Critical care nurses were knowledgeable about federal confidentiality laws but demonstrated a need for further education about state-specific legislation. Nurses' application of confidentiality legislation demonstrates their knowledge of confidentiality legislation. To continue the trusting relationship that nurses have traditionally held with patients and patients' families, it is imperative for nurses to remain current about confidentiality legislation. Through education both before and after licensure, correct application of legislation can be achieved. Further research can aid in exploring the intersection between health care legislation and ethics. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  9. Legislation and regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the fulfilling of the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The Chapter 3 of the document contains some details about the Brazilian legislation and regulation, the legislative and regulatory framework, regulatory body and responsibility of the license holder.

  10. The 2007 Legislative Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Jeffrey; Gaines, Gale F., Comp.

    2007-01-01

    "The 2007 Legislative Briefing" is a topical summary of actions during the 2006 legislative sessions that affect education in the 16 SREB states. Topics include state budgets and the economy, tax and revenue, school finance, teacher compensation, licensure, certification and evaluation of teachers, strengthening elementary and secondary…

  11. Hawaii state legislator views on e-cigarettes and likelihood of legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Seto, Jason; Guimaraes, Alexander; Masterson, James; Davis, James; Seto, Todd B

    2015-01-01

    To examine perspectives on e-cigarette use and regulations in Hawaii through key informant interviews with state legislators. E-cigarette use is rapidly increasing, with sales in 2013 topping $1 billion in the United States, but e-cigarettes are still a largely unregulated industry. Although e-cigarettes are thought by most to be a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes, long-term health effects are not yet known. Semistructured key informant interviews were conducted with Hawaii state legislators (n = 15). We found a lack of consensus among legislators, which suggests that substantial legislative action is unlikely in the upcoming session. However, most legislators believe that some type of incremental legislation will pass, such as enactment of a small tax, limitations on advertising to protect adolescents, or regulations concerning where people can use e-cigarettes. Legislators eagerly await further research to clarify the overall benefits and harms of e-cigarettes at both the individual and population levels.

  12. Encouraging innovation: ten research priorities for achieving universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in Europe by 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Laukamm-Josten, Ulrich; Atun, Rifat A

    2008-01-01

    there have been many declarations and strategies addressing HIV/AIDS, today the goal is universal access to HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, care and support services by 2010. The articles included in this thematic issue of the Central European Journal of Public Health on HIV/AIDS reflect this, while the ten...... priorities listed below are immediate and sometimes innovative research needs in the context of preventing HIV among the most-at-risk populations. While by no means exhaustive, they are intended to point out gaps in existing knowledge and thus serve as inspiration for future research efforts....

  13. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  14. Acid rain legislation update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storey, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the author's view that the coal industry should develop a strategy to respond to the global warming issue. A few weeks ago a speaker stated that the global warming issue placed coal at the crossroads. He stated that global warming legislation, could reduce the consumption of coal by approximately twenty-five percent, without global warming legislation coal would continue to grow at a approximately three percent per year. It is believed there is a path to be traveled between the two options, legislation or no legislation, that can result in coal obtaining the position as the primary fuel source for electrical generating throughout the world. This is a path the coal industry can define and should follow

  15. Encouraging early preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children enrolled in Medicaid: using the extended parallel process model to conduct formative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth; Kuthy, Raymond; Ortiz, Cristina; Hanson, Jessica D; Damiano, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Preventive dental visits for preschool-aged children can result in better oral health outcomes, especially for children from lower income families. Many children, however, still do not see a dentist for preventive visits. This qualitative study examined the potential for the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to be used to uncover potential antecedents to parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care. Seventeen focus groups including 41 parents were conducted. The focus group protocol centered on constructs (perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived self-efficacy, and perceived response efficacy) of the EPPM. Transcripts were analyzed by three coders who employed closed coding strategies. Parents' perceptions of severity of dental issues were high, particularly regarding negative health and appearance outcomes. Parents perceived susceptibility of their children to dental problems as low, primarily because most children in this study received preventive care, which parents viewed as highly efficacious. Parents' self-efficacy to obtain preventive care for their children was high. However, they were concerned about barriers including lack of dentists, especially dentists who are good with young children. Findings were consistent with EPPM, which suggests this model is a potential tool for understanding parents' decisions about seeking preventive dental care for their young children. Future research should utilize quantitative methods to test this model. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Specific Statistics of Czech Legislation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2015), s. 162-183 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : legislation * quantitative description of legislation * structure and development of the legislation in the CR Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  17. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following national legislative and regulatory activities sorted by country: Bulgaria: General legislation; Czech Republic: General legislation; France: General legislation, Regulatory infrastructure and activity; Germany: General legislation; India: Liability and compensation, Organisation and structure; Ireland: Radiation protection, General legislation; Korea (Republic of): Organisation and structure; Lithuania: Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Radioactive waste management, Radiation protection, international cooperation, Nuclear safety; Poland: General legislation; Romania: Environmental protection; Russian Federation: Radioactive waste management; Slovenia: Nuclear safety; Spain: Liability and compensation, Nuclear security; Sweden: Nuclear safety; Turkey: Radiation protection, Regulatory infrastructure and activity, Nuclear safety, Liability and compensation; United States: General legislation

  18. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, C.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the House legislation, the major differences between the House and Senate legislation and a preview of what is likely to take place during the lame duck session in December are presented. The House legislation provides: long-term program leading toward permanent disposal of nuclear waste; an interim program for storage and for expansion of storage space for spent fuel; provides an R and D component through what is called a test and evaluation facility; an alternative long-term storage program based on a proposal to be completed by the Department of Energy on what's called Monitored Retrievable Storage; full upfront financing of the program through user fees based on contracts between the government and the users of the nuclear waste disposal services

  19. Status of legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The Senate passed 69 to 6 legislation to provide a comprehensive nuclear waste policy. This legislation restates some things the Department of Energy is already doing. It modifies some others, and in some cases it provides new authorities, principally in those areas of state participation and in the area of financing of the program. Some of the provisions of the Senate bill are: schedule for a number of items in the disposal of nuclear waste, the first being an area referred to as away-from reactor storage; a timetable for geologic disposal; a plan for the long-term storage of nuclear waste for spent fuels; a financing mechanism; and states participation

  20. Creativity and Innovation Encouraged in Hospital X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Bogovič

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Are creativity and innovation encouraged in Hospital X? Does satisfaction of employees at the workplace depend on the length of their employment? Does employee satisfaction depend on innovation? Purpose: It is important that creativity and innovation of employees are noticed in Hospital X in a timely manner. Various approaches can be used to motivate their creative thinking (using different professional factors. Method: Qualitative method, questionnaire with 8 questions and processing of results with χ2 test and frequency distribution. Results: The results of the research showed that 60% of employees at Hospital X were encouraged to be creative and innovative, whereas satisfaction at the workplace in connection with the period of employment did not have an effect on their satisfaction within the organization. Organization: The research results will give the management a clearer idea of employees’ opinions concerning their creativity and innovation. Society: Opinion of workers in a certain organization can encourage other organizations to be more creative and innovative. Originality: It is a small organization and results of the research refer to its originality. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was with regard to time and for this reason data collection was carried out only in the surgical unit of Hospital X.

  1. Harmonisation of Slovenian nuclear legislation with EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, M.

    1999-01-01

    Slovenia as a member of the first group of candidates countries which started the accession negotiations with the European Union. The extensive work started in 1998 to align the domestic legislation with the legislation of the European Union. The activities related to the accession of Slovenia to EU in the area of nuclear legislation are carried out in different national working groups. The main part of activities is in working groups: energy and environment, but there are some topics, which are covered in other groups, like control of dual-use materials in the group of External Relations, research in reactor physics, nuclear engineering and fusion in the group Science and Technology

  2. Encouraging Literacy for Personal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Considers that because literature can exert such a powerful hold on the imagination, certain works can be used to invite students to become more literate and to encourage students to take responsibility for their ongoing personal development. Notes that reading and other ways of learning are shown in fictional works of Louis L'Amour to be a rich…

  3. Recent US legislative actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, P.

    1987-01-01

    A view on legislative events in the US from the outside is presented. The author comments on the general principles and advantages of free trade against the possibility of an embargo into the US on uranium, on the issue of sanctions against South Africa, and Namibia, and how these issues affect the world market for uranium

  4. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  5. Notoriety for Profit Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    this study is a relatively new and important area in victimology known as "Notoriety For Profit Legislation". The study contains descrip- tions...in the area of victimology require further study. I BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Bard, Morton, and Dawn Sangrey. The Crime Victims Book. New York: Basic Books

  6. Legislation on treating animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Petra

    2016-01-01

    1 Abstract This Master's thesis entitled Legislation on treating animals in human care compares Czech and Australian legislation in selected aspects of three categories of animals in human care - farm animals, companion animals and animals used for scientific and other research purposes. The thesis is composed of 5 main chapters. The first chapter describes sources of law regarding treating animals in human care from the perspectives of international law, European Union law, federal Czech law...

  7. Specific legislation on biobanks in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Merino, Isabel Ma; Consuegra, Irene; Jiménez, José Luís; Muñoz-Fernández, Ma Ángeles

    2015-06-01

    Spain has enacted specific legislation concerning biobanks. This legislation regulates how biobanks should be set up, how they should operate, and the requirements they need to comply with. The main objective of this legislation is to keep a good balance between scientific progress and respect for the rights and freedom of individuals participating in research. Therefore, this legislation lays down a series of basic principles, for instance, the principle to inform donors accurately i) on the deposit of samples in terms of the objectives and implications of their donation and on the need to obtain written consents; ii) on the obligation to establish consistent procedures to guarantee the confidentiality of personal data associated with and obtained from biological samples; iii) on the concept of free sample donation either by donors or by biobanks; iv) on the need for consistent procedures to deposit samples and data in biobanks; and v) for acts of donation and data for research projects to be performed correctly. Although this Spanish legislation fulfills its objectives, it has some drawbacks; mainly it overprotects research participants. This issue should be analyzed in future revisions of the legislation.

  8. Smoke-free legislation and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-11-17

    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world's population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike.

  9. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    facilities; Management systems; Radioactive waste management: Safety of radioactive waste repositories; 7 - Slovak Republic, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Amendment to the Atomic Act; 8 - Slovenia, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Amendments to the Ionising Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning): Decree on activities involving radiation; 9 - Sweden, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Major revision of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's regulations; 10 - United States, General legislation, regulations and instruments: Commission policy statement setting principles to use to promote effective government-to-government interactions with American Indian and Alaska Native Tribes and encourage and facilitate Tribal involvement in areas of NRC jurisdiction; Nuclear installations: NuScale Power, LLC submits design certification application for small modular reactor (SMR) to the NRC; Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning): NRC publishes draft guidance document for the development of principal design criteria for non-light water cooled nuclear reactors

  10. Using Discovery Learning to Encourage Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia Hi. Rahman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative thinking ability development is needed to be implemented by every educator including lecturers to their students. Therefore, they need to seriously act and design their learning process. One of the ways to develop student’s creative thinking is using discovery learning model. This research is conducted in physics education study program in 2016 with students who took learning and teaching class as research subject. From the research analysis result and discussion, it can be concluded that discovery learning model can encourage students’ creative thinking ability in learning and teaching strategy subject.

  11. ENCOURAGEMENT PROVERBS AND THEIR DISCOURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    It could be asserted that many proverbs that are used for encouragements are best deployed in conversational encounters involving a few culturally conscious members. Let us look at the underlisted proverbs. 3.1.2 Example B: Father, mother and son: 30. Ugomba: Papa nә mama iϕe m shị m gwaa m unu bә nacholә m iso ...

  12. Informed or Overwhelmed? A Legislative History of Student Loan Counseling with a Literature Review on the Efficacy of Loan Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepfer, Kasey

    2015-01-01

    This report (the first in a series of five) explores congressional efforts to mitigate that risk and encourage informed borrowing by enacting statutes related to student loan counseling. After introducing the relevant contemporary policy context, it examines how federal rules governing student loan counseling evolved over time to embrace online…

  13. Bicycle infrastructure: can good design encourage cycling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research posits the question that good design of the bicycle infrastructure in a city will encourage more people to cycle. Research is carried out to compare the cycle infrastructure in selected European cities against an adapted Level of Service concept using accompanied ride-alongs. The literature review on the factors that encourage/dissuade cycle use suggests that it is the potential rider’s perceptions on the safety of cycling in their neighbourhood that is the deciding feature. Moreover, the literature review showed that contextual factors such as whether the actual infrastructure meets the needs of different cyclists are relatively under-researched. Six case study cities were selected (Edinburgh, Cambridge, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and compared on a range of factors by the riders including the coherence, directness, attractiveness, safety and comfort of the network. A cycle infrastructure scoring system was derived from the cycling research literature and the research was carried out by the researcher, an experienced cyclist, accompanied by an inexperienced cyclist. Using this research, the article makes several recommendations for improving and enhancing existing cycle infrastructure provision.

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 100th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the General Counsel, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document. Persons using this document are placed on notice that it may not be used as an authoritative citation in lieu of the primary legislative sources. Furthermore, while every effort has been made to ensure the completeness and accuracy of this material, neither the United States Government, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, nor any of their employees makes any expressed or implied warranty or assumes liability for the accuracy or completeness of the material presented in this compilation

  15. [Encouraging experiences of interactive lectures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Sanna; Linden, Anni-Maija; Ojala, Päivi M; Polvi, Anne; Sallinen, Ville; Viranta, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lectures typically represent unidirectional transfer of information from teacher to students whilst interactive lectures involve student activity. We analyzed the experiences of students and teachers of interactive lectures by observation and questionnaires during a course organized by Helsinki Biomedical Graduate School. Teachers and the majority of students found interactive lectures highly motivating although we observed that only a fraction of students participated in discussions. Students were of the opinion that interactivity improved their learning. Supplementing lectures with interactive elements encourages students to adopt active learning techniques.

  16. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Canada: Liability and compensation; 2 - France: Liability and compensation; Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 3 - Greece: Organisation and structure; 4 - Hungary: General legislation; 5 - India: Liability and compensation; 6 - Japan: Liability and compensation; 7 - Korea: Liability and compensation; 8 - Lithuania: General legislation; Transport of radioactive material; 9 - Slovak Republic: International co-operation; Liability and compensation; 10 - Slovenia: General legislation; 11 - Switzerland: Liability and compensation; 12 - United States: Radioactive waste management

  17. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, M.

    1983-06-01

    Legislation that would consent to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact has been introduced into Congress as H.R. 3002. Similar legislation is expected to be introduced into the Senate soon. This is the second compact consent legislation to be introduced into Congress this year - the first was the Northwest Compact, introduced in January. States in the Central Compact are AR, KS, LA, NE and OK. Enacted and introduced radioactive waste management legislation in various states is summarized

  18. International environmental legislation; Internationales Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proelss, Alexander (ed.) [Trier Univ. (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    The book on international environmental legislation includes the following contributions: Development, sources and actors concerning the international environmental legislation, cross-national environmental justice, principles of the international environmental legislation, environmental protection by lawsuit, environmental protection and human right, environmental protection and trading, responsibility and liability, peaceful settlement of disputes, climatic change, preservation and sustainable use of the biodiversity, protection of air and space, oceanic protection, protection of inland waters, protection of the Antarctic and Arctic environment, waste and hazardous materials legislation.

  19. Survey of state legislative programs that include passive solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S

    1979-06-01

    This report surveys and evaluates state-level solar-incentive programs, including passive solar energy. The range of programs examined focuses on financial and legal incentives designed to speed the implementation of solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. They have been evaluated by probing the wording of the incentive legislation and by interviewing state program administrators in each state to determine: (1) the extent, if any, of passive inclusion in solar-incentive programs, and (2) the level of success that various implementation techniques have achieved for encouraging passive solar designs as opposed to the more-commonly-understood active systems. Because no states have initiated incentive legislation designed exclusively to encourage passive solar techniques, it has been essential to determine whether legislative programs explicitly or implicitly include passive solar or if they explicitly exclude it.

  20. Parental encouragement of dieting promotes daughters' early dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L

    2014-09-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Governance, veterinary legislation and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, M

    2012-08-01

    This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.

  2. The fine art of giving encouragement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R

    1991-11-01

    1. Support and encouragement can significantly influence emotional well-being and profoundly affect quality of life. Encouragement is a powerful nursing strategy, increasing both nursing effectiveness and feelings of job satisfaction. 2. A variety of encouragement techniques are available, including focusing on the positive, communicating respect, showing appreciation, picking up the phone, avoiding a superior attitude, sharing personal experiences, providing motivation, and cheerleading. 3. To be most meaningful, words of encouragement should relate to a specific behavior. If encouragement is not consistent with an individual's personal wishes, goals, or feelings, encouragement may receive a negative response or be denied.

  3. EU law revisions and legislative drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghetto, Enrico; Mäder, Lars Kai

    2014-01-01

    European Union research has made great strides in understanding the dynamics of the European Union decision-making process. In contrast to this progress, the dynamics unfolding after the enactment of a European Union secondary legislative act has largely been ignored. Some of these acts remain...... revisions of European Union legislative acts are more likely to occur. Based on an analysis of the revision histories of 158 major European Union acts in the time period between 1958 and 2003, we find significant support for this hypothesis....

  4. Parental Perceptions of the 2014 SEND Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John; Pell, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    The study researched parent's experiences of The Children and Families Act 2014 in Hull and the East Riding of Yorkshire. A sample of parents using KIDS Services in the area were surveyed by questionnaire, both before and after the legislation came into force. Nearly half of the parents were aware of a change in Special Educational Needs and…

  5. THE INFLUENCES OF CHANGES IN TAX LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORAR IOAN DAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is a fairly important field in the relationship between taxpayers and tax authorities, especially given the frequent changes in specific legislation. Legislative changes affect the patrimonial position of the taxpayers, but also their behavior, therefore this phenomenon is important to advise those interested and also to analyze the changes resulting from changes in tax legislation. This paper aims to meaningfully present the latest legislative changes and to analyze their influences on taxpayers and on budget revenues from taxes subject to change. The research methodology is based on comparison and inference, based on previous analyzes for such studies on the tax system. In the literature there are known ways and methods of increasing the tax burden and, based on these variables, in the present paper we will highlight the particular influences on the taxpayer’s , loaded by weight imposed by the official distribution of the tax burden. The implications of legislative changes in tax matters should be sought in the innermost chord of taxpayers and also in the increasingly large and patched pockets of the modern state. In the first place, we will point out the implications on changing tax procedures, in terms of the workload for the taxpayer and the tax collectors. By accurately and relevantly analyzing the influences generated by such changes, the author aims to demonstrate the harmful influences of some changes in terms of discouraging investments and honest labor.

  6. Navigating SA's climate change legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    It is proposed that there should be a legislation to address climate change and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Bill. South Australian Government Greenhouse Strategy and climate change legislation in light of the far-reaching implications this legislation could have on clients, who face the impacts of climate change in the business and natural environment. It is a commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in South Australia by 2050 to 60 per cent of 1990 levels

  7. Chapter No.2. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    UJD as the central body of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the field of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' the preparation of rest regulations has continued. Following drafts of 5 were prepared regulations in 2001 and then they were sent for comments to various ministries by UJD: (a) Regulation on safety requirements for design of nuclear installations; (b) Regulation on safety requirements for commissioning and operation of nuclear installations; (c) Regulation on safety documentation; (d) Regulation on periodic safety assessment; (e) Regulation on safety requirements for siting of nuclear installations. Two following UJD safety guides were published in 2001 as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations': (a) BNS I. 11.2/1999 'Requirements for performance of safety analyses for ATWS' (b) BNS II.3.1/2000 'Evaluation of acceptability of faults detected during the operation inspection of nuclear installation selected equipment'. As UJD is responsible for performance of such reviews according to law No. 264/1999 Coll. on conformance assessment of products about 10 drafts of technical standards were reviewed. UJD provided documentation to the Slovak Republic position document related to Chapter 14 - Energy which was submitted to the European Union (EU). The set of recommendations related to nuclear safety was elaborated by the special working group on atomic question which was established by the EU Council. Their implementation is required as a prerequisite to close negotiations on Chapter 14 - Energy. The schedule of necessary safety related measures was agreed in co-operation with the SE a.s. and the Ministry of Economy and submitted as additional information for negotiations to the EC. The negotiations on Chapter 14 - Energy were successfully closed in October 2001. The activities in the area of Chapter 22 - Environment were concentrated on submission of necessary data

  8. Stricter antitrust legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  9. The impact of safety legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.L.; Gill, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The impact of medicines legislation for radiopharmaceuticals is discussed with regard to product licensing, production and quality control, marketing authorisation within the EC, licensing exemptions and authorisation for administration. As regards safety legislation for radiopharmaceuticals the requirements of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 are outlined. (UK)

  10. Legal Principles and Legislative Instrumentalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,

  11. Trends in outdoor recreation legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Siehl

    1980-01-01

    The two decades which have passed since the era of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) have been active and fruitful in terms of Federal recreation legislation. The Commission and its final report "Outdoor Recreation for America" strongly influenced the burst of recreation legislation in the 1960's. Even today, the studies prepared...

  12. Legislative and Judicial Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Louise Giovane

    1983-01-01

    Reviews computer applications in judicial, legal, and legislative information activities being used to support litigation and court administration, assist in searching for legislation and laws, aid criminal justice information systems, and provide appropriate bibliographic and reference assistance. Management issues in automating systems are…

  13. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdejo S, M.

    1997-01-01

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  14. Chapter 3. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) as central body of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the filed of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' there are 16 binding regulations under preparation. In 199 the following regulations were issued by UJD (1) Regulation No. 29/1999 Collection laws (Coll. l.) by which a list special materials and equipment is published. It came into force on 1 March 1999; (2) ) Regulation No. 30/1999 Coll. l. which defines details on maximum limits on quantities for nuclear materials for which there is no presumption of causing nuclear damage. It came into force on 1 March 1999; (3) Regulation No. 186/1999, which determines details to assure physical protection of nuclear installations, nuclear materials and radioactive waste. It came into force on 1 August 1999; (4) Regulations No. 187/1999 Coll. l. on professional competence of employees of nuclear installations. It came into force on 1 August 1999; (5) Regulation No. 198/1999 Coll. l. on accounting and inspection of nuclear materials. It came into force on 1 September 1999; (6) Regulation No. 245/1999 Coll. l. on emergency planning in case in incident or accident. It came into force on 1 October 1999; (7) Regulation No. 246/1999 Coll. l. on documentation of nuclear installations for decommissioning. It came into force on 1 October; (8) Regulation No. 284/1999 Coll. l. on details on transportation of nuclear materials and radioactive waste. It came into force on 15 November 1999. Six UJD safety guide were published last year as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations'. UJD provides documentation for screening process of Energy sector and Environment sector as contribution to the accession process to the European Union. The most important subject within the negotiations with the European Commission were safety and operation of the NPP V-1 Bohunice. UJD grants

  15. Nuclear liability legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives some basic data about nuclear installations in Slovenia, reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third-party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in the Slovenian legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It also aims to give some facts about history and present status of nuclear insurance pool and the insurance of nuclear risks in Slovenia. Paper finally indicates also some future legislative steps with respect to nuclear third party liability, at national and international level. (author)

  16. Chapter 3. Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) as the central authority of state administration prepares legislation within their competency and sets also binding criteria in the field of nuclear safety. Based on provisions of the 'Atomic Act' a preparation of remaining 8 decrees have continued. In 2000 the following decrees were issued by UJD: (1) Decree No. 31/2000 Coll on events at nuclear installations. It came into force on 15 February 2000. (2) Decree No. 190/2000 Coll by which details of radioactive waste management and spent fuel management are regulated. It came into force on 1-st July 2000. The following six decrees are at the process of preparation: (a) Decree on quality assurance of nuclear installations, (b) Decree on safety requirements for design of nuclear installations, (c) Decree on safety requirements for commissioning and operation of nuclear installations, (d) Decree on safety documentation, (e) Decree on periodic safety assessment, (f) Decree on safety requirements for siting of nuclear installations. Following five UJD safety guides were published in 2000 as the part of edition 'Safety of Nuclear Installations': (1) BNS I.9.1/1999 Safety of nuclear facilities during decommissioning (issued in April 2000). (2) BNS III.4.1/2000 Requirements on UJD SR permit issue for fuel use in WWER 440 reactors (issued in September 2000). (3) BNS III.4.3/2000 Requirements on assessment of fuel loading for WWER 440 reactors (issued in September 2000). (4) BNS I.2.6/2000 UJD SR requirements on chapter 4 of Safety analysis report 'Core design' (issued in September 2000). (5) NS I.4.2/1996 Use of PSA methodology in the process of regulation by regulatory authority (issued in September 2000). About thirty-five drafts of technical standards were reviewed as UJD is responsible for performance such review according to the law No. 264/1999 Coll. on conformance assessment of products. UJD provided necessary documentation for negotiation positions of the

  17. Montgomery County Council Legislation - Bills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Council enacts local public laws for the ‘peace, good government, health, and welfare of the county’. The bills dataset contains all legislation considered by...

  18. Information report on state legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of laws enacted by states, during 1982, dealing with the management of low-level radioactive wastes are presented in this report. Also included are adopted resolutions, introduced legislation and introduced resolutions

  19. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    This part gathers the national legislative and regulatory activities. The subjects tackled are as follow: radiological protection (Belgium), transport of radioactive materials (Belgium, France), general legislation (Brazil, Ireland, Republic of Moldova, Serbia, Turkey), third part liability (Japan), radioactive waste management (Korea, Romania, Slovenia, Usa), regime of radioactive materials (Romania), organisation and structure (Switzerland), regime of nuclear installations (Usa), regulations on nuclear trade (Usa). (N.C)

  1. Nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-02-01

    The cause for the urgent need of nuclear safety legislation and supervision in China is firstly described, and then a brief introduction to the basic principle and guideline of nuclear safety is presented. Finally the elaboration on the establishment of nuclear safety regulatory system, the enactment of a series of regulations and safety guides, and the implementation of licencing, nuclear safety supervision and research for ensuring the safety of nuclear energy, since the founding of the National Nuclear Safety Administration, are introduced

  2. Discourse Analysis of Encouragement in Healthcare Manga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Smith, Ian; Uchimura, Mari

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how healthcare professionals use encouragement. Focusing on GAMBARU ["to try hard"], forty-one scenes were collected from healthcare manga. Each scene of encouragement was analyzed from three perspectives; the contextual background of the communication, the relationship with the patients and the patients' response…

  3. Evidence and argument in policymaking: development of workplace smoking legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to identify factors that affect the passage of public health legislation by examining the use of arguments, particularly arguments presenting research evidence, in legislative debates regarding workplace smoking restrictions. Methods We conducted a case-study based content analysis of legislative materials used in the development of six state workplace smoking laws, including written and spoken testimony and the text of proposed and passed bills and amendments. We coded testimony given before legislators for arguments used, and identified the institutional affiliations of presenters and their position on the legislation. We compared patterns in the arguments made in testimony to the relative strength of each state's final legislation. Results Greater discussion of scientific evidence within testimony given was associated with the passage of workplace smoking legislation that provided greater protection for public health, regardless of whether supporters outnumbered opponents or vice versa. Conclusion Our findings suggest that an emphasis on scientific discourse, relative to other arguments made in legislative testimony, might help produce political outcomes that favor public health.

  4. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    Belarus: general legislation with amendments to laws on the use of atomic energy (2009) and criminal law on acts concerning the use of radioactive sources and administrative law for non criminal violations of radiation safety requirement (2009). Egypt: general legislation with law on activities in the nuclear and radiation field (2010). France: radioactive waste management with a decree establishing a committee on industrial co-ordination of radioactive waste (2010) and third part liability with a law on the recognition and indemnification of victims of nuclear tests conducted by France (2010). Germany: general legislation with a tenth amendment to the atomic energy act (2010), and act on environmental impact assessment (2009) concerning organisation and structure we find a revised version of statutes of the Radiation Protection Commission (2009), about radiation protection we find an act on the protection against non-ionizing radiation (2009), and for transport of radioactive materials we have an ordinance on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (2009). Ireland: In radiation protection we have an order to amend Regulations on active implantable medical devices (2010). Italy: general legislation we have a decree setting out rules for the sitting, construction and operation of nuclear installations (2010). Romania: general legislation with a law on the reorganisation of public authorities (2009). Slovak Republic: general legislation with an amendment of the atomic act (2009). spain: radioactive waste management with a law regulation limited investment companies quoted on the real estate market (2009). Ukraine: general legislation with an overview of recent amendments to laws in the field of nuclear energy (2009). (N.C.)

  5. Encouraging an ecological evolution of data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure is often thought of as a complex physical construct usually designed to transport information or things (e.g. electricity, water, cars, money, sound, data…). The Research Data Alliance (RDA) takes a more holistic view and considers infrastructure as a complex body of relationships between people, machines, and organisations. This paper will describe how this more ecological perspective leads RDA to define and govern an agile virtual organization. We seek to harness the power of the volunteer, through an open problem solving approach that focusses on the problems of our individual members and their organisations. We focus on implementing solutions that make data sharing work better without defining a priori what is necessary. We do not judge the fitness of a solution, per se, but instead assess how broadly the solution is adopted, recognizing that adoption is often the social challenge of technical problem. We seek to encourage a bottoms up approach with light guidance on principles from the top. The goal is to develop community solutions that solve real problems today yet are adaptive to changing technologies and needs.

  6. Gender Diversity in Planetary Volcanology: Encouraging Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have brought together a group of respected and well-known female planetary volcanologists to create a book designed to encourage young women to pursue scientific careers. The book, entitled "Volcanic Worlds: Exploring the Solar System's Volcanoes," published by Praxis, is written for undergraduates who may have no background in geology or planetary sciences. Each chapter covers a different Solar System body or volcanic process, and is authored by a woman who is an expert in her field. Subjects covered include: the relation of plate tectonics to volcanism on Earth; the study of Mars' volcanoes from space and using rovers; geysers on Neptune's moon Triton and on Earth; eruptions on Io; and studying submarine lava flows from a submarine. Each chapter is written in a comfortable, readily accessible tone, with authors presenting not only science, but also some of the unique challenges faced by women conducting volcanological research today-and how these are overcome. Although not intended to be a textbook, this work could easily form the basis of an undergraduate geology seminar, honors course, or as a valuable accessory to an introductory geology course. In addition, it could be used in courses that would be cross-listed between geology departments and sociology departments. We will present more information on the book, and suggestions of how it could be used in the classroom to enhance gender diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences.

  7. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and The Council of the European Union have recommended the Member States to take action against radon in homes and at workplaces. Within the EU project European Research into Radon in Construction Concerted Action, ERRICCA, the Topic Group on Legal and Building Code Impact was designated to study the current radon legislation and give advice regarding future enactment of laws and recommendations. On behalf of the Group, a questionnaire on radon legislation was sent out to nearly all European states and a selection of non-European states. Questions were asked regarding reference levels for dwellings, workplaces and drinking water, and about regulations or recommendations for building materials and city planning. All 15 EU Member States, 17 non-EU European countries and 10 non-European countries responded to the questionnaire. Their answers are considered current as of the end of 1998. Most European States and many non-European countries have recommended reference levels for dwellings and workplaces, and some have guidelines for measures against radon incorporated in their building codes and guidelines for construction techniques. However, only a few countries have enforced reference levels or regulations for planning and construction. The reference levels for indoor radon concentration in existing and new dwellings or workplaces are within the range 150-1000 Bq/m 3 . Sweden is the only country (Out of 15 EU member states) which has enforced limits for existing dwellings. Sweden and the UK have both enforced levels for new dwellings. 7 non-European countries (Out of 17 responding countries) have enforced levels for existing dwellings and 9 have them for new dwellings. At the end of 1998, only Finland, Sweden, the Czech Republic, Romania, Russia and the Slovak Republic had limits for radon in water, although 8 countries were planning to introduce such limits. The present limits are within the range for 50

  8. Accountability legislation: Implications for financial and performance reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Rixon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study is to first examine the implications of accountability legislation on the financial and performance reporting of a public sector agency in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador and secondly, to compare the level of accountability with Stewart’s (1984 ladder of accountability. This paper is based on the first phase of a two-phase study. The first phase focuses on the initial impacts of accountability legislation on agencies and the challenges created by the legislation’s ‘one size fits all’ approach. The second phase of this study will examine the impact of the legislation on stakeholders after it has been in operation for five years. The second phase will include interviews with stakeholders to ascertain the level of satisfaction with the new legislation. The first phase of the study is significant since it highlights how governments could consider stakeholder needs when drafting such legislation. This research contributes to the body of literature on stakeholder accountability since there is a paucity of research focused specifically on the impact of accountability legislation on public sector agencies. An important contribution of this paper is the introduction of a framework for legislated accountability reporting. The main theoretical frameworks used to analyse the findings are Stewart’s (1984 ladder of accountability in conjunction with Friedman and Miles (2006 ladder of stakeholder management and engagement.

  9. Encouraging Student Participation While Designing Writing Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Encouraging student participation while designing writing exercises requires a certain pragmatic approach. Wilbert James McKeachie is the author of a widely read textbook on college teaching. McKeachie was a longtime faculty member at the University of Michigan. He served as president of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Foundation and the American Association of Higher Education. In his famous book Teaching and Learning in the College Classroom, McKeachie provides an introduction and notes the role of research in identifying new goals for higher education. He also offers a conceptual framework based on a student mediation model and a focuses on the processs-product relationships between faculty teacher behavior and student learning outcomes. McKeachie' s Teaching Tips provides helpful strategies for dealing with both the everyday problems of university teaching and those that arise in trying to maximize learning for every student. The book does not suggest a set of recipes to be followed mechanically; it gives instructors the tools they need to deal with the ever-changing dynamics of teaching and learning. First, it is extremely important to define the target skill areas and means of implementation. Next, the professor can then proceed to focus on the techniques that could be employed to ensure student participation. This includes selection of an appropriate topic that is relevant to the field of study as well as classroom learning experiences. By pragmatically combining these objectives, the teacher can expect both enthusiasm and effective learning among the student population. McKeachie, Wilbert James. (1980) Learning, Cognition and College Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey - Bass McKeachie, Wilbert James. (1980) Teaching Tips: A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher Lexington, MASS. : Heath. 1986. ISBN: 0669067520 McKeachie, Wilbert James., et. al. (2001) Teaching Tips (Eleventh Edition): Strategies, Research, and Theory for

  10. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  11. Nuclear Liability Legislation in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skraban, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews Slovenian national legislation in the field of third party liability for nuclear damage, applicability of the international nuclear liability treaties in Slovenia legal system and outlines some main provisions of national legislation. It is worth mentioning that legal instruments covering third party liability and compulsory insurance of such liability exist in Slovenia for almost 20 years and that our nuclear facilities are covered by relevant international treaties and conventions in this field, among them also by the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (from 1977) and the Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (from 1994). (author)

  12. Encouraging Reflection and Critical Friendship in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Krumes, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Reflectivity is an important professional competence of contemporary teachers. In order to explore how to encourage students' reflection, we conducted a two-year action research project impelling them to become mutual critical friends. For critical friendship communication and other project activities, we utilised Moodle--an online learning…

  13. 40 CFR 1508.17 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislation. 1508.17 Section 1508.17 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.17 Legislation. Legislation includes a bill or legislative proposal to Congress developed by or with the significant...

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    - International co-operation: Law ratifying the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and Greece in the area of education and training; - Nuclear safety and radiological protection: Ministerial decision establishing requirements for nuclear safety and regulatory control of research reactors; Moldova - General legislation: New comprehensive law governing nuclear and radiological activities; United States - Issuance of the 'Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste'; - Ongoing activities: The Blue Ribbon Commission noted the need for near-term actions that can lay the groundwork for the next generation of nuclear waste policies and programmes included in its recommendations; - Physical protection of by-product material final rulemaking: On 19 March 2013, the NRC published a final rule amending its regulations to establish security requirements for the use and transport of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive material; - Update on the NRC's response to the events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear site regarding filtered vents and consideration of economic consequences

  15. Generic legislation of new psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; Nutt, David; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-03-01

    New psychoactive drugs (NPDs, new psychoactive substances) enter the market all the time. However, it takes several months to ban these NPDs and immediate action is generally not possible. Several European countries and drug enforcement officers insist on a faster procedure to ban NPDs. Introduction of generic legislation, in which clusters of psychotropic drugs are banned in advance, has been mentioned as a possible solution. Here we discuss the pros and cons of such an approach. First, generic legislation could unintentionally increase the expenditures of enforcement, black market practices, administrative burden and health risks for users. Second, it may have a negative impact on research and the development of new treatments. Third, due to the complexity of generic legislation, problems in the enforcement are anticipated due to lack of knowledge about the chemical nomenclature. Finally, various legal options are already available to ban the use, sale and trade of NPDs. We therefore conclude that the currently used scientific benefit-risk evaluation should be continued to limit the adverse health effects of NPDs. Only in emergency cases, where fatal incidents (may) occur, should this approach be overruled.

  16. The circuitous path of democracy : legislative control of the bureaucracy in presidential regimes : the case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos C., Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    My research identifies conditions for legislators in emerging presidential democracies to achieve bureaucratic accountability, one of the least studies aspects of legislative politics. To better explain legislators' ability to hold the bureaucracy accountable, I develop a theoretical model of oversight in which resource constraints (i.e., capabilities) and electoral motivations and policy preferences (i.e., incentives) explain legislators' behavior. The model shows that legislators' oversight...

  17. Model Legislation on Student Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education in the States, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Because of the radical variance in residency requirements from state to state and sometimes from institution to institution, and because of several court cases involving this issue, the Education Commission of the States appointed a Committee to develop (1) a statement of principles for consideration in drafting legislation in connection with…

  18. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W.

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  19. New Legislation on Capitol Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertman, John

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, John Wertman describes the evolution of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, the role the American Association of Geographers (AAG) played over the last decade in getting it passed, and the impact the Act has on funding for K-12 geography education. The legislation, while not perfect, includes promising new…

  20. Analysis of a global random stratified sample of nurse legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Fernández-Fernández, M P; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2015-06-01

    To identify, compare and contrast the major component parts of heterogeneous stratified sample of nursing legislation. Nursing legislation varies from one jurisdiction to another. Up until now no research exists into whether the variations of such legislation are random or if variations are related to a set of key attributes. This mixed method study used a random stratified sample of legislation to map through documentary analysis the content of 14 nursing acts and then explored, using quantitative techniques, whether the material contained relates to a number of key attributes. These attributes include: legal tradition of the jurisdiction; model of regulation; administrative approach; area of the world; and the economic status of the jurisdiction. Twelve component parts of nursing legislation were identified. These were remarkably similar irrespective of attributes of interest. However, not all component parts were specified in the same level of detail and the manner by which the elements were addressed did vary. A number of potential relationships between the structure of the legislation and the key attributes of interest were identified. This study generated a comprehensive and integrated map of a global sample of nursing legislation. It provides a set of descriptors to be used to undertake further quantitative work and provides an important policy tool to facilitate dialogue between regulatory bodies. At the individual nurse level it offers insights that can help nurses pursue recognition of credentials across jurisdictions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  1. Stimulation of innovations - Increase of the research of renewable energies. Recommendations of Fraunhofer ISE for the research politics Renewable Energies in the legislative period 2009-2013. Position paper 1/2009; Innovationen stimulieren - Regenerative Energien-Forschung steigern. Empfehlungen des Fraunhofer ISE fuer die Forschungspolitik Regenerative Energien in der Legislaturperiode 2009-2013. Positionspapier 1/2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    In the past years, the renewable energies became a relevant quantity in the German power supply. Germany is in the increasing competition around its leading position in technology and production particularly with the U.S.A., Peoples Republic of China and other Asian states. In order to meet the challenges, technological innovations are necessary. Under this aspect, the following recommendations of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (Freiburg, Federal Republic of Germany) result for the research policy and launching of renewable energies in the legislative period 2009 - 2013: (a) A distinct increase of the research funding for renewable energies; (b) Increase of the amount of the fundamental research and preliminary research within the range of the renewable energy; (c) Adoption of a renewably aligned energy research program; (d) Continuation and adjustment of the launching politics.

  2. MODEL-BASED VALIDATION AND VERIFICATION OF ANOMALIES IN LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An anomaly in legislation is absence of completeness, consistency and other desirable properties, caused by different semantic, syntactic or pragmatic reasons. In general, the detection of anomalies in legislation comprises validation and verification. The basic idea of research, as presented in this paper, is modelling legislation by capturing domain knowledge of legislation and specifying it in a generic way by using commonly agreed and understandable modelling concepts of the Unified Modelling Language (UML. Models of legislation enable to understand the system better, support the detection of anomalies and help to improve the quality of legislation by validation and verification. By implementing model-based approach, the object of validation and verification moves from legislation to its model. The business domain of legislation has two distinct aspects: a structural or static aspect (functionality, business data etc., and a behavioural or dynamic part (states, transitions, activities, sequences etc.. Because anomalism can occur on two different levels, on the level of a model, or on the level of legislation itself, a framework for validation and verification of legal regulation and its model is discussed. The presented framework includes some significant types of semantic and syntactic anomalies. Some ideas for assessment of pragmatic anomalies of models were found in the field of software quality metrics. Thus pragmatic features and attributes can be determined that could be relevant for evaluation purposes of models. Based on analogue standards for the evaluation of software, a qualitative and quantitative scale can be applied to determine the value of some feature for a specific model.

  3. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  4. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century, three intertwined ambitions drove federal legislation over wildlife and biodiversity: establishment of multiple-use federal lands, the economic development of natural resources, and the maintenance of option values. We examine this federal intervention in nat...... depends on the community’s resource endowments. These endowments are defined not only in terms of users’ current wealth accumulation but also from their expected ability to extract utility from natural resources over time....

  5. TENORM legislation - Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurikov, N.; Koperski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Processing of minerals often increases concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in mineral concentrates, products and waste streams. This so-called TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) phenomenon can result in usually very small increases of radiation exposures to workers and the public. However, proposed international radiation protection standards are likely to bring the TENORM issue into the realm of regulatory concern. Verbatim adoption by the national legislation's of the radiation protection standards like those proposed in the IAEA's 1996 Basic Safety Standards (BSS) would present enormous practical problems. Many industries and industrial practices would, for the first time, become subjected to the provisions of radiation protection legislation. Consequently, registration, licensing, occupational and environmental monitoring, statutory reporting, appointment of appropriately qualified staff, new approaches to the management of minerals and waste labeled as 'radioactive', etc. would be required. This would be mirrored by corresponding demands on the regulatory authorities, needing to provide an increased radiation protection regulatory control. In response to new Australian and other national radiation protection legislation that have incorporated the BSS criteria, this paper illustrates their impact on a number of industries that historically have not been considered as dealing with radioactive materials. The paper also proposes a number of initiatives that could be considered. Nationally, those initiatives should aim at adopting radiation protection legislation that is commensurate with the nature of the minerals industry operations, national circumstances, conditions and interests without compromising rational radiation protection practices. Otherwise, non-judicious application of the BSS would result in major diversions of resources from well recognized occupational health and safety issues

  6. Legislators Urge Carbon Emissions Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2007-02-01

    Legislators from the world's largest carbon dioxide (CO2) emitting countries met on 14-15 February in Washington, D.C., to discuss the future of the global climate and strategies to mitigate temperature increases resulting from global warming. The world faces a ``double challenge-how to reduce damaging carbon emissions while still meeting the energy demand that the world's poor need to escape poverty,'' said World Bank President Paul Wolfowitz during a keynote talk.

  7. Do markets encourage risk-seeking behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengel, F.; Peeters, R.J.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive risk taking in markets can have devastating consequences as recent financial crises have high-lighted. In this paper we ask whether markets as an institution encourage such excessive risk taking. To establish causality, we isolate the effects of market interaction in a laboratory

  8. Reasons encouraging adolescents to take up smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand adolescents' smoking behavior by analyzing retrospective self-ratings of the reasons encouraging them to take up smoking. Method: Participating in the study were 883 students (373 boys) of elementary and secondary schools in Kosice, Slovak Republic (74.9% of adolescents in the

  9. Encouraging Creativity in the Science Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyster, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although science is a creative endeavor (NRC 1996, p. 46), many students think they are not encouraged--or even allowed--to be creative in the laboratory. When students think there is only one correct way to do a lab, their creativity is inhibited. Park and Seung (2008) argue for the importance of creativity in science classrooms and for the…

  10. Stress and Intelligence: Understanding and Encouraging the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and behavioural factors leading to stress among the gifted learners. It recommends ways on how parents, teachers and counsellors can reduce stress on gifted students by encouraging flexibility, appropriate behaviour, and thereby assisting the gifted students to develop a realistic and accurate self-concept.

  11. Using Emoticons to Encourage Students to Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Matthew D.; Trudel, Remi

    2017-01-01

    Uncovering inexpensive, simple techniques to encourage students to act in a pro-environmental manner is of critical importance. Through a four-week field study at a large, environmentally focused elementary school, it was found that placing negatively valenced emoticons (i.e., red frowny faces) on trash cans increased the proportion of recycled…

  12. Planning legislation and healthy air : a response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutis, P.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation described the legislative framework used to promote healthy air in Ontario with reference to the Planning Act, the 2001 Municipal Act, and the 2001 Brownfields Statute Law Amendment Act. The objective of the framework is to promote sustainable economic development in a manner which promotes healthy air, land and water. Another objective is to encourage a land use planning system that is led by provincial policy and which integrates matters of provincial interest. Provincial interests include the protection of ecological systems, agricultural resources, and the supply of energy and water. Provincial interests also include the efficient use of transportation, sewage, water and waste management systems. The Planning Act makes sure that any development and land use patterns that cause concern to public health and safety are avoided. The objectives for healthy communities are to promote street patterns and a mix of land uses in new and redeveloping areas which reduce trip length and facilitate walking, cycling and transit use to ultimately improve air quality, energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 1 ref, 1 fig

  13. Legislative and technical aspects of mutagenicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, V W; Flamm, W G

    1975-08-01

    A brief account is given of the history of the legislative acts that give responsibility to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for ensuring the safety of foods, drugs, and cosmetics. Within the present legislative framework the FDA has the authority to impose regulations which are designed to ensure the safety of all foods, drugs, and cosmetics. The existing legislative authority is adequate for this purpose; however, the difficulty lies instead with technology and the inadequacy of scientific perspective in the emerging area of mutagenicity testing. Earlier efforts in development of mutagenicity screening systems culminated only a few years ago in the proposal to use the host-mediated assay, somatic cell cytogenetics, and dominant lethal tests collectively. Subsequent research efforts indicated that there were serious practical and scientific deficiencies in using this approach. More recently a new proposal, the tier system, has been suggested as an alternative measure. The proposed tier system at FDA consists of three testing levels of increasing complexity. The first tier is an initial screening effort using techniques having maximum sensitivity that are also useful for large-scale, rapid testing. The second tier is designed to identify and confirm that the presumptive mutagens detected in the first tier are truly mutagenic for higher organisms, most especially, for mammals. The third tier would be devoted to explicit genetic tests in mammals designed to ascertain the imposed risk to man by the introduction of a mutagen in our environment. The FDA is currently involved in a number of research activities in the area of mutagenicity safety screening which will explore the adequacies and possible deficiencies of the tier system approach. These efforts are described for our in-house activities, our contract activities, and our cooperative and collaborative activities with other government agencies and institutions.

  14. A legislator`s guide to municipal solid waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, D; Hill, K

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this guide is to allow individual state legislators to gain a better understanding of municipal solid waste (MSW) management issues in general, and examine the applicability of these concerns to their state. This guide incorporates a discussion of MSW management issues and a comprehensive overview of the components of an integrated solid waste management system. Major MSW topics discussed include current management issues affecting states, federal activities, and state laws and local activities. Solid waste characteristics and management approaches are also detailed.

  15. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows for greater policy change.......This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent...

  16. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism and Policy Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how institutional constraints affect legislative activism and how legislative activism in turn affects policy change through an analysis of the European Union's legislative process. The argument revolves around the key role of the European Commission in advancing...... policy change, and emphasises that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from the period 1984–2012, the article shows...... that the number of legislative proposals significantly affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposals, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU's legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity...

  17. An empirical review of major legislation affecting drug development: past experiences, effects, and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2011-09-01

    With the development of transformative drugs at a low point, numerous commentators have recommended new legislation that uses supplementary market exclusivity as an incentive to promote innovation in the pharmaceutical market. This report provides an historical perspective on proposals for encouraging drug research. Four legislative programs have been primarily designed to offer market exclusivity to promote public health goals in the pharmaceutical or biomedical sciences: the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980, the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984, and the pediatric exclusivity provisions of the FDA Modernization Act of 1997. I reviewed quantitative and qualitative studies that reported on the outcomes from these programs and evaluated the quality of evidence generated. All four legislative programs generally have been regarded as successful, although such conclusions are largely based on straightforward descriptive reports rather than on more rigorous comparative data or analyses that sufficiently account for confounding. Overall, solid data demonstrate that market exclusivity incentives can attract interest from parties involved in drug development. However, using market exclusivity to promote innovation in the pharmaceutical market can be prone to misuse, leading to improper gains. In addition, important collateral effects have emerged with substantial negative public health implications. Using market exclusivity to promote pharmaceutical innovation can lead to positive outcomes, but the practice is also characterized by waste and collateral effects. Certain practices, such as mechanisms for reevaluation and closer ties of incentives programs to public health outcomes, can help address these problems. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  18. Feeling Is Believing: Inspiration Encourages Belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean

    2018-04-01

    Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.

  19. Eating out with a food allergy in the UK: Change in the eating out practices of consumers with food allergy following introduction of allergen information legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begen, F M; Barnett, J; Payne, R; Gowland, M H; DunnGalvin, A; Lucas, J S

    2018-03-01

    Strict allergen avoidance is important in day-to-day management of food allergy and avoidance when eating outside the home can present particular difficulties. EU legislation (EU FIC) introduced in December 2014 aimed to improve food allergen information provision for customers by requiring retailers of non-prepacked foods to provide information related to the content of one or more of 14 specified food allergens within their foods. To investigate the impact of EU FIC on the behaviours, experiences and attitudes of consumers with food allergy when eating out. As part of longitudinal research, participants with food allergy from across the UK took part in either (A) pre and post legislation in-depth interviews, or (B) pre and post legislation surveys. In-depth interviews were carried out with 28 participants pre and post legislation and analysed using the framework approach. Self-report surveys were completed by 129 participants pre and post legislation, and responses were subject to quantitative analyses. Improvements in allergen information provision and raised awareness of food allergy in eating out venues were reported following introduction of EU FIC. Whilst participants favoured written allergen information, they expressed greater confidence in communicating with eating out staff and in trusting the allergen information that they provided. Improvements were judged to be gradual, sporadic or inconsistent in implementation. For many participants, the "ideal" eating out experience was one in which a range of information resources were available and where written allergen information was complemented by proactive and accommodating staff within an allergy-aware environment. Whilst the onus is on legislators and food providers to ensure that adequate allergen information is provided, clinicians play an important role in encouraging patients with food allergy to pursue their legal right to make allergen enquiries to avoid accidental allergen ingestion when eating out

  20. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid

    2014-08-01

    or process. The fact that upon independence in 1957 the Malaysian constitution accorded separate jurisdiction for the state and federal authorities on land and water issues has given rise to various points of contention when dealing with water policy reform, particularly the role, power and ownership of water resources between the state and the federal governments. In conclusion, the problems observed in Malaysia’s water services industry reform are mainly with regard to legislation. In-depth analysis of how the SPAN Act and WSIA impact available legislation and how these legislations can create an integrated water resource management system that works on both Federal and State levels are crucial. It is thus fundamental for legal regimes for water resources to support the legal regimes for water services. Only then, will the Federal government be able to take appropriate steps in restructuring the country’s water governance in its entirety. Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge the research grant provided by the Ministry of Education Malaysia under the Long Term Research Grant Scheme (LRGS 203/PKT/6726002 and those who have took part and provided us with information for this study. The authors also thank the panel of reviewers who provided us with constructive comments in the preparation of this commentary.

  1. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suzi Hellmundt; Dallas Baker

    2017-01-01

    Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013). But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS) as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gl...

  2. Encouraging creativity and employability skills in undergraduate microbiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verran, Joanna

    2010-02-01

    Key skills such as communication and critical thinking are essential for today's microbiology graduate. There are many opportunities within the undergraduate curriculum to help students to use, develop and appreciate their own unique set of skills. This article describes personal experiences of research-led teaching at Manchester Metropolitan University (UK) which have been used successfully to encourage creativity and other employability skills in both large and smaller classroom settings, and through individual student project work. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Legislations the field of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    An outline is given of the national legislation in 39 countries in the field of food irradiation. Where available the following information is given for each country: form of legislation, object of legislation including information on the irradiation treatment, the import and export trade of irradiated food, the package labelling and the authorization and control of the irradiation procedures

  4. 38 CFR 13.3 - State legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State legislation. 13.3... ADMINISTRATION, FIDUCIARY ACTIVITIES § 13.3 State legislation. Field facility Directors are authorized to... regarding any proposed legislation relating to fiduciary matters will be taken without the approval of the...

  5. 46 CFR 67.132 - Special legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special legislation. 67.132 Section 67.132 Shipping... legislation. (a) Vessels not otherwise entitled to be operated in the coastwise trade or in the fisheries may obtain these privileges as a result of special legislation by the Congress of the United States. (b) In...

  6. 29 CFR 11.14 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Legislation. 11.14 Section 11.14 Labor Office of the... Administrative Procedures § 11.14 Legislation. Notwithstanding any provisions of this part, environmental assessments or impact statements prepared in connection with requests for new legislation or modification of...

  7. 50 CFR 80.3 - Assent legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assent legislation. 80.3 Section 80.3... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.3 Assent legislation. A State may participate in the benefits of the Act(s) only after it has passed legislation which assents to the provisions...

  8. Legislative Basis of Pedagogical Education in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchai, Tetiana

    2014-01-01

    Legal framework policy of Japan in the field of education has been analyzed. The problem of influence of legislative materials on the development of education in Japan, its legislative support has been considered. It has been defined that directive materials affect the development of education system in Japan. Legislation policy of the country is…

  9. 33 CFR 276.5 - Legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislative history. 276.5 Section 276.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF... Legislative history. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the reports by the Senate Committee on...

  10. Incentives to Encourage Scientific Web Contribution (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    We suggest improvements to citation standards and creation of remuneration opportunities to encourage career scientist contributions to Web2.0 and social media science channels. At present, agencies want to accomplish better outreach and engagement with no funding, while scientists sacrifice their personal time to contribute to web and social media sites. Securing active participation by scientists requires career recognition of the value scientists provide to web knowledge bases and to the general public. One primary mechanism to encourage participation is citation standards, which let a contributor improve their reputation in a quantifiable way. But such standards must be recognized by their scientific and workplace communities. Using case studies such as the acceptance of web in the workplace and the growth of open access journals, we examine what agencies and individual can do as well as the time scales needed to secure increased active contribution by scientists. We also discuss ways to jumpstart this process.

  11. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    These columns summarize the recent changes made in the nuclear legislation and regulation of OECD countries: Argentina: Reorganization of the National Atomic Energy Commission (2001); Canada: Order aiming to increase security at major nuclear installations (2001); France: Establishment of the French Agency for Environmental Health Safety and the Institute for the Protection of Nuclear Safety (2001). Amendment of the Decree on the Holding Company of the Atomic Energy Commission (2001). Decree on the Special Commission for Major Nuclear Installations Classified as Secret (2001).Ordinance on the Implementation of EU Directives in the Field of Protection against Ionising Radiation (2001). Decree on Information of the Public (2001). Decree governing the Safety and Radiation Protection of Nuclear Installations and Activities used for Defence Purposes (2001). Order on Postal Deliveries of Radioactive Materials (2001). Order on the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road ('ADR Order') (2001). Order on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Rail ('RID Order') (2001). Germany: Agreement on the phase-out of nuclear energy (2001). Ordinance implementing Euratom Directives on Radiation Protection (2001). Greece: Radiation Protection Regulations (2001). Italy: Amendment of the Decree implementing the Euratom basic radiation protection standards (2001) Implementation of the European Directive on the Quality of Water Intended for Human Consumption (2001). JAPAN: Revision of the Nuclear Disaster Prevention Guidelines (2000). Republic of Korea: Amendments to the Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (2001). Lithuania: Regulations for the Classification of Legal Acts Regulating Nuclear Safety (2001); Hygiene Standard 'Radiation Safety in Nuclear Power Plants' (2001). Guidelines governing the Procedure on Radiological Monitoring and Limitation of Releases of Radionuclides into the Environment from Nuclear Facilities (2001). Law on the Decommissioning Fund for the Ignalina Nuclear Power

  12. Legislative processes in transition : comparative study of the legislative processes in Finland, Slovenia and the United Kingdom as a source of inspiration for enhancing the efficiency of the Dutch legislative process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voermans, W.; Napel, H.-M. ten; Diamant, M.; Groothuis, M.; Steunenberg, B.; Passchier, R.; Pack, S.

    2012-01-01

    The main research question of the current study is when whether the efficiency of the Dutch legislative procedure for parliamentary acts indeed constitutes a problem, in particular if compared to the achievements of legislative processes in several other European countries and, if that turns out to

  13. ALCOHOL RELATED TRAFFIC SAFETY LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. DESAPRIYA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a substantial amount of evidence from experimental studies to indicate that a variety of individual skills are impaired at blood alcohol concentrations (BACs well below 0.05%. Epidemiological studies indicate that the risk of a crash increases sharply for drivers with BACs below 0.05%. The correlation between drunk driving and the risk of traffic accidents has been established on the individual as well as the aggregate level. The BAC level legally permitted is a public policy decision by legislators, while scientists can present experimental and epidemiological evidence indicating the BAC level at which psychomotor skills deteriorate and accident probabilities increase. There is considerable epidemiological evidence to support the fact that the risk of alcohol impaired drivers being involved in traffic crashes rises with increasing BAC's. By contrast, the evidence on the BAC at which a driver should be regarded as committing an offence has been the subject of much debate and various legislative decisions. Historically, per se laws specify BAC levels which are a compromise figure intended to reflect both the point at which a driver becomes significantly more likely to be involved in an accident than a comparative driver with a zero BAC and that which is politically acceptable, but falls within the BAC region of increased accident liability. Therefore, the per se legislation in most countries has not kept pace with scientific progress. This study suggests that if saving lives on the road is an important issue, then, passing laws that incorporate scientific and epidemiological studies, is necessary.

  14. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities sorted by country: 1 - Belarus: International cooperation, Organisation and structure, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 2 - France: Nuclear safety and radiological protection, Radioactive waste management, Environmental protection, Liability and compensation, International co-operation; 3 - Hungary: General legislation, Radioactive waste management, Nuclear security; 4 - Ireland: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including emergency planning); 5 - Lithuania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure; 6 - Moldova: Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 7 - Portugal: Radioactive waste management, Nuclear safety and radiological protection; 8 - Slovak Republic: Radioactive waste management, Liability and compensation; 9 - Spain: Radioactive waste management; 10 - Ukraine: Radioactive waste management; 11 - United Kingdom: Organisation and structure

  15. Peer Effects in Legislative Voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe; Fisman, Raymond; Kamenica, Emir

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We exploit seating rules in the European Parliament to estimate causal peer effects in legislative voting. We find that sitting next to each other reduces by 13 percent the likelihood that two Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) from the same party differ in their vote. Using...... variation in seating across the two venues of the Parliament (Brussels and Strasbourg), we show that this effect reflects persistent peer influence: a pair of MEPs who have sat together in the past are less likely to disagree on a vote even if they do not sit together during that particular vote....

  16. Employment protection legislation in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kunovac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to business climate and competitiveness indicators published by international organisations, Croatia is a country with a rigid labour market and a high level of the legal protection of employees. Given that an Act on Amendments to the Labour Act (OG 73/13 entered into force in Croatia in June 2013, this paper examines changes in employment protection legislation in Croatia and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries, as well as in Croatia's main trading partners during the period between 2008 and 2013. A cross-country comparison shows a strong downward trend in legal employment protection in most CEE countries during the observed period, primarily as concerns individual dismissal in the cases of regular employment contracts, while in the case of temporary employment the protection strengthened slightly. On the other hand, despite the adoption of amendments to the Labour Act (LA, Croatian labour legislation governing employment protection for regular employment contracts remains relatively inflexible compared to that in other countries.

  17. GHG legislation: Lessons from Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, W.M.; Lee, Grace W.M.

    2009-01-01

    Taiwan has drafted a Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reduction Bill in 2006, which is currently undergoing the legislative process in the Congress. The purpose of this study is to reexamine the legal framework and contents of this Bill, evaluate potential problems and propose recommendations. This study advocates that setting the GHG reduction targets should be settled in this Bill. In addition, based on the analysis of international experiences, it is recommenced that emissions trading scheme in the Bill should be focused on large emission sources and the share of allowance auction should be increased to reduce gratis allocation. Furthermore, from the calculation results based on the long-range energy alternative planning (LEAP) model, a conflict is observed for the existing energy policy and GHG reduction efforts in Taiwan. That is, coal-burning power plants will be the most important source of energy for Taiwan in the future. In order to reduce this conflict, the authors have recommended that the Bill should also be integrated with other relevant existing legislation to achieve a complementary effect.

  18. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Australia: General legislation - Bill to amend the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Act 1998; 2 - France: General legislation - Law No. 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 on the energy transition for green growth; ASN Report on the state of nuclear safety and radiation protection in France in 2014; 3 - Germany: Radioactive waste management - First Ordinance to amend the 2005 Gorleben Development Freeze Ordinance (2015); 4 - Greece: Radioactive waste management - Joint Ministerial Decision establishing the national policy on the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste; 5 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection - Revised requirements for modifications, Plan for enhancement of nuclear safety, New requirements for the commissioning of nuclear power plants, Revised requirements regulating the provision of information on abnormal events; Radioactive waste management - Revised requirements for acceptance criteria for near surface repository; Nuclear security - Revised requirements for physical protection; 6 - Romania: Licensing and regulatory infrastructure - Government Decision No. 600/2014 for approval of National Nuclear Safety and Security; International co-operation - Government Decision No. 525/2014 for approval of the Co-operation Agreement on the radioactive waste management between the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) and Nuclear Agency and Radioactive Waste (ANDR) Strategy; Memorandum of Understanding for Co-operation and Exchange of Information in Nuclear Regulatory Matters between the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) of Romania and the President of National Atomic Energy Agency (PAA) of Poland; Government Decision No. 540/2015 for approval of the Agreement between the Government of Romania and the Government of the People's Republic of China regarding co-operation in the peaceful

  19. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted

  20. 1979 New Mexico legislative session: energy issues and legislation. [WIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsumian, L.; Vandevender, S.G.

    1979-10-01

    This report is an account of the energy legislation and associated issues considered during the 1979 session of the 34th New Mexico Legislature. The session's major issue was the federal study of a proposed nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. A large proportion of time and effort was spent on resolving the state's formal position toward the federal project. However, other energy concerns were also significant even though they were neither as controversial nor as visible as the primary issue. The two most important laws enacted were the Radioactive Waste Consultation Act and the Radioactive Waste Transportation Act. The Legislature considered 47 other energy-related bills, of which 17 were enacted.

  1. What would encourage blood donation in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A

    2007-05-01

    Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage

  2. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter of Nuclear Law Bulletin gathers some documents about national legislative and regulatory activities: - Belgium: Amendment of the Act on classification and security clearances, certifications and security notifications; Czech Republic: Resolution of the government of the Czech Republic on the time schedule of preparatory works for enlarging the nuclear power plant Temelin; Finland: Temporary Amendment to the Nuclear Liability Act; Ireland: Merchant Shipping Act; Romania: Emergency Ordinance on the identification, designation and protection of critical infrastructures; Emergency Ordinance on the control regime of dual-use items; Amendment to the Act on the safe conduct of nuclear activities; Nuclear safety norms on design and construction of nuclear power plants and nuclear safety norms on siting of nuclear power plants; United Kingdom: Establishment of the Office for Nuclear Regulation; United States: Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; Response to recent events in Japan

  3. Factors encouraging and inhibiting organ donation in Israel: the public view and the contribution of legislation and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Daniel; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2012-12-01

    Although transplantation surgeries are relatively successful and save the lives of many, only few are willing to donate organs. In order to better understand the reasons for donation or refusing donation and their implications on and influence by public policy, we conducted a survey examining public views on this issue in Israel. Between January and June 2010, an anonymous questionnaire based on published literature was distributed among random and selected parts of Israeli society and included organ recipients, organ donors, soldiers, university and high school students, and the general population. The analysis of 799 questionnaires revealed that, although 74.7 percent have not signed a donor card, 60.8 percent of participants consider doing so. Additionally, 54.3 percent of respondents objected to giving or receiving compensation for donation, and, if at all, priority in transplantation care is the most desired form of such compensation. The health status of the donor and knowing that donation saves lives or that there exists a shortage of organs for transplantation are the two factors most affecting motivation to donate. Lack of information, relatives' views on donation, and type of organ involved in donation are factors most inhibiting donation. Willingness to donate is significantly affected by the proximity of the recipient to the donor. With regard to most organs, their contribution to one's sense of "self" and its symbolic role strongly affects motivation to donate, except for donation to relatives. Compensation for organ donation has little effect on motivation to donate during life and after death. Our findings suggest new ways to construct a more effective public policy on this issue.

  4. Empirical knowledge in legislation and regulation : A decision making perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers the pros and cons of the empirical approach to legislation from the vantage point of empirical decision making research. It focuses on methodological aspects that are typically not considered by legal scholars. It points out weaknesses in the empirical approach that are

  5. Law and population in Senegal : a survey of legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyder, F.G.; Savané, M.-A.

    1977-01-01

    Leiden : African Studies Centre (ASC Research report, no. 5), p. 242, 1977.This preliminary survey provides, in a reference format, a compendium of legislation potentially affecting the growth, distribution and composition of thepopulation in Senegal. It starts with an introduction to the

  6. The Economic and Health Impacts of Legislative Fiscal Policies to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will assess the impact of fiscal and legislative policies on the nutritional status of South Africans and recommend important policy changes. The most recent national ... 40%, and was steadily increasing. Obesity is a risk factor for many NCDs, including stroke, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer.

  7. Look before you leap: Hate crime legislation reconsidered | Dixon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this response to Duncan Breen and Juan Nel's article on the need for legislation to enhance the sentences imposed on those convicted of hate crime, we draw on the international literature and our own research on racially motivated offending to argue that South Africa ought to adopt a more circumspect approach than ...

  8. Automated External Defibrillators in High Schools: Disparities Persist Despite Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Matthew D; Cicero, Mark X; McCabe, Megan E; Chen, Lei

    2017-10-31

    Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) have demonstrated increased survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, and their prevalence continues to rise. In 2009, Connecticut passed a legislation requiring all schools to have an AED, barring financial barriers. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if this legislation was associated with an increase in Connecticut high school AEDs and (2) to detect disparities in the availability of AEDs based on school type, student demographics, and school size. A single researcher conducted a scripted telephone survey of all 54 public and 13 private high schools in New Haven County, Connecticut. A response rate of 100% was achieved. Forty-nine percent of high schools had an AED before the legislation, compared with 88% after (P schools had a higher percentage of AEDs than public schools (69% vs 44%; P = 0.1). Postlegislation, the difference is less (92% vs 87%; P = 0.4). Small schools (schools (40% vs 100%; P Schools with a higher percentage of students with disabilities are also less likely to have an AED (P = 0.005), even when controlling for school size (P = 0.03). State legislation requiring schools to have an AED, if financially feasible, was associated with a significant increase in AED presence among New Haven County high schools. Small high schools and those with a higher percentage of students with disabilities remain less likely to have an AED despite legislation.

  9. Exploring and encouraging through social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Rasmussen, Julie Midtgaard

    2003-01-01

    as a social networker and uses her contextual competence by consciously encouraging relationships between fellow patients. Furthermore, the study illustrates that the nurse's involvement with self-help groups for patients with cancer serves as a complementary dimension to the traditional nursing discourse....... It is concluded that when individualized care is supported through social practice and when personal issues are exchanged and negotiated, the nurse facilitates a milieu of togetherness in self-help groups for patients with cancer. The concept of self-help groups is a valuable contribution to new theories...... and service development in psychosocial care and complies with the understanding of the postmodern individual, who viewed as primarily responsible for negotiating, socializing, and making his or her own decisions....

  10. Exploring and encouraging through social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Rasmussen, Julie Midtgaard

    2003-01-01

    as a social networker and uses her contextual competence by consciously encouraging relationships between fellow patients. Furthermore, the study illustrates that the nurse's involvement with self-help groups for patients with cancer serves as a complementary dimension to the traditional nursing discourse......Self-help groups are a growing phenomenon across national borders. Current sociologic empirical evidence shows that nurses and other healthcare professionals have become an integral part of self-help groups. The aim of the study is to describe and highlight the experiences of patients with cancer...... (n = 21) and oncology nurses (n = 12) with self-help groups. These experiences are drawn on to illustrate the characteristics of professional involvement in self-help groups for patients with cancer. Data were obtained by individual qualitative interviews. The results show that the nurse functions...

  11. Development Bank Encourages Natural Disaster Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to make countries in Latin America and the Caribbean less vulnerable to natural disasters, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced on 21 December 2005 that it has developed a new draft disaster risk management policy to encourage its member countries to plan for these events. The IDB, the major development bank for the region, decided to place a focus on natural disaster risk planning following several devastating disasters in the region in the 1990s, including 1998's Hurricane Mitch, said Caroline Clarke, IDB senior specialist in disaster prevention and risk management. The IDB provides loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  12. Understanding and encouraging volunteerism and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukas, Arthur A; Snyder, Mark; Clary, E Gil

    2016-01-01

    Volunteerism and community involvement have been demonstrated to offer benefits both to communities and to volunteers themselves. However, not every method to encourage these behaviors is equally effective in producing committed volunteers. Drawing on relevant theoretical and empirical literatures, we identify features of efforts that are likely to produce intrinsically motivated other-oriented volunteers and those that may produce extrinsically motivated self-oriented volunteers. In particular, we explore ways to socialize young people to help and ways to build a sense of community focused on particular issues. We also examine requirements for community service and other approaches that highlight self-oriented benefits that volunteers may obtain. Finally, we return to a focus on the importance of intrinsic motivation for promoting sustained involvement in volunteers, even as we acknowledge that volunteers who come with extrinsic or self-oriented reasons can still offer much to communities and can be satisfied when their activities match their motivations.

  13. CERN encourages girls to "expand their horizons"

    CERN Document Server

    François Briard

    2015-01-01

    On 14 November, CERN took part for the fourth time in "Élargis tes horizons" (see here), a conference organised every two years at Geneva University for girls from the local region aged 11 to 14 aiming to encourage them to take up studies and careers in the scientific and technical domains.   Claude Sanz (left), a fellow in the EN Department, explaining to three girls how to build a particle accelerator in a salad bowl. This year, young physicists and engineers from ATLAS and CMS ran three workshops: "Seeing the invisible using a cloud chamber", "Great cold fun and treats with liquid nitrogen" and "Build your own accelerator in a salad bowl!" CERN was also represented at the Forum de Découverte, represented by the Diversity Office and the Medialab team, presenting the "Higgnite" interactive experiment, which illustrates the principle of the Higgs field. More...

  14. Medical legislation - educational needs assessment for dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piţuru, S M; Nanu, A; Bucur, A

    2017-01-01

    Rationale (hypothesis) : Many studies have highlighted the vulnerabilities in medical practice due to the legislation ignorance. Therefore, developing special programs for students training is needed and has become imperative. Objective : This research aimed to identify the educational needs for the 5th year students in "Carol Davila" School of Dentistry in Bucharest, related to the legislation in dentistry and its area of application. Methods and results : 199 students were invited to respond to a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire had 11 closed-response questions and the answers were statistically analyzed. The results indicated many educational needs in all the areas of investigation. Discussion : "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy is the first university in Romania that created a new discipline in the School of Dentistry, called Work Organization and Legislation in Medicine and Dentistry.

  15. Medical legislation – educational needs assessment for dental students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piţuru, SM; Nanu, A; Bucur, A

    2017-01-01

    Rationale (hypothesis): Many studies have highlighted the vulnerabilities in medical practice due to the legislation ignorance. Therefore, developing special programs for students training is needed and has become imperative. Objective: This research aimed to identify the educational needs for the 5th year students in “Carol Davila” School of Dentistry in Bucharest, related to the legislation in dentistry and its area of application. Methods and results: 199 students were invited to respond to a specially designed questionnaire. The questionnaire had 11 closed-response questions and the answers were statistically analyzed. The results indicated many educational needs in all the areas of investigation. Discussion: “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy is the first university in Romania that created a new discipline in the School of Dentistry, called Work Organization and Legislation in Medicine and Dentistry. PMID:28255379

  16. Encouraging data citation and discovery with the Data Citation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Megan M; Robinson, Nigel J

    2014-10-01

    An overview of the Data Citation Index is provided. Thomson Reuters developed this resource in response to a stated desire among members of the research community for increased attribution of non-traditional scholarly output. Launched in October of 2012 on the Web of science research platform, its aims include linking published research articles to their underlying data sets and tracking the citation of the data, as well as encouraging bibliographic citation of data. Cross-disciplinary search capabilities in the Index enable new possibilities for data discovery and synthesis. Data repositories are evaluated with respect to various selection criteria, with particular attention to their relevance to scientific and scholarly research. Index content reflects current data deposition practices. As data citation standards and practices continue to move toward widespread formalization and adoption, the initiative seeks to address issues of data citation, reuse, and author credit in a developing climate.

  17. The use of law to encourage smaller families in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W

    1980-01-01

    To pursue its goal of rapid economic development, Singapore provides family planning services and has vigorously encouraged its citizens to limit family size. The government has legislated disincentives for families to have more than 2 children. This discussion reviews the history of these legal measures and their usefulness as a tool to promote social change and development. Singapore has used the law as a means to encourage family planning in order to supplement the overall thrust for economic development in the late 1960s. Freed from obligations to the Malaysian Federation and lacking the support of the British military as of 1969, Lee Kuan Yew led his people's economic development along a Western model. Reduction of population growth is an essential component of that model. Lee stressed family planning by providing clinics, by advertising, by promoting housing and lifestyles conducive to nuclear families, and by gradually adopting a set of laws favoring small families. These laws were introduced in different sectors of the economy at different times and were revised as social conditions changed. Typically, they set a minor monetary or priority penalty for parents of 3 or more children. The laws discourage additional births rather than prohibit them, guiding rather than forcing family planning decisions. To what extent the laws were the cause of decreasing family size in Singapore is uncertain, but they contributed to some extent to the country's phenomenal progress in income and lifestyle. The Abortion Act of 1969 legalized abortion on nonmedical grounds with the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board (SFPPB) approval. The Act was amended twice in 1974 to make abortions available "on demand." The charging of progressive delivery (accouchement) fees in government hospitals for mothers with 2 or more children might be considered as the focal point of the total disincentives system. The fees placed financial pressure directly on those who violated the

  18. Remark on receiving encouraging prize; Shoreisho jusho shokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Tomichika [Meji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-31

    The 1998 fiscal year Japan Solar Energy Soc. encouraging prize is received this time, and it is really sure of thank you and this winning prize for future research activity with large encouragement, while research activity in the university becomes in the good commemoration. This study also put environmental problem in visual field oil crisis energy resource worldwide new, and it was noticed in the wave energy which was one of the natural energy, it was started. That the wave energy was noticed, when the research of various natural energy was advanced, Over 10 years, it is the idea which was produced by the process in which the mechanics laboratory studies the vibration problem, and it is regarded as connecting with present winning prize as a summing-up of research result kept since the front. In the keyword of 'new{exclamation_point}' it began to leave Mr.Taichi Matsuoka and cooperation of the science graduate student as a partner of the graduation thesis the research the present it was a start from the nothing as a thing of this type. It is negative to advance this study in which the failure was always given here, when the new work began, of Mr.Matsuoka of the passion for the research. Away from the research of the wave power generation, solar light and wind power generation are noticed a little, and I aim at the hybridization of the wave power generation, and the research is advanced. Therefore, the vibration-proof stage for installing sun and wind energy conversion system on the wave-power device at present has been designed. At the end, the gratitude is shown to the everybody who received the enthusiastic guidance for this study. (translated by NEDO)

  19. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    These columns treat of the legislative and regulatory activities of different OECD countries: Australia (environment protection and biodiversity conservation act and regulations, 1999-2000); Bulgaria (basic standards for radiation protection, 2000); France (decree on the standard tax charged on polluting activities due from operators of installations classified for environmental protection purposes, 2000; amendment of the orders on the transport of dangerous goods by road and by rail, 2000); Georgia (law on nuclear and radiation safety, 1998); Germany (amendments to nuclear legislation implementing EURATOM directives, 2000; amendment to the nuclear third party liability provisions of the atomic energy act, 2001; amendment to the foreign trade ordinance, 2000; ordinance on the treatment of foodstuffs with radiation, 2000; general administrative regulations on radioactivity limits in food and feeds); Ireland (European communities regulations on foodstuffs treated with ionizing radiations, 2000); Japan (law for nuclear sitting area development, 2000; Republic of Korea (amendments to the act on compensation for nuclear damage, 2001); Latvia (act on radiation safety and nuclear safety, 2000); Lithuania (resolution approving the decommissioning program for Unit 1, Ignalina NPP, 2001); Luxembourg (grand-ducal regulations on the protection of the public against the risks resulting from ionizing radiation, 2000; grand-ducal regulations relating to foods and food ingredients treated with ionizing radiation, 2000); Mexico (norm regarding selection, qualification and training requirements for staff of a NPP, 2000; norm regarding solid residue as radioactive waste, 2000); Mongolia (law on nuclear weapons free status and its implementing resolution, 2000); Netherlands (amendment to the nuclear energy act, 2000); Norway (act on radiation and use of radiation, 2000); Pakistan (nuclear authority ordinance, 2001); Poland (atomic energy act, 2000); Spain (royal decree on activities

  20. National legislative and regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following National legislative and regulatory activities: 1 - Argentina: Organisation and structure; 2 - France: Radioactive waste management (Act No. 2016-1015 of 25 July 2016 specifying the procedures for creating a reversible deep geological repository for long-lived medium and high-level radioactive waste), Liability and compensation (Decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy; Ministerial Order of 19 August 2016 listing the sites benefiting from a reduced amount of liability pursuant to decree No. 2016-333 of 21 March 2016 implementing Article L. 597-28 of the French Environmental Code and relating to third party liability in the field of nuclear energy), Nuclear facilities (Decree No. 2016-846 of 28 June 2016 related to the modification, final shutdown and decommissioning of basic nuclear installations, and to subcontracting); 3 - Germany: Nuclear trade - including non-proliferation (Amendments to the Foreign Trade Act and the Foreign Trade Ordinance (2015)), Radioactive waste management (Act on the Organisational Restructuring in the Field of Radioactive Waste Management (2016); Final report of the Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy; Draft Bill of an Act on the Reorganisation of the Responsibility of Nuclear Waste Disposal (2016)); 4 - Lithuania: Nuclear safety and radiological protection (including nuclear emergency planning), Nuclear security (Physical security of sources of ionising radiation), Radioactive waste management, Licensing and regulatory infrastructure (Enforcement measures); 5 - Luxembourg: Radioactive waste management (Agreement between the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Belgium on the Management and Final Disposal of the Radioactive Waste of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg on the Territory of the Kingdom of Belgium, signed on 4 July 2016); 6

  1. Donor registries, first-person consent legislation, and the supply of deceased organ donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Kevin; Levin, Adelin

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we exploit the varied timing in state adoption of organ donor registries and first-person consent (FPC) legislation to examine corresponding changes in the supply of deceased organ donors. Results indicate that the establishment of a state organ donor registry leads to an increase in donation rates of approximately 8%, while the adoption of FPC legislation has no effect on the supply of organ donors. These results reinforce the need to encourage individuals to communicate their donation preferences, either explicitly via a registry or by discussing them with family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of radiation protection legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig Cardozo, Diva E.

    2001-01-01

    The laws on radiological protection have special characteristics. They can exist laws that regulate dangerous activities that will be also applicable, if it corresponds to the activities that involve radioactive materials. But a law of radiological protection should exist. It foresees the existence of an appropriate regulatory body and specialized institutions, definitions, infractions and sanctions then the respective regulations will be elaborated for the different applications. The objective is to contribute to the development of the nuclear energy in the country and to provide the regulatory basis that assures a reasonable security for radioactive installations. The essential objectives of these laws are: 1. to establish the legislative framework for the development and employment of nuclear energy, without risks, according with treaties and conventions that the countries have approved. 2. To fix the fundamental principles and the conditions of their setting in practice allowing to a specific regulation determining application procedures. 3. To create a structure of regulation of enough authority to be able to control and to watch over in an effective way the authorized activities 4. To guarantee an appropriate financial protection against the derived damages of accidents or nuclear incidents. (author)

  3. Juvenile prison in parallel legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutovac Mitar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for punishment of juveniles occurred from the time when there was no clear line separating them from the adult criminal population. At the same time, the evolution of the juvenile punishment is not in itself involve substantial changes to their criminal status. On the contrary, the status of minors in society did not show serious differences regarding the status of young adults, as well as the adult elderly. On the other hand, on the ground of their punishment is recorded deviations that go in the direction of application of mild corporal punishment. Closing the minor was performed in a physically separate parts of the general penal institutions with the use of a lower degree of restrictions while serving juvenile prison. Due to the different treatment of minors during the evolution of their criminal status leads to their different treatment in comparative law. That is why we are witnessing the existence of numerous differences in the juvenile punishment in some countries in the world. On the European continent there is a wide range of different legal solutions when it comes to punishing juveniles. There are considerable differences in the procedure pronouncing juvenile prison and in particular penal treatment of juveniles in penitentiary institutions. For these reasons, the author has decided to show the basic statutory provisions in the part that relates to the issue of punishment of minors in the legislation of individual countries.

  4. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  5. Mental Health Care--Can the USAF do More to Encourage Help Seeking Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacLeod, Craig

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to demonstrate how the USAF can take additional steps to de-stigmatize mental health treatment, and encourage help seeking behavior among its active duty members...

  6. Development of Food Legislation Around the World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of systems are presented in the perspective of the development of food legislation to give an impression of the features found in food law and the reasons they have taken certain forms. Legislation on food is not only widely distributed in time but also in space. The assurance of safe food

  7. 43 CFR 26.4 - Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislation. 26.4 Section 26.4 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior GRANTS TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHING YOUTH CONSERVATION CORPS PROGRAMS § 26.4 Legislation. State programs must meet all of the requirements of section 4...

  8. Special Education Legislation and Policy in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Shirley R.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the historical context in which Canadian legislation and policy for children with special needs has evolved. The potential for the rights of students with special needs in light of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is outlined. The role of the Federal and Provincial governments in legislation and policy vis-à-vis…

  9. Domestic hygienic legislation concerning population radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marej, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Problems and principles of domestic sanitary legislation, concerning population radiation protection, are considered. The legislation envisages preventive measures, directed to contamination preventation of the main environmental objects, it regulates their content in the objects, their human intake and ionizing radiation doses, which might affect population. Existing domestic hygienic guides and safety standards for personnel and population are enumerated and characterized

  10. 28 CFR 61.7 - Legislative proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on the environment, that subunit shall prepare a legislative environmental impact statement in... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Implementing Procedures § 61.7 Legislative proposals. (a) Each subunit of the... to Congress which may have an effect on the environment shall, in the early stages of development of...

  11. Encouraging girl child education in my village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Entongwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My critical reflection will be drawn from an experience I had just a year after my graduation from the university where I was appointed as one of the X-students to lead a student cultural week in my village with the theme “raising awareness on education”. At the university, I was a member of my association in which students from my tribe generally come together to promote unity and encourage others in education. My role was to present a discourse on girl child education all the entire villagers who were gathered at the village square that evening. A high dropout rate at school and illiteracy are major problems in my region, in which there is still a great deal of gender disparity when it comes to educating children, especially the girl child. This programme is in line with the government’s policy of promoting education in my country, whose priority is for education to reach the grass-roots communities.

  12. Working Together: An Empirical Analysis of a Multiclass Legislative-Executive Branch Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaf-Hughes, Nicole; Mills, Russell W.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the research on the use of simulations in the political science classroom focuses on how simulations model different events in the real world, including political campaigns, international diplomacy, and legislative bargaining. In the case of American Politics, many simulations focus on the behavior of Congress and the legislative process,…

  13. Helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries in Canadian provinces and territories: interrupted time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Tim; Turgeon, Alexis F; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between helmet legislation and admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries among young people and adults in Canada. Design Interrupted time series analysis using data from the National Trauma Registry Minimum Data Set. Setting Canadian provinces and territories; between 1994 and 2003, six of 10 provinces implemented helmet legislation. Participants All admissions (n=66 716) to acute care hospitals in Canada owing to cycling related injury between 1994 and 2008. Main outcome measure Rate of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries before and after the implementation of provincial helmet legislation. Results Between 1994 and 2008, 66 716 hospital admissions were for cycling related injuries in Canada. Between 1994 and 2003, the rate of head injuries among young people decreased by 54.0% (95% confidence interval 48.2% to 59.8%) in provinces with helmet legislation compared with 33.1% (23.3% to 42.9%) in provinces and territories without legislation. Among adults, the rate of head injuries decreased by 26.0% (16.0% to 36.3%) in provinces with legislation but remained constant in provinces and territories without legislation. After taking baseline trends into consideration, however, we were unable to detect an independent effect of legislation on the rate of hospital admissions for cycling related head injuries. Conclusions Reductions in the rates of admissions to hospital for cycling related head injuries were greater in provinces with helmet legislation, but injury rates were already decreasing before the implementation of legislation and the rate of decline was not appreciably altered on introduction of legislation. While helmets reduce the risk of head injuries and we encourage their use, in the Canadian context of existing safety campaigns, improvements to the cycling infrastructure, and the passive uptake of helmets, the incremental contribution of provincial helmet legislation to reduce

  14. Dense Breast Legislation in the United States: State of the States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordy, Soudabeh Fazeli; Carlos, Ruth C

    2016-11-01

    Limitations of screening mammography in patients with dense breasts combined with the significant increased risk for breast cancer have made the issue of dense breasts a matter of great concern in recent years, leading to advocacy for policy change and legislation. Dense breast notification legislation requires direct patient notification of mammographic results indicating the presence of dense breast tissue. The aim of this study was to summarize the state of dense breast notification legislation across the country. The general intent of dense breast notification legislation is to increase awareness of dense breasts and encourage patients to discuss the clinical issues with their physicians. It was first enacted in Connecticut in 2009, and since then, 27 other states have passed, rejected, or considered dense breast notification legislation. At the federal level, a bill was introduced in October 2011, but it was not enacted. There are significant differences in the language of the laws from state to state that complicate implementation. Furthermore, legislated recommendations for possible additional testing are often unaccompanied by legal provisions for insurance coverage, which potentially results in unequal access. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An assessment of the cyber security legislation and its impact on the United States electrical sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Joshua

    The purpose of this research was to examine the cyber-security posture for the United States' electrical grid, which comprises a major component of critical infrastructure for the country. The United States electrical sector is so vast, that the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) estimates, it contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of energy produced on a daily basis. A targeted cyber-security attack against the electric grid would likely have catastrophic results and could even serve as a precursor to a physical attack against the United States. A recent report by the consulting firm Black and Veatch found that one of the top five greatest concerns for United States electric utilities is the risk that cybersecurity poses to their industry and yet, only one-third state they are currently prepared to meet the increasingly likely threat. The report goes on to state, "only 32% of electric utilities surveyed had integrated security systems with the proper segmentation, monitoring and redundancies needed for cyber threat protection. Another 48 % said they did not" Recent estimates indicate that a large-scale cyber-attack against this sector could cost the United States economy as much as a trillion dollars within a weeks' time. Legislative efforts in the past have primarily been focused on creating mandates that encourage public and private partnership, which have been not been adopted as quickly as desired. With 85 % of all electric utilities being privately owned, it is key that the public and private sector partner in order to mitigate risks and respond as a cohesive unit in the event of a major attack. Keywords: Cybersecurity, Professor Riddell, cyber security, energy, intelligence, outlook, electrical, compliance, legislation, partnerships, critical infrastructure.

  16. Use of the Encouragement Process in Adlerian Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don C.

    1972-01-01

    Encouragement in all facets of the counseling interview is a critical ingredient in the counseling process. This article sets forth the theory and specific applications of the encouragement process in counseling, as viewed in the socio-teleological model. (Author)

  17. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  18. Effects of Mental Health Benefits Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Finnie, Ramona K.C.; Knopf, John A.; Qu, Shuli; Reynolds, Jeffrey A.; Thota, Anilkrishna B.; Hahn, Robert A.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Hennessy, Kevin D.; McKnight-Eily, Lela R.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Anderson, Clinton W.; Azrin, Susan; Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Vernon-Smiley, Mary E.; Nease, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Context Health insurance benefits for mental health services typically have paid less than benefits for physical health services, resulting in potential underutilization or financial burden for people with mental health conditions. Mental health benefits legislation was introduced to improve financial protection (i.e., decrease financial burden) and to increase access to, and use of, mental health services. This systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of mental health benefits legislation, including executive orders, in improving mental health. Evidence acquisition Methods developed for the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to identify, evaluate, and analyze available evidence. The evidence included studies published or reported from 1965 to March 2011 with at least one of the following outcomes: access to care, financial protection, appropriate utilization, quality of care, diagnosis of mental illness, morbidity and mortality, and quality of life. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Evidence synthesis Thirty eligible studies were identified in 37 papers. Implementation of mental health benefits legislation was associated with financial protection (decreased out-of-pocket costs) and appropriate utilization of services. Among studies examining the impact of legislation strength, most found larger positive effects for comprehensive parity legislation or policies than for less-comprehensive ones. Few studies assessed other mental health outcomes. Conclusions Evidence indicates that mental health benefits legislation, particularly comprehensive parity legislation, is effective in improving financial protection and increasing appropriate utilization of mental health services for people with mental health conditions. Evidence is limited for other mental health outcomes. PMID:25998926

  19. Marine legislation--the ultimate 'horrendogram': international law, European directives & national implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Suzanne J; Elliott, Michael

    2014-09-15

    The EU is a pre-eminent player in sustainable development, adopting more than 200 pieces of legislation that have direct repercussions for marine environmental policy and management. Over five decades, measures have aimed to protect the marine environment by tackling the impact of human activities, but maritime affairs have been dealt with by separate sectoral policies without fully integrating all relevant sectors. Such compartmentalisation has resulted in a patchwork of EU legislation and resultant national legislation leading to a piecemeal approach to marine protection. These are superimposed on international obligations emanating from UN and other bodies and are presented here as complex 'horrendograms' showing the complexity across vertical governance. These horrendograms have surprised marine experts despite them acknowledging the many uses and users of the marine environment. Encouragingly since 2000, the evolution in EU policy has progressed to more holistic directives and here we give an overview of this change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. State Legislation Related to Increasing Physical Activity: 2006-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A.; Budd, Elizabeth; Camberos, Gabriela J.; Yan, Yan; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve physical activity prevalence often include policy and environmental changes. State-level policies can be influential in supporting access and opportunities for physical activity in schools and communities. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of state legislation related to physical activity and identify the correlates of enactment of this legislation. Methods An online legislative database was used to collect bills from 50 states in the U.S. from 2006-2012 for ten topics related to physical activity. Bills were coded for content and compiled into a database with state-level variables (e.g., obesity prevalence). With enactment status as the outcome, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Of the 1542 bills related to physical activity introduced, 30% (N=460) were enacted. Bills on public transportation and trails were more likely to be enacted than those without these topics. Primary sponsorship by the Republican Party, bipartisan sponsorship, and mention of specific funding amounts were also correlates of enactment. Conclusion Policy surveillance of bills and correlates of enactment are important for understanding patterns in legislative support for physical activity. This information can be used to prioritize advocacy efforts and identify ways for research to better inform policy. PMID:26104603

  1. Legislation framework for Croatian renewable energy sources development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raguzin Igor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy sector reform in the Republic of Croatia (started 2001, which comprises restructuring, liberalization, privatization, and changes in the overall energy sector, has a significant effect on the possibilities of introducing and increasing the share of renewable energy sources (RES. The adoption of a new legislative framework within the context of reforming Croatia’s energy sector is of key importance for further development and for the future or RES utilization. The Electricity Market Act sets out the le- gal obligation to purchase electricity produced from RES in the manner that a quota or a minimum obligatory share of RES in electricity production is determined by a Government ordinance combined with Tariff system for the production of electricity from renewable energy sources and co-generation. Consequently, on the one hand, incentive funds needed to cover increased costs of production from RES will be collected from customers through the supplier and distributed to privileged producers (feed-in-tariffs, purchase is guaranteed to RES producers on known terms through the Market Opera- tor. On the other hand, RES investment projects will be encouraged by pur- pose-specific government subsidy and by the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund (out of public budget. By applying new energy legislation and associated by-laws (coming into force in 2007, RES projects in Croatia will be provided with a complete and stable legal framework as well as support through incentive measures which will equitably value environmental, social and other benefits of RES use.

  2. The impact of the credit legislation on consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlako Choma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine two South Africa legislations dealing with over indebtedness of a consumer. It is clear that in terms of the South African law, section 129 (1 and 130 (3 of the National Credit Act provide that a creditor provider who wishes to enforce a debt under a credit agreement must first issue a section 129 (1 (a notice to the consumer (the purpose of the notice is to notify the consumer of his/her arrears. On the other hand, the South African National Credit Act encourages the consumers to fulfil the financial obligations for which they are responsible. The second legislation to be examined which serve or appear to serve same purpose as the National Credit Act is the Insolvency Act. It therefore, postulated that the compulsory sequestration of a consumer in terms of the Insolvency Act would stand as an alternative remedy for a credit provider before she/he can have recourse mechanisms, such as debt review that are focused on satisfaction of the consumer’s financial obligation , in terms of the provisions of the National Credit Act. The paper determines to what extend these measures comply with the constitutional consumer protection demands. The legislature had been pertinently cognizant of the Insolvency Act when it lately enacted the National Credit Act. This is much apparent from the express amendment of section 84 of the Insolvency Act to the extent set out in schedule 2 of the National Credit Act

  3. 10 CFR 51.88 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposals for legislation. 51.88 Section 51.88 Energy...) Legislative Environmental Impact Statements-Proposals for Legislation § 51.88 Proposals for legislation. The... proposals for legislation. final environmental impact statements—general requirements ...

  4. Government capacities and stakeholders: what facilitates ehealth legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Newly established high-technology areas such as eHealth require regulations regarding the interoperability of health information infrastructures and data protection. It is argued that government capacities as well as the extent to which public and private organizations participate in policy-making determine the level of eHealth legislation. Both explanatory factors are influenced by international organizations that provide knowledge transfer and encourage private actor participation. Methods Data analysis is based on the Global Observatory for eHealth - ATLAS eHealth country profiles which summarizes eHealth policies in 114 countries. Data analysis was carried out using two-component hurdle models with a truncated Poisson model for positive counts and a hurdle component model with a binomial distribution for zero or greater counts. Results The analysis reveals that the participation of private organizations such as donors has negative effects on the level of eHealth legislation. The impact of public-private partnerships (PPPs) depends on the degree of government capacities already available and on democratic regimes. Democracies are more responsive to these new regulatory demands than autocracies. Democracies find it easier to transfer knowledge out of PPPs than autocracies. Government capacities increase the knowledge transfer effect of PPPs, thus leading to more eHealth legislation. Conclusions All international regimes – the WHO, the EU, and the OECD – promote PPPs in order to ensure the construction of a national eHealth infrastructure. This paper shows that the development of government capacities in the eHealth domain has to be given a higher priority than the establishment of PPPs, since the existence of some (initial) capacities is the sine qua non of further capacity building. PMID:24410989

  5. Canadian parents' attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation in provinces with and without legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, P C; Degroot, J; Macpherson, A; Fuselli, P; Macarthur, C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to survey Canadian parents on their attitudes and beliefs about bicycle helmet legislation and to compare responses from parents living in provinces with and without legislation. A national survey of 1002 parents of children aged under 18 years was conducted. Chi-square tests were used to compare responses from the surveyed parents in the different jurisdictions. Responses from parents living in provinces with legislation (n = 640) and without legislation (n = 362) were as follows: concern for injury (63% vs. 68%, nonsignificant [NS]); believe helmets are effective (98% vs. 98%, NS); child always wears a helmet (74% vs. 69%, NS); support legislation for children (95% vs. 83%, p legislation for all ages (85% vs. 75%, p legislation decreases the amount of time their child bicycles (5% vs. 8%, NS). Parents are highly supportive of bicycle helmet legislation in Canada. They believe that bicycle helmets are effective and that legislation does not decrease the amount of time a child spends bicycling. There was also a high level of support for legislation across all ages, and for police enforcement.

  6. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Advertising

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Advertising. The STATE...

  7. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  8. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Preemption. The STATE...

  10. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Licensure. The STATE...

  11. Radiation Protection Legislation in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, Lars.

    1990-01-01

    Recent alterations in the radiation protection laws of the Nordic countries are presented. The report amends the previous SS-report 87-37 with the title Radiation Protection and Atomic Energy Legislation in the Nordic Countries. (au)

  12. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  13. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation—Youth Access. The STATE...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Fire Safety

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Fire-Safety. The STATE...

  16. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Campuses. The...

  17. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  18. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation-Tax. The STATE System...

  19. How performance appraisals can encourage ethical behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Belschak-Jacobs (Gabriele)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ All kinds of remedies have been suggested to minimise ethical problems in organisations, but recent research suggests that managers can significantly improve their employees' ethics simply by being fair and respectful for 30 minutes a year – provided they choose

  20. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  1. Information Privacy: Culture, Legislation and User Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Cockcroft

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Information privacy has received much public and research interest in recent years. Globally this has arisen from public anxiety following the September 11 attacks and within Australia a progressive tightening of privacy legislation in particular the privacy amendment (private sector Act of 2000 which became operative in 2001. This paper presents the results of a study into attitudes towards information privacy. Based on an instrument developed and validated by Smith et al (1996a this study sets out to measure individual concerns regarding organisational use of information along four dimensions: collection, errors, unauthorised secondary use, and improper access. The survey was completed by 67 undergraduate and postgraduate students enrolled in an e-commerce security subject at the University of Queensland. Comparisons are drawn between the results of this study and an identical one carried out at the University of North Alabama. Whilst it is too early to draw conclusions about the impact of these attitudes on the success of e-commerce in general, the results should be of interest to those within universities seeking to expand the use of networking technologies for handling sensitive information such as enrolment and fee processing (Vanscoy & Oakleaf 2003

  2. [Chapter 2. The embryo in abortion legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigneau, Daniel

    2018-03-07

    For a long time, the legal condition of the child conceived, the embryo or the human fœtus, to use the language of biomedicine, was dominated by two main principles : one, having its roots in Roman law, made it possible to count it, by anticipation, among beings with a legal existence, so as to grant it its rights, as if it was already born (the infans conceptus maxim) : the other, protecting its life in utero, and so its chances of being born, by the penal incrimination of abortion. The legalisation of abortion by the ?Veil? law of 17 January 1975 upset this traditional approach of the law. The subsequent evolution of the legislation has accentuated the phenomenon. The promotion of the freedom of women to obtain an abortion has been accompanied by a correlated decline in the protection of the embryo. At the same time, abortion resting on medical techniques has become a means, precious for research, to obtain embryo or foetal cells or tissues. Eliminated on the one hand, the embryo has finally become on the other hand the object of medical and scientific stakes.

  3. Intelligence as legal evidence
    Comparative criminal research into the viability of the proposed Dutch scheme of shielded intelligence witnesses in England and Wales, and legislative compliance with Article 6 (3 (d ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill E.B. Coster van Voorhout

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, a shift in criminal law in both the European Union (EU and the United States (US, but maybe even around the globe, is noticeable. States find ways to make more extensive use in the criminal procedure of intelligence collected by the intelligence services. The Netherlands has recently adopted an 'Act on shielded witnesses' that enables intelligence officers of the two Dutch intelligence services, AIVD and MIVD, to provide evidence in the pre-trial phase to the examining magistrate. The hearing will be predominantly ex parte and in camera. Both the official report of the intelligence services (Ambtsbericht and the transcript of the witness testimony provided by an intelligence officer may be adduced as evidence. This paper examines the viability of such a regime of shielded intelligence witnesses under the rules in place in England and Wales, and legislative compliance with fair trial rights as laid down in Article 6 ECHR, in particular the right to confrontation (Article 6 (3 (d ECHR.

  4. Legislating Interprofessional Regulatory Collaboration in Nova Scotia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lahey

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available To shift health professions regulation from traditional to ‘collaborative’ self-regulation, Nova Scotia has adopted legislation which will: make all self-regulating health professions members of the Regulated Health Professions Network; mandate the Network to facilitate voluntary collaboration among its members; and enable regulators to work together on investigations of patient complaints, to adjust scopes of practice on an ongoing basis and to adjudicate appeals of unsuccessful applicants for registration. The goals are to give health professions regulation the capacity to enable and support the functioning of interprofessional teams. The legislation was adopted primarily for two reasons: collaborative development and unanimous support by all of the province’s self-regulating professions; and alignment with the government’s health care reform agenda and its emphasis on collaborative team-based care. Contrary to the approach of several other provinces, the legislation will enable but not require regulators to collaborate on the premise that consensual collaboration is more likely to happen, to be meaningful and to yield tangible benefits. Support for this approach can be taken from the impressive collaborative work on which the legislation is based. Evaluation will be critical, and the five-year review required by the legislation will give Nova Scotia the opportunity to test not only the legislation but the ideas on which it is based. The extent of the legislation’s reliance on voluntary process will prove to be either its greatest strength or its greatest weakness.

  5. The Economic and Health Impacts of Legislative Fiscal Policies to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will assess the impact of fiscal and legislative policies on the nutritional status of South Africans and recommend important policy changes. The most recent national burden of ... Intervention intégrée quant au risque de diabète après le diabète gestationnel en Afrique du Sud. Les femmes ayant souffert de ...

  6. Encouraging Soeaking Through the Use of Storytelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Edith

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available While students were involved in English classes throughout last year (1998, it was noticed that all of them recognised isolated vocabulary, but were not able to apply it in oral or written sentences. Some action research was carried out on how the Literature Approach and the continuous repetition of stories could increase oral production. It became clear that the students enjoyed and comprehended stories and answered questions in complete sentences.

  7. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Hellmundt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013. But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gleaned from students enrolled in the Preparing for Success Program at Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia. The findings from the students indicate that the GEMS framework activates student potential and enables them to use existing knowledge and experience to not only deepen and broaden their learning but also successfully prepare for further study.

  8. Encouraging Editorial Flexibility in Cases of Textual Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Because many technical descriptions of scientific processes and phenomena are difficult to paraphrase and because an increasing proportion of contributors to the scientific literature are not sufficiently proficient at writing in English, it is proposed that journal editors re-examine their approaches toward instances of textual reuse (similarity). The plagiarism definition by the US Office of Research Integrity (ORI) is more suitable than other definitions for dealing with cases of ostensible plagiarism. Editors are strongly encouraged to examine cases of textual reuse in the context of both, the ORI guidance and the offending authors' proficiency in English. Editors should also reconsider making plagiarism determinations based exclusively on text similarity scores reported by plagiarism detection software. PMID:28244278

  9. Using eportfolios to encourage responsible feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to look at the value that ePortfolios can add to business studies, specifically in the financial field. In order to answer the question, Do ePortfolios contribute to the development and enhancement of responsible feedback in the classroom?, the study analyzed the work done by postgraduate students pursuing a Master’s degree in finance. A total of 151 ePortfolios were reviewed and analyzed, and a selection of comments from students is presented in order to support the main findings of the literature review. The authors considered this approach to be appropriate in order to offer an objective analysis on existing research and how their own students’ views blend with developed literature in the area. The authors also offer their own know-how on how ePortfolios can be integrated as part of the postgraduate learning experience. The researchers identified ePortfolios as being a complementary tool that help educators and students to get a better understanding of the course material and offer students an opportunity to reflect on their own learning and course performance. They also identified a lack of research on how ePortfolios can be used as part of the students learning experience in postgraduate education specialised in finance. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i3.245

  10. State legislators' beliefs about legislation that restricts youth access to tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Nell H; Goldstein, Adam O; Flynn, Brian S; Cohen, E Joanna E; Bauman, Karl E; Solomon, Laura J; Munger, Michael C; Dana, Greg S; McMorris, Laura E

    2003-04-01

    Better understanding of the cognitive framework for decision making among legislators is important for advocacy of health-promoting legislation. In 1994, the authors surveyed state legislators from North Carolina, Texas, and Vermont concerning their beliefs and intentions related to voting for a hypothetical measure to enforce legislation preventing the sale of tobacco to minors, using scales based on the theory of planned behavior. Attitude (importance), subjective norm (whether most people important to you would say you should or should not vote for the law), perceived behavioral control (ability to cast one's vote for the law), and home state were independently and significantly related to intention to vote for the law's enforcement. The results, including descriptive data concerning individual beliefs, suggest specific public health strategies to increase legislative support for passing legislation to restrict youth tobacco sales and, more generally, a framework for studying policy making and advocacy.

  11. Activities aimed at encouraging children to suicidal behavior: judicial-psychological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuanov F.S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Federal law of June 7, 2017 g. № 120-FZ "On amendments to the criminal code of the Russian Federation and article 151 of the Criminal procedure code of the Russian Federation in the part of establishing additional mechanisms to counter activities aimed at encouraging children to suicidal behavior" establishes criminal liability for inducement to commit suicide or assist in its Commission (article 110.1 of the criminal code, as well as for the organization of activities aimed at encouraging citizens to commit suicide (article 110.2 of the criminal code. Two additions to the criminal code include using a publicly performed work, the media or information and telecommunications networks (including network "Internet". There are new legal consequences relevant to forensic psychological assessment related to suicide. The article analyzes the legal situation (pre-investigation check of materials and incitement to suicide that define the subject of judicial-psychological or psychological and psychiatric examinations as the mental state of the subject in the period preceding the suicide (death. Legislative innovations require expertise in psychology and linguistics. One of the subjects of psychological-linguistic expertise is the focus of the information material (text, graphic, together verbal and non-verbal information or the communicative activity of the subject to encourage the addressee to co-concluding suicide. Formulate possible questions for the ex-experts and psychologists.

  12. New psychoactive substances legislation in Ireland - Perspectives from academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Pierce V; Power, John D

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of 'legal highs' or 'new psychoactive substances' (NPS) on the Irish market is reflective of their appearance in many countries, with some notable exceptions. The official response to the situation is examined here by looking at Irish controlled drugs legislation and drug enforcement policies as enacted in recent years and their effects on academic research on NPS. The philosophy and practice of outright bans of scheduled substances has not been effective in delivering the stated aims of illicit drug control, namely harm reduction. With these legislative changes, we have witnessed the removal of the 'legitimate' sale and open marketing of a number of NPS to the general public in commercial retail premises. However, as legislation was enacted, suppliers and vendors rapidly changed the contents of their legal high products from now controlled to non-controlled substances. We have found that it is administratively challenging to perform scientific research on controlled substances at academic institutions. It is desirable to gather analytical, pharmacological, and toxicological data on these substances as they emerge on the market but due to the restrictive nature of licensing requirements, once a substance or generic class of substances is controlled, this becomes more difficult. The facts that any quantity of substance, no matter how small, is controlled, the nomenclature used to describe compounds is not consistent within the enacted legislation and the use of catch-all classes of compounds with the intention of controlling many similar molecular structures, all create problematic issues for academic researchers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Unintended consequences of health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrall, James H

    2011-10-01

    Unintended consequences of health care legislation threaten the financial and social well-being of the United States. Examples of major legislation resulting in unintended and unforeseen consequences include the Social Security Amendments Acts of 1989 and 1993 (the Stark laws), the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, and the Social Security Amendments Act of 1965 (Medicare and Medicaid). Each of these has had unintended financial and social outcomes. Spending for Medicare and Medicaid now equals an unsustainable 23% of the federal budget. Major reasons for unintended consequences include failure to appreciate the complexity of the issues, the open-ended nature of medical advances with attendant increases in costs, the inducement of change in behaviors in response to legislation, and the moral hazard of people spending other people's money. Actions that should be considered to avoid unintended consequences include more involvement of health professionals in the design of legislation, the inclusion of triggers to target review of legislatively defined programs, and the setting of time limits for sun-setting legislation. The ACR has played an important advocacy role and should continue to offer input to legislators, federal policymakers, and other stakeholders. Many opportunities exist to address the current financial situation by reducing the amount of unnecessary care delivered. Both major US political parties need to find the political will to compromise to chart the way forward. Some level of sacrifice is likely to be necessary from patients and providers and other stakeholders. Copyright © 2011 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Legislations combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C W; Chan, W K

    2013-08-01

    To understand legislation combating counterfeit drugs in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two parts. In part I, counterfeit drugs–related ordinances and court cases were reviewed. In part II, indepth interviews of the stakeholders were described. Hong Kong. All Hong Kong ordinances were screened manually to identify those combating counterfeit drugs. Court cases were searched for each of the identified cases. Then, the relevant judgement justifications were analysed to identify sentencing issues. Indepth interviews with the stakeholders were conducted to understand their perceptions about such legislation. Trade Marks Ordinance, Patents Ordinance, Trade Descriptions Ordinance, and Pharmacy and Poisons Ordinance were current legislative items combating counterfeit drugs. Sentencing criteria depended on: intention to deceive, quantity of seized drugs, presence of expected therapeutic effect or toxic ingredients, previous criminal records, cooperativeness with Customs officers, honest confessions, pleas of guilty, types of drugs, and precautionary measures to prevent sale of counterfeit drugs. Stakeholders’ perceptions were explored with respect to legislation regarding the scale and significance of the counterfeit drug problem, penalties and deterrents, drug-specific legislation and authority, and inspections and enforcement. To plug the loopholes, a specific law with heavy penalties should be adopted. This could be supplemented by non-legal measures like education of judges, lawyers, and the public; publishing the names of offending pharmacies; and emphasising the role of pharmacists to the public.

  15. Sex differences in educational encouragement and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aqeel

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in educational encouragement and their predictiveness of academic achievement were examined among 442 secondary school students (M age = 13.2 yr., SD = 1.9). Education-related encouragement received from mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers was assessed. Academic achievement was based on student self-reports and grades. Female adolescents reported receiving statistically significantly more educational encouragement from their mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers than did male adolescents. In regression, sex and educational encouragement from parents, friends, and teachers were found to be significant predictors of academic achievement.

  16. Project Activities and Encouraging Critical Thinking: Exploring Teachers’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pejić Papak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary education process frequently emphasises the importance of teaching and learning by focusing teaching activities towards research and collaborative work, the encouragement of critical thinking, the creative and productive application of knowledge, an active approach to the teaching content, and solving specific problems in project activities. A survey was conducted on a sample of 220 elementary school teachers from three counties in Croatia (Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Lika-Senj, and Istria regarding the frequency of implementing project activities that encourage critical thinking in pupils. The objectives of the research were to determine the regularity of implementing project activities at the class level and at the level of the entire school, and to examine possible differences between teachers who estimated regular implementation of project activities in their schools and those who estimated the levels of irregular implementation of project activities, in the application of contemporary work strategies, as well as in the attitudes on the contemporary paradigm of childhood and the education process. The research results showed that the majority of teachers estimated that project activities were carried out regularly at their school (66.5% on a class level and 65% on a school level. Teachers who reported the regular implementation of project activities at the class level and at the school level more frequently applied contemporary work strategies and techniques of critical thinking than their colleagues did. The research results also indicated that those teachers more frequently use established approaches to the educational process (teacher should explain, exhibit facts, and point out important conclusions than their colleagues do. There were no statistically significant differences in contemporary attitudes between the two groups of teachers. Since the objective behind the implementation of project activities was to create the

  17. CFC legislation in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author considers CFC legislation in the Member States of the European Union, and points to the official attitude of the institutions of the European Union toward CFC legislation. Special attention in this paper is focused on Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the case Cadbury Schweppes. The aim of the paper is to analyze CFC legislation in the Member States in order to determine its basic characteristics, as well as to determine its compatibility with freedoms guaranteed by the primary law of the European Union, i.e. with Judgment of the Court of Justice of the European Union in the Cadbury Schweppes case.

  18. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  19. LEGISLATIVE, ACCOUNTING AND FISCAL NON-CONFORMITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PALIU – POPA LUCIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the debate analysis from the last decades on the relationship between accounting and taxation, independence or dependence of the accounting rules from the tax ones and taking into consideration that the independence of the two leads to permanent and even significant differences between the accounting and tax profit, I found that certain terms are regulated differently in accounting legislation in our country compared to fiscal one or the legislation in the economic field. Taken from this perspective the main objective of this scientific approach is the identification of accounting and tax legislative nonconformities and the proposal of the ways to solve them so as to eliminate, where possible, differentiated professional interpretations.

  20. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  1. Mobile banking services in the East African community (EAC): challenges to the existing legislative and regulatory frameworks in the EAC

    OpenAIRE

    Nyaga, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Principal research question: What are the effective legislative and regulatory responses to mobile banking services in the East African Community (EAC)? Keywords: Convergence, legislation, regulation, Mobile banking services, East African Community. Hypothesis: There is a lack of effective and robust legislative and regulatory framework in the EAC that addresses the mobile banking services. Purpose – This paper addresses issues affecting mobile money in the East African Community (EA...

  2. Petroleum Legislation and Administration: Past, Present, Future and Impact on Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofurhie, M. A.

    2002-01-01

    The need to exploit the vast petroleum resources of the country in an optimally efficient manner demands a versatile, responsive, workable legislation and its administration.Therefore, Government enacted the Mineral Oils Act of 1914, which regulates the right to search and develop mineral oil efficiently. Specifically, Section 6 (1) (a) provided that Shell Darcy, a British company, had the sole right to operate the Nigerian province as its concession thereby disqualifying other non-British companies from exploration opportunities.The 1914 Act was modified in 1958 to accommodate non-British companies to compete for acreage. Thus, exploration activities increased thereby generating more reserves. Furthermore, exploration activities improved in the frontier areas because government granted the operators incentives, which expensed one exploratory and two appraisal wells as an offset against PPT.The Government promulgated the Petroleum Act of 1969 to ensure good management of the abundant petroleum resources found in the Niger Delta basin. The Act vests the ownership and control of all petroleum resources in the state. The marginal fields legislation strives to encourage more participation by indigenous companies, while at the same time boosting national producible reserves through a farm-in arrangement with concessionaires. Legislations on deep-water exploration have encouraged exploration activities in that terrain though it poses a great challenge to technology. Government's desire to eradicate environmental pollution and improve revenue has led it to enact legislations that would properly position Nigerian gas to compete favourably in the world market. Joint studies by government and operators in viable options for utilizing uncommitted gas through projects such as Gas-to Liquid, NGL and IPP are on-going.Although many of the Legislations have not changed by a large margin, their dynamic administration accommodates their reviews to match increasingly difficult safety

  3. [Legislations on radiation in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji

    2013-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Basic Act was the first law for the prevention of radiation damage in Japan, and was enforced in 1955. The law focused on the research, development and promotion of the use of atomic energy. With an increase in the importing of radioactive isotopes from foreign countries, the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes was established under the jurisdiction of the Science and Technology Agency in 1957 and enforced in 1958. The Nuclear Regulation Authority began as an extra-ministerial committee of the Ministry of the Environment in 2012 and has jurisdiction in the area of ionizing radiations regulations.Substantial regulation has been provided by the Labor Standards Act, and the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards was established as the eleventh ordinance of the Ministry of Labor in 1959. There have been many revisions to the Ordinance, including revisions following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011. This paper explains the Act on Prevention of Radiation Disease Due to Radioisotopes, the Ordinance on Prevention of Ionizing Radiation Hazards, and workmen's accident authorization.

  4. Impact of the legislation on consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.O.

    1982-01-01

    Douglas Lee points out that the question of nuclear waste will not go away. Nuclear waste is with us and consumers should support legislation to deal with the problem once and for all. The spent fuel is growing, and twenty-nine nuclear plants will face onsite storage problems in this decade. If these plants shut down, consumers will face higher electric generating costs if a switch to a more expensive fuel is necssary, or if the utilities are forced to purchase power of the grid. The cost of waste disposal under this proposed legislation will amount to about 75 cents per month for those electric customers serviced by nuclear plants

  5. Legislation in the electricity economy 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, W.; Haeusler, C.; Hermann, H.P.; Meyer-Woebse, G.; Schmidt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The authors survey substantial developments of legislation in the electricity economy in 1980. They deal with prominent, legal subjects of a political nature and discuss questions posed by the interpretation and application of laws with regard to supply concepts, to the 4th amendment to the anti-trust law, to legislation relating to the anti-trust law, to recommendations by the Investigation Committee, to rate approvals, general terms and conditions governing supplies, to atomic energy law, to the environmental protection law, to the law relating to the conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, to the law relating to roads and to developments of tax laws. (HSCH) [de

  6. Outdoor recreation in forest policy and legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Carsten; Pouta, Eija; Gentin, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    The benefists of outdoor recreation and the need for recreation inventories and monitoring are described in various policy and legislation documents at the European level. The objective of this paper is to analyse how these recreational aspects are reflected at the national level in core forest...... indicates that a consistent forest recreation monitoring system, linked to sustainable forest management, as describes for example in the Helsinki process, should be better transferred into national policuy and legislation. Compareable data across Europe could then provide a sound base for making decisions...

  7. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway.

  8. The congressional viewpoint: Deficit reduction and risk legislation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakoff, H.E.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation will provide a current congressional status of legislation related to low-level waste and DOE cleanup. Key legislation discussed will include S. 755 for Privatization of the Uranium Enrichment Corporation and the markup of H.R. 1020, the Nuclear Waste Legislation. In addition, the session will include a discussion of legislation related to the approval of the Texas compact.

  9. Responsive and Responsible: Faculty Encouragement of Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Eddie R.; Howe, Elijah C.; Laird, Thomas F. Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how often faculty members encourage students to engage with campus, local, state, national, and global issues. Using data from the 2013 administration of the Faculty Survey of Student Engagement (FSSE), the results show that faculty members are more likely to encourage students to engage in state, national, or global issues…

  10. Female Counselor Educators: Encouraging and Discouraging Factors in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicole R.; Leinbaugh, Tracy; Bradley, Carla; Hazler, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the encouraging and discouraging factors influencing female counselor educators. This study asked 115 female counselor educators to rate each of 91 items as to how encouraging or discouraging each item was to them as faculty members. The means and standard deviations were calculated for each of the 91 items of the PMBCE.…

  11. Interdisciplinary Intellect: HASTAC and the Commitment to Encourage Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Kimberly Alecia

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of the Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory (HASTAC) in facilitating and encouraging a collaborative community of junior and senior scholars on issues of technology and humanistic learning. As a result of its emphasis on collaboration and discussion, HASTAC encourages a form of collective…

  12. D2.3 - ENCOURAGE platform reference architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Luis Lino; Pinho, Luis Miguel; Albano, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the reference architecture of the ENCOURAGE platform, together with the interconnection of the platform with the external environment. The document is the outcome of task 2.3 (Design of System Architecture) of the ENCOURAGE project, and sets, together with the remaining...... documents produced in work package WP2, the framework for the detailed specification activities to be developed in the technical work packages of the project (WP3-WP6). In order to provide the required background for the ENCOURAGE platform reference, the document describes the most relevant standards...... and standardization initiatives, in the areas addressed by ENCOURAGE. Also, related existing architectures are analysed for consistency and state-of-the-art survey. This allows for ENCOURAGE to build on current practice, innovating in its modularity, scalability and support for seamless interoperability...

  13. A descriptive analysis of state legislation and policy addressing clinical trials participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquet, Claudia R; Mishra, Shiraz I; Weinberg, Armin D

    2009-05-01

    This report describes state policy and legislation related to clinical trials participation and Maryland's model to enhance clinical trial availability and participation. Descriptive review of state policy and legislation related to coverage for clinical trials costs based on data from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) State Cancer Legislative Database, the American Cancer Society, and NCI; additionally, discussion of Maryland's comprehensive multilevel clinical trial model comprising policy initiatives, community engagement, research, education, and infrastructure support. Twenty-four states have mandated clinical trial coverage through specific legislation or agreements since 1994. Covered benefits varied among the states. Besides cost and insurance barriers, there is a need to address important patient, physician and researcher, and structural barriers to clinical trial participation. Maryland provides a comprehensive model to address the multi-faceted clinical trial participation determinants as it tracks state and federal policy, documents trial barriers, and conducts community education.

  14. Rare disease patients in China anticipate the sunlight of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J J; Song, P P; Tang, W

    2013-06-01

    It is estimated that there are over ten million rare disease patients in China currently. Due to a lack of effective drugs and reimbursement regulations for medical expenses the diseases bring most patients enormous physical suffering and psychological despair. Past experience in other countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union have shown that legislation is the critical step to improve the miserable situation of rare disease patients. Laws and regulations for rare diseases in these countries prescribe a series of incentives for research and development of orphan drugs which turn out to obviously allow these drugs to flourish. Legislation has also established a drug reimbursement system to reduce the medical burden of the patients. These measures effectively protect the rights and interests of patients with rare diseases. In China, legislation for rare diseases has begun to attract the attention of authorities. It is anticipated that relevant laws and regulations will be established as early as possible to provide safeguards for rare disease patients in China.

  15. Road tunnels safety according to European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedor KÁLLAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with safety of European road tunnels in accordance with actual European legislation. Standards and recommendations of European Commission, PIARC and other professional bodies of the European Union define minimal technological requirements for equipment and operation of the tunnels in scope of Trans-European Road Network.

  16. Institutional independence and the constitutionality of legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test for determining whether judicial independence is safeguarded is an objective one based on public confidence in the structure of the court and the ... in the analysis of the application of the principles of judicial independence to specific legislative schemes where the structure of the tribunal thereby established had ...

  17. Buffalo City learners' knowledge of abortion legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP) Act legalised abortion on request in South Africa until up to 12 weeks of gestation and thereafter under specified conditions. Within the context of liberal legislation, accurate information is a necessary (although not sufficient) requirement for women to exercise ...

  18. Networking Concepts and Cooperation among Legislative Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that military rule does not provide the appropriate environment for the growth and development of legislative libraries. Cooperation and not competition is stated as the driving philosophy for library networks and cooperation. Resource sharing is the premise for participation in library network. Network ...

  19. The need for hate crime legislation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Consortium for Refugees and Migrants in South. Africa and convener of ... risk for developing a variety of mental health problems including ..... organisation has expressed an interest in support- ing South Africa by providing experts for related training.57. Regardless of whether hate crime legislation is adopted in South ...

  20. Federal/State Radiation Control Legislation, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.A.

    1975-07-01

    A review is presented of Federal and State radiation control legislation for calendar year 1974, in Federal-State, subject, and status order. A brief description of each bill introduced in 1974 is included, plus existing laws or statutes governing radiation control. (auth)

  1. Quality legislation: lessons for Ontario from abroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veillard, Jérémy; Tipper, Brenda; Klazinga, Niek

    2012-01-01

    While the Excellent Care for All Act, 2010 (ECFA Act) provides a comprehensive approach to stimulating quality improvement in healthcare, there are other examples of legislations articulating strategies aimed at the same goal but proposing different approaches. This paper reviews quality of care

  2. Analysis of cosmetics with regard to legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several

  3. The European legislative framework for audit committees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Elst, C.F.

    In 2014 the European Union reformed the regulatory framework of statutory audits in Directive 2014/56/EC and Regulation (EU) Nr. 537/2014. Part of the new legislation addresses the composition and responsibilities of the audit committee of public-interest entities. This contribution studies the

  4. Industrial Relations Legislation: A Creative Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Malcolm

    1976-01-01

    One specific area of industrial relations training is considered--that of meeting the implications of change as a result of the current theme of joint involvement in proposed industrial relations legislation. This will demand new approaches for industry in England. (Author/BP)

  5. Wole Soyinka's Glocal Cultural Legislation | Awosanmi | Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nobel Foundation‟s citation on Soyinka in 1986 as a writer “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones, fashions the drama of existence” marks the zenith of recognition accorded his humanistic legislative mission. Implied here is a profound cultural intelligence which authenticates his ...

  6. North Carolina Sexual Offender Legislation: Policy Placebo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Amy Dellinger; Hill, Julie Sprinkle; Gilbert, Griff

    2012-01-01

    Current legislation at the state and federal level is largely based on the premise that we can best protect children by prohibiting sexual offenders' access to children through the use of residency restrictions, employment sanctions, and community notification. While well intentioned, these policies are short sighted and based more on public…

  7. 133 LEGISLATIVE APPROVAL OF EXECUTIVE APPOINTMENTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    that peace, order and good governance shall be promoted both at the Federal and State levels. Keywords: Executive appointments, Legislative approval, National Assembly, Constitutional duty. 1. Introduction. The National Assembly is the highest law making and representative body in Nigeria. It is the. Constitutional ...

  8. Herbal products: Marketing strategies and legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooyenga, P.A.; Witkamp, R.F.; Groen, K.P.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing of herbal products in the European Union (EU) has been regulated under national legislation for years, leading to differences in legal status of these herbal products. In one member state, a product may be regulated as a food supplement, while in the other member state the same product is

  9. Legislating interprofessional collaboration: A policy analysis of health professions regulatory legislation in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Sandra; Orchard, Carole; Khalili, Hossein; Brunton, Laura; Leslie, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Changes to Ontario's health professions regulatory system were initiated through various legislative amendments. These amendments introduced a legislative obligation for health regulatory colleges to support interprofessional collaboration (IPC), collaborate where they share controlled acts, and incorporate IPC into their quality assurance programs. The purpose of this policy analysis was to identify activities, strategies, and collaborations taking place within health professions regulatory colleges pertaining to legislative changes related to IPC. A qualitative content analysis of (1) college documents pertaining to IPC (n = 355) and (2) interviews with representatives from 14 colleges. Three themes were identified: ideal versus reality; barriers to the ideal; and legislating IPC. Commitment to the ideal of IPC was evident in college documents and interviews. Colleges expressed concern about the lack of clarity regarding the intent of legislation. In addition, barriers stemming from long-standing issues in practice including scope of practice protection, conflicting legislation, and lack of knowledge about the roles of other health professionals impede IPC. Government legislation and health professional regulation have important roles in supporting IPC; however, broader collaboration may be required to achieve policy objectives.

  10. On the successful integration of the implemented principles into the fiscal legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Valerijs JAKUŠEVS

    2013-01-01

    The study is carried out within the boundaries of the research “Taxation policy of the Republic of Latvia within the context of the principle of equity”. The objective of the study is to prepare a theoretical basis for the successful implementation of the state taxation policy considering the presently widespread usage of electronic means of data processing, transfer and storage, as well as to develop the legislative principles of self-regulation for the fiscal legislation in order to prepare...

  11. INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY IN ARCHITECTURE: BETWEEN LEGISLATIONS AND ETHICAL MANIFESTATIONS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE EGYPTIAN CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Nehad Mohamed Eweda

    2011-01-01

    Several international and local legislations have been enacted to protect intellectual property rights. Nevertheless, legislations cannot alone provide protection for architects, and defend the right of owners over architectural products. The importance of this research paper is derived from the hypothesis that accepting, fostering and valuing intellectual property in architecture education and practice are similarly essential to enacting laws. This paper is an analytical discussion of intell...

  12. Legislative Bans Analysis of the Confidential Citizens’ Assistance to the ORA According to the Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambovtsev A. I.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the research of legislative bans on drawing the citizens to confidential assistance according to the contract provided for by Article 17 “On operational search activity”. The author analyses different scientific standpoints concerning the reasons of such legislative restrictions, gives the legal and terminological evaluation of the notions used in the norm considered, offers his own approaches to the decision of some problems revealed

  13. Does counterterrorist legislation hurt human rights practices? A longitudinal cross-national analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Eran; Filkobski, Ina; Ben-Nun Bloom, Pazit; Alkilabi, Hayder; Su, William

    2016-07-01

    In the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attacks, many countries have passed new counterterrorist legislation. One of the common assumptions about such legislation is that it comes with a price: a compromise to practices of human rights. Previous research, looking at a wide range of case studies, suggested that this is indeed the case and that counterterrorist legislation often leads to subsequent repression. However, no large-scale cross-national study has yet assessed this relationship. Relying on a newly assembled database on nation-level counterterrorist legislation for the years 1981-2009, we conduct a cross-national time series analysis of legislation and repression. Our analyses find little evidence for a significant relationships between national counterterrorist legislation and various measures of core human rights in most countries. However, while legislation does not affect repression of physical integrity rights in countries with low and high levels of repression, it is associated with greater state repression in countries with intermediate scores of repression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scholarships for scientific initiation encourage post-graduation degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriela S; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Mendes, Matheus S; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Demarco, Flávio F; Correa, Marcos B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the decision to attend an academic post-graduation program by dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, last-year undergraduate students from Dental Schools of Southern Brazil. A closed questionnaire was applied including questions grouped in three different blocks: pre-graduate, undergraduate period and future perspectives. The outcome was the decision to pursuit an academic post-graduation degree. Associations were tested using chi-squared test and chi-squared test for linear trends when appropriate. Multivariate Poisson regression was also performed. The sample was composed by 671 students (response rate of 69.9%, n=467). In relation to future perspectives, 68% of the interviewed students intended to attend a post-graduation program, but only 17.5% would choose a program with academic and research post-graduation program (Master and PhD programs). In the final model, students from public universities (PR 2.08, 95%CI 1.41-3.08) and students that received scientific initiation scholarship (PR 1.93 95%CI 1.14-3.27) presented a twice greater prevalence to seek academic post-graduate programs. Students with higher family incomes showed a lower prevalence to seek these programs (PR 0.50, 95%IC 0.28-0.90). Scholarships seem to encourage undergraduate students to pursue stricto sensu post-graduation.

  15. Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy in emerging countries? Amal Satte, Eric Heath Kossoff, Mohamed Belghiti, Abderrahim Zerhouni, Hamid Ouhabi, Hassania Guerinech, Jamal Mounach ...

  16. Encouraging alternative transportation behavior among baby boomers via simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Due to disruptions prompted by changing demographic patterns, aging infrastructure, and a : growing green culture New England states have been at the forefront of searching for options : to encourage sustainable transportation alternatives. How...

  17. Achieving fire-safe cigarette legislation through coalition-based legislative advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Adam O; Grant, Ernest; McCullough, Anna; Cairns, Bruce; Kurian, Ann

    2010-02-01

    Advocates who work for tobacco control legislation through coalition-based policy advocacy have access to a broad base of support and resources that are critical to overcoming the tobacco industry lobby. This article provides an example of how a coalition-based advocacy strategy that engaged a diverse group of stakeholders and was supported by a national coordinating movement achieved state level fire-safe cigarette legislation in a tobacco-producing and manufacturing state.

  18. Key Senators Issue Call for `Meaningful' Climate Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    With the U.S. Senate currently considering national energy legislation, Senators John McCain (R-Arizona) and Joseph Lieberman (D-Connecticut) plan to offer a modified version of their bipartisan, proposed Climate Stewardship Act of 2003 (S. 139) as an amendment. The amendment would establish a market driven system of greenhouse gas tradeable allowances to reduce emission. It would also provide for a program of scientific research on abrupt climate change in order to identify and understand past instances of abrupt change; and would establish a national greenhouse gas data base.

  19. Nuclear legislation in Central and Eastern Europe and the NIS

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This publication examines the legislation and regulations governing the peaceful uses of nuclear energy in eastern European countries. It covers 11 countries from Central and Eastern Europe and 11 countries from the New Independent States. The chapters follow a systematic format making it easier for the reader to carry out research and compare information. This study will be updated regularly. Albania Kazakhstan Armenia Latvia Belarus Lithuania Bosnia and Herzegovina Poland Bulgaria Republic of Moldova Croatia Romania Czech Republic Russian Federation Estonia Slovak Republic Former Yugoslav Re

  20. Legislation for higher education disabled students in Brazil and Portugal: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ricardo Lins Vieira de Melo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make a critical analysis of legislation regulating the inclusion of disabled students in higher education in Brazil and Portugal. Based on a documentary study, conducted between September and November 2015, the legal standards in recent decades have been analyzed. The results point out different stages of construction of the inclusion policy in the researched countries. It is emphasized that there is a significant variety of norms in the Brazilian context to ensure that these students have equal opportunities, and a scarcity of regulations in Portugal. The legislation has been referred to as an important factor for the development of inclusive education; however it is noteworthy that the existence of legislation does not necessarily imply it is actually complied. Besides legislation, removing barriers for the full participation and learning of disabled students involves awareness, investment in resources, public policy makers and managers’ scientific knowledge to ensure a quality education throughout life for all people.

  1. Encouraging Free Play: Extramural Digital Game-Based Language Learning as a Complex Adaptive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Massively multiplayer online role-playing games like World of Warcraft are ideally suited to encourage and facilitate second language development (SLD) in the extramural setting, but to what extent do the language learners' actual trajectories of gameplay contribute to SLD? With the current propensity to focus research in digital game-based…

  2. Developing Content and Form: Encouraging Evidence from Italian Content-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Daryl M.

    2006-01-01

    Swain (1985) pointed out the need for increased modified output in the classroom in order to encourage learners to engage in more syntactic processing and, thus, make more form-meaning connections. Research in content-based instruction (CBI) ( Musumeci, 1996; Pica, 2002) has revealed few occasions of pushed modified output from learners.…

  3. Occupational radiation protection legislation in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Lemesch, C.

    1980-01-01

    Various governmental agencies, including the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labor and the Israel AEC are responsible for the control of the use of radioactive materials and medical X-ray machines in Israel. Present legislation deals mainly with the legal aspects of the purchase, transport and possession of radioactive materials and the purchase and operation of medical X-ray machines. No legislation refers explicitly to the protection of the worker from ionizing (and non-ionizing) radiation. A special group of experts appointed by the Minister of Labor recently worked out a comprehensive draft law concerning all legal aspects of occupational radiation protection in Israel. Among the main chapters of the draft are: general radiation protection principles, national radiation protection standards, medical supervision of radiation workers, personal monitoring requirements. The present situation with regard to radiation hazard control in Israel and details of the proposed radiation protection law is discussed. (Author)

  4. Functional foods: traditional use and European legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano

    2012-03-01

    The concept of functional foods was born in Japan in the 1980s. They are foods that were developed specifically to promote health or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods have not already been defined by the legislation in Europe. Generally, they are considered as those foods which are intended to be consumed as part of the normal diet and which contain biologically active components which offer the potential of enhanced health or reduced risk of disease. Attention concerning this category of foods has grown, new products have appeared in the European market and interest has turned to define the standards and guidelines for the development and promotion of this kind of foods. In the European Union, there is harmonised legislation on health claims, while compounds, ingredients, plants are still regulated only at national level. The question of traditional use and the role of European Food Safety Authority as European Authority for Food Safety will be examined.

  5. Critical analysis of the Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas P, Elkin; Gonzalez S, Carmen Lucia

    2003-01-01

    The document analyses the Colombian mining legislation, Act 685 of 2001, based on the reasons expressed by the government and the miners for its conceit and approval. The document tries to determine the developments achieved by this new Mining Code considering international mining competitiveness and its adaptation to the constitutional rules about environment, indigenous communities, decentralization and sustainable development. The analysis formulates general and specific hypothesis about the proposed objectives of the reform, which are confronted with the arguments and critical evaluations of the results. Most hypothesis are not verified, thus demonstrating that the Colombian mining legislation is far from being the necessary instrument to promote mining activities, making it competitive according to international standards and adapted to the principles of sustainable development, healthy environment, community participation, ethnic minorities and regional autonomy

  6. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  7. State Firearm Legislation and Nonfatal Firearm Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Mills, Brianna; Young, Bessie; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated whether stricter state-level firearm legislation was associated with lower hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries. Methods. We estimated discharge rates for hospitalized and emergency department–treated nonfatal firearm injuries in 18 states in 2010 and used negative binomial regression to determine whether strength of state firearm legislation was independently associated with total nonfatal firearm injury discharge rates. Results. We identified 26 744 discharges for nonfatal firearm injuries. The overall age-adjusted discharge rate was 19.0 per 100 000 person-years (state range = 3.3–36.6), including 7.9 and 11.1 discharges per 100 000 for hospitalized and emergency department–treated injuries, respectively. In models adjusting for differences in state sociodemographic characteristics and economic conditions, states in the strictest tertile of legislative strength had lower discharge rates for total (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.44, 0.82), assault-related (IRR = 0.58; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.99), self-inflicted (IRR = 0.18; 95% CI = 0.14, 0.24), and unintentional (IRR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.84) nonfatal firearm injuries. Conclusions. There is significant variation in state-level hospital discharge rates for nonfatal firearm injuries, and stricter state firearm legislation is associated with lower discharge rates for such injuries. PMID:26066935

  8. French legislation on food irradiation - Licensing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souverain, R.

    1977-01-01

    French legislation on food irradiation subjects marketing of such foodstuffs to a prior licence granted by an interministerial order on the type of goodstuff concerned. The basic text on the licensing procedure is the Decree of 8 May 1970 whose purpose is to ensure the health and safety of the consumer by laying down instructions for the operations, surveillance and labelling, which must set out clearly the type of treatment. (NEA) [fr

  9. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  10. THE NEED TO RECYCLE TEXTILE WASTES. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents arguments and examples regarding the need to reuse, sort, manage and recycle more efficiently the textile wastes. Waste are increasing from a quantitative point of view and represent a major problem in each European country and the textile waste represent 5% of the total quantity of waste at a global level. It is estimated that about 95% of what it reaches the landfill could be reused so that the necessity of recycling is obvious. The constant need of transforming the wastes into by-products represents a priority because the textile waste have a special characteristic in the way that they can be reused or even repurposed. The paper also syhthesizes the legislation that makes reference to the textile waste, their classification and the obligations of the local community members, natural or legal persons. It is also presents the current situation of the textile waste with respect to Romania and Bihor county, but there are also presented other numerous cases, examples and situations in which the waste is recovered/collected properly. The examples have the role of showing and emphasizing the concerns of some companies, brands, institutions or local authorities, specialists and specialized personnel within the agencies of environmental protection to encourage recycling or reuse of the textile products that are inappropriately considered as wastes. The information for this paper was collected from literature, from the Agency of Environmental Protection Bihor and on the Internet.

  11. Market, Legislation Make Wind an Attractive Investment in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2001-06-01

    This brochure, part of the SEP Stellar Projects series, covers development of wind energy in Texas due to favorable legislation and public policy and favorable market forces. Those odd shaped structures popping up out in West Texas aren't funny looking oil rigs and they're not genetically altered cotton plants. They're wind turbines, an old technology with a 21st century update. Once too expensive for commercial production, the addition of computers to wind turbines and the rise in fossil fuel prices has brought the cost of wind-generated electricity in line with other power sources. A push by the 1999 Legislature to restructure the retail electric power market put in place rules that encourage wind generation. One rule requires Texas utilities to get an additional 2,000 megawatts of their power from renewable resources such as wind and solar power by 2009. Rules easing the cost of transmitting electricity from remote areas also aid the development of wind farms in West Texas.

  12. ROUNDTABLE - SESSION 2 EXPLOITATION, CONSERVATION AND LEGISLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSMAN L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The link between socioeconomics and conservation and the role of legislation in conservation work was discussed in the group with participants from nine European countries. Interest and knowledge among the general public, stakeholders and managers is the key to successful conservation of native crayfish species. Exploitation and conservation do not necessarily exclude each other. A controlled fishery, where it can be sustained, may be an essential tool for conservation by increasing the general awareness and involving more people in the task of protecting the native crayfish species. This strategy is mainly possible for the noble crayfish in the northern part of its distribution, where strong traditions connected to crayfish also exist. A balance between utilisation and overexploitation has to be found and local guidelines for sustainable exploitation produced. Media, the Internet and educational material aimed at schools and stakeholders are excellent ways of reaching a wide audience with information. Universal objectives, rules and regulations at the European level are desirable and the noble crayfish and the stone crayfish should be included in Annex II of the Habitat Directive. Based on this framework detailed regulations are best worked out at the national level, considering the specific crayfish situation in the country. Information about the legislation, the purpose of the legislation and the consequences when not obeying it should be distributed. Stricter regulation of the trade with live alien crayfish is vital because of the associated risk of introducing new diseases and species.

  13. LEGISLATIVE ASPECTS CONCERNING THE LEATHER WASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMOFTE Claudia Simona

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the current legislation and compliance issues leather waste in different waste groups according to relevant legislation and shows that, although seemingly harmless waste of skin sometimes contain dangerous compounds. As presented risks to human health were some restricted substances in leather. Since 2001 Romania had preoccupation in national legislation on waste management, but some categories, such as leather waste are not framed to this category. Also, another goal is implementing the EU management/storage strategy of industrial waste. Unfortunately, Romania imports huge quantities of used clothing and shoes. Transport, storage and use of them are poor, and many of these are subsequently stored waste by the fact that it is even sometimes improperly discarded. The paper also shows the statistics on waste management in the Bihor County by activity of national economy and by activity of industry at level of CANE REV.2 Section. Analyzing the postings on Internet regarding the sale and purchase of leather wastes in Romania, it was found that there are the following 'categories' of wastes: leather goods, leather from coats, leather from footwear industry, suede, leather, leather resulting from the production of upholstery. It was found that most car buyers use waste leather upholstery. It is recommended that production companies to highlight more transparent their inventory textile and leather waste on types for those interested (including online can access/capitalize them.

  14. The effect of bicycle helmet legislation on pediatric injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardi, Lisa A; King, Brian P; Salemi, Gina; Salvator, Ann E

    2007-01-01

    Research supports the use of a correctly fitted bicycle helmet to reduce the risk of bicycle-related head injury. Although parents believe bicycle helmets work, a large percentage of children do not wear helmets while riding. The purpose of this study was to track pediatric bicycle-related injuries presenting to a pediatric trauma center 1 year before and 5 years after 2001 bicycle helmet legislation aimed to protect children 0 to 16 years. Prospective data collection of pedal cycle injury e-code 826.1 from hospital discharge data set from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2005. Bicycle-related injuries among children 0 to 16 years were grouped by injury type (head, extremity, and other), age, and gender. For years reviewed (2000-2005), bicycle-related injuries were highest in the period May through August. Bicycle-related injury rates per 100,000 for this population were 1,452 a year before legislation. The injury rate decreased 27% (1,054/100,000) one year later. Overall, bicycle-related injury per 100,000 continues to be down by 24%. Data show that extremity injury is greater than head and other injury categories in both male (24% greater) and female (27% greater) children 0 to 16 years one year before legislation. Data show extremity injury rates per 100,000 is greater than head and other injury categories in both male (24% greater) and female (38% greater) categories 5 years later. Bicycle-related injury rates per 100,000 in boys were greater than girls for all years reported. Male extremity injury was 45% higher for 10- to 16-year-old boys than for 5- to 9-year-old boys a year before legislation and continued to rise to 58% in 2005. Male head injury rates per 100,000 were higher in 5- to 9-year-old boys (598/100,000) than in 10- to 16- year-old boys (354/100,000) one year before legislation. In 2005, the bicycle-related head injury rates per 100,000 dropped to 485 for 5- to 9-year-old vs 223 for the 10- to 16-year-old boys. Female extremity injury rate

  15. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  16. [The public health legislation in conditions of globalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremov, D V; Jyliyaeva, E P

    2013-01-01

    The article demonstrates the impact of globalization on development of public health legislation at the international level and in particular countries. The legislation is considered as a tool to decrease the globalization health risks for population

  17. Legislative Framework Required for Africa's M-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa......This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa...

  18. Coastal Zone Management Act and related legislation: Revision 3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-15

    In recognition of the increasing pressures upon the nation`s coastal resources, Congress enacted the Coastal Zone Management Act in 1972. Its purpose is to encourage states to preserve, protect, develop, and, where possible, restore or enhance such valuable natural resources as wetlands, floodplains, estuaries, beaches, dunes, barrier islands, and coral reefs, as well as the fish and wildlife utilizing those habitats. A unique feature of the Act is that participation by states is voluntary. One key provision for encouraging states to participate is the availability of federal financial assistance to any coastal state or territory, including those on the Great Lakes, which is willing to develop and implement a comprehensive coastal management program. Additionally, the Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) was passed in 1983. This report contains the legislative history and statues associated with each Act. Regulations for implementation and other guidance are included.

  19. The relationship between administrative court control and legislative control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, M.

    1986-01-01

    The legislator can determine the extent of control of administrative courts by reduction of substantive conditions. The author has the opinion that the judicial control cannot be stricter than the legislative control. For the range of the control of administrative courts is decisive, to what extent the legislator is forced to proper legislative settlements. In this context the author discusses the Kalkar-decision of the Federal Constitutional Court of 1978. (CW) [de

  20. Politics is local: State legislator voting on restrictive voter identification legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth C McKee

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The marked increase in restrictive voter identification (ID laws since the 2010 elections reveals the extreme partisan polarization in those state legislatures advancing this reform. Unlike previous studies that examine state-level factors expected to influence passage of restrictive voter ID bills, this study is the first to investigate the question using the state legislator as the unit of analysis. Multivariate analysis of the voting behavior of state legislators shows which kinds of district-level factors increase or decrease their likelihood of supporting stricter voter ID laws. Given the differentiable coalitions favoring Democratic and Republican candidates, certain partisan-aligned district demographics influence state lawmaker support for restrictive voter ID legislation. Race in particular is a major cleavage conditioning support for restrictive voter ID laws. Unlike the mixed findings generated by macro-level studies, this article provides convincing evidence that the size of the black district population negatively influences the likelihood that a Democratic legislator votes in favor of a restrictive voter ID bill, but positively affects the probability that a Republican lawmaker votes yes. The findings in this study illuminate the contextual factors that influence legislator voting on this salient election reform.

  1. 40 CFR 1506.8 - Proposals for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposals for legislation. 1506.8 Section 1506.8 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER REQUIREMENTS OF NEPA § 1506.8 Proposals for legislation. (a) The NEPA process for proposals for legislation (§ 1508.17...

  2. 31 CFR 0.212 - Influencing legislation or petitioning Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Influencing legislation or... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY EMPLOYEE RULES OF CONDUCT Rules of Conduct § 0.212 Influencing legislation or... Congress to favor or oppose any legislation. This prohibition does not apply to the official handling...

  3. Canadian Firearms Legislation and Effects on Homicide 1974 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmann, Caillin

    2012-01-01

    Canada has implemented legislation covering all firearms since 1977 and presents a model to examine incremental firearms control. The effect of legislation on homicide by firearm and the subcategory, spousal homicide, is controversial and has not been well studied to date. Legislative effects on homicide and spousal homicide were analyzed using…

  4. 29 CFR 783.28 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 783.28 Section 783.28 Labor... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Legislative History and Judicial Construction of the Exemptions § 783.28 General legislative history. As originally enacted in 1938, section 13(a)(3) of the Fair Labor...

  5. 29 CFR 784.102 - General legislative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General legislative history. 784.102 Section 784.102 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... Aquatic Products Legislative History of Exemptions § 784.102 General legislative history. (a) As orginally...

  6. A Critique of the Key Legislative Framework Guiding Civil Liberties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key legislative framework presented in this paper is within the areas of media and access to information, individual rights and freedoms, as well as legislation pertaining to the conduct of elections. In some cases, colonial legislation that politicians claimed to have repealed was reincarnated, as the post-colonial dispensation ...

  7. Legislative Decentralization in China in the Reform Era – Progress and Limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Feng (Yang)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis examines the development of the legislative system of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) shaped by decentralization reforms since 1979. This thesis is composed of 8 chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the research topic, presents the research questions, theoretical

  8. Encouraging self-regulated learning through electronic portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Abrami

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available At the Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance (CSLP at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, we have developed the Electronic Portfolio Encouraging Active Reflective Learning Software (ePEARL to promote student self-regulation and enhance student core competencies. This paper summarizes the literature on electronic portfolios (EPs, describes ePEARL, and documents our research findings to date including analyses of teacher and student reactions. Participants in this study were 62 school teachers, mostly from elementary schools, and their students (approximately 1200 from seven urban and rural English school boards across Quebec. Student and teacher post-test questionnaire responses suggested that the use of portfolios, and the learning processes they support, were positively viewed and learned well enough to be emerging skills among students. Contrariwise, teachers commented that teaching SRL strategies was new and thus required a change in teaching strategies, strategies that they were not yet accustomed to. Focus groups also revealed the challenges of using portfolios to teach children to self-regulate. And finally, the analysis of student portfolios evidenced only small amounts of student work or high levels of student self-regulation. Résumé : Au Centre d’études sur l’apprentissage et la performance (CEAP de l’Université Concordia à Montréal, Québec, nous avons conçu le logiciel de portfolio électronique réflexif pour l’apprentissage des élèves (PERLE afin d’encourager l’apprentissage autorégulé chez les élèves et d’accroître leurs compétences de base. Cet article présente un résumé de la documentation sur les portfolios électroniques, une description de PERLE, ainsi que nos résultats de recherche documentés à ce jour, y compris des analyses des réponses des enseignants et des élèves. Les participants à cette étude se composaient de 62 enseignants, la plupart dans des

  9. Politeness Indicators in Nigeria Legislative Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Unoalegie Bola Agbara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In every human interaction, interlocutors strive to maintain appropriate decorum and politeness in order to avoid undue feeling of not being ‘nice’ or being insensitive to co-participant’s self-esteem or image. This culture of being ‘nice’ is expressed not only through verbal codes, but also through non-verbal cues such as pitch, tone, voice modulation, facial expression and other forms of body language. Nigeria legislative House reflects the uniqueness of Nigeria as a multicultural nation with about two hundred and fifty ethnic groups. Each tribe has a unique way of expressing ‘nice’ (politeness. This paper examines how Nigerian legislators from different ethnic groups acknowledge the self-esteem of other legislators during senate debates. The study used Scollon and Scollon’s politeness principle which states that in every interaction there is a continuous ‘face’ (self-image negotiation and this ‘face’ which is made up of two aspects - involvement and independent- must be balanced during interactions because ‘face’ is a paradoxical concept. The interest of this study is to identify and to explain how politicians, who though are in opposition, acknowledge the self-esteem of others. Six hansards were sampled from 2009 to 2010, one bill from each quarter of the year. It was discovered that speakers almost always punctuate their contributions to debate with different types of politeness indicators as a means of acknowledging both the involvement and dependent face wants of participants. The politeness indicators often used by senators include address forms which are used not only as vocative (to the presiding senator but also as designative (for reference to a third person mentioned in the speech, first person plural pronouns, rhetorical (speech politeness markers and ritualized utterances.

  10. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  11. Nuclear regulatory legislation: 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include: The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  12. New protein sources and food legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Simone; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Ricci, Antonia

    2017-01-01

    Growing global food demand has generated a greater interest in the consumption of new and diversified protein sources. Novel foodstuffs represent a challenge for food law as they need proper safety assessments before obtaining market permission. The case of edible insects and European law is a good...... framework for a novel food in a regulatory context. Once admitted, edible insects require proper rules to assure consumers and stakeholders of their benefits and safety. This overview highlights the need to develop clearer legislation to govern the future production and consumption of new food in Europe...

  13. [International trends in laboral risk legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vigil, José Luis

    2010-01-01

    It had been established that labor damage are: laboral injuries, professional diseases and others diseases related with laboral conditions. All of them are referred to as diseases or damages suffered as a consequence of a laboral relations. It is implicated that the damage occurs in the place or during a laboral scheduled time with a causal direct relation. There is a trend in the Spanish laboral legislation, which is controversial in laboral medicine, because it includes a Law for the Prevention of Laboral Risks that consider also to the chronic diseases as a cause no traumatic of a laboral risk to conditioned a damage during the laboral journey.

  14. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 102d Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 102d Congress, 2d Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended; Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statutes and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  15. Nuclear regulatory legislation, 101st Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This document is a compilation of nuclear regulatory legislation and other relevant material through the 101st Congress, 2nd Session. This compilation has been prepared for use as a resource document, which the NRC intends to update at the end of every Congress. The contents of NUREG-0980 include The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended: Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended; Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978; Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act; Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982; and NRC Authorization and Appropriations Acts. Other materials included are statues and treaties on export licensing, nuclear non-proliferation, and environmental protection

  16. Child education and management: theoretical approaches on legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rúbia Borges

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate theoretical approaches regarding to daycare centers and management, considering childhood education for different audiences, such children and babies on the childhood perspective. On qualitative approach, this research is bibliographical and reflects on official documents about the theme. The development of this research occurred through analysis on educational Brazilian laws, starting by the Federal Constitution (FC, Law of Guidelines and Bases for National Education (LGB, National Curriculum Guidelines and the Education National Plan (ENP. The results point to a generalist legislation that allow certain autonomy on the education. However, there is the need to deepen theoretical and practical studies on the reality of institutions which have the education as the paramount purpose, in order to offer education with quality and attending to the needs from the audience in these institutions.

  17. Lessons in Commercial PACE Leadership: The Path from Legislation to Launch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, G; Schwartz, LC; Kramer, C; Deason, J

    2018-02-27

    Nonresidential buildings are responsible for over a quarter of primary energy consumption in the United States. Efficiency improvements in these buildings could result in significant energy and utility bill savings. To unlock those potential savings, a number of market barriers to energy efficiency must be addressed. Commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (C-PACE) financing programs can help overcome several of these barriers with minimal investment from state and local governments. With programs established or under development in 22 states, and at least $521 million in investments so far, other state and local governments are interested in bringing the benefits of C-PACE to their jurisdictions. Lessons in Commercial PACE Leadership: The Path from Legislation to Launch, aims to fast track the set-up of C-PACE programs for state and local governments by capturing the lessons learned from leaders. The report examines the list of potential program design options and important decision points in setting up a C-PACE program, tradeoffs for available options, and experiences of stakeholders that have gone through (or are going through) the process. C-PACE uses a voluntary special property assessment to facilitate energy and other improvements in commercial buildings. For example: - Long financing terms under C-PACE can produce cash flow-positive -- projects to help overcome a focus on short paybacks. - Payment obligations can transfer to subsequent owners, mitigating concern about investing in improvements for a building that may be sold before the return on the investment is fully realized. - 100% of both hard and soft costs can be financed. To capture the benefits of C-PACE financing, state and local governments must navigate numerous decision points and engage with stakeholders to set-up or join a program. Researchers interviewed experts (including state and local sponsors, program administrators, capital providers and industry experts) on their lessons learned and

  18. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Kimura, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by discussing whether students of second and foreign languages (hereafter, "second language" will be used to refer to both foreign and second languages) should be encouraged to use their second language (L2) with classmates when doing group activities. Reasons for both L2 and L1 (first language) use are discussed with reference…

  20. Encouraging Doubt and Dialogue: Documentation as a Tool for Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Maggie; Sutter, Cheryl J.

    2004-01-01

    The way in which the culture of ethnography has been developed in classrooms that encourages teachers and students to question, doubt, reflect, revise and remain open to new possibilities, is discussed. Through the documentation of interactions and talks between teachers and students, a critical examination of the teachers and capabilities and…

  1. Business Plan Competitions in Tertiary Institutions: Encouraging Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Roslyn; Atchison, Mary; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The development of entrepreneurial skills and knowledge is a priority for governments that want to encourage an innovative and enterprising society. Furthermore, education institutions are becoming increasingly required by employers to produce graduates that have practical, real-world skills. Business plan competitions, although primarily aimed at…

  2. ENCOURAGEing results on ICT for energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Skou, Arne Joachim; Olsen, Petur

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents how the ICT infrastructure developed in the European ENCOURAGE project, centered around a message oriented middleware, enabled energy savings in buildings and households. The components of the middleware, as well as the supervisory control strategy, are overviewed, to support ...

  3. When a Carton Becomes a Car: Encouraging Imaginative Play Outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Margie; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the importance of outdoor play as a space for active learning, discovery, and development of motor skills. Provides suggestions for creating an outdoor curriculum, including how to get started, important materials, and activity ideas. Encourages teachers and caregivers to devote plenty of time and energy to outdoor learning. (SD)

  4. The ENCOURAGE ICT architecture for heterogeneous smart grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albano, Michele; Ferreira, Luis; Le Guilly, Thibaut

    2013-01-01

    The ENCOURAGE project aims at rationalizing energy usage in building by implementing a smart energy grid based on intelligent scheduling of energy consuming appliances, renewable energy production, and inter-building energy trading. This paper presents the reference architecture proposed in the c...

  5. Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC Countries? W Mina. Abstract. This paper empirically examines the short and long term FDI impact of Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) countries contracting of bilateral investment treaties and distinguishes it by the income level of the contracting partner.

  6. Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for example, can be replaced by hemp flour, almonds or sesame in some dishes. Conclusion and recommendation. For all these reasons, we think that dietary therapies, es- pecially MAD, should be encouraged as a therapeutic op- tion in developing countries, not only for drug resistant epilepsy, but also potentially as a first ...

  7. Encouraging Students to Consider Music Education as a Future Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ann M.; Payne, Phillip D.; Burrack, Frederick W.; Fredrickson, William E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, communication, and opportunities provided by music teachers to encourage consideration of the music teaching profession. Survey participants (N = 436) were music educators from the Southeast (235), Midwest (51), and Southwest (149) National Association for Music Education regions of the…

  8. Earthworms, Stamps and Butterfly Wings: Encouraging Children's Interests and Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Ann

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the importance of encouraging children's interests and the pursuit of collections and hobbies as strategies for developing talent and abilities. Excerpts are cited from eminent people's lives as examples of early interests/collections and eventual success. Letters from children on their collections are included. (Contains…

  9. Autopsy issues in German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the relevance of autopsy issues for German Federal Republic transplantation legislation until 1997 against the background of legal traditions and the distribution of constitutional legislative powers. It is based on Federal Ministry of Justice records and German Parliament documents on transplantation legislation. Transplantation and autopsy legislation started with close ties in the 1970s. Viewing transplantation legislation as relevant for future autopsy regulation contributed to the decision to stall transplantation legislation, because the interests of the federal government and the medical profession converged to avoid subsequent restrictions on the practice of conducting autopsies and procuring tissues for transplantation. Sublegal norms were insufficient for the prosecution of the organ trade and area-wide transplantation regulation after the reunification of Germany. In contrast to autopsy issues, legislative power for transplantation issues was extended to the federal level by an amendment to the constitution, allowing decision making for Germany as a whole.

  10. Firearm-assisted suicide: legislative, policing and clinical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Kiran; Griffin, Diarmuid; Kola, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    Until recent years the Republic of Ireland had one of the most restrictive regimes on firearms access with the Irish police (An Garda Siochana) consistently refusing to grant certificates for a wide range of guns including handguns, high calibre rifles and shotguns capable of holding more than three cartridges. In 2004 the High Court ruled that this policy was without legislative backing and since then the police began to issue certificates for firearms where the applicant is not disentitled under law from possessing a gun. Set against this backdrop, this paper explores the consequences of liberal gun regimes in the context of access to firearms by those suffering from mental illness and who pose a threat of parasuicide or suicide. Consideration is given to experiences in other jurisdictions and international research on firearm suicide prevention. Finally some recommendations for changes in legislation, policy and protocol in the Irish context are presented. 2009 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. The Irish legislative gender quota: The first election

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brennan Mary

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012 legislative gender quotas were introduced as part of the Fine Gael/Labour coalition government’s political reform agenda. The legislation specifies that payments to political parties ‘shall be reduced by 50 per cent, unless at least 30 per cent of the candidates whose candidatures were authenticated by the qualified party at the preceding general election were women and at least 30 per cent were men’. The 30 per cent gender threshold came into effect at the 2016 general election. Research demonstrates that gender quotas work to increase women’s political descriptive representation, but to do so, political parties must engage with them in ‘goodwill’, be ‘wellintentioned’ or place women in ‘winnable seats’. This article examines if this was the case at the 2016 general election. Using statistics, as well as drawing from interviews with party strategists, the article assesses the impact of gender quotas on women’s candidate selection and election. We conclude that parties did embrace the spirit of the gender quota law but resistance remains.

  12. National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR). NIDILRR Legislation & Policy The Creation of NIDILRR and Its Legislative Mandate The National ... These entities are then supposed to use this money to plan and conduct research, demonstration projects, training ...

  13. Actively Encouraging Learning and Degree Persistence in Advanced Astrophysics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Daniel H.

    2018-01-01

    The need to grow and diversify the STEM workforce remains a critical national challenge. Less than 40% of college students interested in STEM achieve a bachelor's degree. These numbers are even more dire for women and URMs, underscoring a serious concern about the country's ability to remain competitive in science and tech. A major factor is persistent performance gaps in rigorous 'gateway' and advanced STEM courses for majors from diverse backgrounds leading to discouragement, a sense of exclusion, and high dropout rates. Education research has clearly demonstrated that interactive-engagement (`active learning') strategies increase performance, boost confidence, and help build positive 'identity' in STEM. Likewise, the evidence shows that traditional science education practices do not help most students gain a genuine understanding of concepts nor the necessary skill set to succeed in their disciplines. Yet, lecture-heavy courses continue to dominate the higher-ed curriculum, thus, reinforcing the tired notion that only a small percentage of 'special' students have the inherent ability to achieve a STEM degree. In short, very capable students with less experience and confidence in science, who belong to groups that traditionally are less identified with STEM careers, are effectively and efficiently 'weeded out' by traditional education practices. I will share specific examples for how I successfully incorporate active learning in advanced astrophysics courses to encourage students from all backgrounds to synthesize complex ideas, build bedrock conceptual frameworks, gain technical communication skills, and achieve mastery learning outcomes all necessary to successfully complete rigorous degrees like astrophysics. By creating an inclusive and active learning experience in junior-level extragalactic and stellar interiors/atmospheres courses, I am helping students gain fluency in their chosen major and the ability to 'think like a scientist', both critical to

  14. Matters of Responsibility for Marine Pollution under the Legislation of the Russian Federation. (Review of the Main Legislative Acts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodkin, A.L.; Kulistikova, O.V.; Mokhova, E.M.

    1997-12-31

    International Northern Sea Route Programme, INSROP, is a five-year multilateral research programme. The main phase of the programme started in 1993. The three principal cooperating partners are research institutes in Russia, Japan and Norway. The aim of INSROP is to build up a knowledge base to provide foundation for a long-term planning and decision making by state agencies and private companies etc., for purposes of promoting rational decision making on the use of the Northern Sea route for transit and regional development. This report reviews the main legislative acts of former USSR and the Russian Federation, systematized by the responsibility types: (1) civil (property), (2) criminal and (3) administrative. It also discusses the issues of responsibility for marine pollution in accordance with the draft of the new Merchant Shipping Code of the Russian Federation, which contains sections on liability for damage caused by oil pollution from ships or by transport of hazardous and noxious substances by sea. 18 refs.

  15. A blueprint for legislative action : consensus recommendations for U.S. Climate Protection Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In January 2007, we issued our Call for Action in which we joined together to call for prompt enactment of national legislation in the United States to slow, stop and reverse the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the shortest time reas...

  16. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... well as the dangers of delivering without skilled attendance. Government should consider enacting legislation to discourage people or organisations ..... Udoma EJ, Ekanem EI, Udo AE, Essiet AI. Hysterectomy among nulliparous women in Calabar: Indications, complications, social implications and ...

  17. SYSTEMIC REFORM OF CHINESE ANTICORRUPTION LEGISLATION AND ENFORCEMENT PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject. The article is devoted to the analysis of ongoing systematic reform of Chinese anticorruption legislation and practice of its enforcement.The purpose of the article is to formulate ways of improvement Chinese anti-corruption legislation.The methods of legislation analysis and synthesis of legislative gaps and contradictions are used.The results, scope of application. Nowadays, China is moving from the struggle against corruption by political means to the struggle by legal means. In attempt to construct a system of anti-corruption legislation, China is actively forming a dualistic normative system and a mechanism for the interaction between party norms and state legislation. A multilevel vertical-integrated system of anti-corruption legislation with "The anti-corruption law" as a core was created; the Party is stressing the priority status of preventive legislation and the auxiliary role of legislation on control over power. This system should became the basis for building Chinese anti-corruption legislation. The author formulated a system of principles of Chinese anti-corruption legislation, including the principles of efficiency, consistency, economy and gradualism. The importance of the anti-corruption legislative program, the task formulated in 2015, is underlined. The list of the main anti-corruption legislative acts has been determined, including legislation in the aspects "do not dare to take [bribes]", "cannot take [bribes]" and "do not want to take [bribes]". The problem of improving the legislation in the "do not dare to take" aspect have been specially considered, including improvement of criminal legislation, adoption of the law on accountability and responsibility of public servants, as well as the adoption of an anti-corruption law. The main alternatives and problems of improving legislation in the context of "not being able to take" are considered, such as adoption of laws on declaration of property of public servants

  18. [The new pharmacovigilance legislation in practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekmans, André W; Mol, Peter G M

    2014-01-01

    Recent European legislation has provided new tools to enhance the overseeing of medicinal products in the postmarketing phase. Package leaflets of newly approved medicines contain a black inverted triangle as a signal for enhanced monitoring. The leaflets also have clear instructions on how to report possible adverse drug reactions. Databases of drug reactions are accessible by the public. The most important change is the establishment of the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) within the European Medicines Agency (EMA). This Committee will review safety signals of medicinal products arising in the member states of the European Union. The Committee could recommend adaptation of the package leaflet, or suspension or revocation of the marketing authorisation. The PRAC is also involved in the assessment of risk management plans for medicinal products and post-authorisation efficacy and safety studies.

  19. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  20. Colombian legislation for air contamination control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez S, Gildardo; Montes de Correa, Consuelo

    1999-01-01

    The most relevant legislative acts promulgated by the Colombian government for controlling atmospheric pollution are reviewed in chronological order. Special emphasis is paid to decree 948 of 1995 modified according to decree 2107 of 1995, e. The general dispositions about norms of air quality, emission levels, contaminant emissions, noise and offensive odors (chapter II), as well as, prohibitions and restrictions to emissions and noise from stationary and mobile sources (chapters III-V) furthermore, the resolutions issued so far by the ministry of the environment for regulating decree 948/95 in those aspects related to the prevention and control of atmospheric pollution are describes. Finally, the main philosophies for regulating air pollutants around the world are explained: the emissions norms, air quality norms, the emission taxes philosophy and the cost-benefit norms

  1. Victim's Rights - Comparative Approach within EU Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually is talking about offender rights and rarely about victim's rights. This study aims to analyse victim's rights especially in Romanian legislation from all points of view. Having involuntary fallen victim to crime, the person is often unaware of what information is available. It is therefore important that the onus is not put on the victim to request a certain piece of information. Victims of crimes need to have their important role in the criminal proceedings and he or she has to know about the extension of them rights. Not least, the study is focus on the right of the victim to receive information, not to be made responsible for the practicalities surrounding its delivery.

  2. Carrots, sticks and apples - mechanisms to encourage the use of CPTED

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, T

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available attended by representatives from other countries as well, including developing countries such as Chile and South Africa. This paper examines a number of mechanisms available to encourage the use of CPTED and support its effective implementation... was therefore spearheaded by research projects complimented by reports, publications and guideline documents. It did not include practical implementation projects, as was the case for instance in Chile. Although there are examples of interventions made...

  3. Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Okonofua, Jason A.; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern about rising discipline citations in K–12 schooling and a lack of means to reduce them. Predominant theories characterize this problem as the result of punitive discipline policies (e.g., zero-tolerance policies), teachers’ lack of interpersonal skills, or students’ lack of self-control or social–emotional skills. By contrast, the present research examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. A brief intervention aimed at encouraging an empathic mindset about disci...

  4. Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control in Africa: Current Status of Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Tumwine

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC—(1 Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2 Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3 Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Methods: Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Results: Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries’ FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC

  5. Implementation of the framework convention on tobacco control in Africa: current status of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumwine, Jacqueline

    2011-11-01

    To describe, as of July 2011, the status of tobacco control legislation in Africa in three key areas of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC)-(1) Protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, (2) Packaging and labelling of tobacco products, and (3) Tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Review and analysis of tobacco control legislation in Africa, media reports, journal articles, tobacco industry documents and data published in the 2011 WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. Modest progress in FCTC implementation in Africa with many countries having legislation or policies on the protection from exposure to tobacco smoke, however, only a handful of countries meet the standards of the FCTC Article 8 and its Guidelines particularly with regards to designated smoking areas. Little progress on packaging and labelling of tobacco products, with few countries having legislation meeting the minimum standards of the FCTC Article 11 and its Guidelines. Mauritius is the only African country with graphic or pictorial health warnings in place and has the largest warning labels in Africa. Slightly better progress in banning tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship has been shown by African countries, although the majority of legislation falls short of the standards of the FCTC Article 13 and its Guidelines. Despite their efforts, African countries' FCTC implementation at national level has not matched the strong regional commitment demonstrated during the FCTC treaty negotiations. This study highlights the need for Africa to step up efforts to adopt and implement effective tobacco control legislation that is fully compliant with the FCTC. In order to achieve this, countries should prioritise resources for capacity building for drafting strong FCTC compliant legislation, research to inform policy and boost political will, and countering the tobacco industry which is a major obstacle to FCTC implementation in Africa.

  6. Open Access Data Sharing in Genomic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on broad sharing of human genomic data generated in research in order to maximize utility and public benefit is a significant legacy of the Human Genome Project. Concerns about privacy and discrimination have led to policy responses that restrict access to genomic data as the means for protecting research participants. Our research and experience show, however, that a considerable number of research participants agree to open access sharing of their genomic data when given the choice. General policies that limit access to all genomic data fail to respect the autonomy of these participants and, at the same time, unnecessarily limit the utility of the data. We advocate instead a more balanced approach that allows for individual choice and encourages informed decision making, while protecting against the misuse of genomic data through enhanced legislation.

  7. Financial incentives research and lending market impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.F.; Bryant, P.S.; Cour, E.E.; Kouchoukos, P.C.

    1977-11-01

    The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration has been authorized by recent legislation to enter into loan guaranty and interest assistance agreements related to specific energy programs. These loan guaranty programs are designed to encourage the private sector to participate in the development of alternative energy sources and the conservation of energy. Two programs are currently authorized: one dealing with geothermal energy; the other dealing with electric and hybrid vehicles. A third program currently under consideration by the Congress addresses the conversion of organic waste products into alternative fuels. An introductory overview provides a brief summary of: energy legislation, ERDA loan guaranty programs, basis of and purpose for the investigation, and scope. Subsequent sections of this report address related background information; methodology employed; data collection and analysis of the information obtained; and specific recommendations based upon the results of the analysis. Supporting information and reference data are included as appendices. (MCW)

  8. Nursing Teaching Strategies by Encouraging Students’ Questioning, Argumentation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Neri de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students need to develop competences in the field of explanation, argumentation and questioning as they are pivotal to foster a relationship with their patients and achieve a greater humanisation of care. The objective of this paper is to analyse the perception of 1st-year nursing students with regard to the humanisation of care provided to patients by encouraging them to discuss real-life episodes. The study is qualitative and content analysis used the students’ questions, explanations and argumentation as core discourses. Among other conclusions, results point towards the importance of promoting activities that encourage the different nursing students’ discourses and the ability to understand the humanisation and dehumanisation patterns arising from the real-life episodes used as case study.

  9. Creating a board game for encouraging emotional intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Galič, Kaja

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on creating a board game for encouraging emotional intelligence of children in early childhood. Game is based on the Four-Branch Model which was proposed by Mayer and Salovey (1997). Board game covers emotional skills, which include the abilities to perceive emotions in oneself and other, to use emotions, to understand emotions and to manage emotions. Game was tested in Kindergarten Ledina Ljubljana and Kindergarten Mavrica Brežice. 57 children, aged five and ...

  10. The Russian Federation legislation. The new laws. Prospects for international cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A. YE.

    2002-01-01

    Survey of the regulatory basis for the international cooperation of the Russian Federation in the area of foreign commercial and research spent fuel management. Analysis of the latest legislative amendments. Complex approach and environmental priorities of the new legislative initiatives (three Federal laws): Amendments to Articles 1, 47 and 64 of the Federal Law on U tilization of atomic energy ; Amendments to Articles 50 of the Federal Law on E nvironmental protection ; The new Federal Law O n Special ecological programs for the clean- up of areas, contaminated by radiation . (author)

  11. [Penal and non-penal legislative policy in relation to human biotechnology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2007-01-01

    The Spanish legislator has introduced a set of legislative novelties in the field of human biotechnology or is about to do so. This will be done either through the reform of some laws or through the approval of new laws, that is, without previous regulatory references available. The greater part of these novelties turn on research with cells or cell lines of human origin, specifically those from human embryos and through the use of diverse techniques, such as reproductive cloning and non-reproductive ('therapeutic') cloning.

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Free Access to Legislation over the Internet ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, it makes the work of judges and lawyers easier and renders the national judicial system more transparent. Although free distribution of legislation over the Internet is available in several countries around the world, there has been no research to date aimed at understanding its impact. One of the prime objectives ...

  13. National and International Disability Rights Legislation: A Qualitative Account of Its Enactment in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitburn, Ben

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed analysis based on the lived experiences of the study participants and the researcher (each with vision impairment) in education, post school and in the pursuit for employment is developed. The policy discourses of disability legislation--both at national and international levels--are explored with particular reference to…

  14. Intellectual property and access to medicines: an analysis of legislation in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón, Alejandro; Godoy, Angelina Snodgrass

    2009-10-01

    Globalization of intellectual property (IP) protection for medicines has been advancing during the past decade. Countries are obliged to adapt their legislation as a requirement of their membership to the World Trade Organization or as a condition of being part of international trade agreements. There is a growing recognition that, in low-income countries, stronger IP protection is a barrier to access to medicines. At the same time, the number of low-income countries writing national legislation to protect IP for pharmaceutical products is growing worldwide, but little research has been done on the ways in which this process is happening at the national level. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of the implementation of IP legislation at the national level by providing a comparative analysis of the countries that are part of the United States-Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA). The analysis shows three trends. First, countries have often implemented stronger IP protection than required by trade agreements. Second, some countries have adopted IP protection before signing the trade agreements. Third, the process of ratification of DR-CAFTA increased public debate around these issues, which in some cases led to IP legislation that considers public health needs. These trends suggest that industrialized countries and the pharmaceutical industry are using more tactics than just trade agreements to push for increased IP protection and that the process of national legislation is a valid arena for confronting public health needs to those of the industry.

  15. Overview of legislation on sewage sludge management in developed countries worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, A; Stamatelatou, K

    2016-01-01

    The need to apply innovative technologies for maximizing the efficiency and minimizing the carbon footprint of sewage treatment plants has upgraded sewage sludge management to a highly sophisticated research and development sector. Sewage sludge cannot be regarded solely as 'waste'; it is a renewable resource for energy and material recovery. From this perspective, legislation on sewage sludge management tends to incorporate issues related to environmental protection, public health, climate change impacts and socio-economic benefits. This paper reviews the existing legislative frameworks and policies on sewage sludge management in various countries, highlighting the common ground as well as the different priorities in all cases studied. More specifically, the key features of legislation regarding sludge management in developed countries such as the USA, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and the European Union (EU27) are discussed.

  16. WASTE ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT FRAMEWORK LEGISLATION AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Loredana NICOLESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE has become one of the most significant waste streams due to the increasing amounts and environmental impact. It is very important to know how to manage the WEEE quantities, what laws are in force in this field and what policies are available to apply. This paper presents the e-waste legislation and management system from some of the European countries, as examples. The hierarchy of the management systems is presented according to the framework Directive and legislative approaches. There are also shown the "take-back" policy, the "polluter pays" principle and the "extended producer responsibility" principle. The goal of this research is to highlight the WEEE framework legislation in Europe and to present the EU policies for the WEEE management system.

  17. Awareness of legislation moderates the effect of opt-out consent on organ donation intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2013-04-27

    With the worldwide shortage of organs to meet the demand for transplants, many countries are considering whether introducing opt-out consent would increase the availability of donor organs. This research assessed whether people's willingness to donate their organs for transplant purposes was greater in opt-out than opt-in countries and whether such effects were moderated by people's awareness of their nation's legislative system. Using secondary data from the 2010 Eurobarometer (n=29,288), this study compared people's willingness to donate their organs in a representative sample from 19 opt-out and 10 opt-in consent countries from across Europe. The majority of participants (66.04%) stated that they were willing to donate their organs for transplant purposes. The proportion of people who were willing to donate their organs did not differ between opt-in (65.97%) and opt-out (66.37%) countries. However, the effect of consent on willingness to donate was moderated by people's awareness of their nation's organ donation legislation. When people were aware of their nation's legislation, the proportion of people who were willing to donate their organs was greater in opt-out (85.26%) than opt-in (80.72%) countries. By contrast, when people were not aware of their nation's legislation, there was no difference in people's willingness to donate their organs in opt-in (58.63%) and opt-out (59.23%) countries. Opt-out consent countries should increase people's awareness of their legislation to improve donor rates. Further research is needed to understand the factors that moderate the effect of opt-out consent legislation on organ donation.

  18. The advantages and disadvantages of encouraging consumerist notions of health care at two minor injury units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, David

    2018-03-22

    Over the past four decades, UK governments have moved towards an increasingly pro-market model of healthcare provision. Under this system, patients are not only encouraged, but expected, to take increasing responsibility for healthcare decision-making and the risks that it might entail. This article investigate how and why patients make choices about their health care and how service providers help facilitate this. Between October 2014 and May 2015, the researcher was embedded as an emergency nurse practitioner at two minor injury units in order to undertake direct and participant observation. During this time, 40 patients, 17 service providers and 1 senior manager also consented to semi-structured interview. The findings suggest that patients should continue to be encouraged to make decisions about their health care, but only if they feel confident to do so. The challenge for service providers is to recognise when this is or is not appropriate and tailor interaction accordingly.

  19. Analysis of enquiries to the National Pharmacy Association following major changes to controlled drug legislation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Cathal T; Hickman, Adrienne C; Hannbeck, Leyla; Flynn, Robert W

    2012-02-01

    The National Pharmacy Association (NPA) provides an advice service to community pharmacists in the UK, and keeps a database of the enquiries it receives. The aim of this research was to analyse the database for the period of October 2007 to March 2008 to gain an insight into how well pharmacists coped with legislative changes directly affecting pharmacy by identifying which changes generated the most enquiries during these 6 months and ascertaining in which months these queries were at their highest levels. Anonymised telephone enquiries regarding controlled drugs (CDs) received by the NPA from pharmacists during a 6-month period were reviewed and categorised according to the legislative change or other CD issue to which they related. A Poisson model was applied to determine whether there was a significant difference in the total number of CD queries generated each month. Altogether 6082 queries regarding CDs were received, of which 57% related to legislative changes. The three legislative changes that took place during the 6-month period all generated a significant increase in numbers of queries around the time of the change. Queries regarding the new form of CD register comprised the largest single category. Community pharmacists seek information regarding legislative changes when such changes come into force to a greater degree than when the legislation is drafted, consulted upon or enacted. The high number of queries received by the NPA does reflect that there was a difficulty in applying the various legislative changes in practice. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. The software improvement process - tools and rules to encourage quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigerud, K.; Baggiolini, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Applications section of the CERN accelerator controls group has decided to apply a systematic approach to quality assurance (QA), the 'Software Improvement Process' - SIP. This process focuses on three areas: the development process itself, suitable QA tools, and how to practically encourage developers to do QA. For each stage of the development process we have agreed on the recommended activities and deliverables, and identified tools to automate and support the task. For example we do more code reviews. As peer reviews are resource intensive, we only do them for complex parts of a product. As a complement, we are using static code checking tools, like FindBugs and Checkstyle. We also encourage unit testing and have agreed on a minimum level of test coverage recommended for all products, measured using Clover. Each of these tools is well integrated with our IDE (Eclipse) and give instant feedback to the developer about the quality of their code. The major challenges of SIP have been to 1) agree on common standards and configurations, for example common code formatting and Javadoc documentation guidelines, and 2) how to encourage the developers to do QA. To address the second point, we have successfully implemented 'SIP days', i.e. one day dedicated to QA work to which the whole group of developers participates, and 'Top/Flop' lists, clearly indicating the best and worst products with regards to SIP guidelines and standards, for example test coverage. This paper presents the SIP initiative in more detail, summarizing our experience since two years and our future plans. (authors)

  1. Whistleblowing: Don’t Encourage It, Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D. Robert

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article, Mannion and Davies argue that there are a multitude of ways in which organizations (such as the National Health Service [NHS]) can deal with wrongdoing or ethical problems, including the formation of policies that encourage and protect would-be whistleblowers. However, it is important to distinguish internal reporting about wrongdoing from whistleblowing proper, because the two are morally quite different and should not be dealt with in the same way. This article argues that we should not understand the authors’ conclusions to apply to "whistleblowing" proper, because their recommended approach would be both unfeasible and undesirable for addressing whistleblowing defined in this way. PMID:26927590

  2. Encouraging Students to Have Positive Attitudes toward Learning English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Syukur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A positive attitude is a powerful tool that fosters enthusiasm, promotes self-esteem, and creates an atmosphere conducive to learning. Achievement in a target language relies not only on intellectual capacity, but also on the learner’s attitudes towards language learning. Attitudes could be viewed as a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing, idea, person, situation etc. The attitudes that the students should have are attitude towards the language, attitude towards learning the language, attitude towards the language teacher, and attitude towards school in general. This study focuses on discussing about encouraging students to have positive attitudes toward learning English.

  3. Green Team Hosts Plant Swap to Encourage Gardening | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer What started out as a way for Howard Young, Ph.D., to thin out his garden last fall turned into the NCI at Frederick Green Team’s Plant Swap. The group held its Fall Plant Swap on October 24, encouraging all members of the Fort Detrick community to pick up a free plant or swap a plant of theirs for another. “Those who love to garden introduce others to the joy of gardening,” said Dolores Winterstein, a member of the Green Team and the coordinator of the Fall Plant Swap.

  4. EU's new pharmacovigilance legislation: considerations for biosimilars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Begoña; Zuñiga, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Biosimilars are biological medicines, the active substances of which are highly similar to those of biologics that have already been authorized. As for any other medicine, the applicant of the biosimilar marketing authorization must submit a risk-management plan (RMP)/pharmacovigilance plan. The pharmacovigilance plan should take into account risks identified during product development, the potential risks and how those risks will be addressed after authorization of the product.Recently, new European Pharmacovigilance legislation has been implemented, ensuring proper risk management through the recording of suspected adverse drug reactions and data collection from all stakeholders. The new regulation entails a reduction of the administrative burden on companies and regulatory agencies, as obligations of the responsible parties are clearly established and duplication of effort avoided.This article analyzes the new European Pharmacovigilance System requirements, with special focus on those medicines requiring additional monitoring, such as biosimilars, which are priorities for pharmacovigilance. Further, it provides the new obligations to marketing authorization holders, such as the continuous benefit-risk assessment.

  5. Stricter antitrust legislation?; Verschaerfung des Kartellrechts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-15

    In November 2006, the German Federal Ministry of Economics sent a ministerial draft bill on combating price abuses in the energy supply and food trade sectors to the trade associations for comment. The bill must be seen as part of a set of measures of the federal government seeking to improve conditions for more competition in the energy sector. An omnibus law is to add a new Section 29 to the Act against Restrictions on Competition (Antitrust Act). The addition is to bear the heading of 'Power Economy' and has been designed to prevent a utility (vendor of electricity, gas, and district heat) from abusing its position on a market which it dominates either alone or together with other utility companies. Depending on the interests involved, comments on the draft bills differ. On the whole, this tightening up of antitrust legislation is preceived more as a repair job. Stricter antitrust provisions absolutely must also be seen in their European dimension. European firms not falling under this stricter antitrust law enjoy advantages over German firms. (orig.)

  6. Legislative and political aspects of waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.

    1982-01-01

    In the Senate bill on waste disposal the definition for high-level waste was based on the source of the waste. High-level waste was defined as the liquids and solids resulting from reprocessing. The other terms defined in that bill that are crucial for any legislation dealing with high-level waste are storage and disposal. In the Senate bill, the definition of storage specifically mentioned transuranic (TRU) waste, but it did not include TRU waste in the definition of disposal. In the four House versions of the nuclear waste bill, the definition of high-level waste are addressed more carefully. This paper discusses the following four House committee's versions particularly pointing out how TRU waste is defined and handled: (1) Science Committee bill; (2) Interior Committee bill; (3) Commerce Committee bill; and (4) Armed Service Committee bill. The final language concerning TRU waste will depend on the next series of conference between these Committees. After resolving any differences, conferences will be held between the House and Senate. Here a concensus bill will be developed and it will go to the Rules Committee and then to the floor

  7. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  8. Features Of Legislation On The Bank Account Agreement Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Y. Katvickaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article the basic stages of legislation on bank accounts in Russia development are analyzed. Author research features of accounts regulation in Russian Empire, Soviet Union and in modern conditions. It is noted that active development of operations on bank accounts and emergence of new types of bank accounts in Russia takes place in the second half of the XIX century. Account, at that time was considered as a kind of deposits on demand. In the Soviet period legal regulation of bank accounts and transactions on them was conducted by a quite extensive array of regulations that were adopted by various government agencies. One of the types of bank deposit agreements was the bank account agreement, according to which the banks, on behalf of customers carried out various types of payment transactions. In respect to concentration of considerable mass of payments in credit institutions it became possible to organize of non-cash payments. During the Soviet period of formation and development of civil law contract of bank accounts was an independent civil contract, other than a bank deposit agreement, which was intended to serve citizens and was a separate type of civil contract. In modern conditions for the proper understanding and legal interpretation of legal acts concerning the legal regulation of bank account agreement it is important to know position of the Constitutional Court in respect to this position and judicial practice. It is concluded that in Russian legislation and practice exists a fairly long history of legal regulation of operations with bank accounts. Accumulated practice requires further scientific analysis.

  9. Creating 'healthy built environment' legislation in Australia; a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick; Kent, Jennifer; Sainsbury, Peter; Marie-Thow, Anne; Baum, Fran; Friel, Sharon; McCue, Peter

    2017-09-05

    Influencing healthy public policy through health advocacy remains challenging. This policy analysis research uses theories of agenda setting to understand how health came to be considered for specific mention in legislation arising from land-use planning system reform in New South Wales, Australia. This qualitative study follows critical realist methodology to conduct a policy analysis of the case. We collected data from purposively sampled in-depth interviews (n = 9), a focus group and documentary analysis. We used three classic policy process (agenda setting) theories to develop an analytic framework for explaining the empirical data: Multiple Streams; Punctuated Equilibrium Theory and Advocacy Coalition Framework. The reform process presented a window of opportunity that opened incrementally over a 2 year period. The opportunity was grasped by individual policy entrepreneurs who subsequently formed a coalition of healthy planning advocates focused on strategically positioning 'health' as legislative objective for the new system. The actual point of influence seemed to appear suddenly when challenges to a perceived economic development agenda within the reforms peaked, and the health objective, see as non-threatening by all stakeholders, was taken up. Our analysis demonstrates how this particular point of influence followed sustained long-term activity by health advocates prior to and during the reform process. We demonstrate a theory-driven policy analysis of health advocacy efforts to influence an instance of major land-use planning reform. The application of multiple policy process theories enables deep understanding of what is required to effectively advocate for healthy public policy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-26

    May 26, 2015 ... Conclusion. The CanMEDS frameworks specifically address most of the competencies perceived as important for physician leadership in Botswana. .... Respect, support and encouragement were fundamental to teamwork: ... the work environment and healthcare system was of strategic importance:.

  11. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-12-16

    Dec 16, 2015 ... through a presidential declaration to encourage women to give birth ... (n=85) were female. This is because majority of the respondents were nurses who were female. Regarding the experience of the respondents in the provision of .... Afghanistan found that the morale of the health workers reduced.

  12. The Software Improvement Process - Tools And Rules To Encourage Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Sigerud, K

    2011-01-01

    The Applications section of the CERN accelerator Controls group has decided to apply a systematic approach to quality assurance (QA), the “Software Improvement Process”, SIP. This process focuses on three areas: the development process itself, suitable QA tools, and how to practically encourage developers to do QA. For each stage of the development process we have agreed on the recommended activities and deliverables, and identified tools to automate and support the task. For example we do more code reviews. As peer reviews are resource-intensive, we only do them for complex parts of a product. As a complement, we are using static code checking tools, like FindBugs and Checkstyle. We also encourage unit testing and have agreed on a minimum level of test coverage recommended for all products, measured using Clover. Each of these tools is well integrated with our IDE (Eclipse) and give instant feedback to the developer about the quality of their code. The major challenges of SIP have been to 1) agree on com...

  13. 29 CFR 780.902 - Legislative history of exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Fruit and Vegetable Harvest Transportation; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(16) Introductory § 780.902 Legislative history of exemption. Since the language of section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legislative history of exemption. 780.902 Section 780.902...

  14. 43 CFR 20.506 - Appropriations, legislation and lobbying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appropriations, legislation and lobbying. 20.506 Section 20.506 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.506 Appropriations, legislation and lobbying...

  15. 48 CFR 231.205-22 - Legislative lobbying costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Legislative lobbying costs. 231.205-22 Section 231.205-22 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Contracts With Commercial Organizations 231.205-22 Legislative lobbying costs. (a) Costs associated with...

  16. Game Theory and Educational Policy: Private Education Legislation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Wing-Wah; Pan, Su-Yan

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a game theory analysis of legislating private education in China, based on set of primary and secondary documents related to this issue. The article argues that shaping educational legislation is a dynamic, repeated game of negotiation, cooperation, and/or competition on multiple occasions among various interested actors,…

  17. Impact of Wellness Legislation on Comprehensive School Health Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, Kim C.; Woods, Amelia Mays; O'Connor, Jamie A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004, Congress passed the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act that requires schools to implement a wellness plan. Grounded in Ecological Systems Theory (EST) (Bronfenbrenner, 1977, 1979), the purpose of this study was to explore the impact of the legislation, discover what measures have been taken to enact the legislation, gauge how the…

  18. Guidelines for the review of environmental-related legislation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of legislation for the progressive realisation of the right to access to sufficient food is labelled as an international and national objective. Section 27(2) of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 assigns a compulsory mandate to the South African government to take reasonable legislative and ...

  19. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  20. Brazilian nuclear legislation. Revision n.1/2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, Gilberto Cardoso de

    2002-01-01

    This work intends to facilitate the access to the Brazilian nuclear legislation and other legal instruments, foreseeing the use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation in health, work and environment areas up to 2002. Legislation on the civil liability of nuclear damage, the law of licensing taxes, controlling and inspection are also included

  1. The Political Economy of Collective Labour Legislation in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W. Y. Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a seminal analysis of collective labour legislation in Taiwan. A chronological review of Taiwan’s legislative process suggests that the context of incorporation, institutional framework, mechanisms for delivering reforms, and sequence of reforms together shape the legislative outcomes of labour reforms at the collective level. While most labour legislation was revised and passed after the preceding sequence of economic transition, the reform of collective labour rights was greatly constrained by the flexible labour-market structure. In order for politicians to form new alliances with labour organizations, legislation of collective labour rights was a strategy to cultivate support during electoral periods. Consequently, the industrial relations changed following the enactment of substantial reform-oriented labour legislation. Theore-tically, the historical analysis of legislative procedure unveils evolutionary reform paths for collective labour rights in new democracies. At the same time, empirically, Taiwan demonstrates an alternative reform path in combination with incremental steps and progressive agendas. For new democracies of small economy, a window of opportunity for the progress in collective labour legislation remains open today, albeit with limitations.

  2. Washington D.C. and Safety Legislation for School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, William

    The author describes what is being done by legislators, the Department of Transportation (DOT), States, and school bus contract operators to improve school bus safety. He intimates that communication problems and political problems in the Congress and in the DOT have hindered progress of safety legislation. Two other areas of concern are…

  3. New mental health legislation in South Africa - principles and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Mental Health Care Act has been passed by parliament. There are a number of changes from the Mental Health Act (Act 18 of 1973) and this article outlines the basic principles of the new legislation and several of the procedural modifications which follow. The legislation has a strong human rights focus and addresses ...

  4. Equal pay legislation and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite equal pay legislation dating back 50 years, American women still earn 22% less than their male counterparts. In the UK, with its Equal Pay Act of 1970, and France, which legislated in 1972, the gap is 21% and 17% respectively, and in Australia it remains around 17%. Thus, the gender pay gap continues to be an important policy issue.

  5. Legislative and regulatory framework of radioactive waste management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The paper intent is to present an update on the Romanian legislative and regulatory framework in the area of radioactive waste management. Based on the experiences gained by the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control in the past years, the recent legislative initiatives related to the coherent radwaste management policy at the national level are presented. (author)

  6. 75 FR 17854 - Travel Expenses of State Legislators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... expenses, but not other deemed business travel expenses, on specified legislative days. These regulations... state legislators' deductions for business travel expenses and suggested that the proposed regulations... from home and may be entitled to deduct actual business travel expenses under the general rules of...

  7. Human tissue legislation in South Africa: Focus on stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-04

    Aug 4, 2015 ... Human tissue legislation is complex. It is characterised by an ever-changing landscape in which advances in science and medicine need to be accommodated. A high degree of technical expertise is required to ensure that the legislation is accurate, appropriate and unambiguous. However, it is generally ...

  8. A critical examination of the definition of 'psychoactive effect' in Australian drug legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Seear, Kate; Lancaster, Kari

    2017-02-01

    As the number of new 'psychoactive substances' detected globally has risen exponentially, the policy response of assessing and prohibiting each new substance individually has become increasingly unworkable. In an attempt to disrupt the availability of new as-yet-unscheduled substances, Ireland (2010), Poland (2011), Romania (2012), New Zealand (2013), Australia (2015) and the United Kingdom (2016) have enacted generic or blanket ban legislation that prohibits all 'psychoactive substances' that are not already regulated or belong to exempt categories. How such generic legislation defines 'psychoactive substance' is therefore crucial. While there is a growing critical literature relating to blanket bans of 'psychoactive substances', the Australian legislation is yet to be described or critically analysed. In this commentary, we aim to draw the attention of local and international drug policy scholars to Australia's newest legislative approach to 'psychoactive substances'. Using the Australian experience as a case study, we first describe and trace the origins of this generic banning approach, especially focusing on how 'psychoactive effect' came to be defined. Then, we critically examine the assumptions underpinning this definition and the possibilities silenced by it, drawing on the work of poststructuralist and critical scholars. In doing so, we explore and raise a series of questions about how this legislation works to stabilise drugs, drug harms and drug effects, as well as addiction realities; how the category of 'psychoactive substances' is produced through this legislation; and some of the material-discursive effects which accompany this rendering of the 'problem'. We offer this commentary not as a comprehensive discussion of each of these elements but rather as a starting-point to promote further discussion and debate within the drug policy field. To this end, we conclude with a suggested research agenda that may help guide such future work. Copyright © 2016

  9. Interstate dispensing: a case for uniform, intuitive legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole L; King, Michelle A; Hope, Denise L

    2014-09-01

    Australian health practitioner registration is national, whereas legislation regarding the handling of medicines is governed by individual States and Territories. To align with the July 2010 national registration scheme some legislative modifications were made concerning scheduled drugs and poisons, but many differences between jurisdictions remain. In Queensland, the Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 (Qld) allows for dispensing of controlled drugs written by interstate prescribers but not lower scheduled specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs. The aim of this study was to assess awareness of seemingly counterintuitive legislation by pharmacists practising in South-East Queensland. Of 125 Gold Coast pharmacies contacted, 54 (43.2%) agreed to participate. The majority of pharmacists (88.9%) had good knowledge regarding controlled drugs. In contrast, they demonstrated confusion regarding specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs (51.9% correct awareness). Uniform legislation between jurisdictions or more intuitive legislation would ease practitioner confusion.

  10. Hygienic quality of raw milk with regard to legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hygienic quality of raw milk is basic indicator of hygienic conditionduring processing and handling of milk as well as economical valorisation of animal product as a raw material in dairy products manufacture. Thus, total bacterial count in 1 mL of raw milk is used in modern legislation in milk pricing system. Apart from the economical and technological reasons hygienic quality of raw milk is also important from the health safety issue. In this paper microbiological quality legislation, set down by the EU and Croatian directives, are presented. Apart form the total microorganisms number the normative on the somatic cell number in row milk, as one of the quality indicators, are also presented. Pricing system of raw milk with regard to hygienic quality, current legislation especially from the point of view of a new legislation on row milk quality as well as suggestions to faster association into progressive dairy, legislation are listed.

  11. Target salt 2025: a global overview of national programs to encourage the food industry to reduce salt in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqui; Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Hawkes, Corinna

    2014-08-21

    Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods-the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  12. Target Salt 2025: A Global Overview of National Programs to Encourage the Food Industry to Reduce Salt in Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqui Webster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing population salt intake has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce non-communicable diseases. Member States of the World Health Organization have agreed to a global target of a 30% reduction in salt intake by 2025. In countries where most salt consumed is from processed foods, programs to engage the food industry to reduce salt in products are being developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of national initiatives to encourage the food industry to reduce salt. A systematic review of the literature was supplemented by key informant questionnaires to inform categorization of the initiatives. Fifty nine food industry salt reduction programs were identified. Thirty eight countries had targets for salt levels in foods and nine countries had introduced legislation for some products. South Africa and Argentina have both introduced legislation limiting salt levels across a broad range of foods. Seventeen countries reported reductions in salt levels in foods—the majority in bread. While these trends represent progress, many countries have yet to initiate work in this area, others are at early stages of implementation and further monitoring is required to assess progress towards achieving the global target.

  13. [New Croatian legislation on tissue banking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busić, Mirela

    2007-12-01

    regarding quality and safety for procurement, testing, processing and distribution of human tissues and cells for therapeutic purposes according to the required standards; Ordinance on Storing Personal Data of Donors and Recipients of Human Body Parts (OG 141/05), Ordinance on Cooperation with Related Foreign and International Organisations for the Purpose of Exchanging Organs and Human Tissues for Transplantation (OG 141/05), Ordinance on Measures to Ensure Safety and Quality of Human Body Parts for Medical Use COG 143/05), Ordinance on Distribution Principles of Unrelated Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cells and the Register of Potential Bone Marrow Donors COG 151/05), Ordinance on Distribution Criteria of Human Body Parts and Compilation of a National Waiting List (OG 152/05), Ordinance on the Method of Storage and Transportation of Human Body Parts Intended for Transplantation COG 152/05), Ordinance on Keeping Medical Documentation on Performed Removals and Transplants of Human Body Parts COG 152/05), Ordinance on Notification Procedures of the Death of Eligible Human Body Part Donors for Therapeutic Purposes (OG 152/05), Ordinance on the Work of Tissue Banks with and Supervision over Health Care Institutes or Divisions of Health Care Institutes COG 1/06), Ordinance on Method, Procedure and Medical Criteria for Death Determination of Body Part Donors for Transplants COG 3/06), and Ordinance on the Work of Coordinators in the Procedure of Removal and Transplantation of Human Body Parts for Therapeutic Purposes COG 51/06). The Croatian legislation is greatly consistent with the legislation of the European Union regarding this field. In the above mentioned law and decrees, Croatia has a legal foundation for regulating this field in compliance with EU standards.

  14. The Impact of Legislative Factor in the Identity of Modern Residential Urban in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Faris Dhumad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Residential has developed and changed in different periods of time with successive and gradual shifts, as it cast a shadow over the characterization of modern urbanism in Iraq. The semi-total absence of the governing legislation of urbanization as well as the weakness of the State's role of supervisory in addition to neglecting urban heritage contributed in offering a strange environment in relation to its traditional identity. That was increased by the pressure of the using urban environment as a result of the increasing of population as well as the growth of people’s needs. The research aims to provide an objective view for a mechanism of the application of urban legislation to monitor the implementation of the business relating to the urban structure in general and specifically the urban residential areas in order to preserve the traditional identity of the modern Iraqi city. For the purpose of treating the problem of research and to achieve its goals, the research supposes that the legislative system is based on a pyramid arrangement in its vocabulary, which is flexible in its application, and are drawn from objective reality, it can produce urban residential with local identity. The elements of the practical influential process of the legislative factor identified by the planning legislation, laws, regulations, controls and limitations, supervision and oversight. And then draw theoretical indicators which affect the urban environment, namely: proportionately, essence and appearance, construction and the sky line, the scale and size, bearings, cover-up, opening-up and containment through the study of a number of legislative irregularities in neighborhoods and residential areas that produced these indicators. For applying and testing these indicators practically, two selective neighborhoods in Al Rabeea'a District in Baghdad has been chosen and with a précised field survey the search findings are: the poverty of Urban elements

  15. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-07-07

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada's children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver's licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  16. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  17. International medical law and its impact on the ukrainian health care legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Udovyka, Larysa; Dichko, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The Ukrainian state has an urgent necessity of rapid search for essentially new legal and organizational forms of the healthcare system, reform of the legal regulation of healthcare services provision. In the context of European integration, the advancement of the medical industry reform is closely related to consideration of international standards and norms of health care. The aim: To study the impact of international medical law on the Ukrainian health care legislation. Materials and methods: International and Ukrainian regulations and documents on health care were used in the research. System and structural, functional and legal comparative methods as well as systematization, analysis and synthesis were determinative in the research process. Review: Systematization of international documents on health care was made. The major problems in the Ukrainian health care legislation were determined in terms of their conformity with the international legislative norms. The expediency of the Medical Code adoption was grounded and its structure was defined. Conclusions: Most health care international acts are ratified by Ukraine and their provisions are implemented in the legislation. Simultaneously, there is a row of problems, which hinder the Ukrainian health care development and place obstacles in the way of European integration. To remove these obstacles, it is expedient to create a codified act - the Medical Code, which would systematize the provisions of the current medical laws and regulations and fill in the existing gaps in the legal regulation of health care.

  18. Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen HARDIN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning Karen HARDIN Cameron University Lawton, OK, USA PROBLEM One of the hot topics in education in the past 10 years has been the shift of the role of the educator. Whereas, he has traditionally been the owner and deliverer of the knowledge (Sage on the stage, now his role is shifting to a guide and facilitator (guide by the side. The purpose is to give the students ownership in their own learning process. As technology becomes more sophisticated, automation is replacing students’ problem solving skills, critical thinking and sometimes patience. On one of my evaluations in a 1999 online course, a student criticized that, “she’s not doing the teaching, I’m doing the learning.” Of course in my desire to encourage active learning, I took the response as a compliment, but the student meant it as a criticism. I began pondering the reluctance of students to take control of the learning process. I’ve noticed this lack of problem solving, critical thinking and patience with young adults in the workplace. For example, I often visit Sam’s, a warehouse store owned by Wal-Mart. When I check out, I pay with a check. The computerized register will print the check for me, so I allow the cashier to do that. I often ask him or her to add $15 to the total to give me cash back. It’s amazing how long it takes these young adults to add $15 to the total because of their reliance on computers. In another situation, when I was in an outlet shoe store in Texas, I purchased a pair of sandals. After I checked out, I noticed a sign that promoted, “buy one, get a second for one cent.” Of course, I wanted to take advantage of this opportunity, so I told the cashier that I wanted to find another pair of shoes. She replied, “It’s too late, your transaction is complete. I wouldn’t know what to do.” I said, “It’s simple, I owe you one cent.” She said, “I don’t know how to make the computer fix it

  19. Legal and institutional implications of providing financial incentives to encourage the development of solar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyatt, R. J.

    1979-07-01

    The legal basis to provide financial incentives is found in the enumerated powers of the Constitution for the exercise of federal authority, the police and tax powers for the exercise of state authority, and state delegated powers for the exercise of local authority. These powers are limited by the federal and state constitutions, and the scope of delegated authority. The major types of financial incentives are tax incentives, including income tax deductions and credits, accelerated depreciation allowances, tax-exempt bonds, and reduction in property and sales taxes; loan incentives, including low interest loans, government guaranteed and insured loans, and elimination of statutory and secondary market constraints; and government transfer incentives, including grants in aid from all levels of government. Other incentives that will indirectly affect the financing and availability of solar energy technologies include eliminating or reducing financial incentives benefiting competitive energy sources, government action to insure the operation of solar energy equipment, government-sponsored education, research, and development programs, government demonstration and procurement programs, and placing priority on rapid passage of solar energy legislation dealing with financial incentives. In most cases, a financial incentives program constituting one or more of these incentives will probably not confront any major, unique, legal or institutional impediments. The minor impediments that do exist can usually be eliminated by preventive legislation.

  20. Why European Entrepreneurs in the Water and Waste Management Sector Are Willing to Go beyond Environmental Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Rabadán

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability in the water sector in Europe is a major concern, and compliance with the current legislation alone does not seem to be enough to face major challenges like climate change or population growth and concentration. The greatest potential for improvement appears when companies decide to take a step forward and go beyond environmental legislation. This study focuses on the environmental responsibility (ER of European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in the water and waste management sector and analyzes the drivers that lead these firms to the adoption of more sustainable practices. Our results show that up to 40% of European SMEs within this industry display environmental responsibility. Market pull has a low incidence in encouraging ER, while values and the strategic decisions of entrepreneurs seem decisive. Policy makers should prioritize subsidies over fiscal incentives because they show greater potential to promote the adoption of environmental responsibility among these firms.

  1. Extremism, Free Speech and the Rule of Law: Evaluating the Compliance of Legislation Restricting Extremist Expressions with Article 19 ICCPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Shepherd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the years since 9/11, international security discourse has heightened concerns around extremism, positioning this as the key threat that States need to address in order to prevent and combat terrorism. Politically, enactment of domestic legislation curtailing extremist expressions has been internationally authorised and encouraged and in May 2016 the United Kingdom (‘UK’, spearheading a liberal State trend towards rights-restrictive approaches to extremism, announced its intention to enact legislation imposing a range of civil sanctions on those publicly expressing extremist views. But laws such as this restrict the core democratic right to freedom of expression and so must comply with the tripartite requirements for restrictions enshrined in Article 19(3 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (‘ICCPR’ to be legitimate. Using the UK to dynamically exemplify the issues, this paper assesses the manner in which the laws curtailing extremist expressions comply with international human rights law.

  2. An instructional intervention to encourage effective deep collaborative learning in undergraduate veterinary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, veterinary education has received an increased amount of attention directed at the value and application of collaborative case-based learning. The benefit of instilling deep learning practices in undergraduate veterinary students has also emerged as a powerful tool in encouraging continued professional education. However, research into the design and application of instructional strategies to encourage deep, collaborative case-based learning in veterinary undergraduates has been limited. This study focused on delivering an instructional intervention (via a 20-minute presentation and student handout) to foster productive, collaborative case-based learning in veterinary education. The aim was to instigate and encourage deep learning practices in a collaborative case-based assignment and to assess the impact of the intervention on students' group learning. Two cohorts of veterinary students were involved in the study. One cohort was exposed to an instructional intervention, and the other provided the control for the study. The instructional strategy was grounded in the collaborative learning literature and prior empirical studies with veterinary students. Results showed that the intervention cohort spent proportionally more time on understanding case content material than did the control cohort and rated their face-to-face discussions as more useful in achieving their learning outcomes than did their control counterparts. In addition, the perceived difficulty of the assignment evolved differently for the control and intervention students from start to end of the assignment. This study provides encouraging evidence that veterinary students can change and enhance the way they interact in a group setting to effectively engage in collaborative learning practices.

  3. Designing an Assistant System Encouraging Ergonomic Computer Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜRÜLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, people of almost every age group are users of computers and computer aided systems. Technology makes our life easier, but it can also threaten our health. In recent years, one of the main causes of the proliferation of diseases such as lower back pain, neck pain or hernia, Arthritis, visual disturbances and obesity is wrong computer usage. The widespread use of computers also increases these findings. The purpose of this study is to direct computer users to use computers more carefully in terms of ergonomics. The user-interactive system developed for this purpose controls distance of the user to the screen and calculates the look angle and the time spent looking at the screen and provides audio or text format warning when necessary. It is thought that this system will reduce the health problems caused by the frequency of computer usage by encouraging individuals to use computers ergonomically.

  4. Educational technologies to encourage (self) care in postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eryjosy Marculino Guerreiro; Sousa, Albertina Antonielly Sydney de; Vasconcelos, Mardênia Gomes Ferreira; Carvalho, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima de; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Rodrigues, Dafne Paiva

    2016-06-01

    to evaluate national and international literature regarding the use of educational technologies to encourage self care in postpartum women. an integrative review of the literature. The articles were collected from the CINAHL, SCOPUS, PubMed, SciELO, LILACS and Cochrane databases; the time period for the articles referred to January/2004 to July/2014; the languages used in the articles were Portuguese, English, Spanish and French; the articles were selected from the following descriptors: postpartum care period, educational technology, nursing and self care. Twenty-seven articles were selected for analysis Results: based on the information found, the scales, counseling and home visits were among the most recommended educational technologies. the technologies promote communication, but are sometimes dependent on computer and internet access, which hinder their use by low-income women.

  5. Overview of the gaps in the health care legislation in Georgia: short-, medium-, and long-term priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiknadze, Nino; Beletsky, Leo

    2013-12-12

    After gaining independence following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Georgia has aspired to become the region's leader in progressive legal reform. Particularly in the realm of health care regulation, Georgia has proceeded with extensive legislative reforms intended to modernize its health care system, and bring it in line with international standards. As part of a larger project to improve human rights in patient care, we conducted a study designed to identify gaps in the current Georgian health care legislation. Using a cross-site research framework based on the European Charter of Patients’ Rights, an interdisciplinary working group oversaw a comprehensive review of human rights legislation pertinent to health care settings using various sources, such as black letter law, expert opinions, court cases, research papers, reports, and complaints. The study identified a number of serious inconsistencies, gaps, and conflicts in the definition and coverage of terms used in the national legislative canon pertinent to human rights in patient care. These include inconsistent definitions of key terms "informed consent" and "medical malpractice" across the legislative landscape. Imprecise and overly broad drafting of legislation has left concepts like patient confidentiality and implied consent wide open to abuse. The field of health care provider rights was entirely missing from existing Georgian legislation. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind in Georgia. Gaps and inconsistencies uncovered were categorized based on a short-, medium-, and long-term action framework. Results were presented to key decision makers in Georgian ministerial and legislative institutions. Several of the major recommendations are currently being considered for inclusion into future legal reform. Copyright © 2013 Kiknadze and Beletsky. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http

  6. Biocarburants : la Commission propose d’encourager leur utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis longtemps, la Commission, le Parlement et le Conseil encouragent le développement des sources d’énergie renouvelables, et plus particulièrement des biocarburants. Cela s’est traduit, entre autres, par la publication en novembre 2000 d’un livre vert intitulé « Vers une stratégie européenne de sécurité d’approvisionnement énergétique », qui fixe comme objectif, d’ici 2020, le remplacement de 20% des carburants classiques par des carburants de substitution pour le transport routier. Plus récemment, en juin 2001, au sommet de Göteborg, a été souligné le rôle important des biocarburants dans la lutte contre le changement climatique et le développement des énergies propres. Ces encouragements restaient au niveau de la déclaration d’intention faute de moyens administratifs et fiscaux pour bâtir une véritable stratégie. Depuis le 7 novembre 2001, les choses semblent évoluer : en effet, à cette date, le collège des Commissaires a adopté une communication sur les carburants de substitution pour les transports routiers et une série de mesures visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants. De plus - et c’est ce qui est fondamental - cette communication était assortie de deux propositions de directives, l’une visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants dans les transports, l’autre concernant la possibilité d’appliquer un taux d’accises réduit sur certaines huiles minérales qui contiennent des biocarburants et sur les biocarburants.

  7. Twelve tips for teachers to encourage student engagement in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson McLean, Aaron; Saunders, Christopher; Velu, Prasad Palani; Iredale, John; Hor, Kahyee; Russell, Clark D

    2013-07-01

    Recruitment of trainees into clinical academic medicine remains an area of concern across the globe, with clinical academics making up a dwindling proportion of the medical workforce. To date, few approaches have emphasised early medical student research involvement as a solution to the decline of the clinician-scientist. We identify 12 tips that all medical teachers can adopt to foster medical student participation in research and encourage student engagement with academic aspects of medicine throughout their time as an undergraduate. These recommendations are based on a comprehensive review of the international literature and our personal experience of research-focussed interventions and activities as medical students. Through these 12 tips, we provide a practical framework for enhancing medical student exposure to research at medical school. This has the potential to inspire and maintain student interest in the varied role of the clinical academic and could contribute to reversing the downward trend that has occurred in this field over recent times.

  8. The European Legislation and Protection of Trademarks in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruta Stefania Jucan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present paper aims at producing a brief account and analysis of the changes thathave been made to the Romanian Trademark Law during the last few years in order to achieve harmonizationwith the European Trademark Law. Prior Work: The subject is being researched especially by the authorsfrom abroad and only the last years brought new investigations from the Romanians. Approach: The presentpaper was put together using a synthesis and analytical approach, taking in account different sources fromlegislation, court cases to papers that have been written about the subject. Results: The result of this studyindicates a way of harmonizing the internal legislation of Romania with that of the E.U on the subject andfuture directions of Trademark Law. Implications: The present study does its part in the intellectual propertystudies research area, offering a better view on the problems regarding the trademark law and itsnaturalization in the legal systems of the member states. Value: The study at hand is of great value inunderstanding the problems and challenges in the harmonization of legal concepts using the example ofIntellectual Property Rights in the U.E.

  9. Associations Between Parent-Perceived Neighborhood Safety and Encouragement and Child Outdoor Physical Activity Among Low-Income Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicksic, Nicole E; Salahuddin, Meliha; Butte, Nancy F; Hoelscher, Deanna M

    2018-02-27

    A growing body of research has examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and parental encouragement for child physical activity (PA), yet these potential predictors have not been studied together to predict child outdoor PA. The purpose of this study is to examine these predictors and parent- and child-reported child outdoor PA. The Texas Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration study collected data from fifth-grade students attending 31 elementary schools across Austin and Houston and their parents (N = 748 parent-child dyads). Mixed-effects linear and logistic regressions stratified by gender and adjusted for sociodemographic covariates assessed associations among parental-perceived neighborhood safety, parental encouragement for child's outdoor PA, and parent- and child-reported child's outdoor PA. Parental-perceived neighborhood safety was significantly associated with encouraging outdoor PA (P = .01) and child-reported child's outdoor PA in boys, but not in girls. Significant associations were found between parental encouragement and child-reported outdoor PA for girls (P < .05) and parent-reported outdoor PA (P < .01) for boys and girls. Parent encouragement of PA and neighborhood safety are potential predictors of child outdoor PA and could be targeted in youth PA interventions.

  10. Consumer Legislation and E-Commerce Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Freeman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Where there is vigorous competition, and consumer confidence, there is economic growth. E-commerce drives both of these but there remain situations where traders exploit technology or consumer behavioural biases, and seek to compete on the wrong things –such as unrealistic up front prices. This harms competition and can reduce consumer trust, meaning that consumers consume less. This could occur when traders: i prevent consumers from accessing, assessing or acting on information, and so make the wrong choice; ii take advantage of their superior understanding of technology to collect data or money from consumers; iii abuse the advantages of the internet (ease of set up, cross jurisdictional reach, access to markets to misrepresent the price, the quality, the range of products on offer, or the service you will get.Firms should therefore behave responsibly, and not seek to steal an unfair march on their competitors. Effective enforcement incentivises the right behaviours. In order to enforce effectively, EU agencies need to prioritise robustly and build strong competence in internet investigation. Increasingly enforcement activities need to be run as international projects involving non EU enforcers and industry allies –and we need to be willing to protect overseas consumers as well as our own. It is important that the legal framework facilitates, rather than hinders, enforcement –so that for example investigators can easily discover the true identity of traders who run anonymous websites, that they are able to carry out covert test purchases, and so that websites causing harm to the economic interests of consumers can swiftly be removed.There are a number of areas where the EU legislator should consider further work, in order to address those persistent threats that have proven difficult to eradicate so far: clarifying the scope of platform responsibility; extending consumer protection to all individuals; ensuring all CPC enforcers have

  11. Efficient lighting in buildings: The lack of legislation in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, António Manuel; Martins, António Gomes

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of building designers is conditioned by the existing legislation and regulations in the national context in which they operate. However, in the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight, and therefore, designers are not stimulated to adopt solutions that make use of the existing potential of sunlight availability. In the same way, it is difficult to understand the lack of specific regulation, with quantified targets, limiting power density of artificial lighting installed inside buildings. The present opportunity, generated by the need to carry out the revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation, should be used to fill the existing gap in national legislation regarding those matters. In this paper the authors present some proposals for future legislation that will have as central purpose the utilization of efficient lighting systems and the promotion of architectural solutions that optimize the use of daylighting. It is possible, and desirable, to add new directives to national legislation that contribute to the improvement of Portuguese buildings, characterized by its good performance in terms of daylight availability, and at the same time, increasing the energy efficiency and reducing the energy consumption of lighting systems installed in those buildings. - Highlights: • In the Portuguese legislation there are no rules concerning the use of daylight. • Lack of specific regulation limiting power density of artificial lighting. • Revision of Portuguese building energy systems regulation. • Some proposals for future legislation. • Improvement of Portuguese buildings promoting energy efficiency

  12. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  13. Game-Based Methods to Encourage EFL Learners to Transition to Autonomous Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Berger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a work in progress in which we aim to encourage EFL students to take their learning beyond the classroom in order to experience English in different ways. Inspired by what is being done at the Quest to Learn middle and high school in New York City and ChicagoQuest (Institute of Play, 2014b our idea involves conducting an action research project in order to find out if game-like learning techniques, modified and adapted to the needs of university-aged EFL learners in Ecuador will help to increase motivation and independent learning for our students.

  14. A campaign encouraging dental attendance among adolescents in Scotland: the barriers to behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craven, R C; Blinkhorn, A S; Schou, L

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative consumer research was used to develop a health promotion campaign for school pupils aged 15-17 years to encourage them to attend a dentist for examination. The campaign used a combination of conventional health education about the benefits of dental care together with incentives...... for attending. The emphasis throughout was to establish an association with young style and group norms of social attractiveness. This study was part of the evaluation of the campaign. The aim was to identify the characteristics of those who responded positively to the campaign and to identify barriers...

  15. A 1992 update on legislation and regulations affecting power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schorr, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the major energy and related environmental legislation and regulations affecting power generation and recent developments in these areas, including: The growth of non-utility electricity generation under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA); The Clean Air Act and the Amendments of 1990 (CAAA); Proposed legislation to implement the National Energy Strategy (NES); The EPA WEPCO decision, the Court of Appeals ruling on the EPA decision and attempts at a 'WEPCO Fix' in both legislation (NES) and new EPA regulations. 16 refs

  16. Economic Effects of Legislative Framework Changes in Groundwater Use Rights for Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Prosperi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In most countries, groundwater resource is a public good, and the entitlement of use rights by the public authority to final users differs according to a country-specific legislative framework. In Italy, groundwater extraction has been regulated through non-tradable private licenses. At present, the public authority needs to reform the current legislative framework, in order to comply with the Water Framework Directive, aimed at the enhancement of the efficiency of the resource use. This research analyzes the effects of reforming the current framework based on non-tradable use rights, by comparing two different liberalization scenarios: an intra-sector market, and a regional market. Although positive economic benefits are generally expected from the liberalization of use rights at aggregated level, we want to analyze whether effects of the legislative framework causes uneven changes on some farm groups. The empirical case study refers to the Fortore river basin (South of Italy, where groundwater covers about 50–80% of current needs, and informal (though illegal water markets across neighbor farmers already exist. From the findings, there is no evidence that the exchange liberalization of groundwater use rights leads to gains in terms of the value added and the farmer’s revenue. In addition, in the case of an auction system regulated by the public authority, farmers whose water productivity is higher may be able to gain, while others may suffer some losses. In this case, resistances from farmers’ associations towards the legislative framework reform may arise.

  17. Legislative and regulatory aspects of nuclear power reactor licensing in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of the following topics: 1) the origins, statutory basis and development of nuclear power plant regulations in the USA. Salient provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 as amended, and of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, as amended, are briefly described; 2) the nuclear power plant design-licensing-construction cycle, including a description of the various actions which must be taken by a license applicant and by the USNRC before a nuclear power plant can be constructed and placed on-line; 3) the regulatory changes instituted under existing statutory authority to shorten the over-all design-licensing-construction cycle. These regulatory reforms include revisions in NRC's rules of practice, improvements in consistency and predictability of licensing reviews through use of standard review plans and issuance and use of new regulations and regulatory guides, use of a regulatory requirements review committee to monitor changes in design and construction requirements for nuclear power plants, use of a limited work authorization procedure to permit certain construction work to proceed prior to issuance of a construction permit, and increased emphasis on standardization; 4) NRC's proposed licensing reform legislation, H.R. 7002 and S. 1717. The basic concepts of H.R. 7002 and S. 1717 - separate and early site reviews and decisions and standardized facility designs - are explained and the principal provisions of the legislation are described. The latter include authority to encourage open and advance planning, authority to strengthen Federal-state cooperation, standby authority to allow, under certain conditions, interim operation of nuclear power reactors in advance of a hearing, and authority confirmatory of NRC's limited work authorization procedure. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the anticipated benefits of the proposed legislation. (orig.) [de

  18. Small Business Taxation: Revamping Incentives to Encourage Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts a new approach in assessing the impact of taxes on small business growth and suggests the need to consider new incentives that would be more effective in encouraging small business growth and would also improve the neutrality of the existing tax system. In recent years, federal and provincial governments have provided various corporate tax incentives to small businesses with the aim of helping them grow. While it is commonly believed that small businesses are responsible for most job creation, unfortunately the only study available has shown that while many small businesses are created, few grow. Yet many governments believe that the incentives are important even though little evidence supports the effectiveness of small business corporate concessions. Some provinces have actually eliminated corporate taxes on small businesses or reduced such taxes to a symbolic level (e.g., one to two percent without there being any empirical support in favour of the effectiveness of such actions. In contradiction to the widely held view that small business tax concessions encourage growth, such small business tax relief could actually be antithetical to growth by creating a “taxation wall.” First, it could result in the breakup of companies into smaller, less efficient-sized units in order to take advantage of tax benefits even if there are economic gains to growing in size. Second, it could encourage individuals to create small corporations in order to reduce their personal tax liabilities rather than grow companies. And third, it could lead to a “threshold effect” that holds back small business from growing beyond the official definition of “smallness,” regardless of the criteria for measuring size (e.g., the size of revenue or assets, or the number of employees. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of both corporate and personal taxes on the growth of small business and we focus in particular on the likely consequences of the

  19. In response to The role of smartphones in encouraging physical activity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal A

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aaina Mittal,1 Shyam Gokani,1 Alexander Zargaran,2 Javier Ash,1 Georgina Kerry,3 Dara Rasasingam1 1Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, 2Department of Medicine, St. George’s, University of London, London, 3Department of Medicine, University of Birmingham Medical School, Birmingham, UK We read with great interest the article by Stuckey et al1 entitled “The role of smartphones in encouraging physical activity in adults” recently published in the International Journal of General Medicine. As the article identifies, “lack of physical activity is a global public health issue”,1 so finding ways of encouraging it is essential to better health outcomes worldwide. Bearing this in mind and recognising the article has set groundwork for prospective exploration in the areas it addresses, scope for future research in this area can be identified.  Authors' replyMelanie I Stuckey,1 Shawn W Carter,2 Emily Knight3 1Research and Academics, Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences, Whitby, ON, Canada, 2Eating Disorder Residential Program, Ontario Shores Centre for Mental Health Sciences, Whitby, ON, Canada, 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada Thank you for providing the opportunity to respond to the letter written by Mittal et al in response to our paper titled “The role of smartphones in encouraging physical activity in adults.”1 We generally agree with their comments, but add considerations for each of their three suggestions. View the original paper by Stuckey and colleagues. 

  20. Protection in the absence of legislation in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    Rochelle Nakhid; Andrew Welch

    2017-01-01

    The Caribbean’s many small island States are grappling with increasingly complex mixed migration flows, yet few have introduced refugee legislation. Trinidad and Tobago is in the process of doing so.

  1. Protection in the absence of legislation in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Nakhid

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Caribbean’s many small island States are grappling with increasingly complex mixed migration flows, yet few have introduced refugee legislation. Trinidad and Tobago is in the process of doing so.

  2. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  3. Commentary: The proposed legislation on termination of pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commentary: The proposed legislation on termination of pregnancy does not protect women or children in Malawi and is not fit for the intended purpose: Christian Medical and Dental Fellowshipi position.

  4. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2016. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  5. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  6. Legislative Committee Simulation: Regulation in the Automobile Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Alan J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined are ways to overcome obstacles which often prevent creative teaching of legislative decision-making processes to high school students. A simulation dealing with regulation in the automobile industry is used for illustrative purposes. (RM)

  7. Allegheny County Pennsylvania U.S. Legislative Congressional District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the U.S. Legislative Congressional district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania...

  8. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Youth Access

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Youth Access....

  9. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  10. The Rhetoric of the NRA: Handgun Control Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Raymond S.

    1983-01-01

    A speech communication professor applies his rhetorical training to an analysis of the NRA's opposition to gun control legislation. (Available from City News Publishing Co., Box 606, Southold, NY 11971; sc $1.25.) (PD)

  11. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Smokefree Campus

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Smokefree...

  12. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Licensure

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Licensure....

  13. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Tax

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Tax. The...

  14. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2018. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air. The...

  15. CDC STATE System Tobacco Legislation - Smokefree Indoor Air Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Legislation – Smokefree Indoor Air....

  16. Trade policy-making in a model of legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, B.; McLaren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-190 ISSN 0022-1996 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : trade policy * multilateral legislative bargaining * political economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.443, year: 2013

  17. CDC STATE System E-Cigarette Legislation - Preemption

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1995-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. E-Cigarette Legislation—Preemption....

  18. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    .... This report surveys changes to the travel restrictions dating back to the 1960s, summarizes major arguments for and against lifting such restrictions, and tracks legislative initiatives to ease...

  19. Cuba: U.S. Restrictions on Travel and Legislative Initiatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Mark P

    2003-01-01

    ... to academic course work. This report surveys changes to the travel restrictions dating back to the 1960s, summarizes major arguments for and against lifting such restrictions, and tracks legislative initiatives...

  20. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Diseati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  1. Facilitating small groups: how to encourage student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  2. A Study on the Korea Database Industry Promotion Act Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae, Seoung-Hun

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Database Industry Promotion Act was proposed at the National Assembly plenary session on July 26, 2012 and since then it has been in the process of enactment in consultation with all the governmental departments concerned. The recent trend of economic globalization and smart device innovation suggests a new opportunity and challenges for all industries. The database industry is also facing a new phase in an era of smart innovation. Korea is in a moment of opportunity to take an innovative approach to promoting the database industry. Korea should set up a national policy to promote the database industry for citizens, government, and research institutions, as well as enterprises. Above all, the Database Industry Promotion Act could play a great role in promoting the social infrastructure to enhance the capacity of small and medium-sized enterprises. This article discusses the background of the development of the Database Industry Promotion Act and its legislative processes in order to clarify its legal characteristics, including the meaning of the act. In addition, this article explains individual items related to the overall structure of the Database Industry Promotion Act. Finally, this article reviews the economic effects of the database industry for now and the future.

  3. Effect of smoke-free legislation on Ticino gastronomy revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Peter J; Hartung, Uwe; Fiordelli, Maddalena

    2012-12-01

    To provide evidence on the effects of smoke-free laws on gastronomy revenue in a European setting based on objective data. Damage to gastronomy revenue is a widely used argument against smoke-free legislation. Gastronomy revenue in Ticino is compared with the rest of Switzerland before and after Ticino banned smoking from gastronomy in April 2007, being the first (and at the time of the study only) Swiss canton to do that. The study uses breakdowns by cantons of taxable revenue of gastronomy branches and retailers (for comparison) provided by the Swiss tax authorities for the years 2005-2008. Revenues of restaurants and bars were not damaged by the Ticino smoke-free law. Decreases in Ticino happened before the smoke-free law came into effect. Evidence for night clubs is inconclusive. The absence of detrimental effects on restaurant and bar revenue corroborates the gist of research on the subject from other countries. The argument that the decline of bar and restaurant sales prior to the implementation of the ban might have occurred in anticipation of the new regulation is not considered tenable.

  4. [Origin of animal experimentation legislation in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocard, M

    1999-01-01

    The first legislation in the world, designed to protect animals used in research, was passed in England in 1876, and is still in force today. It is one of the strictest in Europe. At the same period, France had no such law, and was the country conducting the greatest amount of animal experimentation. Comparing, these two countries, in the middle of the 19th century, can account for this difference. The most important difference seems to be related to the theological question: are animals endowed with a soul? Saint Augustine, claimed, in the 4th century, perhaps because of an experiment with the centipede, that animals do not have a soul. In the 17th century, René Descartes, using a different philosophical system, reached a similar conclusion, in France. On the other hand, under the influence of Charles Darwin, England rejected the Roman Catholic conclusion, about the soul of animals. The industrial revolution, occurring earlier in England than in France, also changed the society, developing urban areas, where people were cut off from rural life and changing human relationships with animals. The industrial revolution enabled the development of the press, giving impetus to public opinion. These facts, combined with a caution of science, which was more developed in England than in France, brought about the first important "anti-doctor" campaign.

  5. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  6. Documentation of Accounting Records in Light of Legislative Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    K. V. BEZVERKHIY

    2017-01-01

    Legislative reforms in accounting aim to simplify accounting records and compilation of financial reports by business entities, thus increasing the position of Ukraine in the global ranking of Doing Business. This simplification is implied in the changes in the Regulation on Documentation of Accounting Records, entered into force to the Resolution of the Ukrainian Ministry of Finance. The objective of the study is to analyze the legislative innovations involved. The review of changes in docum...

  7. Radiation protection and atomic energy legislation in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation protection and atomic energy laws of the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden are presented in this report in their status of March 1, 1984. As a background to this legislation the Nordic co-operation is briefly reviewed and the common basis for the legal texts is given. Some historical remarks for the legislation of each country are included. (orig./HP)

  8. Germline genome-editing research and its socioethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Genetically modifying eggs, sperm, and zygotes ('germline' modification) can impact on the entire body of the resulting individual and on subsequent generations. With the advent of genome-editing technology, human germline gene modification is no longer theoretical. Owing to increasing concerns about human germline gene modification, a voluntary moratorium on human genome-editing research and/or the clinical application of human germline genome editing has recently been called for. However, whether such research should be suspended or encouraged warrants careful consideration. The present article reviews recent research on mammalian germline genome editing, discusses the importance of public dialogue on the socioethical implications of human germline genome-editing research, and considers the relevant guidelines and legislation in different countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liquor legislation, last drinks, and lockouts: the Newcastle (Australia) solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, G R; Palazzi, K; Oteng Boateng, B K; Oldmeadow, C

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the regional implementation of prohibitive liquor legislation, introduced in order to limit the sale of and access to alcohol, can lead to a sustained reduction in the incidence of assault occasioning facial injury, as seen in patients presenting to a level 1 trauma hospital. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to document patients who were identified as an acute hospital presentation of assault occasioning facial injury. The period of study was 2003-2015; this ensured a similar period of time before and after the implementation of the legislation in 2008. A statistical analysis was undertaken to assess the rates of change in oral and maxillofacial (OMF) assault admissions pre and post legislation. The study found that pre-legislation numbers of OMF assaults increased at a rate of 14% per annum and then decreased at a rate of 21% per annum post legislation (31% relative rate ratio reduction). Similar trends were seen for all males, males aged 18-35 years, and males where alcohol was recorded at clinical presentation. The introduction of 'last drinks' and 'lock out' legislation has led to a significant and sustained reduction in assaultive alcohol-related facial injury in Newcastle. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  11. Pivotal politics in US energy and climate legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skodvin, Tora

    2010-01-01

    In the 110th Congress (2007-2008) legislation related to climate change was introduced at a faster pace than in any previous Congress, yet it did not result in a corresponding increase in enacted climate-related laws. A pertinent example of the political infeasibility of climate policy change in the 110th Congress is the case of tax credit extensions for production of renewable energy. While this issue in itself was uncontroversial, the extensions were only adopted in the 11th hour, after innumerable failed attempts. With an analytical point of departure in Krehbiel's theory of pivotal politics, this paper seeks to identify pivotal legislators in the case of the tax credit extensions and discusses how changes in the composition of pivotal legislators in the 111th Congress (2009-2010) may impact the prospects of moving climate legislation more generally. The analysis indicates that a majority of the legislative pivots in the case of tax credit extensions were Republican senators representing coal-producing states. In the case of climate change, however, the regional dimension is likely to be more significant for Democratic voting behaviour. Thus, the opportunity space for climate legislation in the 111th Congress remains narrow even with a reinforced Democratic majority in Congress. (author)

  12. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  13. Moral autonomy in Australian legislation and military doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Adams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian legislation and military doctrine stipulate that soldiers ‘subjugate their will’ to government, and fight in any war the government declares. Neither legislation nor doctrine enables the conscience of soldiers. Together, provisions of legislation and doctrine seem to take soldiers for granted. And, rather than strengthening the military instrument, the convention of legislation and doctrine seems to weaken the democratic foundations upon which the military may be shaped as a force for justice. Denied liberty of their conscience, soldiers are denied the foundational right of democratic citizenship and construed as utensils of the State. This article critiques the idea of moral agency in Australian legislation and military doctrine and is concerned with the obligation of the State to safeguard the moral integrity of individual soldiers, so soldiers might serve with a fully formed moral assurance to advance justice in the world. Beyond its explicit focus on the convention of Australian thought, this article raises questions of far-reaching relevance. The provisos of Australian legislation and doctrine are an analogue of western thinking. Thus, this discussion challenges many assumptions concerning military duty and effectiveness. Discussion will additionally provoke some reassessment of the expectations democratic societies hold of their soldiers.

  14. Environmental Legislation in China: Achievements, Challenges and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Mu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the environmental legislation of many developed countries, China’s environmental legislation was initiated late, beginning in 1979, but nevertheless has obtained considerable achievements. As many as thirty environmental laws have provided rules regarding prevention and control of pollution, resource utilization, and ecological protection in China. However, China’s environmental legislation still faces a series of challenges and problems, including that the sustainable development concept has not yet been fully implemented, as well as presence of gaps and non-coordination phenomena between laws and regulations, unclear responsibility, imperfect system design, imbalance between rights and obligations, higher impacts resulted from the GDP-centralized economy, lack of operability and instruments in the legal content, as well as difficulty of public participation. In contrast, China’s environmental legislation has improved, as a result of learning from experience in developed countries and introducing innovations stimulated by domestic environmental pressure. Looking into the future, increased attention to environmental protection and ecological consciousness paid by China’s new leaders will bring a valuable opportunity to China’s further development concerning environmental legislation. In the future, there are prospects for the gradual improvement of legal approaches, continuous improvements of legislation to mitigate environmental problems, and more opportunities to strengthen public participation can be predicted.

  15. IPA Seminar, Montreux, Aug. 15-20, 1975. Recommendations for action programmes to encourage breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The International Pediatric Association is encouraged to promote breastfeeding on an international level to educate about breastfeeding, to curtail the promotion of bottle feeding, to reorganize health services to maintain breastfeeding, to provide facilities at work for women who breastfeed, to establish a policy on weaning, and to do research. Those in the medical profession should disseminate information about breastfeeding and those who comprise the public sector should be made aware of the advantages of breastfeeding. National organizations should be supported in their encouragement to breastfeed. Students should learn that breastfeeding has advantages for the baby. The promotion of artificial feeding should be curtailed. The reorganization of health care services should include not separating the baby from mother and education about the importance and benefits of breastfeeding during a woman's pregnancy. Modifications in the work environment should result in a place to breastfeed, alterations in the workday to fit around the breastfeeding schedule, and extending maternity leave to accommodate breastfeeding. Solid foods should be introduced no earlier than 4 months and information should be provided with regard to weaning food. Surveillance should continue on trends in feeding practice and research should be directed at discovering factors which motivate change.

  16. IT based social media impacts on Indonesian general legislative elections 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Abdillah, Leon Andretti

    2014-01-01

    The information technology applications in cyberspace (the internet) are currently dominated by social media. The author investigates and explores the advantages of social media implementation of any political party in Indonesian general legislative elections 2014. There are twelve national political parties participating in the election as contestants plus three local political parties in Aceh. In this research, author focus on national political parties only. The author visited, analyzed, a...

  17. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. Methods A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Results Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country’s legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country’s pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Conclusions Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases. PMID:26451948

  18. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammie, Todd; Lu, Christine Y; Babar, Zaheer Ud-Din

    2015-01-01

    To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs. A review of the literature (1998 to 2014) was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country. Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35) had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access. Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  19. Access to Orphan Drugs: A Comprehensive Review of Legislations, Regulations and Policies in 35 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Gammie

    Full Text Available To review existing regulations and policies utilised by countries to enable patient access to orphan drugs.A review of the literature (1998 to 2014 was performed to identify relevant, peer-reviewed articles. Using content analysis, we synthesised regulations and policies for access to orphan drugs by type and by country.Fifty seven articles and 35 countries were included in this review. Six broad categories of regulation and policy instruments were identified: national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, incentives, marketing exclusivity, and pricing and reimbursement. The availability of orphan drugs depends on individual country's legislation and regulations including national orphan drug policies, orphan drug designation, marketing authorization, marketing exclusivity and incentives such as tax credits to ensure research, development and marketing. The majority of countries (27/35 had in place orphan drug legislation. Access to orphan drugs depends on individual country's pricing and reimbursement policies, which varied widely between countries. High prices and insufficient evidence often limit orphan drugs from meeting the traditional health technology assessment criteria, especially cost-effectiveness, which may influence access.Overall many countries have implemented a combination of legislations, regulations and policies for orphan drugs in the last two decades. While these may enable the availability and access to orphan drugs, there are critical differences between countries in terms of range and types of legislations, regulations and policies implemented. Importantly, China and India, two of the largest countries by population size, both lack national legislation for orphan medicines and rare diseases, which could have substantial negative impacts on their patient populations with rare diseases.

  20. Legislative and Policy Developments and Imperatives for Advancing the Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Dennis S; Hudgins, Cathy; Hornberger, Joel

    2018-03-05

    The Primary Care Behavioral Health (PCBH) practice model continues to gain converts among primary care and behavioral health professionals as the evidence supporting its effectiveness continues to accumulate. Despite a growing number of practices and organizations using the model effectively, widespread implementation has been hampered by outmoded policies and regulatory barriers. As policymakers and legislators begin to recognize the contributions that PCBH model services make to the care of complex patients and the expansion of access to those in need of behavioral health interventions, some encouraging policy initiatives are emerging and the policy environment is becoming more favorable to implementation of the PCBH model. This article outlines the necessity for policy change, exposing the policy issues and barriers that serve to limit the practice of the PCBH model; highlights innovative approaches some states are taking to foster integrated practice; and discusses the compatibility of the PCBH model with the nation's health care reform agenda. Psychologists have emerged as leaders in the design and implementation of PCBH model integration and are encouraged to continue to advance the model through the demonstration of efficient and effective clinical practice, participation in the expansion of an appropriately trained workforce, and advocacy for the inclusion of this practice model in emerging healthcare systems and value-based payment methodologies.