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Sample records for leghorns fed varying

  1. Effect of Quantum phytase on nutrient digestibility and bone ash in White Leghorn laying hens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A L; Dahiya, J P; Wyatt, C L; Classen, H L

    2009-06-01

    The efficacy of an Escherichia coli 6-phytase supplementation (Quantum) on nutrient digestibility-retention and bone ash in laying hens fed corn-soybean meal (CSM) diets was investigated. White Leghorn hens (Shaver and Bovan strains) were fed CSM diets containing 0.35% (positive control, PC), 0.25% (negative control 1, NC1), or 0.15% (negative control 2, NC2) nonphytate P from 21 to 61 wk of age. Six more diets were manufactured by supplementing the negative control diets with 200, 400, and 600 units per kilogram of exogenous phytase resulting in a total of 9 treatments. Each dietary treatment x strain subclass was replicated twice with 6 hens per replication. Fecal and ileal digesta samples were collected at 42 wk of age to determine apparent nutrient digestibility or retention. Left tibiae were collected at 42 and 61 wk of age to determine bone ash. The coefficients for ileal digestibility and fecal retention for protein were higher (P ash percentage was higher (P < 0.05) in 61-wk-old hens fed 200 or 400 units per kilogram of phytase-supplemented NC2 diets. Significantly higher diet AME and fecal protein retention were demonstrated for Shaver hens in comparison to the Bovan hens. Overall, the Quantum phytase was not efficacious at improving nutrient digestibility-retention in laying hens fed CSM diets deficient in nonphytate P.

  2. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility of Red Sokoto Bucks Fed Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate dry matter intake, total tract digestibility and nitrogen balance by red Sokoto bucks fed varying levels of Gmelina arborea leaf meal (GLM). Diet 1 devoid of GLM served as the control. Diets 2, 3 and 4 had GLM supplemented at 10, 20, 30% levels, respectively. A 4X4 Latin square ...

  3. Performance of weaner rabbits fed with varying levels of Tridax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four weaner rabbits (mongrel breed) of both sexes with average weight of 350g were fed formulated diet comprising 0, 15, 30 and 45% Tridax procumbens (TRP). The parameters evaluated were nutrient intake, daily weight gain, feed, conversion ratio, incidences of diarrhoea and mortality. At the end of the study, ...

  4. Performance of broiler chicken fed varied nutrient density diets supplemented with direct fed microbial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dietary response of different isolated strains (Direct fed microbial- DFM of lactobacilli, streptococci and yeast isolated from leopard feces (Panthera leo was studied as probiotic in poultry broiler birds reared as per varied mineral densities viz. calcium and phosphorus. Various treatments consisted of T0 (Control, culture medium, T1 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered standard formulated diet D1, T2 - Control (Culture medium offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2, T3 (Lactobacillus casei + Streptococcus fecalis + Saccharomyces cerevisiae offered ten percent lower calcium and phosphorus diet D2. Growth results obtained during the starter phase (1st to 3rd week exhibited higher gain in live body weight and lower feed conversion ratio, both by DFM supplemented treatment T1 offered standard formulated diet D1 and treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 compared to respective control T0 and T2. The obtained results revealed a significantly higher growth performance in treatment T1 compared to its control T0 where a higher growth in treatment T3 offered experimentally formulated mineral (Ca and P deficient (10% diet D2 supplemented with isolated DFM compared to its control T2 was exhibited. Treatment groups T1 and T3 supplemented with isolated DFM exhibited a better intestinal micro flora balance, effective colonization and higher count in the intestinal tract with higher calcium and phosphorus retention in the digestibility studies. Thus, it was found that supplementation of isolated DFM has the potential to improve biological growth performance of poultry broiler birds offered both standard formulated diet D1, as well as mineral deficient diet D2. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002

  5. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  6. Lysine requirement of White Leghorn pullets from 8 to 21 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, L R

    1976-01-01

    White Leghorn pullets were fed rations in which the protein supplementary to that provided by the grain portion of the ration was derived from soybean meal, meat and bone meal, anchovy fish meal or cottonseed meal from 8 to 21 weeks of age. Protein levels were varied so that each protein supplement was tested in a feeding program in which pullets received 16% protein diets from 8 to 14 weeks and 14% protein from 14 to 21 weeks and in another feeding program in which 14% protein was fed from 8 to 14 weeks and 12% protein from 14 to 21 weeks. Each of the developing rations contained sufficient nutrient to enable pullets to develop and attain high rate of laying performance. The 14% and 12% protein cottonseed meal diets contained only 0.50% and 0.45% lysine respectively. Thus the lysine requirement of White Leghorn pullets from 8 to 14 weeks and from 14 to 21 weeks is not over 0.50% and 0.45% respectively.

  7. Over het effect van hyperthyreoidiseering bij witte leghorns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.B.

    1938-01-01

    Oral feeding of White Leghorn hens on a thyroid preparation generally had only a very small toxic effect when given in one dose. A higher death rate occurred when given in small doses on consecutive days.

    The hens fell into a moult, varying from slight to complete, 7 or 8 days after thyroid

  8. The performance of broiler finisher birds fed varying levels of feather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of broiler finisher birds fed varying levels of feather meal as replacement for soya bean meal. ... meal increased, feed cost/ kg weight gain increased and both differed significantly (P<0.05) between treatment means, while the birds tolerated feather meal up to 7.5% inclusion level, 2.5% was the optimal.

  9. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu

  10. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  11. Oxygen consumption constrains food intake in fish fed diets varying in essential amino acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Subramanian; Geurden, Inge; Figueiredo-Silva, A Cláudia; Nusantoro, Suluh; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Verreth, Johan; Schrama, Johan W

    2013-01-01

    Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining food intake. To verify, we assessed the food intake and oxygen consumption of rainbow trout fed to satiation with diets which differed in essential amino acid (methionine and lysine) compositions: a balanced vs. an imbalanced amino acid diet. Both diets were tested at two water oxygen levels: hypoxia vs. normoxia. Trout consumed 29% less food under hypoxia compared to normoxia (pfood intake by 11% and 16% respectively when fed the imbalanced compared to the balanced amino acid diet. Oxygen consumption of the trout per unit body mass remained identical for both diet groups not only under hypoxia but also under normoxia (p>0.05). This difference in food intake between diets under normoxia together with the identical oxygen consumption supports the hypothesis that food intake in fish can be constrained by a set-point value of oxygen consumption, as seen here on a six-week time scale.

  12. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within the ranges used in this experiment, does not negatively

  13. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid changes belly and bacon quality from pigs fed varied lipid sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S T; Wiegand, B R; Parrish, F C; Swan, J E; Sparks, J C

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of dietary lipid source with or without the addition of CLA on bacon composition and quality. Forty-eight barrows at a beginning BW of 55 kg +/- 2.2 were fed 1 of 6 diets for 56 d. These diets consisted of: 1) normal corn (NC), 2) NC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CLA), 3) high-oil corn (HOC), 4) HOC + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (HOC-CLA), 5) NC + choice white grease (CWG; NC + CWG), and 6) NC + CWG + 1.25% CLA-60 oil (NC + CWG + CLA). The CLA-60 contains 60% CLA isomers in the oil, and therefore, 1.25% oil was needed to achieve 0.75% CLA in the diet. Soy oil replaced CLA in control diets. Choice white grease and high-oil corn were selected as fat sources for this study because of their utility in energy density for growing-finishing pigs, especially in hot weather. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 113 kg +/- 4.1, and carcasses were fabricated at 24 h postmortem. Statistical analysis was performed using the mixed model procedure of SAS, and the main effects tested were dietary lipid source, CLA, and 2-way interaction. The addition of CLA to each basal diet improved (P bacon slabs showed that bacon from CLA-supplemented pigs was approximately 20% firmer than that from controls. Pigs fed the HOC diets had softer bellies compared (P bacon sliceability. No differences were observed for moisture, protein, or lipid percentages between any treatments. Overall, there was a CLA effect (P bacon oxidation (0.1498 CLA vs. 0.1638 no CLA). Dietary CLA increased the percentage of SFA in tissues from pigs supplemented with CLA. Dietary inclusion of CLA increased the concentration of all measured isomers of CLA in bacon. Sensory scores of bacon showed no differences for any of the sensory attributes measured between any of the treatments. Our results indicate that inclusion of dietary CLA will improve belly firmness, extend the shelf life stability of bacon, and increase the degree of fat saturation.

  14. Quail performance and egg quality at the end of production fed with varying levels of calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Santos de Souza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to evaluate the influence of increasing levels of dietary calcium on performance, egg quality, and the amount of calcium retained in the meat and excreted by Japanese quails at the final production. Four hundred 46-58-week-old Japanese quails were distributed in a completely randomized design consisting of five calcium level treatments: T1 = 2.95%, T2 = 3.25%, T3 = 3.55%, T4 = 3.85% and T5 = 4.15% calcium. The performance variables included feed intake (g bird-1 day-1, egg production (%, feed conversion by egg mass and per dozen eggs, egg mass (g, and viability. For egg quality, we assessed egg weight, percentage of albumen, yolk weight, percentage of shell, and shell thickness. We also evaluated the amount of calcium present in the meat and the amount of calcium excreted by quails. Increasing levels of calcium linearly influenced feed conversion, weight of yolk, and percentage of eggshell. Shell thickness increased up to the 3.85% calcium treatment. Calcium content of the meat differed among the quails; the quails fed the lowest level of calcium (2.95% showed higher calcium content in meat, whereas calcium excretion increased with increasing levels of calcium in the diet. In conclusion, the addition of 3.85% of calcium in quail feed at the end of production improved eggshell quality, and maintained internal quality and performance within the recommended standards for the production phase tested in quails. Levels higher than 3.85% calcium negatively influenced the parameters analyzed.

  15. Reproductive responses of white leghorn hens to graded concentrations of mercuric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Shaffner, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    White Leghorn hens were maintained on diets containing 0, 4, 12 or 36 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2 from hatching in an effort to confirm (with a second species) our previously reported effects on Japanese quail reproduction. In the quail study both onset of laying and rate of egg production were accelerated by 16 and 32 p.p.m. Hg as HgCl2, but ferti ity was depressed. After 1 year on diets containing HgCl2 none of the Leghorn hens manifested any observed signs of Hg poisoning. Hens fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg began ovipositing an average of 10 days earlier than the controls (P < 0.05). Young hens (< 9 months old) fed 4 or 12 p.p.m. Hg laid significantly more eggs per hen-day than did either controls or those fed 36 p.p.m. Hg. Beyond 9 months of age there were no perceptible differences in rate of egg production among the treatments. These findings support our quail results. When the hens were inseminated with pooled semen from untreated roosters fertility, embryonic development and hatchability appeared to be unaffected by the treatments. This contrasts with our previous experiment with quail in which both sexes were fed HgCl2.

  16. Excretion of antibiotic resistance genes by dairy calves fed milk replacers with varying doses of antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callie H. Thames

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning, and 12 (5 weeks after weaning. ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX, macrolide (ermB, ermF, and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2 classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies/ g wet manure of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onwards, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P<0.10, even in control calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional

  17. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Callie H.; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning), and 12 (5 weeks after weaning). ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX), macrolide (ermB, ermF), and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2) classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies per gram wet manure) of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes) of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onward, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional nutritional intake applied

  18. Distribution and mobility of omega 3 fatty acids in rainbow trout fed varying levels and types of dietary lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castledine, A J; Buckley, J T

    1980-04-01

    The availability of essential fatty acids in fish neutral lipid to tissue phospholipids was determined under conditions of adequate and inadequate essential fatty acid intake as well as during fasting. Juvenile rainbow trout were fed a semi-purified diet containing varying levels of cod liver oil, with or without supplementary olein. Fatty acid analysis indicated that in all treatments the neutral lipid pool was not turned over during feeding but was enhanced by exogenous or endogenously synthesized fatty acids. Fish that received diets devoid of essential fatty acids maintained virtually all of the docosahexenoic acid originally present in each lipid pool. Fish fed diets containing essential fatty acids deposited them in proportion to the dietary levels. After a 4-week fast, no change was noted in the relative levels of fatty acids in neutral lipid indicating that all fatty acids in neutral lipid were catabolized equally--including essential fatty acids. During fasting there was a selective retention of docosahexenoic and linoleic acids in the phospholipid pool.

  19. Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Korean Native Ducks Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Limiting Amino Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Choo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are multiple experiments conducted with male Korean native ducks (KND to evaluate the optimal levels of limiting amino acids (AA. In Exp. 1, a total of 450 one-d-old male KNDs were divided into five groups with six replicates and fed experimental diets with varying levels of lysine, total sulfur amino acids (TSAA and threonine (T1, 0.90/0.74/0.70%; T2, 1.00/0.82/0.77%; T3, 1.10/0.90/0.85%; T4, 1.20/0.98/0.93%; T5, 1.30/1.07/1.01% to 21 d of age. In Exp. 2, one-d-old male KND were received and fed commercial starter diet from hatching to 21 d of age, and then divided into five groups with six replicates and fed one of five diets varying levels of lysine, TSAA, and threonine (T1, 0.73/0.62/0.54%; T2, 0.80/0.68/0.60%; T3, 0.87/0.74/0.65%; T4, 0.94/0.80/0.70%; T5, 1.01/0.86/0.75% during 22 to 56 d of age, respectively. The BW gain was linearly increased as dietary limiting AA levels increased to 1.20% lysine, 0.98% TSAA and 0.93% threonine. There were no significant differences in feed intake, gain:feed and uniformity among groups. In Exp. 2, the BW gain and gain:feed were not affected by dietary limiting AA levels. There were no significant differences in carcass characteristics and meat quality among groups. The growth performance and carcass characteristics did not show the significant response to increasing dietary limiting AA levels in KND during 22 to 56 d of age. In conclusion, the levels of lysine, TSAA and threonine necessary to maximize growth for starter phase were at least 1.20%, 0.98%, and 0.93%, respectively. On the other hands, KND require relatively low levels of limiting AA for late growth and carcass yield. The dietary levels of 0.73% lysine, 0.62% TSAA and 0.54% threonine appear to be adequate during growing phase.

  20. Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance

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    Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16 followed by kidney (8.223±0.85 and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21. Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.

  1. en gallinas white leghorn L33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar el efecto del peso corporal sobre indicadoresbioproductivos en gallinas White Leghorn L33. Se estudiaron 192 gallinas ponedorascon 39 semanas de edad durante un período de seis semanas y con tres observacionessemanales. Se diseñaron dos grupos según peso vivo, con 96 gallinas cada uno (tres réplicasde 32 aves, teniendo el grupo 1 entre 1500-1600 g y el grupo 2 entre 1735-1820 g; esteúltimo correspondió al rango establecido para este híbrido con esa edad. Además de laviabilidad y mortalidad se determinaron las variables bioproductivas (producción, peso,tamaño, forma y grosor de la cáscara de los huevos, así como la proporción de sucios,manchados y cascados. En la última semana del estudio, se analizó la calidad internadel huevo (dimensión y color de clara y yema y se calcularon los índices de yema, claray Unidades Haugh. Se realizó una estadística descriptiva y se utilizaron las pruebas Tde Student y Fisher (P < 0,05 para comparar las medias entre grupos. Se evidenciarondiferencias estadísticas significativas entre producción, peso y tamaño de los huevos parael grupo de mayor peso corporal. Asimismo, se comprobó mayor calidad interna delhuevo (altura de clara y yema en este segundo grupo. Sin embargo, no se evidenciarondiferencias significativas en la calidad externa de los huevos (sucios, manchados, cascados,pero sí en el grosor de la cáscara. Se concluye que el peso corporal influye directay positivamente sobre los indicadores bioproductivos en gallinas White Leghorn L33.

  2. 17β-estradiol increases liver and serum docosahexaenoic acid in mice fed varying levels of α-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie K; Kharotia, Shikhil; Wiggins, Ashleigh K A; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Jianmin; Bazinet, Richard P; Thompson, Lilian U

    2014-08-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is considered to be important for cardiac and brain function, and 17β-estradiol (E2) appears to increase the conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into DHA. However, the effect of varying ALA intake on the positive effect of E2 on DHA synthesis is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E2 supplementation on tissue and serum fatty acids in mice fed a low-ALA corn oil-based diet (CO, providing 0.6 % fatty acids as ALA) or a high ALA flaxseed meal-based diet (FS, providing 11.2 % ALA). Ovariectomized mice were implanted with a slow-release E2 pellet at 3 weeks of age and half the mice had the pellet removed at 7 weeks of age. Mice were then randomized onto either the CO or FS diet. After 4 weeks, the DHA concentration was measured in serum, liver and brain. A significant main effect of E2 was found for liver and serum DHA, corresponding to 25 and 15 % higher DHA in livers of CO and FS rats, respectively, and 19 and 13 % in serum of CO and FS rats, respectively, compared to unsupplemented mice. There was no effect of E2 on brain DHA. E2 results in higher DHA in serum and liver, at both levels of dietary ALA investigated presently, suggesting that higher ALA intake may result in higher DHA in individuals with higher E2 status.

  3. Otolith growth of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. larvae fed with constant or varying food levels

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    Belén Aguilera

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Otolith growth and the value and properties of the Recent Otolith Growth Index (ROGI were studied in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L. larvae that were reared for the first month of life with four different feeding regimes: fed, non-fed, late-feeding and late two-day fast. A marking experiment using alizarin complexone was previously carried out to validate increment deposition. Daily increment deposition was observed to take place from day two after hatching (DAH. The different feeding regimes did not significantly affect the periodicity of otolith increment deposition but did affect increment width. The ROGI was used as a tool for assessing feeding-induced differences in condition. Non-fed larvae had significantly smaller otoliths than fed larvae at the same age. In the late-feeding larvae (food available from 13 DAH, increment width increased progressively once food was supplied, and reached values similar to those for fed larvae after one week of feeding. Deprivation of food for two days in post-flexion larvae (in the fourth week of larval development was reflected in the formation of progressively narrower increments which had still not returned to normal width two days after feeding was resumed. Our results show that the width of the outermost otolith increments reflect the past feeding history and that the ROGI can be used to distinguish well fed from suboptimally nourished larvae.

  4. White bass (Morone chrysops) preferentially retain n-3 PUFA in ova when fed prepared diets with varying FA content

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the fatty acid composition of broodstock white bass ova fed one of the following commercial diets for four and eight weeks prior to sampling: Zeigler BassBrood-45/15, Bio-Oregon BioBrood™-48/20, Cargill AquaFeed™-45/12, Cargill AquaFeed™-48/18, Skretting Extruded Steelhead-45/16, and Sk...

  5. growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Abebe Hassen (1992) reported that local birds in eastern Ethiopia attain 71.5% of weight of leghorns at 6 months of age. Burley (1957), and Teketel. Fersido (1986) found increased production performance of local chicken with improvement in feeding, but not to economically acceptable level. Feed efficiency of local hens ...

  6. Growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the comparative growth, sexual maturity, survival, and feed utilization efficiency of local and White Leghorn chicken under intensive management condition. Five groups of each of the two breeds, with 200 baby chicks each, were subjected to appetite feeding with commercial layer\\'s ...

  7. white leghorn chimeras based on bone marrow mesenchymal stem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    white leghorn chimeras based on bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Xinxin Qin, Lei Rui, Wenting Zhang, Zhuyu Qiu and Zandong Li*. State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Biological Science,. China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, China.

  8. Growth performance, haematology and histopathology of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus fed varying levels of Aloe barbadensis leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbesan Sherifat Ibidunni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (2.33 ± 0.07 g were fed with 40% crude protein diets containing three concentrations of Aloe barbadensis leaves-paste: ABL1, 1%; ABL2, 2%; ABL3, 3%, and control, 0% ad libitum twice daily for 12 weeks. Mean weight gain and percentage weight gain increased (P < 0.05 as concentration of A. barbadensis increased. Survival rate decreased as concentration of paste increased. Differences (P < 0.05 seen in packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin (Hb, and red blood cell (RBC, thus highest in ABL3: PCV (36.67 ± 0.89%, Hb (12.37 ± 0.37 g dl–1 and RBC (3.47 ± 0.08×106 L–1 and lowest in control: PCV (22.0 ± 0.58%, Hb (7.37 ± 0.20 g dl–1 and RBC (2.07 ± 0.06 ×106 L–1. Liver histology of control fish was normal, while fatty degenerations were seen in the treated fish. The histology of fish kidney was normal in all treatments. The study concluded that 1% A. barbadensis leaves-paste could effectively improve growth performance, nutrient utilization and survival of cultured C. gariepinus.

  9. Bone densitometry as an indicator of percentage tibia ash in broiler chicks fed varying dietary calcium and phosphorus levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, E M; Hester, P Y; Stroshine, R; Adeola, O

    2003-11-01

    The relative sensitivity of tibia bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD), percentage ash (ash), and shear force as indicators for dietary Ca and P was compared in 3-wk-old broiler chicks. One hundred eight 7-d-old chicks were grouped by weight into 6 blocks of 3 cages each with 6 birds per cage. Three corn-soybean meal-based diets were randomly assigned to cages within each block. The diets were low P, medium P, and adequate P and were formulated to contain 4.0, 5.1, and 7.8 g of total P/kg feed, respectively; and 5.1, 6.7, and 10.0 g of Ca/kg feed, respectively. The chicks were fed the experimental diets for 14 d. On d 22, chicks were killed, and tibiae were removed from 3 birds/cage. Weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, BMC, BMD, shear force, and ash were determined. The BMC and BMD were determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Correlations among the various bone status variables and dietary Ca and P were determined. Growth performance criteria and ash increased linearly, and BMC and BMD increased linearly and quadratically as dietary concentrations of Ca and P increased. The correlation coefficient between dietary Ca and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.89, 0.91, 0.50, or 0.89, respectively; and between dietary P and BMC, BMD, shear force, or ash was 0.88, 0.91, 0.48, or 0.89, respectively. The correlation coefficient between ash and BMC, BMD, or shear force was 0.92, 0.93, or 0.67, respectively. The correlation coefficients for linear regression between shear force and BMC or BMD was 0.56. The regression model for predicting percentage ash using BMD was as follows: percentage ash = 24 + (240 x BMD) with an r2 of 86%. It is concluded that in broiler chicks, tibia ash, BMC, and BMD may be more sensitive than shear force as indicators of dietary Ca and P concentrations and that BMD as measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry may be used to predict percentage of tibia ash.

  10. Food preferences of Knysna and purple-crested turacos fed varying concentrations of equicaloric and equimolar artificial fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy-Leigh; Downs, Colleen T

    2011-02-15

    The effects that different fruit sugar types and concentrations have on food preferences of avian frugivores have been relatively poorly studied. Although it has been recently advocated that preference is based on equicaloric energy it is also important to note whether preferences change as energy content changes. Therefore, sugar preferences of equicaloric and equimolar artificial fruit of different sugar types at varying concentrations and molarities were investigated in two relatively large South African frugivores, Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) and purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) turacos. Artificial fruits containing 6.6, 12.4 or 22% sucrose or glucose, and artificial fruits containing 0.42, 0.83 or 1.66 mol l(-1) sucrose or glucose, were used to determine sugar preferences. Knysna turacos preferred the sucrose to the glucose equicaloric artificial fruit diet at low concentrations whereas purple-crested turacos showed no preference for either diet. Both turacos species preferred the sucrose equimolar artificial fruit diet to the glucose at low concentrations. At high concentrations neither species showed a preference for either equicaloric or equimolar artificial fruit diets. This suggests that energy requirements influence food preferences more than sugar type and that birds will select fruit that is higher in energy irrespective of sugar type. This complements an earlier study on digestion of differing equicaloric and equimolar artificial fruit sugar types. It again emphasizes the need for future studies looking at the composition of indigenous forest fruit sugars in order to obtain insight into the role of these avian frugivores as potential seed dispersers of fruiting tree species.

  11. Fearfulness in red junglefowl and domesticated White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, Magnus; Jöngren, Markus; Jensen, Per

    2009-05-01

    It may be hypothesised that reduced fearfulness has been a major target of selection during domestication. We tested 20 domesticated White Leghorn (WL) chickens and their ancestors, red junglefowl (RJF), in four different fear tests (Open Field, Novel Object, Aerial Predator, and Fear for Humans). The tests were designed to measure reactions to different types of potentially fearful stimuli. The correlations between durations of the same four variables from each of the tests (Stand/sit alert, Locomotion, Fly/jump, and Vocalisation) were analysed with principal components analysis (PCA). In the PCA, 33.5% of the variation in responses was explained by a single factor, interpreted as a general fear factor. Higher scores on this were related to stronger fear reactions. Red junglefowl scored significantly higher than White Leghorns on this factor, and also had a longer latency to feed in the Fear of Humans-test, used as an independent measure of fear in the same tests. The results suggest that selection for low fearfulness has been an important element of domestication.

  12. The absorption of lactic acid is more synchronized with the absorption of glucose than with the absorption of short-chain fatty acids - A study with sows fed diets varying in dietary fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Jørgensen, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Sows were fed one of three diets varying in level and type of dietary fibre (DF). A low DF diet (LF; 17% DF) based on wheat and barley and two generic high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF; approx. 41% DF) where the cereals were substituted with co-products (sugar b...

  13. Differences between pH of indwelling sensors and the pH of fluid and solid phase in the rumen of dairy cows fed varying concentrate levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, V; Humer, E; Kröger, I; Braid, T; Wagner, M; Zebeli, Q

    2018-02-01

    Feeding of high-concentrate diets to cattle increases the risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Indwelling wireless pH sensors have become popular as an early diagnostic tool for SARA recently. However, the recommended pH thresholds of SARA derive from measurements taken from free-rumen liquid (FRL) in the ventral rumen, and not from the reticulum, where the mentioned sensors are located. The aim of this study was to evaluate commercially available indwelling pH boli for the accuracy and precision in predicting ruminal pH of FRL and the particle-associated rumen liquid (PARL) under varying dietary concentrate levels. An additional aim was to define SARA pH thresholds of indwelled pH boli, which can be used for SARA diagnostics. The experiment was conducted with eight nonlactating rumen cannulated Holstein cows fed 0% or 65% concentrate. Data showed that the mean pH of indwelled boli was consistently higher than in FRL and PARL (pH 6.62 ± 0.02, 6.43 ± 0.02 and 6.18 ±0.02, respectively) across feeding regimens. Interestingly, the diurnal differences in pH among indwelled boli, FRL and PARL became greater during concentrate feeding, especially at 8 h after the morning feeding, suggesting that with high-concentrate diets a particular adjustment of reticular sensor pH vs. ruminal pH in FRL and PARL is needed. The concordance correlation coefficient analysis, representing the reproducibility of the bolus measurements, was high for bolus-FRL (0.733) and moderate for bolus-PARL (0.510) associations. Furthermore, the quantitative relationship of the pH in FRL and PARL to the pH of the boli was described by linear regression analysis. The study determined that the common SARA threshold of pH 5.8 in FRL corresponds to a bolus pH of 6.0. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Clinicopathological Studies on Gentamicin Toxicity in White Leghorn Commercial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam Ul Islam, M. Zargham Khan1, M. Kashif Saleemi*1, Ahrar Khan1, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti1, Muhammad Yousaf2 and Zahoor-ul-Hassan3

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin is an effective and economical drug used to control infectious diseases in poultry but is highly toxic and had slow clearance from the body. This study aimed to report three cases of gentamicin toxicity in three White Leghorn (WLH layer flocks in different poultry producing areas of Pakistan. In first case, gentamicin was injected in a 9000 WLH layer flock @ 10 mg/kg body weight (BW for seven times during 9-15 weeks for age. In second case, gentamicin was injected in a flock of 7500 WLH layers @ 25 mg/kg BW for four times during 17-18 weeks of age. In third case, gentamicin was injected in flock of 16000 WLH layers @ 22.22 mg/kg BW three times in 20-21 weeks of age. Flock wise mortality was 8.69, 82.63 and 71.86%, respectively. Birds were dehydrated, emaciated and had prominent keel bone. Clinical signs included dehydration, decreased body weight leading to emaciation, decreased feed intake, increased water intake and watery diarrhea. Necropsy revealed prominent keal bone, shrunken muscles swollen kidneys bulging out from bony sockets. Petechial and echymotic hemorrhages were present on heart and skeletal muscles. Liver was enlarged with hemorrhagic streaks on its surface. Microscopically, hemorrhages and acute tubular necrosis was recorded in kidneys. Liver had hemorrhages, cellular infiltration and vacuolar (fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. From the results, it could be concluded that overdosing and repeated administration of gentamicin was highly toxic to birds.

  15. Evaluation of limit feeding varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles in non-feed-withdrawal molt programs for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, L; Meyer, E T; Studer, D L; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2011-02-01

    An experiment was conducted with 672 Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens (69 wk of age) to evaluate the effects of feeding varying levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with corn, wheat middlings, and soybean hulls on long-term laying hen postmolt performance. The control molt treatment consisted of a 47% corn:47% soybean hulls (C:SH) diet fed ad libitum for 28 d. Hens fed the other 7 treatments were limit fed 65 g/hen per day for 16 d, and then fed 55 g/hen per day for 12 d. Hens on treatments 2 and 3 were fed 49% C:35% wheat middlings (WM) or SH:10% DDGS diets (C:WM:10DDGS, C:SH:10DDGS). Hens on treatments 4 and 5 were fed 49% C:25% WM or SH:20% DDGS diets (C:WM:20DDGS, C:SH:20DDGS). Those on treatments 6 and 7 were fed 47% C:47% DDGS (C:DDGS) or 47% WM:47% DDGS (WM:DDGS) diets. Those on treatment 8 were fed a 94% DDGS diet. At 28 d, all hens were fed a corn-soybean meal layer diet (16% CP) and production performance was measured for 36 wk. None of the hens fed the molt diets went completely out of production, and only the C:SH and C:SH:10DDGS molt diets decreased hen-day egg production to below 5% by wk 4 of the molt period. Postmolt egg production was lowest (P 0.05) in egg weights were detected among treatments throughout the postmolt period. In addition, no consistent differences were observed among treatments for egg mass throughout the postmolt period. Overall results of this study indicated that limit feeding diets containing DDGS at levels of 65 or 55 g/hen per day during the molt period did not cause hens to totally cease egg production.

  16. The effect of dietary L-carnitine on semen traits of White Leghorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W; Neuman, S L; Latour, M A; Hester, P Y

    2007-10-01

    A previous study conducted in our laboratory showed that feeding 500 ppm of dietary L-carnitine to young and aging White Leghorns for 5 wk improved sperm concentration and reduced sperm lipid peroxidation during the last half of supplementation. The current study examined the effect of feeding dosimetric as well as lower levels of L-carnitine for longer durations on semen traits of White Leghorns. In experiments 1 and 2, White Leghorns consumed diets supplemented with 0, 125, 250, or 500 mg of L-carnitine/kg of feed. For experiment 1, an 8-wk trial was conducted with 48 White Leghorns from 46 to 54 wk of age. For experiment 2, a 17-wk trial was conducted with 96 White Leghorn roosters from 46 to 63 wk of age. For experiment 3, 84 roosters were provided for ad libitum consumption a diet formulated to contain 0 or 125 ppm of L-carnitine beginning at hatch until 37 wk of age. Long-term consumption of 125 ppm of L-carnitine beginning at hatch was the only dietary treatment that sustained a persistent increase in sperm concentration. These results suggest that L-carnitine's antioxidant influence on sperm production begins before the onset of sexual maturity.

  17. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  18. Survival analysis of white Leghorn laying hens in the early and late production period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamuno, Doreen; Mészáros, Gábor; Ellen, Esther D.; Sölkner, Johann

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to carry out survival analysis to evaluate fixed effects and to estimate genetic parameters on survival of laying hens. The data set contained 16,694 records of three purebred White Leghorn layer lines coded W1, WB and WF. At 17 weeks old after rearing, hens were transported

  19. Physical meat quality and chemical composition of the Longissimus thoracis of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed varying dietary protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-12-01

    Physical and chemical attributes of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) of 96 PIC(©) entire (E) and immunocastrated (C) pigs were evaluated. The study followed a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design where three diets of low, medium and high proteins (7.50, 9.79 and 12.07 g digestible lysine/kg) were fed either with (10mg/kg) or without ractopamine (RAC) for the last 28 days of growth. Vaccination of C occurred at 16 and 20 weeks and slaughtering at 24 weeks of age. The LTs were analysed for moisture, protein, fat and ash contents as well as CIE L*, a*, b* colour, drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Various sex and protein interactions were observed for LT protein content, L* values and WBSF. Cooking loss was decreased in C and by the medium protein diet. Feeding RAC increased WBSF values, whilst decreasing a* and b* values. However, the differences observed are minor and might be considered negligible when evaluated by a consumer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum Biochemistry, Organ Weight, Carcass Characteristics, Organoleptic Properties and Villi Morphometry of Nera Black Cocks fed Varying Levels of Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Kayode Ojediran

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A total number of sixty-four (28 weeks old matured Nera black cocks were randomly allotted to 4 dietary groups. Diet T1 (control had no Moringa Oleifera leaf meal (MOLM inclusion while diets T2, T3 and T4 contained graded levels of MOLM at 10%, 20% and 30% replacement for soya bean meal (w/w respectively  in a completely randomized design. All the serum biochemistry parameters evaluated differs significantly (P≤0.05 except albumin and cholesterol (P>0.05 among the dietary treatments. The weight of the kidney, heart, pancrease, proventriculus and spleen were influenced by the dietary treatments (P≤0.05. The weights of breast and empty gizzard increased (P≤0.05 linearly with MOLM inclusion while the wings, thigh and drum stick compared (P≤0.05 with those fed the control diet. The villi length and muscle thickness were significantly (P≤0.05 influenced by MOLM inclusion. The MOLM supplemented birds had longer villi than birds in the control group. The result of the this study showed that replacement of soybean meal with MOLM up to 30% inclusion in the diets of Nera black cocks was not detrimental to organ weights, carcass characteristics, sensory attributes and villi morphometrics. However, some serum parameters were adversely affected.

  1. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffel, C M; Crump, P M; Armentano, L E

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids can affect both milk fat yield and fatty acid (FA) composition. This relationship is well established when the dietary level of FA exceeds 3% of diet dry matter (DM). We could find no reports directly examining the effects of dietary FA profile on milk fat at levels below 3%. Twenty-four primiparous and 36 multiparous lactating cows were paired by production (1 high with 1 low, within parity) to form 30 experimental units. Pairs were fed 6 diets in five 6×6 balanced Latin squares with 21-d periods, and data were collected during the last 5d of each period. Two control diets were fed: a corn control diet (CC; 29% corn silage, 16% alfalfa silage, 19% corn grain, and 8% distillers grain on a DM basis) containing 1.8% FA; and a low-oil control diet (LOC; 9% corn silage, 35% alfalfa silage, 20% food-grade corn starch, and 8% corn gluten feed on a DM basis) containing 1.2% FA. A portion of the food-grade corn starch in LOC was replaced with 4 different FA supplements to create the 4 treatment diets. Treatments were 1.7% (DM basis) of a 50:50 blend of corn oil and high-linoleic safflower oil (LO), 1.7% high-oleic sunflower oil (OO), 1.7% palm oil (PO), or 1.8% calcium salts of palm fatty acids (PFA). The resultant diets were thus enriched in linoleic (LO), oleic (OO), or palmitic acid (PO and PFA). Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake. Addition of any of the fat sources to LOC resulted in increased milk yield, but milk fat yields and milk FA composition were variable for the different treatments. The LO treatment resulted in lower milk fat yield, fat concentration, and C16:0 yield but increased both trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 C18:2 yields compared with the other added FA treatments. Diets PO and PFA resulted in increased milk C16:0 yield and decreased total milk C18 yield compared with OO. Regression analysis revealed a negative coefficient for dietary linoleic acid content over basal (LOC) for both milk short-chain FA yield and

  2. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based backgrounding diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the effects of CP concentration and ruminal degradability of barley-based backgrounding diets on route and chemical form of N excretion, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (479 ± 14.6 kg average BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. The basal diet consisted of 54% barley silage and 46% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (12% CP) or diets formulated to contain 14% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). The amount of feed offered was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. There was no effect of the diets on DMI (P = 0.38), and therefore, N intake was less (P 0.10) on the amount of urine N output. Urine N output was 38.9 and 45.1 ± 5.50% of N intake in heifers fed the 12% CP and 14% CP diets (P ruminal NH3-N but had no effect on ruminal peptide N (P = 0.62) and free AA N (P = 0.18) concentration, the flow of microbial (P = 0.34) and feed (P = 0.55) N, and ruminal (starch, P = 0.11; NDF, P = 0.78) and total tract nutrient digestibility (OM, P = 0.21; starch, P = 0.16). Supplementation of barley-based backgrounding diets containing 12% CP with NPN alone or combined with ruminally degradable and undegradable true protein to attain 14% CP had no effect on fecal N output, but urine N and urea N increased irrespective of protein source. In addition, the ruminal degradability of the protein sources did not influence the composition of protein flowing to the intestine and site and extent of nutrient digestibility.

  3. Xylazine, diazepam and midazolam premedicated ketamine anaesthesia in White Leghorn cockerels for typhlectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Maiti

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Thee different combinations of ketamine hydrochloride were used to induce general anaesthesia for surgical operations (typhlectomy in 30 adult, single-comb White Leghorn cockerels. They were randomly divided into three groups, each comprising 10 birds. Birds in Group I received xylazine-ketamine combinations at the dose rate of 2 mg xylazine and 10 mg ketamine per kg i.v., whereas birds of Group II received diazepam (2.5 mg / kg i.v. and 5 min later ketamine (75 mg / kg i.m.. In the Group III, midazolam (2 mg / kg i.m. and 5 min later ketamine (50 mg / kg i.v. was administered. The onset of sedation / anaesthesia was shortest (1.60 + 0.27 min in Group I, followed by Group II (8.40 + 0.83 min and Group III (17.10 + 1.71 min. Recovery period was shortest in the Group I (65-75 min followed by Group II (80-85 min and Group III (92-105 min. Sedation, muscle relaxation and surgical anaesthesia was optimal and excellent in Group I compared with the other two groups. Torticollis, salivation and dyspnoea were observed in Group III. Short-term limb contractions were present in all birds in Groups II and III, up to 20 min of observation. Recovery from anaesthesia was smooth in all three groups. A Surgical procedure (typhlectomy was performed on all birds. Hypothermia was observed in Group II, whereas heart and respiratory depression was recorded in Group I. Blood sugar level did not vary significantly in any anaesthetic regime. The reduction of haemoglobin was maximum in Group II compared with Groups I and III. Hypoxaemia and hypercapnaea were elevated in all birds in Groups II and III. Blood electrolytes did not vary significantly from the baseline values among the three groups of birds during the period of observation (120 min. The xylazine-ketamine combination was found to be the best anaesthesia for surgical intervention in chickens.

  4. Temporal Effects of High Dietary Zinc on the Histological Changes Produced in White Leghorn Cocks

    OpenAIRE

    Eltohamy, Magda Mohammed; Takahara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Masao; 高原, 斉; 岡本, 正夫

    1980-01-01

    Effects of high dietary Zn on histological changes of the endocrine glands were investigated in White Leghorn cocks. Cocks received 1000 ppm dietary Zn showed normal testicular development. In the groups received 3000 and 4000 ppm dietary Zn, the inhibitory effects in the testes suggested impaired production and/or release of adenohypophysial gonadotrophic hormone. Adenohypophysis of the group received 1000 ppm dietary Zn showed an increase in PAS-positive materials of the basophils, while ad...

  5. Identifying Genetic Differences Between Dongxiang Blue-Shelled and White Leghorn Chickens Using Sequencing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-bo Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken is one of the most valuable Chinese indigenous poultry breeds. However, compared to the Italian native White Leghorn, although this Chinese breed possesses numerous favorable characteristics, it also exhibits lower growth performance and fertility. Here, we utilized genotyping sequencing data obtained via genome reduction on a sequencing platform to detect 100,114 single nucleotide polymorphisms and perform further biological analysis and functional annotation. We employed cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity, eigenvector decomposition combined with genome-wide association studies (EigenGWAS, and efficient mixed-model association expedited methods to detect areas of the genome that are potential selected regions (PSR in both chicken breeds, and performed gene ontology (GO enrichment and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses annotating using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The results of this study revealed a total of 2424 outlier loci (p-value <0.01, of which 2144 occur in the White Leghorn breed and 280 occur in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken. These correspond to 327 and 94 PSRs containing 297 and 54 genes, respectively. The most significantly selected genes in Blue-shelled chicken are TMEM141 and CLIC3, while the SLCO1B3 gene, related to eggshell color, was identified via EigenGWAS. We show that the White Leghorn genes JARID2, RBMS3, GPC3, TRIB2, ROBO1, SAMSN1, OSBP2, and IGFALS are involved in immunity, reproduction, and growth, and thus might represent footprints of the selection process. In contrast, we identified six significantly enriched pathways in the Dongxiang Blue-shelled chicken that are related to amino acid and lipid metabolism as well as signal transduction. Our results also reveal the presence of a GO term associated with cell metabolism that occurs mainly in the White Leghorn breed, while the most significant QTL regions mapped to the Chicken QTL Database (GG_4

  6. Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, T.R.; Fischer, S.M.; Conti, C.J.; Locniskar, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effect of various levels of corn oil and coconut oil on ultraviolet (UV) light‐induced skin tumorigenesis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, Sencar and SKH‐1 mice were fed one of three 15% (weight) fat semipurified diets containing three ratios of com oil to coconut oil: 1.0%:14.0%, 7.9%:7.1%, and 15.0%:0.0% in Diets A, B, and C, respectively. Groups of 30 Sencar and SKH‐1 mice were fed one of the diets for three weeks before UV irradiation; then both strains were UV irradiated with an initial dose of 90 mJ/cm2. The dose was given three times a week and increased 25% each week. For Sencar mice (irradiated 33 wks for a total dose of 48 J/cm2), tumor incidence reached a maximum of 60%, 60%, and 53% for Diets A, B, and C, respectively, with an overall average of one to two tumors per tumor‐bearing animal. For the SKH‐1 mice (irradiated 29 wks for a total dose of 18 J/cm2), all diet groups reached 100% incidence by 29 weeks, with approximately 12 tumors per tumor‐bearing mouse. No significant effect of dietary corn oil/coconut oil was found for tumor latency, incidence, or yield in either strain. The effect of increasing com oil on epidermal ODC activity in chronically UV‐irradiated Sencar and SKH‐1 mice was assessed Three groups of mice from each strain were fed one of the experimental diets and UV irradiated for six weeks. Sencar mice showed no increase in ODC activity until six weeks of treatment, when the levels of ODC activity in the UV‐irradiated mice fed Diet A were significantly higher than those in mice fed Diet B or Diet C: 1.27, 0.55, and 0.52 nmol/mg protein/hr, respectively. In the SKH‐1 mice, ODC activity was increased by the first week of UV treatment, and by three weeks of treatment a dietary effect was observed: ODC activity was significantly higher in mice fed Diet C (0.70 nmol/mg protein/hr) than in mice fed Diet A (0.18 nmol/mg protein/hr). Although there was no significant effect of dietary corn oil

  7. Biological and economic optimum level of calcium in White Leghorn laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, C; Cuca, M; Pro, A; González, M; Morales, E

    2004-06-01

    Calcium is important in eggshell formation; inadequate levels in the diet of laying hens may affect shell quality and egg production. An experiment with 250 Leghorn Hy-Line W-98 hens was conducted to evaluate 5 dietary Ca levels (2.96, 3.22, 3.83, 4.31, and 4.82%) in 3 laying periods. The evaluated variables were egg production (EP), egg mass (EM), average daily feed intake (ADFI), feed conversion (FC), and specific gravity (SG). The biological optimum level (BOL) of Ca for maximum egg production and specific gravity, and the economic optimum level (EOL) to maximize profits were calculated. There was no interaction between Ca level and laying period. The results show that the Ca level of the diet (P < 0.05) affected the intake of this nutrient (3.34, 3.68, 4.26, 4.89, and 5.39 g bird/day), ADFI (113, 114, 111, 113, and 111 g bird/day), and SG (1.080, 1.081, 1.082, 1.083, and 1.083). As the hens aged, EP and SG diminished (P < 0.05). BOL for maximum EP and SG were 4.34 and 4.62%, and EOL was 4.38%.

  8. Genetic parameters for egg and related characteristics of white Leghorn hens in a subtropical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani M. Sabri

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of heritability and phenotypic and genetic correlations between egg number, weight, specific gravity, mass, and estimated shell weight were obtained, along with phenotypic and genetic correlations of specific gravity and weight with body weight, weight change, metabolizable energy intake, residual feed consumption, and weight and age at sexual maturity. Data were from 350 White Leghorn hens by 50 sires and 175 dams. Heritabilities of the egg traits ranged from 0.20 to 0.55, increasing with age of bird from 26 to 54 weeks of age. Their standard errors ranged from 0.07 (all data to 0.17 (26 to 29 weeks. Phenotypic correlations ranged from 0.80 to -0.13, and genetic correlations from 0.91 to -0.27, depending on egg trait. The highest phenotypic and genetic correlations were between egg number and mass. Genetic correlations for specific gravity and estimated shell weight were, with body weight, -0.02 and 0.56; weight change, 0.29 and 0.44; daily metabolizable energy intake, -0.10 and 0.33; residual consumption, -0.16 and 0.11; age at sexual maturity, -0.61 and -0.46, and weight at sexual maturity, 0.02 and 0.63. Results should contribute to the design of efficient selection programs for economically important traits in hens.Estimativas de herdabilidade e correlações fenotípicas e genéticas entre o número de ovos, peso, gravidade específica, massa e peso estimado da casca foram obtidas, assim como correlações fenotípicas e genéticas de gravidade específica e peso com peso corporal, alterações ponderais, ingestão de energia metabolizável, consumo alimentar residual e peso e idade ao atingir a maturidade sexual. Os dados foram obtidos de 350 galinhas da raça Leghorn Branca obtidas de 50 pais e 175 mães. A herdabilidade dos caracteres dos ovos variou de 0,20 a 0,55, aumentando com a idade da ave de 26 a 54 semanas. O desvio padrão variou de 0,07 (todos os dados a 0,17 (26 a 29 semanas. As correlações fenotípicas variaram

  9. Developmental toxicity in white leghorn chickens following in ovo exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peden-Adams, M. M.; Stuckey, Joyce E.; Gaworecki, K.M.; Berger-Ritchie, J.; Bryant, K.; Jodice, P.G.; Scott, T.R.; Ferrario, J.B.; Guan, B.; Vigo, C.; Boone, J.S.; McGuinn, W.D.; DeWitt, J.C.; Keil, D.E.

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that perfluorinated compounds cause various toxicological effects; nevertheless, effects on immune function and developmental endpoints have not been addressed at length. This study examined the effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in white leghorn hatchlings on various developmental, immunological, and clinical health parameters. In addition, serum PFOS concentrations were determined by LC/MS/MS. Embryonic day (ED) 0 eggs were injected with either safflower oil/10% DMSO (control, 0 mg/kg egg wt) or PFOS in safflower oil/10% DMSO at 1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg egg wt, and the chicks were grown to post-hatch day (PHD) 14. Treatment with PFOS did not affect hatch rate. Following in ovo exposure chicks exhibited increases in spleen mass at all treatment levels, in liver mass at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg egg wt, and in body length (crown-rump length) at the 5 mg/kg treatment. Right wings were shorter in all treatments compared to control. Increases in the frequency of brain asymmetry were evident in all treatment groups. SRBC-specific immunoglobulin (IgM and IgY combined) titers were decreased significantly at all treatment levels, while plasma lysozyme activity was increased at all treatment levels. The PHA skin test response decreased in relation to increasing PFOS dose. Serum concentrations where significant immunological, morphological, and neurological effects were observed at the lowest dose (1 mg/kg egg wt) averaged 154 ng PFOS/g serum. These concentrations fall within environmental ranges reported in blood samples from wild caught avian species; thereby, verifying that the environmental egg concentrations used for the injections do indeed relate to serum levels in hatchlings that are also environmentally relevant. These data indicate that immune alterations and brain asymmetry can occur in birds following in ovo exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PFOS and demonstrates the need for further research on the developmental effects of

  10. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  11. Cooled perch effects on performance and well-being traits in caged White Leghorn hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J Y; Hester, P Y; Makagon, M M; Vezzoli, G; Gates, R S; Xiong, Y J; Cheng, H W

    2016-12-01

    We assessed the effects of chilled water cooling perches on hen performance and physiological and behavioral parameters under "natural" high temperatures during the 2013 summer with a 4-hour acute heating episode. White Leghorns at 16 wk of age (N = 162) were randomly assigned to 18 cages (n = 9) arranged into 3 units. Each unit was assigned to one of the 3 treatments through 32 wk of age: 1) cooled perches, 2) air perches, and 3) no perches. Chilled water (10°C) was circulated through the cooled perches when cage ambient temperature exceeded 25°C. At the age of 27.6 wk, hens were subjected to a 4-hour acute heating episode of 33.3°C and plasma corticosterone was determined within 2 hours. Egg production was recorded daily. Feed intake and egg and shell quality were measured at 5-week intervals. Feather condition, foot health, adrenal and liver weights, plasma corticosterone, and heat shock protein 70 mRNA were determined at the end of the study at 32 wk of age. The proportion of hens per cage perching, feeding, drinking, panting, and wing spreading was evaluated over one d every 5 wks and on the d of acute heat stress. There were no treatment effects on the measured physiological and production traits except for nail length. Nails were shorter for cooled perch hens than control (P = 0.002) but not air perch hens. Panting and wing spread were observed only on the day of acute heat stress. The onset of both behaviors was delayed for cooled perch hens, and they perched more than air perch hens following acute heat stress (P = 0.001) and at the age 21.4 wk (P = 0.023). Cooled perch hens drank less than control (P = 0.019) but not air perch hens at the age 21.4 wk. These results indicate that thermally cooled perches reduced thermoregulatory behaviors during acute heat stress, but did not affect their performance and physiological parameters under the ambient temperature imposed during this study. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  12. The ability of White Leghorn hens with trimmed comb and wattles to thermoregulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ramamneh, D S; Makagon, M M; Hester, P Y

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that each year over 19 million pullets in the United States have their combs partially trimmed at a young age to improve egg production and feed efficiency. A possible disadvantage of trimming is that the comb and wattles may be essential for thermoregulation during hot weather allowing for conductive cooling of the blood through vasodilation of superficial vessels in these integumentary tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial comb and wattle removal, performed at 21 d of age, on the ability of White Leghorns to thermoregulate before, during, and after an imposed heating episode that averaged 34.6°C for 50.5 h. An increase in mortality at 20 h and body temperature at 48 h post initiation of the heating episode demonstrated that hens with trimmed comb and wattles were not able to cope with heat stress as effectively as controls. The increase in wattle temperature in controls as compared to trimmed hens during the heating episode and following heat stress provides supportive evidence that blood pools to the peripheral surface for conductive heat loss. During high temperatures typical of summer, trimmed hens attempted to compensate for their lack of ability to transfer heat from their comb and wattles to the environment through increased proportion of panting and wing spreading. Under less extreme conditions with lowered ambient temperatures, the trimming of the comb and wattles did not impair the ability of hens to thermoregulate, as body temperatures and behavior were similar to controls with no mortality. Egg weight was the only production parameter adversely affected by the trimming of the comb and wattles as compared to controls. The implication is that hens need their combs and wattles to thermoregulate effectively during periods of high environmental temperature. Pullets should not be subjected to a comb and wattle trim if they are housed in laying facilities that are not appropriately cooled during the

  13. Effect of Dietary Protein and Energy Level on Proximate Composition of Breast and Thigh Meat in White Leghorn Layers at Molt and Post Molt Production Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Javaid*, M. I. Anjum1 and M. Akram2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of varying protein and energy levels in molt diets on meat composition of White Leghorn layers. One hundred and fifty four, 70 weeks old, layers were randomly divided into 18 experimental units of 8 hens each in addition to 10 birds that were slaughtered at pre molt and post fast stages. After 10 days of fasting during molting, 6 experimental diets having 3 levels of crude protein (CP i.e. 14, 16 and 18% and 2 levels of metabolizable energy (ME i.e. 2700 and 2900 kcal/kg were given to the birds at the rate of 45 g/bird for 25 day. There after the birds were offered ad-libitum layer ration during production phase. Two birds per replicate at post molt, at 50% egg production and at the end of experiment were slaughtered and then breast and thigh meat samples were analyzed for proximate composition. Moisture (71.7 and 70.0% content was significantly (P<0.05 higher while, ether extract (2.13 and 3.49% was significantly (P<0.05 lower in both breast and thigh meat, respectively, with 18% CP diet as compared to 14 and 16% CP diets. Medium Protein-High Energy (MPHE molt diet having 16% CP with 2900 kcal/kg ME produced more dry matter and protein content in meat at the expense of ether extract. Results regarding proximate composition of layer meat determined at different stages of molting and post molt production revealed that moisture and protein contents of both breast and thigh meat were significantly increased where as, ether extract and ash contents were significantly decreased at post fast stage with respect to other stages.

  14. Genome-wide association study reveals novel variants for growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, R; Zhang, X; Chen, Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Q; Yang, C; Pan, Y

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the genetic basis of growth and egg traits in Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and White Leghorn chickens. In this study, we employed a reduced representation sequencing approach called genotyping by genome reducing and sequencing to detect genome-wide SNPs in 252 Dongxiang blue-shelled chickens and 252 White Leghorn chickens. The Dongxiang blue-shelled chicken breed has many specific traits and is characterized by blue-shelled eggs, black plumage, black skin, black bone and black organs. The White Leghorn chicken is an egg-type breed with high productivity. As multibreed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) can improve precision due to less linkage disequilibrium across breeds, a multibreed GWAS was performed with 156 575 SNPs to identify the associated variants underlying growth and egg traits within the two chicken breeds. The analysis revealed 32 SNPs exhibiting a significant genome-wide association with growth and egg traits. Some of the significant SNPs are located in genes that are known to impact growth and egg traits, but nearly half of the significant SNPs are located in genes with unclear functions in chickens. To our knowledge, this is the first multibreed genome-wide report for the genetics of growth and egg traits in the Dongxiang blue-shelled and White Leghorn chickens. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  15. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minozzi, G.; Parmentier, H.K.; Mignon-Grasteau, S.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Bed'hom, B.; Gourichon, D.; Minvielle, F.; Pinard-van der Laan, M.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background - The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab) to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three

  16. Reproductive characteristics differed in a series of B-congenic lines of white leghorns evidently indicating significant influence of major histocompatibility complex in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive characteristics were compared between a series of seven B-congenic lines of White Leghorns retrospectively using eight year’s reproduction records.The records encompass a total of 33,010 fertile eggs set to hatch under controlled conditions, which were collected accumulatively from 2,1...

  17. Ruminal variables in steers fed with Tifton 85 (Cynodon Spp hay with different particle sizes / Variáveis ruminais em novilhos alimentados com feno de Tifton 85 com diferentes tamanhos de partículas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Guimarães Pimentel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 concentration and the pH were determined with the objective of evaluating the effect of different particle sizes (5, 7, 10mm and whole of Tifton 85 hay in the diet of Holstein steers, with average live weight of 300kg and age of 20 months. A completely randomized design, with four replicates, in a split-plot arrangement was used. The plots were the experimental treatments (5, 7, 10mm and whole hay and the subplots were the times of collection (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h. The use of diets including hay with particle sizes of 5mm and whole, did not affect (P>0,05 the ruminal pH; average values were 6.14 and 6.61, respectively. A linear reduction in the ruminal pH was verified in the steers fed on diets constituted by 10mm particles. For the diets including Tifton hay with particle size of 7mm, it was observed a quadratic effect, where the minimum pH (5.39 was observed 8:00 h after the feed was furnished. Concentrations of N-NH3 were affected by collection time in a quadratic way. Maximum concentrations of N-NH3, 15.55, 15.83, 18.32, 12.0 mg/100 mL, were observed at 4:28, 3:58, 2:99 and 2:80h after feeding, for the diets including Tifton 85 hay with 5, 7, 10mm and whole particle sizes, respectively. It was concluded that all diets allowed normal nycterohemeral patterns of fermentation.As concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal (N-NH3 e pH foram determinadas objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes tamanhos de partículas de feno de Tifton 85 (5, 7, 10mm e inteiro na dieta de novilhos holandeses, castrados, com peso vivo médio de 300kg e idade média de 20 meses. As determinações das concentrações de amônia ruminal (N-NH3 e o pH foram analisadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema de parcela subdivididas, tendo nas parcelas os tratamentos experimentais (5, 7, 10mm e feno inteiro e nas sub-parcelas os tempos de coleta (0, 2, 4, 6, 8h, com quatro repetições. A utilização de dietas constituídas com

  18. The role of nitric oxide in the cardiovascular response to chronic and acute hypoxia in White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, N K; Wang, T; Baatrup, E; Crossley, D A

    2014-06-01

    Prenatal hypoxia due to placental insufficiency results in deleterious phenotypes and compensatory mechanisms including increased sympathetic tone. Utilizing the embryonic chicken model, we investigated (i) changes in nitric oxide (NO)-mediated tone in response to chronic hypoxic development and (ii) the in vivo role of NO-mediated tone during acute hypoxic exposure, which has not been previously studied. We hypothesized that NO tone on the cardiovascular system would be unaffected by chronic hypoxic incubation in White Leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos. We measured arterial pressure, heart rate and femoral blood flow (via a Doppler flow probe) in response to acute hypoxia (10% O2 ) and pharmacological manipulations in normoxic- and hypoxic (15% O2 )-incubated embryos. This was performed at 70 and 90% of total incubation time (21 days). At 70% of incubation (day 15), blood volume and chorioallantoic membrane development are maximal; 90% of incubation (day 19) is 1 day prior to lung ventilation. Acute hypoxic exposure decreased femoral flow in both 90% groups, but increased femoral artery resistance in the hypoxic group. NO tone increased during development, but was not affected by hypoxic incubation. Inhibition of NO production by L-NAME (100 mg kg(-1) ) revealed that NO plays a significant role in the flow response to hypoxia. Chronic hypoxic incubation has no effect on cardiovascular NO tone during White Leghorn chicken development. In the intact animal, NO function during acute hypoxic stress is suppressed by hypoxic incubation, indicating that chronic hypoxic stress dampens the NO contribution. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A comparison of cecal colonization of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in white leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogomolnaya Lydia M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important bacterial food borne illnesses worldwide. A major source of infection for humans is consumption of chicken or egg products that have been contaminated with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, however our knowledge regarding colonization and persistence factors in the chicken is small. Results We compared intestinal and systemic colonization of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and Salmonella-resistant CBA/J mice during infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028, one of the most commonly studied isolates. We also studied the distribution of wild type serotype Typhimurium ATCC14028 and an isogenic invA mutant during competitive infection in the cecum of 1-week-old White Leghorn chicks and 8-week-old CBA/J mice. We found that although the systemic levels of serotype Typhimurium in both infected animal models are low, infected mice have significant splenomegaly beginning at 15 days post infection. In the intestinal tract itself, the cecal contents are the major site for recovery of serotype Typhimurium in the cecum of 1-week-old chicks and Salmonella-resistant mice. Additionally we show that only a small minority of Salmonellae are intracellular in the cecal epithelium of both infected animal models, and while SPI-1 is important for successful infection in the murine model, it is important for association with the cecal epithelium of 1-week-old chicks. Finally, we show that in chicks infected with serotype Typhimurium at 1 week of age, the level of fecal shedding of this organism does not reflect the level of cecal colonization as it does in murine models. Conclusion In our study, we highlight important differences in systemic and intestinal colonization levels between chick and murine serotype Typhimurium infections, and provide evidence that suggests that the role of SPI-1 may not be the same during colonization of both animal models.

  20. Pathological Responses of White Leghorn Breeder Hens Kept on Ochratoxin A Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor-ul-Hassan, M. Zargham Khan*, Ahrar Khan and Ijaz Javed1

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are among the most important environmental contaminants. In the present study, ochratoxin A (OTA was produced by propagation of Aspergillus ochraceus and fed to breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. Group A served as control, while groups B, C, D, E, F and G were fed OTA at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg feed, respectively for 3 weeks. Clinical signs, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and egg mass production were recorded on daily basis, while body weight was recorded on weekly basis. Lesions on visceral organs and serum biochemical parameters were determined. Significant decrease in feed intake, body weight and egg mass production was found in the OTA treated groups compared to control (P<0.05. Among different groups, diarrhea, unthriftiness, water intake and depression increased with increase in dietary OTA levels. Enlargement and hemorrhages on liver and kidney were more severe in birds fed higher dietary OTA levels. Serum ALT, urea, creatinine and total protein levels were significantly higher in OTA treated groups. It was concluded that production performance, pathological alterations and serum biochemical changes determined became more severe with increase in dietary levels of OTA.

  1. Performance of Laying Hens Fed Diets Containing Varying Levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost of production significantly (p<0.05) increased with brewer's spent grain inclusion levels above 50% in laying hens diet. Cost effectiveness was obtained with T3 (50% BDG). Egg weight value from birds on diet T1 differed significantly from the egg weight obtained from birds on diet T5, egg weights from birds on diet T1 ...

  2. Performance of growing pigs of different genetic groups fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 39: 102-114. Bressani R (1974). In Annual Report For 1973. (Institute de Nutricion da Centro America, America Y Panama, INCAP, Quatemala City. Cameron CW, Ashton GC (1969). The Local Black and Large White breeds of pigs for meat Production in Ghana. Legion J. Agric. 2: 19-.

  3. Nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs fed sorghum varying in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (BPS)and a low polyphenol content class KM cultivar (NS)with maize .... phenol content was determined by the modified Jerumanis pro- ... sunflower oil cake meal (SOC) to formulate the six experimen- tal diets. Bird-proof sorghum of the cultivar SSK 32 with a polyphenol content of 1,42 % and NS of the cultivar NK 283.

  4. Nutrient digestibility and performance of pigs fed sorghum varying in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by standard AOAC methods. Polyphenol content of the sorghum samples (Table 4) was determined by the modified. Jerumanis procedure as described by Daiber (1975). Experiment 2. Experimental animals. Seventy-two Landrace type pigs (36 gilts and 36 boars) were randomly allotted to sixexperimental treatments when ...

  5. Nutrient intake, digestibility and growth rate of rabbits fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.01). Water consumption (l/kg) increased with increasing levels of CLM inclusion (P<0.05). The digestibility of dry matter (DMD) and other nutrients decreased with increasing level of CLM inclusion (P<0.05). Economic analysis showed that diet ...

  6. Growth Performance of Yankasa rams fed varying Proportions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were offered supplement at the rate of 1% of body weight per head daily. The trial lasted for 90 days. Metabolism study was subsequently conducted using 18 animals from those used for the feeding trial. .The proximate composition showed that the GAL had 93.71, 5.39, 13.60, 17.15, 23.00, 65.14, 32.30 and ...

  7. Blood profiles of indigenous Pedi goats fed varying levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    david

    2016-12-01

    , especially during the long dry season (Brown et al., 2016). There is insufficient plant biomass to support the production of goats in this period, resulting in poor reproductive performance and slow attainment of market weight.

  8. Correlated effects of selection for immunity in White Leghorn chicken lines on natural antibodies and specific antibody responses to KLH and M. butyricum

    OpenAIRE

    Minozzi, Giulietta; Parmentier, Henk K; Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Nieuwland, Mike GB; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Minvielle, Francis; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background - The effect of selection for three general immune response traits on primary antibody responses (Ab) to Mycobacterium butyricum or keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) was studied in four experimental lines of White Leghorn chicken. Birds underwent 12 generations of selection for one of three different general immune criteria; high antibody response to Newcastle disease virus 3 weeks after vaccination (ND3), high cell-mediated immune response, using the wing web response to phytohemglu...

  9. The effect of active immunization against vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and inhibin on reproductive performance of aging White Leghorn roosters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avital-Cohen, N; Heiblum, R; Argov, N; Rosenstrauch, A; Chaiseha, Y; Mobarkey, N; Rozenboim, I

    2012-01-01

    Decreasing fertility in aging domestic roosters is a well-known phenomenon. Aging is manifested by a decrease in plasma testosterone level, testis function, and spermatogenesis, resulting in a low level of fertility. The roles of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and testicular inhibin in this aging process are not clear. The effects of active immunization against VIP, inhibin, or the combination of both hormones on the reproduction of aging White Leghorn (WL) roosters were assayed. In experiment 1a, 60 White Leghorn roosters (67 wk of age) were divided into 4 groups (n = 15/group). The first group was actively immunized against VIP, the second against inhibin, the third against VIP and inhibin, and the fourth served as a control. Active immunization against VIP decreased semen quality parameters, plasma steroid levels, and gene expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-I (GnRH-I), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), LH receptor, VIP, and prolactin (Prl). Immunization against inhibin increased some of the semen quality parameters and FSH mRNA gene expression but decreased inhibin gene expression. In experiment 1b, at 94 wk of age, we took the actively immunized against VIP group and the control group and divided them into 2 subgroups (n = 7 or 8): the first group was injected with 1 mg of ovine Prl (oPrl) daily for 7 d, and the second group served as a control. Administration of oPrl to previously VIP-immunized birds significantly elevated semen quality parameters. We suggest that VIP, Prl, and inhibin have an important effect on the reproductive axis in aging roosters. Active immunization against VIP-depressed reproductive activity and Prl administration restored their reproduction, indicating that both VIP and Prl are essential for reproduction in aging roosters. Immunization against inhibin improved FSH mRNA gene expression, suggesting a negative role of inhibin on FSH secretion in aging roosters. Not all semen quality parameters

  10. Differential gene expression from genome-wide microarray analyses distinguishes Lohmann Selected Leghorn and Lohmann Brown layers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Habig

    Full Text Available The Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL and Lohmann Brown (LB layer lines have been selected for high egg production since more than 50 years and belong to the worldwide leading commercial layer lines. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the molecular processes that are different among these two layer lines using whole genome RNA expression profiles. The hens were kept in the newly developed small group housing system Eurovent German with two different group sizes. Differential expression was observed for 6,276 microarray probes (FDR adjusted P-value <0.05 among the two layer lines LSL and LB. A 2-fold or greater change in gene expression was identified on 151 probe sets. In LSL, 72 of the 151 probe sets were up- and 79 of them were down-regulated. Gene ontology (GO enrichment analysis accounting for biological processes evinced 18 GO-terms for the 72 probe sets with higher expression in LSL, especially those taking part in immune system processes and membrane organization. A total of 32 enriched GO-terms were determined among the 79 down-regulated probe sets of LSL. Particularly, these terms included phosphorus metabolic processes and signaling pathways. In conclusion, the phenotypic differences among the two layer lines LSL and LB are clearly reflected in their gene expression profiles of the cerebrum. These novel findings provide clues for genes involved in economically important line characteristics of commercial laying hens.

  11. Determination of Metabolizable Eenergy, Protein Quality and Chemical Composition of Blood Meal for Broiler Chickens and Adult Leghorn Rosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ghafoorian Rad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to study metabolizable energy, protein quality and chemical composition of four blood meal (BM samples from local animal rendering plant during 20 days sampling. All experiments were designed in a completely randomized design. The result of first experiment showed that chemical composition averages of BM samples were: DM, 88.43; CP, 77.03; EE, 1.12; Ash, 5.01; Ca, 0.46; P, 0.37 percent. CP and DM percentage of BM samples were significantly different from NRC, 1994. Mean gross energy of the samples was 4193 Kcal/kg. Protein efficiency ratio (PER and Net protein ratio (NPR were assessed using an experiment including 6 treatments, 4 replicates and 7 Ross male broiler chickens in each replicate. PER and NPR varied between 1.21 to 1.38, and 2.18 to 2.41 among BM samples, respectively. PER and NPR values were significantly lower than that of corresponding values in fish meal. In second experiment, the BM samples were substituted at 5 and 10 percent of corn-based diet and nitrogen corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn was evaluated in adult roosters with total excreta collection assay. AMEn values did not show significant difference among BM samples at tow substitution levels, 5 and 10 % of corn based diet. AMEn values varied from 2504 to 2573 kcal/kg. In third experiment, nitrogen corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn was determined by Sibbald’s precision-fed assay. This experiment included 5 treatments and 6 replicates in each replicate. Means of TMEn was 2895 kcal/kg in the BM samples that there was not significant difference among BM samples.

  12. Prediction of heterosis using genome-wide SNP-marker data: application to egg production traits in white Leghorn crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuzu-Aweh, E N; Bijma, P; Kinghorn, B P; Vereijken, A; Visscher, J; van Arendonk, J Am; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heterosis has a long history with mixed success, partly due to low numbers of genetic markers and/or small data sets. We investigated the prediction of heterosis for egg number, egg weight and survival days in domestic white Leghorns, using ∼400 000 individuals from 47 crosses and allele frequencies on ∼53 000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). When heterosis is due to dominance, and dominance effects are independent of allele frequencies, heterosis is proportional to the squared difference in allele frequency (SDAF) between parental pure lines (not necessarily homozygous). Under these assumptions, a linear model including regression on SDAF partitions crossbred phenotypes into pure-line values and heterosis, even without pure-line phenotypes. We therefore used models where phenotypes of crossbreds were regressed on the SDAF between parental lines. Accuracy of prediction was determined using leave-one-out cross-validation. SDAF predicted heterosis for egg number and weight with an accuracy of ∼0.5, but did not predict heterosis for survival days. Heterosis predictions allowed preselection of pure lines before field-testing, saving ∼50% of field-testing cost with only 4% loss in heterosis. Accuracies from cross-validation were lower than from the model-fit, suggesting that accuracies previously reported in literature are overestimated. Cross-validation also indicated that dominance cannot fully explain heterosis. Nevertheless, the dominance model had considerable accuracy, clearly greater than that of a general/specific combining ability model. This work also showed that heterosis can be modelled even when pure-line phenotypes are unavailable. We concluded that SDAF is a useful predictor of heterosis in commercial layer breeding.

  13. Conventional and cross-correlation brain-stem auditory evoked responses in the white leghorn chick: rate manipulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkard, R.; Jones, S.; Jones, T.

    1994-01-01

    Rate-dependent changes in the chick brain-stem auditory evoked response (BAER) using conventional averaging and a cross-correlation technique were investigated. Five 15- to 19-day-old white leghorn chicks were anesthetized with Chloropent. In each chick, the left ear was acoustically stimulated. Electrical pulses of 0.1-ms duration were shaped, attenuated, and passed through a current driver to an Etymotic ER-2 which was sealed in the ear canal. Electrical activity from stainless-steel electrodes was amplified, filtered (300-3000 Hz) and digitized at 20 kHz. Click levels included 70 and 90 dB peSPL. In each animal, conventional BAERs were obtained at rates ranging from 5 to 90 Hz. BAERs were also obtained using a cross-correlation technique involving pseudorandom pulse sequences called maximum length sequences (MLSs). The minimum time between pulses, called the minimum pulse interval (MPI), ranged from 0.5 to 6 ms. Two BAERs were obtained for each condition. Dependent variables included the latency and amplitude of the cochlear microphonic (CM), wave 2 and wave 3. BAERs were observed in all chicks, for all level by rate combinations for both conventional and MLS BAERs. There was no effect of click level or rate on the latency of the CM. The latency of waves 2 and 3 increased with decreasing click level and increasing rate. CM amplitude decreased with decreasing click level, but was not influenced by click rate for the 70 dB peSPL condition. For the 90 dB peSPL click, CM amplitude was uninfluenced by click rate for conventional averaging. For MLS BAERs, CM amplitude was similar to conventional averaging for longer MPIs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  14. Doubly fed induction machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  15. Effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (Phaseolus vulgaris by replacing soybean meal on egg fertility and qualities of chicks of white leghorn hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisay Fikru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding processed kidney bean meal (PKBM by replacing soybean meal (SBM on fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality and chick quality of white leghorn (WL hens. A total of 225 white leghorn hens (195 layers and 30 cocks with uniform body weight (BW and age were randomly distributed into 15 pens and assigned to five treatments (i.e., T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5. A total of 360 eggs collected from all the treatment birds were used for the analysis. The feeds of the treatments were SBM substituted by PKBM at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels for T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5, respectively. Replacement of SBM with PKBM in the diet did not affect the fertility, hatchability, embryonic mortality, chick length, chick weight, and chick quality by visual score. As no difference is observed, 100% replacement of SBM by PKBM (dosed at 100 g/kg concentrate diet is possible.

  16. Very Virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Produces More-Severe Disease and Lesions in Specific-Pathogen-Free (SPF) Leghorns Than in SPF Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá e Silva, Mariana; Rissi, Daniel R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an important pathogen of chickens causing negative economic impacts in poultry industries worldwide. IBDV has a variable range of virulence, with very virulent (vvIBDV) strains being responsible for the greatest losses from mortality and decreased performance. Previous vvIBDV studies using conventional broilers reported resistance to lethal effects and decreased performance as compared to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layers, but the potential contribution of the conventional vs. SPF status to resistance has not been examined. In this study we compared differences in the acute pathologic effects of infection by the California rA strain of vvIBDV for SPF white leghorn egg-laying chickens and SPF white Plymouth Rock broiler chickens over a 7-day experimental period. Based on the clinical signs and mortality observed, as well as on the more-severe pathologic changes in lymphoid tissues and kidneys, white leghorns were shown to be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of vvIBDV infection than were white Plymouth Rocks. This study provides important information on the impact of chicken breed on susceptibility to vvIBDV and the absence of impact from conventional vs. SPF status on the outcome.

  17. Purification of chicken carbonic anhydrase isozyme-III (CA-III and its measurement in White Leghorn chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishita Toshiho

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. Methods CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks were determined by ELISA. Results The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb, decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb. The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. Conclusion We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p

  18. Purification of chicken carbonic anhydrase isozyme-III (CA-III) and its measurement in White Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Toshiho; Tomita, Yuichiro; Yorifuji, Daisuke; Orito, Kensuke; Ochiai, Hideharu; Arishima, Kazuyosi

    2011-11-26

    The developmental profile of chicken carbonic anhydrase-III (CA-III) blood levels has not been previously determined or reported. We isolated CA-III from chicken muscle and investigated age-related changes in the levels of CA-III in blood. CA-III was purified from chicken muscle. The levels of CA-III in plasma and erythrocytes from 278 female chickens (aged 1-93 weeks) and 68 male chickens (aged 3-59 weeks) were determined by ELISA. The mean level of CA-III in female chicken erythrocytes (1 week old) was 4.6 μg/g of Hb, and the CA-III level did not change until 16 weeks of age. The level then increased until 63 weeks of age (11.8 μg/g of Hb), decreased to 4.7 μg/g of Hb at 73 weeks of age, and increased again until 93 weeks of age (8.6 μg/g of Hb). The mean level of CA-III in erythrocytes from male chickens (3 weeks old) was 2.4 μg/g of Hb, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. The mean plasma level of CA-III in 1-week-old female chickens was 60 ng/mL, and this level was increased at 3 weeks of age (141 ng/mL) and then remained steady until 80 weeks of age (122 ng/mL). The mean plasma level of CA-III in 3-week-old male chickens was 58 ng/mL, and this level remained steady until 59 weeks of age. We observed both developmental changes and sex differences in CA-III concentrations in White Leghorn (WL) chicken erythrocytes and plasma. Simple linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the erythrocyte CA-III level and egg-laying rate in WL-chickens 16-63 weeks of age (p < 0.01).

  19. The Effect of Cooled Perches on Immunological Parameters of Caged White Leghorn Hens during the Hot Summer Months.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Strong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine if thermally cooled perches improve hen immunity during hot summer. White Leghorn pullets at 16 week of age were randomly assigned to 18 cages of 3 banks at 9 hens per cage. Each bank was assigned to 1 of the 3 treatments up to 32 week of age: 1 thermally cooled perches, 2 perches with ambient air, and 3 cages without perches. Hens were exposed to natural ambient temperatures from June through September 2013 in Indiana with a 4 h acute heat episode at 27.6 week of age. The packed cell volume, heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratio, plasma concentrations of total IgG, and cytokines of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6, plus lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-α factor were measured at both 27.6 and 32 week of age. The mRNA expressions of these cytokines, toll-like receptor-4, and inducible nitric oxide synthase were also examined in the spleen of 32 week-old hens. Except for H/L ratio, thermally cooled perches did not significantly improve currently measured immunological indicators. These results indicated that the ambient temperature of 2013 summer in Indiana (24°C, 17.1 to 33.1°C was not high enough and the 4 h heat episode at 33.3°C (32 to 34.6°C was insufficient in length to evoke severe heat stress in hens. However, cooled perch hens had a lower H/L ratio than both air perch hens and control hens at 27.6 week of age and it was still lower compared to control hens (P < 0.05, respectively at 32 week of age. The lowered H/L ratio of cooled perch hens may suggest that they were able to cope with acute heat stress more effectively than control hens. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of thermally cooled perches on hen health under higher ambient temperatures.

  20. Microsatellite mapping of QTLs affecting resistance to coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) in a Fayoumi × White Leghorn cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Coville, Jean-Luc; Pitel, Frédérique; Feve, Katia; Leroux, Sophie; Legros, Hélène; Thomas, Aurélie; Gourichon, David; Repérant, Jean-Michel; Rault, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Avian coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease of poultry, causing severe economical loss to poultry production by affecting growth and feed efficiency of infected birds. Current control strategies using mainly drugs and more recently vaccination are showing drawbacks and alternative strategies are needed. Using genetic resistance that would limit the negative and very costly effects of the disease would be highly relevant. The purpose of this work was to detect for the first time QTL for disease resistance traits to Eimeria tenella in chicken by performing a genome scan in an F2 cross issued from a resistant Fayoumi line and a susceptible Leghorn line. Results The QTL analysis detected 21 chromosome-wide significant QTL for the different traits related to disease resistance (body weight growth, plasma coloration, hematocrit, rectal temperature and lesion) on 6 chromosomes. Out of these, a genome-wide very significant QTL for body weight growth was found on GGA1, five genome-wide significant QTL for body weight growth, plasma coloration and hematocrit and one for plasma coloration were found on GGA1 and GGA6, respectively. Two genome-wide suggestive QTL for plasma coloration and rectal temperature were found on GGA1 and GGA2, respectively. Other chromosme-wide significant QTL were identified on GGA2, GGA3, GGA6, GGA15 and GGA23. Parent-of-origin effects were found for QTL for body weight growth and plasma coloration on GGA1 and GGA3. Several QTL for different resistance phenotypes were identified as co-localized on the same location. Conclusion Using an F2 cross from resistant and susceptible chicken lines proved to be a successful strategy to identify QTL for different resistance traits to Eimeria tenella, opening the way for further gene identification and underlying mechanisms and hopefully possibilities for new breeding strategies for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken. From the QTL regions identified, several candidate genes and relevant

  1. A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (Pegg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs.

  2. Estudo da divergência genética entre seis linhas de aves Legorne utilizando técnicas de análise multivariada Genetic divergence study among six Leghorn lines by multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Pires

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A divergência genética entre seis linhas de aves Legorne (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 e L6, desenvolvidas pela UFV, foi avaliada utilizando análise de variáveis canônicas e o método de agrupamento de Tocher. Foram incluídas no estudo oito características: peso corporal na 40ª semana (PC40, na 48ª semana (PC48, na 56ª semana (PC56; peso do ovo na 40ª semana (PO40, na 44ª semana (PO44, na 52ª semana (PO52, na 60ª semana (PO60 e taxa de postura da 40ª a 62ª semana (TP. Foi observada diferença entre as linhas quanto às características estudadas. A linha L4 mostrou-se divergente das demais, apresentando a menor média canônica, e foi alocada em grupo distinto das outras pelo teste de Tocher. O desempenho das diferentes linhas foi também avaliado por meio da análise de variância multivariada, usando o teste do maior autovalor de Roy, e por meio do teste de Roy para comparações múltiplas. Verificou-se divergência genética entre as linhas da UFV, sendo PC40 a característica que mais contribuiu para a divergência.Genetic divergence among six Leghorn lines (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 e L6, developed by Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Brazil, was evaluated using canonical variate analysis and grouping method of Tocher. Eight traits were used: body weight at 40 weeks, at 48 weeks, at 56 weeks; egg weight at 40 weeks, at 44 weeks, at 52 weeks, at 60 weeks and laying ratio from 40 to 62 weeks of age. Significant differences were observed among lines for the studied traits. The line L4 was divergent in comparison with the other ones, showed the smallest canonical mean and was allocated in a different group. The performance of different genetic groups was also evaluated by multivariate analysis of variance, using Roy test of the largest eigenvalue and the Roy principle for multiple comparisons. Genetic divergence among UFV's lines was observed and body weight at 40 weeks was the trait that more contributed for this divergence.

  3. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  4. Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Diets Supplemented with Herbal Extracts and Flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majidzadeh Heravi R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effects of fennel and thyme extracts with and without flaxseed were investigated on performance and egg quality of Leghorn-type laying hens (Hy-Line W-36. 200 laying hens from 26 to 38 weeks of age were assigned to five dietary treatments with five replications. The treatment groups were: 1 Control (a diet without any additives; 2 control diet plus fennel (40 mg/kg feed; 3 control diet plus thyme (40 mg/kg feed; 4 a diet containing flaxseed and fennel; and 5 a diet containing flaxseed plus thyme. There were significant differences in feed intake and egg weight between the treatments (P < 0.05. The egg yolk color index in hens that received thyme extract and flaxseed treatment was significantly higher than other treatments (P < 0.05. Hens fed control diet had lower Haugh unit compared to other treatments that contained herbal extracts. The eggshell strength was significantly higher in hens that received thyme extract and flaxseed treatments than control (P < 0.05. The eggshell weight in treatments containing flaxseed was significantly higher compared to the other treatments (P < 0.05. The lowest egg yolk cholesterol concentration was found in hens fed thyme and flaxseed treatment. The hens fed plant extracts and flaxseed diets had eggs with low palmitic and stearic acids and high α-linolenic acid. It is concluded that thyme and fennel extracts, as well as flaxseed, improved the performance and egg quality of laying hens. The use of flaxseed and thyme extract improved egg yolk omega-3 fatty acids and decreased yolk cholesterol content.

  5. Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation in acute hemorrhagic shock and evaluation of gastric luminal and transcutaneous Pco2 in Leghorn chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernick, Morena B; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Martin-Jurado, Olga; Howard, Judith; Vogler, Barbara; Vogt, Rainer; Codron, Daryl; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly

  6. Long-term selection using a single trait criterion, non-destructive deformation, in White Leghorns: Effect over time on genetic parameters for traits related to egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Olivier; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Vincenot, Christian E; Nagamine, Yoshitaka; Moriya, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-01

    Although non-destructive deformation is relevant for assessing eggshell strength, few long-term selection experiments are documented which use non-destructive deformation as a selection criterion. This study used restricted maximum likelihood-based methods with a four-trait animal model to analyze the effect of non-destructive deformation on egg production, egg weight and sexual maturity in a two-way selection experiment involving 17 generations of White Leghorns. In the strong shell line, corresponding to the line selected for low non-destructive deformation values, the heritability estimates were 0.496 for non-destructive deformation, 0.253 for egg production, 0.660 for egg weight and 0.446 for sexual maturity. In the weak shell line, corresponding to the line selected for high non-destructive deformation values, the heritabilities were 0.372, 0.162, 0.703 and 0.404, respectively. An asymmetric response to selection was observed for non-destructive deformation, egg production and sexual maturity, whereas egg weight decreased for both lines. Using non-destructive deformation to select for stronger eggshell had a small negative effect on egg production and sexual maturity, suggesting the need for breeding programs to balance selection between eggshell traits and egg production traits. However, the analysis of the genetic correlation between non-destructive deformation and egg weight revealed that large eggs are not associated with poor eggshell quality. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Performance of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus fed varying dietary L-carnitine levels at different stocking densities Desempenho de juvenis de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus em função da densidade de estocagem e de níveis dietéticos de L-carnitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Magalhães Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial farming of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus at high stocking densities may lead to growth depression and increasing production costs. Moreover, the high levels of accumulated waste in an intensive system may cause rapid deterioration of water quality, which may undermine the production. L-carnitine is known as a growth-enhancer which shows promise as mitigator of crowding effects. The effects of stocking densities (4, 8, 11 and 14 kg m² on growth performance, feed utilization and body composition were evaluated during 75 days on turbot (75.6 ± 2.8 g fed two dietary L-carnitine levels (40 or 240 mg kg¹. At the end of the feeding trial, total ammonia excretion (TAN was measured postprandially for 24h. Specific growth rate and weight gain decreased with increasing stocking density. Fish held at 4 kg m² had higher final body weight (94-96 g than fish held at higher densities (80-87 g. Protein efficiency ratio was higher in fish held at 4 kg m² (1.33-1.36, in comparison to fish stocked at 8 kg m² (0.98 or 14 kg m² (0.45. Voluntary feed intake decreased from 0.70 to 0.56% BW with increasing stocking density. Dietary L-carnitine supplementation did not affect growth performance and body composition, except for body L-carnitine content which increased from 75 to 128 mg kg¹ BW with supplementation. Fish fed 240 mg L-carnitine supplements had lower TAN that the ones fed 40 mg L-carnitine (p A aquicultura de pregado (Scophthalmus maximus utilizando elevadas densidades pode reduzir o crescimento e aumentar os custos de produção. Elevados níveis de metabolitos gerados nestes sistemas intensivos provocam rápida deterioração da qualidade da água, podendo também comprometer a performance da produção. A L-carnitina atua como potenciadora do crescimento parecendo ser promissora por atenuar alguns desses efeitos. Os efeitos de densidades (4, 8, 11 e 14 kg m² no desempenho do crescimento, composição corporal foram avaliados em pregados

  8. Testicular morphometry and sperm reserves of local turkey toms fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphometry and sperm reserves of the testis, epididymis and vas deferens of three groups (n=5/ group) of sexually active adult local turkey toms fed isocaloric diet with varying levels (12 %, 16 %, 20 %) of protein were studied for sixteen weeks. The weights of the toms before treatment were between 3.5 – 4.5 kg, while ...

  9. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Poultry Offal Meal As A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juvenile of Clarias gariepinus (average initial weight 32.89g ± 0.36) were stocked at a density of 56/m2 in concrete tank and fed diets containing varying levels of poultry offal meal as partial/total replacement for fish meal. The poultry offal meal was included at (0%, 10%, 20% and 40% levels of inclusion representing, 0%, ...

  10. Performance and carcass characteristics of Yankasa ram fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... designed to evaluate the performance and carcass quality of Yankasa rams fed with varied levels of biscuit waste mixed with L. leucocephala as an alternative feed ingredient to maize and wheat offal mixture. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Preparation of experimental diets. Biscuit waste meal (BWM) was ...

  11. Performance and Digestibility of West African Dwarf Sheep fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine performance and nutrient digestibility of twenty four West African Dwarf Sheep aged between 10 and 12 months fed varying levels of forage and concentrate. Animals were allotted to three treatment groups in a completely randomized design at 75% concentrate and 25% grass, 50% ...

  12. Tissue distribution and excretion of radioactivity following administration of 14C-labeled deoxynivalenol to White Leghorn hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelusky, D.B.; Hamilton, R.M.; Trenholm, H.L.; Miller, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    The disposition of [ 14 C]deoxynivalenol ([ 14 C]DON) administered to hens as either a single oral dose or consumed in spiked feed over a 6-day period was determined by tracing the specific radioactivity of tissues and excreta. Following a single intubated dose (2.2 mg [ 14 C]DON; 2.4 microCi/bird), the toxin was found to be poorly absorbed; peak plasma levels (2-2.5 hr post-treatment) accounted for less than 1% of the administered dose. Maximum tissue residues were measured at 3 hr in all tissues (liver, kidney, brain, heart, spleen, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine) except for fat, muscle, and oviduct which occurred at 6 hr postdosing. Among the organs, the highest activities were measured in kidney, liver, and spleen; however, these levels were equal to less than 500 ng DON equivalents/g tissue, and declined quickly. Clearance of radioactivity from tissue had an average half-life of 16.83 +/- 8.2 hr (range 7.7-33.3 hr, depending on the tissue). Elimination of the labeled toxin in excreta occurred rapidly; recovery of radioactivity accounted for 78.6, 92.1, and 98.5% of the dose by 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. In continuously dosed birds fed 2.2 mg unlabeled DON for 6 days followed by 2.2 mg (1.5 microCi) [ 14 C]DON for 6 days, accumulation of radioactivity in tissues did not occur. Maximum residual levels, which occurred in the kidneys, were only 60 ng DON equivalents/g. Estimated level of residues contained in the edible tissues amounted to only 13-16 micrograms DON/1.5 kg hen

  13. Tissue distribution and excretion of radioactivity following administration of /sup 14/C-labeled deoxynivalenol to White Leghorn hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prelusky, D.B.; Hamilton, R.M.; Trenholm, H.L.; Miller, J.D.

    1986-11-01

    The disposition of (/sup 14/C)deoxynivalenol ((/sup 14/C)DON) administered to hens as either a single oral dose or consumed in spiked feed over a 6-day period was determined by tracing the specific radioactivity of tissues and excreta. Following a single intubated dose (2.2 mg (/sup 14/C)DON; 2.4 microCi/bird), the toxin was found to be poorly absorbed; peak plasma levels (2-2.5 hr post-treatment) accounted for less than 1% of the administered dose. Maximum tissue residues were measured at 3 hr in all tissues (liver, kidney, brain, heart, spleen, proventriculus, gizzard, small intestine) except for fat, muscle, and oviduct which occurred at 6 hr postdosing. Among the organs, the highest activities were measured in kidney, liver, and spleen; however, these levels were equal to less than 500 ng DON equivalents/g tissue, and declined quickly. Clearance of radioactivity from tissue had an average half-life of 16.83 +/- 8.2 hr (range 7.7-33.3 hr, depending on the tissue). Elimination of the labeled toxin in excreta occurred rapidly; recovery of radioactivity accounted for 78.6, 92.1, and 98.5% of the dose by 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. In continuously dosed birds fed 2.2 mg unlabeled DON for 6 days followed by 2.2 mg (1.5 microCi) (/sup 14/C)DON for 6 days, accumulation of radioactivity in tissues did not occur. Maximum residual levels, which occurred in the kidneys, were only 60 ng DON equivalents/g. Estimated level of residues contained in the edible tissues amounted to only 13-16 micrograms DON/1.5 kg hen.

  14. The effect of male and female supplementation of L-carnitine on reproductive traits of white leghorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W; Neuman, S L; Latour, M A; Hester, P Y

    2008-06-01

    Previous work in our laboratory showed that including 125 ppm of l-carnitine in the diets of roosters increased sperm concentration. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether reproductive efficiency could be improved by feeding l-carnitine to both parents over that of feeding l-carnitine to only the male or female. Diets formulated to contain 0 or 125 ppm of l-carnitine were fed to male and female birds from hatch until 37 wk of age. Eighty-four roosters were used, with the semen of 2 roosters constituting an experimental unit. Pools of semen from either l-carnitine-supplemented or control roosters were artificially inseminated into each of 288 hens with 23.5 muL of semen at weekly intervals, in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, resulting in a mean insemination dose of 1.2 and 1.1 x 10(8) sperm/hen for l-carnitine and control hens, respectively. Dietary l-carnitine, as compared with the control diet, increased egg yolk l-carnitine concentration (P = 0.001), decreased hatchling yolk sac weights (P = 0.0001), decreased yolk sac lipid content at hatch (P = 0.01), and culminated in compositional changes of yolk fatty acids, but it did not affect hatch rate, egg production, and egg traits. Although supplementing diets with l-carnitine improved sperm concentration, it did not result in a subsequent improvement in hatch rate, most likely because of the high numbers of sperm that were inseminated artificially in both the control and l-carnitine-supplemented hens. The higher concentrations of l-carnitine in the yolk of hatching eggs obtained from hens consuming l-carnitine as compared with controls may have encouraged the utilization of fat by developing embryos, as indicated by the decreased hatchling yolk sac weights and yolk sac lipid content, perhaps leading to the selective utilization of linoleic (C18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic (C18:3n-3) acids for growth and development over myristic (C14:0) and oleic (C18:1n-9) acids.

  15. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed sugarcane tops (SCT) supplemented with varying levels (0%, 25%, 50 and 75%) of Leucaena leucocephala foliage (LLF) in a completely randomized design. Results showed that sugarcane tops (SCT) ...

  16. Effects of feeding varying dietary levels of chromolaena odorata leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of feeding varying dietary levels of chromolaena odorata leaf meal on broiler starter chicks. ... Animal Production Research Advances ... Two hundred and forty (240), 14-day old Anak broilers were used to evaluate the performance, nutrient utilization and organ characteristics of starter broilers fed Chromolaena ...

  17. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  18. Development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of chicken osteocalcin and its use in evaluation of perch effects on bone remodeling in caged White Leghorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Cheng, H W; Hester, P Y; Hou, J-F

    2013-08-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a sensitive biochemical marker for evaluating bone turnover in mammals. The role of avian OC is less clear because of the need for a chicken assay. Our objectives were to develop an assay using indirect competitive ELISA for detecting chicken serum OC and use the assay to examine the effects of perches on bone remodeling in caged hens. Anti-chicken OC polyclonal antibody was produced by immunization of rabbits with a recombinant OC from Escherichia coli. Chicken OC extracted from bone was used as a coated protein, and purified chicken OC was used for calibration. The limit of detection of the developed OC ELISA was 0.13 ng/mL. The intra- and interassay CV were hens housed in conventional cages with or without perches. Serum samples were collected from 71-wk-old White Leghorn hens subjected to 4 treatments. Treatment 1 was control chickens that never had access to perches during their life cycle. Treatment 2 chickens had perches during the pullet phase (0 to 16.9 wk of age), whereas treatment 3 chickens had perches only during the egg-laying phase of the life cycle (17 to 71 wk of age). Treatment 4 chickens always had access to perches (0 to 71 wk of age). Correlation between the 2 assays was 0.62 (P hens with perch access had higher concentrations of serum OC than hens without perches during egg laying (P = 0.04). Pullet access to perches did not affect serum OC levels in 71-wk-old hens (P = 0.15). In conclusion, a chicken OC ELISA has been validated that is sensitive and accurate with adequate discriminatory power for measuring bone remodeling in chickens.

  19. Desempenho de vacas em lactação recebendo dietas com diferentes teores de amido total, acrescidas ou não de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Supplementing yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae for late lactating dairy cows fed diets varying in starch content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Portela Santos

    2006-08-01

    culture and high starch diets while milk fat yield tended to be highest only when yeast culture was fed together with the high starch diet. Partially replacing corn with dried citrus pulp reduced both milk urea nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen in the present trial.

  20. Variáveis ruminais, concentração de uréia plasmática e excreções urinárias de nitrogênio em vacas leiteiras alimentadas com concentrado processado de diferentes formas Ruminal metabolism, plasma urea concentration, and urinary excretion of nitrogen of dairy cows fed concentrate processed in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Luiz Wernersbach Filho

    2006-06-01

    at 3 h post-feeding on cows fed diets contained extruded concentrate. Plasma urea did not differ across diets while for urinary excretion of nitrogen a significant difference was observed only for the diet containing the partially processed high-energy concentrate.

  1. Smoothly Varying Bright Blazars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Alfen, Nicholas; Hindman, Lauren; Moody, Joseph Ward; Biancardi, Rochelle; Whipple, Parkes; Gaunt, Caleb

    2018-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that blazar light can vary sinusoidally with periods of hundreds of days to tens of years. Such behavior is expected of, among other things, jets coming from binary black holes. To look for general variability in lesser-known blazars and AGN, in 2015-2016 we monitored 182 objects with Johnson V-band magnitudes reported as being < 16. In all, this campaign generated 22,000 frames from 2,000 unique pointings. We find that approximately one dozen of these objects show evidence of smooth variability consistent with sinusoidal periods. We report on the entire survey sample, highlighting those that show sinusoidal variations.

  2. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  3. 15N-enrichments of ammonia and glutamine in blood after infusion of 15N-ammonia in chickens fed low or high protein diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Yutaka; Koh, Katsuki

    1985-01-01

    In this experment, the blood ammonia and glutamine amide came from infused ammonia were determined when N-15 labeled ammonium acetate was intraportally infused into the chickens fed 5 or 20 % protein diet. The data obtained indicated that the infused ammonia was taken into blood glutamine amide, and also accumulated in blood as it is, in both dietary groups. 10 to 12 months old White Leghorn male birds were used. The experimental diet was fed once a day for 5 days to the birds weighting about 1.2 kg by 35 g per kg body weight. The experimental diet was consumed within 40 min in all cases. Cardiac and portal catheterization were performed for blood collection and ammonia infusion, respectively. After finishing the infusion, blood samples were taken to analyze the ammonia and glutamine contents and their N-15 enrichment. Statistical difference was not observed in the appearance of N-15 in ammonia and glutamine amide between two dietary groups. The N-15 enrichment in blood ammonia and the amide of plasma glutamine, and the calculated exogenous nitrogen in the ammonia and glutamine amide tended to be more in the 5 % protein diet group than the other. (Kako, I.)

  4. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenboim, I; Mahato, J; Cohen, N A; Tirosh, O

    2016-03-01

    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens

  5. QTL detection for coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) resistance in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F₂ cross, using a medium-density SNP panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, Nicola; Bed'Hom, Bertrand; Filangi, Olivier; Romé, Hélène; Gourichon, David; Répérant, Jean-Michel; Le Roy, Pascale; Pinard-van der Laan, Marie-Hélène; Demeure, Olivier

    2014-02-19

    Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease that causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Its pathogenicity leads to depression of body weight gain, lesions and, in the most serious cases, death in affected animals. Genetic variability for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken has been demonstrated and if this natural resistance could be exploited, it would reduce the costs of the disease. Previously, a design to characterize the genetic regulation of Eimeria tenella resistance was set up in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F2 cross. The 860 F2 animals of this design were phenotyped for weight gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit level, intestinal lesion score and body temperature. In the work reported here, the 860 animals were genotyped for a panel of 1393 (157 microsatellites and 1236 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the sequenced genome (i.e. the 28 first autosomes and the Z chromosome). In addition, with the aim of finding an index capable of explaining a large amount of the variance associated with resistance to coccidiosis, a composite factor was derived by combining the variables of all these traits in a single variable. QTL detection was performed by linkage analysis using GridQTL and QTLMap. Single and multi-QTL models were applied. Thirty-one QTL were identified i.e. 27 with the single-QTL model and four with the multi-QTL model and the average confidence interval was 5.9 cM. Only a few QTL were common with the previous study that used the same design but focused on the 260 more extreme animals that were genotyped with the 157 microsatellites only. Major differences were also found between results obtained with QTLMap and GridQTL. The medium-density SNP panel made it possible to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that were involved in the genetic control of the traits investigated. This study also highlights the strong variations in QTL detection between different models and marker densities.

  6. QTL detection for coccidiosis (Eimeria tenella) resistance in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F2 cross, using a medium-density SNP panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease that causes huge economic losses to the poultry industry. Its pathogenicity leads to depression of body weight gain, lesions and, in the most serious cases, death in affected animals. Genetic variability for resistance to coccidiosis in the chicken has been demonstrated and if this natural resistance could be exploited, it would reduce the costs of the disease. Previously, a design to characterize the genetic regulation of Eimeria tenella resistance was set up in a Fayoumi × Leghorn F2 cross. The 860 F2 animals of this design were phenotyped for weight gain, plasma coloration, hematocrit level, intestinal lesion score and body temperature. In the work reported here, the 860 animals were genotyped for a panel of 1393 (157 microsatellites and 1236 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the sequenced genome (i.e. the 28 first autosomes and the Z chromosome). In addition, with the aim of finding an index capable of explaining a large amount of the variance associated with resistance to coccidiosis, a composite factor was derived by combining the variables of all these traits in a single variable. QTL detection was performed by linkage analysis using GridQTL and QTLMap. Single and multi-QTL models were applied. Results Thirty-one QTL were identified i.e. 27 with the single-QTL model and four with the multi-QTL model and the average confidence interval was 5.9 cM. Only a few QTL were common with the previous study that used the same design but focused on the 260 more extreme animals that were genotyped with the 157 microsatellites only. Major differences were also found between results obtained with QTLMap and GridQTL. Conclusions The medium-density SNP panel made it possible to genotype new regions of the chicken genome (including micro-chromosomes) that were involved in the genetic control of the traits investigated. This study also highlights the strong variations in QTL detection between

  7. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  8. Comparative evaluation of dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide and oregano essential oil in forced molted and fully fed laying hens between 82 and 106 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, M; Bintaş, E; Kırkan, Ş; Akşit, H; Küçükyılmaz, K; Erbaş, G; Çabuk, M; Akşit, D; Parın, U; Ege, G; Koçer, B; Seyrek, K; Tüzün, A E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of feed-grade preparations of mannan oligosaccharides ( MOS: ) and oregano essential oil ( OEO: ) in forced molted or fully fed 82-week-old, laying hens. A 2 × 3 factorial experiment investigated the influence of molting vs. full feeding and dietary supplements [i.e., unsupplemented control, MOS (1 g/kg) diet, and OEO (24 mg/kg) diet] on production parameters, egg quality, serum stress indicators, blood constituents, tibial characteristics, liver antioxidant status, and cecal microflora composition. A total of 864 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were randomly assigned to 6 treatments, each with 6 replicates of 24 hens each, and studied for 25 wk. Hens were fed a molt diet containing of 50% alfalfa and 50% wheat bran ( AA+WB: ) for 12 d, then returned to the laying ration. Results indicate that molt vs. full feed impacted more on most variables measured than supplementation or supplement type. Significant (P feed conversion ratio ( FCR: ). In fully fed hens, MOS supplementation improved (P hens. Molting improved egg quality despite the significant regression in ovary and oviduct weight (P hens were significantly lower than those of fully fed counterparts; however, poor mineralization was not reflected in the bones' mechanical properties. No significant differences were observed among treatments for hematological characteristics. Both the MOS and particularly the OEO supplementation improved (P feeding with an aa+wb diet is an effective non-feed-removal method for molted hens, the benefit of which can be improved with MOS and OEO supplementation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk malondialdehyde was observed in YG-fed groups, and ZnSeMet supplementation of diets decreased (P hens fed on diets supplemented by YG, followed by those on SO-diets. Although different fat sources had no effect on antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus, supplemental ZnSeMet improved (P hens, with the highest impact in diets containing oxidized (high peroxide values) fat sources.

  10. Blood parameters of boars fed diets supplemented with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two cross-bred (Large White X Landrace) male weanling pigs aged 8-9 weeks and weighing between 7.37 and 7.62kg (averaging 7.49 + 0.36kg individually) were used to assess the haematological profile of boars fed varied dietary copper. Four experimental diets were formulated: control (diet 1) with no inclusion of ...

  11. Growth response of broiler chickens fed varying levels of sheanut cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion of SNC in the diet of broiler chickens at 2.5 per cent had no deleterious effect on their growth performance and also reduced cost of feeding. . Une étude de quatre semaines ( 264 de poulets de chair, de la race de Cobb ) était entreprise pour évaluer la réaction en croissance de poulets de chair aux quantités ...

  12. Performance and phytate utilization of meat-type chickens fed varied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These performance indicators also declined as feed acidification reduced from 0.3% to the acid control group. In conclusion, 0.3% supplementation of acidifiers in broiler diets can significantly (P<0.05) improve phytate hydrolysis, growth performance and other productive parameters. Supplementation of feed grade organic ...

  13. Oxygen Consumption Constrains Food Intake in Fish Fed Diets Varying in Essential Amino Acid Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.; Geurden, I.; Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Nusantoro, S.; Kaushik, S.J.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Compromisation of food intake when confronted with diets deficient in essential amino acids is a common response of fish and other animals, but the underlying physiological factors are poorly understood. We hypothesize that oxygen consumption of fish is a possible physiological factor constraining

  14. Weed communities of rain-fed lowland rice vary with infestation by Rhamphicarpa fistulosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houngbédji, Tossimidé; Dessaint, Fabrice; Nicolardot, Bernard; Shykoff, Jacqui A.; Gibot-Leclerc, Stéphanie

    2016-11-01

    The facultative hemiparasitic plant Rhamphicarpa fistulosa (Orobanchaceae) thrives in seasonally wet soils in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in marginal lowland rice growing environments where weeds are already a major constraint for rice production. Because lowland rice production is increasing in tropical Africa, it is important to ascertain the influence of R. fistulosa on weed plant communities in these rice-growing habitats. We investigated weed plant community richness and composition at four different levels of R. fistulosa infestation across two years of surveys from lowland rice fields in northern Togo (West Africa). Despite a lack of significant differences in community richness among sites with different R. fistulosa infestation levels, there were significant differences in community composition, both when estimated from presence-absence data and from relative abundance data, after controlling statistically for geographic proximity among sites. Rhamphicarpa fistulosa infestation, therefore, may influence the competitive balance between rice and its weeds and shape weed community structure. However, experimental studies are required to elucidate the weed host range of R. fistulosa and the direct and indirect effects of this hemiparasite in rice fields in order to predict its net impact on rice and its weed species.

  15. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  16. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  17. Biology of three species of the Meccus phyllosomus complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae fed on blood of hens and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Aspects related to hatching, life time, number of blood meals to molt, mortality, feeding time and postfeed defecation delay for each instar of Meccus phyllosomus, M. mazzottii, and M. bassolsae, life-cycle were evaluated and compared in two cohorts of each of those three species, fed on hens or rabbits. No significant (p > 0.05 differences were recorded among cohorts fed on hens respect to cohorts fed on rabbits in M. phyllosomus and M. mazzottii and the average time of hatching was 21.5 days for cohorts fed on hens and 22.5 for cohorts fed on rabbits. Average egg-to-adult development times were no significant (p > 0.05 different between both cohorts of M. phyllosomus and M. mazzotti, independent of the blood meal source. The average span in days for each instar fed on hens was not significantly different to the average span for each instar fed on rabbits, when comparisons were made by species. The number of blood meals at each nymphal instar varied from 1 to 6 in both cohorts of each species. The mortality rates were higher on older nymphs, in both cohorts of M. phyllosomus and M. bassolsae, whereas they were higher on first instar nymphs on M. mazzottii. Mean feeding time was no significant (p > 0.05 different in triatomines fed on hens or fed on rabbits, when each species were compared separately. A similar number of nymphs of each cohort, completed the cycle. Defecation delay was no significant (p > 0.05 different when cohorts fed on hens and fed on rabbits were compared by species. Most of the studied parameters showed no significant (p > 0.05 differences among those cohorts fed on hens and for fed on rabbits, which could mean a high degree of association of those species with birds as much as mammals, under wild conditions, increasing their capacity to colonize human dwellings.

  18. Effects of Enzyme Supplementation on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens fed Diets Containing Graded Levels of Whole Date Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torki M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to determine the effects of β-mannanase-based enzyme (Hemicell® on productive performance and egg quality in diets containing graded levels of Whole date waste (WDW fed to laying hens. A total of 336 Hy-line leghorn hens after production peak were randomly divided into 56 cages. Eight iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement including four levels of WDW (0, 10, 20 and 30% and 2 concentrations of supplemental β-mannanase (0 or 0.06 % were prepared. Each dietary treatment was fed to 7 cages (6 birds/cage from 32 to 38 wk of age. During the experiment, daily egg production, egg weight and feed intake were measured. At the 6th wk, egg quality traits were also recorded. The results showed that there was no interaction between WDW inclusion and enzyme supplementation on performance and egg traits. Dietary supplementation of WDW more than 10% significantly decreased egg production and egg mass compared to no WDW recipient hens (control diet during the entire experiment (P. Inclusion of 30% WDW to the diet, significantly increased overall feed conversion ratio compared to the control group (P. The treatment with 20 and 30% WDW also resulted in lower eggshell thickness as compared to 10% WDW (P. The dietary inclusion of 10% WDW also increased yolk index as compared to the control and 30% WDW groups (P. Enzyme supplementation had no significant effect on productive performance as well as egg quality characteristics. Based on the results of this experiment, it can be concluded that WDW could be included to laying hens diets up to 10% with no deleterious effects on performance and egg quality characteristics.

  19. Einstein Equations from Varying Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Bartłomiej

    2018-01-01

    A recent proposal equates the circuit complexity of a quantum gravity state with the gravitational action of a certain patch of spacetime. Since Einstein's equations follow from varying the action, it should be possible to derive them by varying complexity. I present such a derivation for vacuum solutions of pure Einstein gravity in three-dimensional asymptotically anti-de Sitter space. The argument relies on known facts about holography and on properties of tensor network renormalization, an algorithm for coarse-graining (and optimizing) tensor networks.

  20. Control of the doubly-fed induction machine for wind turbine applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen Tien, H.

    2017-01-01

    The linear control of doubly-fed induction machines in wind power systems normally encounters the problems in variations of the rotor mechanical angular speed and other time-varying parameters. However, better performance requirements against changes in the machine parameters and exogenous inputs

  1. IQC-based robust stability analysis for LPV control of doubly-fed induction generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tien, H. N.; Scherer, C. W.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Parameters of electrical machines are usually varying with time in a smooth way due to changing operating conditions, such as variations in the machine temperature and/or the magnetic saturation. This paper is concerned with robust stability analysis of controlled Doubly-Fed Induction Generators

  2. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly...

  3. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  4. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  5. Effect of Varying Levels of Inclusion of Shea Nut ( Vitellaria paradoxa )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty (20) rabbit does aged between 4 – 5 months with average body weight of 1. 75 kg, were used to study the effect of feeding varying level of inclusion of shea nut meal (SNM) on the reproductive performance of doe rabbits. The does were randomly assigned into five groups comprising four rabbits each and were fed ...

  6. Effects of varying levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of varying dietary levels of n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio on plasma fatty acid composition and prostanoid synthesis in pregnant rats. Four groups consisting of seven rats per group of non pregnant rats were fed diets with either a very low n-6:n-3 ratio of 50% soybean oil (SBO): 50% cod liver oil ...

  7. Vector Autoregressions with Parsimoniously Time Varying Parameters and an Application to Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent; Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    the monetary policy response to inflation and business cycle fluctuations in the US by estimating a parsimoniously time varying parameter Taylor rule.We document substantial changes in the policy response of the Fed in the 1970s and 1980s, and since 2007, but also document the stability of this response...

  8. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  9. Tokamak-FED plasma-engineering assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the current US tokamak FED concept, which aims to provide a controlled, long pulse (approx. 100 s) burning plasma with an energy amplification of greater than or equal to 5, a fusion power of 180 MW, and a neutron wall load of greater than or equal to 0.4 MW/m 2 . The results of the assessment suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 5.0 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 5.4 MA are appropriate in reaching the above plasma performance, despite uncertainties in several plasma physics areas, such as confinement scaling, achievable beta, impurity control, etc. To enhance the probability of achieving fusion ignition and to provide some margin against a short fall in our physics projections in FED, a limited operating capability at B/sub t/ = 4.6 T and I/sub p/ = 6.5 MA is incorporated. Various other options and remedies have also been assessed aiming to alleviate the impact of the uncertainties on the FED design concept. These approaches appear promising because they can be studied within the current fusion physics program and may lead to drastically more cost-effective FED concepts

  10. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  11. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  12. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  13. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment.

  14. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years

  15. Protection of White Leghorn chickens by U.S. emergency H5 vaccination against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Balzli, Charles; Lee, Dong-Hun; Suarez, David L; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2017-11-01

    During December 2014-June 2015, the U.S. experienced a high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak caused by clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx Goose/Guangdong lineage viruses with devastating consequences for the poultry industry. Three vaccines, developed based on updating existing registered vaccines or currently licensed technologies, were evaluated for possible use: an inactivated reverse genetics H5N1 vaccine (rgH5N1) and an RNA particle vaccine (RP-H5), both containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.4.4 strain, and a recombinant herpesvirus turkey vectored vaccine (rHVT-H5) containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.2 strain. The efficacy of the three vaccines, alone or in combination, was assessed in White Leghorn chickens against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 HPAI virus challenge. In Study 1, single (rHVT-H5) and prime-boost (rHVT-H5+rgH5N1 or rHVT-H5+RP-H5) vaccination strategies protected chickens with high levels of protective immunity and significantly reduced virus shedding. In Study 2, single vaccination with either rgH5N1 or RP-H5 vaccines provided clinical protection in adult chickens and significantly reduced virus shedding. In Study 3, double rgH5N1 vaccination protected adult chickens from clinical signs and mortality when challenged 20weeks post-boost, with high levels of long-lasting protective immunity and significantly reduced virus shedding. These studies support the use of genetically related vaccines, possibly in combination with a broad protective priming vaccine, for emergency vaccination programs against clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx HPAI virus in young and adult layer chickens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Robust Adaptive Reactive Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Wen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of reactive power control for mains-side inverter (MSI in doubly fed induction generator (DFIG is studied in this paper. To accommodate the modelling nonlinearities and inherent uncertainties, a novel robust adaptive control algorithm for MSI is proposed by utilizing Lyapunov theory that ensures asymptotic stability of the system under unpredictable external disturbances and significant parametric uncertainties. The distinguishing benefit of the aforementioned scheme consists in its capabilities to maintain satisfactory performance under varying operation conditions without the need for manually redesigning or reprogramming the control gains in contrast to the commonly used PI/PID control. Simulations are also built to confirm the correctness and benefits of the control scheme.

  17. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  18. Microbial biodiversity in glacier-fed streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Linda; Singer, Gabriel A; Fasching, Christina; Battin, Tom J; Besemer, Katharina

    2013-08-01

    While glaciers become increasingly recognised as a habitat for diverse and active microbial communities, effects of their climate change-induced retreat on the microbial ecology of glacier-fed streams remain elusive. Understanding the effect of climate change on microorganisms in these ecosystems is crucial given that microbial biofilms control numerous stream ecosystem processes with potential implications for downstream biodiversity and biogeochemistry. Here, using a space-for-time substitution approach across 26 Alpine glaciers, we show how microbial community composition and diversity, based on 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, in biofilms of glacier-fed streams may change as glaciers recede. Variations in streamwater geochemistry correlated with biofilm community composition, even at the phylum level. The most dominant phyla detected in glacial habitats were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria/chloroplasts. Microorganisms from ice had the lowest α diversity and contributed marginally to biofilm and streamwater community composition. Rather, streamwater apparently collected microorganisms from various glacial and non-glacial sources forming the upstream metacommunity, thereby achieving the highest α diversity. Biofilms in the glacier-fed streams had intermediate α diversity and species sorting by local environmental conditions likely shaped their community composition. α diversity of streamwater and biofilm communities decreased with elevation, possibly reflecting less diverse sources of microorganisms upstream in the catchment. In contrast, β diversity of biofilms decreased with increasing streamwater temperature, suggesting that glacier retreat may contribute to the homogenisation of microbial communities among glacier-fed streams.

  19. GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF GRASSCUTTERS FED DIETS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A total of ninety six-week old grasscutters were used in a study conducted to investigate the growth performance of grasscutters fed diets containing Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) and/or soybean meal. (SBM). The ninety (90) grasscutters were randomly assigned to three experimental groups consisting of ...

  20. Harmonic analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2003-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the frequency spectrum of the stator and rotor currents in a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) used in wind power applications. The paper also presents a method to eliminate higher harmonics and interharmonics in the DFIG stator current. The method is implemented...

  1. ( Rattus norvegicus ) Fed with Dietary Cadmium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological changes in the kidney tissues of albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed 100mg/kg body weight of cadmium sulphate incorporated as food material has been studied in vivo in an acute toxicological experiment. The behavioural pattern and physical changes in the rats were also investigated. Loss of weight and ...

  2. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  3. MODIFIED EDGE FED SIERPINSKI CARPET MINIATURIZED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presented a modified edge fed Sierpinski carpet microstrip patch antenna for antenna miniaturization. The proposed design was etched as Sierpinski carpet to lower the antenna resonant frequency, which is used to reduce the conventional patch antenna size. After the Sierpinski carpet second iteration, the ...

  4. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop a mo...

  5. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...... in relative kidney size were temporary, as they did not persist at 18 months of age, when all children received a normal mixed diet. The immediate renal effects of formula feeding should be taken into consideration for recommendations concerning infant feeding. Whether there are any long-term effects of early...

  6. Mineral balance studies in very low birth weight infants fed human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanler, R.J.; Abrams, S.A.; Garza, C.

    1988-01-01

    Mineral homeostasis often is disrupted in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant fed either human milk or commercial formula that contains insufficient quantities of available calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Alterations in mineral homeostasis include abnormal patterns of serum (Ca and P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity) and urine (Ca and P) biochemical markers, low net Ca and P retentions in comparison with intrauterine estimates of mineral accretion, and decreased bone mineral content. A two-phase study was conducted in our laboratory to test for these alterations in mineral homeostasis. In phase 1, VLBW infants fed a preparation of fortified human milk (either human milk-derived fortifier I or II or cow milk-derived fortifier) or cow milk-based formula specially designed for VLBW infants were evaluated during their hospitalization. In phase 2, after hospitalization, these infants were evaluated during the first 6 months of life when fed either their mother's milk or routine formula exclusively. The bioavailability of Ca and P from the tested preparations varied widely. Although the fortification of human milk resulted in both an improved biochemical pattern and net retention of Ca and P, optimal intrauterine mineral accretion was not achieved in any group tested. Longitudinal assessments of bone mineralization, by single photon absorptiometry, demonstrated that human milk-fed former VLBW infants had reduced bone mineral content. These investigations suggest that former VLBW infants fed human milk exclusively may be at risk for Ca and P deficiencies

  7. Growth performance and nutrient composition of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed Spirulina flakes, rice bran and mustard oil cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, N; Noor, P; Abdullah, A T M; Hasan, M R; Ahmed, K M; Naser, M N

    2012-08-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is an important cultured fish that is widely distributed in Bangladesh. This study was conducted to improve the growth performance and nutrient contents of the fish using five different types of feeds. Tilapia fingerlings were fed two types of commercial fish feeds (Feed-1 and Feed-2), Spirulina flakes (Feed-3), Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4) and manually mixed feed made from a mixture of mustard oil cake and rice bran (Feed-5). After 4 weeks of being fed with the diets, growth parameters and meat nutrient composition of the tilapia fingerlings were recorded. Significant growth in length and weight was observed in juvenile tilapia fish fed with commercial Feed-1 only, while growth performance varied significantly among fingerlings fed other types of feeds. Body tissue calcium (92.8 mg/100 g), iron (1.29 mg/100 g) was higher in fishes fed with dry Spirulina flakes (Feed 3), while the highest amount of zinc (2.09 mg/100 g) was recorded in fishes fed Feed-5. Protein (13.32%) content was highest in fish fed Feed-2 mixed with Spirulina flakes (Feed-4). Meat nutritional quality of tilapia can be improved by combining commercial feeds with Spirulina flakes, compared with feeding commercial feeds in isolation.

  8. Nutritional value of soybean meal produced from conventional, high-protein, or low-oligosaccharide varieties of soybeans and fed to broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, K M; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2011-02-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the feeding value to broiler chicks of soybean meal (SBM) produced from high-protein (SBM-HP), low-oligosaccharide (SBM-LO), or conventional (SBM-CV) varieties of soybeans. The 3 SBM contained 54.9, 53.6, and 47.5% CP, respectively. The standardized digestibility (SDD) of amino acids (AA) in the 3 ingredients was measured using a precision-fed rooster assay with cecectomized Single Comb White Leghorn roosters. Results indicated that the SDD of AA was not different among the 3 sources of SBM, with the exception that the SDD of Lys in SBM-HP tended to be greater (P = 0.07) than that in SBM-CV. In the second experiment, a precision-fed rooster assay was used to measure the concentration of TME(n) in each source of SBM. Results indicated that the TME(n) in SBM-HP was greater (P < 0.001) than those in SBM-LO and SBM-CV (3,104 vs. 2,984 and 2,963 kcal/kg of DM). A 14-d growth performance experiment was also conducted using 120 Ross 308 male commercial broiler chicks (mean initial BW = 102.6 g) that were allotted to a completely randomized design. There were 5 chicks/pen and 8 replicate pens/diet. Three corn- and SBM-based diets were formulated based on the data for digestible AA and TME(n) that were measured in the previous experiments. Each source of SBM was used in 1 diet, but because of the greater concentrations of digestible AA in SBM-HP and SBM-LO than in SBM-CV, the inclusion of SBM-HP and SBM-LO were 31.21 and 32.60%, respectively, whereas an inclusion of 38.21% SBM-CV was used. There were no differences among the 3 diets for BW gain or feed efficiency, which indicated that the reduced inclusion rates of SBM-HP and SBM-LO compared with SBM-CV were not detrimental to broiler chick growth performance. It was concluded that, compared with SBM-CV, SBM-HP and SBM-LO are needed in lower concentrations in diets fed to broiler chicks because these 2 sources of SBM have a greater nutritional value than does SBM-CV.

  9. Performance and digestibility of N'Dama cattle fed concentrate diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and digestibility of N'Dama cattle fed concentrate diets containing varying levels of corncob. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Crude protein, ash and Neutral detergent fibre contents of the formulated diets were 16.7-18.4 g/100g DM, 5.0 – 6.9 g/100g DM and 49.0 – 57.2 g/100g DM respectively.

  10. Overwinter survival of mallards fed selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, G.H.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Adult male mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 g/g selenium in the form of selenomethionine. Mortality in each of these treatments was 0, 10, 25, 95, and 100%, respectively, during a 16-week exposure that started in November. After one week of treatment, body weights were significantly depressed by the 20, 40, and 80-ug/g selenium treatments, but not by 10 :g/g selenium. Four weeks after being returned to an untreated diet, the body weight of birds fed 20 ug/g selenium had increased to the point of being statistically inseparable from the weight of controls. Signs of selenium poisoning in the dead included severe emaciation, mottling of the liver, empty gizzard, and the presence of a yellowish fluid around some organs. Concentrations of selenium in blood were related to dietary treatments, but mortality was not clearly related to a threshold concentration of selenium in blood.

  11. Engineering testing requirements in FED/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Nygren, R.E.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.A.; Wire, G.; Oppermann, E.; Puigh, R.; Gold, R.E.

    1982-10-01

    The FED/INTOR critical issues activity has addressed three key testing requirements that have the largest impact on the design, operation and cost of FED/INTOR. These are: (1) the total testing time (fluence) during the device lifetime, (2) the minimum number of back-to-back cycles, and (3) the neutron wall load (power density in the first wall/blanket). The testing program activities were structured into three tasks in order to define the benefits, and in some cases, costs and risks of these testing requirements. The three tasks were carried out with wide participation of experts from a number of organizations in the United States. Similar effort was performed by Japan, the European Community and the Soviet Union

  12. Protein and energy utilization by cockerels fed four different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein and energy efficiency were significantly (p<0.05) improved in birds fed diet 3 and diet 4. These results are due to the consumption of higher levels of protein and energy by cockerels fed diet 3 and diet 4 coupled with the birds ability to better utilize these nutrients compared to those fed diet 1 and diet 2 respectively.

  13. TopFed: TCGA tailored federated query processing and linking to LOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Padmanabhuni, Shanmukha S; Ngomo, Axel-Cyrille Ngonga; Iqbal, Aftab; Almeida, Jonas S; Decker, Stefan; Deus, Helena F

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort to catalogue genetic mutations responsible for cancer using genome analysis techniques. One of the aims of this project is to create a comprehensive and open repository of cancer related molecular analysis, to be exploited by bioinformaticians towards advancing cancer knowledge. However, devising bioinformatics applications to analyse such large dataset is still challenging, as it often requires downloading large archives and parsing the relevant text files. Therefore, it is making it difficult to enable virtual data integration in order to collect the critical co-variates necessary for analysis. We address these issues by transforming the TCGA data into the Semantic Web standard Resource Description Format (RDF), link it to relevant datasets in the Linked Open Data (LOD) cloud and further propose an efficient data distribution strategy to host the resulting 20.4 billion triples data via several SPARQL endpoints. Having the TCGA data distributed across multiple SPARQL endpoints, we enable biomedical scientists to query and retrieve information from these SPARQL endpoints by proposing a TCGA tailored federated SPARQL query processing engine named TopFed. We compare TopFed with a well established federation engine FedX in terms of source selection and query execution time by using 10 different federated SPARQL queries with varying requirements. Our evaluation results show that TopFed selects on average less than half of the sources (with 100% recall) with query execution time equal to one third to that of FedX. With TopFed, we aim to offer biomedical scientists a single-point-of-access through which distributed TCGA data can be accessed in unison. We believe the proposed system can greatly help researchers in the biomedical domain to carry out their research effectively with TCGA as the amount and diversity of data exceeds the ability of local resources to handle its retrieval and

  14. Taurine prevents hypercholesterolemia in ovariectomized rats fed corn oil but not in those fed coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Taro; Miyazato, Shouko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Ebihara, Kiyoshi

    2003-08-01

    We studied whether the type of dietary fatty acid influences the preventive effect of taurine on the ovarian hormone deficiency-induced increase in plasma cholesterol concentration in 6-mo-old ovariectomized rats. Rats were fed one of the following four diets for 28 d: purified diets based on corn oil, which is rich in linoleic acid, with or with out taurine (50 g/kg) or purified diets based on coconut oil, which is rich in lauric and myristic acids, with or without taurine. Body mass gain, food intake, liver weight and plasma apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B, LDL and VLDL concentrations were not affected by the diets. On the other hand, taurine lowered the plasma total cholesterol concentration (P oil, but not in those fed coconut oil. In rats fed both types of oils, taurine increased the LDL receptor mRNA level (P cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase activity (P coconut oil, but not in those fed corn oil. Taurine increased liver total lipid (P oil, but not in those fed coconut oil. These results indicate that the effect of taurine on ovarian hormone deficiency-induced changes in cholesterol metabolism is influenced by the type of dietary fatty acids.

  15. Feed consumption, nutrient utilization and serum metabolite profile of captive blackbucks (Antelope cervicapra) fed diets varying in crude protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Katole, S; Kumar, A; Gupta, S P; Saini, M; Swarup, D

    2012-06-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to determine the optimum level of crude protein (CP) in the diet of captive blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra) in which feed consumption and nutrient utilization are maximal. Fifteen blackbucks (BW 25-34 kg) were distributed into three groups of five each in an experiment of 75-days duration including a digestion trial of 5-day collection period. All the animals were offered 200 g of concentrates and fresh maize fodder ad libitum. The overall CP content of the three respective diets was 6.9%, 10.4% and 12.7%. Blood samples were collected on the last day of the experiment. Intake and digestibility of CP increased (p consumption and nutrient intake were not significantly different among the groups. However, digestibilities of most of the nutrients were higher in the 10.4% CP diet than in the 6.9% CP diet. The endogenous loss of nitrogen was similar among the groups. Based on the endogenous losses, minimum N requirement was calculated to be 776 mg/kg BW(0.75) /day, and to meet this requirement, diet must contain at least 8.27% CP. Serum urea nitrogen concentration increased (p consumption and serum metabolite profile of blackbucks. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Copper status, serum cholesterol, and milk fatty acid profile in Holstein cows fed varying concentrations of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, T E; Fellner, V; Spears, J W

    2001-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu status and lipid metabolism in Holstein cows. Three primiparous and 21 multiparous Holstein cows were utilized in this experiment. Groups of three cows similar in parity, days in milk, and milk yield were assigned randomly to one of the following three treatments: 1) control (no supplemental Cu), 2) 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM from Cu sulfate (CuSO4), and 3) 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM from CuSO4. Liver Cu concentrations were higher in Cu supplemented cows at the end of the 61-d study. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher liver Cu concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Plasma Cu concentrations were similar across treatments. Total serum cholesterol concentrations were higher in cows receiving supplemental Cu. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher serum cholesterol concentrations than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu. Dry matter intake, average daily milk production, and milk lipid, protein, and somatic cell numbers were similar across treatments. On d 61, milk fatty acids C18:1 trans and C18-conjugated dienes were lower in cows receiving supplemental Cu relative to the nonsupplemented controls. Cows receiving 40 mg of Cu/kg of DM had higher C12:0 and lower C18:2 and total polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk than cows receiving 10 mg of Cu/kg of DM. These results indicate that Cu supplementation alters lipid metabolism in high producing dairy cows and that Cu supplementation at 40 mg/kg of DM for 61 d can elevate liver Cu concentrations to levels considered to be marginally toxic in dairy cattle.

  17. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m 2 , with 0.5 MW/m 2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  18. The residue levels of narasin in eggs of laying hens fed with unmedicated and medicated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokka, Mervi; Eerola, Susanna; Perttilä, Ulla; Rossow, Laila; Venäläinen, Eija; Valkonen, Eija; Valaja, Jarmo; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2005-01-01

    Laying hens were fed contaminated feed containing narasin 2.5 mg/kg for 21 days followed by a 7 day withdrawal period, hens in the control group were fed unmedicated feed. Eggs were collected during trial days 0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and after the withdrawal period of 7 days. The concentration of narasin in yolks and egg whites was analyzed by a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Narasin was found to accumulate in yolks, where the narasin concentration increased during the treatment. The concentration of narasin varied from 5.9 to 13.8 microg/kg (mean 10.6 microg/kg) in yolks after 21 day feeding periods. The concentrations of narasin ranged from residues were not found in egg whites of the laying hens fed contaminated feed nor in either yolks or egg whites of the laying hens fed unmedicated feed. The effect of cooking was also tested on the amount of narasin residues in eggs. Cooking for 10 min did not significantly influence the narasin residues in eggs. Traces of lasalocid were also found in the yolks. The traces of lasalocid are attributable to an accidental contamination of the feed during its manufacture.

  19. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  20. Effects of milk thistle meal on performance, ileal bacterial enumeration, jejunal morphology and blood lipid peroxidation in laying hens fed diets with different levels of metabolizable energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Jabali, N S; Mahdavi, A H; Ansari Mahyari, S; Sedghi, M; Akbari Moghaddam Kakhki, R

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different levels of milk thistle meal on performance, blood biochemical indices, ileal bacterial counts and intestinal histology in laying hens fed diets containing different levels of metabolizable energy. A total number of 200 Leghorn laying hens (Hy-Line W-36) were randomly assigned to eight experimental treatments with five cage replicates of five birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of four levels of milk thistle meal (0%, 15%, 30% and 60%) and two levels of AME n (11.09 and 12.34 MJ/kg) fed over a period of 80 days. In vitro studies revealed that the total phenolic component of milk thistle meal was 470.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of the sample, and its antioxidant activity for inhibiting the 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrichydrazyl free radical and reducing ferric ions was about 21% higher than that of butylated hydroxyltoluene (p < .05). Diets containing high level of AME n led to improved egg production (p < .05), egg weight (p < .05), egg mass (p < .01) and feed conversion ratio (p < .01). In addition, offering diets containing high energy significantly enhanced (p < .01) serum triglyceride and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as jejunal villus height. Dietary supplementation of 3% milk thistle meal resulted in the best feed conversion ratio (p < .05), reduction of ileal Escherichia coli enumeration (p < .01) and an enhancement in the villus height-to-crypt depth ratio (p < .05). Furthermore, feeding incremental levels of this meal led to remarkable decrease in serum cholesterol, triglyceride and MDA (p < .01) concentrations while significant increase in blood high-density lipoprotein content and goblet cell numbers (p < .05). The present findings indicate that milk thistle meal with high antioxidant and antibacterial properties in laying hen diets may improve health indices and productive performance. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. In Vitro Growth of Curcuma longa L. in Response to Five Mineral Elements and Plant Density in Fed-Batch Culture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F.; Bridges, William C.; Adelberg, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments’ macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes. PMID:25830292

  2. In vitro growth of Curcuma longa L. in response to five mineral elements and plant density in fed-batch culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hawaz, Rabia F; Bridges, William C; Adelberg, Jeffrey W

    2015-01-01

    Plant density was varied with P, Ca, Mg, and KNO3 in a multifactor experiment to improve Curcuma longa L. micropropagation, biomass and microrhizome development in fed-batch liquid culture. The experiment had two paired D-optimal designs, testing sucrose fed-batch and nutrient sucrose fed-batch techniques. When sucrose became depleted, volume was restored to 5% m/v sucrose in 200 ml of modified liquid MS medium by adding sucrose solutions. Similarly, nutrient sucrose fed-batch was restored to set points with double concentration of treatments' macronutrient and MS micronutrient solutions, along with sucrose solutions. Changes in the amounts of water and sucrose supplementations were driven by the interaction of P and KNO3 concentrations. Increasing P from 1.25 to 6.25 mM increased both multiplication and biomass. The multiplication ratio was greatest in the nutrient sucrose fed-batch technique with the highest level of P, 6 buds/vessel, and the lowest level of Ca and KNO3. The highest density (18 buds/vessel) produced the highest fresh biomass at the highest concentrations of KNO3 and P with nutrient sucrose fed-batch, and moderate Ca and Mg concentrations. However, maximal rhizome dry biomass required highest P, sucrose fed-batch, and a moderate plant density. Different media formulations and fed-batch techniques were identified to maximize the propagation and storage organ responses. A single experimental design was used to optimize these dual purposes.

  3. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, R.O.

    1995-09-01

    Minor offshore gas and oil resources located 20-50 km from existing installations may often be commercially exploited only by use of complete sub sea solutions. This thesis deals with analyses of a sub sea adjustable speed electric motor which is fed by a frequency converter via a long cable (up to 50 km) between the converter and the motor. The author develops a general model for analysing such motor drive systems with the objective of verifying the feasibility of specific applications and of specifying the requirements on the system components. The simulation model is used to identify the critical frequency ranges in which the converter must not generate significant harmonics, to verify the start-up strategy chosen, and to verify the stability with potential disturbances applied to the system. Simulation models are developed for both transient and steady state analyses. They are accurate up to 5 kHz and can incorporate the frequency dependency of the motor and cable parameters. Ideal thyristors and diodes are used. The models are implemented in existing simulation tools. Most of the results relate to a base case with a 670 kW squirrel cage motor fed from a 30 km long cable, but cases with 3 MW rating or with 50 km cable have also been analyzed and found to be feasible. Each specific application must be separately studied. Results of simulation calculations are presented and conclusions given. 53 refs., 124 figs., 23 tabs.

  4. Coupling Between Waveguide-Fed Slot Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2011-01-01

    Coupling between two waveguide-fed planar slot arrays has been investigated using full-wave analysis. The analysis employs the method-of-moments solution to the pertinent coupled integral equations for the aperture electric field of all slots. In order to compute coupling between two arrays, the input port of the first array is excited with a TE(sub 10) mode wave while the second one is match-terminated. After solving the moment method matrix equations, the aperture fields of all slots are obtained and thereby the TE(sub 10) mode wave received at the input port of the second array is determined. Coupling between two arrays is the ratio of the wave amplitude arriving in the second array port to the incident wave amplitude at the first array port. The coupling mechanism has been studied as a function of spacing between arrays in different directions, e.g. the electric field plane, the magnetic field plane, and the diagonal plane. Computed coupling values are presented for different array geometries. This work is novel since it provides a good understanding of coupling between waveguide-fed slot arrays as a function of spacing and orientation for different aperture distributions and array architectures. This serves as a useful tool for antenna design engineers and system engineers.

  5. Development of an Acetate-Fed or Sugar-Fed Microbial Power Generator for Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    lactate and acetate as fermentation products and is ready for test in the MFC modules. 1. Anode materials We compared the performances of acetate-fed...Sucrose • Acetate Propionate • Hydrogen gas • Lactate • Formate • !so- butyrate Unknown fbiomass -’-soluble products) KM. 80 60 I" 20 DavO

  6. Hybrid intelligent control of substrate feeding for industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huaiping; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Jianwen; Wu, Lei; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The lack of accurate process models and reliable online sensors for substrate measurements poses significant challenges for controlling substrate feeding accurately, automatically and optimally in fed-batch fermentation industries. It is still a common practice to regulate the feeding rate based upon manual operations. To address this issue, a hybrid intelligent control method is proposed to enable automatic substrate feeding. The resulting control system consists of three modules: a presetting module for providing initial set-points; a predictive module for estimating substrate concentration online based on a new time interval-varying soft sensing algorithm; and a feedback compensator using expert rules. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through its successful applications to the industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  8. Fundamental-frequency and load-varying thermal cycles effects on lifetime estimation of DFIG power converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Zhou, D.; Yang, J.

    2017-01-01

    In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been ...... adopted to handle the fundamental-frequency thermal cycles and load-varying thermal cycles. Their effects on lifetime estimation of the power device in the Back-to-Back (BTB) power converter are evaluated.......In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been...

  9. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  10. The effect of dietary menhaden, olive, and coconut oil fed with three levels of vitamin E on plasma and liver lipids and plasma fatty acid composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Ali I.; Hussein, Ahmed S.; Bhathena, Sam J.; Hafez, Y S.

    2002-07-01

    The effect of dietary fats with varying degrees of unsaturation in the presence of different concentrations of vitamin E on tissue lipid levels was studied in rats. Rats were fed either menhaden oil, olive oil or coconut oil at 15% levels with either 0.1, 0.3 or 0.6 mg/g of vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol for four weeks. Rat serum and liver were analyzed for total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipids. In addition, fatty acid composition of serum lipids was also analyzed. Serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol were significantly lower in rats fed menhaden oil than in those fed olive or coconut oil, while the HDL-cholesterol was significantly higher in serum of rats fed menhaden and olive oil than in those fed coconut oil. Levels of vitamin E in the diet had only a significant effect on serum cholesterol and liver phospholipids. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant positive relationship between serum triacylglycerol and total cholesterol, and a negative correlation between triacylglycerol and HDL-cholesterol, and between total and HDL-cholesterol.In the liver, total cholesterol was significantly higher in rats fed coconut oil than in rats fed menhaden oil. Total liver phospholipids were lower in rats fed either coconut oil or olive oil compared to those fed menhaden oil, especially with higher levels of vitamin E intake. Higher levels of vitamin E in the diet appear to increase triacylglycerol and phospholipids in livers of rats fed menhaden oil. In the liver a significant negative correlation was observed between phospholipids and cholesterol. The type and degree of unsaturation (polyunsaturated fatty acids in menhaden oil, monounsaturated fatty acids in olive oil and saturated fatty acids in coconut oil) significantly affected plasma and tissue lipids.

  11. Ingestive behavior of Nellore steers in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the feeding behavior of Nellore beef cattle in feedlot fed with diets containing different corn hybrids. Twenty-seven animals averaging 350 ± 24 kg of body weight and 24 months of age, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments (T, where, T1-TDFC: total diet containing flint corn, T2-TDSFC: total diet containing semi-flint corn and T3-TDSDC: total diet containing semi-dent corn, with 9 replicates per treatment. The animals were fed ad libitum twice a day (at 8:00am and 4:00pm with a isocaloric and isonitrogenous diet, with 30% of sugar cane bagasse and 70% concentrate (88% maize, 8% soybean meal, 3% mineral and vitamin supplement and 1% urea for 95 days (14 days of adaptation and 3 experimental periods of 27 days each. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the experiment and after each period of 27 days, always in a fasting period of 16 hours. The evaluation of animals feeding behavior occurred at the last day of each period by visual observation every five minutes for full periods of 24 hours. Observations were made in four shifts: morning (06:00 to 12:00, afternoon (12:00 to 18:00, evening (18:00 to 00:00 and early morning (00:00 06:00 to determine the number of ruminal bolus, chewing time, total feeding time, total ruminating standing time, total ruminating lying time, total standing idle time and total lying idle time. During the night’s observations, the stalls received artificial illumination to facilitate the data collection and the animals were adapted with light at night for three days before observations. Animals fed with diets containing semi-dent corn had longer chew time and more ruminal bolus than those fed with flint corn, but did not differ from those that received semi-flint corn in the diet. The chewing time and number of ruminal bolus varied with the observation periods, being higher in the morning and decreasing in the

  12. Factorial analysis of slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... determined slaughter traits of pigs fed diets containing different additives. The results obtained in general ... was fed standard diet supplemented with probiotic Lacture and. Microbond. Pigs received food ad ... rotation, a factorial matrix was obtained whose elements are factorial ponders, and ponders of ...

  13. Factorial analysis of slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To successfully investigate slaughter characteristics of fattening pigs fed in different ways, this experiment was carried out on Experimental Farm of the Institute for Animal Husbandry, Belgrade- Zemun. Investigation of correlation between slaughter traits of pigs fed with different additives in their nutrition was done by factorial ...

  14. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty Weaner pigs with an average initial live weight of 6.81 ± 1.0kg were studied for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw bambara waste (BW) using a completely randomized design (CRD). They were fed five diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percentage composition for 5 months ...

  15. Growth Performance and Hematological Traits of Weaner Pigs Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. Sixty Weaner pigs with an average initial live weight of 6.81 ± 1.0kg were studied for their growth and haematological parameters when fed graded levels of raw bambara waste (BW) using a completely randomized design (CRD). They were fed five diets containing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percentage composition for ...

  16. Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor induction motor drive. ... of this type of electric drive over others types of AC drives for many technological processes. Keywords: power, double-fed wound-rotor induction motor drive, steel and total losses, efficiency, energy-efficient control algorithm ...

  17. Nutritive value and biochemical changes in broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mr Akande

    2012-02-09

    Feb 9, 2012 ... techniques of moist heating and fermentation (5 and 7- day) or lye treatment and fed to150 day-old Anak. 2000 broiler chicks ... increase in protein content and decrease in phytic acid ..... Interaction effect of processing and inclusion levels on performance of broilers chickens fed differently with treated CBC.

  18. Performance and egg quality of aged laying hens fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shape index and eggshell weight did not differ among treatments. Eggshell thickness and eggshell breaking strength were higher in hens fed with MBM as compared to control and OSM fed birds. Similar to the tendency in shell quality, MBM inclusion in the diet tended to enhance albumen height and Haugh unit.

  19. Intestinal growth and function of broiler chicks fed sorghum based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The liver total and esterified cholesterol was reduced in DC100, DC50 and CH fed birds. Grain sorghum contains other phytochemicals such as policosanols and sterols besides PA which compound the observations in the liver. The effect of age on the severity of local liver lesions was not significant. The DC100 fed chicks ...

  20. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  1. Fed and fasted state gastro-intestinal in vitro lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, Philip Carsten B; Christiansen, Martin Lau; Holm, Rene

    2014-01-01

    or the fed state. Whole fat milk (3.5 %) was used in the fed state model to mimic the dynamic lipolysis events after ingestion of food. The results were compared to a dog study in this issue. In the fasted state in vitro lipolysis model, the amount of solubilized cinnarizine decreased in the order SNEDDS......-C>SNEDDS-T>Conv, which correlated well with the in vivo bioavailability. In the fed state in vitro lipolysis model, cinnarizine was solubilized to the same degree for all formulations. Compared to the fasted state model, only the performance of the conventional tablet was improved, indicating food effect....... This correlated with the in vivo study, where the tablet was the only formulation with a significant food effect. The fasted state model correlated well with the in vivo results and although the fed state model did not accurately predict the fed state in vivo results, it could predict which formulation that would...

  2. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...

  3. Tavatult jahe Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2011-01-01

    1.-10. juulini toimunud Karlovy Vary 46. filmifestivalist (muusikafilmide alajaotuses näidati Marianne Kõrveri dokumentaalfilmi "Erkki-Sven Tüür: 7 etüüdi piltides" (2010) programmis "A Musical Odyssey")

  4. Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2016 Print this issue Arthritis Mechanisms May Vary by Joint En español Send us ... joints have unique patterns of chemical tags—called epigenetic markers—that differ between rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. ...

  5. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  6. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  7. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  8. Performance of sheep fed on annatto byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorgival M. de Lima Júnior

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate intake, digestibility, and performance in sheep fed increasing levels of annatto byproduct (AB. A total of 32 male sheep without defined breed were used. Their initial weight was 23.17±1.45 kg. The animals were housed in individual pens and offered feed twice a day. Nutrient intake was quantified by the difference between the fractions present in the offered feed and the remains. The apparent digestibility was estimated with the aid of the external marker LIPE®. Weight gain was measured by the difference between the initial and final weight of the animals. The intake of dry matter (DM; g/day; g/kg BW; g/kg0.75, organic matter (g/day, crude protein (CP; g/day, and neutral detergent fibre (g/day was not affected (P>0.05 by addition of AB. The intake of ether extract (EE; g/day and non-fibre carbohydrates (g/day was influenced by the inclusion of AB. The apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, and EE was not affected (P>0.05 by the addition of AB. The AB can be included in the diet at levels up 300 g/kg of total DM without affecting consumption, digestibility, and weight gain in sheep.

  9. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  10. Application of heat compensation calorimetry to an E. coli fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias; Meusel, Wolfram; Husemann, Ute; Greller, Gerhard; Kraume, Matthias

    2018-01-20

    The application of biocalorimetry to fermentation processes offers advantageous insights, while being less complex compared to other, sophisticated PAT solutions. Although the general concept is established, calorimetric methods vary in detail. In this work, a special approach, called heat compensation calorimetry, was applied to an E. coli fed-batch process. Much work has been done for batch processes, proving the validity and accuracy of this calorimetric mode. However, the adaption of this strategy to fed-batch processes has some implications. In the first section of this work, batch fermentations were performed, comparing heat capacity calorimetry to the compensation mode. Both processes showed very good agreement by means of growth behavior. The heat related differences, e.g. temperature profiles, were obvious. In addition, the impact of the chosen mode on the calculation of in-process heat transfer coefficients was shown. Finally, a fed-batch fermentation was performed. The compensation mode was kept sufficiently, up to the point where the metabolic heat production accelerated strongly. Controller tuning was a neuralgic point, which would have needed further optimization under these conditions. Nevertheless, in the present work it was possible to realize a working compensation process while demonstrating critical aspects that must be considered when establishing such approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven-Hangoor, E; van der Vossen, J M B M; Schuren, F H J; Verstegen, M W A; de Oliveira, J E; Montijn, R C; Hendriks, W H

    2013-10-01

    Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids, nonstarch polysaccharides, and starch) on the microbiota composition of ileal digesta of broiler chickens and excreta DM content. Each treatment was repeated 6 times in cages each containing 18 Ross 308 broilers, with growth performance measured from 0 to 34 d of age and excreta DM and ileal microbiota composition analyzed at 34 d of age. Microbiota composition was evaluated using a novel ribosomal RNA microarray technology containing 370 different probes covering various genera, groups of microbial species, and individual species of the chicken gut microbiota, of which 321 had a signal above the background threshold. Replacing part of the animal fat and soybean oil in the wheat-based diet with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA; 0.3% C10 and 2.7% C12) improved feed efficiency compared with the other dietary treatments. This coincided with a suppression of gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum of the Firmicutes, including Lactobacillus species, and species belonging to the family of the Enterococcaceae and Micrococcaceae, whereas the gram-negative bacteria belonging to the family of the Enterobacteriaceae were promoted. None of the other diets used in the present study notably changed the ileal digesta bacteria composition. Excreta DM content was not affected by dietary treatment. The variation between individual birds per dietary treatment was more pronounced than variation caused by feed composition, with the exception of the digesta microbiota of the birds fed the MCFA diet. It is concluded that a diet with MCFA significantly changes the ileal microbiota composition, whereas the effect of the other diets on the composition of the microbiota and excreta DM content

  12. Fed-Batch Production of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Using Recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Neves, Luiz Carlos Martins; Pessoa, Adalberto; Vitolo, Michele

    The strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-181, having the plasmid YEpPGK-G6P (built by coupling the vector YEPLAC 181 with the promoter phosphoglycerate kinase 1), was cultured by fed-batch process in order to evaluate its capability in the formation of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC.1.1.1.49). Two liters of culture medium (10.0 g/L glucose, 3.7 g/L yeast nitrogen broth (YNB), 0.02 g/L l-tryptophan, 0.02 g/L l-histidine, 0.02 g/L uracil, and 0.02 g/L adenine) were inoculated with 1.5 g dry cell/L and left fermenting in the batch mode at pH 5.7, aeration of 2.2 vvm, 30°C, and agitation of 400 rpm. After glucose concentration in the medium was lower than 1.0 g/L, the cell culture was fed with a solution of glucose (10.0 g/L) or micronutrients (l-tryptophan, l-histidine, uracil, and adenine each one at a concentration of 0.02 g/L) following the constant, linear, or exponential mode. The volume of the culture medium in the fed-batch process was varied from 2 L up to 3 L during 5 h. The highest glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (350 U/L; 1 U=1 μmol of NADP/min) occurred when the glucose solution was fed into the fermenter through the decreasing linear mode.

  13. Postweaning performance of heifers fed starter with and without hay during the milk-feeding period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2012-07-01

    translate into live BW gain. Higher feed efficiency after switching to a common diet in heifers previously fed starter alone compared with those fed starter plus hay must be viewed with caution because intestinal content likely varied between treatment groups. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Digital repetitive control under varying frequency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, Germán A; Olm, Josep M

    2013-01-01

    The tracking/rejection of periodic signals constitutes a wide field of research in the control theory and applications area. Repetitive Control has proven to be an efficient way to face this topic. However, in some applications the frequency of the reference/disturbance signal is time-varying or uncertain. This causes an important performance degradation in the standard Repetitive Control scheme. This book presents some solutions to apply Repetitive Control in varying frequency conditions without loosing steady-state performance. It also includes a complete theoretical development and experimental results in two representative systems. The presented solutions are organized in two complementary branches: varying sampling period Repetitive Control and High Order Repetitive Control. The first approach allows dealing with large range frequency variations while the second allows dealing with small range frequency variations. The book also presents applications of the described techniques to a Roto-magnet plant and...

  15. Open switching of current varying inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, P.I.; Lukyanchikov, L.A.; Ten, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    The electromotive force of induction occurs in a varying inductance of a current circuit part. It can be used to control and switch the current. The effect, occurring under the forced inductance decrease, is used widely for explosive magnetic generators to produce high currents, to store high-density energy and to generate superhigh magnetic fields. This paper gives an analysis of open switching of the currents by varying inductance in some simple electrotechnical models of circuits used in pulse power engineering to obtain high energies

  16. A review of fatty acid profiles and antioxidant content in grass-fed and grain-fed beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Glenn A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Growing consumer interest in grass-fed beef products has raised a number of questions with regard to the perceived differences in nutritional quality between grass-fed and grain-fed cattle. Research spanning three decades suggests that grass-based diets can significantly improve the fatty acid (FA composition and antioxidant content of beef, albeit with variable impacts on overall palatability. Grass-based diets have been shown to enhance total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA (C18:2 isomers, trans vaccenic acid (TVA (C18:1 t11, a precursor to CLA, and omega-3 (n-3 FAs on a g/g fat basis. While the overall concentration of total SFAs is not different between feeding regimens, grass-finished beef tends toward a higher proportion of cholesterol neutral stearic FA (C18:0, and less cholesterol-elevating SFAs such as myristic (C14:0 and palmitic (C16:0 FAs. Several studies suggest that grass-based diets elevate precursors for Vitamin A and E, as well as cancer fighting antioxidants such as glutathione (GT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity as compared to grain-fed contemporaries. Fat conscious consumers will also prefer the overall lower fat content of a grass-fed beef product. However, consumers should be aware that the differences in FA content will also give grass-fed beef a distinct grass flavor and unique cooking qualities that should be considered when making the transition from grain-fed beef. In addition, the fat from grass-finished beef may have a yellowish appearance from the elevated carotenoid content (precursor to Vitamin A. It is also noted that grain-fed beef consumers may achieve similar intakes of both n-3 and CLA through the consumption of higher fat grain-fed portions.

  17. Human response to varying concentrations of toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R; Mølhave, Lars

    1990-01-01

    Thirty two males and 39 females aged 31-50 were exposed for 7 h to one of the three following conditions: (1) Clean air, (2) constant exposure to 100 ppm toluene, or (3) a varying exposure with the same time-weighted average, but with peaks of 300 ppm every 30 min. During exposure the subjects ex...

  18. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  19. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  20. Optical parametric amplification beyond the slowly varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The coupled-wave equations describing optical parametric amplification (OPA) are usually solved in the slowly varying amplitude (SVA) approximation regime, in which the second-order derivatives of the signal and idler amplitudes are ignored and in fact the electromagnetic effects due to exit face of the medium is not ...

  1. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  2. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  3. Components in time-varying graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Tang, John; Musolesi, Mirco; Russo, Giovanni; Mascolo, Cecilia; Latora, Vito

    2012-06-01

    Real complex systems are inherently time-varying. Thanks to new communication systems and novel technologies, today it is possible to produce and analyze social and biological networks with detailed information on the time of occurrence and duration of each link. However, standard graph metrics introduced so far in complex network theory are mainly suited for static graphs, i.e., graphs in which the links do not change over time, or graphs built from time-varying systems by aggregating all the links as if they were concurrent in time. In this paper, we extend the notion of connectedness, and the definitions of node and graph components, to the case of time-varying graphs, which are represented as time-ordered sequences of graphs defined over a fixed set of nodes. We show that the problem of finding strongly connected components in a time-varying graph can be mapped into the problem of discovering the maximal-cliques in an opportunely constructed static graph, which we name the affine graph. It is, therefore, an NP-complete problem. As a practical example, we have performed a temporal component analysis of time-varying graphs constructed from three data sets of human interactions. The results show that taking time into account in the definition of graph components allows to capture important features of real systems. In particular, we observe a large variability in the size of node temporal in- and out-components. This is due to intrinsic fluctuations in the activity patterns of individuals, which cannot be detected by static graph analysis.

  4. Testicular damage in rats fed on irradiated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, A.K.S.; Hasan, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    Feeding effect of irradiated diets was studied on the pups born to mother fed either on irradiated normal diet or irradiated low protein diet. The study indicated that pups born to mother fed on the irradiated low protein diet had fewer spermatogonial cells in the testes than those given irradiated normal diet and unirradiated low protein diet. Similarly, pups maintained on the irradiated low protein diet showed marked decrease in alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol contents in the testes rather than in the pups fed irradiated normal as well as unirradiated low protein diets. The irradiated low protein diet fed pups showed increased depletion and vacuolization of adrenocortical and medullary cells. 13 refs., 15 figures. (author)

  5. Performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chinchilla x New Zealand white) weaned rabbits with average initial weights of 540g to evaluate the performance of rabbits fed diets containing graded levels of processed tallow (Detarium microcarpum) seed meal. The design of the experiment ...

  6. Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of chicken broilers fed with diets substituted with mulberry leaf powder. Carlina Freddie Simol, Andrew Alek Tuen, Humrawali Hazid Ahmad Khan, John Keen Chubo, Patricia Jie Hung King, Kian Huat Ong ...

  7. Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits fed bacterial protein meal. ... The inclusion of BPM in diet V reduced the skin weight significantly (p0.05) affected. It was concluded that BPM can ...

  8. Inhibition of osteoporosis in rats fed with sugar cane wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Hajime; Man, Sun Li; Ohta, Yutaka; Katsuyama, Naofumi; Chinen, Isao

    2003-02-01

    Rats fed on a restricted, semi-purified diet containing a 50%-reduced level of carbohydrate and oil, but normal levels of protein, minerals and vitamins, exhibited osteoporosis. However, rats fed on this restricted diet, but containing sugar cane wax, did not exhibit this bone disease. Sugar cane wax, containing a long-chain carbohydrate with an OH radical, prevented the development of osteoporosis via a non-estrogenic mechanism.

  9. Growth performance, nutrient intake and digestibility of goats fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, nutrient intake and digestibility of goats fed melon husk and palm oil slurry at 30% inclusion level. ... fed Diet 3 had lowest (P<0.05) average daily weight gain of 19.42g/day, with corresponding lowest (P<0.05) dry matter intake of 334.94g/day and poor feed conversion ratio of 17.24, respectively.

  10. Mount St. Helens Future Expected Deposition Scenario (FEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    Mount Saint Helens Future Expected Deposition Scenario (FEDS) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 COMPLETION OF AGENCY TECHNICAL REVIEW The Agency Technical Review (A TR) has been completed for the Mount Saint Helens ... Mount St. Helens Future Expected Deposition Scenario (FEDS) Channels within the Cowlitz-Toutle Watershed April 14

  11. Effects of feeding diets varying in energy and nutrient density to Hy-Line W-36 laying hens on production performance and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePersio, S; Utterback, P L; Utterback, C W; Rochell, S J; O'Sullivan, N; Bregendahl, K; Arango, J; Parsons, C M; Koelkebeck, K W

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feeding 5 different energy and nutrient dense diets to Hy-Line W-36 hens on long-term performance and economics. A total of 480 19 wk old Hy-Line W-36 Single Comb White Leghorn hens were weighed and randomly allocated to 6 replicate groups of 16 hens each (2 adjacent cages containing 8 hens per cage, 60.9×58.4 cm) per dietary treatment in a randomized complete block design. The hens were fed 5 treatment diets formulated to contain 85, 90, 95, 100, and 105% of the energy and nutrient recommendations stated in the 2009 Hy-Line Variety W-36 Commercial Management Guide. Production performance was measured for 52 wk from 19 to 70 wk age. Over the course of the trial, a significant increasing linear response to increasing energy and nutrient density was seen for hen-day egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, and body weight (BW). Feed intake showed no significant linear level response to increasing energy and nutrient density except during the early production cycle. No consistent responses were noted for egg quality, percent yolk, and percent egg solids throughout the study. Significant linear responses due to energy and nutrient density were seen for egg income, feed cost, and income minus feed cost. In general, as energy and nutrient density increased, egg income and feed cost per hen increased, but income minus feed cost decreased. Overall, these results indicate that feeding Hy-Line W-36 hens increasing energy and nutrient-dense diets will increase egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed efficiency, energy intake, BW, egg income, and feed cost, but decrease egg income minus feed cost. However, these benefits do not take effect in early production and seem to be most effective in later stages of the production cycle, perhaps "priming" the birds for better egg-production persistency with age. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Varying flexibilities in systems of organised decentralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Andersen, Søren Kaj

    to this paradox a qualitative study of working time regulation in the metal industry in Denmark and Germany was performed in the spring of 2005. In addition to five case studies of company-based agreements in Denmark and Germany (Baden-Württemberg) the study consisted of analysing statistical data, legislative...... be while the response of the German system should rather be interpreted as a reactive organised decentralisation. 3) The varying regulation of working time flexibility in Germany and Denmark implies varying risks in the regulation. In Germany lacking competencies in small or medium-sized companies lead...... to unbalanced trade offs. In Denmark the strong decentralisation combined with a lacking demand on +/- hours limits for time banks without reference periods seems to impose risks for certain groups of employees who, regardless of company size, can have extraordinary long working hours violating the 48-hour rule...

  13. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  14. Influence of supplemental phytase on growth performance, digestion and phosphorus balance of lambs fed sorghum-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Melgoza

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus excretion in lambs from urine and faeces is considerably high due to elevated concentration of grains in the diets. This study evaluated the effect of supplemental phytase on in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD, feed intake, growth performance, total tract digestion and phosphorus (P balance in finishing lambs fed sorghum-based diets. An exogenous phytase mixture was added at dosage of 0, 750, 1500 and 2250 FTU (phytase units per kg diet as fed. Thirty-two finishing lambs (21.5±2.2 kg body weight were randomly assigned to those diets and fed for 60 d. The P concentration in the diets varied between 2.0 to 2.4 mg/kg dry matter (DM. Inclusion of phytase in the diet had no effect on IVDMD. However, total tract digestion of DM, NDF and P were linearly (P0.05 by phytase, but P retention showed a linear increment as the enzyme increased in the diet. Growth performance of lambs was not affected by phytase. Therefore, phytase supplementation improved P digestion and retention, but it did not change P excretion and growth performance in finishing lambs fed sorghum-based diets.

  15. Synchronization in an homogeneous, time-varying network with nonuniform time-varying communication delays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Saberi, Ali; Zhang, Meirong

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies synchronization among identical agents that are coupled through a time-varying network with nonuniform time-varying communication delay. Given an arbitrary upper bound for the delays, a controller design methodology without exact knowledge of the network topology is proposed so

  16. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  17. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  18. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini-world...... are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  19. Effect of varying dietary energy levels during the last trimester of pregnancy on subsequent first lactation performance in Sahiwal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz, Muhammad; Abdullah, Muhammad; Nasir, Muhammad; Javed, Khalid; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Pasha, Talat Naseer; Jabbar, Makhdoom Abdul

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine optimum dietary energy level during the last trimester of pregnancy for Sahiwal heifers in subtropical Pakistan. Sixteen Sahiwal heifers, 5-6 months pregnant, were assigned to four dietary treatments with four heifers on each treatment. Isonitrogenous (CP = 14.1%) diets having varying energy, namely, ME 88%, ME 100% (Control), ME 112% and ME 124% of NRC recommended level for pregnant heifers, were fed until calving. All were fed a similar diet after calving. Precalving weight gain was highest (P heifers fed ME 112 and 124% (486 ± 13 and 497 ± 5 g/day, respectively) followed by ME 100% (444 ± 7 g/day), and the lowest weight gain was recorded for ME 88% (397 ± 8 g/day). A similar trend was observed for feed efficiency. Body condition score at calving in groups ME 124% and ME 112% was higher than ME 88% and ME 100%. Nutrient digestibility, birth weight of calves and milk composition except fat content were not influenced by energy levels. The highest daily milk yield was observed in heifers fed ME 100% followed by ME 112, 124, and 88%. We conclude that the NRC recommendation is applicable to the subtropical region.

  20. Growth and Reproduction of Artificially Fed Cnaphalocrocis medinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian XU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, fed on an artificial diet were studied. The results showed that the larvae were able to grow and pupate on the artificial diet. The durations of larvae and pupas of C. medinalis on the artificial diet were 28.1 d and 10.1 d, postponed 4.9 d and 1.7 d respectively, compared with those reared with rice leaves. The number of ovipositions was 41.6 per female, 26.2% higher than that fed on rice leaves. Survival rate curve of larvae was a descent function of mortality-age, with no significant differences from the curve of larvae fed on rice leaves. The net reproductive rate (Ro, intrinsic rate of increase (rm and finite rate of increase (λ of the population fed on diet were 17.6928, 0.0884 and 1.0924, respectively, and the mean generation time (T and double time (td were prolonged 4.9 d and 1.3 d in comparison with the treatment of rice leaves. Population trend index (I was 3.26, indicating a growing number of the population of C. medinalis fed on artificial diet.

  1. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  2. Effects of two Lactobacillus strains on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiao-Wei

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hypocholesterolemic effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB have now become an area of great interest and controversy for many scientists. In this study, we evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A and Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16 on body weight, lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. Methods Forty rats were assigned to four groups and fed either a normal or a high-cholesterol diet. The LAB-treated groups received the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A or Lactobacillus fermentum M1-16. The rats were sacrificed after a 6-week feeding period. Body weights, visceral organ and fat pad weights, serum and liver cholesterol and lipid levels, and fecal cholesterol and bile acid concentrations were measured. Liver lipid deposition and adipocyte size were evaluated histologically. Results Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet but without LAB supplementation, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly decreased in LAB-treated rats (p Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium colonies were increased while Escherichia coli colonies were decreased in the LAB-treated groups. Fecal water content was higher in the LAB-treated groups. Compared with rats fed a high-cholesterol diet, administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 9-41-A resulted in decreases in the body weight gain, liver and fat pad weight, and adipocytes size (p Conclusions This study suggests that LAB supplementation has hypocholesterolemic effects in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet. The ability to lower serum cholesterol varies among LAB strains. Our strains might be able to improve the intestinal microbial balance and potentially improve intestinal transit time. Although the mechanism is largely unknown, L. plantarum 9-41-A may play a role in fat metabolism.

  3. Performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed methanol/ethanol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongyao, N.; Therdthianwong, A.; Therdthianwong, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We examined the performance of direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol. → PtRu-PtSn/C and PtRu/C as catalysts for mixed alcohol electrooxidation reaction. → Misplace adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C caused the cell performance drop. → PtRu/C showed higher performance than PtRu-PtSn/C for mixed alcohol fuel. -- Abstract: In combining the advantages of both methanol and ethanol, direct alcohol fuel cells fed with mixed alcohol solutions (1 M methanol and 1 M ethanol in varying volume ratios) were tested for performance. Employing a PtRu-PtSn/C catalyst as anode, cell performance was found to diminish rapidly even at 2.5% by volume ethanol mixture. Further increase of ethanol exceeded 10%, the cell performance gradually decreased and finally approached that of direct ethanol fuel cells. The causes of the decrease in the cell performance were the slow electro-oxidation of ethanol and the misplaced adsorption of ethanol on PtRu/C. By comparing the PtRu-PtSn/C cell with the PtRu/C cell operated with mixed alcohol solutions, the cell using PtRu/C as an anode catalyst provided higher power density since more PtRu/C surface was available for methanol oxidation reaction and less ohmic resistance of PtRu/C than that of PtRu-PtSn/C. In order to reach optimization of DAFC performance fed with mixed alcohol, the electrocatalyst used for the anode must selectively adsorb an alcohol, especially ethanol.

  4. Bioavailability of lead in rats fed human diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostial, K.; Kello, D.

    1979-01-01

    The bioavailability of lead was studied in rats fed various baby foods (Babymix-turkey, Babymix-vegetables, Frutolino-fruit, Frutamix-bananas, Babyron-S-26, Truefood), cow's milk, bread, liver and standard rat diet. Lead absorption was determined by measuring the whole body retention of 203 Pb 6 days after a single oral application. Highest absorption values ranging from 17 to 20% were obtained in animals fed cow's milk and fruit foods. Rats on other human diets absorbed between 3 and 8% of the radioactive lead dose. Only in animals on rat diet lead absorption was below 1%. It is concluded that rats fed human diets show absorption values similar to those in humans. This might indicate that the bioavailability of lead is primarily dependent on dietary habits. This experimental model, if confirmed by further work, might be useful for obtaining preliminary data on the bioavailability of metals from various foods

  5. Analysis of Microstrip Line Fed Patch Antenna for Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ashish

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, theoretical analysis of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator is presented. The proposed antenna shows that the dualband operation depends on gap between parasitic element, split-ring resonator, length and width of microstrip line. It is found that antenna resonates at two distinct resonating modes i.e., 0.9 GHz and 1.8 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The antenna shows dual frequency nature with frequency ratio 2.0. The characteristics of microstrip line fed rectangular patch antenna loaded with parasitic element and split-ring resonator antenna is compared with other prototype microstrip line fed antennas. Further, the theoretical results are compared with simulated and reported experimental results, they are in close agreement.

  6. FEDS : A Framework for Evaluation in Design Science Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  7. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  8. Serotonin syndrome in a breast-fed neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rachel; Matthes, Jean

    2015-05-06

    A late preterm presented with tachypnoea, jitteriness, irritability and low grade fever. Blood gas showed a compensated metabolic acidosis. His mother was taking the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine, 60 mg/day, and he was exclusively breast-fed. The baby's serum level of fluoxetine on day 8 was within the adult therapeutic range and his symptoms were ascribed to fluoxetine toxicity. On changing to formula feeds, his symptoms resolved. SSRIs are commonly administered during pregnancy, but SSRI toxicity in infants is rarely reported. It is possible that this condition is under diagnosed or, alternatively, misdiagnosed as SSRI withdrawal in breast fed infants whose mothers are on SSRIs. There is limited research looking at serotonin excess in neonates, making case reports such as this important in our learning. Increased awareness may prompt more frequent measurements of blood levels in breast-fed infants whose mothers are on SSRIs. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  9. Hematology and plasma biochemistry in rats fed with diets enriched with fatty fishes from Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Francisca das Chagas do Amaral; Duncan, Wallice Paxiúba; Carvalho, Roasany Piccolotto

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rats fed diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon region had Hematology and plasma biochemistry analyzed. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group fed a standard diet; mapará group fed a diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; matrinxã group fed a diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and tambaqui group fed a diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. After thirty days the rats had an red blood count and plasma biochemistry. RESULTS: Hematocrit and ...

  10. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chylek, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dubey, Manvendra K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lesins, Glen [DALLHOUSIE U; Wang, Muyin [NOAA/JISAO

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  11. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    A method for adaptive and recursive estimation in a class of non-linear autoregressive models with external input is proposed. The model class considered is conditionally parametric ARX-models (CPARX-models), which is conventional ARX-models in which the parameters are replaced by smooth, but oth......A method for adaptive and recursive estimation in a class of non-linear autoregressive models with external input is proposed. The model class considered is conditionally parametric ARX-models (CPARX-models), which is conventional ARX-models in which the parameters are replaced by smooth...... is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...

  12. Breastfeeding and tacrolimus: serial monitoring in breast-fed and bottle-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramham, Kate; Chusney, Gary; Lee, Janet; Lightstone, Liz; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2013-04-01

    Women have traditionally been advised not to breastfeed while taking tacrolimus, based on theoretical risks of neonatal immunosuppression and assumed secretion into breast milk, rather than clinical data suggesting neonatal absorption. The aim of this study was to assess tacrolimus levels in breast milk and neonatal exposure during breastfeeding. An observational cohort study was performed in two tertiary referral high-risk obstetric medicine clinics. Fourteen women taking tacrolimus during pregnancy and lactation, and their 15 infants, 11 of whom were exclusively breast-fed, were assessed. Tacrolimus levels were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Samples from mothers and cord blood were collected at delivery and from mothers, infants, and breast milk postnatally where possible. All infants with serial sampling had a decline in tacrolimus level, which was approximately 15% per day (ratio of geometric mean concentrations 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.88; PL [range, 0.0-4.0] versus 1.0 μg/L [range, 0.0-2.3], respectively; P=0.91). Maximum estimated absorption from breast milk is 0.23% of maternal dose (weight-adjusted). Ingestion of tacrolimus by infants via breast milk is negligible. Breastfeeding does not appear to slow the decline of infant tacrolimus levels from higher levels present at birth. Women taking tacrolimus should not be discouraged from breastfeeding if monitoring of infant levels is available.

  13. Dietary CLA-induced lipolysis is delayed in soy oil-fed mice compared to coconut oil-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippagunta, S; Angius, Z; Sanda, M; Barnes, K M

    2013-11-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to cause a reduction in obesity in several species. CLA-induced body fat loss is enhanced when mice are fed coconut oil (CO) and involves increased lipolysis. The objective of this paper was to determine if the CLA-induced lipolysis in mice fed with different oil sources was time-dependent. Mice were fed 7 % soybean oil (SO) or CO diets for 6 week and then supplemented with 0 or 0.5 % CLA for 3, 7, 10 or 14 days. Body fat and ex-vivo lipolysis was determined. Body fat was reduced by CO on day 7 (P lipogenesis was determined by western blotting and real-time PCR, respectively. No significant differences were detected in protein expression. CO-fed mice had greater fatty acid synthase and stearyl CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression and less acetyl CoA carboxylase mRNA expression (P Malic enzyme expression was increased by CLA (P lipogenesis is decreased in CO-fed mice with CLA supplementation.

  14. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  15. Ultra-Wideband Notched Characteristic Fed by Coplanar Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastanto Hadinegoro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel Ultra-Wide Band (UWB notch patch antenna with co-planar waveguide (CPW fed is presented. This antenna only used one layer and the patch antenna is constructed on the first layer and back to back with CPW fed and bottom part is ground plane. The width notch is used to achieve the UWB characteristic. The results shown that the impedance bandwidth is 1130 MHz (1.662–2.792 GHz or about 50.7% for VSWR <2.

  16. FED-R: a fusion engineering device utilizing resistive magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; Kalsi, S.S. (eds.)

    1983-04-01

    The principal purpose of the FED-R tokamak facility is to provide a substantial quasi-steady flux of fusion neutrons irradiating a large test area in order to carry out thermal, neutronic, and radiation effects testing of experimental blanket assemblies having a variety of configurations, compositions, and purposes. The design of the FED-R device also suggests potential for an upgrade that could be employed as a full-scale demonstration reactor for some specific fusion-neutron application when required.

  17. Digestive enzymatic activity on tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus) larvae fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Carlos; Mendoza, Roberto; Iracheta, Israel; Marquez, Gabriel

    2012-06-01

    Digestive enzymatic activity and growth performance on tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus) larvae fed Artemia nauplii (LF), frozen adult Artemia (AB), an artificial diet (AF) with 46% protein and 16% lipids and a starvation group (SG) from first feeding (5 days after hatching-5 DAH) to 34 DAH were studied. All larvae under starvation (SG) died at 15 DAH. By the end of the experimental period, morphological variables (total length, wet weight and specific growth rate) were significant in larvae fed AF compared to LF and AB. All enzymes studied in the experiment were present since the start of exogenous feeding (including pepsin) and the enzymatic activity varied with the diets. Low levels of enzymatic activity were observed until the 29 DAH; however, after this moment, there was a significant increase (eightfold), particularly for the AF treatment. In vitro protein digestibility tests performed with enzymatic extracts showed that artificial diets with 52% protein and 14% lipids were better digested by larvae before 30 DAH, while diets with 45% protein and 11% lipids were better digested after this age. Taking into account the better growth performance, higher enzymatic activity and better protein digestibility obtained, artificial diets can be used since the start of exogenous feeding on tropical gar larvae, as in other lepisosteids.

  18. Digestion of feed fractions and intake of heifers fed hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis Luis Missio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate, in Nellore heifers, intake and digestibility of hydrolyzed sugarcane stored for different periods. The experimental design used was a 4 × 4 Latin square, four diets, four Nellore heifers with ruminal cannulas (initial body weight 285.4±23.08 kg and average initial age 14 months and four periods of 21 days. The diets were composed by fresh sugarcane (time zero or hydrolyzed sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime, stored for 24, 48 or 72 hours, as the unique forage. Intake and digestibility of feed fractions, nitrogen balance, microbial synthesis efficiency, total number of ruminal protozoans and ammoniacal nitrogen did not significantly change by storing sugarcane with addition of 0.5% of hydrated lime. Sugarcane pH varied quadratically for storage time, with maximum pH of 7.02 after 24 hours from lime addition. Ruminal liquid pH values were higher for heifers fed fresh sugarcane, in comparison with those fed hydrolyzed sugarcane. Sugarcane treated with 0.5% of hydrated lime stored for up to 72 hours does not change ruminal digestion to alter the amount of feed consumed by pubescent Nellore heifers. Thus, lime is a viable technology, once it allows long-duration storage and bee control on treated forage, which contributes to animal feeding logistics.

  19. A sigmoid model to predict gastric evacuation rates of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui fed juvenile salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jean Beyer; Burley , Craig C.

    1991-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the effects of water temperature, predator size, prey size, and prey number on gastric evacuation of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) fed juvenile salmon. The smallmouth bass were allowed to feed voluntarily after 24–48 h of starvation and stomachs were pumped at intervals of 1–4 h until 90% of the stomach contents were evacuated (E90). Evacuation approximated an S-shaped curve over time, and a sigmoid model was developed to predict evacuation at varying water temperatures, total meal weights, predator sizes, and prey number. The rate of evacuation increased with increasing water temperature, meal weight, or predator size. The E90 increased with larger meal weights but decreased with increasing temperature or predator size. E90 ranged between 4 and 95 h, depending upon conditions. E90 was slower than those estimated previously for another predator of salmon, the stomachless northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis).

  20. Growth Performance of Pekin Ducks Fed with Golden Snail and Fresh Banana Peelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulep, LJL.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and economics of feeding confined Pekin ducks with three different levels of golden snail fresh meat and banana peelings in equal percentage for replacing 50 %, 70 % or 90 % of the commercial feed of the diet was studied. Body weight gains and feed consumption of ducks, cost of feed and profit above feed and stock cost different significantly among treatments. Feed conversion varied during the first month of feeding but became comparable after the second month. Ducks fed the diet with 45 % banana peel and 45 % golden snail meat gave the best performance, were the most economical and yielded the highest profit. Snail meat and banana peeling utilization as replacement to commercial diet for ducks is advantageaous in terms of growth performance and cost benefit.

  1. Hybrid renewable energy system using doubly-fed induction generator and multilevel inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Eshita

    The proposed hybrid system generates AC power by combining solar and wind energy converted by a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The DFIG, driven by a wind turbine, needs rotor excitation so the stator can supply a load or the grid. In a variable-speed wind energy system, the stator voltage and its frequency vary with wind speed, and in order to keep them constant, variable-voltage and variable-frequency rotor excitation is to be provided. A power conversion unit supplies the rotor, drawing power either from AC mains or from a PV panel depending on their availability. It consists of a multilevel inverter which gives lower harmonic distortion in the stator voltage. Maximum power point tracking techniques have been implemented for both wind and solar power. The complete hybrid renewable energy system is implemented in a PSIM-Simulink interface and the wind energy conversion portion is realized in hardware using dSPACE controller board.

  2. Honeybee odometry: performance in varying natural terrain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Tautz

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that honeybees flying through short, narrow tunnels with visually textured walls perform waggle dances that indicate a much greater flight distance than that actually flown. These studies suggest that the bee's "odometer" is driven by the optic flow (image motion that is experienced during flight. One might therefore expect that, when bees fly to a food source through a varying outdoor landscape, their waggle dances would depend upon the nature of the terrain experienced en route. We trained honeybees to visit feeders positioned along two routes, each 580 m long. One route was exclusively over land. The other was initially over land, then over water and, finally, again over land. Flight over water resulted in a significantly flatter slope of the waggle-duration versus distance regression, compared to flight over land. The mean visual contrast of the scenes was significantly greater over land than over water. The results reveal that, in outdoor flight, the honeybee's odometer does not run at a constant rate; rather, the rate depends upon the properties of the terrain. The bee's perception of distance flown is therefore not absolute, but scene-dependent. These findings raise important and interesting questions about how these animals navigate reliably.

  3. Ciliary Locomotion in Varying Viscosity Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastham, Patrick; Shoele, Kourosh

    2017-11-01

    Ciliary locomotion is a common method of transportation employed by bacteria. They must be able to move through their environment at will to seek nutrients as well as avoid dangers. While research into bacteria motility has received considerable attention, very little has been done to consider the effects of a spatially-varying viscosity environment on swimming. This presentation will discuss recent research into how bacteria can take advantage of nutrient-dependent viscosity to generate an asymmetric stress field around their body, potentially increasing free-swimming velocity. First, we analytically show that asymptotically small variations in viscosity due to nutrient concentrations can affect the free-swimming velocity of a bacteria. Then we extend our study to fully nonlinear coupling between nutrient concentration and viscosity and employ the Finite Element method to solve a system containing a convection-diffusion equation for nutrient concentration as well as Stokes flow for stress distribution on the swimmer. We will discuss how the free-swimming velocity profile changes for various nutrient Pecletnumbers and ciliary locomotion modes.

  4. Varying coefficients model with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2008-06-01

    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  5. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  6. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sejeong; Cha, Meeyoung; Jung, Kyomin

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows-from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. Our contribution is at providing deep insight into the cumulative spreading patterns of rumors over time as well as at tracking the precise changes in predictive powers across rumor features. Statistical analysis finds that structural and temporal features distinguish rumors from non-rumors over a long-term window, yet they are not available during the initial propagation phase. In contrast, user and linguistic features are readily available and act as a good indicator during the initial propagation phase. Based on these findings, we suggest a new rumor classification algorithm that achieves competitive accuracy over both short and long time windows. These findings provide new insights for explaining rumor mechanism theories and for identifying features of early rumor detection.

  7. Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.

    2017-06-01

    The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.

  8. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is altering sea-level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88) in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA). Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations). High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. A

  10. Growth Performance of Red Sokoto Bucks Fed Inclusion levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the growth performance of red Sokoto bucks fed two (2) inclusion levels of rawwater soaked and lime soaked Hibiscus sabdariffa seeds in rice offal based diets. A total of twenty one (21) red Sokoto bucks were randomly allotted into seven treatments with three (3) bucks per group while ...

  11. Zinc deprivation of methanol fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fermoso, F.G.; Collins, G.; Bartacek, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of omitting zinc from the influent of mesophilic (30 degrees C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors, and latter zinc supplementation to the influent to counteract the deprivation, was investigated by coupling the UASB reactor performance to the microbial ecology of

  12. Nutrient digestibility and egg production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 20-week feeding trial involving 72 Isa brown-laying birds, in a completely randomized design, evaluated the nutrient digestibility and egg production of layers fed diets containing biodegraded palm kernel meal (PKM) at dietary levels of 20 per cent undegraded and 20, 30 and 40 per cent biodegraded PKM, respectively.

  13. Performance and economy of production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed fermented wild cocoyam corm (FWCC) as a partial replacement for maize. Two hundred and forty (240) Nera black laying birds were randomly allocated to four experimental diets formulated on 0, 10, 20 and 30% FWCC as graded replacement ...

  14. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  15. Profound Haemaological Changes In Rats Fed On Different Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the end of six weeks feeding period, blood samples were obtained and total leukocyte count was done. The results of total court show that animals fed in protein supplemented diet had a profound increase in their leukocyte court when compered with the control. The study shows that specific dietary elements can induce ...

  16. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  17. The performance of weaned albino rats (Wister strain) fed Baobab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two diets prepared from A. digitata leaf were fed parallel into albino rats with diets containing roasted full fat soyabean as control. The result reveals that A. digitata leaves can be included in the diet of albino rats at up to 20% level without depression in performance of feed intake, body weight gain and feed to gain ration ...

  18. Growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred and seventy (270), day old chicks were used in a completely randomized design experimental layout to test the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of broiler chickens fed single phase diets containing natuzyme™ treated groundnut shell at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % inclusion levels. The treatments ...

  19. Effect of Different Levels of Molasses Fed Through Drinking Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of molasses fed through drinking water on growth and economic performance of broiler chickens. One hundred and sixty unsexed day old chicks of Anak strain were used. They were divided into four treatment groups with each group having four replicates of ten birds per ...

  20. Performance and physiological responses of milk-fed calves to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCB) on calf performance and some blood parameters. Sixteen female Holstein calves with a mean age of 3 ± 1 d were divided into two equal groups and fed a milk replacer supplemented with 3 g of coated calcium butyrate (CCB)/day or with no ...

  1. Haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the haematology and serum indices of broiler starter fed graded levels of raw pride of Barbados (Caesalpina pulcherima) seedmeal. Seventy two day old Marshal broiler chicks obtained from Obasanjo Farms, Igboora, Oyo state, Nigeria were randomly assigned into four treatments, each ...

  2. fed a low or a medium protein diet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    no benefit to be gained from restricting water intake. Restricting the CP content of the diet fed to cattle in East Africa reduced the amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine as urea (Livingston et al.,. 1962). Furthermore, restricting the water intake of these cows further reduced the loss of nitrogen. As a result of this and similar ...

  3. Energy utitlzation by broilers fed different micro-nutrient mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding micro-nutrient mixture B improved energy efficiency. It was concluded that the poor performance and the poor energy efficiency of C-fed broilers was as a result of the micronutrient imbalance of the mixture since the mixture is deficient in Zinc and four B-vitamins that affect energy utilization. It also contains ...

  4. Effect of supplementing lactating goats fed on aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of supplementing lactating goats fed on aflatoxin contaminated feed with calcium bentonite and activated charcoal on aflatoxin M1 concentration, excretion and carryover in milk. ... The fungal spores are found worldwide, in air and soil, and infest both living and dead plants and animals. An experiment was conducted ...

  5. Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genital tract morphometry and haematology of male rabbits fed graded levels of cassava leaf meal. ... It was concluded that the inclusion of up to 27% of CLM in bucks' diets is not detrimental to good health and normal reproductive tract development. It is recommended that further studies on the feeding potentials of ...

  6. pubertal rabbit bucks fed cottonseed cake-based diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR 'JIDE AMAO

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... cottonseed cake (CSC)-based diets supplemented with vitamin E. 64 weanling rabbit bucks, aged five to six weeks ... bucks may be fed CSC up to 15% inclusion level in diet for meat production, it is deleterious for young bucks whose ... physiological processes is by generation of free radicals, which are ...

  7. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    matter digestibilities were significantly higher (PO.05) in the animals fed 0% inclusion level compared to other ... tropics are predominantly raised on grasses .... of ruminant livestock. Acknowledgement. The authors are grateful to the. Department of Animal Science, Bayero. University, Kano for allowing them the use.

  8. Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Control Under Voltage Sags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lima, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a new control technique to improve the fault-ride through capability of doubly fed induction generators (DFIG). In such generators the appearance of severe voltage sags at the coupling point make rise to high over currents at the rotor/stator windings, something that makes nec...

  9. Digestive efficiency of indigenous and invasive avian species fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) and Purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) Turacos and invasive alien Rose-ringed Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) met their energy demands when fed fruits of four fleshyfruited invasive alien plant species: Solanum mauritianum, Cinnamomum camphora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba.

  10. Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physiological evaluation of broiler finishers fed fermented bovine blood and rumen digesta meal. ... Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... This study suggested that FBBRD meal when properly processed and at 10 % dietary level of inclusion, can be used in broiler finisher production without adverse effects on the ...

  11. Carcass and Slaughter Traits of Weanling Pigs Fed Graded Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing pigs were used to assess the slaughter and carcass characteristics, organs and primal cut yields when fed diets supplemented with processed leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (wild sunflower) referred to as Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM). A 63-day feeding trial was conducted with commercially available male ...

  12. Performance of West African Dwarf Goats fed maize stover based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme additive (containing cellulase, xylanase and beta glucanase) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility parameters of West African dwarf (WAD) goats fed total mixed ration in the dry season. A total of sixteen (16) WAD goats were ...

  13. Reproductive performance of female goats fed life-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct-fed-microbes (DFM) (life-enzyme) was prepared in a traditional setting using Zymomonas mobilis (bacteria from palm sap) to ferment sawdust. The result revealed an improvement in the nutrient content of the sawdust and its feed values (protein, fibre etc.), and the feed usage efficiency. The reproductive ...

  14. Performance response and egg qualities of laying birds fed enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theperformance response and egg qualities o laying birds fed enzyme supplemented PKC diets asreplacement for maize was investigated wth 210, 20 week old layng pullets of Dominant Black strain at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria. The birds which ust come into ...

  15. of Goats Fed to Captive Animals at the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has shown an overall prevalence of. 38.2% for gastrointestinal parasites of goats fed to animals in University of Ibadan Zoological. Garden. The period ofthis study coincided with heavy rains in Ibadan when nematodes had been reported to be abundant. This may be attributed to the temperature and humidity of.

  16. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Goats Fed to Captive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zoological gardens showcase wild animals for aesthetic, educational and conservation purposes. Parasitic diseases had been described to be a big threat to animals in captivity, leading to high mortality in some cases. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in goats fed to ...

  17. Hematological and serum biochemical evaluation of broilers fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal Production Research Advances ... Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) activities were higher at the finisher phase but not at the starter phase in 40.0% CFM fed birds, while serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) activities were significantly high (p<0.05) at both the starter and finisher ...

  18. Evolving Microbial Communities in Cellulose-Fed Microbial Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Toczyłowska-Mamińska

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of cellulosic wastes make them attractive source of energy for producing electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs. However, electricity production from cellulose requires obligate anaerobes that can degrade cellulose and transfer electrons to the electrode (exoelectrogens, and thus most previous MFC studies have been conducted using two-chamber systems to avoid oxygen contamination of the anode. Single-chamber, air-cathode MFCs typically produce higher power densities than aqueous catholyte MFCs and avoid energy input for the cathodic reaction. To better understand the bacterial communities that evolve in single-chamber air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose, we examined the changes in the bacterial consortium in an MFC fed cellulose over time. The most predominant bacteria shown to be capable electron generation was Firmicutes, with the fermenters decomposing cellulose Bacteroidetes. The main genera developed after extended operation of the cellulose-fed MFC were cellulolytic strains, fermenters and electrogens that included: Parabacteroides, Proteiniphilum, Catonella and Clostridium. These results demonstrate that different communities evolve in air-cathode MFCs fed cellulose than the previous two-chamber reactors.

  19. Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a utility interfaced pulse-width modulation of solar-fed voltage source single phase full bridge inverter. The proposed system has to do with the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy; boosting the dc power; inversion of the dc to ac and then synchronization of the inverter output with the utility, ...

  20. Performance of solar photovoltaic array fed water pumping system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the design and performance analysis of a solar photovoltaic (SPV) array fed water pumping system utilizing a special class of highly rugged machine with simple drive system called switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive. The proposed method of water pumping system also provides the cost effective ...

  1. Stator insulation systems for medium voltage PWM drives fed motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, G.; Chen, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the partial results of a research project that studied the impact of medium voltage PWM ASD (adjustable speed drives) on motor stator insulation system. The findings from this study/ investigation have aided designers to improve the robustness of the insulation system used for ASD-fed motors, based on accelerated laboratory tests. (author)

  2. Low serum biotin in Japanese children fed with hydrolysate formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Wakabayashi, Kenji; Ogawa, Eishin; Kodama, Hiroko; Mimaki, Masakazu

    2016-09-01

    Given that nutritional biotin deficiency in Japanese infants has been reported, a straightforward method for estimating biotin level is needed. The biotin content in infant formula, breast milk, and the sera of infants fed with various types of formula were measured using avidin-binding assay. A commercially available ELISA kit was used for the measurement of biotin in 54 types of formula, including hydrolysate formulas for milk allergy, as well as in breast milk and in the sera of 27 infants fed with these formulas. The biotin content reached the recommended value in only five formulas. All of the hydrolysate formulas and more than half of the special formulas contained biotin biotin was low in infants fed only with the hydrolysate formulas, and one of them had alopecia related to biotin deficiency. While many were asymptomatic, infants fed with formulas lacking biotin are at risk of developing symptomatic disease. The addition of biotin to breast milk substitutes was finally approved in the middle of 2014, however pediatricians in Japan should still be vigilant with regard to nutritional biotin deficiency in infants for the time being. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  3. Haematological evaluation of pregnant ewes fed broiler - litter based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out for 10 weeks to assess changes in some haematological indices with advancing pregnancy in ewes fed Broiler Litter (BL) based rations. Blood samples were collected at each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed for Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Red Blood Cell (RBC), White Blood Cell (WBC) counts ...

  4. Vulnerability and adaptation of rain fed agriculture to climate change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    A vulnerability assessment of rain fed agriculture to climate change and variability in semi-arid parts of. Tabora Region in Tanzania was conducted in 2009. Four village clusters were selected out of which, three villages represent Millennium Villages Program (MVP) namely Mbola, Mpenge and Isila from Uyui. District.

  5. Gatrointestinal parasites associated with the stools of bottle-fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gatrointestinal parasites associated with the stools of bottle-fed babies in Benin city, Nigeria. MO Okungbowa, FI Okungbowa. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol. 13 (3) 2007: pp.415-419. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  6. Centralised control of wind farm with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca-Daniela; Sorensen, Poul; Iov, Florin

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced wind farm controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of doubly-fed generators. The overall aim of such controller is to enable the wind farms to behave as active controllable components in the power system. The attention is mainly drawn to t...

  7. Plasma assessments for the fusion engineering device (FED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.; Lyon, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    An initial range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the US tokamak FED concept. The results suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 4.8 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 4.8 to 5.4 MA are appropriate for achieving its nominal goals of P(fusion) approx. = 180 MW and a plasma Q greater than or equal to to 5 for a pulse length greater than 100 s. However, large uncertainty still exists in the areas of current startup, ion-cyclotron wave launching, influence of plasma shape on achievable beta, impurity control, plasma edge transport, and plasma disruption. Various options and remedies have been suggested to alleviate the impact of the uncertainty on the FED design concept. They appear promising because they can be studied experimentally and are not expected to lead to fundamental design modifications of FED

  8. Performance and blood indices of growing rabbits fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed cost per kilogram diet reduced with increasing levels of SWM; also feed cost per unit weight gain. Rabbits fed 132.7g SWM/kg had higher (cubic) mean values for total protein, albumin and globulin and lower (p<0.05) values for urea and creatinine than those on the other diets. There was no significant difference on all ...

  9. Performance Of Growing Rabbits Fed Graded Levels Of Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ten-week feeding trial was conducted to assess the biological and economic performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of goat rumen content (GRC). The GRC which contained 27.25% crude protein and 28.33% crude fibre were included at 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% levels in diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively to ...

  10. Nutritive value and biochemical changes in broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis Linn.) is an important oilseed rich in protein but rarely used as livestock feed due to antinutritional factors. Castor seed was detoxified using combined processing techniques of moist heating and fermentation (5 and 7- day) or lye treatment and fed to150 day-old Anak 2000 broiler chicks at ...

  11. Haemato-biochemistry of Albino rats fed African Kudzu ( Pueraria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cooked and acid-extracted kudzu seed meals on some nutritional and blood and liver biochemical parameters were investigated. Rats fed cooked kudzu meal had significantly (p<0.01) slower rates of growth than the casein control. Cooking enhanced feed efficiency (FE) but the acid-extracted meal could not ...

  12. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  13. The plasma composition of karakul lambs fed isocaloric high- and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hormones. Methods. Diets. Two diets were fed, one with a high-fibre (HF) and one with a low-fibre (LF) content. The diets were pelleted to avoid selec- tion by the ..... 69,707. BASSETT, J.M., 1972. Plasma glucagon concentrations in sheep: their regulation and relation to concentrations of insulin and growth hormone. Aust.

  14. producing dairy cows fed conventional forages, wheat straw

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chewing activity, metabolic profile and performance of high- producing dairy cows fed conventional forages, wheat straw or rice straw. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated (n = 4) 3 × 3 Latin square design experiment with three periods of 21 days. Cows were ...

  15. Energy metabolism of dairy cows fed on grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Honing, Y. van der; Agnew, R.E.; Yan, T.; Vuuren, A.M. van; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    Production performance of grass-fed dairy cows is often lower than expected from the estimated energy supply. To explain the overestimation of the energy content of grass for dairy cows, data from energy balance trials from three different laboratories (Wageningen, Lelystad and Hillsborough) were

  16. FED RAW OR AUTOCLAVED N EEM SEED KERNELS IN DIETS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoclaving improved (P<0.05) erythrocyte (RBC) production and cockerels fed diets with 150 g/kg heat- treated neem kernels had superior (P<0.05) packed cell volume (PCV), RBC number and haemogblobin concentration compared to those of birds on basal diet. Neem diets generally induced (P<0.05) lymphocytosis ...

  17. Carcass, organ and pathological characteristics of grower pigs fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Each diet was fed to a group of six pigs. Results indicated that carcass weight and backfat thickness decreased as level of CPM in the diets increased. Heart, Kidney, Liver and Spleen weights (expressed as percentage of body weight) were significantly higher at the 30 percent level of CPM inclusion. Likewise, Kidney of ...

  18. Comparative carcass characteristics of indigenous turkey poults fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    products on the carcass characteristics of indigenous turkey poults. Sixty indigenous poults were brooded and fed broiler starter feed for the first 4 weeks of life. At the end of 4 weeks, forty-eight poults were randomly selected and distributed into four ...

  19. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted eight (8) weeks was carried out to determine the intake and nutrient digestibility by growing Yankasa rams fed graded levels of Tamarindus indica leaves. Twelve Yankasa rams with average liveweight of 17.40kg were randomly allocated to three treatments of four replicates in a Randomized ...

  20. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass supplemented with ... In the tropics, the majority of dairy cattle depend on low quality natural pastures and crop residues. (Preston & Leng ... level is below the. ARC (1980) recommended dietary CP levels for growing heifers of 10 to 12 g.kg- DM CP and as a.

  1. Performance and physiological responses of milk-fed calves to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mojgan

    Sodium-butyrate as a growth promoter in milk replacer formula for young calves. J. Dairy Sci. 92, 1038-1049. Hammon, H. M., Schiessler, G., Nussbaum, A. & Blum, J.W., 2002. Feed intake patterns, growth performance, and metabolic and endocrine traits in calves fed unlimited amounts of colostrum and milk by automate, ...

  2. Sensory evaluation and tibia bone retention of broiler chicken fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 56 days to assess the sensory evaluation of breast meat sample and tibia bone mineralization of broiler chicken fed graded level of toasted sesame seed meal. One hundred and eighty arbor acre chicks were divided into five dietary treatments. Each treatment was replicated thrice with ...

  3. Carcass and internal organ characteristics of brioler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and forty-four (144) broiler chickens were used to evaluate the carcass and internal organ characteristics of broiler chickens fed soybean diet partially replaced with variable levels of raw jackfruit seed meal (RJFSM). The study lasted for 7 weeks. The inclusion levels of RJFSM were 10, 20 and 30% respectively ...

  4. Performance and health of dairy calves fed limited amounts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare growth performance of Brown Swiss calves fed acidified milk replacer (AMR) at 8% of birth weight, 20 newborn calves were reared under a new calf-feeding programme. Body weights, total weight gains and gains in body measurements, feed intake and feed efficiency values determined at different stages of ...

  5. Digestibility of Protein in Common Carp ( Cyprinus carpio ) Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestibility of dietary protein by carp, Cyprinus carpio fed for 10 weeks on different levels of chicken gut and duckweed incorporated into the diets was investigated. Growth, food conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization all improved with increase in the level of chicken gut in diet.

  6. Choice of compressed air fed system of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Congkui; Lei Zeyong

    2006-01-01

    The selection of compressed air fed system in a uranium mine is discussed. The research indicates that the movable air compressor is better than the fixed one in energy saving, once capital cost and operational cost when it is applied in an underground uranium mine. (authors)

  7. Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Rabbits Fed Dried Sweet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six (36) growing rabbits (18 males and 18 females) aged between 5-6 weeks were divided into six groups of six rabbits each, consisting of same number of males and females were used in an 84-day feeding trial to evaluate their hematological and serum biochemical characteristics when fed graded levels of dried ...

  8. Growth Indices and Apparent Nutrient Digestibility in Rabbits Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical composition of moringa leaf meal, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of growing rabbits fed graded levels of moringa leaf meal (MLM) were investigated. The MLM was incorporated in rabbit diet at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels as replacement for soyabean meal (SBM) which constituted treatments ...

  9. Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reproductive indices of Merino rams fed sun-cured Leucaena leucocephala forage. I.V. Nsahlai, B.K. Byebwa, M.L.K. Bonsi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 111-112). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. Haematology and serum chemistry of finisher broiler chickens fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to assess the haematology and serum chemistry of broiler chickens fed maize-cassava diets supplemented with methionine and inorganic sulphur. A total of 270 day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups of 30 birds making 10 birds per replicate group. Starter and ...

  11. Performance of rabbits fed Leucaena leucocephala and concentrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four fryers which were fed the same % of concentrates and Aspilia africana served as the control. Growth rate decreased at the beginning of the study followed by satisfactory growth thereafter. The control animals had a higher growth rate compared to the other two groups (P< 0.05). Alopecia and decreased appetite were ...

  12. Effect of dietary threonine on laying performance and intestinal immunity of laying hens fed low-crude-protein diets during the peak production period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, M M M; Dong, X Y; Zou, X T

    2017-10-01

    Threonine (Thr) may be a limiting amino acid for laying hens fed diets with lowered protein level. An experiment was conducted to examine laying performance, and the intestinal immune function of laying hens provided diets varying in digestible Thr levels. Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480), 28 weeks of age, were allocated to six dietary treatments, each of which included five replicates of 16 hens. Dietary crude protein (CP) 16.18% diet was offered as the positive control diet. L-Thr was added to the negative diet (14.16% CP) by 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 g/kg, corresponding 0.44%, 0.43%, 0.49%, 0.57%, 0.66% and 0.74% digestible Thr. At 40 weeks, a reduction in CP level decreased laying performance (p hens fed 0.66% Thr showed the lowest value (p feed conversion ratio (FCR). Serum level of uric acid showed the lowest values (p hens fed the low-CP diet compared with hens fed CP (16.18%) and hens fed 0.57-0.66%. Expressions of ileal MUC2 mRNA maximized (p hens during the peak production period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Must

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread zoonotic parasite that is relevant for veterinary and public health. The domestic cat, the definitive host species with the largest worldwide population, has become evolutionarily and epidemiologically the most important host of T. gondii. The outcome of T. gondii infection is influenced by congenital and acquired host characteristics. We detected differences in T. gondii seroprevalence by cat breed in our previous studies. The aims of this study were to estimate T. gondii seroprevalence in selected domestic cat breeds, and to evaluate whether being of a certain breed is associated with T. gondii seropositivity, when the age and lifestyle of the cat are taken into account. The studied breeds were the Birman, British Shorthair, Burmese, Korat, Norwegian Forest Cat, Ocicat, Persian, and Siamese. Plasma samples were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with a commercial direct agglutination test at dilution 1:40. The samples were accompanied by owner-completed questionnaires that provided background data on the cats. Overall, 41.12% of the 1121 cats tested seropositive, and the seroprevalence increased with age. The Burmese had the lowest seroprevalence (18.82% and the Persian had the highest (60.00%. According to the final multivariable logistic regression model, the odds to test seropositive were four to seven times higher in Birmans, Ocicats, Norwegian Forest Cats, and Persians when compared with the Burmese, while older age and receiving raw meat were also risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity. This study showed that T. gondii seroprevalence varies by cat breed and identified being of certain breeds, older age, and receiving raw meat as risk factors for seropositivity.

  14. Oral Microbial Profile Discriminates Breastfed from Formula-Fed Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla Lif; Vestman, Nelly Romani; Claesson, Rolf; Öhman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne CR; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Little is known about the impact of diet on the oral microbiota of infants although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breastfed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. Subjects and Methods 207 mothers consented to participation of their three-month old infants. 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breastfed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to supress Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by q-PCR for Lactobacilius gasseri. Results Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breastfed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breastfed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breastfed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. gasseri and Lactobacillus vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S. mutans and the commensal S. sanguinis: L. plantarum > L. gasseri > L. vaginalis. Conclusion The microbiota of the mouth differs between breastfed and formula-fed three-month-old infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk. PMID:22955450

  15. Time-Varying FIR Equalization for MIMO Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhumi, Imad; Moonen, Marc

    2010-12-01

    We propose time-varying FIR equalization techniques for spatial multiplexing-based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission over doubly selective channels. The doubly selective channel is approximated using the basis expansion model (BEM), and equalized by means of time-varying FIR filters designed according to the BEM. By doing so, the time-varying deconvolution problem is converted into a two-dimensional time-invariant deconvolution problem in the time-invariant coefficients of the channel BEM and the time-invariant coefficients of the equalizer BEM. The timevarying FIR equalizers are derived based on either the matched filtering criterion, or the linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE) or the zero-forcing (ZF) criteria. In addition to the linear equalizers, the decision feedback equalizer (DFE) is proposed. The DFE can be designed according to two different scenarios. In the first scenario, the DFE is based on feeding back previously estimated symbols from one particular antenna at a time. Whereas, in the second scenario, the previously estimated symbols from all transmit antennas are fed back together. The performance of the proposed equalizers in the context of MIMO transmission is analyzed in terms of numerical simulations.

  16. Time-Varying FIR Equalization for MIMO Transmission over Doubly Selective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose time-varying FIR equalization techniques for spatial multiplexing-based multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO transmission over doubly selective channels. The doubly selective channel is approximated using the basis expansion model (BEM, and equalized by means of time-varying FIR filters designed according to the BEM. By doing so, the time-varying deconvolution problem is converted into a two-dimensional time-invariant deconvolution problem in the time-invariant coefficients of the channel BEM and the time-invariant coefficients of the equalizer BEM. The timevarying FIR equalizers are derived based on either the matched filtering criterion, or the linear minimum mean-square error (MMSE or the zero-forcing (ZF criteria. In addition to the linear equalizers, the decision feedback equalizer (DFE is proposed. The DFE can be designed according to two different scenarios. In the first scenario, the DFE is based on feeding back previously estimated symbols from one particular antenna at a time. Whereas, in the second scenario, the previously estimated symbols from all transmit antennas are fed back together. The performance of the proposed equalizers in the context of MIMO transmission is analyzed in terms of numerical simulations.

  17. Faecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed rations with different levels of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Maria; Spörndly, Rolf; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-03-15

    The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However, the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Midgut Protease Activity During Larval Development of Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae) Fed With Natural and Artificial Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ciprian, José Pedro; Aceituno-Medina, Marysol; Guillen, Karina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we examined the activity of two serine proteases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) and two metalloproteases (carboxypeptidases A and B) during larval development in Anastrepha obliqua fed natural (mango fruit) and artificial (formulation used in mass-rearing) diets. Proteolytic activity of chymotrypsin, trypsin, carboxypeptidase A, and carboxypeptidase B was detected in the midgut of different instars of A. obliqua and was strongly affected by the pH and diet type. The protein content of the natural and artificial diets was similar. Enzymatic activity was higher in the midgut of the larvae fed the natural diet than in larvae fed the artificial diet. The activity of the endopeptidases (chymotrypsin and trypsin) was lower than those of the exopeptidases (carboxypeptidases A and B). The pH of the midgut varied from acidic to neutral. The results indicate that in the midgut of the larvae reared on both types of diet, the level of carboxypeptidase activity was approximately 100-fold greater than the level of chymotrypsin activity and 10,000-fold greater than the level of trypsin. In conclusion, carboxypeptidase A and B are the main proteases involved in the digestion of proteins in the larvae of A. obliqua. The natural diet showed a high bioaccessibility. A clear tendency to express high activities of chymotrypsin and trypsin was observed by the third instar. Our research contributes to the planning and development of novel bioaccessibility assays to understand the nutrition processing of A. obliqua larvae under mass-rearing conditions for sterile insect technique.

  19. Vapor-fed bio-hybrid fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamin, Marcus S; Jahnke, Justin P; Mackie, David M

    2017-01-01

    Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions. By bubbling a carrier gas (N 2 ) through a yeast fermentation and then through a direct ethanol FC, we protect the FC anode from the catalyst poisons in the fermentation (which are non-volatile), and also protect the yeast from harmful FC products (notably acetic acid) and from build-up of ethanol. Since vapor-fed direct ethanol FCs at ambient conditions have never been systematically characterized (in contrast to vapor-fed direct methanol FCs), we first assess the effects on output power and conversion efficiency of ethanol concentration, vapor flow rate, and FC voltage. The results fit a continuous stirred-tank reactor model. Over a wide range of ethanol partial pressures (2-8 mmHg), power densities are comparable to those for liquid-fed direct ethanol FCs at the same temperature, with power densities >2 mW/cm 2 obtained. We then demonstrate the continuous operation of a vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC with fermentation for 5 months, with no indication of performance degradation due to poisoning (of either the FC or the fermentation). It is further shown that the system is stable, recovering quickly from disturbances or from interruptions in maintenance. The vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC enables extraction of power from dilute bio-ethanol streams without costly concentration and purification steps. The concept should be scalable to both large and small

  20. Recipient-Biased Competition for an Intracellularly Generated Cross-Fed Nutrient Is Required for Coexistence of Microbial Mutualists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, Alexandra L; LaSarre, Breah; McKinlay, James B

    2017-11-28

    Many mutualistic microbial relationships are based on nutrient cross-feeding. Traditionally, cross-feeding is viewed as being unidirectional, from the producer to the recipient. This is likely true when a producer's waste, such as a fermentation product, has value only for a recipient. However, in some cases the cross-fed nutrient holds value for both the producer and the recipient. In such cases, there is potential for nutrient reacquisition by producer cells in a population, leading to competition against recipients. Here, we investigated the consequences of interpartner competition for cross-fed nutrients on mutualism dynamics by using an anaerobic coculture pairing fermentative Escherichia coli and phototrophic Rhodopseudomonas palustris In this coculture, E. coli excretes waste organic acids that provide a carbon source for R. palustris In return, R. palustris cross-feeds E. coli ammonium (NH 4 + ), a compound that both species value. To explore the potential for interpartner competition, we first used a kinetic model to simulate cocultures with varied affinities for NH 4 + in each species. The model predicted that interpartner competition for NH 4 + could profoundly impact population dynamics. We then experimentally tested the predictions by culturing mutants lacking NH 4 + transporters in both NH 4 + competition assays and mutualistic cocultures. Both theoretical and experimental results indicated that the recipient must have a competitive advantage in acquiring cross-fed NH 4 + to sustain the mutualism. This recipient-biased competitive advantage is predicted to be crucial, particularly when the communally valuable nutrient is generated intracellularly. Thus, the very metabolites that form the basis for mutualistic cross-feeding can also be subject to competition between mutualistic partners. IMPORTANCE Mutualistic relationships, particularly those based on nutrient cross-feeding, promote stability of diverse ecosystems and drive global biogeochemical

  1. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, ... 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Carolina, ... channels, interconnected storm water drainage systems and irrigation canals fed from different sources. The flow of water in an open channel can be treated as ...

  2. Effects of varying protein levels on broiler performance when dietary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 9· week long study, three hundred 5-day-old Cobb-100 commercial broiler chicks were fed five isocaloric diets containing 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 pet cent crude protein respectively. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. Feed intake, final body weight and body weight gain significantly (P

  3. Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A R; Nørgaard, P; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage......Effect of forage quality in faeces from different ruminant species fed high and low quality forage...

  4. Doubly Fed Drives for Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, Morten

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of variable speed wind turbines. Different wind turbine generator topologies are described. In particular, the reduced variable speed turbine, which uses a doubly fed induction generator, is covered. An overview of the power electronic inverters of interest to the f...... is constructed. Adaptive active flters are used to reduce harmonics and slip harmonics in the stator current. The flters are implemented in both inverters. The active flters reduce the stator harmonics by 20-30 dB. The flters can reduce the slip harmonics at variable speed.......This thesis deals with the use of variable speed wind turbines. Different wind turbine generator topologies are described. In particular, the reduced variable speed turbine, which uses a doubly fed induction generator, is covered. An overview of the power electronic inverters of interest...

  5. Visible spectroscopy on carcass fat combined with chemometrics to distinguish pasture-fed, concentrate-fed and concentrate-finished pasture-fed lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y; Andueza, D; de Oliveira, L; Zawadzki, F; Prache, S

    2015-03-01

    We used visible spectroscopy of fat to discriminate lambs that were pasture-fed (n=76), concentrate-fed (n=79) or concentrate-finished after pasture-feeding (n=69). The reflectance spectrum of perirenal and subcutaneous caudal fat was measured at slaughter and 24h post mortem. In Method 1 (W450-510), the optical data were used at wavelengths in the range of 450-510nm to calculate an index quantifying light absorption by carotenoids. In Method 2 (W400-700), the full set of data at wavelengths in the range of 400-700nm was used to differentiate carcasses using PLS-DA as a classification method. W400-700 proved more reliable than W450-510 (P<0.0001). The proportion of correctly classified lambs using W400-700 was 95.6% and 95.9% for measurements made on perirenal fat at slaughter and 24h post mortem. The intensity of light absorption by carotenoids decreased exponentially with live weight gain during the finishing period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  7. Performance and haematological profile of broiler starter birds fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of 120 day-old broiler starter birds to graded dietary inclusion levels of 0.0 %, 2.5 %, 5.0 %, 7.5 % and 10.0 % of raw Allamanda cathartica (L) seed meal (ACSM) to form diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively was investigated. The isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets were fed to the birds for 4 weeks, after which a ...

  8. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  9. Performance of broiler starter chicks fed graded levels of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of broiler starter chicks fed graded levels of cassava chips meal as replacement for whole maize. ... Results show that birds on control (0% CCM) and T2 (12.5% CCM) with weight gains 643 g and 625 g; average daily feed intake, 46.7 and 46.9 g average daily weight gain 23.0 and 21.3 g; feed conversion ratio, ...

  10. RUMEN MICROBIAL GROWTH IN SHEEP FED THREE DISTINCT QUALITY HAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives Cláudio da Silva Bueno

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Forages usually fed to sheep in tropics have low values of crude protein (CP content and/or low availability of protein. The aim of this work was to identify different profiles of microbial protein (MP yield for sheep fed hays with distinct CP levels. Three hays (LUC - Lucerne, SIG - signalgrass and TIF - Tifton-85, six animals (Santa Inês wethers fitted with rumen and duodenum cannulas placed in a double Latin square were used to evaluate transit rates of microbial protein and in vivo microbial synthesis. In vitro microbial protein synthesis was evaluated in a complete factorial statistical design. The parameters studied were rumen pH and ammonia-N, microbial protein transit using 15N as marker and microbial protein synthesis by in vivo (purine derivatives urinary excretion and in vitro (32P incorporation techniques. Rumen pH values did not present significant differences for treatments (hays and these values were in a level considered as satisfactory to good microbial development. As studied hays presented great variations on CP levels, the concentration of ammonia-N was higher for animals fed LUC (191 g CP/kg DM and lower for animals fed SIG (29 g/kg DM, therefore presented no difference for ammonia-N concentration (P > 0.05 between SIG and TIF (75 g CP/kg DM. The nitrogen assimilation rate (k1 by rumen microorganisms was much faster (P 0.05. Feeds with low proteic content had prejudicial effect on utilization of nutrients by sheep and on maintenance of a healthy rumen environment. This fact was highlighted by variations on rumen ammonia-N concentrations. The microbial synthesis capacity was identified more efficiently by purine derivatives urinary excretion technique. The in vitro technique of 32P incorporation did not distinguish microbial growths from tested feeds degradation. In vitro technique showed strong dependency of inoculum quality.

  11. Performance and carcass characteristics of broilers fed diets ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiment was conducted for 9 weeks to test performance and carcass quality of 96 day-old Anak broiler chicks fed diets containing graded levels of palm oil supplemented with vitamin E. The inclusion levels of the palm oil were 0, 5, 10 and 16% supplemented with 0, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.18g of vitamin E/kg of feed tested at ...

  12. Evaluation of growth performance of Clarias gariepinus larvae fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial, involving the use of two starter diets (artemia and aqualis) was carried out in the laboratory, to evaluate the growth performance of C. gariepinus larvae fed artemia and aqualis fish feeds. A total of 200 (48 hours old C. gariepinus larvae) of mean weight 4.8 ± 0.01mg and length 6.16 ± 0.03mm were reared for ...

  13. Organochlorine compounds in breast-fed vs. bottle-fed infants: preliminary results at six weeks of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackmann, G.-M.; Schaller, K.-H.; Angerer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. They are chemically very stable and lipophilic and, therefore, accumulate in our food-chain. They are prenatally transmitted from mother to foetus, and mother's milk due to its high lipid content is an elimination pathway of special importance. Therefore, breast-feeding has been held responsible for elevated concentrations of these organochlorine compounds as well as for harmful effects in children later in life. Methods: Blood samples (2.5 ml) were taken from each 10 breast-fed and bottle-fed infants at 6 weeks of age. Blood specimens were immediately centrifuged, and serum was stored in glass tubes at -20 degree sign C until analysis. Three higher chlorinated PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 138, 153 and 180), HCB, and the organic metabolite of DDT, p,p<<-DDE, were analysed with capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Reliability was tested with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: There were no differences between the study groups of breast-fed and bottle-fed infants with regard to sex distribution, gestational age, birth-weight, age of the mothers, and smoking behaviour of the parents. In contrast, serum concentrations of all organochlorine compounds were significantly higher (P<0.0001) in breast-fed than in bottle-fed infants (mean): PCB 138, 0.38 vs. 0.10 μg/l; PCB 153, 0.49 vs. 0.1 μg/l; PCB 180, 0.31 vs. 0.04 μg/l; ΣPCB, 1.19 vs. 0.29 μg/l; HCB, 0.13 vs. 0.04 μg/l; p,p<<-DDE, 1.05 vs. 0.18 μg/l. Conclusions: Breast-feeding significantly increases the pollution of our infants with different organochlorine compounds as early as at 6 weeks of age. The progress of the present study will show whether this pollution will further increase with longer duration of breast-feeding, and whether breast-feeding bears any health risks for our

  14. Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Dried Sardines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. AI-Abri

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available To utilize locally available feed resources with livestock production in hot climates, dried sardines were incorporated into diets for lactating dairy cows. Fourteen Holstein and 13 Australian Milk Zebu multiparous cows were used in a 70-day continuous feeding experiment. lsonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets containing either soybean meal or dried sardines (supplied 40% of dietary crude protein were fed ad - libitum. Comparisons between diets were made during the 7-week experimental period. The experiment was conducted as a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatment, with diet and breed as main factors. Ruminal pH, ammonia N, total and individual volatile fatty acids concentrations were not altered by the feeding of dried sardines. Intakes of dry matter, energy, crude protein, and acid detergent fiber were lower (P0.05 in Holstein cows fed dried sardines than those fed the control diet (16.2 vs 15.1 kg/d. Feeding of dried sardines did not affect milk composition and compositional yields. Milk production was higher (P<0.01 in Holstein than Australian Milk Zebu cows. Effect of diet and breed interaction on milk production was significant (P<0.01 . Potential of feeding marine proteins may be higher for higher milk producers (Holstein than lower producers (Australian Milk Zebu. Reproduction parameters, body condition scores, and heat-stress associated parameters were not affected by the feeding of dried sardines. This study suggests that dried sardines could be incorporated into diets of lactating dairy cows without affecting milk production.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-fed Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaartikey Misra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid propellants are fast becoming attractive for pulsed plasma thrusters due to their high efficiency and low contamination issues. However, the complete plasma interaction and acceleration processes are still not very clear. Present paper develops a multi-layer numerical model for liquid propellant PPTs (pulsed plasma thrusters. The model is based on a quasi-steady flow assumption. The model proposes a possible acceleration mechanism for liquid-fed pulsed plasma thrusters and accurately predicts the propellant utilization capabilities and estimations for the fraction of propellant gas that is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities. Validation of the numerical model and the assumptions on which the model is based on is achieved by comparing the experimental results and the simulation results for two different liquid-fed thrusters developed at the University of Tokyo. Simulation results shows that up-to 50 % of liquid propellant injected is completely ionized and accelerated to high exit velocities (>50 Km/s, whereas, neutral gas contribute to only 7 % of the total specific impulse and accelerated to low exit velocity (<4 Km/s. The model shows an accuracy up-to 92 % . Optimization methods are briefly discussed to ensure efficient propellant utilization and performance. The model acts as a tool to understand the background physics and to optimize the performance for liquid-fed PPTs.

  16. FED Firmware Interface Testing with Pixel Phase 1 Emulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpatrick, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A hardware emulation of the CMS pixel detector phase 1 upgrade front-end electronics has been developed to test and validate the architecture of the back-end electronics (FED) firmware. The emulation is implemented on a Virtex 6 FPGA on the CERN GLIB uTCA platform, utilizing an 8-way SFP FPGA Mezzanine Card to drive compatible optical transmitters to the back-end electronics at \\mbox{400 Mbps}. The firmware emulates the complex functions of the phase 1 pixel readout chips (PSI46digv2 and PROC600) and token bit manager ASICs and allows for possible abnormalities that can occur in the output data stream. The emulation implements both fixed data patterns that are used as test vectors and realistic simulated data to drive the readout of the FED at the expected data and trigger rates. Testing software was developed to control the emulator and verify correct transmission of data and exception handling in the FED. An installation has been integrated into the pixel DAQ test system at CMS to be used for fast validatio...

  17. FED firmware interface testing with pixel phase 1 emulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kilpatrick, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A hardware emulation of the CMS pixel detector phase 1 upgrade front-end electronics has been developed to test and validate the architecture of the back-end electronics (FED) firmware. The emulation is implemented on a Virtex 6 FPGA on the CERN GLIB uTCA platform, utilizing an 8-way SFP FPGA Mezzanine Card to drive compatible optical transmitters to the back-end electronics at 400 bps. The firmware emulates the complex functions of the phase 1 pixel readout chips (PSI46digv2 and PROC600) and token bit manager ASICs and allows for possible abnormalities that can occur in the output data stream. The emulation implements both fixed data patterns that are used as test vectors and realistic simulated data to drive the readout of the FED at the expected data and trigger rates. Testing software was developed to control the emulator and verify correct transmission of data and exception handling in the FED. An installation has been integrated into the pixel DAQ test system at CMS to be used for fast validation of F...

  18. Frequency of polyploid cells in the bone marrow of rats fed irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, K.P.; Chaubey, R.C.; Sundaram, K.; Gopal-Ayengar, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Diets containing different proportions of non-irradiated or irradiated wheat were fed to Wistar rats for 1 or 6 wk. Cytological analysis of the bone marrow showed no significant difference in the frequency of polyploid cells in the rats fed non-irradiated or irradiated wheat diets, even when the treated wheat was fed to the rats within 24 hr of irradiation. (author)

  19. Degradation of chlorophenol mixtures in a fed-batch system by two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Degradation of chlorophenol mixtures in a fed-batch system by two soil bacteria. ... This work was undertaken to investigate the effect of variations of the feed rate on a fed-batch set-up used to degrade xenobiotics. ... Keywords: Chlorophenol; fed batch system; aerobic degradation; waste treatment; microbial biocatalysis ...

  20. Claw lesions and lameness in zero-grazed cattle fed on brewer\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feet from 218 cattle in 35 zerograzing units were studied from June 2003 to June 2004. Cattle in 20 of the zero-grazing units were fed brewer's grain while 15 of the units did not feed brewer's grain. The units were conveniently selected. Comparing brewer's grain fed and non-grain fed animals, the prevalence of laminitis ...

  1. Fatty acid profiles and iodine value correlations between 4 carcass fat depots from pigs fed varied combinations of ractopamine and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, B R; Hinson, R B; Ritter, M J; Carr, S N; Allee, G L

    2011-11-01

    A total of 54 finishing barrows (initial BW = 99.8 ± 5.1 kg; PIC C22 × 337) reared in individual pens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of ractopamine (0 and 7.4 mg/kg) and 3 levels of dietary energy (high: 3,537, medium: 3,369, and low: 3,317 kcal/kg of ME) to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine and various dietary energy levels on the fatty acid profile of 4 carcass fat depots (jowl, belly, subcutaneous loin, and intramuscular) and the predictive relationships of calculated iodine value (IV) between these 4 fat depots. Carcasses were sampled for fat tissues at the anterior tip of the jowl, posterior to the sternum on the belly edge, three-quarters the distance around the LM (subcutaneous fat; SC), and within the LM (intramuscular fat; IMF). Feeding ractopamine diets reduced (P ractopamine diets increased (P ractopamine diets shifted the fatty acid profile from SFA to MUFA in the SC depot. Feeding ractopamine diets did not change belly fat profiles, thus avoiding the potential negative effect of softening belly fat, which is detrimental to processing value. The IV of one fat depot may not be a good indication of IV of other fat depots because of weak correlation coefficients and the apparent influence of dietary treatment.

  2. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based finishing diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives were to characterize the effects of supplemental CP concentration and ruminal degradability in barley-based finishing diets on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion, and route and chemical form of N excretion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (564 ± 18 kg BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods (9 d for diet adaptation and 19 d for measurements). The basal diet consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% barley-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (13% CP) or diets containing 14.5% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). Nutrient digestion was determined using Yb as a digesta flow marker and purine N as a microbial marker with the collection of ruminal, duodenal, and fecal samples over 5 d. The next week, total collections of feces and urine were performed for 5 d to quantify route and chemical form of N excretion. Feed offered was restricted (95% of ad libitum) and there was no effect of the dietary treatments on DMI (P = 0.55); therefore, N intake was less (P ruminal NH3-N (P = 0.17), peptide N (P = 0.46), and VFA (P = 0.62) concentrations, flow of microbial (P = 0.69) and feed (P = 0.22) N, and ruminal and total tract nutrient digestibility (P ≥ 0.18). Nutrient digestion in the rumen and total tract averaged 75.4 ± 3.8% and 84.6 ± 0.9% for OM, 80.8 ± 3.6% and 95.8 ± 0.8% for starch, and 41.2 ± 7.9% and 60.4 ± 3.3% of intake for NDF, respectively. Daily output of N in feces (P = 0.91) and urine (P = 0.14) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fecal N output averaged 19.9 ± 1.9% (P = 0.30) and urine N output averaged 44.1 ± 2.8% (P = 0.63) of N intake. Urea N output, however, was greater (P excretion and the potential loss of N from the system.

  3. Effects of varying ruminally undegradable protein supplementation on forage digestion, nitrogen metabolism, and urea kinetics in Nellore cattle fed low-quality tropical forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E D; Detmann, E; Titgemeyer, E C; Valadares Filho, S C; Valadares, R F D; Prates, L L; Rennó, L N; Paulino, M F

    2016-01-01

    Effects of supplemental RDP and RUP on nutrient digestion, N metabolism, urea kinetics, and muscle protein degradation were evaluated in Nellore heifers () consuming low-quality signal grass hay (5% CP and 80% NDF, DM basis). Five ruminally and abomasally cannulated Nellore heifers (248 ± 9 kg) were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Treatments were the control (no supplement) and RDP supplementation to meet 100% of the RDP requirement plus RUP provision to supply 0, 50, 100, or 150% of the RUP requirement. Supplemental RDP (casein plus NPN) was ruminally dosed twice daily, and RUP supply (casein) was continuously infused abomasally. Jugular infusion of [NN]-urea with measurement of enrichment in urine was used to evaluate urea kinetics. The ratio of urinary 3-methylhistidine to creatinine was used to estimate skeletal muscle protein degradation. Forage NDF intake (2.48 kg/d) was not affected ( ≥ 0.37) by supplementation, but supplementation did increase ruminal NDF digestion ( supplementation and also linearly increased with RUP provision. Urea entry rate and gastrointestinal entry rate of urea were increased by supplementation ( Supplementation with RUP linearly increased ( = 0.02) urea entry rate and tended ( = 0.07) to linearly increase gastrointestinal entry rate of urea. Urea use for anabolic purposes tended ( = 0.07) to be increased by supplementation, and RUP provision also tended ( = 0.08) to linearly increase the amount of urea used for anabolism. The fraction of recycled urea N incorporated into microbial N was greater ( supplemented (9%) heifers. Urinary 3-methylhistidine:creatinine of control heifers was more than double that of supplemented heifers ( supplemented heifers. Overall, unsupplemented heifers had greater mobilization of AA from myofibrillar protein, which provided N for urea synthesis and subsequent recycling. Supplemental RUP, when RDP was supplied, not only increased N retention but also supported increased urea N recycling and increased ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

  4. Responsive feeding and child interest in food vary when rural Malawian children are fed lipid-based nutrient supplements or local complementary food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Mäkinen, Samppa; Ashorn, Ulla; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-07-01

    Caregiver and child behaviours during feeding have been used to measure responsiveness, which has been recognised as important for child growth and development. The aims of this study were to understand how caregiver and child behaviours differ when feeding lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) vs. local complementary food and to detect associations between behaviours and child interest in food. Sixteen moderately underweight 6-17-month-old Malawian children receiving 50 g/day of supplementary LNS for 12 weeks were videotaped during LNS (n = 32) and local complementary feeding (n = 28) episodes. Behaviours were coded at the level of the intended bite (1674 total bites). The analysis used regression models adjusted for within-subject correlation. Caregivers were less likely to allow children to self-feed and more likely to use physical pressure during LNS vs. complementary food bites. Positive caregiver verbalization was infrequent and did not differ by type of food. Higher odds of accepting a bite were associated with the bite containing LNS, odds ratio (OR) 3.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 4.71), the child self-feeding, OR 5.70; 90% CI (2.77, 11.69), and positive caregiver verbalization, OR 2.46; 90% CI (1.26, 4.80), while lower odds of acceptance were associated with negative child verbalization during feeding, OR 0.27; 90% CI (0.17, 0.42). In this sample, caregivers used more responsive feeding practices during bites of local complementary food and were more controlling when feeding LNS. Responsive caregiver behaviours predicted child acceptance of food. These results could be used to design interventions in Malawi to improve responsive feeding practices in general and during LNS use. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. A survey of injection site lesions in fed cattle in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Dixon, S; Brand, G; VanderKop, M

    1997-12-01

    During November 1996 to January 1997, a survey was conducted at 5 Canadian purveyors to measure the prevalence of injection site lesions in the top butt, boneless blade, outside round, inside round, and eye of the round. As trimmers were cutting these subprimals into steaks, technicians monitored each steak for grossly obvious scars. These scars were trimmed, weighed, and scored as either a "clear scar," "woody callus," or "cyst." All scars were subsequently examined histologically and classified as a "clear scar," "woody callus," "scar with nodules," "mineralized scar," or "cyst." Pieces were observed for broken needles while being processed and none were found. The estimated prevalence of injection site lesions was 18.8% (95% CI, 16.4% to 21.2%) in top butts, 22.2% (95% CI, 18.8% to 25.7%) in boneless blades, 4.9% (95% CI, 3.6% to 6.3%) in the eye of round, 1.8% (95% CI, 1.1% to 2.9%) in the inside round, and 7.6% (95% CI, 5.6% to 9.8%) in the outside round. Some top butts originated from American fed cattle; the estimated prevalence of lesions was 9.0% (95% CI, 5.9% to 12.9%) in American top butts and 22.3% (95% CI, 19.4% to 25.3%) in Canadian top butts. The median weight of the lesions varied among subprimals and ranged from 64 g to 117 g. Histologically, 13% of the scars were clear scars, 47% were woody calluses, 5% were mineralized scars, 34% were scars with nodules, 0.2% were cysts, and 0.9% were normal fat infiltrations. An economic analysis estimated an average loss of $8.95 per fed animal processed or $19 million dollars annually to the Canadian beef industry from injection scars.

  6. Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 10, 2012 Substance Use during Pregnancy Varies by Race and Ethnicity When pregnant women use alcohol, tobacco, ... indicate that substance use during pregnancy varies by race and ethnicity and suggest that health care providers ...

  7. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  8. Mutagenicity assayed by dominant lethality testing in mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupova, I.; Katsarova, Ts.; Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Tencheva, S.

    1980-01-01

    Mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet were examined for a mutagenic effect using the dominant lethality test. Their feed contained the following irradiated ingredients: 20% maize, 10% dried plums, and 5% walnut kernels. Taking into account cycle duration in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, males were fed this special diet throughout 56 days, and females throughout 21 days. The experiments involved three animal groups: (1) fed the special diet containing irradiated ingredients; (2) fed the special diet but with the ingredients nonirradiated; and (3) fed standard vivarium diet. Matings to provide the first generation were between one parent fed the special diet and a partner fed standard diet. With an adequate number of implants examined on day 16 of gestation, embryonic death rate was not found to be increased; hence, induction of dominant lethality from consumption of irradiated diet failed to be demonstrated

  9. Formula tolerance in postbreastfed and exclusively formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, B; Halter, R J; Kuchan, M J; Baggs, G E; Ryan, A S; Masor, M L

    1999-01-01

    Perceived intolerance to infant formula is a frequently reported reason for formula switching. Formula intolerance may be related to perceived symptoms of constipation, fussiness, abdominal cramps, and excessive spit-up or vomit. Commercially available formulas differ from each other in processing and in sources and levels of protein, lipids, and micronutrients. These differences may affect tolerance. The objective of this article was to compare the tolerance of two commercially available powder infant formulas that differ in composition. Measures of tolerance in exclusively breastfed infants weaned to an infant formula and exclusively formula-fed infants were evaluated. Two clinical studies were conducted. In study 1, 82 healthy, full-term infants who were exclusively breastfed at the time of enrollment were randomized at weaning to formula A (commercially available Similac With Iron Powder) or formula B (previously available Enfamil With Iron Powder). Parents completed daily records of tolerance during exclusive breast milk feeding, during the weaning period, and for a 2-week exclusive formula-feeding period. In study 2, 87 healthy, full-term infants who were exclusively formula-fed at the time of study enrollment (by 2 weeks of age) were fed a standard cow milk-based formula (previously commercially available Similac With Iron Powder) and then randomized to receive formula A or B for a 2-week period. Parents completed daily records of tolerance throughout the study. Formula A was a cow milk-based formula with a whey:casein ratio of 48:52 and a fat blend of 42% high-oleic safflower, 30% coconut, and 28% soy oils. Formula B was a cow milk-based formula with a whey:casein ratio of 60:40 and a fat blend of 45% palm olein, 20% soy, 20% coconut, and 15% high-oleic sunflower oils. Both formulas had lactose as the source of carbohydrate and contained 12 mg of iron per liter. Only formula A contained nucleotides at the time of the study. Measures of tolerance included

  10. Alveolar wound healing in rats fed on high sucrose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, María A; Rocamundi, Marina R; Viotto, Javier O; Ferreyra, Ruth S

    2013-01-01

    The potential for bone repair is influenced by various biochemical, biomechanical, hormonal, and pathological mechanisms and factors such as diet and its components, all of which govern the behavior and function of the cells responsible for forming new bone. Several authors suggest that a high sucrose diet could change the calcium balance and bone composition in animals, altering hard tissue mineralization. The mechanism by which it occurs is unclear. Alveolar healing following tooth extraction has certain characteristics making this type of wound unique, in both animals and humans. The general aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the biological response during alveolar healing following tooth extraction in rats fed on high sucrose diets, by means of osteocyte lacunae histomorphometry, counting empty lacunae and measuring areas of bone quiescence, formation and resorption. Forty-two Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into two groups: an experimental group fed on modified Stephan Harris diet (43% sucrose) and a control group fed on standard balanced diet. The animals were anesthetized and their left and right lower molars extracted. They were killed at 0 hours, 14, 28, 60 and 120 days. Samples were fixed, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin to prepare sections for optical microscopy which were stained with hematoxylin/eosin. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant differences in the size of osteocyte lacunae between groups at 28 and 60 days, with the experimental group having larger lacunae. There were more empty lacunae in the experimental group at 14 days, and no significant difference in the areas of bone activity. A high sucrose diet could modify the morphology and quality of bone tissue formed in the alveolus following tooth extraction.

  11. Glucose metabolism in sheep fed grass supplemented with gliricidia sepium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widiawat, Y.; Teleni, E.; Suharyono

    2014-01-01

    The limiting factor on improving ruminant production for most of the available feed in developing countries are low in quality. Therefore high fibre diet must be supplemented by high nutritive feed such as leguminous trees that much available in those regions. Gliricidia sepium was one of very potential candidates. Glucose as a major energy source in fed animals required precursor in form of propionate and amino acids from diet. Those precursors might be supplied by these legume leaves. The aim of this research was to investigate the glucose metabolism in the sheep fed grass supplemented by Gliricidia sepium. Fifteens sheep (18 months old) were used in the experiment. These are were divided into three groups that fed by experimental diet of Mitchell grass (MG group), Gliricidia (GS group), and MG supplemented with GS (MGGS group). D-[U- 14 C]glucose infusate was infused continuously through the left jugular venous catheter of each animal to measure glucose metabolism in those sheeps measurements were done on feed utilisation and glucose metabolism. The results indicated that there was an improvement in efficiency of feed utilisation in the MGGS group as reflected by lower feed conversion ratio by the group. Plasma glucose concentration profile per unit of OM intake were similar for GS and MGGS groups, but higher than that in the MG group (P<0.01). Glucose entry rate (GER) increased in MG group through GS to the MGGS group, while N retention accordingly was increased. It can be concluded that the utilisation of GS by the ruminant animal could be improved by feeding it with a low quality feed at a ratio of 40:60 (GS:Low quality feed) to achieve an NI:DOMI ratio of 0.03 - 0.04. This improvement would be manifested in increasing DOMI, with subsequent increase in GER or net protein deposition as might be expressed in positive N retention. (author)

  12. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  13. Band-notched reconfigurable CPW-fed UWB antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, H. A.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Hamid, M. R.; Murad, N. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Kamarudin, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    A reconfigurable band-notched CPW-fed UWB antenna using electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structure is proposed. Two structures are positioned adjacent to the transmission line of the UWB antenna. The band-notched characteristic can be disabled by switching the state of switch place at the strip line. The EBG structure produces reconfigurable band notched at 4.0 GHz, which covers C-band satellite communication (3.625-4.2 GHz) systems. The proposed antenna is suitable for UWB systems, which requires reconfigurable band reject function.

  14. Exploring New Clustering Algorithms for the CMS Tracker FED

    CERN Document Server

    Gamboa Alvarado, Jose Leandro

    2013-01-01

    In the current Front End (FE) firmware clusters of hits within the APV frames are found using a simple threshold comparison (which is made between the data and a 3 or 5 sigma strip noise cut) on reordered pedestal and Common Mode (CM) noise subtracted data. In addition the CM noise subtraction requires the baseline of each APV frame to be approximately uniform. Therefore, the current algorithm will fail if the APV baseline exhibits large-scale non-uniform behavior. Under very high luminosity conditions the assumption of a uniform APV baseline breaks down and the FED is unable to maintain a high efficiency of cluster finding. \

  15. Fed-Batch Feeding Strategies for Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    of the differences in the interfacial and bulk concentrations of the enzyme. The model is then used to evaluate various feeding strategies to improve the enzymatic biodiesel production. The feeding strategies investigated, gave insight into how the methanol should be fed to potentially mitigate enzyme deactivation...... while improving the biodiesel yield. The best experimental results gave a yield of 703 .76 g FAME L-1 and a reactor productivity of 28.12 g FAME L-1 h-1. In comparison, to reach the same yield, the optimised two step feeding strategy took 6.25 hours less, which equates to an increase the reactor...

  16. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  17. Diarrhea in enterally fed patients: blame the diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Huang, Hsiu-Hua

    2013-09-01

    Diarrhea has great impact on enteral nutrition. The purpose of this review is to identify the factors leading to diarrhea during enteral nutrition and to provide the published updates on diarrhea prevention through nutritional intervention. Diarrhea in enteral fed patients is attributed to multiple factors, including medications (major contributor), infections, bacterial contamination, underlying disease, and enteral feeding. Diet management can alleviate diarrhea in enteral feeding. High content of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in enteral formula is postulated to induce diarrhea and lower FODMAPs formula may reduce the likelihood of diarrhea in enterally fed patients. Fiber-enriched formula can reduce the incidence of diarrhea and produce short-chain fatty acids for colonocytes. Ingesting prebiotics, nonviable probiotics or probiotic derivatives, and human lactoferrin may provide alternatives for reducing/preventing diarrhea. Enteral feeding is not generally considered the primary cause of diarrhea, which is frequently linked to prescribed medications. When diarrhea is apparent, healthcare members should evaluate the possible risk factors and systematically attempt to eliminate the underlying causes of diarrhea before reducing or suspending enteral feeding. Lower FODMAPs formula, prebiotics, probiotic derivatives, and lactoferrin may be used to manage enteral feeding-related diarrhea.

  18. Performance and digestibility in feedlot lambs fed hay based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the performance of feedlot lambs fed diets formulated with hay of different genotypes of Cynodon spp. and to compare the dry matter digestibility of diets using different evaluation methods (total fecal collection and chromium oxide. Suffolk crossbred neutered male lambs (n=30, with an average age of 90 days and average body weight of 21.5 kg ± 1.6. Diets were formulated using a standard concentrate and hay of the following genotypes of Cynodon dactylon: Jiggs, Vaquero, Tifton 68, Coast-Cross, Tifton 85 and Russell, in a 60:40 forage concentrate ratio, composing the treatments distributed in a randomized block design in a factorial 5 x 2 arrangement of 5 diets and 2 digestibility evaluation methods. Animals receiving Vaquero hay showed dry matter intake of 18.3; 16.9; 25.6; 20.7 and 24.2% higher than those fed hay of Jiggs, Tifton 68, Coast Cross, Tifton 85 and Russell, respectively. There was no difference between diets for digestibility using total fecal collection, chromium oxide and final weight of animals. Jiggs hay based diets allowed greater daily weight gain and better feed conversion.

  19. Growth of juvenile green iguanas (Iguana iguana) fed four diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, S

    1994-12-01

    Wild green iguanas consume a primarily folivorous diet. As pets in captivity, they suffer high mortality and malnutrition. Nutrient requirements are not established. The purpose of this study was to compare growth in juvenile iguanas fed three commercial diets and a romaine-based diet. Twelve nominally 4-wk-old iguanas were fed in a latin square design each of four diets for 8 wk, consisting of a 2-wk accommodation period and a 6-wk collection period. Diets were analyzed at the beginning and end of the study. Food consumption was measured daily; body weights and lengths were measured weekly. For Diets A, B, C and D mean body weight gains were--3, 6, 31 and 60% in 6 wk, respectively. Gain in body weight and snout-vent length increased linearly with dietary protein and fiber and with dry matter intake. The data suggest that growth in pet green iguanas may achieve rates for farmed and wild green iguanas when diets are palatable and contain adequate protein and fiber.

  20. Fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratelli, Fernando; Siquini, Tatiana Joly; de Abreu, Marcelo Estima; Higashi, Hisako Gondo; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the effects of the initial nitrogen source (NZ Case TT) level and the protocol of glucose addition during the fed-batch production of tetanus toxin by Clostridium tetani. An increase in the initial concentration of NZ Case TT (NZ(0)) accelerated cell growth, increased the consumption of the nitrogen source as well as the final yield of tetanus toxin, which achieved the highest values (50-60 L(f)/mL) for NZ(0) > or = 50 g/L. The addition of glucose at fixed times (16, 56, and 88 h) ensured a toxin yield ( approximately 60 L(f)/mL) about 33% higher than those of fed-batch runs with addition at fixed concentration ( approximately 45 L(f)/mL) and about 300% higher than those obtained in reference batch runs nowadays used at industrial scale. The results of this work promise to substantially improve the present production of tetanus toxin and may be adopted for human vaccine production after detoxification and purification.

  1. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  2. Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery: varied clinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Giant cystic lymphangioma of the mesentery: varied clinical presentation of 3 cases. Mohamed Rami, Abdelhalim Mahmoudi, Aziz El Madi, Khalid Khattala, Moulay Abderrahmane Afifi, Youssef Bouabdallah ...

  3. Fecundity studies of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 fed Coppens feed and Unical aqua feed in circular concrete tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Oscar Eyo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine and compare the fecundity of Clarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed and Coppens feeds in concrete tanks, including the nature of relationship that exist between fecundity and morphometric indices of fish such as total length and total weight. Methods: An experiment was conducted for 6 months in the fish farm of University of Calabar with two triplicate groups of 50 C. gariepinus post-fingerlings. The experimental fish weighing (0.50 ± 0.02 kg were stocked in concrete tanks (circular of 16.63 m2 area. The tanks were labelled A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. Fish in tank A1, A2 and A3 were fed with Coppens feed and fish in tanks B1, B2 and B3 were fed with Unical aqua feed. Feeding was done twice daily (9:00 and 16:00 at 3% of their body weight. Results: Mean fecundity of C. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (68 366.67 ± 15 966. 29 eggs varied significantly (P 0.05 than C. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (50.37% ± 1.29 %. Water quality parameters including ammonia (mg/L, pH, water temperature (°C and dissolved oxygen (mg/L fell within the recommended range for the culture of fresh water fish. Conclusions: Fecundity of C. gariepinus reared in concrete tank was significantly influenced by the experimental feed. Therefore, on the bases of affordability and availability to farmers, Unical aqua feed is more economical and is recommended as a cost-effective cultivation of female C. gariepinus broodstock.

  4. Parallel steady state studies on a milliliter scale accelerate fed-batch bioprocess design for recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmideder, Andreas; Cremer, Johannes H; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2016-11-01

    In general, fed-batch processes are applied for recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli (E. coli). However, state of the art methods for identifying suitable reaction conditions suffer from severe drawbacks, i.e. direct transfer of process information from parallel batch studies is often defective and sequential fed-batch studies are time-consuming and cost-intensive. In this study, continuously operated stirred-tank reactors on a milliliter scale were applied to identify suitable reaction conditions for fed-batch processes. Isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction strategies were varied in parallel-operated stirred-tank bioreactors to study the effects on the continuous production of the recombinant protein photoactivatable mCherry (PAmCherry) with E. coli. Best-performing induction strategies were transferred from the continuous processes on a milliliter scale to liter scale fed-batch processes. Inducing recombinant protein expression by dynamically increasing the IPTG concentration to 100 µM led to an increase in the product concentration of 21% (8.4 g L -1 ) compared to an implemented high-performance production process with the most frequently applied induction strategy by a single addition of 1000 µM IPGT. Thus, identifying feasible reaction conditions for fed-batch processes in parallel continuous studies on a milliliter scale was shown to be a powerful, novel method to accelerate bioprocess design in a cost-reducing manner. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1426-1435, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Effect of feeding aflatoxin on nitrogen kinetics in crossbred and buffalo calves fed different levels of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, R.S.; Arora, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The studies were conducted to elucidate the effect of feeding aflatoxin on nitrogen kinetics in rumen fistulated calves. One calf each in groups 1, 2, 5 and 6 and one bufffalo calf each, in groups 3, 4, 7 and 8 were alloted. Calves of groups 5 to 8 were provided optimum protein (OP) while those in groups 1 to 4 were given 42.5 per cent more protein (HP) in their diets. In addition, animals in groups 2, 4, 6 and 8 were given an oral dose of aflatoxin at the rate of 1.0 ppm of drymatter intake. Subsequent to digestibility trial, 2 hourly feeding was practised for 10 days, after which 15 N-ammonium sulphate and 51 Cr-EDTA were infused intra-ruminally. Results indicated that there was no effect of feeding aflatoxin on the digestibility of nutrients except crude protein. Nitrogen balances were better with groups fed OP diets as compared to HP diets, more in crossbreds than the buffalo. The estimated rumen volume ranged from 37.70 to 56.00 litres and rumen fluid outflow rates varied from 87.34 to 123.70 litres per day. Ruminal ammonia pool size, ruminal ammonia entry rates and irreversible loss rates were higher in HP fed groups without showing any effect of afflatoxins. Ruminal ammonia-N was better utilized for incorporation into bacterial protein and for transfer to plasma urea-N with OP fed groups, again without showing aflatoxin toxicity effect. Ruminal ammonia-N excretion pattern through urine was greater as a result of aflatoxin toxicity, more in crossbreds as compared to buffalo. (author). 19 refs. 5 tabs

  6. Intensive trapping of blood-fed Anopheles darlingi in Amazonian Peru reveals unexpectedly high proportions of avian blood-meals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anopheles darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Neotropics, has been considered to be highly anthropophilic. However, many behavioral aspects of this species remain unknown, such as the range of blood-meal sources. Barrier screens were used to collect resting Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes from 2013 to 2015 in three riverine localities (Lupuna, Cahuide and Santa Emilia in Amazonian Peru. Overall, the Human Blood Index (HBI ranged from 0.58-0.87, with no significant variation among years or sites. Blood-meal analysis revealed that humans are the most common blood source, followed by avian hosts (Galliformes-chickens and turkeys, and human/Galliforme mixed-meals. The Forage Ratio and Selection Index both show a strong preference for Galliformes over humans in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our data show that 30% of An. darlingi fed on more than one host, including combinations of dogs, pigs, goats and rats. There appears to be a pattern of host choice in An. darlingi, with varying proportions of mosquitoes feeding only on humans, only on Galliformes and some taking mixed-meals of blood (human plus Galliforme, which was detected in the three sites in different years, indicating that there could be a structure to these populations based on blood-feeding preferences. Mosquito age, estimated in two localities, Lupuna and Cahuide, ranged widely between sites and years. This variation may reflect the range of local environmental factors that influence longevity or possibly potential changes in the ability of the mosquito to transmit the parasite. Of 6,204 resting An. darlingi tested for Plasmodium infection, 0.42% were infected with P. vivax. This study provides evidence for the first time of the usefulness of barrier screens for the collection of blood-fed resting mosquitoes to calculate the Human Blood Index (HBI and other blood-meal sources in a neotropical malaria endemic setting.

  7. Versatile modeling and optimization of fed batch processes for the production of secreted heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasser Brigitte

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secretion of heterologous proteins depends both on biomass concentration and on the specific product secretion rate, which in turn is not constant at varying specific growth rates. As fed batch processes usually do not maintain a steady state throughout the feed phase, it is not trivial to model and optimize such a process by mathematical means. Results We have developed a model for product accumulation in fed batch based on iterative calculation in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and used the Solver software to optimize the time course of the media feed in order to maximize the volumetric productivity. The optimum feed phase consisted of an exponential feed at maximum specific growth rate, followed by a phase with linearly increasing feed rate and consequently steadily decreasing specific growth rate. The latter phase could be modeled also by exact mathematical treatment by the calculus of variations, yielding the explicit shape of the growth function, however, with certain indeterminate parameters. To evaluate the latter, one needs a numerical optimum search algorithm. The explicit shape of the growth function provides additional evidence that the Excel model results in correct data. Experimental evaluation in two independent fed batch cultures resulted in a good correlation to the optimized model data, and a 2.2 fold improvement of the volumetric productivity. Conclusion The advantages of the procedure we describe here are the ease of use and the flexibility, applying software familiar to every scientist and engineer, and rapid calculation which makes predictions extremely easy, so that many options can be tested in silico quickly. Additional options like further biological and technological constraints or different functions for specific productivity and biomass yield can easily be integrated.

  8. Versatile modeling and optimization of fed batch processes for the production of secreted heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Michael; Kühleitner, Manfred; Gasser, Brigitte; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2006-12-11

    Secretion of heterologous proteins depends both on biomass concentration and on the specific product secretion rate, which in turn is not constant at varying specific growth rates. As fed batch processes usually do not maintain a steady state throughout the feed phase, it is not trivial to model and optimize such a process by mathematical means. We have developed a model for product accumulation in fed batch based on iterative calculation in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets, and used the Solver software to optimize the time course of the media feed in order to maximize the volumetric productivity. The optimum feed phase consisted of an exponential feed at maximum specific growth rate, followed by a phase with linearly increasing feed rate and consequently steadily decreasing specific growth rate. The latter phase could be modeled also by exact mathematical treatment by the calculus of variations, yielding the explicit shape of the growth function, however, with certain indeterminate parameters. To evaluate the latter, one needs a numerical optimum search algorithm. The explicit shape of the growth function provides additional evidence that the Excel model results in correct data. Experimental evaluation in two independent fed batch cultures resulted in a good correlation to the optimized model data, and a 2.2 fold improvement of the volumetric productivity. The advantages of the procedure we describe here are the ease of use and the flexibility, applying software familiar to every scientist and engineer, and rapid calculation which makes predictions extremely easy, so that many options can be tested in silico quickly. Additional options like further biological and technological constraints or different functions for specific productivity and biomass yield can easily be integrated.

  9. Variations in protein and fat contents and their fractions in milk from two species fed different forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholif, S M; El-Shewy, A A; Morsy, T A; Abd El-Rahman, H H

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed at determining the variations in milk constituents which could be varied by feed and animal species. To achieve this goal, two groups of homoparity Baladi cows and Egyptian buffaloes (n = 20 per species) were used. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 10): subgroup I received legume forage (Egyptian clover) and subgroup II received grass forage (sorghum forage). All experimental animals were fed the diet consisting of concentrate, forage and rice straw as 50, 25 and 25% of dry matter intake respectively. Milk samples were taken for analysis. The trial lasted until the 3rd month of parturition. The main results indicated that lactating cattle fed legume forage significantly (p ≤ 0.01) had more content of casein nitrogen (513 mg/100 ml milk), lower content of glutamic acid (23.56 g/100 g milk protein) and more content of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (0.77 g/100 g milk fat) compared with 433, 26.67 and 0.53, respectively, for cattle fed grass forage. With regard to the species effect, results showed that buffalo milk appeared to contain significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) contents of casein nitrogen, phenylalanine, glutamic and arachidonic acid compared with cow's milk. However, the latter was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) more in the cis-9, trans-11CLA (0.59 g/100 g milk fat) than that in buffalo milk (0.47 g/100 g milk fat). The results revealed that not only forage type played a critical role in determining the variations of milk nitrogen distribution, milk amino acids and fatty acids but also animal species had a significant effect on these parameters. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Predicting individual feed requirements of cattle fed in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiroy, P J; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Baker, M J; Cravey, M D

    2001-08-01

    A published model designed to predict individual feed required for the observed shrunk BW and ADG of growing cattle when fed in groups was modified and evaluated to improve its accuracy. This model is needed to accurately bill feed and compute cost of gain in marketing programs based on individual animal management. Because of its importance in predicting energy required for growth, a database of 401 steers was used to develop an equation to predict percentage of empty-body fat (EBF) from carcass measurements (12th rib fat thickness, hot carcass weight, USDA quality grade, and longissimus muscle area), which accounted for 61% of the variation in EBF with no bias (P > 0.1). When tested with an independent data set of 951 steers, the equation accounted for 51% of the variation with 1% proportional bias. The large variation in the carcass measurements at a particular EBF observed in this study indicates further improvement is limited by the inability of carcass measurements to account for variation in fat distribution in the various carcass components. Because of its importance in setting the target end point, a database of 1,355 steers and heifers was used to determine the relationship between EBF and USDA quality grade. These data indicate growing and finishing cattle reach Select and low-Choice quality grades at an EBF of 26.15 +/- 0.19 and 28.61 +/- 0.20%, respectively (P target EBF end point. The model to predict DM required with modifications developed in this study was evaluated with data from 365 individually fed cattle and it accounted for 74% of the variation in observed DM consumed with no bias (P > 0.1). When the revised model was applied to a commercial feedlot data set containing 12,105 steers and heifers, the total observed DM consumed was predicted with a bias of less than 1%. The model presented in this study accounts for differences known to affect animal requirements (breed type, BW and ADG, and weight at the target EBF end point) and can be used to

  11. Liver regeneration in trypsin-fed partially hepatectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershbein, L L

    1993-01-01

    Young adult Sprague-Dawley rats were partially hepatectomized (two-thirds organ removal) and administered a basal diet supplemented with various animal- and plant-derived enzymes (trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, pepsin, lipase, alpha-amylase, malt diastase, ficin and bromelain) over a post-operative period of up to 10 days. Porcine or bovine dialyzed and lyophilized crystalline trypsin products containing 2400-3200 NF u/mg in addition to enteric-coated tablets with trypsin to chymotrypsin in a ratio of 6:1, were tested at supplementary levels of up to 4980 u/g ration. With the weight of tissue regenerated or the liver increment as indicator, trypsin in excess of 1000-1200 u/g ration proved inhibitory. This effect did not extend to alpha-chymotrypsin (levels of up to 4000 u/g diet) and the remaining 6 enzyme products specified above, nor to the s.c. injection of trypsin daily at 12,860 u/rat for the 1st 7 days. The last route promoted little change in increment with soy bean trypsin inhibitor (8.0 mg/rat daily for days 1 to 9). When a portion of the group fed a trypsin supplement of 2000 u/g was injected with phenobarbital i.p. at 80 mg/kg daily on each of the last 3 days, the resulting liver increment rose to the control range. As with lysine and arginine, acids of pertinence in tryptic proteolysis, no significant change was elicited by feeding a diet supplemented with peptone from tryptic digestion of casein. The enzyme-containing diets fed to sham-operated rats over a similar interval, did not affect the wet- or dry-liver weight per 100 g body weight. Microsomal parameters as total protein, cytochrome P-450 and the enzymes, aminopyrine demethylase and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase of livers from the partially hepatectomized or sham-operated rats fed trypsin and the other enzyme diets, presented no significant changes in the respective levels. The possible action of dietary trypsin in conjunction with inhibitors and growth factors controlling liver regeneration is

  12. Climate Change and Hydrology of a Snow-fed Watershed in Western Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V. P.; Bharati, L.; Dhaubanjar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Many river basins across the globe are experiencing varying degrees of impacts from climate change. Snow-fed watersheds are expected to be affected even more. Chamelia, a tributary of Mahakali river basin, is a snow-fed river in the western Nepal with catchment area of 1,603 km2above the confluence with Mahakali River. Forest cover (40%) and rainfed agriculture (28%) covers more than two-third of the watershed. Topography varies from 505 to 7,090 m. According to the data from Department of Electricity Development (DoED) this watershed contains 14 licensed hydropower projects of varying capacities. Climate change may affect various aspects of the hydropower project, all of which are hinged around hydrology. This study simulated hydrological response of Chamelia watershed using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) as an input for a hydro-economic model to analyze the water-energy-food nexus. The model was calibrated for the period of 2001-2007 and validated for 2008-2013 and then used to examine the streamflow response to climate change. Future climates for near-future (2020-2045), mid-future (2046-2070) and far-future (2071-2095) were considered based on CSIRO-CCAM Regional Circulation Model (RCM), derived from ACCESS1, downloaded from South Asia Cordex for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios and then bias corrected using linear scaling method. Results, based on climate date at Station-103 showed that maximum temperature under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario for near-, mid-, and far-futures are projected to increase by 1.2°C (1.4°C), 1.5°C (2.8°C), and 2.3°C (2.6°C), respectively, from the baseline. Minimum temperature for the same scenarios and future periods, in the same order, are projected to increase by 1.1°C (1.5°C), 2.1°C (3.6°C), and 2.5°C (4.7°C), respectively, from the baseline. Precipitation in the other hand under RCP4.5 (RCP8.5) scenario for near-, mid-, and far-futures are projected to increase by 10.2% (10.4%), 7.6% (13.6%), and 3.1% (12

  13. Serum lutein concentrations in healthy term infants fed human milk or infant formula with lutein

    OpenAIRE

    Bettler, Jodi; Zimmer, J. Paul; Neuringer, Martha; DeRusso, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Lutein is a carotenoid that may play a role in eye health. Human milk typically contains higher concentrations of lutein than infant formula. Preliminary data suggest there are differences in serum lutein concentrations between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Aim of the study To measure the serum lutein concentrations among infants fed human milk or formulas with and without added lutein. Methods A prospective, double-masked trial was conducted in healthy term formula-fed infant...

  14. A longitudinal study of estrogen-responsive tissues and hormone concentrations in infants fed soy formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgent, Margaret A; Umbach, David M; Zemel, Babette S; Kelly, Andrea; Schall, Joan I; Ford, Eileen G; James, Kerry; Darge, Kassa; Botelho, Julianne C; Vesper, Hubert W; Chandler, Donald Walt; Nakamoto, Jon M; Rogan, Walter J; Stallings, Virginia A

    2018-03-01

    Chemicals with hormone-like activity, such as estrogenic isoflavones, may perturb human development. Infants exclusively fed soy-based formula are highly exposed to isoflavones, but their physiologic responses remain uncharacterized. Here, we compare estrogen-responsive postnatal development in infants exclusively fed soy formula, cow-milk formula and breast milk. We enrolled 410 infants born in Philadelphia area hospitals, 2010-2013; 283 infants were exclusively fed soy formula (n=102), cow-milk formula (n=111), or breast milk (n=70) throughout the study (birth to 28 [boys] or 36 [girls] weeks). We repeatedly measured maturation index (MI) in vaginal and urethral epithelial cells using standard cytological methods, uterine volume and breast-bud diameter using ultrasound, serum estradiol and, in girls, follicle-stimulating hormone. We estimated MI, organ-growth and hormone trajectories by diet using mixed-effects regression splines. Maternal demographics did not differ between cow-milk-fed and soy-fed infants but did differ between formula-fed and breastfed infants. Vaginal cell MI trended higher (p=0.01) and uterine volume decreased more slowly (p=0.01) in soy-fed girls compared to cow-milk-fed girls; however, their trajectories of breast-bud diameter and hormone concentrations did not differ. We observed no significant differences between boys fed cow-milk formula versus soy formula; estradiol was not detectable. Breastfed infants differed from soy-formula-fed infants in vaginal cell MI, uterine volume, girls' estradiol and boys' breast-bud diameter trajectories. Relative to cow-milk formula-fed girls, soy formula-fed girls demonstrated tissue and organ-level developmental trajectories consistent with response to exogenous estrogen exposure. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate the effects of soy on child development.

  15. Staphylococcus epidermidis: A differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Leonides

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast milk is an important source of staphylococci and other bacterial groups to the infant gut. The objective of this work was to analyse the bacterial diversity in feces of breast-fed infants and to compare it with that of formula-fed ones. A total of 23 women and their respective infants (16 breast-fed and 7 formula-fed participated in the study. The 16 women and their infants provided a sample of breast milk and feces, respectively, at days 7, 14, and 35. The samples were plated onto different culture media. Staphylococcal and enterococcal isolates were submitted to genetic profiling and to a characterization scheme, including detection of potential virulence traits and sensitivity to antibiotics. Results The feeding practice had a significant effect on bacterial counts. A total of 1,210 isolates (489 from milk, 531 from breast-fed and 190 from formula-fed infants were identified. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the predominant species in milk and feces of breast-fed infants while it was less prevalent in those of formula fed-infants. Enterococcus faecalis was the second predominant bacterial species among the fecal samples provided by the breast-fed infants but it was also present in all the samples from the formula-fed ones. The biofilm-related icaD gene and the mecA gene were only detected in a low number of the S. epidermidis strains. Several enterococcal isolates were also characterized and none of them contained the cylA or the vanABDEG antibiotic-resistance genes. All were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion The presence of S. epidermidis is a differential trait of the fecal microbiota of breast-fed infants. Globally, the staphyloccal isolates obtained from milk and feces of breast-fed infants contain a low number of virulence determinants and are sensitive to most of the antibiotics tested.

  16. Differences in Prices and Price Risk across Alternative Marketing Arrangements Used in the Fed Cattle Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Muth, Mary K.; Liu, Yanyan; Koontz, Stephen R.; Lawrence, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Information on typical differences in prices and price risk (as measured by the variances of prices) across marketing arrangements aids fed cattle producers in making choices about methods to use for selling fed cattle to beef packers. This information is also useful for policy discussions on merits and drawbacks of alternative marketing arrangements. As part of the congressionally mandated Livestock and Meat Marketing Study, we investigated differences in prices and price risk for fed cattle...

  17. Hydraulic effects on nitrogen removal in a tidal spring-fed river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Robert T.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Korhnak, Larry V.

    2015-03-01

    Hydraulic properties such as stage and residence time are important controls on riverine N removal. In most rivers, these hydraulic properties vary with stochastic precipitation forcing, but in tidal rivers, hydraulics variation occurs on a predictable cycle. In Manatee Springs, a highly productive, tidally influenced spring-fed river in Florida, we observed significant reach-scale N removal that varied in response to tidally driven variation in hydraulic properties as well as sunlight-driven variation in assimilatory uptake. After accounting for channel residence time and stage variation, we partitioned the total removal signal into assimilatory (i.e., plant uptake) and dissimilatory (principally denitrification) pathways. Assimilatory uptake was strongly correlated with primary production and ecosystem C:N was concordant with tissue stoichiometry of the dominant autotrophs. The magnitude of N removal was broadly consistent in magnitude with predictions from models (SPARROW and RivR-N). However, contrary to model predictions, the highest removal occurred at the lowest values of τ/d (residence time divided by depth), which occurred at low tide. Removal efficiency also exhibited significant counterclockwise hysteresis with incoming versus outgoing tides. This behavior is best explained by the sequential filling and draining of transient storage zones such that water that has spent the longest time in the storage zone, and thus had the most time for N removal, drains back into the channel at the end of an outgoing tide, concurrent with shortest channel residence times. Capturing this inversion of the expected relationship between channel residence time and N removal highlights the need for nonsteady state reactive transport models.

  18. A New Asymmetrical Current-fed Converter with Voltage Lifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELSHAD, M.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new zero voltage switching current-fed DC-DC converter with high voltage gain. In this converter all switches (main and auxiliary turn on under zero voltage switching and turn off under almost zero voltage switching due to snubber capacitor. Furthermore, the voltage spike across the main switch due to leakage inductance of forward transformer is absorbed. The flyback transformer which is connected to the output in series causes to high voltage gain and less voltage stress on the power devices. Considering high efficiency and voltage gain of this converter, it is suitable for green generated systems such as fuel cells or photovoltaic systems. The presented experimental results verify the integrity of the proposed converter.

  19. Atherosclerosis in familial lines of pigeons fed exogenous cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, N M; Brown, R V; Middleton, C C

    1975-01-01

    Exogenous cholesterol was fed to F1 pigeons of high and low serum cholesterol differentiated lines of White Carneau and Racing Homer pigeons that had previously been developed by selection and positive assortive mating. The serum cholesterol response of the various high and low lines was dependent upon the breed and the amount of cholesterol in the diet. Racing Homer pigeons were found to be more resistant to aortic atherosclerosis and more susceptible to coronary atherosclerosis than White Carneau pigeons. Data from necropsy examinations showed significant differences in both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis between lines within the White Carneau breed, but no differences between lines of the Racing Homer breed. Mean organ weights for the 4 lines of pigeons were reported.

  20. An Overview of Iron in Term Breast-Fed Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa A. Qasem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Iron is an essential nutrient for normal growth and neurodevelopment of infants. Iron deficiency (ID remains the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide. There are convincing data that ID is associated with negative effects on neurological and psychomotor development. Objectives In this review, we provide an overview of current knowledge of the importance of iron in normal term breast-fed infants with a focus on recommendations, metabolism, and iron requirements. Conclusions Health organizations around the world recommend the introduction of iron-rich foods or iron supplements for growing infants to prevent ID. However, there is no routine screening for ID in infancy. Multicenter trials with long-term follow-up are needed to investigate the association between iron fortification/supplementation and various health outcomes.

  1. PV source based high voltage gain current fed converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soumya; Poddar, Sahityika; Chimonyo, Kudzai B.; Arunkumar, G.; Elangovan, D.

    2017-11-01

    This work involves designing and simulation of a PV source based high voltage gain, current fed converter. It deals with an isolated DC-DC converter which utilizes boost converter topology. The proposed converter is capable of high voltage gain and above all have very high efficiency levels as proved by the simulation results. The project intends to produce an output of 800 V dc from a 48 V dc input. The simulation results obtained from PSIM application interface were used to analyze the performance of the proposed converter. Transformer used in the circuit steps up the voltage as well as to provide electrical isolation between the low voltage and high voltage side. Since the converter involves high switching frequency of 100 kHz, ultrafast recovery diodes are employed in the circuitry. The major application of the project is for future modeling of solar powered electric hybrid cars.

  2. Temperature control system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    A temperature-feedback system has been developed for controlling electrical power to liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCM). Software, written for a microcomputer-based data acquisition and process monitoring system, compares glass temperatures with a temperature setpoint and adjusts the electrical power accordingly. Included in the control algorithm are steps to reject failed thermocouples, spatially average the glass temperatures, smooth the averaged temperatures over time using a digital filter, and detect foaming in the glass. The temperature control system has proved effective during all phases of melter operation including startup, steady operation, loss of feed, and shutdown. This system replaces current, power, and resistance feedback control systems used previously in controlling the LFCM process

  3. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    . To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow...... measured current at medium voltage, thus reducing the tap moving operations. Finally, due to the wind power plant reactive power is sized for maximum active power level, it is expected that a big amount of reactive power remains unused most of the time due to the wind power generation characteristics...

  4. A Current-Fed Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Xiaofeng; Wu, Xiaoying; Shen, Yanfeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a current-fed isolated bidirectional DC-DC converter (CF-IBDC) which has the advantages of wide input voltage range, low input current ripple, low conduction losses, and soft switching over the full operating range. Compared with conventional CF-IBDCs, the voltage spikes...... of the low-voltage (LV) side switches in the proposed converter can be eliminated without additional clamp circuits. The converter adopts the pulse width modulation (PWM) plus hybrid phase-shift control scheme such that the bus voltage can match the output voltage by means of the transformer. Thus......, the current stresses and conduction losses of the converter become lower. In addition, the practical ZVS of the secondary-side switches can be realized by adjusting the phase-shift angle within the secondary side when in light load or no load condition. The operating principles and characteristics including...

  5. Fusion Engineering Device (FED) first wall/shield design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.; Fuller, G.; Cramer, B.; Davisson, J.; Haines, J.; Kirchner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The torus of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is comprised of the bulk shield and its associated spool lstructure and support system, the first wall water-cooled panel and armor systems, and the pumped limiter. The bulk shielding is provided by ten shield sectors that are installed in the spool structure in such a way as to permit extraction of the sectors through the openings between adjacent toroidal field coils with a direct radial movement. The first wall armor is installed on the inboard and top interior walls of these sectors, and the water-cooled panels are installed on the outboard interior walls and the pumped limiter in the bottom of the sectors. The overall design of the first wall and shield system is described in this paper

  6. Vertical-Strip-Fed Broadband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Amir; Jung, Jin-Woo; Yang, Youngoo; Lee, Kang-Yoon; Hwang, Keum Cheol

    2017-08-18

    A vertical-strip-fed dielectric resonator antenna exhibiting broadband circular polarization characteristics is presented. A broad 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) is achieved by combining multiple orthogonal modes due to the use of a special-shaped dielectric resonator. The proposed antenna is fabricated to evaluate its actual performance capabilities. The antenna exhibits a measured 3 dB ARBW of 44.2% (3.35-5.25 GHz), lying within a -10 dB reflection bandwidth of 82.7% (2.44-5.88 GHz). The measured peak gain within 3 dB ARBW is found to be 5.66 dBic at 4.8 GHz. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated results.

  7. Temperature control system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1986-10-01

    A temperature-feedback system has been developed for controlling electrical power to liquid-fed ceramic melters (LFCM). Software, written for a microcomputer-based data acquisition and process monitoring system, compares glass temperatures with a temperature setpoint and adjusts the electrical power accordingly. Included in the control algorithm are steps to reject failed thermocouples, spatially average the glass temperatures, smooth the averaged temperatures over time using a digital filter, and detect foaming in the glass. The temperature control system has proved effective during all phases of melter operation including startup, steady operation, loss of feed, and shutdown. This system replaces current, power, and resistance feedback control systems used previously in controlling the LFCM process.

  8. Antigenic specificity of serum antibodies in mice fed soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Bruun, S.W.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Background: Soybean protein is used in a number of food products but unfortunately is also a common cause of food allergy. Upon ingestion of soy protein, healthy mice like other animals and humans generate a soy-specific antibody response in the absence of signs of illness. Not much is known about...... the relationship between the immunogenic proteins involved in this nondeleterious antibody response and the pathological response associated with food allergy. The objective of the present study was to characterize the antigenic specificity of the soy protein-specific antibody response generated in healthy mice...... ingesting soy protein. Methods: Blood from mice fed a soy-containing diet was analyzed using ELISA and immunoblot for antibody reactivity towards various soy protein fractions and pure soy proteins/subunits. Mice bred on a soy-free diet were used as controls. Results: The detectable antigenic specificity...

  9. Performance Analysis of a Brushless Double Fed Cage Induction Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruencos, F. [WEG S.A., Jaragua do Sul (Brazil); Carlson, R.; Oliveira, A.M.; Kuo-Peng, P.; Sadowski, N. [GRUCAD-UFSC, Florianopolis (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyses design and performance aspects of a brushless double fed cage induction generator as an economic and technical alternative to the classical wound rotor induction generator used in wind power generation. It focuses firstly on the machine operational characteristics and main design criteria and secondly on steady state and dynamic analytical and numerical models for efficient prediction of machine behavior. The analytical dynamic model is obtained by transforming the equations written in machine variables into equations written in an arbitrary reference frame. In the finite element approach the electrical machine is modeled in a 2D domain, using the Maxwell equations to formulate the field behavior and the FE method to discretize the domain of study. A prototype was built and tested to validate the simulation models and to verify the design criteria.

  10. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  11. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard D. Holmes; Floyd L. Inman III; Sivanadane Mandjiny; Rinu Kooliyottil; Devang Upadhyay

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process s...

  12. Evaluation of the choline status in mink fed different levels and sources of choline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Clausen, T.N.

    2012-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet with chol......Choline is an essential nutrient but the daily need for choline in mink has never been determined. Two experiments were performed to evalutate the choline status in mink kits and full-grown mink fed different levels of choline. In the first experiment mink kits were fed a synthetic diet...

  13. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interaction with other oscillators are modulated with time-varying function. This interaction gives rise to a phenomenon called amplitude death even in ...

  14. Dynamics of nonlinear oscillators with time-varying conjugate coupling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explore the dynamical consequences of time-varying conjugate coupling in a system of nonlinear oscillators. We analyze the behavior of coupled ... Conjugate coupling; time varying coupling. PACS Nos 05.45.Xt. 1. Introduction ..... MDS acknowledges the financial support from DST,. New Delhi. References. [1] L Glass ...

  15. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  16. Time varying controllers in discrete-time decentralized control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, C.; Deliu, C.; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Saberi, Ali; Roy, Sandip; Malek, Babak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of finding a time-varying controller which can stabilize a decentralized discrete-time system. In continuous-time, it was already known that time-varying decentralized controllers can achieve stabilization in cases where time-invariant decentralized controllers

  17. Muscular load characterization during isometric shoulder abductions with varying force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iridiastadi, H.; Nussbaum, M.A.; van Dieen, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to characterize muscle loading and fatigue during static shoulder abductions with varying force. In a supine posture, participants maintained fixed shoulder abductions against a time-varying external resistance, generated by a dynamometer-spring mechanism. Patterns (cumulative

  18. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  19. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  20. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The present work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted ...

  1. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  2. Food and snow intake, body mass and rumen function in reindeer fed lichen and subsequently starved for 4 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Aagnes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and snow intake, body mass, rumen fluid volume, rumen fluid turnover time and ruminal dry matter content were examined in four female rumen fistulated reindeer which were first fed lichen ad libitum in 14 days and then starved for 4 days in March. When the animals were eating lichen median daily dry matter food intake was 15.7 g/kg (range 12.2-19.9 g/kg, while median daily snow intake only amounted to 0.6 g/kg (range 0-3.3 g/kg. The median body mass decreased from 67.5 kg (range 62.5-69.5 kg to 63.5 kg (range 60.5-68.5 kg during this period, and dropped further to 62.5 kg (range 57.5-66.0 kg after four days of starvation. Rumen fluid volume and fluid turnover time were fairly constant in individual animals, but varied between animals fed lichen ad libitum. Neither of these parameters changed significantly (P>0.05, but ruminal dry matter decreased, while snow intake rose conspicuously in reponse to starvation. Thus, aside from the latter, which mitigate the reduction of total rumen volume, we have failed to expose any special adaptions aimed at the maintenance of ruminal integrity in starving reindeer.

  3. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentially regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on control- and thrombostasin-vaccinated cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupp, Mary S; Cupp, Eddie W; Navarre, Christine; Zhang, Dunhua; Yue, Xin; Todd, Latora; Panangala, Victor

    2010-07-01

    Thrombostasin (TS) is an anticlotting protein found in saliva of Haematobia irritans (horn flies). The polymorphic nature of the ts gene was first associated with success of horn flies blood feeding on a laboratory host, New Zealand White rabbits. In this study, we report results of similar studies testing blood uptake of horn flies feeding on a natural host, cattle. These studies confirmed the association of ts genotype with blood uptake of horn flies and showed that it was host species specific. In contrast to rabbits, blood uptake volumes of homozygous ts10 horn flies were lower than those of other ts genotypes when fed on control (ovalbumin-vaccinated) cattle. Cattle vaccinated with recombinant protein isoforms, rTS9 or rTB8, resisted horn fly feeding by yielding lower blood volumes compared with flies feeding on control cattle. The specific impact of vaccination, however, varied by ts genotype of flies. Cattle vaccinated with isoform rTS9 resisted flies of ts2, ts9, and tb8 genotype. Vaccination with isoform rTB8 produced resistance to ts8, ts9, and tb8 genotype flies. Horn flies of genotype ts10 were not affected by vaccination with either TS isoform and fed as well on rTS9- and rTB8-vaccinated as on control-vaccinated cattle. These experimental results confirm the efficacy of vaccines targeting horn fly salivary proteins and provide new insight into the dynamics of horn fly-cattle interactions in nature.

  4. AGENT IN THE DIET OF WHITE ,LEGHORN LAYERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dried alfalfa leaf meal (Table 1). The control diet with 5% alfalfa was based on earlier reports that inclusion of alfalfa at this level produced acceptable yolk colour (DZARC, 1984). Chemical analyses. Feed samples (ingredients and diets) were analysed for dry matter, crude protein, ash and ether extract according to the ...

  5. growth performance and survival of local and white leghorn chicken

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    suggested that there is no economic justification for keeping local chicken under intensive management ... Poultry meat and eggs provide proteins of high biological value. Poultry production is a relatively simpler means of generating family income and employment ... In both cases, clean water was made available at.

  6. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  7. Fatty acid profile in meat of culling ewes in different feedlot periods fed diets containing levels of inclusion of linseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia Radis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Linseed plays an important role in animal nutrition as it contains long-chain fatty acids in its composition, which, once absorbed, are incorporated into meat and milk. For evaluate the concentration of fatty acids in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of culling ewes fed diets containing levels of inclusion of linseed, 88 culling ewes were used with an average initial body weight of 37.65 ± 6.98 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with 12 treatments. Treatments consisted of the interaction between levels of linseed (0, 5, 10, and 15% and days in feedlot (30, 45, and 60. The most present fatty acids in the composition of the muscle L. dorsi were palmitic (27.32 g 100 g-1 and stearic (17.77 g 100 g-1. Saturated acids remained at low levels as the animals were fed greater levels of linseed, demonstrating the importance of introducing quality foods in animal feeding. Oleic acid was the most present monounsaturated fatty acid, with 40 g 100 g-1. Palmitoleic and elaidic fatty acids increased linearly as the linseed inclusion in the diet was increased. Polyunsaturated acids increased with the presence of linseed in the diet. For the linolenic acid (C18: 3n3, the best result was with inclusion of 10% of linseed in the total diet. All groups of animals that received linseed obtained better n6:n3 ratios, which varied from 1.81 to 4.14. The higher CLA values obtained in this study are related to the higher amounts of inclusion of linseed in the sheep diet, varying from 1.15 to 5.72 g 100 g-1. It is recommended culling ewes supplemented with inclusion of 10% linseed, for 60 days in feedlot, because they comprise a larger number of favorable traits regarding to the profile fatty acids of Longissimus dorsi.

  8. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  9. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  10. Modeling non-Gaussian time-varying vector autoregressive process

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present a novel and general methodology for modeling time-varying vector autoregressive processes which are widely used in many areas such as modeling of chemical...

  11. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  12. Performance of Layers Fed Graded Levels of Blood –Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    240 laying hens were fed graded levels of Blood-Rumen content mixture (BRCM) for a period of eight weeks. The study was designed to determine the level of BRCM that layers can tolerate in their diet. Feed intake by birds fed the control and 4% BRCM diets were comparable, but significantly higher (P<0.05) than those ...

  13. Effect of Cassava based diet on hepatic proteins in albino rats fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent reduction in enzymes activities (ALT, AST, GGT and ALKPHOS) with dose dependent increases in albumin and Protein in gari fed albino rats compared with Petroleum fed albino rats (P<0.05) suggesting that gari reversed the hepatotoxic effect of crude oil. Dose dependent increase in enzymes activities and ...

  14. Weight Gain Of Broiler Chicks Fed A Maize-Soya bean Diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of substituting synthetic methionine with sodium sulphate and sodium sulphite in a maize-soyabean diet fed to broiler chicks. Two hundred and forty (240) unsexed Hubbard day old broiler chicks were fed iso-caloric and iso-trogenous maize-soyabean ...

  15. The Effect of Rain-Fed and Supplementary Irrigation on the Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of rain-fed with rain-fed supplementary irrigation on yield and yield components of Maize (Zea mays L.) was carried out at Mekelle University main campus under Tigray region in Ethiopia. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), and investigated in the early cropping season ...

  16. Nitrogen dynamics of spring-fed wetland ecosystems of the Sierra Nevada foothills oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall D. Jackson; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2002-01-01

    Spring-fed wetlands are small, highly productive, patchy ecosystems nested within the oak woodland/annual grassland matrix of the Sierra Nevada foothills. In an effort to place these wetlands in a landscape context, we described seasonal variation (1999-2000 growing season) in nitrogen cycling parameters at 6 spring-fed wetland sites of the Sierra Nevada foothill oak...

  17. DLA/FedEx Premium Service Effects on Defense Distribution Inventories and Shipments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Marichal L; Pitts, Bobby

    2006-01-01

    .... DLA and FedEx have formed a partnership called DLA Premium Service. Premium Service is the only DoD warehousing operation that is co-located with and managed by a commercial express transportation carrier at FedEx main transportation hub...

  18. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  19. Implementation of Sliding Mode Controller with Boundary Layer for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fed-batch Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An implementation of sliding mode control for yeast fed-batch cultivation is presented in this paper. Developed controller has been implemented on two real fed-batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The controller successfully stabilizes the process and shows a very good performance at high input disturbances.

  20. A novel LTCC differentially Fed UWB antenna for the 60 GHz band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, B.; Yarovoy, A.G.; Valavan, A.S.E.; Buisman, K.; Shoykhetbrod, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a novel differentially fed Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology to be used in the 60 GHz band for integrated RF front-ends is presented. The antenna is based on the aperture stacked patch fed via H-shaped aperture to achieve more than 10

  1. Dietary habits of partly breast-fed and completely weaned infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondolf, Ulla Holmboe; Tetens, Inge; Fleischer Michaelsen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    found for absolute intakes of foods between feeding groups, although fatty spread had significantly higher intake rates and consumption (P50?031) among partly breast-fed compared with completely weaned infants. Conclusions: At 9 months the infants partly breast-fed did not eat a less diversified diet...

  2. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  3. Effects of dietary fiber on the plasma lipids in mice fed diets high in cholesterols

    OpenAIRE

    KOGAWA, Hiroshi; OKADA, Hiroko; FUKUSHIMA, Yoko; YASUKAWA, Mari; YAMAGUCHI, Chie; KOYAMA, Kenzo; GOTO, Eiji

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dietary fiber and exercise on lipid methabolism,were examined ingrowing mice fed high cholesterol diets.Feeding diets enriched in dietary fiber to normal nice led to a decrease in plasma triglyceride concentration.Plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration and LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio decreased significantly in the dietary-fiber-fed group compared to the control.

  4. Biochemical observations in rats fed with cycads, Nigerian-like and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... Alterations in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation was studied in 90 Wistar albino rats exposed to cycads and fed ... Low levels of catalase, feed intake and faecal output was observed with experimental animals fed NLD as compared to .... been shown to induce stress in animals (Tatli et al.,. 2000).

  5. Plant Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems Fed by Alternative Fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    recycle increases plant efficiency only if fuel utilization factor is low. Other important issues such as why plant efficiency is lower when it is fed with hydrogen or biogas compared to when it is fed by other fuels such as methanol, ethanol, DME and ammonia will also be discussed and explained...

  6. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the substrate inhibition that takes place at high levels of carbon source, fed-batch fermentation was proposed as a better alternative for BLM production. The combined effects of batch and fed-batch fermentation and various pH profiles on BLM production in a bioreactor were evaluated. The tested pH profiles included ...

  7. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  8. Gastrointestinal absorption and retention of neptunium by fasted and fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The retention of neptunium in liver and bone subsequent to its gastrointestinal absorption has been determined in both fasted and fed mice. The values obtained for fractional retention were 3 x 10 - 3 and 1 x 10 - 4 , respectively, and are within a factor of two the same as those for plutonium in fasted and fed mice

  9. Agronomic evaluation of rain fed rice varieties in Seke - Banza area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six rain fed rice varieties from INERA (National Institute for Agronomic Study and Research) YANGAMBI center were cultivated at INERA GIMBI station. The objective was to get high yield rain fed rice varieties adapted to Seke-Banza area conditions in view to increase farmers' production and to reduce import of rice in the ...

  10. Analysis of historical rainfall data and associated risks on rain-fed tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of historical rainfall data and associated risks on rain-fed tef production at Debre Zeit, central Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ... As drought is the major bottleneck for the rain fed tef (Eragrostis tef) production, developing workable strategy that can mitigate its impacts is mandatory. To draw this ...

  11. Dietary inclusion of direct fed microbe on the growth performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds were obtained from a reputable hatchery and randomly assigned to four dietary treatments, each with three replicate of ten birds. ... The results show that the growth performance of the broiler chicken fed diet containing different level of direct fed microbes did not differ significantly (P>0.05) in initial weight, final ...

  12. Perturbation methods and the Melnikov functions for slowly varying oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakrad, Faouzi; Charafi, Moulay Mustapha

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to obtaining the Melnikov function for homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators is proposed. The present method applies the Lindstedt-Poincare method to determine an approximation of homoclinic solutions. It is shown that the resultant Melnikov condition is the same as that obtained in the usual way involving distance functions in three dimensions by Wiggins and Holmes [Homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators. SIAM J Math Anal 1987;18(3):612

  13. Electricity futures prices: time varying sensitivity to fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Huisman, Ronald; Kilic, Mehtap; Pennings, Enrico; Westgaard, Sjur

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides insight into the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of contract prices for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the relation between the prices of electricity futures and those of underlying fundamentals such as natural gas, coal and emission rights varies over time. We test this view by applying a model that linearly relates elec...

  14. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli

    2018-01-01

    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  15. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  16. Do Time-Varying Covariances, Volatility Comovement and Spillover Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan

    2005-01-01

    Financial markets and their respective assets are so intertwined; analyzing any single market in isolation ignores important information. We investigate whether time varying volatility comovement and spillover impact the true variance-covariance matrix under a time-varying correlation set up. Statistically significant volatility spillover and comovement between US, UK and Japan is found. To demonstrate the importance of modelling volatility comovement and spillover, we look at a simple portfo...

  17. Zinc deprivation of methanol fed anaerobic granular sludge bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermoso, Fernando G.; Collins, Gavin; Bartacek, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of omitting zinc from the influent of mesophilic (30 °C) methanol fed upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors, and latter zinc supplementation to the influent to counteract the deprivation, was investigated by coupling the UASB reactor performance to the microbial ecology of the bioreactor sludge. Limitation of the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) on methanol due to the absence of zinc from the influent developed after 137 days of operation. At that day, the SMA in medium with a complete trace metal solution except Zn was 3.4 g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1, compared to 4.2 g CH4-COD g VSS−1 day−1 in a medium with a complete (including zinc) trace metal solution. The methanol removal capacity during these 137 days was 99% and no volatile fatty acids accumulated. Two UASB reactors, inoculated with the zinc-deprived sludge, were operated to study restoration of the zinc limitation by zinc supplementation to the bioreactor influent. In a first reactor, no changes to the operational conditions were made. This resulted in methanol accumulation in the reactor effluent after 12 days of operation, which subsequently induced acetogenic activity 5 days after the methanol accumulation started. Methanogenesis could not be recovered by the continuous addition of 0.5 μM ZnCl2 to the reactor for 13 days. In the second reactor, 0.5 μM ZnCl2 was added from its start-up. Although the reactor stayed 10 days longer methanogenically than the reactor operated without zinc, methanol accumulation was observed in this reactor (up to 1.1 g COD-MeOH L−1) as well. This study shows that zinc limitation can induce failure of methanol fed UASB reactors due to acidification, which cannot be restored by resuming the continuous supply of the deprived metal. PMID:18283507

  18. Air quality in barns for milk-fed calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy per cent of the veal produced in Canada comes from Quebec. This paper reported on the air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves. It is known that air quality inside livestock buildings has an impact on both workers and animals, particularly in winter when air circulation is reduced. In this study, air quality inside barns was studied during the winter, spring and summer. Three types of barns with 3 different types of ventilation typically found in Quebec were evaluated. These included those with preheated corridors, lateral air entries, and central chimneys. Gases were measured in order to determine concentrations and emissions of: ammonia (NH 3 ) which is toxic, colourless and flammable; hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) which is very toxic, flammable; carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) which is colourless and odourless; nitrous oxide (N 2 O) which is colourless and flammable, but harmless to health in the short-term; carbon monoxide (CO) which is colourless, odourless and flammable; and methane (CH 4 ) which is the principal constituent released by animals, and is also colourless, odourless and extremely flammable. When exposed to air, both methane and carbon monoxide can produce an explosive mix especially in an enclosed area. Bacteria, mold, endotoxins, and dust are also present in barns. Samples of gases were analyzed with the help of different portable apparatuses. Results revealed that there are no significant problems with air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves in Quebec. It was determined that the inside temperature was appropriate even during summer periods, and although the relative humidity was higher than the recommended values for the care and handling of farm animals, it was still acceptable. In winter, ammonia was the only gas present in concentrations that reached values of weighted average exposure. Also, concentrations of bacteria were higher during winter. It was suggested that better air ventilation during the winter period would lower ammonia

  19. Sensor placement for calibration of spatially varying model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Paromita; Hu, Zhen; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a sensor placement optimization framework for the calibration of spatially varying model parameters. To account for the randomness of the calibration parameters over space and across specimens, the spatially varying parameter is represented as a random field. Based on this representation, Bayesian calibration of spatially varying parameter is investigated. To reduce the required computational effort during Bayesian calibration, the original computer simulation model is substituted with Kriging surrogate models based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the model response and the Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) of the spatially varying parameters. A sensor placement optimization problem is then formulated based on the Bayesian calibration to maximize the expected information gain measured by the expected Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence. The optimization problem needs to evaluate the expected K-L divergence repeatedly which requires repeated calibration of the spatially varying parameter, and this significantly increases the computational effort of solving the optimization problem. To overcome this challenge, an approximation for the posterior distribution is employed within the optimization problem to facilitate the identification of the optimal sensor locations using the simulated annealing algorithm. A heat transfer problem with spatially varying thermal conductivity is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Model and performance of current sensor observers for a doubly fed induction generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Yang, Chao; Hu, Yaogang

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a stator and rotor current observer for a doubly fed induction generator. First, the dynamic models of the wind turbine drive train are presented, and the vector control strategies of a doubly fed induction generator for the rotor-side and grid-side converters are described....... A stator and rotor current observer model, which is based on the state-space models of doubly fed induction generators, is then derived by using the stator and rotor voltage signals as inputs. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed current observer, its dynamic performance is simulated using...... a MATLAB/Simulink software platform under the conditions of active power change of doubly fed induction generators and grid voltage dip fault. Furthermore, the robustness of the proposed current observer is investigated when the doubly fed induction generator rotor resistance is changed. Results show...

  1. Performance of broiler chickens fed on lima bean, groundnut and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental diets were formulated using lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus Linn) groundnut (Arachis hypogeae Linn) and soybean (Glacin max Linn) mixed in varying proportions to supply 23% crude protein (CP) for starter and 20% crude protein (CP) for finisher diets. Proximate analysis of the diets revealed a generally lower ...

  2. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  3. Ileal microbiota composition of broilers fed various commercial diet compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeven-Hangoor, E. van der; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Schuren, F.H.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Oliveira, J.E. de; Montijn, R.C.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiota plays a role in the release and absorption of nutrients from feed components, thereby affecting digesta composition and moisture content of the excreta. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of 5 different diets varying in ingredients (medium-chain fatty acids,

  4. Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Graded Levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an 84-day feeding trial, the effect of feeding varying dietary levels of Acacia albida pods (AAP) on the carcass parameters of growing rabbits was studied. AAP was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The diets and clean drinking water were provided ad libitum. At the end of the ...

  5. Response of some metabolic and biochemical indices in rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty four growing rabbits were used to assess the response of serum metabolites, performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass characteristics of rabbits to varying dietary cyanide levels. The animals were randomly allocated to four experimental, isocaloric and isoproteinous diets containing 0mg, 250mg, 500mg and ...

  6. Micronucleus test in mice fed on irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.; Pentiah, P.R.; Rani, M.V.U.; Devi, K.R.; Goud, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Eight week old Swiss albino male mice were fed on freshly irradiated or unirradiated whole diet for one week. (Exposure was to 75 or 200 kR γ rays from a 1000 Ci 60 Co γ source at a dose rate of 584 R/min.) On the seventh day, six hours after feeding, the mice were killed and bone marrow preparations were made by the Schmid technique. From each group three animals were taken and from each animal 2000 polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes were scored. It was evident from the data obtained that the irradiated whole diet failed to induce any significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in normochromatic erythrocytes when compared with control data. The polychromatic to normochromatic ratio was also unaffected. The diet consisted of wheat flour (60%). groundnut cake (20%), fish meal (8%), Bengal gram flour (8%), dried yeast (3%), salt/mineral mixture (1%) and traces of vitamins. (U.K.)

  7. Development of cable fed flash X-ray (FXR) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Rakhee; Mitra, S.; Patel, A. S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, G.; Senthil, K.; Kumar, Ranjeet; Kolge, T. S.; Roy, Amitava; Acharya, S.; Biswas, D.; Sharma, Archana

    2017-08-01

    Flash X-ray sources driven by pulsed power find applications in industrial radiography, and a portable X-ray source is ideal where the radiography needs to be taken at the test site. A compact and portable flash X-ray (FXR) system based on a Marx generator has been developed with the high voltage fed to the FXR tube via a cable feed-through arrangement. Hard bremsstrahlung X-rays of few tens of nanosecond duration are generated by impinging intense electron beams on an anode target of high Z material. An industrial X-ray source is developed with source size as low as 1 mm. The system can be operated from 150 kV to 450 kV peak voltages and a dose of 10 mR has been measured at 1 m distance from the source window. The modeling of the FXR source has been carried out using particle-in-cell and Monte Carlo simulations for the electron beam dynamics and X-ray generation, respectively. The angular dose profile of X-ray has been measured and compared with the simulation.

  8. Slow-release urea in supplement fed to beef steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gonçalves

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Replacing regular urea (RU by slow-release urea (SRU at two levels of non-protein nitrogen (NPN in concentrate, offered with low-quality roughage, was evaluated in beef steers on dry matter intake (DMI, ruminal fermentation parameters, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, total tract apparent digestibility of diets and in situ degradability of nitrogen sources. Eight ruminally cannulated steers were allocated into two 4x4 Latin squares, totalizing four treatments: 40 NPN/0 SRU: 40% of concentrate crude protein (CP as NPN, resulting from 0% of SRU and 100% of RU; 40 NPN/50 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 50% of SRU and 50% of RU; 40 NPN/100 SRU: 40% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU; 80 NPN/100 SRU: 80% of concentrate CP as NPN, resulting from 100% of SRU and 0% of RU. Results showed that partial substitution of regular urea by slow-release urea did not alter dry matter intake, pattern of ruminal fermentation or plasma urea nitrogen concentrations and increased the total tract apparent digestibility of crude protein in steers diets. The increase in non-protein nitrogen content in crude protein of the concentrate could compromise feed intake and the efficiency of nutrient utilization in the steers fed complete diets based on low quality forage.

  9. Feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Batista dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal replacing maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85% DM. Thirty Santa Inês sheep with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. Feeding time in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDFap increased by 34 min and 99.6 min, respectively, with each level of substitution of maize for the peach palm meal. Rumination and chewing times, in min kg–1 DM and min kg–1 NDF, also increased in response to the substitution of maize for peach palm meal. When expressed in min day–1, rumination and chewing activities decreased by 12.4 and 14.6 min, respectively, as the amount of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The time spent idle increased linearly (P < 0.05, by 14.6 min day–1, with the replacement levels, compared with the control diet. Peach palm meal in the composition of sheep diets reduces the intakes of dry matter and fiber and decreases the feed and rumination efficiencies. Replacing maize by peach palm meal increases the feeding time and rumination and chewing activities of feedlot lambs.

  10. The hemolymph proteome of fed and starved Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Handke

    Full Text Available The co-operation of specialized organ systems in complex multicellular organisms depends on effective chemical communication. Thus, body fluids (like blood, lymph or intraspinal fluid contain myriads of signaling mediators apart from metabolites. Moreover, these fluids are also of crucial importance for immune and wound responses. Compositional analyses of human body fluids are therefore of paramount diagnostic importance. Further improving their comprehensiveness should increase our understanding of inter-organ communication. In arthropods, which have trachea for gas exchange and an open circulatory system, the single dominating interstitial fluid is the hemolymph. Accordingly, a detailed analysis of hemolymph composition should provide an especially comprehensive picture of chemical communication and defense in animals. Therefore we used an extensive protein fractionation workflow in combination with a discovery-driven proteomic approach to map out the detectable protein composition of hemolymph isolated from Drosophila larvae. Combined mass spectrometric analysis revealed more than 700 proteins extending far beyond the previously known Drosophila hemolymph proteome. Moreover, by comparing hemolymph isolated from either fed or starved larvae, we provide initial provisional insights concerning compositional changes in response to nutritional state. Storage proteins in particular were observed to be strongly reduced by starvation. Our hemolymph proteome catalog provides a rich basis for data mining, as exemplified by our identification of potential novel cytokines, as well as for future quantitative analyses by targeted proteomics.

  11. Design and construction of CPW fed circular microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Kirti; Singhal, P. K.; Sharma, A. K.; Pal, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present feeding approaches of coplanar waveguide fed (CPW) circular microstrip patch antennas, with and without defected ground structure (DGS)`. The antenna feeding impedance is proposed as 50 ohms, built over FR4, a high dielectric constant substrate to obtain broad impedance bandwidth along with stability of the radiation patterns. The antenna with defected ground structure is designed to have band-notched characteristics at 3.5 GHz (for Wi-MAX band-3.3 to 3.7 GHz), at 8.2 GHz (for ITU band-8.025 GHz to 8.4 GHz) so as to avoid interference from these. The FR4 is used as dielectric with value of dielectric loss tangent constant as 0.002 and relative permittivity with 4.4. After applying DGS in ground of the proposed antenna there were improvements concerning bandwidth, and also a small increase in gain was noticed. These antennas are of small sizes with dimensions; 30 mm X 43 mm X 1.6 mm, cheap, compact and easy to fabricate, and achieve good radiation characteristics with higher return loss. This first antenna can have wide application in a great variety of wireless communication and second can operate well as UWB antenna with band notched characteristics. The performance of two antennas is compared in respect to gain, VSWR, return loss and impedance matching.

  12. Melter viewing system for liquid-fed ceramic melters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westsik, J.H. Jr.; Brenden, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    Melter viewing systems are an integral component of the monitoring and control systems for liquid-fed ceramic melters. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has designed cameras for use with glass melters at PNL, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), and West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP). This report is a compilation of these designs. Operating experiences with one camera designed for the PNL melter are discussed. A camera has been fabricated and tested on the High-Bay Ceramic Melter (HBCM) and the Pilot-Scale Ceramic Melter (PSCM) at PNL. The camera proved to be an effective tool for monitoring the cold cap formed as the feed pool developed on the molten glass surface and for observing the physical condition of the melter. Originally, the camera was built to operate using the visible light spectrum in the melter. It was later modified to operate using the infrared (ir) spectrum. In either configuration, the picture quality decreases as the size of the cold cap increases. Large cold caps cover the molten glass, reducing the amount of visible light and reducing the plenum temperatures below 600 0 C. This temperature corresponds to the lowest level of blackbody radiation to which the video tube is sensitive. The camera has been tested in melter environments for about 1900 h. The camera has withstood mechanical shocks and vibrations. The cooling system in the camera has proved effective in maintaining the optical and electronic components within acceptable temperature ranges. 10 refs., 15 figs

  13. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer.

  14. Fertility parameters in lactating Mediterranean buffaloes fed two different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Terzano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two different diets on fertility rate in 64 Mediterranean buffalo cows. The animals were divided in two groups: Group S (n=32 received a total mixed ration based on haysilage of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, hay and concentrates, whereas group H (n=32 was fed only hay and concentrates. Both diets consisted of 50-55 % forages and 45-50 % concentrates and contained 0.91 MFU/kg dry matter (DM and 16% crude protein/DM. From February until September the cows were located together with bulls and pregnancy diagnosis was performed monthly. Furthermore, blood and milk samples were monthly collected on 20 animals in each group. Statistical analysis was performed by χ2 and t Student tests. A higher fertility rate was recorded in group H vs. group S (100 vs. 78.1%, respectively; P<0.05. Furthermore, higher blood and milk urea levels were recorded in group S during the first months of the trial (respectively 10.8 vs. 9.6 mmol L-1; P<0.01 and 55.4 vs. 50.6 mg/dl; P<0.05. It can be hypothesized that the higher levels of urea in group S may have affected the reproductive performances of the animals, increasing the nitrogen concentration in the uterus.

  15. Coso Hot Springs: A Condensate Fed Geothermal Feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, M. A.; Cohen, D.; Sabin, A.; Unruh, J.; Gable, C.; Zyvoloski, G.; Meade, D.; Bjornstad, S.; Monastero, F.

    2007-12-01

    The Coso Hot Springs are located almost two miles from the Coso geothermal field within the China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station, China Lake, California. The hot springs are about 16 m above the adjacent valley floor and because of their position are not believed to be in good hydrologic connection with the regional groundwater water table. Shortly after the onset of geothermal production in 1987, both water levels and temperatures within the South Pool of Coso Hot Springs increased. Although water levels appeared to be stable by 1989-1990, temperatures continued to rise until about 1993. We postulate that Coso hot springs are a condensate fed geothermal feature associated with vapor flux emanating from the Coso Wash Fault. We developed a suite of generic and site specific numerical models using FEHM to test whether these measured changes in the hot springs might be due to the removal of fluids associated with production from the Coso geothermal field. The idealized models were based on observed conditions including the locations of faults and geologic framework as well as temperature/pressure/production history of the geothermal field. The model results suggest that pressure declines associated with geothermal production led to an expanded steam cap which resulted in an enhanced vapor flux up the Coso Wash Fault zone.

  16. Sheep fed with banana leaf hay reduce ruminal protozoa population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Alves, Dorismar David; Martinele, Isabel; D'Agosto, Marta; Cedrola, Franciane; de Moura Freitas, Angélica Alves; Dos Santos Soares, Franklin Delano; Beltran, Makenzi

    2017-04-01

    A ciliate protozoa suppression can reduce methane production increasing the energy efficiency utilization by ruminants. The physicochemical characteristics of rumen fluid and the profile of the rumen protozoa populations were evaluated for sheep fed banana leaf hay in replacement of the Cynodon dactylon cv. vaqueiro hay. A total of 30 male sheep were raised in intensive system during 15 days of adaptation and 63 days of experimental period. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design that included six replicates of five treatments with replacement levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) of the grass vaquero for the banana leaf hay. Samples of fluid were collected directly from the rumen with sterile catheters. Color, odor, viscosity, and the methylene blue reduction potential (MBRP) were evaluated and pH estimated using a digital potentiometer. After decimal dilutions, counts of genus protozoa were performed in Sedgewick Rafter chambers. The averages of pH, MBRP, color, odor, and viscosity were not influenced by the inclusion of the banana leaf hay. However, the total number of protozoa and Entodinium spp. population significantly decreased at 75 and 100% inclusions of banana leaf hay as roughage.

  17. Review: Drinking water for liquid-fed pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Chiron, J; Etore, F; Fabre, A; Laval, A; Pol, F; Prunier, A; Ramonet, Y; Nielsen, B L

    2017-05-01

    Liquid feeding has the potential to provide pigs with sufficient water to remain hydrated and prevent prolonged thirst. However, lack of permanent access to fresh water prevents animals from drinking when they are thirsty. Moreover, individual differences between pigs in a pen may result in uneven distribution of the water provided by the liquid feed, leading to some pigs being unable to meet their water requirements. In this review, we look at the need for and provision of water for liquid-fed pigs in terms of their production performance, behaviour, health and welfare. We highlight factors which may lead to water ingestion above or below requirements. Increases in the need for water may be caused by numerous factors such as morbidity, ambient temperature or competition within the social group, emphasising the necessity of permanent access to water as also prescribed in EU legislation. The drinkers can be the target of redirected behaviour in response to feed restriction or in the absence of rooting materials, thereby generating water losses. The method of water provision and drinker design is critical to ensure easy access to water regardless of the pig's physiological state, and to limit the amount of water used, which does not benefit the pig.

  18. Mitochondrial myopathy in Senna occidentalis-seed-fed chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, M J; Calore, E E; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L; Dagli, M L; Raspantini, P C; Calore, N M; Weg, R

    1997-07-01

    Plants of the genus Senna (formerly Cassia) have been recognized as the cause of a natural and experimental syndrome of muscle degeneration frequently leading to death in animals. Histologically, it demonstrated skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, with floccular degeneration and proliferation of sarcolemmal nuclei. Recently, it was described as an experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy in hens chronically treated with Senna occidentalis. Currently, skeletal muscles of chicks intoxicated with seeds of the poisonous plant S. occidentalis were studied by histochemistry and electron microscopy. Since birth, the birds were fed ground dried seeds of this plant with a regular chicken ration at a dose of 4% for 11 days. Microscopic examination revealed, besides muscle-fiber atrophy, lipid storage in most fibers and a moderate amount of cytochrome oxidase-negative fibers. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. This picture was characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy. These findings have hitherto remained unnoticed in skeletal muscle of young birds treated with S. occidentalis.

  19. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  20. Brain glucose content in fetuses of ethanol-fed rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pullen, G.; Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Hoffen, B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated impaired placental glucose transfer and fetal hypoglycemia in association with ethanol ingestion by pregnant rats. The present study examines the relationship between glucose availability and fetal brain growth under the same conditions. Rats (EF) were fed ethanol (30% of caloric intake) in liquid diet throughout gestation. Controls received isocaloric diet without ethanol by pair-feeding (PF) or ad libitum (AF). On the 22nd day of gestation fetuses were obtained by cesarean section. Fetal brains were removed and freeze-clamped. Brain weight was significantly reduced (p < 0.001) by maternal ethanol ingestion (206 +/- 2, 212 +/- 4 and 194 +/- 2 mg in AF, FP and EF fetuses respectively). Similarly, fetal brain glucose content was lower (p < 0.05) in the EF group (14.3 +/- 0.9 mmoles/g dry weight) than in the PF (18.6 +/- 1.0) or the AF (16.2 +/- 0.9) groups. The protein: DNA ratio, an indicator of cell size, correlated positively (r = 0.371, p < 0.005) with brain glucose content. In conclusion, maternal ethanol ingestion resulted in lower brain weight and reduced brain glucose content. Glucose availability may be a significant factor in the determination of cell size in the fetal rat brain.

  1. THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING HENS FED DIFFERENT CALCIUM SOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed different calcium sources. Two hundreds of Isa Brown laying hens were used in this study. The hens were raised in individual battery cages units for 12 weeks. Four calcium source (limestone as a control, 5% limestone + 2.5% eggshells waste, 2.5% limestone + 5% eggshells waste and 7.5% eggshell waste were used in feed experiment. A completely randomized design was applied, with 4 treatments and 5 replications. Each experimental unit consisted of 10 laying hens. The parameters measured were feed intake, protein intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Results of the research showed that the calcium source had significantly effect on performance productions. The use of eggshell waste 7.5% significantly increased the feed intake, calcium intake, phosphorus intake, egg production and egg weight except for feed conversion ratio. The conclusion of this research was that the use of eggshell waste as calcium source of feed resulted in better performance than using limestone or mixed limestone with eggshell waste.

  2. Performance and nutrient utilization in South American juvenile catfish Pseudoplatystoma spp. weighting 89 - 170g, fed at different energy and protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Teixeira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Most studies in nutrition for the South American catfish (surubim were limited to the initial phase of development. However, it is clear that performance and nutrient utilization can change during the life stages of a fish. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the performance and nutrient utilization in juveniles of surubim fed diets varying in protein and energy levels. Two experiments were performed to test different levels of energy and protein in formulated diets. In the first experiment, surubim juveniles (89.2±4.8g were fed five diets containing different levels of energy (18.0, 18.8, 19.6, 20.5, 21.3 MJ/kg. In the second experiment, juveniles (170.03±3.35g were fed five diets containing different levels of protein (360, 400, 440, 480 and 520g/kg. The most favorable energy level for weight gain was 20.3 MJ/kg. The increasing energy levels provided a rise in fat and decrease in protein whole-body composition. The protein amount was between 360 to 400g/kg (383g/kg, which was adequate for performance and nutrient assimilation in surubim juveniles.

  3. Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams with Sinusoidal Periodically Varying Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Botong; Liu, Chein-Shan; Zhu, Liangliang

    2017-12-01

    As an increasing variety of composite materials with complex interfaces are emerging, we develop a theory to investigate composite beams and shed some light on new physical insights into composite beams with sinusoidal periodically varying interfaces. For the natural vibration of composite beams with continuous or periodically varying interfaces, the governing equation has been derived according to the generalised Hamiltonian principle. For composite beams having different boundary conditions, we transform the governing equations into integral equations and solve them by using the sinusoidal functions as test functions as well as the basis of the vibration modes. Due to the orthogonality of the sinusoidal functions, expansion coefficients in closed form can be found. Therefore, the proposed iterative schemes, with the help of the Rayleigh quotient and boundary functions, can quickly find the eigenvalues and free vibration modes. The obtained natural frequencies agree well with those obtained using the finite element method. In addition, the proposed method can be extended easily to laminated composite beams in more general cases or complex components and geometries in vibration engineering. The effects of different material properties of the upper and lower components and varying interface geometry function on the frequency of the composite beams are examined. According to our investigation, the natural frequency of a laminated beam with a continuous or periodically varying interface can be changed by altering the density or elastic modulus. We also show the responses of the frequencies of the components to the varying periodic interface.

  4. Nitrogen utilization, preweaning nutrient digestibility, and growth effects of Holstein dairy calves fed 2 amounts of a moderately high protein or conventional milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C E; Hill, T M; Elder, D R; Erickson, P S

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that calves fed milk replacers (MR) with crude protein (CP) concentrations greater than 20%, as typically found in conventional MR, have higher dry matter intakes (DMI) and greater average daily gains (ADG) but consume less starter, which can lead to stress during weaning and reduced rumen development. The greater amount of CP being fed to preweaned calves may alter their nitrogen (N) balance, and excess N may be excreted in the urine. The objective of this study was to determine N utilization in preweaned calves fed diets varying in the amount of CP and MR fed. This study used 24 newborn dairy heifer calves blocked by birth and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) 446g dry matter (DM) of a conventional MR (CON; 20% CP, 20% fat), (2) 669g DM of a moderately high protein MR (moderate; MOD; 26% CP, 18% fat), or (3) 892g DM of a moderately high protein MR (aggressive; AGG; 26% CP, 18% fat). All calves had ad libitum access to starter and water. Both MR and starter were medicated with decoquinate. During weaning (d 43-49), the morning MR feeding ceased. On d 50, all MR feedings ended; however, starter and water intakes were continuously recorded until d 56. At 5wk of age, urine was collected using urinary catheters for 3d and chromium oxide was administered by bolus at 2g/d for 7d to estimate N efficiency. Calves fed MOD and AGG had similar starter intakes, feed efficiencies, and ADG, with the combined treatments having reduced starter intakes (258 vs. 537g/d), greater ADG (674 vs. 422g/d), and improved feed efficiency (0.57 vs. 0.45 gain:feed) compared with CON calves preweaning. However, DMI and water intake were similar across all treatments. Results from the N utilization phase showed that MOD and AGG treatments had similar but lower N efficiency compared with CON calves (45.5 vs. 52.7%). This could be due to MOD- and AGG-fed calves having greater urine volume and thereby, greater combined urine N output compared with CON calves (17.6 vs

  5. Importance-driven time-varying data visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chaoli; Yu, Hongfeng; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2008-01-01

    The ability to identify and present the most essential aspects of time-varying data is critically important in many areas of science and engineering. This paper introduces an importance-driven approach to time-varying volume data visualization for enhancing that ability. By conducting a block-wise analysis of the data in the joint feature-temporal space, we derive an importance curve for each data block based on the formulation of conditional entropy from information theory. Each curve characterizes the local temporal behavior of the respective block, and clustering the importance curves of all the volume blocks effectively classifies the underlying data. Based on different temporal trends exhibited by importance curves and their clustering results, we suggest several interesting and effective visualization techniques to reveal the important aspects of time-varying data.

  6. Robust linear parameter varying induction motor control with polytopic models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalila Khamari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a robust controller for an induction motor which is represented as a linear parameter varying systems. To do so linear matrix inequality (LMI based approach and robust Lyapunov feedback controller are associated. This new approach is related to the fact that the synthesis of a linear parameter varying (LPV feedback controller for the inner loop take into account rotor resistance and mechanical speed as varying parameter. An LPV flux observer is also synthesized to estimate rotor flux providing reference to cited above regulator. The induction motor is described as a polytopic model because of speed and rotor resistance affine dependence their values can be estimated on line during systems operations. The simulation results are presented to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach where robustness stability and high performances have been achieved over the entire operating range of the induction motor.

  7. Phased Array-Fed Reflector (PAFR) Antenna Architectures for Space-Based Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Communication link and target ranges for satellite communications (SATCOM) and space-based sensors (e.g. radars) vary from approximately 1000 km (for LEO satellites) to 35,800 km (for GEO satellites). At these long ranges, large antenna gains are required and legacy payloads have usually employed large reflectors with single beams that are either fixed or mechanically steered. For many applications, there are inherent limitations that are associated with the use of these legacy antennas/payloads. Hybrid antenna designs using Phased Array Fed Reflectors (PAFRs) provide a compromise between reflectors and Direct Radiating phased Arrays (DRAs). PAFRs provide many of the performance benefits of DRAs while utilizing much smaller, lower cost (feed) arrays. The primary limitation associated with hybrid PAFR architectures is electronic scan range; approximately +/-5 to +/- 10 degrees is typical, but this range depends on many factors. For LEO applications, the earth FOV is approximately +/-55 degrees which is well beyond the range of electronic scanning for PAFRs. However, for some LEO missions, limited scanning is sufficient or the CONOPS and space vehicle designs can be developed to incorporate a combination mechanical slewing and electronic scanning. In this paper, we review, compare and contrast various PAFR architectures with a focus on their general applicability to space missions. We compare the RF performance of various PAFR architectures and describe key hardware design and implementation trades. Space-based PAFR designs are highly multi-disciplinary and we briefly address key hardware engineering design areas. Finally, we briefly describe two PAFR antenna architectures that have been developed at Northrop Grumman.

  8. Serum and liver lipids in rats and chicks fed with diets containing different oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feoli, Ana M; Roehrig, Cíntia; Rotta, Liane N; Kruger, Adriane H; Souza, Karine B; Kessler, Alexandre M; Renz, Sandro V; Brusque, Ana M; Souza, Diogo O; Perry, Marcos L S

    2003-09-01

    Because dietary fat composition is determinant for serum cholesterol level, which is related to cardiovascular disease, we evaluated the effects of diets containing saturated (coconut oil) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (soybean oil) supplemented or not with dietary cholesterol on serum and liver lipid composition in two animal species. Male Wistar rats (21 d old) were assigned to one of seven groups and fed with commercial diet or diets containing 5% or 20% soybean oil or 20% coconut oil with or without 1% cholesterol. Chicks were assigned to one of four groups and fed with diets containing 15% soybean oil or 15% coconut oil with or without 1% cholesterol. In rats, the accumulations of hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerols were higher in the group fed 20% soybean oil and 1% cholesterol than in the group fed 20% coconut fat and 1% cholesterol. The highest serum levels of cholesterol and triacylglycerols were observed in the group fed coconut oil and cholesterol, compared with the group fed soybean oil and cholesterol. Triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol serum levels increased with diet containing coconut oil and cholesterol. In chicks, the highest hepatic cholesterol accumulation occurred in the group fed 15% coconut fat and 1% cholesterol. Total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased with diet containing coconut oil and cholesterol, although none of these diets modified serum triacylglycerol levels. The type of experimental animal model and the diet composition influence lipid metabolism.

  9. Aerobic fungi in the rumen fluid from dairy cattle fed different sources of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Natalicia Mendes de Almeida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic microbiota of the rumen fluid from Holstein cows and heifers fed different tropical forage in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 30 samples of rumen fluid from cows fed with sorghum silage were collected: 32 from cows fed Brachiaria brizantha, 12 from heifers that received sorghum silage and 11 from calves fed sugar cane foliage. The culture was carried out using the agar Sabouraud medium and the solid C medium, containing microcrystalline cellulose. The isolated mycelial fungi were identified by microculture technique and yeasts by micromorphological and physical-chemical analysis. Specific identification for yeasts was confirmed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The presence of fungal colonies was confirmed on the Sabouraud medium for 100% of the samples. No significant differences were observed comparing the concentrations of mycelia fungi in the rumen fluid from cows fed different forages and for the two categories evaluated, fed sorghum silage. Yeast populations in the rumen fluid from heifers fed sugarcane were higher compared with those receiving sorghum silage. The yeast Pichia kudriavzevii (Candida krusei was the most frequent and among the mycelial fungi, the genus Aspergillus was the most frequently observed, corresponding to 56% of the samples. Future studies should elucidate the variations in the populations of these microorganisms considering the carbohydrate sources in the tropical forages and the animal categories. The ecological or pathogenic role of these microorganisms should also be considered, aiming at improved productivity and health of cattle.

  10. High incidence of respiratory infections in 'nil by mouth' tube-fed acute ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P C; Lee, A H; Binns, C W

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory infections are common in acute stroke. Previous studies have found dysphagia is associated with respiratory infections. Of interest is whether patients who are 'Nil by Mouth' (NBM) and tube fed have higher risk of developing infections due to aspiration of bacteria-laden saliva or refluxed material than stroke patients who are fed orally. Prospective cohort of 330 ischemic stroke survivors were followed for 30 days and infections recorded. 115 infections were treated with antibiotics; these included 51 respiratory infections. Incidence of infection in NBM tube-fed stroke patients (n = 74) was 69%, with 30 respiratory infections occurring in 74 patients who received enteral feeding after stroke. Logistic regression analysis showed tube feeding during admission was a significant risk for respiratory infection. We also saw a significant time-to-event effect with 73% (22/30) respiratory infections in tube-fed survivors diagnosed on days 2-4 after stroke, and 76% (39/51) of infections in all tube-fed survivors occurring by day 7 after stroke. Relevance to a theory of critical period of susceptibility to infection in acute stroke is discussed. NBM tube-fed survivors were unlikely to have aspirated anything other than saliva/secretions or reflux, yet experienced significantly higher rates of respiratory infections than survivors fed orally. Stringent oral care and measures to prevent reflux are potentially modifiable aspects of stroke management. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Fed and fasted gastric pH and gastric residence time in conscious beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Kazuko; Li, Fasheng; Liese, Ryan; Sutton, Steven C

    2009-07-01

    The gastric pH values are controversial in the literature. Some suggest the dog gastric pH is higher than human and dog gastric pH after fed with particular diet is uncertain. Gastric pH in 16 male beagle dogs was measured using Bravo pH telemetry system. For the fed study, the dogs received 10 or 200 g of dog dry food (5L18) 15 min before dosing the Bravo pH capsule, followed by a 50 mL of water to aid in swallowing. It was surprising to find a small, but statistically significantly lower pH in the fed compared to the fasted stomach. The average gastric pH in fasted dogs was 2.05 and 1.08 and 1.26 for 10 and 200 g fed dogs. The average gastric emptying time of the capsule was 1.4, 9.4 and 20 h for fasted, 10 g fed and 200 g fed dogs, respectively. The inter-individual variability was higher in fasted dogs than in fed dogs. The results showed the gastric pH in each colony of dogs can be different from reported values in the literature. It emphasizes that the importance of measuring the pH in each colony when dogs are used to evaluate pharmacokinetics of pH sensitive drugs or formulations.

  12. Effects of exposure to dietary chromium on tissue mineral contents in rats fed diets with fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescha, Anna; Krzysik, Monika; Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets with fiber (cellulose and/or pectin) supplemented with chromium(III) on homeostasis of selected minerals in femurs, thigh muscles, livers, and kidneys of rats. For 6 weeks, male rats were fed experimental diets: a fiber-free diet (FF), a diet containing 5% cellulose (CEL), 5% pectin (PEC), or 2.5% cellulose and 2.5% pectin (CEL+PEC). These diets had 2.53 or 0.164 mg Cr/kg diet. The tissue levels of Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Cr were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Supplementing diets with Cr resulted in significantly higher Cr levels in the femurs of rats fed the CEL diet and significantly higher Cr and Fe levels in the rats fed the CEL+PEC diet compared to the rats fed FF diet. Muscle Ca content was significantly lower in the rats fed the CEL+PEC+Cr diet compared to the rats fed FF+Cr diet. The rats consuming the PEC+Cr diet had the highest liver Cr content. The highest kidney Zn content was observed in the rats fed diets containing Cr and one type of fiber. These results indicate that diets containing chromium at elevated dose and fiber have a significant effect on the mineral balance in rat tissues.

  13. Hematology and plasma biochemistry in rats fed with diets enriched with fatty fishes from Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca das Chagas do Amaral Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rats fed diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon region had Hematology and plasma biochemistry analyzed. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group fed a standard diet; mapará group fed a diet enriched with Hypophthalmus edentatus; matrinxã group fed a diet enriched with Brycon spp.; and tambaqui group fed a diet enriched with Colossoma macropomum. After thirty days the rats had an red blood count and plasma biochemistry. RESULTS: Hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were higher in rats fed tambaqui and matrinxã than in those fed the standard diet of mapará. However, mapará increased cholesterol, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. All fish-enriched diets reduced triacylglycerols. CONCLUSION: Diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon region reduce triacylglycerol and increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, especially the diet enriched with tambaqui. Tambaqui and matrinxã affected hematocrit and hemoglobin levels, but not mapará. Further research is needed to determine the benefits of diets enriched with fatty fish from the Amazon region.

  14. Incremental Closed-loop Identification of Linear Parameter Varying Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Trangbæk, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    , closed-loop system identification is more difficult than open-loop identification. In this paper we prove that the so-called Hansen Scheme, a technique known from linear time-invariant systems theory for transforming closed-loop system identification problems into open-loop-like problems, can be extended......This paper deals with system identification for control of linear parameter varying systems. In practical applications, it is often important to be able to identify small plant changes in an incremental manner without shutting down the system and/or disconnecting the controller; unfortunately...... to accommodate linear parameter varying systems as well....

  15. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab

    2012-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  16. Varied appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sider, L.; Weiss, A.

    1988-01-01

    Lymphoma is frequently present in patients with acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). But unlike in the general population, the appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS is extremely varied. The computed tomographic scans, chest radiographs, and subsequent hospital courses of 15 patients with AIDS-related lymphoma are presented. The patients presented with isolated pleural effusion (six patients), pleural and pericardial effusion (one patient), pulmonary infiltrates (five patients), and mediastinal adenopathy (three patients). This varied manner of presentation of lymphoma in AIDS patients should be recognized if diagnosis is to be made in the earlier stages of presentation

  17. Cytokine profile of rats fed a diet containing shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lage Borges

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies have shown that shrimps reduced the tensile strength of scars in rat skin. The aim of the present study was to assess the cytokine profile of rats fed shrimp. METHODS: Group 1 (control received a regular diet and Group 2 (experimental received a diet containing 33% shrimp for nine days. The two diets contained the same amounts of proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Serum cytokine levels were determined by ELISA and a segment of the jejunum was taken to investigate its histological morphology and eosinophil infiltrate. RESULTS: The experimental group had lower serum levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 (14.4±1.9 versus 18.11±2.6pg/mL; p<0.05 and IL-10 (5.0±0.98 versus 7.5±1.2pg/mL; p<0.05 and higher levels of IL-6 (17.8±2.3 versus 3.2±0.4pg/mL, p<0.001 than controls. Morphologically, the shrimp-based diet caused an architectural disorganization of the intestinal mucosa and a greater amount of eosinophils in the jejunal villus. CONCLUSION: Our data suggests that shrimp consumption leads to a significant increase in the cytokine IL-6, a decrease in the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 in the serum of rats, and high eosinophil infiltration in the jejunum. The cytokine profile typical of inflammation and the histological aspect of the jejunum are compatible with food allergy.

  18. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae fed with Aleurocanthus woglumi (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério de Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the development and reproduction of Ceraeochrysa cubana when fed the citrus blackfly Aleurocanthus woglumi. The study was carried out at the Laboratory of Entomology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Federal University of Paraíba – Areia/PB. It used a completely randomized design. The study was conducted in climate chambers, regulated to 26 ± 2°C and a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% with a 12 h photoperiod. The treatments were as follows: eggs, nymphs of only the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, or 4th instars, and nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of A. woglumi, with eggs of Sitotroga cerealella as a control. The 1st instar of C. cubana lasted 5.8 to 10.7 days, the 2nd instar lasted 6.0 to 13.3 days, and the 3rd instar lasted 8.2 to 18.5 days. The larvae of C. cubana did not survive when the food provided was only the eggs of A. woglumi, since the predator could not eat them. C. cubana, when provided nymphs of multiple instars (1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of the citrus blackfly, had a shorter pre-pupal period and lower longevity than when consuming the eggs of S. cerealella, but the sex ratio and oviposition period were not affected. However, changes occurred in the pre-oviposition period, the total number of eggs, and the number of viable eggs.

  19. Food web structure in a harsh glacier-fed river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie R Clitherow

    Full Text Available Glacier retreat is occurring across the world, and associated river ecosystems are expected to respond more rapidly than those in flowing waters in other regions. The river environment directly downstream of a glacier snout is characterised by extreme low water temperature and unstable channel sediments but these habitats may become rarer with widespread glacier retreat. In these extreme environments food web dynamics have been little studied, yet they could offer opportunities to test food web theories using highly resolved food webs owing to their low taxonomic richness. This study examined the interactions of macroinvertebrate and diatom taxa in the Ödenwinkelkees river, Austrian central Alps between 2006 and 2011. The webs were characterised by low taxon richness (13-22, highly connected individuals (directed connectance up to 0.19 and short mean food chain length (2.00-2.36. The dominant macroinvertebrates were members of the Chironomidae genus Diamesa and had an omnivorous diet rich in detritus and diatoms as well as other Chironomidae. Simuliidae (typically detritivorous filterers had a diet rich in diatoms but also showed evidence of predation on Chironomidae larvae. Food webs showed strong species-averaged and individual size structuring but mass-abundance scaling coefficients were larger than those predicted by metabolic theory, perhaps due to a combination of spatial averaging effects of patchily distributed consumers and resources, and/or consumers deriving unquantified resources from microorganisms attached to the large amounts of ingested rock fragments. Comparison of food web structural metrics with those from 62 published river webs suggest these glacier-fed river food web properties were extreme but in line with general food web scaling predictions, a finding which could prove useful to forecast the effects of anticipated future glacier retreat on the structure of aquatic food webs.

  20. Colostrum production in sows fed different sources of fiber and fat during late gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Bruun, Thomas S.; Williams, Charlotte Amdi

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study yield and composition of colostrum and transient milk from 36 second-parity sows fed a standard lactation diet (CON) low in fiber or one of two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF), combined with one of three fat sources, palm fatty acid...... (12 and 24 h) and transient milk lactose contents were greatest in CON-fed sows compared with sows fed ALF or SBP diets (Pcomposition, but did not affect colostrum yield of sows....

  1. Grape skin improves antioxidant capacity in rats fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su-Jin; Choi, Soo-Kyong; Seo, Jung-Sook

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary grape skin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in rats fed high fat diet. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either control (5% fat) diet or high fat (25% fat) diet which was based on AIN-93 diet for 2 weeks, and then they were grouped as control group (C), control + 5% grape skin group (CS), high-fat group (HF), high fat + 5% grape skin group (HFS) with 10 rats each and fed corresponding diets for 4 weeks. The hepat...

  2. Antioxidant capacity of meagre (Argyrossomus regius fed different lipid content and source, with and without selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthelio Braga Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Meagre (600 animals were kept in 24 tanks (80 L with constant renovation and aeration and maintained at 20.7 ± 0.7ºC and oxygen 8.8 ± 1.7 mg L-1. Fish were fed twice per day, six days per week, with eight different experimental diets for 60 days. Diets were formulated to have two different oil sources (fish or vegetable blend oils with 45% of linseed, 35% of rapeseed and 20% of soybean oil, two lipid levels (12 and 17% and two selenium supplementation (0 and 1 mg/kg diet. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (TG and catalase (CAT were analyzed in liver of fish. CAT, GPx and GR activities were not significantly altered in fish fed with diets with different oil sources. However, TG in fish fed with fish oil diet was higher than the levels observed in fish fed with vegetable blend oil. Furthermore, fish fed with fish oil diet showed lower lipid peroxidation when compared with fish fed vegetable blend oil diet (Table 1. Concerning the oil level in diet, it was observed that fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids had a higher level of total glutathione when compared to fish fed with a diet of 12% lipids. On the other hand, the fish fed with a diet with 12% lipids showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids. Fish fed with diets supplemented with selenium showed a significantly increased activity of GPx when compared with fish fed without selenium. Three-way ANOVA analysis showed that dietary lipid level and the presence of selenium have a significant interaction on the activities of CAT and GR, as well as, levels of TG and LPO. A significant interaction between the source of oil and the presence of selenium on GR activities was observed. Interaction on source and level was observed to CAT. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of meagre is influenced by the source of oil, the level of lipids and the presence of selenium in their diet.

  3. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  4. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although, natural channels are rarely rectangular or trapezoidal in cross section, these cross sections are assumed for the computation of steady, gradually varied flow in open channel networks. The accuracy of the computed results, therefore, becomes questionable due to differences in the hydraulic and geometric ...

  5. Crop-Livestock Farming Systems Varying with Different Altitudes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rangeland is increasingly converted to cropland, creating diverse crop-livestock practices in different environments. As these practices lead to highly adapted livestock production systems using resources that vary locally and seasonally, not much is known about their similarities and differences.

  6. Iterative solution of field problems with a varying physical parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijhuis, A.G.; Beurden, M.C. van; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, linear field problems with a varying physical parameter are solved with the conjugate-gradient FFT method and a dedicated extrapolation procedure for generating the initial estimate. The scheme is formulated and illustrated for two simple example problems. The importance of the choice

  7. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... cannulation points in newborns. Methods: Fifty‑eight healthy ... Ince A, Aslan NA, et al. Effects of varying entry points and trendelenburg positioning degrees in internal jugular vein area measurements of newborns. Niger J Clin Pract 2018 .... arrhythmias, hypoxia, mitral valve insufficiency, and decreased ...

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of varying concentrations of permethrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluating the effectiveness of varying concentrations of permethrin on ticks of genus Aponoma on Royal Pythons ( Python Regius ) ... The toxic effects of most available acaricides are grievous as snakes find it difficult to metabolize those drugs readily. The present study therefore focused on identifying these tick vectors ...

  9. Time-frequency representation based on time-varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    defined in a time-frequency space and represents the evolution of signal power as a function of both time and ... the physical meaning of the intrinsic mode function (IMF) resulting from the EMD sifting process and the ... In the case of the basis function approach, each of its time-varying coefficients is expressed as a weighted ...

  10. Bayesian classification in a time-varying environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of classifying a pattern based on multiple observation made in a time-varying environment is analyzed. The identity of the pattern may itself change. A Bayesian solution is derived, after which the conditions of the physical situation are invoked to produce a cascade classifier model. Experimental results based on remote sensing data demonstrate the effectiveness of the classifier.

  11. Overcoming Spurious Regression Using time-Varying Fourier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-stationary time series data have been traditionally analyzed in the frequency domain by assuming constant amplitudes regardless of the timelag. A new approach called time-varying amplitude method (TVAM) is presented here. Oscillations are analyzed for changes in the magnitude of Fourier Coefficients which are ...

  12. Travertine deposits of the Karlovy Vary thermal water system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vylita, T.; Žák, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2009), s. 1639-1644 ISSN 0943-0105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : travertine * thermal water * thermal spring protection * Karlovy Vary Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.078, year: 2009

  13. Weakly Nonlinear Waves with Slowly-Varying Speed | Chikwendu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A previously developed method of generating uniformly valid, multiple- scale asymptotic expansions for the solution of weakly nonlinear one-dimensional wave equations is applied to problems with slowly-varying speed. The method is also shown to be applicable specifically to periodic initial data.

  14. Modelling Flow over Stepped Spillway with Varying Chute Geometry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has modeled some characteristics of the flows over stepped spillway with varying chute geometry through a laboratory investigation. Using six physically built stepped spillway models, with each having six horizontal plain steps at 4cm constant height, 30 cm width and respective chute slope angles at 310, 320, ...

  15. Non-stationary vibrations of mechanical systems with slowly varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents an approximate analytical solution for investigation of vibration responses in linear Single-Degree-of-Freedom-Systems (SDOF) with slowly varying natural frequency subjected to a transient excitalion force with constant amplitude. The solution employs the WBKJ-approximation method, the method of ...

  16. Time-frequency representation based on time-varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A parametric time-frequency representation is presented based on timevarying autoregressive model (TVAR), followed by applications to non-stationary vibration signal processing. The identification of time-varying model coefficients and the determination of model order, are addressed by means of neural networks and ...

  17. The Multi-Vari Chart -- A Systematic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Roes, K.C.B.; Does, R.J.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to setting up a designed experiment or setting up a monitoring system for a process most experimenters perform an exploratory study to investigate thestructure of the process' variation. Tools that are frequently used for such a study are predominantly graphical in nature.The multi-vari chart

  18. Time varying market efficiency of the GCC stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfeddine, Lanouar; Khediri, Karim Ben

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the time-varying levels of weak-form market efficiency for the GCC stock markets over the period spanning from May 2005 to September 2013. We use two empirical approaches: (1) the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity in mean (GARCH-M) model with state space time varying parameter (Kalman filter), and (2) a rolling technique sample test of the fractional long memory parameter d. As long memory estimation methods, we use the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) technique, the modified R/S statistic, the exact local whittle (ELW) and the feasible Exact Local Whittle (FELW) methods. Moreover, we use the Bai and Perron (1998, 2003) multiple structural breaks technique to test and date the time varying behavior of stock market efficiency. Empirical results show that GCC markets have different degrees of time-varying efficiency, and also have experiencing periods of efficiency improvement. Results also show evidence of structural breaks in all GCC markets. Moreover, we observe that the recent financial shocks such as Arab spring and subprime crises have a significant impact on the time path evolution of market efficiency.

  19. Time-varying interaction leads to amplitude death in coupled ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... A new form of time-varying interaction in coupled oscillators is introduced. In this interaction, each individual oscillator has always time-independent self-feedback while its interac- tion with other ..... this work, and acknowl- edge the kind hospitality and financial support from the MPI-PKS Dresden, Germany.

  20. Additional Surgery after Breast-Conserving Surgery Varies Widely

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of JAMA found that the number of women who have one or more additional surgeries to remove suspected residual tumor tissue (re-excisions) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer varies widely across surgeons and hospitals.