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Sample records for leggett ca usa

  1. Falsification of Leggett's model using neutron matter waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Yuji; Sponar, Stephan; Durstberger-Rennhofer, Katharina; Badurek, Gerald; Schmitzer, Claus; Bartosik, Hannes; Klepp, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    According to Bell's theorem, no theory based on the joint assumption of realism and locality can reproduce certain predictions of quantum mechanics. Another class of realistic models, proposed by Leggett, that demands realism but abandons reliance on locality, is predicted to be in conflict with quantum mechanics. In this paper, we report on an experimental test of a contextual realistic model analogous to the model of Leggett performed with matter waves, more precisely with neutrons. Correlation measurements of the spin-energy entangled single-particle system show violation of a Leggett-type inequality by more than 7.6 standard deviations. Our experimental data falsify the contextual realistic model and are fully in favor of quantum mechanics. (paper)

  2. Lake Tahoe Ca-Nv USA to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. B.; Schladow, S. G.; Reuter, J. E.; Coats, R. N.

    2011-12-01

    Observational studies indicate that climate at Lake Tahoe (CA-NV) basin is changing at faster rate. The impact of climate change on the lake was investigated using a suite of models and bias-corrected downscaled climate dataset generated from global circulation models. Our results indicate an increase of air temperature, a shift of snow to rainfall, a decrease of wind speed, and an onset of earlier snowmelt during the 21st Century. Combined, these changes could affect lake dynamics, ecosystems, water supply, and the winter recreational sport industry. The lake may fail to mix completely by the middle of this Century due to lake warming. Under this condition bottom dissolved oxygen would not be replenished leading to the significant release of bio-stimulatory ammonium-nitrogen and soluble phosphorus from the sediment. Both these nutrients are known to cause increased algal growth in the lake and would likely result in major changes to the lake's water quality and food web. Lake warming also increases water loss through evaporation, resulting in less available water for downstream domestic supply, agriculture, and recreation. Population growth and increased human demand for water will compound severity of problems in water quantity and quality. Thus, watershed planning and management should assess vulnerability to climatic variations through the application of basin-wide hydro-climatology, watershed soils, and lake response models to (1) improve drought, flood, and forest-fire forecasting, (2) assess hydrological trends, (3) estimate the potential effects of climate change on surface runoff and pollutant loads, and (4) evaluate response from various adaptation strategies.

  3. From Boole to Leggett-Garg: Epistemology of Bell-Type Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hess

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1862, George Boole derived an inequality for variables that represents a demarcation line between possible and impossible experience. This inequality forms an important milestone in the epistemology of probability theory and probability measures. In 1985 Leggett and Garg derived a physics related inequality, mathematically identical to Boole’s, that according to them represents a demarcation between macroscopic realism and quantum mechanics. We show that a wide gulf separates the “sense impressions” and corresponding data, as well as the postulates of macroscopic realism, from the mathematical abstractions that are used to derive the inequality of Leggett and Garg. If the gulf can be bridged, one may indeed derive the said inequality, which is then clearly a demarcation between possible and impossible experience: it cannot be violated and is not violated by quantum theory. This implies that the Leggett-Garg inequality does not mean that the SQUID flux is not there when nobody looks, as Leggett and Garg suggest, but instead that the probability measures may not be what Leggett and Garg have assumed them to be, when no data can be secured that directly relate to them. We show that similar considerations apply to other quantum interpretation-puzzles such as two-slit experiments.

  4. Coupling of Higgs and Leggett modes in non-equilibrium superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, H; Bittner, N; Uhrig, G S; Manske, D; Schnyder, A P

    2016-06-21

    In equilibrium systems amplitude and phase collective modes are decoupled, as they are mutually orthogonal excitations. The direct detection of these Higgs and Leggett collective modes by linear-response measurements is not possible, because they do not couple directly to the electromagnetic field. In this work, using numerical exact simulations we show for the case of two-gap superconductors, that optical pump-probe experiments excite both Higgs and Leggett modes out of equilibrium. We find that this non-adiabatic excitation process introduces a strong interaction between the collective modes, which is absent in equilibrium. Moreover, we propose a type of pump-probe experiment, which allows to probe and coherently control the Higgs and Leggett modes, and thus the order parameter directly. These findings go beyond two-band superconductors and apply to general collective modes in quantum materials.

  5. Anomalous weak values and the violation of a multiple-measurement Leggett-Garg inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Alessio; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Borsarelli, Michelangelo; Barbieri, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Lussana, Rudi; Villa, Federica; Tosi, Alberto; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Quantum mechanics presents peculiar properties that, on the one hand, have been the subject of several theoretical and experimental studies about its very foundations and, on the other hand, provide tools for developing new technologies, the so-called quantum technologies. The nonclassicality pointed out by Leggett-Garg inequalities has represented, with Bell inequalities, one of the most investigated subjects. In this article we study the connection of Leggett-Garg inequalities with a new emerging field of quantum measurement, the weak values in the case of a series of sequential measurements on a single object. In detail, we perform an experimental study of the four-time-correlator Leggett-Garg test, by exploiting single and sequential weak measurements performed on heralded single photons.

  6. Virulence Strategies of the Dominant USA300 Lineage of Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Lance R.; Joshi, Gauri S.; Richardson, Anthony R.

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious threat to worldwide health. Historically, MRSA clones have strictly been associated with hospital settings and most hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) disease resulted from a limited number of virulent clones. Recently, MRSA has spread into the community causing disease in otherwise healthy people with no discernible contact with healthcare environments. These community-associated (CA-MRSA) are phylogenetically distinct from traditional HA-MRSA clones and CA-MRSA strains seem to exhibit hyper virulence and more efficient host:host transmission. Consequently, CA-MRSA clones belonging to the USA300 lineage have become dominant sources of MRSA infections in North America. The rise of this successful USA300 lineage represents an important step in the evolution of emerging pathogens and a great deal of effort has been exerted to understand how these clones evolved. Here we review much of the recent literature aimed at illuminating the source of USA300 success and broadly categorize these findings into three main categories: newly acquired virulence genes, altered expression of common virulence determinants and alterations in protein sequence that increase fitness. We argue that none of these evolutionary events alone account for the success of USA300, but rather their combination may be responsible for the rise and spread of CA-MRSA. PMID:22309135

  7. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  8. Leggett-Garg inequalities for a quantum top affected by classical noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dajka, Jerzy; Łobejko, Marcin; Łuczka, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    The violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality is studied for a quantum top (with angular momentum J_z of integer or half-integer size), being driven by classical Gaussian white noise. The form of a longitudinal (J_z) or a transverse (J_x) coupling of noise to the angular momentum affects both (i) to what extent the Leggett-Garg inequality is violated and (ii) how this violation is influenced by the size j of the spinning top and direction of a coupling (transverse or longitudinal). We introduce j-independent method, using two- dimensional invariant subspace of the system Hilbert space, which allows us to find out strict analytical solution for a noise-free system and with longitudinal coupling and to extract from the whole dynamics effects purely induced by a noise. It is demonstrated that in the semi-classical limit of a large angular momentum j and for the transverse coupling, the Leggett-Garg inequalities become more strongly violated as compared to the deep quantum regime of small j.

  9. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  10. Hourly mass and snow energy balance measurements from Mammoth Mountain, CA USA, 2011-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Edward H.; Davis, Robert E.; Dozier, Jeff

    2018-03-01

    The mass and energy balance of the snowpack govern its evolution. Direct measurement of these fluxes is essential for modeling the snowpack, yet there are few sites where all the relevant measurements are taken. Mammoth Mountain, CA USA, is home to the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory and University of California - Santa Barbara Energy Site (CUES), one of five energy balance monitoring sites in the western US. There is a ski patrol study site on Mammoth Mountain, called the Sesame Street Snow Study Plot, with automated snow and meteorological instruments where new snow is hand-weighed to measure its water content. There is also a site at Mammoth Pass with automated precipitation instruments. For this dataset, we present a clean and continuous hourly record of selected measurements from the three sites covering the 2011-2017 water years. Then, we model the snow mass balance at CUES and compare model runs to snow pillow measurements. The 2011-2017 period was marked by exceptional variability in precipitation, even for an area that has high year-to-year variability. The driest year on record, and one of the wettest years, occurred during this time period, making it ideal for studying climatic extremes. This dataset complements a previously published dataset from CUES containing a smaller subset of daily measurements. In addition to the hand-weighed SWE, novel measurements include hourly broadband snow albedo corrected for terrain and other measurement biases. This dataset is available with a digital object identifier: https://doi.org/10.21424/R4159Q" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.21424/R4159Q.

  11. Meeting report: 29th International Conference on Antiviral Research in La Jolla, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The 29th International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR) was held in La Jolla, CA, USA from April 17 to 21, 2016. This report opens with a tribute to the late Chris McGuigan, a Past-President of ISAR, then continues with summaries of the principal invited lectures. Doug Richman (Elion Award) investigated HIV resistance, Bob Vince (Holý Award) showed how carbocyclic nucleoside analogs led to abacavir and Jerome Deval (Prusoff Award) explained how his group chose to seek a nucleoside analog to treat RSV. ALS-8176 was active in a human RSV-challenge study and is being evaluated in children. The first keynote address, by Richard H. Scheuermann, reported on the remarkable progress made in viral genomics. The second keynote address, by Heinz Feldmann, gave an overview of Ebola virus disease. There were four mini-symposia, Structural Biology, Diagnostic Technologies, DNA viruses and Zika virus. Diagnostic assays are approaching an ideal aim, a compact instrument, simple to use with any type of sample, no sample preparation and a result within an hour. The diversity of HCMV is far greater than for other herpesviruses, typically, an individual having >20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). During antiviral treatment, there is rapid CMV evolution which is presumed to be due to preferential selection of already present variants rather than by the creation of new variants. A selection of contributor presentations includes oral prodrugs for nucleoside triphosphate analogs, a new method for the synthesis of phosphoramidate prodrugs and the clinical evaluation of brincidofovir for treating transplant recipients with adenovirus infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Violation of the quantum regression theorem and the Leggett-Garg inequality in an exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Masashi

    2017-08-01

    Violation of the quantum regression theorem and the Leggett-Garg inequality is studied by means of the exactly solvable multi-mode Jaynes-Cummings model. An exact expression of a two-time correlation function is compared with that derived by the quantum regression theorem. It is found that the quantum regression theorem is not valid even if the reduced time evolution of the qubit is Markovian. Furthermore, it is shown that if the quantum regression theorem is applied in this model, the Leggett-Garg inequality is satisfied while it is violated by the exact correlation function.

  13. A non-local hidden-variable model that violates Leggett-type inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zela, F de

    2008-01-01

    Recent experiments of Groeblacher et al proved the violation of a Leggett-type inequality that was claimed to be valid for a broad class of non-local hidden-variable theories. The impossibility of constructing a non-local and realistic theory, unless it entails highly counterintuitive features, seems thus to have been experimentally proved. This would bring us close to a definite refutation of realism. Indeed, realism was proved to be also incompatible with locality, according to a series of experiments testing Bell inequalities. The present paper addresses the said experiments of Groeblacher et al and presents an explicit, contextual and realistic, model that reproduces the predictions of quantum mechanics. It thus violates the Leggett-type inequality that was established with the aim of ruling out a supposedly broad class of non-local models. We can thus conclude that plausible contextual, realistic, models are still tenable. This restates the possibility of a future completion of quantum mechanics by a realistic and contextual theory which is not in a class containing only highly counterintuitive models. The class that was ruled out by the experiments of Groeblacher et al is thus proved to be a limited one, arbitrarily separating models that physically belong in the same class

  14. Elevation dependent sensitivity of northern hardwoods to Ca addition at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Palaniswamy Thangavel; Subhash C. Minocha; Christopher Eagar; Charles T. Driscoll

    2010-01-01

    Acidic deposition has caused a depletion of calcium (Ca) in the northeastern forest soils. Wollastonite (Ca silicate) was added to watershed 1 (WS1) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) in 1999 to evaluate its effects on various functions of the HBEF ecosystem. The effects of Ca addition on foliar soluble (extractable in 5% HClO4) ions...

  15. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Carsella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The environmental levels of selenium (Se are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries—Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek—located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA. There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca2+, Mg2+, SeO42−, SeO32− and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO4. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg2+ the Ca2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg2+ is thus to raise the Ca2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca2+ levels.

  16. Selenium Speciation in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA) Correlates with Water Hardness, Ca and Mg Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsella, James S; Sánchez-Lombardo, Irma; Bonetti, Sandra J; Crans, Debbie C

    2017-04-30

    The environmental levels of selenium (Se) are regulated and strictly enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) because of the toxicity that Se can exert at high levels. However, speciation plays an important role in the overall toxicity of Se, and only when speciation analysis has been conducted will a detailed understanding of the system be possible. In the following, we carried out the speciation analysis of the creek waters in three of the main tributaries-Upper Fountain Creek, Monument Creek and Lower Fountain Creek-located in the Fountain Creek Watershed (Colorado, USA). There are statistically significant differences between the Se, Ca and Mg, levels in each of the tributaries and seasonal swings in Se, Ca and Mg levels have been observed. There are also statistically significant differences between the Se levels when grouped by Pierre Shale type. These factors are considered when determining the forms of Se present and analyzing their chemistry using the reported thermodynamic relationships considering Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , SeO₄ 2- , SeO₃ 2- and carbonates. This analysis demonstrated that the correlation between Se and water hardness can be explained in terms of formation of soluble CaSeO₄. The speciation analysis demonstrated that for the Fountain Creek waters, the Ca 2+ ion may be mainly responsible for the observed correlation with the Se level. Considering that the Mg 2+ level is also correlating linearly with the Se levels it is important to recognize that without Mg 2+ the Ca 2+ would be significantly reduced. The major role of Mg 2+ is thus to raise the Ca 2+ levels despite the equilibria with carbonate and other anions that would otherwise decrease Ca 2+ levels.

  17. 76 FR 59167 - Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems Division, Concord, CA; Siemens Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ..., Inc., Global Services/Supply Chain Management Including Employees Working Off-Site Throughout the... location of Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Global Services/Supply Chain Management. These employees...., Global Services/Supply Chain Management, including employees working at off-site locations throughout the...

  18. Testing violation of the Leggett-Garg-type inequality in neutrino oscillations of the Daya Bay experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Lanzhou (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Chen, Xurong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-11-15

    The Leggett-Garg inequality (LGI), derived under the assumption of realism, acts as the temporal Bell inequality. It is studied in electromagnetic and strong interaction like photonics, superconducting qubits and nuclear spin. The weak interaction two-state oscillations of neutrinos affirmed the violation of Leggett-Garg-type inequalities (LGtI). We make an empirical test for the deviation of experimental results with the classical limits by analyzing the survival probability data of reactor neutrinos at a distinct range of baseline dividing energies, as an analog to a single neutrino detected at different times. A study of the updated data of the Daya Bay experiment unambiguously depicts an obvious cluster of data over the classical bound of LGtI and shows a 6.1σ significance of the violation of them. (orig.)

  19. High-intensity geomagnetic field 'spike' observed at ca. 3000 cal BP in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Mark D.; Feinberg, Joshua M.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Waters, Michael R.; Lundelius, Ernest; Forman, Steven L.

    2016-05-01

    By observing the fluctuations in direction and intensity of the Earth's magnetic field through time, we increase our understanding of the fluid motions of the Earth's outer core that sustain the geomagnetic field, the geodynamo. Recent archaeomagnetic studies in the Near East have found extremely rapid increases - 'spikes' - in geomagnetic field intensity at ca. 3000 yr cal BP. These observations have proved problematic for our current understanding of core-flow. However, until now, these geomagnetic spikes had not been observed outside of the Near East, where they have been preserved in metallurgical slag and fired, mud brick walls. We present a new, fully oriented, geomagnetic secular variation and relative palaeointensity (RPI) record for the last 17,000 yr from Hall's Cave, Texas, whose complete, >3.8 m thick sedimentary sequence spans from the present to 16 , 850 ± 110 RC yr BP (Modern to 20,600 cal BP). Within the stable, cool climate of the cave, pedogenic and bioturbation processes are negligible to non-existent, thereby limiting post-depositional physical and geochemical alteration of the magnetic record. The sub-aerial and subterranean setting of the sedimentary sequence in Hall's Cave enabled us to collect oriented palaeomagnetic cubes from a previously excavated stratigraphic section. The palaeomagnetic samples yielded high-quality vectors. An age model for the sequence, determined using 15 AMS 14C-dates on individual bones from microvertebrates, was combined with the palaeomagnetic data to construct a secular variation record. The record is in broad agreement with predictions by Holocene field models for the site's location. However, starting ca. 3000 yr ago, the RPI data indicate an almost four-fold increase in geomagnetic field intensity lasting several hundred years. This record presents well-dated evidence, obtained using conventional techniques, for the existence of a geomagnetic intensity spike in North America that is contemporaneous with the

  20. Ca, Sr, O and D isotope approach to defining the chemical evolution of hydrothermal fluids: example from Long Valley, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaun T.; Kennedy, B. Mack; DePaolo, Donald J.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Evans, William C.

    2013-01-01

    We present chemical and isotopic data for fluids, minerals and rocks from the Long Valley meteoric-hydrothermal system. The samples encompass the presumed hydrothermal upwelling zone in the west moat of the caldera, the Casa Diablo geothermal field, and a series of wells defining a nearly linear, ∼16 km long, west-to-east trend along the likely fluid flow path. Fluid samples were analyzed for the isotopes of water, Sr, and Ca, the concentrations of major cations and anions, alkalinity, and total CO2. Water isotope data conform to trends documented in earlier studies, interpreted as indicating a single hydrothermal fluid mixing with local groundwater. Sr isotopes show subtle changes along the flow path, which requires rapid fluid flow and minimal reaction between the channelized fluids and the wallrocks. Sr and O isotopes are used to calculate fracture spacing using a dual porosity model. Calculated fracture spacing and temperature data for hydrothermal fluids indicate the system is (approximately) at steady-state. Correlated variations among total CO2, and the concentration and isotopic composition of Ca suggest progressive fluid degassing (loss of CO2), which drives calcite precipitation as the fluid flows west-to-east and cools. The shifts in Ca isotopes require that calcite precipitated at temperatures of 150–180 °C is fractionated by ca. −0.3‰ to −0.5‰ relative to aqueous species. Our data are the first evidence that Ca isotopes undergo kinetic fractionation at high temperatures (>100 °C) and can be used to trace calcite precipitation along hydrothermal fluid flow paths.

  1. An empirical comparison of substance and alcohol dependence patterns in the homeless in Madrid (Spain) and Los Angeles (CA, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Koegel, Paul; Vázquez, Carmelo; Sanz, Jesús; Burnam, Audrey

    2002-06-01

    Alcohol and drug use continue to figure heavily in the experience of the contemporary homeless population. The comparison among pattern of use plays a central role in the cross-cultural view of this topic. This article shows the results of comparing the data concerning alcohol and other drug abuse and dependence among the homeless population of Madrid (Spain) and Los Angeles (USA). Data come from two studies carried out independently in each city. Both studies used a comparable methodology which included the same inclusion and diagnostics criteria, representative sampling methods and similar diagnostic structured interviews. In the present study, the data from these two studies are combined in a unique database which allows global and item-to-item comparison between the two studies. The results show different sociodemographic profiles for each city. Once controlled for the sociodemographic differences (age, education, current employment status and marital status), the life and 12-month prevalence rates of alcohol and other drug disorders (DSM-III-R) are also different. There are also significant differences in social, emotional and health problems associated with the consumption of alcohol and other drugs. The Madrid and LA samples also present differences in the time patterns of the beginning of the homelessness situation and the onset of alcohol- and drug-related disorders. The pattern of results is discussed in the light of the differences in both socioeconomic and cultural among Madrid and Los Angeles which might explain, in turn, differences in the homelessness situation as well as in the alcohol and other drug use patterns.

  2. Nestolaite, CaSeO.sub.3./sub.•H.sub.2./sub.O, a new mineral from the Little Eva mine, Grand County, Utah, USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasatkin, A.V.; Plášil, Jakub; Marty, J.; Agakhanov, A.A.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Lykova, I.S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 3 (2014), s. 497-505 ISSN 0026-461X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-31276P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nestolaite * new mineral * chemistry * Raman spectroscopy * powder X-ray diffraction * Little Eva mine * Utah * USA * crystal structure Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.026, year: 2014

  3. The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): a comparison of intakes based on urine versus autopsy data from Mayak workers using the Leggett systemic model for plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birchall, A.; Dorrian, M.-D.; Suslova, K. G.; Sokolova, A. B.

    2017-01-01

    The Mayak Worker Dosimetry System-2013 (MWDS-2013) uses a model developed by Leggett and colleagues to represent the biokinetic behaviour of plutonium after uptake to blood. Of particular importance, with regard to estimating intakes (and doses), is the distribution of activity between urine and body organs (particularly liver and skeleton). In this study, measurement data (urine and autopsy) from around 500 Mayak workers have been used to validate use of this model. A robust method has been developed and used to estimate intakes from both urine and autopsy data separately, and the ratio of these estimates has been calculated for each worker. The geometric mean ratio has been shown to lie within a range of 0.92-1.14, depending on assumptions made. Since this range includes 1, the hypothesis that the model is unbiased with regard to estimating intakes either with urine or autopsy data cannot be rejected on the basis of these data. This lends weight to the argument for increasing the MWDS-2013 cohort to include an additional 500 workers for whom only autopsy data are available, and who have previously been excluded from the cohort. Future directions in which this work could be extended are also suggested. (authors)

  4. PREFACE: Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé (San Diego, CA, USA, February 27-March 3 2011) Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé (San Diego, CA, USA, February 27-March 3 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebensohn, Ricardo A.

    2012-03-01

    This special issue contains selected contributions from invited speakers to the 'Polycrystal Modelling with Experimental Integration: A Symposium Honoring Carlos Tomé', held as part of the 2011 TMS Annual Meeting and Exhibition, that took place on February 27-March 3, 2011 in San Diego, CA, USA. This symposium honored the remarkable contributions of Dr Carlos N Tomé to the field of mechanical behavior of polycrystalline materials, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. Throughout his career, Dr Tomé has pioneered the theoretical and numerical development of models of polycrystal mechanical behavior, with emphasis on the role played by texture and microstructure on the anisotropic behavior of engineering materials. His many contributions have been critical in establishing a strong connection between models and experiments, and in bridging different scales in the pursuit of robust multiscale models with experimental integration. Among his achievements, the numerical codes that Dr Tomé and co-workers have developed are extensively used in the materials science and engineering community as predictive tools for parameter identification, interpretation of experiments, and multiscale calculations in academia, national laboratories and industry. The symposium brought together materials scientists and engineers to address current theoretical, computational and experimental issues related to microstructure-property relationships in polycrystalline materials deforming in different regimes, including the effects of single crystal anisotropy, texture and microstructure evolution. Synergetic studies, involving different crystal plasticity-based models, including multiscale implementations of the latter, and measurements of global and local textures, internal strains, dislocation structures, twinning, phase distribution, etc, were discussed in more than 90 presentations. The papers in this issue are representative of the different length-scales, materials, and experimental and

  5. Increases in the climate change adaption effectiveness and availability of vegetation across a coastal to desert climate gradient in metropolitan Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyebi, Amin; Darrel Jenerette, G

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization has increased heat in the urban environment, with many consequences for human health and well-being. Managing climate change in part through increasing vegetation is desired by many cities to mitigate current and future heat related issues. However, little information is available on what influences the current effectiveness and availability of vegetation for local cooling. In this study, we identified the variation in the interacting relationships among vegetation (normalized difference vegetation index), socioeconomic status (neighborhood income), elevation and land surface temperature (LST) to identify how vegetation based surface cooling services change throughout the pronounced coastal to desert climate gradient of the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan region, a megacity of >18 million residents. A key challenge for understanding variation in vegetation as a climate change adaptation tool spanning neighborhood to megacity scales is developing new "big data" analytical tools. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantify the interacting relationships among socio-economic status data obtained from government census data, elevation and new LST and vegetation data obtained from an airborne imaging campaign conducted in 2013 for the urban and suburban areas across a series of fifteen climate zones. Vegetation systematically increased in cooling effectiveness from 6.06 to 31.77 degrees with increasing distance from the coast. Vegetation and neighborhood income were positively correlated throughout all climate zones with a peak in the relationship occurring near 25km from the coast. Because of the interaction between these two relationships, we also found that higher income neighborhoods were cooler and that this effect peaked at about 30km from the coast. These results show the availability and effectiveness of vegetation on the local climate varies tremendously throughout the Los Angeles, CA metropolitan area. Further, using the more inland climate

  6. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and structure-from-motion photogrammetry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, A.; Hilley, G. E.; Lewicki, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the structure-from-motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 °C and 450 W m- 2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  7. Integrated thermal infrared imaging and Structure-from-Motion photogrametry to map apparent temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux at Mammoth Mountain, CA USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Aaron; George Hilley,; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a method to create high-resolution (cm-scale) orthorectified and georeferenced maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux and estimate the radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from a study area. A ground-based thermal infrared (TIR) camera was used to collect (1) a set of overlapping and offset visible imagery around the study area during the daytime and (2) time series of co-located visible and TIR imagery at one or more sites within the study area from pre-dawn to daytime. Daytime visible imagery was processed using the Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric method to create a digital elevation model onto which pre-dawn TIR imagery was orthorectified and georeferenced. Three-dimensional maps of apparent surface temperature and radiant hydrothermal heat flux were then visualized and analyzed from various computer platforms (e.g., Google Earth, ArcGIS). We demonstrate this method at the Mammoth Mountain fumarole area on Mammoth Mountain, CA. Time-averaged apparent surface temperatures and radiant hydrothermal heat fluxes were observed up to 73.7 oC and 450 W m-2, respectively, while the estimated radiant hydrothermal heat emission rate from the area was 1.54 kW. Results should provide a basis for monitoring potential volcanic unrest and mitigating hydrothermal heat-related hazards on the volcano.

  8. Longitudinal heterogeneity of flow and heat fluxes in a large lowland river: A study of the San Joaquin River, CA, USA during a large-scale flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, E. N.; Dunne, T.; Dozier, J.

    2011-12-01

    Systematic downstream variation of channel characteristics, scaled by flow affects the transport and distribution of heat throughout a large river. As water moves through a river channel, streamflow and velocity may fluctuate by orders of magnitude primarily due to channel geometry, slope and resistance to flow, and the time scales of those fluctuations range from days to decades (Constantz et al., 1994; Lundquist and Cayan, 2002; McKerchar and Henderson, 2003). It is well understood that the heat budget of a river is primarily governed by surface exchanges, with the most significant surface flux coming from net shortwave radiation. The absorption of radiation at a given point in a river is determined by the wavelength-dependent index of refraction, expressed by the angle of refraction and the optical depth as a function of physical depth and the absorption coefficient (Dozier, 1980). Few studies consider the influence of hydrologic alteration to the optical properties governing net radiative heat transfer in a large lowland river, yet it is the most significant component of the heat budget and definitive to a river's thermal regime. We seek a physically based model without calibration to incorporate scale-dependent physical processes governing heat and flow dynamics in large rivers, how they change across the longitudinal profile, and how they change under different flow regimes. Longitudinal flow and heat flux analyses require synoptic flow time series from multiple sites along rivers, and few hydrometric networks meet this requirement (Larned et al, 2011). We model the energy budget in a regulated 240-km mainstem reach of the San Joaquin River California, USA equipped with multiple gaging stations from Friant Dam to its confluence with the Merced River during a large-scale flow experiment. We use detailed hydroclimatic observations distributed across the longitudinal gradient creating a non-replicable field experiment of heat fluxes across a range of flow regime

  9. Towards standard protocols and guidelines for urine proteomics: a report on the Human Kidney and Urine Proteome Project (HKUPP) symposium and workshop, 6 October 2007, Seoul, Korea and 1 November 2007, San Francisco, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tadashi; Langham, Robyn G; Ronco, Pierre; Knepper, Mark A; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2008-06-01

    The Human Kidney and Urine Proteome Project (HKUPP) was initiated in 2005 to promote proteomics research in the nephrology field, to better understand kidney functions as well as pathogenic mechanisms of kidney diseases, and to define novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This project was first approved in 2005 by the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) as a Kidney Disease Initiative under an umbrella of the HUPO Disease Biomarker Initiative (DBI), and more recently was approved as the HKUPP Initiative in 2007. Several sub-projects have been planned to achieve the ultimate goals. The most pressing is the establishment of "standard protocols and guidelines for urine proteome analysis". This sub-project had been extensively discussed during the first HKUPP symposium (during 6(th) HUPO Annual World Congress--October 2007, Seoul, Korea) and second workshop (during 40(th) American Society of Nephrology Renal Week--November 2007, San Francisco, CA, USA). Additional data and references have been collected after the symposium and workshop. An initial draft of standard protocols and guidelines for proteome analysis of non-proteinuric urine (urine protein excretion 150 mg/day) will soon be released as the first HKUPP product.

  10. FLOODPLAIN, CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  11. Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water Temperature and Attainment of Water Temperature Criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 169:136-146.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains the research described in the following publication: Brown, C.A., D. Sharp, and T. Mochon Collura. 2016. Effect of Climate Change on Water...

  12. Soil bacterial communities of a calcium-supplemented and a reference watershed at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathi Sridevi; Rakesh Minocha; Swathi A. Turlapati; Katherine C. Goldfarb; Eoin L. Brodie; Louis S. Tisa; Subhash C. Minocha

    2012-01-01

    Soil Ca depletion because of acidic deposition-related soil chemistry changes has led to the decline of forest productivity and carbon sequestration in the northeastern USA. In 1999, acidic watershed (WS) 1 at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, USA was amended with Ca silicate to restore soil Ca pools. In 2006, soil samples were collected from the Ca-...

  13. IBC's 21st Annual Antibody Engineering and 8th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and 2010 Annual Meeting of the Antibody Society. December 5-9, 2010, San Diego, CA USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Samantha O; Teillaud, Jean-Luc; Wurch, Theirry; Reichert, Janice M; Dunlop, Cameron; Huber, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The 21st Annual Antibody Engineering and 8th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2010 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 5-9, 2010 in San Diego, CA. The conferences were organized with a focus on antibody engineering only on the first day and a joint engineering/therapeutics session on the last day. Delegates could select from presentations that occurred in two simultaneous sessions on days 2 and 3. Day 1 included presentations on neutralizing antibodies and the identification of vaccine targets, as well as a historical overview of 20 years of phage display utilization. Topics presented in the Antibody Engineering sessions on day 2 and 3 included antibody biosynthesis, structure and stability; antibodies in a complex environment; antibody half-life; and targeted nanoparticle therapeutics. In the Antibody Therapeutics sessions on days 2 and 3, preclinical and early stage development and clinical updates of antibody therapeutics, including TRX518, SYM004, MM111, PRO140, CVX-241, ASG-5ME, U3-1287 (AMG888), R1507 and trastuzumab emtansine, were discussed, and perspectives were provided on the development of biosimilar and biobetter antibodies, including coverage of regulatory and intellectual property issues. The joint engineering/therapeutics session on the last day focused on bispecific and next-generation antibodies.

  14. A Full Vector Study of a Terrestrial Geomagnetic Record of the Porcupine Excursion (ca. 2737 ka) Recovered From a Long Volcanic Sequence at Makapuu Point, Koolau Volcano, Hawaii, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Bervera, E.; Jicha, B.

    2017-12-01

    , suggesting that the excursion corresponds to the Porcupine excursion (ca. 2737 ka) reported by Channell et al., (2016). This is the first terrestrial record of the Porcupine excursion and the age is 2-3% younger than in the reported timescale. The obtained VGPs are located over the northeastern part of Asia, close to the artic Circle and as far south as the East China Sea.

  15. Off-shore to near-shore transects of ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin Tracey A. Conrad1, James R. Hein2, Adina Paytan1 1University of California Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (tconrad@ucsc.edu) 2USGS, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA (jhein@usgs.gov)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts growing on seamounts along the California Margin (CM) are influenced by terrestrial and biogenic input. These continental margin crusts have higher concentrations of Si, K, Fe, Na, Ag, Cr, B, and Ba than Fe-Mn crusts from the global open-ocean. Al is also higher but only relative to Pacific open-ocean crusts. These relative enrichments may reflect the high primary productivity near the CM caused by seasonal upwelling and high sediment transport to the region from river/eolian input and cliff erosion. Two transects with samples from five seamounts each are used to compare seaward changes. Transect A includes analyses of 66 bulk samples from Flint, Ben, and Little Joe seamounts, Patton Escarpment, and Northeast Bank. It spans ~400 km of seafloor heading ~58N and coming within ~220 km of the shoreline with samples collected at water depths ranging from 570-2925 m. Transect B includes analyses of 136 bulk samples from Adam, Hoss, San Marcos, San Juan, and Rodriguez seamounts at water depths ranging from 692-3880 m. This transect spans ~240 km heading ~10N and comes within ~75 km of the shoreline near the base of the continental slope. For both transects, mean water depth increases with mean longitude, and latitude is fairly constant varying by approximately 2 degree latitude for transect A and 1degree for B. Both transects show statistically significant trends at the 99% confidence level for element concentrations versus water depth. Concentrations of Fe, Ca, P, Co, and Pb increase as water depth decreases. For transect (A), Mn and Mg also follow this trend, as do Mo and Al for transect (B); Mn also shows this trend for transect (B) but at the 95% confidence level. For both transects, Cu and Zn show the opposite trend, with concentrations increasing in crusts with increasing water depth. For Transect (B), Ni and Al also show this trend. Si and K show no statistically significant trends for either transect. In open-ocean samples

  16. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig historie...

  17. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  18. BYRON TRACT HYDROLOGY, CONTRA COSTA COUNTY, CA USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for the flood insurance...

  19. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  20. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  1. Impact of seawater [Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G.J.; de Nooijer, L.J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  2. CA-125 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovarian cancer - CA-125 test ... CA-125 is a protein that is found more in ovarian cancer cells than in other cells. This ... ovarian cancer . The test is useful if the CA-125 level was high when the cancer was first ...

  3. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  4. crdi.ca

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    et des enfants d'Afrique. INITIATIVE CONCERTÉE. Innovation pour la santé des mères et des enfants d'Afrique. Centre de recherches pour le développement international. CP Box 8500 Ottawa ON Canada K1G 3H9. Téléphone : +1 613 236 6163 • Télécopieur : +1 613 657 7749 ismea@crdi.ca | www.crdi.ca/ismea crdi.ca.

  5. INTRACELLULAR Ca2+ HOMEOSTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahdevi Nandar Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ signaling functions to regulate many cellular processes. Dynamics of Ca2+ signaling or homeostasis is regulated by the interaction between ON and OFF reactions that control Ca2+ flux in both the plasma membrane and internal organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and mitochondria. External stimuli activate the ON reactions, which include Ca2+ into the cytoplasm either through channels in the plasma membrane or from internal storage like in ER. Most of the cells utilize both channels/sources, butthere area few cells using an external or internal source to control certain processes. Most of the Ca2+ entering the cytoplasm adsorbed to the buffer, while a smaller part activate effect or to stimulate cellular processes. Reaction OFF is pumping of cytoplasmic Ca2+ using a combination mechanism of mitochondrial and others. Changes in Ca2+ signal has been detected in various tissues isolated from animals induced into diabetes as well as patients with diabetes. Ca2+ signal interference is also found in sensory neurons of experimental animals with diabetes. Ca2+ signaling is one of the main signaling systems in the cell.

  6. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  7. An Outbreak of Community Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Subtype USA300 at an International School in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Dixon; Koh, Tse Hsien; Tan, Yen Ee; Hsu, Li Yang; Kurup, Asok; Donahue, Shelly K; Mann, Janelle; Fisher, Dale

    2013-11-01

    Community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) subtype USA300 remains relatively well confined within North American shores. Between August and November 2010, a large international school in Singapore recorded 27 skin and soft tissue infections, 8 of which were confirmed USA 300. This study reports the outbreak investigation and the interventions instituted.

  8. PIK3CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Nina; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Aguirre, Andrew J; Kory, Nora; Pacold, Michael E; Singh, Shambhavi; Moody, Susan E; DeAngelo, Joseph D; Spardy, Nicole A; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Weir, Barbara A; Tsherniak, Aviad; Cowley, Glenn S; Root, David E; Asara, John M; Vazquez, Francisca; Widlund, Hans R; Sabatini, David M; Hahn, William C

    2017-04-25

    Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations are found in a significant fraction of human cancers, but therapeutic inhibition of PI3K has only shown limited success in clinical trials. To understand how mutant PIK3CA contributes to cancer cell proliferation, we used genome scale loss-of-function screening in a large number of genomically annotated cancer cell lines. As expected, we found that PIK3CA mutant cancer cells require PIK3CA but also require the expression of the TCA cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH). To understand the relationship between oncogenic PIK3CA and OGDH function, we interrogated metabolic requirements and found an increased reliance on glucose metabolism to sustain PIK3CA mutant cell proliferation. Functional metabolic studies revealed that OGDH suppression increased levels of the metabolite 2-oxoglutarate (2OG). We found that this increase in 2OG levels, either by OGDH suppression or exogenous 2OG treatment, resulted in aspartate depletion that was specifically manifested as auxotrophy within PIK3CA mutant cells. Reduced levels of aspartate deregulated the malate-aspartate shuttle, which is important for cytoplasmic NAD + regeneration that sustains rapid glucose breakdown through glycolysis. Consequently, because PIK3CA mutant cells exhibit a profound reliance on glucose metabolism, malate-aspartate shuttle deregulation leads to a specific proliferative block due to the inability to maintain NAD + /NADH homeostasis. Together these observations define a precise metabolic vulnerability imposed by a recurrently mutated oncogene.

  9. Recent developments: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a National Energy Stategy (NES) for the USA is discussed. On July 26, 1989 President Bush directed of the Secretary of Energy to submit to the President a NES based on the following guidelines: to develop a NES through the year 2030 that could be implemented as son as possible, rather than waiting until the next energy crisis; to formulate the program so that it will create public consensus; build upon market reliance, rather than coercion; and to take a can do approach, capitalizing on US scientific knowledge and common abuse

  10. CAED Document Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compliance Assurance and Enforcement Division Document Repository (CAEDDOCRESP) provides internal and external access of Inspection Records, Enforcement Actions, and National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) documents to all CAED staff. The respository will also include supporting documents, images, etc.

  11. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  12. Severe invasive methicillin-resistant S. aureus (USA300 clone infection in an Italian adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Valentini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This report describes an uncommon presentation of invasive community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA infection in an immunocompetent adolescent without any other risk factor, characterized by septicaemia, meningitis, necrotising pneumonia and deep venous thrombosis (DVT. Successful treatment was performed with linezolid, rifampicin and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH. MRSA molecular typing revealed the presence of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL gene, and a genetic background identical to USA300 clone, an emerging aggressive CA-MRSA strain in USA and Europe.

  13. Ca isotopes in refractory inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederer, F.R.; Papanastassiou, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    We report measurements of the absolute isotope abundance of Ca in Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende and Leoville meteorites. Improved high precision measurements are reported also for 46 Ca. We find that nonlinear isotope effects in Ca are extremely rare in these inclusions. The absence of nonlinear effects in Ca, except for the effects in FUN inclusions, is in sharp contrast to the endemic effects in Ti. One fine-grained inclusion shows an excess of 46 Ca of (7 +- 1) per mille, which is consistent with addition of only 46 Ca or of an exotic (*) component with 46 Ca* approx. 48 Ca*. FUN inclusion EK-1-4-1 shows a small 46 Ca excess of (3.3 +- 1.0) per mille; this confirms that the exotic Ca components in EK-1-4-1 were even more deficient in 46 Ca relative to 48 Ca than is the case for normal Ca. The Ca in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions shows mass dependent isotope fractionation effects which have a range from -3.8 to +6.7 per mille per mass unit difference. This range is a factor of 20 wider than the range previously established for bulk meteorites and for terrestrial and lunar samples. Ca and Mg isotope fractionation effects in the Ca-Al-rich inclusions are common and attributed to kinetic isotope effects. (author)

  14. USA diplomaadid taotlesid Moskva korralekutsumist / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2010-01-01

    Wikileaksi vahendusel avalikustatud USA saatkondade raporteist ilmneb, et USA diplomaadid tegutsesid pärast 2007. aasta pronksiööd Eesti toetuseks. Ajalehe Komsomolskaja Pravda veebilehelt on võimalik alla laadida USA saatkondade ettekandeid

  15. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  16. Biomarker CA125

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kargo, Anette Stolberg

    be detected months before symptoms arise and recurrence is visible on imaging. Therefore, biochemical detection of potential relapse by CA125 assessment can cause significant distress. A decision aid (DA) is a tool that provides information and describes advantages and disadvantages of a specific intervention...... patient organisations and cancer societies. First, a focus group of seven former OC patients was performed followed by a quantitative rating of the DA pilot version. The DA was adapted accordingly and then tested in 14 OC patients with recurrence using a structured interview guide (alpha testing). A final...... agreed that the DA prepared them to make a better decision and helped them reflecting on their concerns regarding CA125. Conclusion: The DA was useful in decision making regarding monitoring CA125 during follow up after OC. The majority of participants indicated that the DA was helpful in clarifying...

  17. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  18. Future USA development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, J.D.; Biancheria, A.; Leibnitz, D.; O'Reilly, B.D.; Liu, Y.Y.; Labar, M.P.; Gneiting, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    The planning for further development in the USA at this time is a mixture of expectation and guessing. Modeling development is certain to continue, but the target reactor is uncertain. The next plant may or may not use the FFTR driver fuel design. The planning, therefore, emphasizes fundamentals and flexibility. There are many options to be modeled. The FFTF driver fuel performance in FFTF must be evaluated; both the reference and improved designs. A decision to use the FFTR driver design in the large plant will demand predictions on the effects of axial blankets, constant power (rather than decreasing) throughout life, and power changes, behavior beyond breach and design basis transients in large plants. A decision favoring a lower doubling time oxide design adds the effects of higher strength/lower swelling alloys, increased pin diameter, reduced cladding thickness/diameter, increased smeared density, gap versus pellet density, and reduced pin pitch/diameter. A helium bonded carbide design adds concern about increased potential for fuel-cladding-assembly mechanical interactions. And blanket pin performance predictions, either in a homogeneous or a heterogeneous core, add an increasing power history and enhanced assembly interactions. It is possible that the decision will be to choose a first core and retain all options for later cores. The modeling objective, for whatever options are chosen, is to predict the effect of normal and off-normal design conditions on performance limits (i.e., fuel temperature, pin deformation, pin lifetime). Several significant uncertainties in the mechanisms associated with the performance limits remain and will be addressed. These include gap closure, gap conductance and fuel properties at higher burnup, fuel-fission product reactions, retained gas, breach mechanisms, assembly interactions and behavior beyond breach, plus establishing appropriate criteria. The LIFE system, with its elements of 1D and 2D fundamental modeling

  19. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  20. USA-s valmib Eesti reisisaadete sari / Maris Meiessaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Meiessaar, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Eesti juurtega ameerika filmimees James Tusty oma dokfilmi "Laulev revolutsioon" sünnist ja retseptsioonist. Praegu valmistub ta koos Allfilmiga Euroopa telekanalite jaoks tegema filmi sellesuvisest laulupeost ning USA televisiooni jaoks 13-osalist sarja "Estonia"

  1. Topological organization of CA3-to-CA1 excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Yoshie; Ogawa, Koichi; Takahara, Yuji; Takasu, Keiko; Royer, Sebastien; Hasegawa, Minoru; Sakaguchi, Gaku; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The CA1-projecting axons of CA3 pyramidal cells, called Schaffer collaterals, constitute one of the major information flow routes in the hippocampal formation. Recent anatomical studies have revealed the non-random structural connectivity between CA3 and CA1, but little is known regarding the functional connectivity (i.e. how CA3 network activity is functionally transmitted downstream to the CA1 network). Using functional multi-neuron calcium imaging of rat hippocampal slices, we monitored the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous CA3 and CA1 burst activity under pharmacological GABAergic blockade. We found that spatially clustered CA3 activity patterns were transformed into layered CA1 activity sequences. Specifically, synchronized bursts initiated from multiple hot spots in CA3 ensembles, and CA1 neurons located deeper in the pyramidal cell layer were recruited during earlier phases of the burst events. The order of these sequential activations was maintained across the bursts, but the sequence velocity varied depending on the inter-burst intervals. Thus, CA3 axons innervate CA1 neurons in a highly topographical fashion. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nordkorea kan endelig ramme USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads.......Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads....

  3. Kohtusid Eesti ja USA presidendid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    25. juunil 2007 kohtusid Washingtonis Valges Majas USA president George W. Bush ja Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves. Kõne all oli viisavabadus, arengud Afganistanis ja Iraagis, NATO küberkaitsekeskuse loomine Tallinna. T.H. Ilves kohtus ka USA Kongressi Esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi, kaitseminister Robert Gates'i ja parlamendiliikmetega. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  4. Campaign finance in den USA

    OpenAIRE

    Filzmaier, Peter; Plasser, Fritz

    2002-01-01

    'Die USA stellen einen exemplarischen Fall für exponentiell steigende Wahlkampfausgaben, fragwürdige Finanzierungspraktiken und ein de facto kollabiertes Regelungssystem dar. Anhand der aktuellen Diskussion um die Wahlkampffinanzierung werden drei Problemperspektiven angesprochen: Erstens geht es um die Erforschung der Ursachen des steigenden Kapitalbedarfs kompetitiver Wahlkämpfe in den USA als Musterbeispiel einer Teledemokratie. Aus demokratietheoretischer Sicht zu diskutieren sind zweiten...

  5. 77 FR 18848 - Accreditation and Approval of Intertek USA, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... Intertek USA, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... commercial gauger and laboratory. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to 19 CFR 151.12 and 19 CFR 151.13, Intertek Caleb Brett, 6050 Egret Court, Benicia, CA 94510, has been approved to gauge and...

  6. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  7. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  8. Ca2+ current versus Ca2+ channel cooperativity of exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Victor; Bertram, Richard; Sherman, Arthur

    2009-09-30

    Recently there has been significant interest and progress in the study of spatiotemporal dynamics of Ca(2+) that triggers exocytosis at a fast chemical synapse, which requires understanding the contribution of individual calcium channels to the release of a single vesicle. Experimental protocols provide insight into this question by probing the sensitivity of exocytosis to Ca(2+) influx. While varying extracellular or intracellular Ca(2+) concentration assesses the intrinsic biochemical Ca(2+) cooperativity of neurotransmitter release, varying the number of open Ca(2+) channels using pharmacological channel block or the tail current titration probes the cooperativity between individual Ca(2+) channels in triggering exocytosis. Despite the wide use of these Ca(2+) sensitivity measurements, their interpretation often relies on heuristic arguments. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the Ca(2+) sensitivity measures probed by these experimental protocols, present simple expressions for special cases, and demonstrate the distinction between the Ca(2+) current cooperativity, defined by the relationship between exocytosis rate and the whole-terminal Ca(2+) current magnitude, and the underlying Ca(2+) channel cooperativity, defined as the average number of channels involved in the release of a single vesicle. We find simple algebraic expressions that show that the two are different but linearly related. Further, we use three-dimensional computational modeling of buffered Ca(2+) diffusion to analyze these distinct Ca(2+) cooperativity measures, and demonstrate the role of endogenous Ca(2+) buffers on such measures. We show that buffers can either increase or decrease the Ca(2+) current cooperativity of exocytosis, depending on their concentration and the single-channel Ca(2+) current.

  9. Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), USA300 Sequence Type 8 Lineage in Latin-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jinnethe; Rincón, Sandra; Díaz, Lorena; Panesso, Diana; Contreras, Germán A.; Zurita, Jeannete; Carrillo, Carlos; Rizzi, Adele; Guzmán, Manuel; Adachi, Javier; Chowdhury, Shahreen; Murray, Barbara E.; Arias, Cesar A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial and community-associated (CA) pathogen. Recently, a variant of the MRSA USA300 clone emerged and disseminated in South-America causing important clinical problems. Methods S. aureus isolates were prospectively collected (2006 to 2008) from 32 tertiary hospitals in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. MRSA isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and categorized as healthcare-associated (HA)-like or CA-like clones based on genotypic characteristics and detection of genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) and staphylococcal cassette mec (SCCmec) IV. Additionally, MLST of representative isolates of each major CA-MRSA pulsotype, and detection of USA300-associated toxins and the arcA gene were performed in all isolates categorized as CA-MRSA. Results A total of 1570 S. aureus were included; 651 were MRSA (41%), with the highest rates of MRSA isolation in Peru (62%), and lowest in Venezuela (26%) and 71%, 27%, and 2% were classified as HA-like, CA-like, and non-CA/HA-like clones, respectively. Only 9 MRSA isolates were confirmed to have reduced susceptibility to glycopeptides (GISA phenotype). The most common pulsotype (designated ComA) amongst the CA-like MRSA strains was found in 96% of isolates with the majority (81%) having ≤6 bands difference with the USA300-0114 strain. Representative isolates of this clone were ST8 but, unlike the USA300-0114 strain, they harbored a different SCCmec IV subtype and lacked arcA (an indicator of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME)). Conclusion A variant CA-MRSA USA300 clone has now become established in South America and, in some countries, is endemic in hospital settings. PMID:19911971

  10. CA 125 in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, M. E.; Lammes, F. B.; Verweij, J.

    1992-01-01

    The serum tumour marker CA 125 is useful in the management of ovarian cancer, although it has its limitations. Approximately 85% of the ovarian cancer patients have an increased serum CA 125 at the start of treatment. There is a good correlation between the course of CA 125 and the clinical response

  11. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 561-563 Experimental Particle Physics. Search for narrow-width t t ¯ resonances in p p ¯ collisons at ( s ) = 1.8 TeV · Supriya Jain DØ Collaboration at FNAL, ...

  12. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  13. USA asekaitseminister seisab Eesti eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eestis visiidil viibiv USA asekaitseminister poliitika alal Michele Flournoy ütles, et pooldab koostöökohtade otsimist Moskvaga, kuid on kindlal seisukohal, et Venemaa ei tohi end siin piirkonnas kehtestada. Flournoy tunnustas Eesti panust Afganistani ning samuti liitlassuhetesse laiemalt

  14. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  15. Modelling middle pliocene warm climates of the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, A.M.; Valdes, P.J.; Sellwood, B.W.; Kaplan, J.O.; Dowsett, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    The middle Pliocene warm period represents a unique time slice in which to model and understand climatic processes operating under a warm climatic regime. Palaeoclimatic model simulations, focussed on the United States of America (USA), for the middle Pliocene (ca 3 Ma) were generated using the USGS PRISM2 2?? ?? 2?? data set of boundary conditions and the UK Meteorological Office's HadAMS General Circulation Model (GCM). Model results suggest that conditions in the USA during the middle Pliocene can be characterised as annually warmer (by 2?? to 4??C), less seasonal, wetter (by a maximum of 4 to 8 mm/day) and with an absence of freezing winters over the central and southern Great Plains. A sensitivity experiment suggests that the main forcing mechanisms for surface temperature changes in near coastal areas are the imposed Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST's). In interior regions, reduced Northern Hemisphere terrestrial ice, combined with less snow cover and a reduction in the elevation of the western cordillera of North America, generate atmospheric circulation changes and positive albedo feedbacks that raise surface temperatures. A complex set of climatic feedback mechanisms cause an enhancement of the hydrological cycle magnifying the moisture bearing westerly wind belt during the winter season (Dec., Jan., Feb.). Predictions produced by the model are in broad agreement with available geological evidence. However, the GCM appears to underestimate precipitation levels in the interior and central regions of the southern USA. Copyright: Palaeontological Association, 22 June 2001.

  16. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  17. USA Suursaadik TTÜs / Eha Teder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Teder, Eha

    2005-01-01

    USA suursaadik Aldona Wis, Ameerika Uuringute Fondi president Roger Ream ja nõukogu esimees Randal Teague käisid Tallinna Tehnikaülikoolis. Põhja-Ameerika ülikoolide teabekeskus korraldas TPÜ aulas kohtumise, kus tutvustati õppimisvõimalusi USA-s

  18. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  19. USA tippametnik ootab puutumatuselepet / Liis Jemmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jemmer, Liis

    2003-01-01

    Videopressikonverentsil USA Tallinna saatkonnas ütles USA välisministri abi Lincoln P. Bloomfield, et tal on kahju, et EL avaldas Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikidele survet mitte sõlmida USA kodanikele Rahvusvahelise Kriminaalkohtu suhtes puutumatust andvaid lepinguid

  20. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  1. Accessing the nuclear symmetry energy in Ca+Ca collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chbihi A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The status of the analysis of the INDRA-VAMOS experiement performed at GANIL, using the reactions 40,48Ca+40,48Ca reactions at 35AMeV, are presented. Isotopic distributions of fragments produced in multifragmentation events provide information on the importance of the surface term contribution in the symmetry energy by comparison to AMD predictions.

  2. Rates for some reactions involving 42Ca and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.W.; King, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Ground-state reaction rates have been deduced from recent cross section measurements for the 42 CA(α, n) 45 Ti, 42 Ca(p, γ) 43 Sc, and 44 Ca(p, n) 44 Sc reactions. Comparison of these rates with those calculated from a statistical model of nuclear reactions. (Woosley et al) shows good agreement for the first two, but the 44 Ca(p, n) rate is more than a factor of 2 less than the theoretical prediction. Stellar reaction rates have been derived from the ground-state rates by multiplying the ground-state rates by the ratio of stellar to ground-state rates given by the statistical model. Both ground-state and stellar rates have been represented by analytic functions of the temperature. The role of these reactions in the approach to quasi-equilibrium during explosive silicon burning is discussed

  3. Sonoma County, CA, 2013 Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sonoma County Vegetation Mapping and LiDAR Consortium retained WSI to provide lidar and Orthophoto data and derived products in Sonoma County, CA. A classified LAS...

  4. 10 aastat USA-Balti hartat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    10 aasta möödumisest 16. jaanuaril 1998 Valges Majas toimunud tseremooniast kui Ameerika Ühendriikide, Leedu, Läti ja Eesti presidendid allkirjastasid USA-Balti partnerlusharta. Eesti, Läti, Leedu presidentide ühisavaldusest - "ajalooline poliitiline teetähis Balti-USA riikide suhtes", tähistamaks USA-Balti partnerlusharta 10. aastapäeva. President George W. Bushi õnnitlusest Eesti, Läti ja Leedu elanikele harta 10. aastapäeva puhul\\

  5. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  6. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  7. Virginia Tech's Ashley White named to USA Today All-USA First Team

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    Virginia Tech senior Ashley White, a University Honors student pursuing degrees in both materials science and engineering and music performance, has been named to USA Today's All-USA College Academic First Team.

  8. Risk of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections among Children Found to be Staphylococcus aureus MRSA USA300 Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immergluck, Lilly Cheng; Jain, Shabnam; Ray, Susan M.; Mayberry, Robert; Satola, Sarah; Parker, Trisha Chan; Yuan, Keming; Mohammed, Anaam; Jerris, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to examine community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) carriage and infections and determine risk factors associated specifically with MRSA USA300. Methods We conducted a case control study in a pediatric emergency department. Nasal and axillary swabs were collected, and participants were interviewed for risk factors. The primary outcome was the proportion of S. aureus carriers among those presenting with and without a skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). We further categorized S. aureus carriers into MRSA USA300 carriers or non-MRSA USA300 carriers. Results We found the MRSA USA300 carriage rate was higher in children less than two years of age, those with an SSTI, children with recent antibiotic use, and those with a family history of SSTI. MRSA USA300 carriers were also more likely to have lower income compared to non-MRSA USA300 carriers and no S. aureus carriers. Rates of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were higher in MRSA carriage isolates with an SSTI, compared to MRSA carriage isolates of patients without an SSTI. There was an association between MRSA USA300 carriage and presence of PVL in those diagnosed with an abscess. Conclusion Children younger than two years were at highest risk for MRSA USA300 carriage. Lower income, recent antibiotic use, and previous or family history of SSTI were risk factors for MRSA USA300 carriage. There is a high association between MRSA USA300 nasal/axillary carriage and presence of PVL in those with abscesses. PMID:28210352

  9. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis cytolytic toxin (Cyt2Ca1) in citrus roots to control Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of Diaprepes abbreviatus exist in citriculture. To protect citrus against Diaprepes abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin...

  10. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N.

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  11. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  12. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  13. Teadlased : USA liitub Kyoto protokolliga / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA ja Austraalia on ainsad riigid, mis pole Kyoto protokollile alla kirjutanud. Princetoni ülikooli professori Michael Oppenheimeri arvates võib USA president George W. Bush oma seisukohti keskkonnaküsimustes muuta, sest teiseks ametiajaks valitud presidendid ei pea mõtlema uuele kampaaniale ning püüavad enne Valgest Majast lahkumist oma mainet maailma silmis parandada

  14. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  15. USA allveelaev uputas kalalaeva / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Hawaii lähistel õppustel kiiret pinnaletõusu harjutanud USA allveelaev USS Greeneville põrkas kokku Jaapani õppelaevaga Ehime Maru, õnnetuse tagajärjel hukkus tõenäoliselt 9 jaapanlast. Skeem: Õnnetused USA allveelaevadega

  16. Eestisse saabuvad USA ründelennukid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    USA saadab augusti lõpus Eestisse õppusele ründelennukid A-10 Thunderbolt II. Õhuväe teabeohvitser Alar Laats kinnitas, et Eesti-USA ühine õhuväeõppus leiab aset augusti lõpus ja septembri alguses

  17. USA's litterære superstjerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?......Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?...

  18. Irradiation of hamburgers in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.F.

    2000-01-01

    Fear for microbial contamination of meat puts irradiation of poultry meat, hamburgers and steak again in the picture in the USA. A brief overview is given of food irradiation, its aims, and the new breakthrough in the USA of food preservation by means of irradiation. 5 refs

  19. Dyslexia laws in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and regulations for both identification and treatment, and the provision of equal access to students who are diagnosed with dyslexia. The majority of states, however, have not developed such laws and guidelines. The purposes of this article are to review the present status and content of these dyslexia laws, highlight some differences among the laws and regulations across states, and suggest strategies for initiating such laws.

  20. Parallel Epidemics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Infection in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planet, Paul J; Diaz, Lorena; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Narechania, Apurva; Reyes, Jinnethe; Xing, Galen; Rincon, Sandra; Smith, Hannah; Panesso, Diana; Ryan, Chanelle; Smith, Dylan P; Guzman, Manuel; Zurita, Jeannete; Sebra, Robert; Deikus, Gintaras; Nolan, Rathel L; Tenover, Fred C; Weinstock, George M; Robinson, D Ashley; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-12-15

    The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is attributed to the spread of the USA300 clone. An epidemic of CA-MRSA closely related to USA300 has occurred in northern South America (USA300 Latin-American variant, USA300-LV). Using phylogenomic analysis, we aimed to understand the relationships between these 2 epidemics. We sequenced the genomes of 51 MRSA clinical isolates collected between 1999 and 2012 from the United States, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Phylogenetic analysis was used to infer the relationships and times since the divergence of the major clades. Phylogenetic analyses revealed 2 dominant clades that segregated by geographical region, had a putative common ancestor in 1975, and originated in 1989, in North America, and in 1985, in South America. Emergence of these parallel epidemics coincides with the independent acquisition of the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) in North American isolates and a novel copper and mercury resistance (COMER) mobile element in South American isolates. Our results reveal the existence of 2 parallel USA300 epidemics that shared a recent common ancestor. The simultaneous rapid dissemination of these 2 epidemic clades suggests the presence of shared, potentially convergent adaptations that enhance fitness and ability to spread. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effects of Ca antagonists on Ca fluxes in resistance vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, C.; Saida, K.; van Breemen, C.

    1982-01-01

    Researchers have examined contractions and 45 Ca fluxes induced by norepinephrine (NE) and 80 mM potassium (high K) depolarization and their inhibition by dilitazem in rabbit mesenteric resistance vessels. Contraction induced by both NE and high K depended almost completely on extracellular Ca. Dose-response curves for diltiazem inhibition of NE (10(-5) M) and high K contractions showed ED50 values of 1 X 10(-8) and 6 X 10(-7) M, respectively, indicating that the receptor-operated channel (ROC) was more sensitive than the potential-operated channel (POC) to the action of diltiazem. Diltiazem (10(-6) M) was shown to inhibit NE- and 80 mM K-stimulated 45 Ca influx effectively by 87 +/- 15 and 85 +/- 10%, respectively. Comparison of these data to those obtained from aorta suggest that although the sensitivity of the POC is approximately the same in aorta and mesenteric resistance vessels, the sensitivity of the ROC is much greater in the latter. This increased sensitivity is paralleled by a greatly decreased role of intracellular Ca release in NE contraction in mesenteric resistance vessels

  2. Clinical outcomes and treatment approach for community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berla-Kerzhner, E; Biber, A; Parizade, M; Taran, D; Rahav, G; Regev-Yochay, G; Glikman, D

    2017-01-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are increasingly documented worldwide. We recently identified two major CA-MRSA clones in Israel: USA300 and t991. Here, we assessed clinical outcomes by CA-MRSA clones and the physicians' treatment approach to CA-MRSA infections. All community-onset, clinical MRSA isolates detected during 2011-2013 by Maccabi Healthcare Services were collected and characterized phenotypically and genotypically; data were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records. Of 309 patients with MRSA infections, 64 were identified as CA-MRSA (21 %). Of the CA-MRSA infections, 72 % had skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), 38 % were Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)+, the major clone being USA300 (n = 13, 54 %). Of PVL- isolates (n = 40, 62 %), t991 was the major clone. Age was the only predictor for PVL+ CA-MRSA infection (p MRSA had higher incidence of SSTI recurrences (1.061 vs. 0.647 events per patient/per year, p MRSA. USA300 was more common among adults, while t991 was more common among children (p = 0.002). The physician's referral to culture results and susceptibility were the only predictors of appropriate antibiotic therapy (p MRSA isolates caused significantly more recurrences of SSTIs and increased the need for drainage compared with PVL- isolates. Physicians' awareness of CA-MRSA as a cause of SSTIs in the community was suboptimal. Culturing of pus-producing SSTIs is crucial for providing adequate antimicrobials and elucidating MRSA epidemiology.

  3. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J

    2005-01-01

    value in the detection of early ovarian cancer. At present, therefore, CA125, either alone or in combination with other modalities, cannot be recommended for screening for ovarian cancer in asymptomatic women outside the context of a randomized controlled trial. Preoperative levels in postmenopausal...

  4. National assessment of Tree City USA participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree City USA is a national program that recognizes municipal commitment to community forestry. In return for meeting program requirements, Tree City USA participants expect social, economic, and/or environmental benefits. Understanding the geographic distribution and socioeconomic characteristics of Tree City USA communities at the national scale can offer insights into the motivations or barriers to program participation, and provide context for community forestry research at finer scales. In this study, researchers assessed patterns in Tree City USA participation for all U.S. communities with more than 2,500 people according to geography, community population size, and socioeconomic characteristics, such as income, education, and race. Nationally, 23.5% of communities studied were Tree City USA participants, and this accounted for 53.9% of the total population in these communities. Tree City USA participation rates varied substantially by U.S. region, but in each region participation rates were higher in larger communities, and long-term participants tended to be larger communities than more recent enrollees. In logistic regression models, owner occupancy rates were significant negative predictors of Tree City USA participation, education and percent white population were positive predictors in many U.S. regions, and inconsistent patterns were observed for income and population age. The findings indicate that communities with smaller populations, lower educat

  5. Control of ciliary motility by Ca2+: Integration of Ca2+-dependent functions and targets for Ca2+ action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    To identify functions that regulate Ca 2+ -induced ciliary reversal in Paramecium, mutants defective in terminating depolarization-induced backward swimming were selected. Six independent recessive mutations (k-shy) comprising two complementation groups, k-shyA and k-shyB, were identified. All mutants exhibited prolonged backward swimming in depolarizing solutions. Voltage clamp studies revealed that mutant Ca 2+ current amplitudes were reduced, but could be restored to wild type levels by EGTA injection. The recovery of the mutant Ca 2+ current from Ca 2+ -dependent inactivation, and the decay of the Ca 2+ -dependent K + and Ca 2+ -dependent Na + currents after depolarization were slow in k-shy compared to wild type. To identify protein targets of Ca 2+ action, ciliary proteins that interact with calmodulin (CaM) were characterized. With a 125 I-CaM blot assay, several CaM-binding proteins were identified including axonemal, soluble, and membrane-bound polypeptides. Competitive displacement studies with unlabeled Paramecium CaM, bovine CaM, and troponinC suggested that both protein types bind CaM with high affinity and specificity. To examine the presence of CaM-binding sites in intact axonemes, a filtration binding assay was developed

  6. Ca isotopic fractionation patterns in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, A. C.; Takagi, K.

    2012-12-01

    Calcium stable isotope ratios are an emerging tracer of the biogeochemical cycle of Ca that are just beginning to see significant application to forest ecosystems. The primary source of isotopic fractionation in these systems is discrimination against light Ca during uptake by plant roots. Cycling of vegetation-fractionated Ca establishes isotopically distinct Ca pools within a forest ecosystem. In some systems, the shallow soil exchangeable Ca pool is isotopically heavy relative to Ca inputs. This has been explained by preferential removal of light Ca from the soil. In other systems, the soil exchange pool is isotopically light relative to inputs, which is explained by recycling of plant-fractionated light Ca back into soil. Thus vegetation uptake of light Ca has been called on to account for both isotopically heavy and light Ca in the shallow soil exchange pools. We interpret patterns in ecosystem δ44Ca with the aid of a simple box model of the forest Ca cycle. We suggest that the δ44Ca of exchangeable Ca in the shallow soil pool primarily reflects the relative magnitude of three key fluxes in a forest Ca cycle, 1) the flux of external Ca into the system via weathering or atmospheric deposition, 2) the uptake flux of Ca from soils into the vegetation pool, and 3) the return flux of Ca to shallow soils via remineralization of leaf litter. Two observations that emerge from our model may aid in the application of Ca isotopes to provide insight into the forest Ca cycle. First, regardless of the magnitude of both vegetation Ca uptake and isotopic fractionation, the δ44Ca of the soil exchange pool will equal the input δ44Ca unless the plant uptake and remineralization fluxes are out of balance. A second observation is that the degree to which the shallow soil exchange pool δ44Ca can differ from the input ratio is controlled by the relative rates of biological uptake and external Ca input. Significant differences between soil exchange and input δ44Ca are seen only

  7. Licensing reform in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The licensing process for nuclear power plants in the USA is currently in two distinct stages: the issuance of a construction permit followed later by the issuance of an operation license. The ''two-step'' process has come under heavy criticism from the U.S. nuclear industry on the grounds that it causes uncertainty and delays and therefore inhibits new commitments to nuclear power plants. In 1989 the NRC published new regulations for the licensing of nuclear power plants which provide for the issuance of early site permits, safety certifications of standard designs, and combined construction permits and operating licences. The new rule was challenged by intervenors representing antinuclear groups who filed a legal challenge seeking to have the rule set aside on the grounds that it violates the Atomic Energy Act which they allege makes two-step licensing mandatory. In November 1990 the US Court of Appeals upheld the NRC's authority to issue combined licenses. An appeal for a rehearing has been filed. The paper analyses the events and the possible consequences of an adverse court decision. It reviews the options open to the NRC and industry if the court decision is upheld. The possibility of congressional action to amend the Atomic Energy Act is discussed. (author)

  8. Obchodní politika USA

    OpenAIRE

    Vaculíková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Práce se zabývá nástroji a cíli obchodní politiky USA - aktivitami, které liberalizují celosvětový obchod. V první části je popsáno postavení Spojených států amerických v mnohostranném obchodním systému a vývoj zahraničního obchodu v posledních letech. Druhá kapitola je zaměřena na autonomní a smluvní nástroje obchodní politiky ovlivňující import, export a domácí výrobu. O obchodních dohodách uzavřených na mnohostranné, regionální a dvoustranné úrovni pojednává třetí kapitola....

  9. Contrasting chemical response to artificial acidification of three acid-sensitive streams in Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goss, Heather V.; Norton, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally acidified three low alkalinity first-order streams in forested catchments in Maine, USA. We evaluated water samples from a reference site above the point of hydrochloric acid addition and from two or three sites located 16 to 94 m downstream. Neutralization included protonation of weak acids, adsorption of sulfate, and ion exchange of base cations and aluminum (Al) for protons (H + ). Protonation of bicarbonate was significant in the relatively high pH Hadlock Brook. Protonation of weak organic acids dominated in the high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) Mud Pond Inlet. The response in low DOC, low pH East Bear Brook was dominated by stream substrate release of cations. East Bear Brook had the strongest acid neutralization response per unit catchment area. In all streams, exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were mobilized, with Ca > Mg. Al was also mobilized. During initial stages of acidification, Ca desorbed preferentially, whereas Al mobilization dominated later. Early in the recovery, adsorption of Ca to the streambed sediments was kinetically favored over adsorption of Al. Though pH increased downstream of acid addition, the streams remained undersaturated with respect to amorphous Al(OH) 3 , so Al did not precipitate. In East Bear Brook, however, Al left solution further downstream through adsorption. This process was likely kinetically controlled, because it occurred in East Bear Brook (3-4 L/s) but did not occur in Hadlock Brook (ca. 40 L/s) or Mud Pond Inlet (ca. 60 L/s). During experimental acidification, the initial Al:Ca ratio of a stream's response may indicate the acidification status of the catchment. Short-term stream acidification experiments illuminate processes characteristic of episodic stream acidification and of long-term catchment acidification. East Bear Brook and Hadlock Brook catchments are in early to intermediate stages of acidification. The Mud Pond Inlet catchment (high Al:Ca ratio) is in a later stage of

  10. The USA PATRIOT Act: A Legal Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Charles

    2002-01-01

    The USA PATRIOT Act passed in the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks. It flows from a consultation draft circulated by the Department of Justice, to which Congress made substantial modifications and additions...

  11. Ilves kritiseeris USA juhtidega Venemaad / Dagne Hanschmidt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hanschmidt, Dagne

    2008-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 21. apr. lk. 4. President Toomas Hendrik Ilves kohtus töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikidesse USA asepresidendi Dick Cheney ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga. Arutusel olid Euroopa Liidu suhted Venemaaga, Venemaa käitumine Gruusiaga, NATO viimase tippkohtumise tulemused. USA välisminister C. Rice avaldas Eesti presidendile tänu Eesti silmapaistva panuse eest Afganistanis. Kohtumisi kommenteerivad Riigikogu Euroopa Liidu asjade komisjoni esimees Marko Mihkelson ja Riigikogu väliskomisjoni esimees Sven Mikser. Vt. samas: Euroliit andis USA viisavabadusele rohelise tee. Euroopa Liidu sise- ja justiitsministrite kohtumisel kiideti heaks otsused, mis võimaldavad Eestil liituda USA viisavabadusprogrammiga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  12. Endise USA vastuluuraja naasmine / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2008-01-01

    USA poliitikateaduste professorist Christopher L. Kukest, kes käesoleval õppeaastal töötab Fulbright Scholar programmi stipendiaadina Tartu Ülikoolis. Lisa: CV. Kommenteerib Tartu Ülikooli riigiteaduste instituudi doktorant Mihkel Solvak

  13. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and CA-MRSA strains) in South America: comparative review to emergence of strains in North America and worldwide

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Leonardo Nogueira Farias; Cristiane Cunha Frota

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the last few years, 3 different strains of MRSA have emerged: Community-associated Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), Hospital-associated (HA-MRSA), and Livestock-associated (LA-MRSA). The most common CA-MRSA strain is USA 300 lineage. In Brasil, this superbacteria is an important public health problem, once they are associated with severe infections (sepsis, shock and osteomyelitis), high mortality rates (including babies) and low response to usual treatments. Aim: To ...

  14. The USA: Challenges of the Superpower

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ketevan Rostiashvili

    2012-01-01

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union function and mission of the United States in the contemporary world system is one of the most debatable problems of academic litera-ture. This article is an attempt to analyze most recent socioeconomic and political tendencies of the USA for better understanding the scale of ongoing transformation of the society. As the level of integration of contemporary world is very high, transfor-mation of the USA provokes tectonic changes and transformation of the ...

  15. Asia prostate cancer study (A-CaP Study launch symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Akaza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP Study is an Asia-wide initiative that has been developed over the course of 2 years. The A-CaP Study is scheduled to begin in 2016, when each participating country or region will begin registration of newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients and conduct prognosis investigations. From the data gathered, common research themes will be identified, such as comparisons among Asian countries of background factors in newly diagnosed prostate cancer patients. This is the first Asia-wide study of prostate cancer and has developed from single country research efforts in this field, including in Japan and Korea. The inaugural Board Meeting of A-CaP was held on December 11, 2015 at the Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, attended by representatives of all participating countries and regions, who signed a memorandum of understanding concerning registration for A-CaP. Following the Board Meeting an A-CaP Launch Symposium was held. The symposium was attended by representatives of countries and regions participating in A-CaP, who gave presentations. Presentations and a keynote address were also delivered by representatives of the University of California San Francisco, USA, and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Australia, who provided insight and experience on similar databases compiled in their respective countries.

  16. A population-based study examining the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwar Monica

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA is a serious pathogen in several regions in the United States. It is unclear which populations are at high risk for the emergence of these strains. Methods All unique patient isolates of S. aureus were collected from hospitals in Brooklyn, NY over a three-month period. Isolates of MRSA that were susceptible to clindamycin underwent SCCmec typing. Isolates with the SCCmec type IV (characteristic of CA-MRSA strains underwent ribotyping. Demographic information involving the neighborhoods of Brooklyn was also gathered and correlated with the prevalence of CA-MRSA strains. Results Of 1316 isolates collected during the surveillance, 217 were MRSA susceptible to clindamycin. A total of 125 isolates possessed SCCmec type IV; 72 belonged to the USA300 strain and five belonged to the USA400 strain. Hospitals in the eastern part of the city had the highest prevalence of USA300 strain. Individuals in the eastern region, when compared to the western region, were more likely to be Black, Hispanic, female, and Conclusion The USA300 strain of CA-MRSA is emerging in New York City. In this population-based study, urban regions of lower socioeconomic status and with evidence of overcrowding appear to be at higher risk for the emergence of this pathogen.

  17. USA tahab Iraagilt täispuutumatust / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2008-01-01

    USA ja Iraagi läbirääkimised USA vägede staatuse üle venivad, USA soovib oma sõduritele täielikku immuniteeti. Iraak olevat nõus nende USA üksuste immuniteediga, kes on sõjalistes rajatistes või missioonil, milles on varem kokku lepitud

  18. USA suursaadik : hirmud on alistanud lootuse / Toomas Sildam

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sildam, Toomas, 1961-

    2004-01-01

    Eestist lahkuv USA suursaadik Joseph de Thomas andis USA iseseisvuspäeva kõnes hinnangu Eesti toetusele Iraagis ja USA Iraagi-poliitikale. Parlamendiliige Eiki Berg USA suursaadiku kõnest. Vt. ka: Suursaadiku sõnum lk. 10

  19. Quo vadis, USA dollar? : finantsturgude viimastest arengutest / Robert Liljequist

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liljequist, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Swedbank AB Soome strateegiajuht vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA majandust alanud aastal, dollari n.-ö turvalise valuuta staatuse kaotamise ohtu, võlakirjade ostmise vähendamist ja selle mõju USA dollarile, Euroopa Keskpanga poliitika mõju euro ja USA dollari suhtele. Swebanki prognoos USA dollari kohta

  20. Lahingustress ajab USA sõdurid jooma / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 15. märts 2007, lk. 10. USA kaitseministeeriumi siseuurimuse kohaselt kasvas alkoholi kuritarvitamine tegevteenistuses olevate USA sõjaväelaste seas aastatel 2002-2005 enam kui 30%. Alkoholi ja uimastite tarvitamisest Iraagis ja Afganistanis teenivate USA sõdurite hulgas. Vt. samas: USA relvajõududes puhkes uus homoskandaal

  1. USA võtab hoogu maha / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2010-01-01

    Pärast riiklike soodustuste lõppu koduostjatele on USA-s vähenenud kinnisvara soetamine, jaemüüjate käive langes juunis võrreldes maiga 0,5%. USA keskpanga presidendi Ben Bernanke hinnangul on USA majandus ebatavaliselt ebamäärane

  2. [Standards used in the regulation of medical device in USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Gu, Hanqing

    2007-11-01

    To study the USA government's administrative system about medical device standards as well as the standard making. The relevant documents, regulations, website that USA Food and Drug Administration announced were extensively reviewed, knowing the USA medical device standards synthetically. The USA standards system of medical device included regulatory requirements and voluntary consensus standards. This article simply introduced the laws, regulations, performance standards and consensus standards. The USA's administrative system about medical device standards as well as many standards can be referenced.

  3. A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bers, D M

    1982-05-01

    A simple method for the accurate determination of free [Ca] in ethyleneglycol-bis(beta-aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA)-buffered Ca solutions is described. This method is useful for calibration of Ca macro- and microelectrodes to low free [Ca] and should improve the reliability of calculated free [Ca] in more complex solutions. Briefly, free [Ca] in Ca-EGTA solutions is measured with a Ca electrode, bound Ca is calculated, and Scatchard and double-reciprocal plots are resolved for the total [EGTA] and the apparent Ca-EGTA association constant (K'Ca) in the solutions used. The free [Ca] is then recalculated using the determined parameters, giving a more accurate knowledge of the free [Ca] in these solutions and providing an accurate calibration curve for the Ca electrode. These solutions can then be used to calibrate other Ca electrodes (e.g., Ca microelectrodes) or the calibrated Ca electrode can be used to measure free [Ca] in solutions containing multiple metal ligands. This method allows determination of free [Ca], K'Ca, and total [EGTA] in the actual solutions used regardless of pH, temperature, or ionic strength. It does not require accurate knowledge of K'Ca or EGTA purity and circumvents many potential errors due to assumption of binding parameters. K'Ca was found to be 2.45 +/- 0.04 X 10(6) M-1 in 100 mM KCl, 10 mM N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid, and 1 mM EGTA at pH 7.00 and 23 degrees C. Total [EGTA] varied with supplier but was always less than quoted.

  4. USA National Phenology Network observational data documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Denny, Ellen G.; Gerst, Katharine L.; Marsh, R. Lee; Posthumus, Erin E.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake

    2018-04-25

    The goals of the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) are to advance science, inform decisions, and communicate and connect with the public regarding phenology and species’ responses to environmental variation and climate change. The USA-NPN seeks to advance the science of phenology and facilitate ecosystem stewardship by providing phenological information freely and openly. To accomplish these goals, the USA-NPN National Coordinating Office (NCO) delivers observational data on plant and animal phenology in several formats, including minimally processed status and intensity datasets and derived phenometrics for individual plants, sites, and regions. This document describes the suite of observational data products delivered by the USA National Phenology Network, covering the period 2009–present for the United States and accessible via the Phenology Observation Portal (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F78S4N1V) and via an Application Programming Interface. The data described here have been used in diverse research and management applications, including over 30 publications in fields such as remote sensing, plant evolution, and resource management.

  5. Quebec-USA electricity export contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labbe, J.-F.

    1993-06-01

    Electricity exports from Hydro-Quebec to utilities in the USA significantly affects the economy and environment of Quebec. These exports may be arranged under interconnection agreements to sell excess capacity and production during off-peak periods or under firm sales contracts. Hydro-Quebec exports could also replace power plants that would otherwise be needed in the USA. The economic environment for Hydro-Quebec exports to the USA is reviewed along with the regulatory environment applicable to international trade (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement), Quebec (Canadian federal and provincial law), and the USA (federal and state law). A jurisdictional analysis of power export contracts is then presented, citing examples of contracts already signed by Hydro-Quebec with utilities in New York and New England. Contract law and contract provisions are discussed, including common clauses and particular clauses. Suggestions are made for new clauses that would improve the electricity trade. 215 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  6. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  7. Distinct Roles for Dorsal CA3 and CA1 in Memory for Sequential Nonspatial Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farovik, Anja; Dupont, Laura M.; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that dorsal hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1 are both involved in representing sequences of events that compose unique episodes. However, it is uncertain whether the contribution of CA3 is restricted to spatial information, and it is unclear whether CA1 encodes order per se or contributes by an active maintenance of…

  8. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  9. 46 CFR 7.125 - Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. 7.125 Section 7.125 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.125 Point Vincente, CA to Point Conception, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  10. Multiple Ca2+ sensors in secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Alexander M; Groffen, Alexander J; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev

    2011-01-01

    Regulated neurotransmitter secretion depends on Ca(2+) sensors, C2 domain proteins that associate with phospholipids and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes to trigger release upon Ca(2+) binding. Ca(2+) sensors are thought to prevent spontaneous...... fusion at rest (clamping) and to promote fusion upon Ca(2+) activation. At least eight, often coexpressed, Ca(2+) sensors have been identified in mammals. Accumulating evidence suggests that multiple Ca(2+) sensors interact, rather than work autonomously, to produce the complex secretory response...... observed in neurons and secretory cells. In this review, we present several working models to describe how different sensors might be arranged to mediate synchronous, asynchronous and spontaneous neurotransmitter release. We discuss the scenario that different Ca(2+) sensors typically act on one shared...

  11. Direct mobilisation of lysosomal Ca2+ triggers complex Ca2+ signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Bethan S; Eden, Emily R; Schapira, Anthony H; Futter, Clare E; Patel, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence implicates acidic organelles of the endolysosomal system as mobilisable stores of Ca(2+) but their relationship to the better-characterised endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) store remains unclear. Here we show that rapid osmotic permeabilisation of lysosomes evokes prolonged, spatiotemporally complex Ca(2+) signals in primary cultured human fibroblasts. These Ca(2+) signals comprised an initial response that correlated with lysosomal disruption and secondary long-lasting spatially heterogeneous Ca(2+) oscillations that required ER-localised inositol trisphosphate receptors. Electron microscopy identified extensive membrane contact sites between lysosomes and the ER. Mobilisation of lysosomal Ca(2+) stores is thus sufficient to evoke ER-dependent Ca(2+) release probably through lysosome-ER membrane contact sites, and akin to the proposed mechanism of action of the Ca(2+) mobilising messenger nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP). Our data identify functional and physical association of discrete Ca(2+) stores important for the genesis of Ca(2+) signal complexity.

  12. Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA: Identification, characterization and expression profiling in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak Taneja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat. Herein, we identified thirty four TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC, except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about ten transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity

  13. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca 2+ /cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca 2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail

  14. Hvad SKER der med drikkevandet i USA?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, Loren Mark

    2017-01-01

    Forskellige lande har forskellige traditioner indenfor drikkevandsbehandling. Denne beretning fra ”Water Quality Technology Conference” i USA er set med en særlig vinkel, da forfatteren er amerikansk statsborger, men har arbejdet i den danske vandbranche i mere end 25 år.......Forskellige lande har forskellige traditioner indenfor drikkevandsbehandling. Denne beretning fra ”Water Quality Technology Conference” i USA er set med en særlig vinkel, da forfatteren er amerikansk statsborger, men har arbejdet i den danske vandbranche i mere end 25 år....

  15. Gas use in electric generation in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The expansion in gas use in electric generation has called new attention to challenges that are faced by organizations in both the gas and electric industries. Thus, many institutes around the world are involved in analyses that include variety of operational requirements and constraints, human relations' factors, and business practices. The article presents a part of extensive Gas Research Institute's analyses, which is prepared for needs of the both industries in USA (GRI is USA leading institute in gas research, development and commercial application). Via the great Internet possibilities, these analyses are accessible on a large world public. (orig.)

  16. Weak transition of 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.

    1971-01-01

    A study of the nuclear core contribution to the excited nuclear states was done, along with its theoretical evaluation and interpretation, in the light nuclei region. The 727 KeV gamma ray transition between the 1885 KeV O + and 1157 KeV - 2 + states was detected, putting in evidence experimentally, the possibility of the 0 + state, characterized as core excitation, and found to be by + decay or electron capture from 44,44m Sc. The formation of the 2850 KeV state, due to 880 KeV transition from the 3667 KeV state, is re-discussed. The 564 KeV and 1684 KeV transitions from the 2850 KeV state to the 2285 KeV and 1157 KeV states, respectively, are also discussed. A new scheme is proposed for the 44 Ca excited states. (Author) [pt

  17. "Riia ring, "luurepost ja tööjaotus USA esindustest Baltikumis 1920. aastatel / Eero Medijainen""

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Medijainen, Eero, 1959-

    2012-01-01

    Diplomaatilisest taustast. USA esinduste rajamisest Baltikumi. Olukorrast USA saatkonnas 1922. aastal. USA sõjalisest vaatlejast "Balti provintsides" 1919-1922. Luurekeskusest ja Sergius Riisist. "Vene sektsiooni" formaliseeerumisest.

  18. Role of Ca2+, membrane excitability, and Ca2+ stores in failing muscle contraction with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Anthony Michael; Jimenez-Moreno, Ramón; Wang, Zhong-Ming; Messi, María Laura; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2009-04-01

    Excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in a population of skeletal muscle fibers of aged mice becomes dependent on the presence of external Ca(2+) ions (Payne, A.M., Zheng, Z., Gonzalez, E., Wang, Z.M., Messi, M.L., Delbono, O., 2004b. External Ca(2+)-dependent excitation - contraction coupling in a population of aging mouse skeletal muscle fibers. J. Physiol. 560, 137-155.). However, the mechanism(s) underlying this process remain unknown. In this work, we examined the role of (1) extracellular Ca(2+); (2) voltage-induced influx of external Ca(2+) ions; (3) sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) depletion during repeated contractions; (4) store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE); (5) SR ultrastructure; (6) SR subdomain localization of the ryanodine receptor; and (7) sarcolemmal excitability in muscle force decline with aging. These experiments show that external Ca(2+), but not Ca(2+) influx, is needed to maintain force upon repetitive fiber electrical stimulation. Decline in fiber force is associated with depressed SR Ca(2+) release. SR Ca(2+) depletion, SOCE, and the putative segregated Ca(2+) release store do not play a significant role in external Ca(2+)-dependent contraction. More importantly, a significant number of action potentials fail in senescent mouse muscle fibers subjected to a stimulation frequency. These results indicate that failure to generate action potentials accounts for decreased intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and tetanic force in aging muscle exposed to a Ca(2+)-free medium.

  19. Ca2+ cycling in heart cells from ground squirrels: adaptive strategies for intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Chen Li

    Full Text Available Heart tissues from hibernating mammals, such as ground squirrels, are able to endure hypothermia, hypoxia and other extreme insulting factors that are fatal for human and nonhibernating mammals. This study was designed to understand adaptive mechanisms involved in intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis in cardiomyocytes from the mammalian hibernator, ground squirrel, compared to rat. Electrophysiological and confocal imaging experiments showed that the voltage-dependence of L-type Ca(2+ current (I(Ca was shifted to higher potentials in ventricular myocytes from ground squirrels vs. rats. The elevated threshold of I(Ca did not compromise the Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release, because a higher depolarization rate and a longer duration of action potential compensated the voltage shift of I(Ca. Both the caffeine-sensitive and caffeine-resistant components of cytosolic Ca(2+ removal were more rapid in ground squirrels. Ca(2+ sparks in ground squirrels exhibited larger amplitude/size and much lower frequency than in rats. Due to the high I(Ca threshold, low SR Ca(2+ leak and rapid cytosolic Ca(2+ clearance, heart cells from ground squirrels exhibited better capability in maintaining intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis than those from rats and other nonhibernating mammals. These findings not only reveal adaptive mechanisms of hibernation, but also provide novel strategies against Ca(2+ overload-related heart diseases.

  20. USA Kongress saab karmimad eetikanormid / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 11. jaan. lk. 8. Jack Abramoffi mahhinatsioonide üle käiva juurdluse valguses korraldas Ameerika televõrk ABC äsja küsitluse, millest selgub, et üheksa ameeriklast kümnest usub, et USA Kongressis valitseb ulatuslik korruptsioon. Lisa: Tundmatu termin "ausus"

  1. Angiostrongylus cantonensis Meningitis and Myelitis, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammoud, Roukaya; Nayes, Stacy L; Murphy, James R; Heresi, Gloria P; Butler, Ian J; Pérez, Norma

    2017-06-01

    Infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis roundworms is endemic in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Basin. A. cantonensis meningitis and myelitis occurred in summer 2013 in a child with no history of travel outside of Texas, USA. Angiostrongyliasis is an emerging neurotropic helminthic disease in Texas and warrants increased awareness among healthcare providers.

  2. USA abandons K1 - or does it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The controversy over the USA's Federal Radiological Preparedness Coordinating Committee (FRPCC) policy to distribute potassium iodide to emergency workers and institutionalised individuals in the event of a nuclear reactor accident but not to recommend the predistribution or stockpiling of potassium iodide for the general public is discussed. (U.K.)

  3. USA juhitav Iraagi koalitsioon mureneb / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister

    2007-01-01

    Suurbritannia teatas vägede järkjärgulisest äratoomisest Iraagist. Oma sõdurite äratoomist plaanivad ka Taani ja taanlaste alluvuses tegutsev Leedu. Peale USA kavatseb vaid Austraalia vajaduse korral Iraaki sõdureid juurde saata. Kommenteerib Stanley Sloan. Lisa: Kohal ja lahkunud

  4. Lahkuv USA saadik sai Maarjamaa Risti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips tegi 8. jaanuaril 2009 Kadriorus lahkumisvisiidi president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele. Suursaadiku teenete tunnustuseks andis president T. H. Ilves talle Maarjamaa Risti I klassi ordeni. Ilmunud ka: Eesti Elu 9. jaan. 2009, lk. 3, pealk.: President tänas Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadikut

  5. Gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of Penguin Bank, Hawaii, USA. The netCDF grid and ArcGIS ASCII file include multibeam bathymetry from the Simrad EM3002d, and...

  6. Cultural-Based Development in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tubadji, A.; Osoba, B.J.; Nijkamp, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between culture and regional development in USA counties by explicitly including an arts variable in an attitudes-driven culture-based development (CBD) production function. The main aims of the research are (1) to revisit the standard CBD model in order to examine

  7. USA survestab Mubarakit lahkuma / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    USA on teinud Egiptusele mitu ettepanekut, kõige tõenäolisemaks peetakse kava, mille kohaselt president Hosni Mubarak astuks tagasi kohe ja annaks võimu üle vahevalitsusele. Opositsioonijuhi ElBaradei ettepanekul peaks riiki hakkama juhtima presidendikogu

  8. Euroopa ja USA: liidus tulevikuks / Barack Obama

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Obama, Barack, 1961-

    2010-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president kirjutab 19.-20. novembril Lissabonis toimuvast NATO tippkohtumisest, USA ja Euroopa vastastikusest vajalikkusest ning NATO-sisesest koostööst. Barack Obama leiab, et NATO ja Venemaa võiksid taaskäivitada oma suhted

  9. "Disko ja tuumasõda" jõuab USA kinolevisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kilmi, Jaak, 1973-, režissöör. Disko ja tuumasõda (film)

    2010-01-01

    Jaak Kilmi ja Kiur Aarma dokumentaalfilm "Disko ja tuumasõda" hakkab alates 12. novembrist jooksma New Yorgi kinos Cinema Village. 26. novembrist saab filmi näha Los Angeleses. Filmi levitaja USA-s on Icarus Film

  10. USA eksperdid näevad Baltimaid NATOs / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    USA maineka välispoliitikaga tegeleva eraorganisatsiooni Välissuhete Nõukogu (Council of Foreign Relations CFR) analüütikute seisukohad USA välispoliitikast Balti riikide NATO-ga ühinemise kohta

  11. Võidurelvastumise tagasitulek : USA kiiluvees Venemaa ja Hiina / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2007-01-01

    USA eelarvekavas on ette nähtud kaitsekulutuste jätkuv suurenemine, suureneda võib ka relvajõudude isikkoosseis. Relvajõududele kulub USA-s ligi 4% SKT-st. Globaalselt liidetuna tõusid kõikide riikide kulutused relvajõududele 1990. aasta tasemele. Hiina ja Venemaa kaitsekulutustest. Lisad: Aasia riigid kasvatavad sõjalisi kulutusi; 25 riigil pole oma sõjaväge. Graafik: USA sõjalised kulutused

  12. USA suursaadik : toetame Eestit / Stanley Davis Phillips ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Phillips, Stanley Davis

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Stanley Davis Phillips vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA positsiooni Tõnismäe pronkssõduri suhtes, Eesti saatkonna piiramist Moskvas, USA ja Venemaa suhteid ning koostööd, sõda terrorismiga, USA kava paigutada Tšehhi ja Poolasse raketitõrjebaasid, Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiiti USAsse. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips. Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 16. mai lk. 5

  13. Essential and toxic elements in infant foods from Spain, UK, China and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Ramírez-Gandolfo, Amanda; Wu, Xiangchun; Norton, Gareth J; Burló, Francisco; Deacon, Claire; Meharg, Andrew A

    2012-09-01

    Spanish gluten-free rice, cereals with gluten, and pureed baby foods were analysed for essential macro-elements (Ca and Na), essential trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se, Cr, Co and Ni) and non-essential trace elements (As, Pb, Cd and Hg) using ICP-MS and AAS. Baby cereals were an excellent source of most of the essential elements (Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn). Sodium content was high in pureed foods to improve their flavour; fish products were also rich in Se. USA pure baby rice samples had the highest contents of all studied essential elements, showing a different nutrient pattern compared to those of other countries. Mineral fortification was not always properly stated in the labelling of infant foods. Complementary infant foods may also contain significant amounts of contaminants. The contents of Hg and Cd were low enough to guarantee the safety of these infant foods. However, it will be necessary to identify the source and reduce the levels of Pb, Cr and As in Spanish foods. Pure baby rice samples contained too much: Pb in Spain; As in UK; As, Cr and Ni in USA; and Cr and Cd in China.

  14. USA jaemüüjatel paremad ajad / Tarvo Vaarmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaarmets, Tarvo

    2010-01-01

    USA nelja suure jaemüüja käibed kasvasid I kvartalis. Kuigi nii USA kui ka globaalne majandus näitavad toibumise märke, kardavad investorid, et Euroopa võlakriisi levimise ärahoidmiseks tehtavad eelarvekärped summutavad majanduskasvu ning odavnenud euro nõrgendab USA ettevõtete eksporti

  15. Tšehhid protestisid USA raketikilbi vastu / Igor Taro

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Taro, Igor

    2007-01-01

    USA soovib rajada oma ballistiliste rakettide eest kaitsva süsteemi rajatisi Poola ja Tšehhi territooriumile, mille vastu on protestinud ka Venemaa. Tšehhi Trokaveci küla elanike korraldatud referendumist ja Prahas toimunud meeleavaldustest USA raketikilbi radarijaama vastu. Lisa: USA raketikilp

  16. USA valitsus: Tallinna linnahalli miljardigarantiid pole olemas / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    USA Eesti-saatkonna teatel pole USA valitsus andnud garantiid mitte ühelegi projektile Tallinnas. Tallinna abilinnapea Taavi Aasa sõnul ei saa USA garantiist teha juttu enne, kui Eesti valitsus selle omakorda garanteerib. Taavi Aasa kirjast rahandusminister Jürgen Ligile

  17. USA tunnistab valge fosfori relvana kasutamist Iraagis / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    Kui varem USA eitas valge fosfori kasutamist Iraagis Falluja linnas, siis nüüd on ta eitamisest loobunud. USA välisministeeriumi pressiteate kohaselt ei kasutatud fosforit keemiarelvana. Sütitavate relvade kasutamine tsiviilisikute vastu on keelatud. Vt. samas: Ahto Lobjakas. Europarlamendis USA hukkamõist

  18. USA-reis nõuab biomeetrilist passi / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2004-01-01

    USA-s pikendati viisavabastusprogrammi biomeetrilise passi tähtaega 2005. aasta 26. oktoobrini. USA Eesti-saatkonna töötaja Christopher Smithi sõnul ei kehti viisavabadusprogrammi raames reisimise puhul passid, mida ei saa masinaga lugeda

  19. Lattice Dynamics of fcc Ca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stassis, C.; Zaretsky, J.; Misemer, D. K.;

    1983-01-01

    A large single crystal of FCC Ca was grown and was used to study the lattice dynamics of this divalent metal by coherent inelastic neutron scattering. The phonon dispersion curves were measured, at room temperature, along the [ξ00], [ξξ0], [ξξξ], and [0ξ1] symmetry directions. The dispersion curves...... to the propagation of elastic waves. The frequencies of the T1[ξξ0] branch for ξ between approximately 0.5 and 0.8 are slightly above the velocity-of-sound line determined from the low-frequency measurements. Since a similar effect has been observed in FCC Yb, it is natural to assume that the anomalous dispersion.......8, there is a relative decrease in the electronic screening of the vibrational motion of the nuclei, which may account for the positive dispersion exhibited by the T1 [ξξ0] branch in this range of ξ values. The data were used to evaluate the elastic constants, the phonon density of states, and the lattice specific heat...

  20. Coupled Ca2+/H+ transport by cytoplasmic buffers regulates local Ca2+ and H+ ion signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swietach, Pawel; Youm, Jae-Boum; Saegusa, Noriko; Leem, Chae-Hun; Spitzer, Kenneth W; Vaughan-Jones, Richard D

    2013-05-28

    Ca(2+) signaling regulates cell function. This is subject to modulation by H(+) ions that are universal end-products of metabolism. Due to slow diffusion and common buffers, changes in cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] ([Ca(2+)]i) or [H(+)] ([H(+)]i) can become compartmentalized, leading potentially to complex spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling. This was studied by fluorescence imaging of cardiac myocytes. An increase in [H(+)]i, produced by superfusion of acetate (salt of membrane-permeant weak acid), evoked a [Ca(2+)]i rise, independent of sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx or release from mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum, or acidic stores. Photolytic H(+) uncaging from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde also raised [Ca(2+)]i, and the yield was reduced following inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial respiration. H(+) uncaging into buffer mixtures in vitro demonstrated that Ca(2+) unloading from proteins, histidyl dipeptides (HDPs; e.g., carnosine), and ATP can underlie the H(+)-evoked [Ca(2+)]i rise. Raising [H(+)]i tonically at one end of a myocyte evoked a local [Ca(2+)]i rise in the acidic microdomain, which did not dissipate. The result is consistent with uphill Ca(2+) transport into the acidic zone via Ca(2+)/H(+) exchange on diffusible HDPs and ATP molecules, energized by the [H(+)]i gradient. Ca(2+) recruitment to a localized acid microdomain was greatly reduced during intracellular Mg(2+) overload or by ATP depletion, maneuvers that reduce the Ca(2+)-carrying capacity of HDPs. Cytoplasmic HDPs and ATP underlie spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling in the cardiac myocyte by providing ion exchange and transport on common buffer sites. Given the abundance of cellular HDPs and ATP, spatial Ca(2+)/H(+) coupling is likely to be of general importance in cell signaling.

  1. An Aqueous Ca-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheytani, Saman; Liang, Yanliang; Wu, Feilong; Jing, Yan; Dong, Hui; Rao, Karun K; Chi, Xiaowei; Fang, Fang; Yao, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Multivalent-ion batteries are emerging as low-cost, high energy density, and safe alternatives to Li-ion batteries but are challenged by slow cation diffusion in electrode materials due to the high polarization strength of Mg- and Al-ions. In contrast, Ca-ion has a low polarization strength similar to that of Li-ion, therefore a Ca-ion battery will share the advantages while avoiding the kinetics issues related to multivalent batteries. However, there is no battery known that utilizes the Ca-ion chemistry due to the limited success in Ca-ion storage materials. Here, a safe and low-cost aqueous Ca-ion battery based on a highly reversible polyimide anode and a high-potential open framework copper hexacyanoferrate cathode is demonstrated. The prototype cell shows a stable capacity and high efficiency at both high and low current rates, with an 88% capacity retention and an average 99% coloumbic efficiency after cycling at 10C for 1000 cycles. The Ca-ion storage mechanism for both electrodes as well as the origin of the fast kinetics have been investigated. Additional comparison with a Mg-ion cell with identical electrodes reveals clear kinetics advantages for the Ca-ion system, which is explained by the smaller ionic radii and more facile desolvation of hydrated Ca-ions.

  2. Cuento: Sangre de caña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Benjamín Corredor

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available El viento se convertía en murmullo contra las hojas de los cañaverales y contra los techos semipelados del rancho. También menguaba el calor que maduraba los plantíos de caña y que hacía más efusiva la sangre de los moradores.

  3. By Regulating Mitochondrial Ca2+-Uptake UCP2 Modulates Intracellular Ca2+.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Jaroslaw Motloch

    Full Text Available The possible role of UCP2 in modulating mitochondrial Ca2+-uptake (mCa2+-uptake via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU is highly controversial.Thus, we analyzed mCa2+-uptake in isolated cardiac mitochondria, MCU single-channel activity in cardiac mitoplasts, dual Ca2+-transients from mitochondrial ((Ca2+m and intracellular compartment ((Ca2+c in the whole-cell configuration in cardiomyocytes of wild-type (WT and UCP2-/- mice.Isolated mitochondria showed a Ru360 sensitive mCa2+-uptake, which was significantly decreased in UCP2-/- (229.4±30.8 FU vs. 146.3±23.4 FU, P0.05 and transsarcolemmal Ca2+-influx was inhibited suggesting a possible compensatory mechanism. Additionally, we observed an inhibitory effect of ATP on mCa2+-uptake in WT mitoplasts and (Ca2+m of cardiomyocytes leading to an increase of (Ca2+c while no ATP dependent effect was observed in UCP2-/-.Our results indicate regulatory effects of UCP2 on mCa2+-uptake. Furthermore, we propose, that previously described inhibitory effects on MCU by ATP may be mediated via UCP2 resulting in changes of excitation contraction coupling.

  4. Impact of seawater [Ca2+] on the calcification and calcite Mg / Ca of Amphistegina lessonii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mewes, A.; Langer, G.; Thoms, S.; Nehrke, G.; Reichart, G. J.; de Nooijer, L. J.; Bijma, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mg / Ca ratios in foraminiferal tests are routinely used as paleotemperature proxies, but on long timescales, they also hold the potential to reconstruct past seawater Mg / Ca. The impact of both temperature and seawater Mg / Ca on Mg incorporation in Foraminifera has been quantified by a number of

  5. Ca-Dependent Folding of Human Calumenin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzorana, Marco; Hussain, Rohanah; Sorensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Human calumenin (hCALU) is a six EF-hand protein belonging to the CREC family. As other members of the family, it is localized in the secretory pathway and regulates the activity of SERCA2a and of the ryanodine receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have studied the effects of Ca2+ binding to the protein and found it to attain a more compact structure upon ion binding. Circular Dichroism (CD) measurements suggest a major rearrangement of the protein secondary structure, which reversibly switches from disordered at low Ca2+ concentrations to predominantly alpha-helical when Ca2+ is added. SAXS experiments confirm the transition from an unfolded to a compact structure, which matches the structural prediction of a trilobal fold. Overall our experiments suggest that calumenin is a Ca2+ sensor, which folds into a compact structure, capable of interacting with its molecular partners, when Ca2+ concentration within the ER reaches the millimolar range. PMID:26991433

  6. CaMKII in the Cardiovascular System: Sensing Redox States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jeffrey R.; He, B. Julie; Grumbach, Isabella M.; Anderson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is now recognized to play a central role in pathological events in the cardiovascular system. CaMKII has diverse downstream targets that promote vascular disease, heart failure and arrhythmias, so improved understanding of CaMKII signaling has the potential to lead to new therapies for cardiovascular disease. CaMKII is a multimeric serine-threonine kinase that is initially activated by binding calcified calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM). Under conditions of sustained exposure to elevated Ca2+/CaM CaMKII transitions into a Ca2+/CaM-autonomous enzyme by two distinct but parallel processes. Autophosphorylation of threonine 287 in the CaMKII regulatory domain ‘traps’ CaMKII into an open configuration even after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. More recently, our group identified a pair of methionines (281/282) in the CaMKII regulatory domain that undergo a partially reversible oxidation which, like autophosphorylation, prevents CaMKII from inactivating after Ca2+/CaM unbinding. Here we review roles of CaMKII in cardiovascular disease with an eye to understanding how CaMKII may act as a transduction signal to connect pro-oxidant conditions into specific downstream pathological effects that are relevant to rare and common forms of cardiovascular disease. PMID:21742790

  7. Nadir CA-125 level as prognosis indicator of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xia; Wang, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jia, Lizhou; Zhou, Yiqin; Deng, Fei; Qu, Junwei; Zhou, Bifang; Meng, Aifeng; Fu, Bole; Chen, Xiaoxiang; Qian, Zhiying; Wang, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of nadir CA-125 levels to predict the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer remains controversial. This study aimed to explore whether the nadir CA-125 serum levels could predict the durations of overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) in patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HG-SOC) from the USA and PRC. A total of 616 HG-SOC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC, USA) between 1990 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. The results of 262 cases from the Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research (JICR, PRC) between 1992 and 2011 were used to validate the MDACC data. The CA-125 immunohistochemistry assay was performed on 280 tissue specimens. The Cox proportional hazards model and the log-rank test were used to assess the associations between the clinicopathological characteristics and duration of survival. The nadir CA-125 level was an independent predictor of OS and PFS (p CA-125 levels (≤10 U/mL) were associated with longer OS and PFS (median: 61.2 and 16.8 months with 95% CI: 52.0-72.4 and 14.0-19.6 months, respectively) than their counterparts with shorter OS and PFS (median: 49.2 and 10.5 months with 95% CI: 41.7-56.7 and 6.9-14.1 months, respectively). The nadir CA-125 levels in JICR patients were similarly independent when predicting the OS and PFS (p CA-125 levels less than or equal to 10 U/mL were associated with longer OS and PFS (median: 59.9 and 15.5 months with 95% CI: 49.7-70.1 and 10.6-20.4 months, respectively), as compared with those more than 10 U/mL (median: 42.0 and 9.0 months with 95% CI: 34.4-49.7 and 6.6-11.2 months, respectively). Baseline serum CA-125 levels, but not the CA-125 expression in tissues, were associated with the OS and PFS of HG-SOC patients in the MDACC and JICR groups. However, these values were not independent. Nadir CA-125 levels were not associated with the tumor burden based on second-look surgery (p = 0.09). Patients who achieved a pathologic complete

  8. Licensing the ACR-700 in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langman, V.; Ion, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Reid, C. [Bechtel Power Corporation, San Fransisco, California (United States); Snell, V. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), via its 100% owned US subsidiary AECL Technologies Inc., is performing a pre-application review of the Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Completion of this pre-application review by mid-2004, is in support of an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification that is targeted for the fall of 2004. The intent of the pre-application review is to deal up-front with potential issues associated with the CANDU reactor genealogy of the ACR that are different from the Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) regulatory framework in the USA. The focus of the paper will be to describe the pre-application review process currently underway with the NRC staff. In the context of the pre-application review this paper will provide an overview of the licensing approach being used to introduce the ACR-700 to the USA. (author)

  9. Segmenting the USA. Non-travel market

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Wayne W.; Fralinger, Emily; Litvin, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    Tourism marketers focus on understanding the many different segments that comprise their visitors. Understanding these segments� motivations for travel is important in order to motivate repeat visitation and to attract like-minded consumers to visit. But how about those who do not travel? This surprisingly large percentage of the population is a lost opportunity for the industry. The research that follows, based upon a very significant USA-based sample of non-travelers, suggests that non-trav...

  10. Suicidality, ethnicity and immigration in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, G; Orozco, R; Rafful, C; Miller, E; Breslau, J

    2012-06-01

    Suicide is the 11th leading cause of death in the USA. Suicide rates vary across ethnic groups. Whether suicide behavior differs by ethnic groups in the USA in the same way as observed for suicide death is a matter of current discussion. The aim of this report was to compare the lifetime prevalence of suicide ideation and attempt among four main ethnic groups (Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and Whites) in the USA. Suicide ideation and attempts were assessed using the World Mental Health version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI). Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine risk for lifetime suicidality by ethnicity and immigration among 15 180 participants in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiological Surveys (CPES), a group of cross-sectional surveys. Suicide ideation was most common among Non-Hispanic Whites (16.10%), least common among Asians (9.02%) and intermediate among Hispanics (11.35%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (11.82%). Suicide attempts were equally common among Non-Hispanic Whites (4.69%), Hispanics (5.11%) and Non-Hispanic Blacks (4.15%) and less common among Asians (2.55%). These differences in the crude prevalence rates of suicide ideation decreased but persisted after control for psychiatric disorders, but disappeared for suicide attempt. Within ethnic groups, risk for suicidality was low among immigrants prior to migration compared to the US born, but equalized over time after migration. Ethnic differences in suicidal behaviors are explained partly by differences in psychiatric disorders and low risk prior to arrival in the USA. These differences are likely to decrease as the US-born proportion of Hispanics and Asians increases.

  11. Review of the USA National Phenology Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.; Owen, Timothy W.

    2015-08-24

    In January 2014, leadership from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Ecosystems Mission Area commissioned a review of the USA National Phenology Network (USA–NPN) Program. The Ecosystems Mission Area has a key stake in the USA–NPN, providing both supervision of its Director and most of the appropriated funds. The products and objectives of the program are relevant to six of the seven USGS Mission Areas as well as to at least four Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus.

  12. Nuclear power in Japan and the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titterton, E.

    1979-06-01

    The development of the nuclear power industry in Japan and the USA is discussed. The author lists the number of nuclear power plants operating, under construction and planned and considers the contribution made by nuclear power stations to the total electricity generated. The advantages of nuclear power to both countries are outlined and forecasts are made of the role to be played by nuclear power in future years

  13. Nuclear organizations in France - USA - Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    After an history of the nuclear events of the post-war period in the world, the nuclear organization in three different countries is developed. First, the case of France is described with a chronological account of events, as well as the intern and international laws. Then, the importance of nuclear energy in the electricity production in the USA is put forward. Finally, the nuclear organization in Japan is presented in the same way. (TEC). 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. USA asepresident vihastas Venemaad / Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bahovski, Erkki, 1970-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 15. mai lk. 9. Läänemere ja Musta mere piirkonna riikide tippkohtumisel Vilniuses esinenud USA asepresident Dick Cheney märkis, et Ameerikal ja Euroopal on raske näha Venemaad demokraatlike riikide seas, kuna reformivastased püüavad Venemaal hävitada möödunud kümnendi edusamme. Vt. samas: Eesti pakub abiks oma kogemusi

  15. Univeselle rettigheder - socialiseringsprocesser i USA og Kontinentaleuropa

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thomas Peter Schiermacher; Leth, Cathrine Kronborg; Kraft, Kamilla; Martinsen, Marie Klint; Jørgensen, Nana Gnanasundari

    2008-01-01

    Resume The aim of this project is to show, through analysis and discussion, that there are differentiated socialization processes in the USA and continental Europe, and how the Declaration of Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen influence these. Furthermore we have used the theories of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, seeing them as the ideological foundations for the two declarations, along with the development of thinking in the late 1800’s America and Fran...

  16. Sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers at mid-latitudes: Simultaneous observations and implications for their formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the observations of 188 sporadic layers of either Ca atoms and/or Ca ions that we have observed during 112 nights of lidar soundings of Ca, and 58 nights of Ca+ soundings, at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. The Ca+ soundings have been performed simultaneously and in a common volume with the Ca soundings by two separate lidars. Correlations between sporadic neutral and ionized metal layers are demonstrated through four case studies. A systematic study of the variations of occurrence of sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers reveals that neutral and ionized Ca layers are not as closely correlated as expected earlier: (a The altitude distribution shows the simultaneous occurrence of both sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers to be most likely only in the narrow altitude range between 90 and 95 km. Above that region, in the lower thermosphere, the sporadic ion layers are much more frequent than atom layers. Below 90 km only very few sporadic layers have been observed; (b The seasonal variation of sporadic Ca layers exhibits a minimum of occurrence in summer, while sporadic Ca+ layers do not show a significant seasonal variation (only the dense Ca+ layers appear to have a maximum in summer. At mid-latitudes sporadic Ca layers are more frequent than sporadic layers of other atmospheric metals like Na or K. For the explanation of our observations new formation mechanisms are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  17. Robertsite, Ca2MnIII3O2(PO43·3H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Andrade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Robertsite, ideally Ca2Mn3O2(PO43·3H2O [calcium manganese(III tris(orthophosphate trihydrate], can be associated with the arseniosiderite structural group characterized by the general formula Ca2A3O2(TO43·nH2O, with A = Fe, Mn; T = As, P; and n = 2 or 3. In this study, single-crystal X-ray diffraction data were used to determine the robertsite structure from a twinned crystal from the type locality, the Tip Top mine, Custer County, South Dakota, USA, and to refine anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms. The general structural feature of robertsite resembles that of the other two members of the arseniosiderite group, the structures of which have previously been reported. It is characterized by sheets of [MnO6] octahedra in the form of nine-membered pseudo-trigonal rings. Located at the center of each nine-membered ring is a PO4 tetrahedron, and the other eight PO4 tetrahedra sandwich the Mn–oxide sheets. The six different Ca2+ ions are seven-coordinated in form of distorted pentagonal bipyramids, [CaO5(H2O2], if Ca—O distances less than 2.85 Å are considered. Along with hydrogen bonding involving the water molecules, they hold the manganese–phosphate sheets together. All nine [MnO6] octahedra are distorted by the Jahn–Teller effect.

  18. Comparative kinetics of 47Ca, 85Sr and 226Ra in the freshwater turtle, Trachemys scripta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Whicker, F.W.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Pinder, J.E. III

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of 47 Ca, 85 Sr and 226 Ra were compared in the yellow-bellied slider, a common freshwater turtle of the southeastern USA. The absorption and elimination processes were examined as a function of stable dietary Ca, season, age and sex of the animals. Turtles were gavaged with radionuclides and serial whole-body analyses were performed on the live animals for up to 480 days. Only in the juvenile age class did reduced dietary Ca cause a significant increase in 85 Sr absorption. The absorption of 85 Sr and 226 Ra in the adult male, adult female and hatchling groups was unaffected by dietary Ca. Mean absorption was greater than that which has been reported for other organisms and significantly differed among isotopes. The high absorption values were not restricted to immatures, but continued into maturity. Elimination rates were not affected by the dietary treatment, nor were isotopic differences in elimination observed. Annual mean elimination rate constants pooled among animal groups, were 0.22 ± 0.07 for 85 Sr and 0.26 ± 0.18 for 226 Ra. Retention was strongly affected by season with the greatest elimination occurring in the summer and declining to levels that were not distinguishable from zero in the winter. Elimination rate constants for hatchlings were greater than for the other age groups. (author)

  19. Results of measuring internal Ca absorption and Ca kinetics with /sup 47/Ca in patients suffering from chronically recurrent urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L.; Esther, G.; Serfling, D.; Bast, R. (Rostock Univ. (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik)

    1983-07-01

    47 patients with chronically recurrent calcium lithiasis (with between 3 and over 100 stone episodes) and an average age of 43.2 years have been examined. The Ca absorption lay between 42.7% and 90.0% of the dose, the average was 59.3% with a standard deviation of +- 12.9. This is higher than in persons with healthy kidneys. The Ca absorption is significantly lower in patients with renal insufficiency. Studies on Ca kinetics revealed turnover rates and pool sizes within the normal range.

  20. Results of measuring enteral Ca absorption and Ca kinetics with 47Ca in patients suffering from chronically recurrent urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Esther, G.; Serfling, D.; Bast, R.

    1983-01-01

    47 patients with chronically recurrent calcium lithiasis (with between 3 and over 100 stone episodes) and an average age of 43.2 years have been examined. The Ca absorption lay between 42.7% and 90.0% of the dose, the average was 59.3% with a standard deviation of +- 12.9. This is higher than in persons with healthy kidneys. The Ca absorption is significantly lower in patients with renal insufficiency. Studies on Ca kinetics revealed turnover rates and pool sizes within the normal range. (author)

  1. Signatures of cytoplasmic proteins in the exoproteome distinguish community- and hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonnen, Solomon A.; Palma Medina, Laura M.; Glasner, Corinna

    2017-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the common name for a heterogeneous group of highly drug-resistant staphylococci. Two major MRSA classes are distinguished based on epidemiology, namely community-associated (CA) and hospital-associated (HA) MRSA. Notably, the distinction of CA......- and HA-MRSA based on molecular traits remains difficult due to the high genomic plasticity of S. aureus. Here we sought to pinpoint global distinguishing features of CA- and HA-MRSA through a comparative genome and proteome analysis of the notorious MRSA lineage USA300. We show for the first time that CA......- and HA-MRSA isolates can be distinguished by 2 distinct extracellular protein abundance clusters that are predictive not only for epidemiologic behavior, but also for their growth and survival within epithelial cells. This ‘exoproteome profiling’ also groups more distantly related HA-MRSA isolates...

  2. Ca2+-dependent structural rearrangements within Na+–Ca2+ exchanger dimers

    OpenAIRE

    John, Scott A.; Ribalet, Bernard; Weiss, James N.; Philipson, Kenneth D.; Ottolia, Michela

    2011-01-01

    Cytoplasmic Ca2+ is known to regulate Na+–Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) activity by binding to two adjacent Ca2+-binding domains (CBD1 and CBD2) located in the large intracellular loop between transmembrane segments 5 and 6. We investigated Ca2+-dependent movements as changes in FRET between exchanger proteins tagged with CFP or YFP at position 266 within the large cytoplasmic loop. Data indicate that the exchanger assembles as a dimer in the plasma membrane. Addition of Ca2+ decreases the distance be...

  3. Isospin effects in {sup 40,48}Ca+{sup 40,48}Ca collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzl, V., E-mail: henzl@mit.ed [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Verde, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania. 64 Via S. Sofia, I-95123, Catania (Italy); Brown, D. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Chbihi, A. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, B.P. 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Coupland, D. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Elson, J. [Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Famiano, M. [Western Michigan University, 2229 Everett Tower, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5252 (United States); Herlitzius, C. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Hudan, S. [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47405-4001 (United States); Lee, J.; Lukyanov, S.; Lynch, W.; Rogers, A.; Sanetullaev, A. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States); Sobotka, L. [Departments of Chemistry and Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Souza, R.T. de [Indiana Univ. Cyclotron Facility, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47405-4001 (United States); Sun, Z.Y.; Tsang, B. [MSU-NSCL, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing MI, 48824 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The isospin dependence of two proton correlations is studied in {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 48}Ca collisions at E/A=80MeV. Measurements were performed with the HiRA detector array complemented by the 4pi Ball at NSCL. We observe a strong isospin dependence of the pp-correlation functions; however the emitting source radius extracted using the imaging technique yields no sensitivity to the isospin of the reaction system. We interpret this result as a consequence of smaller fraction of fast proton emission in the neutron rich {sup 48}Ca system.

  4. Isospin effects in 40,48Ca+40,48Ca collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Kilburn, M.; Verde, G.; Brown, D.; Chbihi, A.; Coupland, D.; Elson, J.; Famiano, M.; Herlitzius, C.; Hudan, S.; Lee, J.; Lukyanov, S.; Lynch, W.; Rogers, A.; Sanetullaev, A.; Sobotka, L.; Souza, R.T. de; Sun, Z.Y.; Tsang, B.

    2010-01-01

    The isospin dependence of two proton correlations is studied in 40 Ca+ 40 Ca and 48 Ca+ 48 Ca collisions at E/A=80MeV. Measurements were performed with the HiRA detector array complemented by the 4π Ball at NSCL. We observe a strong isospin dependence of the pp-correlation functions; however the emitting source radius extracted using the imaging technique yields no sensitivity to the isospin of the reaction system. We interpret this result as a consequence of smaller fraction of fast proton emission in the neutron rich 48 Ca system.

  5. PGC-1α accelerates cytosolic Ca2+ clearance without disturbing Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Yanru; Qu, Aijuan

    2010-01-01

    Energy metabolism and Ca 2+ handling serve critical roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is a multi-functional coactivator that is involved in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and cellular energy metabolism. However, the regulation of PGC-1α in cardiac Ca 2+ signaling has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we combined confocal line-scan imaging with off-line imaging processing to characterize calcium signaling in cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes expressing PGC-1α via adenoviral transduction. Our data shows that overexpressing PGC-1α improved myocyte contractility without increasing the amplitude of Ca 2+ transients, suggesting that myofilament sensitivity to Ca 2+ increased. Interestingly, the decay kinetics of global Ca 2+ transients and Ca 2+ waves accelerated in PGC-1α-expressing cells, but the decay rate of caffeine-elicited Ca 2+ transients showed no significant change. This suggests that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA2a), but not Na + /Ca 2+ exchange (NCX) contribute to PGC-1α-induced cytosolic Ca 2+ clearance. Furthermore, PGC-1α induced the expression of SERCA2a in cultured cardiac myocytes. Importantly, overexpressing PGC-1α did not disturb cardiac Ca 2+ homeostasis, because SR Ca 2+ load and the propensity for Ca 2+ waves remained unchanged. These data suggest that PGC-1α can ameliorate cardiac Ca 2+ cycling and improve cardiac work output in response to physiological stress. Unraveling the PGC-1α-calcium handing pathway sheds new light on the role of PGC-1α in the therapy of cardiac diseases.

  6. An uncommon presentation for a severe invasive infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone USA300 in Italy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tronci Mirella

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been considered for many years a typical nosocomial pathogen. Recently MRSA has emerged as a frequent cause of infections in the community. More commonly, community-acquired (CA-MRSA is a cause of infections of the skin and soft-tissues, but life-threatening infections such as necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis can occasionally occur. Case presentation This report describes an uncommon presentation of invasive CA-MRSA infection in an adolescent without known risk factors. The presentation was typical for bacterial meningitis, but the clinical findings also revealed necrotizing pneumonia. Following the development of deep venous thrombosis, the presence of an inherited trombophilic defect (factor V Leiden was detected. The patient was successfully treated with an antibiotic combination including linezolid and with anticoagulant therapy. CA-MRSA was isolated from both cerebrospinal fluid and blood. The isolates were resistant to oxacillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics and susceptible to the other antibiotics tested including erythromycin. Molecular typing revealed that the strains contained the Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes and type IV SCCmec, and were ST8, spa type t008, and agr type 1. This genetic background is identical to that of the USA300 clone. Conclusion This report highlights that meningitis can be a new serious presentation of CA-MRSA infection. CA-MRSA strains with the genetic background of the USA300 clone are circulating in Italy and are able to cause severe infections.

  7. Ion and sulfate-isotope ratios in arid soils subject to wind erosion in the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, W.H.; Peterjohn, W.T.

    Our objective was to evaluate the potential for arid-land soil dusts to contribute significantly to the content of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and other ions in precipitation. Soil samples collected at 102 locations throughout southwestern USA deserts were extracted with distilled water and analyzed for major ionic constituents and the stable isotope ratios (/sup 34/S//sup 32/S) in soluble sulfate. Most samples were dominated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and were undersaturated with respect to gypsum. Only a weak correlation was found between Ca/sup 2 +/ and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ in samples from upland sites. Median delta /sup 34/S of soil SO/sub 4/ was +6.2 per thousand compared to +3.9 per thousand reported for precipitation. However, the median ratios for Ca/SO/sub 4/ (12.00) and Mg/SO/sub 4/ (1.84) in soil extracts were much larger than the same ratios in precipitation, suggesting that wind erosion of undisturbed desert soils is not a major source of the SO/sub 4/ in precipitation. Calcite aerosols from desert soils may act to neutralize acid rain in the western USA.

  8. Evaluation of Serum CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 and Ferritin as Diagnostic Markers and Factors of Clinical Parameters for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanfeng; Wang, Jinping; Zhou, Yue; Sheng, Sen; Qian, Steven Y; Huo, Xiongwei

    2018-02-09

    Blood-based protein biomarkers have recently shown as simpler diagnostic modalities for colorectal cancer, while their association with clinical pathological characteristics is largely unknown. In this study, we not only examined the sensitivity and reliability of single/multiple serum markers for diagnosis, but also assessed their connection with pathological parameters from a total of 279 colorectal cancer patients. Our study shown that glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) owns the highest sensitivity among single marker in the order of CEA > cancer antigen 72-4 (CA72-4) > cancer antigen 19-9 9 (CA19-9) > ferritin > cancer antigen 125 (CA125), while the most sensitive combined-markers for two to five were: CEA + CA72-4; CEA + CA72-4 + CA125; CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125; and CEA + CA19-9 + CA72-4 + CA125 + ferritin, respectively. We also demonstrated that patients who had positive preoperative serum CEA, CA19-9, or CA72-4 were more likely with lymph node invasion, positive CA125 were prone to have vascular invasion, and positive CEA or CA125 were correlated with perineural invasion. In addition, positive CA19-9, CA72-4, or CA125 was associated with poorly differentiated tumor, while CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, CA125 levels were positively correlated with pathological tumor-node-metastasis stages. We here conclude that combined serum markers can be used to not only diagnose colorectal cancer, but also appraise the tumor status for guiding treatment, evaluation of curative effect, and prognosis of patients.

  9. Water Content in the SW USA Mantle Lithosphere: FTIR Analysis of Dish Hill and Kilbourne Hole Pyroxenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibler, Robert; Peslier, Anne H.; Schaffer, Lillian Aurora; Brandon, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Kilbourne Hole (NM, USA) and Dish Hill (CA, USA) mantle xenoliths sample continental mantle in two different tectonic settings. Kilbourne Hole (KH) is located in the Rio Grande rift. Dish Hill (DH) is located in the southern Mojave province, an area potentially affected by subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. FTIR analyses were obtained on well characterized pyroxenite, dunite and wehrlite xenoliths, thought to represent crystallized melts at mantle depths. PUM normalized REE patterns of the KH bulk-rocks are slightly LREE enriched and consistent with those of liquids generated by 6% melting of a spinel peridotite source. Pyroxenite pyroxenes have no detectable water but one DH wehrlite, which bulk-rock is LREE enriched, has 4 ppm H2O in orthopyroxene and 2 Ga. The Farallon subduction appears to have enriched in water the southwestern United States lithospheric mantle further east than DH, beneath the Colorado plateau.

  10. Regulated release of Ca2+ from respiring mitochondria by Ca2+/2H+ antiport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiskum, G; Lehninger, A L

    1979-07-25

    Simultaneous measurements of oxygen consumption and transmembrane transport of Ca2+, H+, and phosphate show that the efflux of Ca2+ from respiring tightly coupled rat liver mitochondria takes place by an electroneutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process that is ruthenium red-insensitive and that is regulated by the oxidation-reduction state of the mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides. When mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides are kept in a reduced steady state, the efflux of Ca2+ is inhibited; when they are in an oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux is activated. These processes were demonstrated by allowing phosphate-depleted mitochondria respiring on succinate in the presence of rotenone to take up Ca2+ from the medium. Upon subsequent addition of ruthenium red to block Ca2+ transport via the electrophoretic influx pathway, and acetoacetate, to bring mitochondrial pyridine nucleotides into the oxidized state, Ca2+ efflux and H+ influx ensued. The observed H+ influx/Ca2+ efflux ratio was close to the value 2.0 predicted for the operation of an electrically neutral Ca2+/2H+ antiport process.

  11. Reduced endogenous Ca2+ buffering speeds active zone Ca2+ signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvendahl, Igor; Jablonski, Lukasz; Baade, Carolin; Matveev, Victor; Neher, Erwin; Hallermann, Stefan

    2015-06-09

    Fast synchronous neurotransmitter release at the presynaptic active zone is triggered by local Ca(2+) signals, which are confined in their spatiotemporal extent by endogenous Ca(2+) buffers. However, it remains elusive how rapid and reliable Ca(2+) signaling can be sustained during repetitive release. Here, we established quantitative two-photon Ca(2+) imaging in cerebellar mossy fiber boutons, which fire at exceptionally high rates. We show that endogenous fixed buffers have a surprisingly low Ca(2+)-binding ratio (∼ 15) and low affinity, whereas mobile buffers have high affinity. Experimentally constrained modeling revealed that the low endogenous buffering promotes fast clearance of Ca(2+) from the active zone during repetitive firing. Measuring Ca(2+) signals at different distances from active zones with ultra-high-resolution confirmed our model predictions. Our results lead to the concept that reduced Ca(2+) buffering enables fast active zone Ca(2+) signaling, suggesting that the strength of endogenous Ca(2+) buffering limits the rate of synchronous synaptic transmission.

  12. High CA-125 and CA19-9 levels in spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinyue; Jin, Chu; Hu, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Xiaojian; Zhu, Fangfang; Lin, Feng

    2015-10-23

    To evaluate the clinical significance of serum CA-125 and CA19-9 in women with spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas. From January 2006 to April 2015, a total of 1653 women were diagnosed with ovarian endometriomas, and 43 women were diagnosed with the spontaneous rupture of their ovarian endometrioma. In addition, 70 women diagnosed with unruptured ovarian endometriomas were chosen to serve as control subjects. Serum CA-125 and CA19-9 levels, together with the clinical materials, were collected. Serum CA-125, CA19-9, and the combined biomarkers were shown to be obviously elevated in the spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometrioma group (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The AUC value for the combined biomarkers was 0.992 (95% CI, 0.981-1.000), with a high sensitivity and specificity of nearly 100% and 93.6%, respectively. Moreover, the maximum diameter of the mass was significantly (p=0.001) increased in the ruptured group. Serum CA-125 and CA19-9 were significantly increased in patients with spontaneous ruptured ovarian endometriomas. Moreover, the combined biomarkers were better than either CA-125 or CA19-9 alone in the diagnosis of a spontaneous rupture of the ovarian endometrioma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. EnviroAtlas - Fresno, CA - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Fresno, CA EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  14. Role of Ca++ in Shoot Gravitropism. [avena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayle, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    A cornerstone in the argument that Ca(2+) levels may regulate growth is the finding the EGTA promotes straight growth. The usual explanation for these results is that Ca(2+) chelation from cell walls results in wall loosening and thus accelerated straight growth. The ability of frozen-thawed Avena coleoptile tissue (subjected to 15g tension) to extend in response to EGTA and Quin II was examined. The EGTA when applied in weakly buffered (i.e., 0.1mM) neutral solutions initiates rapid extension. When the buffer strength is increased, similar concentrations of EGTA produce no growth response. This implies when EGTA liberated protons are released upon Ca(2+) chelation they can either initiate acid growth (low buffer conditions) or if consumed (high buffer conditions) have no effect. Thus Ca(2+) chelation in itself apparently does not result in straight growth.

  15. YouthCaN 2001 / Sirje Janikson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Janikson, Sirje

    2001-01-01

    Aprillis 2001 toimus keskkonnateemaline õpilaskonverents YouthCaN 2001 Ameerika Loodusajaloo Muuseumis New Yorkìs. 35 seminarist ühe viis läbi Tartu Noorte Loodusmaja geoloogia ja keskkonnaringi esindus, tutvustati loodusmaja keskkonnaprojekte ja räägiti keskkonnaalaste veebilehtede koostamise kogemustest. YouthCaN (Youth Communicating and Networking) on rahvusvaheline noorte organisatsioon, mis vahendab kogemusi ja uusi ideid elukeskkonnast huvitatud noorte hulgas

  16. [Association of ovarian tumors with CA-125].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Acosta, Judith Elena; Olguín-Cruces, Víctor Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The tumor marker CA-125 is the most widely used serum marker for ovarian cancer screening. The aim of this paper was to establish the association between histopathologic result of ovarian tumors with serologic CA-125 and utility for the diagnosis of ovarian tumors at a Ginecoobstetric hospital. An observational, retrospective, descriptive and longitudinal study, from September 1st 2010 to February 28 2013. All patients with histopathologic report ovarian tumor and CA-125 was selected to analyze the association of ovarian tumors with their histological type, biological behavior, range positivity of CA-125 and its relationship to the pre and postmenopausal state. Of 1213 patients, 334 were included. Utility of CA-125 in postmenopausal reported positive predictive value of 67.5%, with sensitivity (72%), specificity (82.6%) and negative predictive value (86.1%), both with p = 0.001, mainly in the epithelial origin. In premenopausal a low positive predictive value was reported. The CA-125 is useful for screening for ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women, mainly for epithelial origin.

  17. Photosynthetic and growth response of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) mature trees and seedlings to calcium, magnesium, and nitrogen additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Bahram; Behling, Shawna J; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Sullivan, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca) and nitrogen (N) by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg) to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max) and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max), apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe), and light compensation point (LCP). To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  18. Photosynthetic and Growth Response of Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh. Mature Trees and Seedlings to Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrogen Additions in the Catskill Mountains, NY, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Momen

    Full Text Available Decline of sugar maple in North American forests has been attributed to changes in soil calcium (Ca and nitrogen (N by acidic precipitation. Although N is an essential and usually a limiting factor in forests, atmospheric N deposition may cause N-saturation leading to loss of soil Ca. Such changes can affect carbon gain and growth of sugar maple trees and seedlings. We applied a 22 factorial arrangement of N and dolomitic limestone containing Ca and Magnesium (Mg to 12 forest plots in the Catskill Mountain region of NY, USA. To quantify the short-term effects, we measured photosynthetic-light responses of sugar maple mature trees and seedlings two or three times during two summers. We estimated maximum net photosynthesis (An-max and its related light intensity (PAR at An-max, apparent quantum efficiency (Aqe, and light compensation point (LCP. To quantify the long-term effects, we measured basal area of living mature trees before and 4 and 8 years after treatment applications. Soil and foliar chemistry variables were also measured. Dolomitic limestone increased Ca, Mg, and pH in the soil Oe horizon. Mg was increased in the B horizon when comparing the plots receiving N with those receiving CaMg. In mature trees, foliar Ca and Mg concentrations were higher in the CaMg and N+CaMg plots than in the reference or N plots; foliar Ca concentration was higher in the N+CaMg plots compared with the CaMg plots, foliar Mg was higher in the CaMg plots than the N+CaMg plots; An-max was maximized due to N+CaMg treatment; Aqe decreased by N addition; and PAR at An-max increased by N or CaMg treatments alone, but the increase was maximized by their combination. No treatment effect was detected on basal areas of living mature trees four or eight years after treatment applications. In seedlings, An-max was increased by N+CaMg addition. The reference plots had an open herbaceous layer, but the plots receiving N had a dense monoculture of common woodfern in the

  19. Late-night talk show v USA

    OpenAIRE

    Halamásek, Šimon

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the history of talk show in USA with emphasis on its specific form, which is late-night talk show. The first chapter focuses on the creation of new television networks and the overall state of american broadcasting during the first era of the television talk show format. The thesis briefly describes radio broadcasting which served not only as an important source of inspiration for television but also as a starting platform for most talk show hosts. Next chapter theoreti...

  20. Preparation and characterization of Eu 3 activated CaSiO3,(CaA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eu3+ activated CaSiO3, (Ca, Ba) SiO3 and (Ca, Sr) SiO3 have been prepared by sol–gel technique. Residual solvent and organic contents in the gel were removed by firing at 100°C for 3–4 h at 300 and 600°C for 2 h. Small exothermic shoulder around 850 to 875°C, as observed in DTA curve, corresponds to crystallization ...

  1. USA relvastab araabia maid miljardite dollaritega / Kunnar Kukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kukk, Kunnar

    2007-01-01

    USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice ja kaitseminister Robert Gates tegid visiidi Saudi-Araabiasse. Arvatakse, et nad on pehmendamas katastroofi, mis järgneks USA vägede järk-järgulisele taandumisele Iraagist. USA kavatseb anda Pärsia riikidele sõjalist abi, et tuua Iraan kolmepoolsetele läbirääkimistele. Lisa: Kodusõda võib olla vältimatu

  2. Ca(2+-dependent regulation of the Ca(2+ concentration in the myometrium mitochondria. II. Ca(2+ effects on mitochondria membranes polarization and [Ca(2+](m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Babich

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Ca2+ accumulation in the mitochondria undergoes complex regulation by Ca2+ itself. But the mechanisms of such regulation are still discussed. In this paper we have shown that Ca ions directly or indirectly regulate the level of myometrium mitochondria membranes polarization. The additions of 100 µM Ca2+ were accompanied by depolarization of the mitochondria membranes. The following experiments were designed to study the impact of Ca2+ on the myometrium mitochondria [Ca2+]m. Isolated myometrium mitochondria were preincubated without or with 10 μM Са2+ followed by 100 μM Са2+ addition. Experiments were conducted in three mediums: without ATP and Mg2+ (0-medium, in the presence of 3 mM Mg2+ (Mg-medium and 3 mM Mg2+ + 3 mM ATP (Mg,ATP-medium. It was shown that the effects of 10 μM Са2+ addition were different in different mediums, namely in 0- and Mg-medium the [Ca2+]m values increased, whereas in Mg,ATP-medium statistically reliable changes were not registered. Preincubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ did not affect the [Ca2+]m value after the addition of 100 μM Са2+. The [Ca2+]m values after 100 μM Са2+ addition were the same in 0- and Mg,ATP-mediums and somewhat lower in Mg-medium. Preliminary incubation of mitochondria with 10 μM Са2+ in 0- and Mg-mediums reduced changes of Fluo 4 normalized fluorescence values that were induced by 100 μM Са2+ additions, but in Mg,ATP-medium such differences were not recorded. It is concluded that Са2+ exchange in myometrium mitochondria is regulated by the concentration of Ca ions as in the external medium, so in the matrix of mitochondria. The medium composition had a significant impact on the [Са2+]m values in the absence of exogenous cation. It is suggested that light increase of [Са2+]m before the addition of 100 μM Са2+ may have a positive effect on the functional activity of the mitochondria.

  3. USA erisaadik : USA investorid Eestis rahul / J. Frank Mermoud ; interv. Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mermoud, J. Frank

    2004-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide välisministri nõunik ja erisaadik majandusküsimustes kiidab Eesti edu, räägib USA investorite rahuolust Eesti majanduskeskkonnaga ja väljendab muret Euroopa Liidu kavade pärast maksude ühtlustamiseks

  4. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Alexei A Abrikosov, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, USA,. Vitaly L Ginzburg, P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia, and. Anthony J Leggett, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA. Chemistry - "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes" to. Peter Agre, Johns Hopkins University ...

  5. R-ES-ONANCEI

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vitaly L Ginzburg, P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia, and. Anthony J Leggett, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, USA. Chemistry - "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes" to. Peter Agre, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA - 'for the discovery of water channels" and.

  6. Mg/Ca of Continental Ostracode Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Forester, R. M.; Marco-Barba, J.; Mezquita, F.

    2007-12-01

    Marine ionic chemistry is thought to remain constant. This, together with the belief that marine calcifiers partition Mg/Ca in a systematic manner as functions of temperature (and Mg/Ca) of water forms the basis of the Mg/Ca thermometer. In continental settings both of these assumptions are usually not true. Continental waters contain a wide variety of solutes in absolute and relative ion concentrations. Hence, waters with identical Mg/Ca may have very different concentrations of Mg and Ca and very different anions. Here we use two examples to focus on the effects of ion chemistry on Mg/Ca partitioning in continental ostracode shells and we ignore the complexities of solute evolution, which can change Mg/Ca over timescales of minutes to millennia. Palacios-Fest and Dettman (2001) conducted a monthly study of ,Cypridopsis vidua at El Yeso Lake in Sonora, Mexico. They established a relation between temperature and average shell Mg/Ca using regression analyses on averaged data. When their Mg/Ca-temperature relation is applied to monthly ,C. vidua data from Page Pond near Cleveland, Ohio, water temperatures of -8 to -1°C are obtained. The observed Mg/Ca ranges for El Yeso Lake (0.31 to 0.46) and Page Pond (0.33 to 0.46) are similar, as are their specific conductivities (700 to 850μS for El Yeso Lake; 400 to 600μS for Page Pond). However, [Ca] is 140-260 mg/L for El Yeso, but only 70-90 mg/L for Page Pond. Page Pond data, in fact, shows a good temperature shell Mg/Ca relation for .C. vidua, but the relation is different from that at El Yeso. Hence, shell Mg/Ca is a multi-valued, family of curves function of temperature and Mg/Ca of water that depends on the [Mg] and [Ca] values in water and perhaps other factors. Our second example comes from sites near Valencia, Spain and involves shell data for ,Cyprideis torosa, an estuarine ostracode that is tolerant of a wide range of salinity and can live in continental waters as long as the carbonate alkalinity to Ca ratio is

  7. Electronic structures and magnetism of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guangtao; Shi Xianbiao; Liu Haipeng; Liu Qingbo

    2015-01-01

    We studied the electronic structures, magnetism, and Fermi surface (FS) nesting of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF by first-principles calculations. In the nonmagnetic (NM) states, we found strong FS nesting, which induces magnetic instability and a spin density wave (SDW). Our calculations indicate that the ground state of CaFeAsH and CaFeAsF is the stripe antiferromagnetic state. The calculated bare susceptibility χ 0 (q) peaked at the M-point and was clearly suppressed and became slightly incommensurate with both electron doping and hole doping for both materials. (author)

  8. Effect of Ca content on equilibrium Ca isotope fractionation between orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenzhong; Zhou, Chen; Qin, Tian; Kang, Jin-Ting; Huang, Shichun; Wu, Zhongqing; Huang, Fang

    2017-12-01

    Concentration effect on equilibrium inter-mineral isotope fractionation is ubiquitous in solid solution systems, but it is not clear in which concentration range such effect is prominent. Using first-principles calculations, we examine the effect of Ca and Fe contents in orthopyroxene (opx) on its average Casbnd O bond length and the equilibrium Ca isotope fractionation factor (103lnα) between opx and clinopyroxene (cpx). Our results reveal that the average Casbnd O bond length in opx is much smaller than that in cpx and it does not change with variable Ca content x (x and y are mole ratios in CaxFeyMg1-x-ySiO3 thereafter here) when x ≤ 1/48. Incorporation of Fe (y ≥ 1/32) into opx with a fixed Ca content can only slightly increase the average Casbnd O bond length. 103lnαopx-cpx of 44Ca/40Ca is linearly correlated with the average Casbnd O bond length in opx, suggesting that 103lnαopx-cpx of 44Ca/40Ca is controlled by opx Casbnd O bond strength. Our calculations indicate that the Ca concentration effect on 103lnαopx-cpx is significant when x in opx ranges from 2/16 to 1/48, while Fe in natural opx only causes a slight decrease in 103lnαopx-cpx. Our results provide insights into Ca isotope fractionation in high-temperature geochemical processes. Given that Ca content x in opx from natural peridotites is usually lower than 1/32 and Fe content y is generally ∼10 mol%, Ca and Fe concentration effects on 103lnαopx-cpx in natural samples are negligible. Rather, 103lnαopx-cpx is mainly controlled by temperature. 103lnαopx-cpx of 44Ca/40Ca decreases from 0.50‰ to 0.26‰ when temperature increases from 1000 K to 1400 K if the Fe effect is taken into account. Therefore, if Ca isotope fractionation between opx and cpx (Δ44/40Caopx-cpx) in natural peridotites is greater than 0.50‰ or lower than 0.26‰, it may indicate disequilibrium of Ca isotopes. Finally, the large 103lnαopx-cpx relative to our current analytical precision suggests that Δ44/40Caopx

  9. Prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-Long; Zhao, Shen-Yu; Xu, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Han; Liu, Kai; Chen, Xin-Zu; Yang, Kun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Chen, Jia-Ping; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hu, Jian-Kun

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in gastric carcinoma (GC) has been widely reported and is still under debate. Here, we evaluated the prognostic significance of preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with GC. 1692 patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy were divided into the training (from January 2005 to December 2011, n = 1024) and the validation (from January 2012 to December 2013, n = 668) cohorts. Positive groups of CA125 (> 13.72 U/ml), CA19-9 (> 23.36 U/ml) and CEA (> 4.28 ng/ml) were significantly associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and worse outcomes than that of negative groups (all P tumor size (P tumor markers (NPTM) were more accurate in prognostic prediction than TNM stage alone. Our findings suggested that elevated preoperative serum CA125, CA19-9 and CEA were associated with more advanced clinicopathological traits and less favorable outcomes. In addition, CA125 as an independent prognostic factor should be further investigated. Nomogram based on NPTM could accurately predict the prognosis of GC patients. PMID:27097114

  10. Ca adsorption on dickite, Sericite and quartz. Dickite, sericite oyobi sekiei ni taisuru Ca no kyuchaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Isao; Nozawa, Miki (Tohoku Univ., Sendai, (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1990-02-25

    Ca adsorbing characteristics of dickite were studied to clarify the possibility of clay minerals on selective Ca activation. Ca adsorption on hydrogenated dickite was compared with those of Na {sup +} and K {sup +} and further, the comparison was made for adsorption of Ca and these ikns on quartz and hydrogenated sericite. Ca adsorption on quartz which is thought to be caused by the negative charge of broken bond, depends strongly on pH and for pH of 7 or more, Ca acts strongly on any quartz surface. Moreover, when Na {sup +} or K {sup +} coexists, the effect of coexisting ion on Ca adsorption does not result any difference. On the contrary, Ca adsorption on sericite is mainly caused by the exchanging adsorption with H {sup +} and Ca saturated adsortion does not depend on pH in the range of 4-10pH. But Na {sup +} adsorption does not reach the saturation for lower pH unless Na {sup +} of sufficient concentration exists. 13 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Dielectron production in p+Be and Ca+Ca collisions at the Bevalac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, G.; Krebs, G.F.; Lallier, E.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Matis, H.S.; Naudet, C.; Schroeder, L.; Seidl, P.A.; Yegneswaran, A.; Bystricky, J.; Carroll, J.; Gordon, J.; Igo, G.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Welsh, R.; Kirk, P.; Wang, Z.F.; Miller, D.; Landaud, G.

    1988-06-01

    Dielectron production has been measured in p+Be collisions at 1.0, 2.1 and 4.9 GeV, and in Ca+Ca at 1.0 and 2.0 GeV/A. The observation of a structure in the mass cross section at about two times the pion mass suggests that pion annihilation is the dominant production mechanism in p+Be above 2 GeV. Comparison of preliminary results from p+Be and Ca+Ca at 1 GeV/A is presented. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Physical conditions in CaFe interstellar clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Gnacinski, P.; Krogulec, M.

    2007-01-01

    Interstellar clouds that exhibit strong Ca I and Fe I lines were called CaFe clouds. The ionisation equilibrium equations were used to model the column densities of Ca II, Ca I, K I, Na I, Fe I and Ti II in CaFe clouds. The chemical composition of CaFe clouds is that of the Solar System and no depletion of elements onto dust grains is seen. The CaFe clouds have high electron densities n=1 cm^-3 that leads to high column densities of neutral Ca and Fe.

  13. Absolute Ca Isotopic Measurement Using an Improved Double Spike Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Jiun-San Shen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new vector analytical method has been developed in order to obtain the true isotopic composition of the 42Ca-48Ca double spike. This is achieved by using two different sample-spike mixtures combined with the double spike and natural Ca data. Be cause the natural sample (two mixtures and the spike should all lie on a single mixing line, we are able to con strain the true isotopic composition of our double spike using this new approach. Once the isotopic composition of the Ca double spike is established, we are able to obtain the true Ca isotopic composition of the NIST Ca standard SRM915a, 40Ca/44Ca = 46.537 ± 2 (2sm, n = 55, 42Ca/44Ca = 0.31031 ± 1, 43Ca/44Ca = 0.06474 ± 1, and 48Ca/44Ca = 0.08956 ± 1. De spite an off set of 1.3% in 40Ca/44Ca between our result and the previously re ported value (Russell et al. 1978, our data indicate an off set of 1.89__in 40Ca/44Ca between SRM915a and seawater, entirely consistent with the published results.

  14. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.

    2011-01-01

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  15. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H K

    2011-05-01

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short history of PACS. Part I: USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.K., E-mail: hkhuang@aol.com [Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California (United States); Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2011-05-15

    This historical review covers the PACS development in the USA during the past 28 years from 1982 to 2010. General historical remarks of PACS and international scene in three stages from infancy, puberty to adolescence are presented. Early PACS development was mostly financed by the federal government including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command. PACS evolution went through several stages. The earliest stages included the definition of large-scale PACS, establishment of the DICOM and other standards, the development of some early key PACS related technologies, and PACS implementation strategies. The later stages were in the concept of enterprise PACS, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise) workflow profiles, and ePR with image distribution. The current most excited accomplishment is in the development of the new field in medical imaging informatics. This review goes through these stages and events in the USA during these 28 years, whenever an event involved participants from other countries, the contributors are cited.

  17. The destiny of Ca(2+) released by mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ayako; Kim, Bongju; Matsuoka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial Ca(2+) is known to regulate diverse cellular functions, for example energy production and cell death, by modulating mitochondrial dehydrogenases, inducing production of reactive oxygen species, and opening mitochondrial permeability transition pores. In addition to the action of Ca(2+) within mitochondria, Ca(2+) released from mitochondria is also important in a variety of cellular functions. In the last 5 years, the molecules responsible for mitochondrial Ca(2+) dynamics have been identified: a mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU), a mitochondrial Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX), and a candidate for a mitochondrial H(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger (Letm1). In this review, we focus on the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system, and discuss its physiological and pathophysiological significance. Accumulating evidence suggests that the mitochondrial Ca(2+) release system is not only crucial in maintaining mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis but also participates in the Ca(2+) crosstalk between mitochondria and the plasma membrane and between mitochondria and the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.

  18. Changes in the expression of serum markers CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TNF-α and TSGF after cryosurgery in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Niu, Lizhi; Chiu, David; He, Lihua; Xu, Kecheng

    2012-07-01

    The presence of serum tumor markers, carbohydrate antigen 242 (CA242), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tumor-supplied group of factors (TSGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), is closely associated with invasion and metastasis of many malignancies. The expression of these markers were measured in serum taken from 37 pancreatic cancer patients prior to treatment. Levels of CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA and TNF-α expression correlated with tumor size, clinical stage, tumor differentiation, lymph node and liver metastasis (P markers were significantly reduced compared with levels prior to cryosurgery (P 0.05). Thus, cryosurgery is more effective than chemotherapy for decreasing CA242, CA199, CA125, CEA, TSGF and TNF-α serum levels in these patients.

  19. Treatment of Ruptured Ovarian Endometrioma with Extremely High CA 125, Moderately High CA 19-9 and CA 15-3 Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzeyyen Duran

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, a ruptured ovarian endometrioma with a very high CA-125 level, moderately elevated CA 19-9, and CA 15-3 levels is presented. A 20 years old patient, complaining from pelvic pain, 5 cm adnexial mass was detected on left side. Biochemical examination was revealed very high CA-125 value (2556IU/ml, moderately elevated CA 19-9 (134IU/ml, and CA 15-3 (65IU/ml values. Laparoscopy was done and a ruptured ovarian endometrioma of 5 cm was seen during operation. After the total excision of the cyst, tumor markers fell rapidly. Very high CA-125 value, moderately elevated CA19-9, and CA 15-3 values can be seen in cases with ruptured endometrioma. In young patients, endometrioma must be considered firstly and laparoscopy should be applied instead of more invasive methods unless there was any finding or strong suspicion about malignancy.

  20. Läbikatsumine USA lennujaamades riivab siin tehtavast vähem / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2010-01-01

    USA sisejulgeoleku ministeeriumi privaatsuse ja andmekaitse juht Mary Ellen Callahan kinnitab, et USA-sse reisivate inimeste krediitkaardiandmeid kasutatakse vaid elektroonilise reisi autoriseerimise süsteemi jaoks ning andmeid säilitab USA rahandusministeerium. Ta on arvamusel, et USA-s on kehaskannerite kasutamisel reisija privaatsuse kaitse parem kui Euroopas

  1. Control of ciliary motility by Ca sup 2+ : Integration of Ca sup 2+ -dependent functions and targets for Ca sup 2+ action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    To identify functions that regulate Ca{sup 2+}-induced ciliary reversal in Paramecium, mutants defective in terminating depolarization-induced backward swimming were selected. Six independent recessive mutations (k-shy) comprising two complementation groups, k-shyA and k-shyB, were identified. All mutants exhibited prolonged backward swimming in depolarizing solutions. Voltage clamp studies revealed that mutant Ca{sup 2+} current amplitudes were reduced, but could be restored to wild type levels by EGTA injection. The recovery of the mutant Ca{sup 2+} current from Ca{sup 2+}-dependent inactivation, and the decay of the Ca{sup 2+}-dependent K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}-dependent Na{sup +} currents after depolarization were slow in k-shy compared to wild type. To identify protein targets of Ca{sup 2+} action, ciliary proteins that interact with calmodulin (CaM) were characterized. With a {sup 125}I-CaM blot assay, several CaM-binding proteins were identified including axonemal, soluble, and membrane-bound polypeptides. Competitive displacement studies with unlabeled Paramecium CaM, bovine CaM, and troponinC suggested that both protein types bind CaM with high affinity and specificity. To examine the presence of CaM-binding sites in intact axonemes, a filtration binding assay was developed.

  2. Modeling the contributions of Ca2+ flows to spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and cortical spreading depression-triggered Ca2+ waves in astrocyte networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    Full Text Available Astrocytes participate in brain functions through Ca(2+ signals, including Ca(2+ waves and Ca(2+ oscillations. Currently the mechanisms of Ca(2+ signals in astrocytes are not fully clear. Here, we present a computational model to specify the relative contributions of different Ca(2+ flows between the extracellular space, the cytoplasm and the endoplasmic reticulum of astrocytes to the generation of spontaneous Ca(2+ oscillations (CASs and cortical spreading depression (CSD-triggered Ca(2+ waves (CSDCWs in a one-dimensional astrocyte network. This model shows that CASs depend primarily on Ca(2+ released from internal stores of astrocytes, and CSDCWs depend mainly on voltage-gated Ca(2+ influx. It predicts that voltage-gated Ca(2+ influx is able to generate Ca(2+ waves during the process of CSD even after depleting internal Ca(2+ stores. Furthermore, the model investigates the interactions between CASs and CSDCWs and shows that the pass of CSDCWs suppresses CASs, whereas CASs do not prevent the generation of CSDCWs. This work quantitatively analyzes the generation of astrocytic Ca(2+ signals and indicates different mechanisms underlying CSDCWs and non-CSDCWs. Research on the different types of Ca(2+ signals might help to understand the ways by which astrocytes participate in information processing in brain functions.

  3. Tilted lake shorelines record the onset of motion along the Hilton Creek fault adjacent to Long Valley caldera, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, J. P.; Finnegan, N. J.; Cervelli, P. F.; Langbein, J. O.

    2010-12-01

    Prominent normal faults occur within and around Long Valley caldera, in the eastern Sierra Nevada of California. However, their relationship to both the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the caldera since the 760 ka eruption of the Bishop Tuff remains poorly understood. In particular, in the Mono-Inyo Craters north of Long Valley, extensional faulting appears to be replaced by dike intrusion where magma is available in the crust. However, it is unclear whether extensional faults in Long Valley caldera have been active since the eruption of the Bishop Tuff (when the current topography was established) or are a relatively young phenomenon owing to the cooling and crystallization of the Long Valley magma reservoir. Here we use GPS geodesy and geomorphology to investigate the evolution of the Hilton Creek fault, the primary range-front fault bounding Long Valley caldera to the southwest. Our primary goals are to determine how long the Hilton Creek fault has been active and whether slip rates have been constant over that time interval. To characterize the modern deformation field, we capitalize on recently (July, 2010) reoccupied GPS benchmarks first established in 1999-2000. These fixed-array GPS data show no discernible evidence for recent slip on the Hilton Creek fault, which further highlights the need for longer-term constraints on fault motion. To establish a fault slip history, we rely on a suite of five prominent shorelines from Pleistocene Long Valley Lake whose ages are well constrained based on field relationships to dated lavas, and that are tilted southward toward the Hilton Creek fault. A preliminary analysis of shoreline orientations using GPS surveys and a 5-m-resolution Topographic Synthetic Aperture Radar (TOPSAR) digital elevation model shows that lake shorelines tilt towards the Hilton Creek fault at roughly parallel gradients (~ 0.6%). The measured shorelines range in inferred age from 100 ka to 500 ka, which constrain recent slip on the Hilton Creek fault to the last 100 kyr and imply a late Pleistocene slip rate of ~0.8 mm/yr, consistent with shorter (~ 25 kyr) timescale estimates of ~1 mm/yr from displacement of LGM moraines and terraces along the active fault scarp. These data show that tilting in Long Valley caldera related to slip on the Hilton Creek fault commenced after 100 ka, and that slip rates are seemingly uniform over that time period. The 22 km-long trace of the Hilton Creek fault, with at least 1070 m of offset at McGee Mountain to the south, must have experienced significant pre-caldera slip. A lack of apparent tilting within Long Valley caldera from 500 ka to 100 ka may therefore be interpreted in one of two ways. Either extension ceased here for at least~ 400 kyr, or more likely, accommodation of Hilton Creek extension occurred either elsewhere (outside of the Caldera) or via a different physical mechanism, such as dike intrusion.

  4. Effect of Submarine Groundwater Discharge on Bacterial Indicators and Swimmer Health at Avalon Beach,CA,USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) for monitoring beach water quality is based on their co-occurrence with human pathogens, a relationship which can be dramatically altered by fate and transport processes after leaving the human intestine. We conducted a prospective cohort st...

  5. Characterization of chemosynthetic microbial mats associated with intertidal hydrothermal sulfur vents in White Point, San Pedro, CA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla J Miranda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-sea hydrothermal vents at White Point (WP in Palos Verdes (PV on the southern California coast support microbial mats and provide easily accessed settings in which to study chemolithoautotrophic sulfur cycling. Previous studies have cultured sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from the WP mats; however, almost nothing is known about the in situ diversity and activity of the microorganisms in these habitats. We studied the diversity, micron-scale spatial associations and metabolic activity of the mat community via sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and aprA genes, Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH microscopy and sulfate-reduction rate (SRR measurements. Sequence analysis revealed a diverse group of bacteria, dominated by sulfur cycling gamma-, epsilon- and deltaproteobacterial lineages such as Marithrix, Sulfurovum and Desulfuromusa. FISH microscopy suggests a close physical association between sulfur-oxidizing and sulfur-reducing genotypes, while radiotracer studies showed low, but detectable, SRR. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicate the WP sulfur vent microbial mat community is similar, but distinct from other hydrothermal vent communities representing a range of biotopes and lithologic settings. These findings suggest a complete biological sulfur cycle is operating in the WP mat ecosystem mediated by diverse bacterial lineages, with some similarity with deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities.

  6. Pedological and geological relationships with soil lichen and moss distribution in the eastern Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Miller, David M.; Bedford, David R.; Phillips, Susan L.

    2014-01-01

    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are ubiquitous in drylands globally. Lichens and mosses are essential biocrust components and provide a variety of ecosystem services, making their conservation and management of interest. Accordingly, understanding what factors are correlated with their distribution is important to land managers. We hypothesized that cover would be related to geologic and pedologic factors. We sampled 32 sites throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, stratifying by parent material and the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The cover of lichens and mosses on ‘available ground’ (L + Mav; available ground excludes ground covered by rocks or plant stems) was higher on limestone and quartzite-derived soils than granite-derived soils. Cover was also higher on moderately younger-aged geomorphic surfaces (Qya2, Qya3, Qya4) and cutbanks than on very young (Qya1), older-aged surfaces (Qia1, Qia2), or soils associated with coppice mounds or animal burrowing under Larrea tridentata. When all sites and parent materials were combined, soil texture was the most important factor predicting the occurrence of L + Mav, with cover positively associated with higher silt, very fine sand, and fine sand fractions and negatively associated with the very coarse sand fraction. When parent materials were examined separately, nutrients such as available potassium, iron, and calcium became the most important predictors of L + Mav cover.

  7. Impounded Marshes on Subsided Islands: Simulated Vertical Accretion, Processes, and Effects, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Deverel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial interest in stopping and reversing the effects of subsidence in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta (Delta where organic soils predominate. Also, the passage of California Assembly Bill 32 in 2006 created the potential to trade credits for carbon sequestered in wetlands on subsided Delta islands. The primary purpose of the work described here was to estimate future vertical accretion and understand processes that affect vertical accretion and carbon sequestration in impounded marshes on subsided Delta islands. Using a cohort-accounting model, we simulated vertical accretion from 4,700 calibrated years before present (BP at a wetland area located within Franks Tract State Recreation Area (lat 38.059, long −121.611, hereafter, “Franks Wetland”—a small, relatively undisturbed marsh island—and at the Twitchell Island subsidence-reversal demonstration project since 1997. We used physical and chemical data collected during the study as well as literature values for model inputs. Model results compared favorably with measured rates of vertical accretion, mass of carbon sequestered, bulk density and organic matter content. From 4,700 to model-estimated 350 years BP, the simulated rate of vertical accretion at Franks Wetland averaged about 0.12 cm yr-1, which is within the range of rates in tidal wetlands worldwide. Our model results indicate that large sediment inputs during the last 150 to 200 years resulted in a higher accretion rate of 0.3 cm yr -1. On Twitchell Island, greater organic inputs resulted in average vertical accretion rates as high as 9.2 cm yr -1. Future simulations indicate that the managed impounded marsh will accrete highly organic material at rates of about 3 cm yr -1. Model results coupled with GIS analysis indicate that large areas of the periphery of the Delta, if impounded and converted to freshwater marsh, could be restored to tidal elevations within 50 to 100 years. Most of the central Delta would require 50 to 250 years to be restored to projected mean sea level. A large portion of the western Delta could be restored to mean sea level within 50 to 150 years (large areas on Sherman, Jersey, and Bethel islands, and small areas on Bradford, Twitchell, and Brannan islands, and Webb Tract. We estimated that long-term carbon sequestration rates for impounded marshes such as the Twitchell Island demonstration ponds will range from 12 to 15 metric tons carbon ha-1 yr-1. Creation of impounded marshes on Delta islands can substantially benefit levee stability as demonstrated by cumulative force and hydraulic gradient calculations. 

  8. The Sexuality Education Initiative: a programme involving teenagers, schools, parents and sexual health services in Los Angeles, CA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Magaly; Ressa, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In response to abstinence-only programmes in the United States that promote myths and misconceptions about sexuality and sexual behaviour, the comprehensive sexuality education community has been sidetracked from improving the sexuality education available in US schools for almost two decades now. Much work is still needed to move beyond fear-based approaches and the one-way communication of information that many programmes still use. Starting in 2008 Planned Parenthood Los Angeles developed and launched a teen-centred sexuality education programme based on critical thinking, human rights, gender equality, and access to health care that is founded on a theory of change that recognises the complex relationship between the individual and broader environment of cultural norms, socio-economic inequalities, health disparities, legal and institutional factors. The Sexuality Education Initiative is comprised of a 12-session classroom sexuality education curriculum for ninth grade students; workshops for parents; a peer advocacy training programme; and access to sexual health services. This paper describes that experience and presents the rights-based framework that was used, which seeks to improve the learning experience of students, strengthen the capacity of schools, teachers and parents to help teenagers manage their sexuality effectively and understand that they have the right to health care, education, protection, dignity and privacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Two Years of Simultaneous K(sub a)-Band Measurements: Goldstone, CA; White Sands, NM; and Guam, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Zemba, M.; Morse, J.; Nessel, J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to statistically characterize the effect of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka-Band links, site test interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at three of NASA s operational sites to directly measure each site's tropospheric phase stability and rain attenuation. These STIs are composed of two antennas on a short baseline (less than 1km) that observe the same unmodulated beacon signal broadcast from a geostationary satellite (e.g., Anik F2). The STIs are used to measure the differential phase between the two received signals as well as the individual signal attenuation at each terminal. There are currently three NASA sites utilizing STIs; the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex near Barstow, California; the White Sands Complex in Las Cruces, New Mexico; and the Guam Remote Ground Terminal on the island of Guam. The first two sites are both located in desert regions that have highly similar climates in terms of their seasonal temperatures, average humidity, and annual rain fall (the primary factors in determining phase stability). In contrast, Guam is in a tropical region with drastically higher annual rainfall and humidity. Five station years of data have been collected in Goldstone, three in White Sands, and two in Guam, yielding two years of simultaneous data collection across all three sites. During this period of simultaneous data collection, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the time delay fluctuations stayed under 2.40 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Goldstone, under 2.07 picoseconds for 90% of the time in White Sands, and under 10.13 picoseconds for 90% of the time in Guam. For the 99th percentile, the statistics were 6.32 ps, 6.03 ps, and 24.85 ps, respectively. These values, as well as various other site quality characteristics, will be used to determine the suitability of these sites for NASA s future communication services at Ka-Band.

  10. Experimental evidence for an alkali ecotype of Lolium multiflorum, an exotic invasive annual grass in the Central Valley, CA, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, K.; Veblen, Kari E.; Young, T. P.

    2007-01-01

    One of the characteristics of highly invaded ecosystems is that invasive species are often poor invaders of edaphically severe sites, which become refuges for native flora. To investigate the invasive potential of Lolium multiflorum (Hick.) into alkali sites in California, an ex-situ reciprocal transfer experiment was carried out using seeds from populations of L. multiflorum taken from three sites differing in alkalinity (and inundation), including alkali sink soils (pH 8.5) and sink-edge so...

  11. Ventral tegmental area disruption selectively affects CA1/CA2 but not CA3 place fields during a differential reward working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martig, Adria K; Mizumori, Sheri J Y

    2011-02-01

    Hippocampus (HPC) receives dopaminergic (DA) projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra. These inputs appear to provide a modulatory signal that influences HPC dependent behaviors and place fields. We examined how efferent projections from VTA to HPC influence spatial working memory and place fields when the reward context changes. CA1 and CA3 process environmental context changes differently and VTA preferentially innervates CA1. Given these anatomical data and electrophysiological evidence that implicate DA in reward processing, we predicted that CA1 place fields would respond more strongly to both VTA disruption and changes in the reward context than CA3 place fields. Rats (N = 9) were implanted with infusion cannula targeting VTA and recording tetrodes aimed at HPC. Then they were tested on a differential reward, win-shift working memory task. One recording session consisted of 5 baseline and 5 manipulation trials during which place cells in CA1/CA2 (N = 167) and CA3 (N = 94) were recorded. Prior to manipulation trials rats were infused with either baclofen or saline and then subjected to control or reward conditions during which the learned locations of large and small reward quantities were reversed. VTA disruption resulted in an increase in errors, and in CA1/CA2 place field reorganization. There were no changes in any measures of CA3 place field stability during VTA disruption. Reward manipulations did not affect performance or place field stability in CA1/CA2 or CA3; however, changes in the reward locations "rescued" performance and place field stability in CA1/CA2 when VTA activity was compromised, perhaps by trigging compensatory mechanisms. These data support the hypothesis that VTA contributes to spatial working memory performance perhaps by maintaining place field stability selectively in CA1/CA2. Copyright © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Adverse bioenergetic consequences of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger-mediated Ca2+ influx in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Maack, Christoph

    2010-11-30

    In heart failure, the Na+-Ca²+ exchanger (NCX) is upregulated and mediates Ca²+ influx (instead of efflux) during the cardiac action potential. Although this partly compensates for impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ release and supports inotropy, the energetic consequences have never been considered. Because NCX-mediated Ca²+ influx is rather slow and mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake (which stimulates NADH production by the Krebs cycle) is thought to be facilitated by high Ca²+ gradients in a "mitochondrial Ca²+ microdomain," we speculated that NCX-mediated Ca²+ influx negatively affects the bioenergetic feedback response. Methods and Results- With the use of a patch-clamp-based approach in guinea-pig myocytes, cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca²+ ([Ca²+](c) and [Ca²+](m), respectively) was determined within the same cell after varying Ca²+ influx via L-type Ca²+ channels (I(Ca,L)) or the NCX. The efficiency of mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake, indexed by the slope of plotting [Ca²+](m) against [Ca²+](c) during each Ca²+ transient, was maximal during I(Ca,L)-triggered sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ release. Depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ load and increased contribution of the NCX to cytosolic Ca²+ influx independently reduced the efficiency of mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake. The upstroke velocity of cytosolic Ca²+ transients closely correlated with the efficiency of mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake. Despite comparable [Ca²+](c), sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²+ release, but not NCX-mediated Ca²+ influx, led to stimulation of Ca²+-sensitive dehydrogenases of the Krebs cycle. Conclusions- Increased contribution of the NCX to cytosolic Ca²+ transients, which occurs in cardiac myocytes from failing hearts, impairs mitochondrial Ca²+ uptake and the bioenergetic feedback response. This mechanism could contribute to energy starvation of failing hearts.

  13. Comparative study of structural, electronic and optical properties of Ca2Si, Ca2Ge, Ca2Sn, and Ca2Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, D. B.; Miglio, Leo; Shaposhnikov, V. L.; Borisenko, V. E.

    2003-05-01

    We report ab initio results for the ground-state properties, band diagrams, density of states, and dielectric functions of Ca2Z (Z=Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) both in the orthorhombic and cubic structures. The calculations are performed by means of total energy ultrasoft pseudopotential and full potential linearized augmented plane wave methods within local density and generalized gradient approximations. The estimated difference in the cohesion energy shows the orthorhombic structure to be the stable phase. We also demonstrate that these materials are semiconductors independently of the phase. A direct energy gap and sizable anisotropy in optical spectra characterize orthorhombic Ca2Z, whereas a competitive direct-indirect character of the gap and a high value of oscillator strength of the first direct transition are predicted for cubic Ca2Z.

  14. Synaptotagmin-7 is a principal Ca2+ sensor for Ca2+ -induced glucagon exocytosis in pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustavsson, Natalia; Wei, Shun-Hui; Hoang, Dong Nhut

    2009-01-01

    Hormones such as glucagon are secreted by Ca(2+)-induced exocytosis of large dense-core vesicles, but the mechanisms involved have only been partially elucidated. Studies of pancreatic beta-cells secreting insulin revealed that synaptotagmin-7 alone is not sufficient to mediate Ca(2+)-dependent...... insulin granule exocytosis, and studies of chromaffin cells secreting neuropeptides and catecholamines showed that synaptotagmin-1 and -7 collaborate as Ca(2+) sensors for exocytosis, and that both are equally involved. As no other peptide secretion was analysed, it remains unclear whether synaptotagmins...... generally act as Ca(2+) sensors in large dense-core vesicle exocytosis in endocrine cells, and if so, whether synaptotagmin-7 always functions with a partner in that role. In particular, far less is known about the mechanisms underlying Ca(2+)-triggered glucagon release from alpha-cells than insulin...

  15. Study on Ca2+ antagonistic effect and mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs using 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuanyou; Liu Ning; Mo Shangwu; Qiu Mingfeng; Jin Jiannan; Liao Jiali

    2002-01-01

    The Ca 2+ antagonistic effect and mechanism of Chinese herbal drugs are studied by using 45 Ca. The results indicate that potential-dependent Ca 2+ channel (PDC) and receptor-operated Ca 2+ channel (ROC) in cell membranes of smooth muscle can be blocked by several Chinese herbal drugs, including as Crocus sativus L., Carthamus L., Di-ao-xin-xue-kang (DAXXG) and Ginkgo biloba L. leaves. Among them Crocus sativus L. has the strongest antagonistic effect on Ca 2+ channel, while Ginkgo biloba L. leaves has no obvious effect. The whole prescription and the other functional drugs have significant effect on ROC and PDC. The compositions extracted by hexane have the strongest antagonistic. The wrinkled giant hyssop have five active compositions and Pei-lan have two active compositions

  16. Applicative Value of Serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in Diagnosis and Prognosis for Patients with Pancreatic Cancer Treated by Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yu-Lei; Lan, Chao; Pei, Hui; Yang, Shuang-Ning; Liu, Yan-Fen; Xiao, Li-Li

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the application value of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer cases treated with concurrent chemotherapy. 52 patients with pancreatic cancer, 40 with benign pancreatic diseases and 40 healthy people were selected. The electrochemiluminescence immunoassay method was used for detecting levels of CA19-9, CEA and CA125, and a CanAg CA242 enzyme linked immunoassay kit for assessing the level of CA242. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for analyzing the prognostic factors of patients with pancreatic cancer. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied for analyzing the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidential interval (CI) for survival time of patients with pancreatic cancer. The levels of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125 and CA242 in patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly higher than those in patients with benign pancreatic diseases and healthy people (PCEA. The specificity of CA242 is the highest, followed by CA125, CEA and CA19-9. The sensitivity and specificity of joint detection of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125and CA242 were 90.4% and 93.8%, obviously higher than single detection of those markers in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The median survival time of 52 patients with pancreatic cancer was 10 months (95% CI7.389~12.611).. Patients with the increasing level of serum CA19-9, CEA, CA125, CA242 had shorter survival times (P=0.047. 0.043, 0.0041, 0.029). COX regression analysis showed that CA19-9 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer (P=0.001, 95%CI 2.591~38.243). The detection of serum tumor markers (CA19.9, CEA, CA125 and CA242) is conducive to the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer and joint detection of tumor markers helps improve the diagnostic efficiency. Moreover, CA19-9 is an independent prognostic factor for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  17. Measurements of hyperfine constants in Ca+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goble, A.T.; Maleki, S.

    1990-01-01

    We have measured the hyperfine constants A( 2 S 1/2 ), A( 2 P 1/2 ), and A( 2 P 3/2 ) for Ca + . We compare our results with the calculations of Martensson-Pendrill and Salomonson [Phys. Rev. A 30, 712 (1984)], who used many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). The agreement between our results and MBPT calculations for Ca + is about 3%, which is comparable to similar comparisons reported for Cs [S. Blundell, in 2 Relativistic, Quantum Electrodynamic, and Weak Interaction Effects in Atoms, AIP Conf. Proc. No. 189, edited by Walter Johnson, Peter Mohr, and Joseph Sucher (AIP, New York, 1988)

  18. Valitsus vaeb USA viisavabadusenõudeid / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    USA viisavabaduse aluseks oleva vastastikuse mõistmise memorandumi projekt on täna valitsuse istungi päevakorras. Tšehhi ja USA on juba sõlminud kahepoolse memorandumi, mõnedel hinnangutel on Tšehhi järele andnud kogu ameeriklaste nõudmiste paketile. Lisa: Andmekaitsjad pole viimase seisuga kursis

  19. USA kliimamuutuse vastu: Kopenhaagenis ja edaspidi / Michael C. Polt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Polt, Michael C., 1954-

    2009-01-01

    Käsitledes Kopenhaageni kliimakonverentsi, märgib USA Eesti-suursaadik, et USA on valmis paika panema eesmärgi vähendada kohalike seadustega kooskõlas 2020. aastaks kasvuhoonegaaside heitmete emissiooni tasemeni, mis oleks 17% väiksem 2005. aasta tasemest

  20. 77 FR 38039 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an opportunity for... Corporation for Travel Promotion (Board) (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the Corporation...

  1. 78 FR 44531 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an... the Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the...

  2. 78 FR 53728 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of an... the Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the...

  3. Mexico/USA. Magtkamp om muren er i gang

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelardi, Maiken

    2017-01-01

    Trump skaber nervøsitet i Mexico. Men vil et svagere Mexico få uoverskuelige konsekvenser for USA?......Trump skaber nervøsitet i Mexico. Men vil et svagere Mexico få uoverskuelige konsekvenser for USA?...

  4. Ruslands betændte forhold til USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skak, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Rusland udgør en anden stormagtsudfordring for USA. Rusland er en stormagt i forfald, som imidlertid har genopfundet sin gamle sovjetiske 'Manifest Destiny'.......Rusland udgør en anden stormagtsudfordring for USA. Rusland er en stormagt i forfald, som imidlertid har genopfundet sin gamle sovjetiske 'Manifest Destiny'....

  5. Tropical Trametes lactinea is widely distributed in the eastern USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Josef; Kout, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2011), s. 271-279 ISSN 0093-4666 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Basidiomycota, USA new record, taxonomy * USA new record * taxonomy Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.709, year: 2011

  6. Siin ta siis ongi: USA õnnelikem inimene / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    Uuringufirma Gallup ja tervise edendamisele pühendunud ettevõtte Healthways poolt läbiviidud uuringu käigus saadi teada, milline on statistiliselt USA kõige õnnelikum inimene. Ajaleht New York Times võttiski aluseks Gallupi andmed ja otsis üles statistilistelt näitajatelt kõige õnnelikuma USA inimese, kelleks osutus Alwin Wong

  7. Oletus : USA luurevanglad on Poolas ja Rumeenias / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    USA ajalehe Washington Post andmeil hoiab USA terrorismis kahtlustavaid Ida-Euroopa riikides. Poola ajalehe allikate väitel on üks neist riikidest Poola. Poola, Rumeenia, Bulgaaria tõrjuvad kahtlustusi, Tšehhi väitel on ameeriklaste palvele vange majutada ära öeldud

  8. FY2015 Analysis of the Teamwork USA Program. Memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Research and Evaluation (DRE) has completed an analysis of the performance of students who participated in the Teamwork USA Program, administered in FY2014 at three District schools. Teamwork USA hopes to improve student achievement at select Title I elementary schools via its Instrumental Music Program grant. This memorandum to…

  9. Paragonimus kellicotti flukes in Missouri, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Michael A; Marcos, Luis A; Onen, Nur F; Demertzis, Lee M; Hayes, Ericka V; Davila, Samuel Z; Nurutdinova, Diana R; Bailey, Thomas C; Weil, Gary J

    2012-08-01

    Paragonimiasis is an infection caused by lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus. In Asia, P. westermani infections are relatively common because of dietary practices. However, in North America, cases of paragonimiasis, which are caused by P. kellicotti flukes, are rare. Only 7 autochthonous cases of paragonimiasis were reported during 1968-2008. In 2009, we reported 3 new case-patients with paragonimiasis who had been seen at our medical center over an 18-month period. Six additional case-patients were identified in St. Louis, Missouri, USA, and treated at Washington University-affiliated health centers in 2009-2010. We report detailed descriptions of these case-patients, which includes unusual clinical manifestations. We also describe public health interventions that were undertaken to inform the general public and physicians about the disease and its mode of transmission.

  10. [Murder. Italy-USA comparative profiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through illustrative cases of homicidal typologies, examines the generally accepted theories on the subject: 1) sociological ones by Lorenz to Sutherland and Cressey, by Berkowitz to Wolfgang and Ferracuti and others; 2) neurobiological ones, which include the involvement of the limbic, hippocampal and parietal lobes of the brain; 3) the psychological (psychodynamic) ones which are not disjoint from the types of individual criminal homicide and related aspects. In the discussion of the types of murders, family and extrafamilial murders are then taken into consideration, with the various meanings of revenge, challenge, other reasons linked to robbery, theft, settling scores leading to youth gangs and drive-by-shootings of marginalized adolescents, crimes related to drugs and to mental disorders. Infanticide and multiple murder, including mass murder and serial killer, conclude the work together with the statistics of murders and family murders in Italy compared to USA, specifically to the crime clock.

  11. SAT for NPP personnel training in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinney, R.

    1995-01-01

    This discussion addressed the experience with the application of SAT at USA NPPs. In particular, the transition of NPP training processes, staff composition, and reporting structure from the TMI accident to present. As well, oversight and guidance activities of the INPO and more intensive inspection by the NRC began during this period. The average NPP training staff grew to 30-40 per unit, along with a change in reporting line from plant to corporate management. With the reduction of resources occurring in the late 1980s, overall training staff size decreased, the composition changed, and reporting line reverted to plant management. The overall lessons-learned for application of the SAT consisted of the need for simplification, management involvement, and exploitation of the technology

  12. Nuclear reactor safety in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigil, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear reactor safety in the USA has emphasized a defense-in-depth approach to protecting the public from reactor accidents. This approach was severely tested by the Three Mile Island accident and was found to be effective in safeguarding the public health and safety. However, the economic impact of the TMI accident was very large. Consequently, more attention is now being given to plant protection as well as public-health protection in reactor-safety studies. Sophisticated computer simulations at Los Alamos are making major contributions in this area. In terms of public risk, nuclear power plants compare favorably with other large-scale alternatives to electricity generation. Unfortunately, there is a large gulf between the real risks of nuclear power and the present public perception of these risks

  13. The hippocampal CA2 ensemble is sensitive to contextual change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Marie E; Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; McHugh, Thomas J

    2014-02-19

    Contextual learning involves associating cues with an environment and relating them to past experience. Previous data indicate functional specialization within the hippocampal circuit: the dentate gyrus (DG) is crucial for discriminating similar contexts, whereas CA3 is required for associative encoding and recall. Here, we used Arc/H1a catFISH imaging to address the contribution of the largely overlooked CA2 region to contextual learning by comparing ensemble codes across CA3, CA2, and CA1 in mice exposed to familiar, altered, and novel contexts. Further, to manipulate the quality of information arriving in CA2 we used two hippocampal mutant mouse lines, CA3-NR1 KOs and DG-NR1 KOs, that result in hippocampal CA3 neuronal activity that is uncoupled from the animal's sensory environment. Our data reveal largely coherent responses across the CA axis in control mice in purely novel or familiar contexts; however, in the mutant mice subject to these protocols the CA2 response becomes uncoupled from CA1 and CA3. Moreover, we show in wild-type mice that the CA2 ensemble is more sensitive than CA1 and CA3 to small changes in overall context. Our data suggest that CA2 may be tuned to remap in response to any conflict between stored and current experience.

  14. Inner-city tuberculosis in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, J E; Blumberg, H M

    1995-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) has become more common during the past five years in several areas of the USA. Occurrence has been facilitated by the increasing number of patients with concurrent HIV infection, by cases due to multiple-drug-resistant strains, by incomplete TB therapy among homeless and non-compliant patients, and by cases in immigrants from other countries where TB prevalence is high. These features mean that the major burden of TB today is being borne by inner-city health care facilities that care for the poor. This is illustrated by data from Atlanta, Georgia, where a large proportion of the new cases recognized in the metropolitan area are reported by Grady Memorial Hospital, the public hospital serving the indigent and working poor of the inner city. Similar patterns are recognized in the other USA cities where TB has again become a blight. In view of these epidemiological features, minimizing inner-city TB will require careful attention to diagnosis and isolation procedures in the hospital. Engineering changes at hospitals providing acute care of TB have recently been ordered by the federal government. These promise to be very expensive, and primarily affect the public hospitals, which can least afford them. Innovative treatment programmes are essential, as follow-up after acute care is difficult in this setting. Directly observed therapy can help, but for some cases the era of the TB hospital may have returned. Current attention focuses on legal and ethical issues associated with detaining non-compliant and recalcitrant patients to complete their therapy. Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine is not a priority for this setting at this time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Pharmacovigilance Considerations for Biosimilars in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grampp, Gustavo; Felix, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    In 2015, five or more biosimilars may be approved in the USA. Because no two biologic medicines are identical, postapproval safety monitoring will be critical to detect potential differences in safety signals between a biosimilar, its reference product, and other biosimilars. Postapproval safety monitoring in the USA uses two signal detection systems: spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs) and active surveillance (AS) systems. Both depend on accurate identification of the specific product(s) dispensed or administered to patients, which may be compromised when products from multiple manufacturers share common drug nomenclature or coding. Product identification can present challenges across different healthcare settings, including inpatient and ambulatory care. Common oral-dosage drugs are predominantly dispensed directly to patients by pharmacists, whereas most injectable drugs, including biologics, are administered to patients by healthcare professionals in outpatient clinics or hospitals. Thus, the effectiveness of SRS and AS mechanisms in both pharmacy and medical channels must be given greater consideration as biotechnology matures. In this article, we describe these systems and their limitations. We identify challenges and opportunities for product-specific safety surveillance of biologics in both the pharmacy and medical settings and provide recommendations to improve biologic safety surveillance under the current and future systems envisioned in the Drug Quality and Security Act. As biosimilars are integrated into existing pharmacovigilance systems, distinguishable nonproprietary names and codes for all biologics, as well as other opportunities to improve traceability (e.g., increased use of barcodes), must be considered to ensure patient safety and confidence in this new class of drugs.

  16. A geostatical model for USA uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence exists which suggests that the frequency distributions of both grade and size of metal deposits may be well approximated by lognormal distribution functions. Using data on presently viable deposits and a simplified function which links production cost to deposit grade and size, a bivariate lognormal deposit grade/size distribution may be calibrated for a given geological environment. Exploration is introduced by assuming that the proportion discovered of the potential uranium reserve available at or below a given production can be represented by a fraction of the average deposit size and the limit exploration expenditure. As output, the model derives estimates of total reserves linked to maximum production costs and to exploration expenditure where the latter may be expressed either as expenditure per lb of mineral discovered or as a given percentage of operating profit. Reserve/price functions have been derived for the USA based on USAEC data. Tentative conclusions which may be drawn from the results are: (1) Assuming that a similar proportion of profits continues to be allocated to exploration in the future, then the USA should be able to meet its own national demand for uranium up to the end of the century (say 2 M tons U) at prices up to US$35/lb U 3 O 8 (1.1.75$ values). (2) If instead of all exploration being funded from a fixed maximum proportion of mining company profits, consumers were to fund additional exploration separately, then it is possible that the total unit cost of uranium to the consumers would thereby be reduced. It should be stressed that these conclusions are tentative and are only as reliable as the input data and assumptions of the model. In particular no account is taken of commercial or political forces which could artificially restrict supplies or raise prices. The model should be regarded as a first attempt and is offered as a basis for discussion leading to further development. (author)

  17. Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis cytolytic toxin (Cyt2Ca1) in citrus roots to control Diaprepes abbreviatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Sulley Ben; Ramos, John E; Shatters, Robert G; Hall, David G; Lapointe, Stephen L; Niedz, Randall P; Rougé, Pierre; Cave, Ronald D; Borovsky, Dov

    2017-03-01

    Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.) is an important pest of citrus in the USA. Currently, no effective management strategies of D. abbreviatus exist in citriculture, and new methods of control are desperately sought. To protect citrus against D. abbreviatus a transgenic citrus rootstock expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Ca1, an insect toxin protein, was developed using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of 'Carrizo' citrange [Citrus sinensis (L) Osbeck Poncirus trifoliate (L) Raf]. The transgenic citrus root stock expressed the cytolytic toxin Cyt2Ca1 constitutively under the control of a 35S promoter in the transgenic Carrizo citrange trifoliate hybrid including the roots that are the food source of larval D. abbreviatus. The engineered citrus was screened by Western blot and RT-qPCR analyses for cyt2Ca1 and positive citrus identified. Citrus trees expressing different levels of cyt2Ca1 transcripts were identified (Groups A-C). High expression of the toxin in the leaves (10 9 transcripts/ng RNA), however, retarded plant growth. The transgenic plants were grown in pots and the roots exposed to 3week old D. abbreviatus larvae using no-choice plant bioassays. Three cyt2Ca1 transgenic plants were identified that sustained less root damage belonging to Group B and C. One plant caused death to 43% of the larvae that fed on its roots expressed 8×10 6 cyt2Ca1 transcripts/ng RNA. These results show, for the first time, that Cyt2Ca1 expressed in moderate amounts by the roots of citrus does not retard citrus growth and can protect it from larval D. abbreviatus. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys by codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca from LiCl-KCl-MgCl2-CaCl2 melts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong De; Zhang, Mi Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Cao, Dian Xue; Jing, Xiao Yan; He, Li Yi; Yuan, Yi

    2009-08-07

    This work presents electrochemical formation of Mg-Li-Ca alloys via codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca on a molybdenum electrode in KCl-LiCl-MgCl(2)-CaCl(2) melts at 943 K. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of calcium on pre-deposited magnesium leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Ca alloy, and the succeeding underpotential deposition of lithium on pre-deposited Mg-Ca alloy leads to the formation of a liquid Mg-Li-Ca solution. Chronopotentiometric measurements indicated that the codepositon of Mg, Li and Ca occurs at current densities more negative than -0.31 A cm(-2) in LiCl-KCl-MgCl(2) (5 wt%) melts containing 1 wt% CaCl(2). Chronoamperograms demonstrated that the onset potential for the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is -2.200 V, and the codeposition of Mg, Li and Ca is formed when the applied potentials are more negative than -2.200 V. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that Mg-Li-Ca alloys with different phases were formed via galvanostatic electrolysis. The microstructures of typical alpha and beta phases of Mg-Li-Ca alloys were characterized by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) showed that the element Ca mainly distributes along grain boundary in Mg-Li-Ca alloys. The results of inductively coupled plasma analysis determined that the chemical compositions of Mg-Li-Ca alloys correspond with the phase structures of XRD patterns, and the lithium and calcium contents of Mg-Li-Ca alloys depend on the concentrations of MgCl(2) and CaCl(2).

  19. Nuclear organizations in France - USA - Japan; Organisations nucleaires France - USA- Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    After an history of the nuclear events of the post-war period in the world, the nuclear organization in three different countries is developed. First, the case of France is described with a chronological account of events, as well as the intern and international laws. Then, the importance of nuclear energy in the electricity production in the USA is put forward. Finally, the nuclear organization in Japan is presented in the same way. (TEC). 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Vaiksed professionaalid USA erivägedes on tulevased liidrid / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA eriüksuste juhid kinnitavad esiterrorist Osama bin Ladeni peatset tabamist. Floridas Tampas asuvast USA Lähis-Ida operatsioonide peastaabist. Lisa: USA erioperatsioonide keskused. Vt. samas: Ameerika pikk ja väsitav sõda

  1. Ameerikat sõtta õhutanud Iraagi prominent kaotas USA soosingu / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    Iraaklase Ahmed Chalabi tegevusest ja lubadustest USA Iraagi-vastase sõja alustamiseks. USA toetuse kahanemisest Chalabile ja süüdistustest, et ta andis salajast infot Iraanile USA vägede tegevuse kohta Iraagis

  2. President Meri näitas USA-le vabaduse ilu / Daniel Fried ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fried, Daniel, 1952-

    2006-01-01

    USA abivälisminister Daniel Fried USA välispoliitika ühest eesmärgist - demokraatia levitamisest maailmas, demokraatia olukorrast Venemaal ning USA ja Venemaa vahelistest suhetest. Lisa: Daniel Fried

  3. Riskiäri USA kõrbes / Tarmo Vahter, Sulev Vedler

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vahter, Tarmo, 1970-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Energia ostis USA kõrbes mahajäetud kaevanduse koos põlevkivivaruga, millest Brasiilia naftagigant Petrobras ja Jaapani suurfirma Mitsui ja Co loobusid. Eesti Energia põlevkiviprojektist USA-s

  4. USA ja EL vähendavad kaubandustõkkeid / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    Tippkohtumisel Washingtonis arutasid Euroopa Komisjoni president Jose Manuel Barroso ja USA president George W. Bush, kuidas EL-i ja USA majandussuhteid vabamaks muuta. Diagramm: EL-i kaubavahetus USA-ga

  5. USA politoloogid : Obama võit oleks ka Eesti oma / Laura Vetik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vetik, Laura

    2008-01-01

    USA politoloogide sõnul oleks pingestunud Venemaa ja USA suhete taustal Eestile kasulikum, kui 56. USA presidendivalimised võidaks demokraat Barack Obama. Erinevate politoloogide hinnanguid. Vt. samas: Obama ja McCain loovad kabinette

  6. Value of Combined Detection of Serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA12-5 in the Diagnosis of Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changguo; Chen, Qiuyuan; Zhao, Qiangyuan; Liu, Min; Guo, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    To examine whether the combined detection of serum tumor markers (CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA12-5) improves the sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). An automatic chemiluminescence immune analyzer with matched kits was used to determine the levels of serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, CA15-3, and CA12-5 in 87 patients with gastric cancer (GC group), 60 patients with gastric benign diseases (GBD group) who were hospitalized during the same period, and 40 healthy subjects undergoing a physical examination. The values of these 5 tumor markers in the diagnosis of gastric cancer were analyzed. The levels of serum CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA12-5 were higher in the GC group than in the GBD group and healthy subjects, and these differences were significant ( P 0.05). The combined detection of CEA, CA72-4, CA19-9, and CA12-5 had a higher diagnostic value for gastric cancer than did single detection, and the positive detection rate of the combined detection of the four tumor markers was 60.9%. The diagnostic power when using the combined detection of CA72-4, CEA, CA19-9, and CA12-5 was the best. The combined detection of serum CA72-4, CEA, CA19-9 and CA12-5 increases the sensitivity and accuracy in the diagnosis of GC and can thus be considered an important tool for early diagnosis. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  7. Ca and Mg binding induce conformational stability of Calfumirin-1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    loops of CaBPs to accommodate the hexagonally coor- dinated metal ion.19–24 The different ionic radii of the two ions (Ca2+ = 1.14 Å and Mg2+ = 0.86 Å) enable specificity of CaBPs towards Ca2+ over Mg2+ binding, with distinguished affinity towards CaBPs.23 As there is a high concentration of Mg2+ in the cell, the bind-.

  8. Towards ultracold RbCa molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinert, Michaela; Whitson, Hayley; Parsagian, Alexandria

    2012-06-01

    Ultracold heteronuclear molecules have seen increasing interest in the scientific community over the last few years. By controlling their ro-vibrational energy levels, ultracold molecules can be used for high precision spectroscopy, to study cold collisions with rich internal dynamics, as model systems for condensed matter physics, and as qubits in quantum information processing. We study the novel combination RbCa. In addition to a permanent electric dipole moment, it also possesses a permanent magnetic dipole moment. This makes it an ideal candidate to study strong long-range dipole-dipole interactions. We are currently in the process of adding a Ca MOT to our existing Rb MOT and will discuss our current and future efforts toward our goal of creating, for the first time, ultracold RbCa molecules. Molecules, once created, will be detected through resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI). We have also performed ab initio calculations to determine the electronic energy levels of RbCa, and calculated Franck-Condon factors between the ground and several excited states

  9. Ca teos report in register N 13377

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, S; Arrighetti, R.

    2011-01-01

    This work is about a report about ca teos carried out in register N 13377 in the department of Canelones to know the depth of the field. The drilling done allowed to identify granite and clay. This granite outcrops are developed in the east of the middle course of the stream Pando

  10. literacy.ca EXPRESS. April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movement for Canadian Literacy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This issue of "literacy.ca EXPRESS" focuses on poverty. The articles included in this issue are: (1) Poverty Overview; (2) Tony's Story; (3) LAN (Learner Advisory Network) Member's Story (Dianne Smith); (4) Linking Adult Literacy to Poverty Reduction; (5) MCL (Movement for Canadian Literacy) Update; (6) Highlights from the LAN; (7) Good…

  11. Elastic and inelastic scattering of 1.044 GeV protons by 40Ca, 42Ca, 44Ca, 48Ca and 48Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhazov, G.D.; Bauer, T.; Beurtey, R.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Chaumeaux, A.; Couvert, P.; Cvijanovich, G.; Duhm, H.H.; Fontaine, J.M.; Garreta, D.; Kulikov, A.V.; Legrand, D.; Lugol, J.C.; Saudinos, J.; Thirion, J.; Vorobyov, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic scattering of 1.044 GeV protons have been studied on isotopically enriched even 40 42 48 48 Ca isotopes and 48 Ti. A spin independent Glauber theory analysis of the elastic scattering allowed the extraction of neutron and nuclear matter densities for these targets. (Auth.)

  12. Thapsigargin, a tumor promoter, discharges intracellular Ca2+ stores by specific inhibition of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thastrup, Ole; Cullen, P J; Drøbak, B K

    1990-01-01

    + in sensitive cells by an acute and highly specific arrest of the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump, followed by a rapid Ca2+ leak from at least two pharmacologically distinct Ca2+ stores. The implications of this mechanism of action for the application of thapsigargin in the analysis of Ca2+ homeostasis...

  13. ASteCA: Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perren, G. I.; Vázquez, R. A.; Piatti, A. E.

    2015-04-01

    We present the Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis package (ASteCA), a suit of tools designed to fully automate the standard tests applied on stellar clusters to determine their basic parameters. The set of functions included in the code make use of positional and photometric data to obtain precise and objective values for a given cluster's center coordinates, radius, luminosity function and integrated color magnitude, as well as characterizing through a statistical estimator its probability of being a true physical cluster rather than a random overdensity of field stars. ASteCA incorporates a Bayesian field star decontamination algorithm capable of assigning membership probabilities using photometric data alone. An isochrone fitting process based on the generation of synthetic clusters from theoretical isochrones and selection of the best fit through a genetic algorithm is also present, which allows ASteCA to provide accurate estimates for a cluster's metallicity, age, extinction and distance values along with its uncertainties. To validate the code we applied it on a large set of over 400 synthetic MASSCLEAN clusters with varying degrees of field star contamination as well as a smaller set of 20 observed Milky Way open clusters (Berkeley 7, Bochum 11, Czernik 26, Czernik 30, Haffner 11, Haffner 19, NGC 133, NGC 2236, NGC 2264, NGC 2324, NGC 2421, NGC 2627, NGC 6231, NGC 6383, NGC 6705, Ruprecht 1, Tombaugh 1, Trumpler 1, Trumpler 5 and Trumpler 14) studied in the literature. The results show that ASteCA is able to recover cluster parameters with an acceptable precision even for those clusters affected by substantial field star contamination. ASteCA is written in Python and is made available as an open source code which can be downloaded ready to be used from its official site.

  14. Role of Ca ++ Influx via Epidermal TRP Ion Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    widely read forum on Pain Medicine in the US and in English-speaking countries. http://www.painmedicinenews.com/Science-Technology/Article/08-16/Study...University, Durham NC USA. 2Dept of Medicine , Duke University, Durham NC USA. 3Dept of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham NC USA. 4Dept of Neurobiology...TRPA1- antagonistic compound. Potent TRPV4/TRPA1 dual-inhibitor, 16-8, is effective at controlling inflammation and pain in acute pancreatitis. These

  15. Effects of Ca on microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Li, Nian Feng; Lei, Ting; Liu, Lin; Ouyang, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Zn and Ca were selected as alloying elements to develop an Mg-Zn-Ca alloy system for biomedical application due to their good biocompatibility. The effects of Ca on the microstructure, mechanical and corrosion properties as well as the biocompatibility of the as-cast Mg-Zn-Ca alloys were studied. Results indicate that the microstructure of Mg-Zn-Ca alloys typically consists of primary α-Mg matrix and Ca₂Mg₆Zn₃/Mg₂Ca intermetallic phase mainly distributed along grain boundary. The yield strength of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy increased slightly with the increase of Ca content, whilst its tensile strength increased at first and then decreased. Corrosion tests in the simulated body fluid revealed that the addition of Ca is detrimental to corrosion resistance due to the micro-galvanic corrosion acceleration. In vitro hemolysis and cytotoxicity assessment disclose that Mg-5Zn-1.0Ca alloy has suitable biocompatibility.

  16. Concentrations and ratios of Sr, Ba and Ca along an estuarine river to the Gulf of Mexico - implication for sea level rise effects on trace metal distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Xu, Y. J.

    2015-11-01

    Strontium and barium to calcium ratios are often used as proxies for tracking animal movement across salinity gradients. As sea level rise continues, many estuarine rivers in the world face saltwater intrusion, which may cause changes in mobility and distribution of these metals upstream. Despite intensive research on metal adsorption and desorption in marine systems, knowledge of the spatiotemporal distribution of these elements along estuarine rivers is still limited. In this study, we conducted an intensive monitoring of Sr and Ba dynamics along an 88 km long estuary, the Calcasieu River in South Louisiana, USA, which has been strongly affected by saltwater intrusion. Over the period from May 2013 to August 2015, we collected monthly water samples and performed in-situ water quality measurements at six sites from the upstream to the river mouth, with a salinity range from 0.02 to 29.50 ppt. Water samples were analyzed for Sr, Ba, and Ca concentrations. In-situ measurements were made on salinity, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, and specific conductance. We found that the Sr and Ca concentrations and the Sr / Ca ratio all increased significantly with increasing salinity. The average Sr concentration at the site closest to the Gulf of Mexico (site 6) was 46.21 μmol L-1, which was about 130 times higher than that of the site furthest upstream (site 1, 0.35 μmol L-1). The average Ca concentration at site 6 was 8.19 mmol L-1, which was about 60 times higher than that of site 1 (0.13 mmol L-1). The average Sr / Ca ratio at site 6 (8.41 mmol mol-1) was about 3 times the average Sr / Ca ratio at site 1 (2.89 mmol mol-1). However, the spatial variation in Ba concentration was marginal, varying from 0.36 μmol L-1 at site 6 to 0.47 at site 5. The average Ba / Ca ratio at site 1 (4.82 mmol mol-1) was about 54 times the average Ba / Ca ratio at site 6 (0.09 mmol mol-1), showing a clear negative relation between the Ba / Ca ratio and increasing

  17. Mg and Ca isotope fractionation during CaCO3 biomineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Veronica T-C; Williams, R J P; Makishima, Akio; Belshawl, Nick S; O'Nions, R Keith

    2004-10-08

    The natural variation of Mg and Ca stable isotopes of carbonates has been determined in carbonate skeletons of perforate foraminifera and reef coral together with Mg/Ca ratios to assess the influence of biomineralisation processes. The results for coral aragonite suggest its formation, in terms of stable isotope behaviour, approximates to inorganic precipitation from a seawater reservoir. In contrast, results for foraminifera calcite suggest a marked biological control on Mg isotope ratios presumably related to its low Mg content compared with seawater. The bearing of these observations on the use of Mg and Ca isotopes as proxies in paleoceanography is considered. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  18. Reassigning the CaH+ 11Σ → 21Σ vibronic transition with CaD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condoluci, J.; Janardan, S.; Calvin, A. T.; Rugango, R.; Shu, G.; Sherrill, C. D.; Brown, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    We observe vibronic transitions in CaD+ between the 11Σ and 21Σ electronic states by resonance enhanced multiphoton photodissociation spectroscopy in a Coulomb crystal. The vibronic transitions are compared with previous measurements on CaH+. The result is a revised assignment of the CaH+ vibronic levels and a disagreement with multi-state-complete-active-space second-order perturbation theory theoretical calculations by approximately 700 cm-1. Updated high-level coupled-cluster calculations that include core-valence correlations reduce the disagreement between theory and experiment to 300 cm-1.

  19. Interlaboratory study for coral Sr/Ca and other element/Ca ratio measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hathorne, Ed C.; Gagnon, Alex; Felis, Thomas; Adkins, Jess; Asami, Ryuji; Boer, Wim; Caillon, Nicolas; Case, David; Cobb, Kim M.; Douville, Eric; deMenocal, Peter; Eisenhauer, Anton; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Geibert, Walter; Goldstein, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The Sr/Ca ratio of coral aragonite is used to reconstruct past sea surface temperature (SST). Twenty-one laboratories took part in an interlaboratory study of coral Sr/Ca measurements. Results show interlaboratory bias can be significant, and in the extreme case could result in a range in SST estimates of 7 degrees C. However, most of the data fall within a narrower range and the Porites coral reference material JCp-1 is now characterized well enough to have a certified Sr/Ca value of 8.838 m...

  20. Thermoluminescence of CaCO3:Dy and CaCO3:Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bapat, V.N.; Nambi, K.S.V.

    1976-01-01

    CaCO 3 samples doped with Dy and Mn were prepared in the laboratory by co-precipitation techniques. Thermoluminescence and emission spectra of these phosphors were studied and were compared with those of the naturally occuring calcite and undoped CaCO 3 samples. Dy-doping seems to give a more efficient phosphor and indicates a possibility of getting a better phosphor by a judicious choice of a rare earth doping of CaCO 3 . Interesting result have been obtained on the TL glow curve variations of these phosphors with different temperature treatments prior to irradiation. (author)

  1. Extra-matrix Mg2+ limits Ca2+ uptake and modulates Ca2+ uptake-independent respiration and redox state in cardiac isolated mitochondria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, Age D.; Pradhan, Ranjan K.; Blomeyer, Christoph A.; Camara, Amadou K. S.; Dash, Ranjan K.; Stowe, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac mitochondrial matrix (m) free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]m) increases primarily by Ca(2+) uptake through the Ca(2+) uniporter (CU). Ca(2+) uptake via the CU is attenuated by extra-matrix (e) Mg(2+) ([Mg(2+)]e). How [Ca(2+)]m is dynamically modulated by interacting physiological levels of [Ca(2+)]e and

  2. Serum concentrations of the biomarkers CA125, CA15-3, CA72-4, tPSA and PAPP-A in natural and stimulated ovarian cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Stemp

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Ovarian stimulation reduced serum PAPP‐A levels, CA125 and CA15‐3 levels were generally unaffected by ovarian stimulation but displayed cyclical changes throughout both natural and stimulated cycles, whilst tPSA and CA72-4 were not affected by the stage of the cycle or ovarian stimulation.

  3. Iowa valus hoop Hillary Clintonile segas USA presidendivalimistel kaarte / Liisi Poll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poll, Liisi, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    USA presidendivalimiste eelvalimistel võitis demokraat Barack Obama. Presidendikandidaatide seisukohtadest. Tabel: USA presidendivalimised. Tulemused Iowas. Vt. samas: Tähtsaimaks osutusid majandus ja Iraagi sõda

  4. Redetermination of metarossite, CaV5+2O6·2H2O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Kobsch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of metarossite, ideally CaV2O6·2H2O [chemical name: calcium divanadium(V hexaoxide dihydrate], was first determined using precession photographs, with fixed isotropic displacement parameters and without locating the positions of the H atoms, leading to a reliability factor R = 0.11 [Kelsey & Barnes (1960. Can. Mineral. 6, 448–466]. This communication reports a structure redetermination of this mineral on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data of a natural sample from the Blue Cap mine, San Juan County, Utah, USA (R1 = 0.036. Our study not only confirms the structural topology reported in the previous study, but also makes possible the refinement of all non-H atoms with anisotropic displacement parameters and all H atoms located. The metarossite structure is characterized by chains of edge-sharing [CaO8] polyhedra parallel to [100] that are themselves connected by chains of alternating [VO5] trigonal bipyramids parallel to [010]. The two H2O molecules are bonded to Ca. Analysis of the displacement parameters show that the [VO5] chains librate around [010]. In addition, we measured the Raman spectrum of metarossite and compared it with IR and Raman data previously reported. Moreover, heating of metarossite led to a loss of water, which results in a transformation to the brannerite-type structure, CaV2O6, implying a possible dehydration pathway for the compounds M2+V2O6·xH2O, with M = Cu, Cd, Mg or Mn, and x = 2 or 4.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide inhibits Ca2+efflux through plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase in mouse parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jae; Choi, Kyung Jin; Yoon, Mi Na; Oh, Sang Hwan; Kim, Dong Kwan; Kim, Se Hoon; Park, Hyung Seo

    2018-03-01

    Intracellular Ca 2+ mobilization is closely linked with the initiation of salivary secretion in parotid acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be related to a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders and believed to be involved in salivary impairments. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanism of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) on cytosolic Ca 2+ accumulation in mouse parotid acinar cells. Intracellular Ca 2+ levels were slowly elevated when 1 mM H 2 O 2 was perfused in the presence of normal extracellular Ca 2+ . In a Ca 2+ -free medium, 1 mM H 2 O 2 still enhanced the intracellular Ca 2+ level. Ca 2+ entry tested using manganese quenching technique was not affected by perfusion of 1 mM H 2 O 2 . On the other hand, 10 mM H 2 O 2 induced more rapid Ca 2+ accumulation and facilitated Ca 2+ entry from extracellular fluid. Ca 2+ refill into intracellular Ca 2+ store and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1 µM)-induced Ca 2+ release from Ca 2+ store was not affected by 1 mM H 2 O 2 in permeabilized cells. Ca 2+ efflux through plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) was markedly blocked by 1 mM H 2 O 2 in thapsigargin-treated intact acinar cells. Antioxidants, either catalase or dithiothreitol, completely protected H 2 O 2 -induced Ca 2+ accumulation through PMCA inactivation. From the above results, we suggest that excessive production of H 2 O 2 under pathological conditions may lead to cytosolic Ca 2+ accumulation and that the primary mechanism of H 2 O 2 -induced Ca 2+ accumulation is likely to inhibit Ca 2+ efflux through PMCA rather than mobilize Ca 2+ ions from extracellular medium or intracellular stores in mouse parotid acinar cells.

  6. Optically stimulated luminescence age controls on late Pleistocene and Holocene coastal lithosomes, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, D.; Burdette, K.; Mahan, S.; Brook, G.

    2008-01-01

    Luminescence ages from a variety of coastal features on the North Carolina Coastal Plain provide age control for shoreline formation and relative sea-level position during the late Pleistocene. A series of paleoshoreline ridges, dating to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and MIS 3 have been defined. The Kitty Hawk beach ridges, on the modern Outer Banks, yield ages of 3 to 2??ka. Oxygen-isotope data are used to place these deposits in the context of global climate and sea-level change. The occurrence of MIS 5a and MIS 3 shorelines suggests that glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the study area is large (ca. 22 to 26??m), as suggested and modeled by other workers, and/or MIS 3 sea level was briefly higher than suggested by some coral reef studies. Correcting the shoreline elevations for GIA brings their elevation in line with other sea-level indicators. The age of the Kitty Hawk beach ridges places the Holocene shoreline well west of its present location at ca. 3 to 2??ka. The age of shoreline progradation is consistent with the ages of other beach ridge complexes in the southeast USA, suggesting some regionally contemporaneous forcing mechanism. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

  7. Growth and nutrition of baldcypress families planted under varying salinity regimes in Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, K.W.; Chambers, J.L.; Allen, J.A.; Soileau, D.M.; DeBosier, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Saltwater intrusion from the Gulf of Mexico is one important factor in the destruction of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) swamps along the Louisiana Gulf Coast, USA. Recent restoration efforts have focused on identification of baldcypress genotypes with greater tolerance to saline conditions than previously reported. To date, salt tolerance investigations have not been conducted under saline field conditions. In 1996, therefore, three plantations were established with 10 half-sib genotype collections of baldcypress in mesohaline wetlands. Tree survival and growth were measured at the end of two growing seasons, and foliar ion concentrations of Na, Cl, K, and Ca and available soil nutrients were measured during the 1996 growing season. In general, soil nutrient concentrations exceeded averages found in other baldcypress stands in the southeastern United States. Seedlings differed among sites in all parameters measured, with height, diameter, foliar biomass, and survival decreasing as site salinity increased. Average seedling height at the end of two years, for example, was 196.4 cm on the lowest salinity site and 121.6 cm on the highest. Several half-sib families maintained greater height growth increments (ranging from 25.5 to 54.5 cm on the highest salinity site), as well as lower foliar ion concentrations of K, Cl, and Ca. Results indicate that genotypic screening of baldcypress may improve growth and vigor of seedlings planted within wetlands impacted by saltwater intrusion.

  8. Effects of inhaled anesthetic isoflurane on long-term potentiation of CA3 pyramidal cell afferents in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballesteros KA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kristen A Ballesteros,1 Angela Sikorski,2 James E Orfila,3 Joe L Martinez Jr41Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Texas A&M University Texarkana, Texarkana, TX, USA; 3University of Colorado in Denver, Denver, CO, USA; 4University of Illinois in Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Isoflurane is a preferred anesthetic, due to its properties that allow a precise concentration to be delivered continually during in vivo experimentation. The major mechanism of action of isoflurane is modulation of the γ-amino butyric acid (GABAA receptor-chloride channel, mediating inhibitory synaptic transmission. Animal studies have shown that isoflurane does not cause cell death, but it does inhibit cell growth and causes long-term hippocampal learning deficits. As there are no studies characterizing the effects of isoflurane on electrophysiological aspects of long-term potentiation (LTP in the hippocampus, it is important to determine whether isoflurane alters the characteristic responses of hippocampal afferents to cornu ammonis region 3 (CA3. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on adult male rats during in vivo induction of LTP, using the mossy fiber pathway, the lateral perforant pathway, the medial perforant pathway, and the commissural CA3 (cCA3 to CA3, with intracranial administration of Ringer’s solution, naloxone, RS-aminoindan-1, 5-dicarboxylic acid (AIDA, or 3-[(R-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propo-2-enyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP. Then, we compared these responses to published electrophysiological data, using sodium pentobarbital as an anesthetic, under similar experimental conditions. Our results showed that LTP was exhibited in animals anesthetized with isoflurane under vehicle conditions. With the exception of AIDA in the lateral perforant pathway, the defining characteristics of the four pathways appeared to remain intact, except for the observation that LTP was markedly reduced in animals

  9. High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    by Cl-rich fluids [4]. The association of high-temperature carbonates with sulphides beneath the J-M reef supports the hydromagmatic theory which involves a late-stage chloride-carbonate fluid percolating upwards, dissolving PGE and sulphides and redepositing them at a higher stratigraphic level. [1] Anovitz, L.M., and Essene, E.J., 1987, Phase Equilibria in the System CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3: Journal of Petrology, v. 28, p. 389-414. [2] Hanley, J.J., Mungall, J.E., Pettke, T., Spooner, E.T.C., and Bray, C.J., 2008, Fluid and Halide Melt Inclusions of Magmatic Origin in the Ultramafic and Lower Banded Series, Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA: Journal of Petrology, v. 49, p. 1133-1160. [3] Boudreau, A.E., and McCallum, I.S., 1989, Investigations of the Stillwater Complex: Part V. Apatites as indicators of evolving fluid composition: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 102, p. 138-153. [4] Newton, R.C., and Manning, C.E., 2002, Experimental determination of calcite solubility in H2O-NaCl solutions at deep crust/upper mantle pressures and temperature: implications for metasomatic processes in shear zones: American Mineralogist, v. 87, p. 1401-1409.

  10. Ca2+ alternans in a cardiac myocyte model that uses moment equations to represent heterogeneous junctional SR Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Marco A; Smith, Gregory D; Györke, Sándor

    2010-07-21

    Multiscale whole-cell models that accurately represent local control of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in cardiac myocytes can reproduce high-gain Ca2+ release that is graded with changes in membrane potential. Using a recently introduced formalism that represents heterogeneous local Ca2+ using moment equations, we present a model of cardiac myocyte Ca2+ cycling that exhibits alternating sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release when periodically stimulated by depolarizing voltage pulses. The model predicts that the distribution of junctional SR [Ca2+] across a large population of Ca2+ release units is distinct on alternating cycles. Load-release and release-uptake functions computed from this model give insight into how Ca2+ fluxes and stimulation frequency combine to determine the presence or absence of Ca2+ alternans. Our results show that the conditions for the onset of Ca2+ alternans cannot be explained solely by the steepness of the load-release function, but that changes in the release-uptake process also play an important role. We analyze the effect of the junctional SR refilling time constant on Ca2+ alternans and conclude that physiologically realistic models of defective Ca2+ cycling must represent the dynamics of heterogeneous junctional SR [Ca2+] without assuming rapid equilibration of junctional and network SR [Ca2+]. Copyright (c) 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Phosphorylation and activation of nuclear Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP-N/PPM1E) by Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onouchi, Takashi [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan); Sueyoshi, Noriyuki, E-mail: sueyoshi@ag.kagawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan); Ishida, Atsuhiko [Laboratory of Molecular Brain Science, Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Kameshita, Isamu [Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa 761-0795 (Japan)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CaMKP-N/PPM1E underwent proteolytic processing and translocated to cytosol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proteolysis was effectively inhibited by the proteasome inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ser-480 of zebrafish CaMKP-N was phosphorylated by cytosolic CaMKI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation-mimic mutants of CaMKP-N showed enhanced activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These results suggest that CaMKP-N is regulated by CaMKI. -- Abstract: Nuclear Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase (CaMKP-N/PPM1E) is an enzyme that dephosphorylates and downregulates multifunctional Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) as well as AMP-dependent protein kinase. In our previous study, we found that zebrafish CaMKP-N (zCaMKP-N) underwent proteolytic processing and translocated to cytosol in a proteasome inhibitor-sensitive manner. In the present study, we found that zCaMKP-N is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser-480. When zCaMKP-N was incubated with the activated CaMKI, time-dependent phosphorylation of the enzyme was observed. This phosphorylation was significantly reduced when Ser-480 was replaced by Ala, suggesting that CaMKI phosphorylates Ser-480 of zCaMKP-N. Phosphorylation-mimic mutants, S480D and S480E, showed higher phosphatase activities than those of wild type and S480A mutant in solution-based phosphatase assay using various substrates. Furthermore, autophosphorylation of CaMKII after ionomycin treatment was more severely attenuated in Neuro2a cells when CaMKII was cotransfected with the phosphorylation-mimic mutant of zCaMKP-N than with the wild-type or non-phosphorylatable zCaMKP-N. These results strongly suggest that phosphorylation of zCaMKP-N at Ser-480 by CaMKI activates CaMKP-N catalytic activity and thereby downregulates multifunctional CaMKs in the cytosol.

  12. Pricing behavior of USA exporter in wheat international market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, R. P.; Sumono; Iddrisu, Y.; Darus, M.; Sihombing, L. P.; Jufri

    2018-02-01

    The number of wheat producing countries is changing over time. It is expected the change in wheat supply will lead world wheat market become more competitive and reduce market power of major exporter country. This paper tries to identify and examined the degree of market power on wheat international market for USA by using the Pricing to Market (PTM) method. USA is the biggest producer and exporter in wheat market. The PTM method found that USA impose noncompetitive strategy by applying price discrimination and apply market power to their importer country.

  13. Materials compatibility during the chlorination of molten CaCl2 . CaO salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rense, C.E.C.; Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Ferran, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    As part of our effort to develop a semicontinuous PuO 2 reduction process, we are investigating promising materials for containing a 900 0 C molten CaCl 2 . CaO chlorination reaction. We want the material to contain this reaction and to be reusable. We tested candidate materials in a simulated salt (no plutonium) using anhydrous HCl as the chlorinating agent. Data are presented on the performance of 36 metals and alloys, 9 ceramics, and 3 coatings

  14. Anode process on platinum in CaCl2-CaO-based melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. V. Tatarenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry obtained new data on the mechanism and kinetics of anodic processes on platinum in the molten CaCl2-KCl-CaO when 725–775 °C. Given thermodynamic values of potential difference probable total reactions in the range of the studied temperature. Using potentiostatic polarization and cyclic voltammetry obtained new data on the mechanism and kinetics of anodic process on platinum in the molten CaCl2-KCl-CaO when 725–775 °C thermodynamic assessment of the probability of occurrence total reactions during electrolysis melt on the basis of CaCl2-CaO using non-carbon anode. It is shown that at high current densities anodic process takes place mainly in the conditions of slow diffusion of electrically active particles to the anode, and at low densities (up to 10 mA/cm2 to their discharge to the atomic and lecular oxygen is preceded by a stage, which can be associated with adsorption of atoms of oxygen or with the formation of an oxide film on the surface of platinum. To detect the nature of this stage, further research is needed.

  15. Diagnostic significance of tumor markers CEA, CA50 and CA19-9 for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei; Huang Gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression and diagnostic significance of three serum tumor markers (CEA, CA50, CA19-9) in patients with colorectal cancer, with special emphasis on their combined assay. Methods: Serum CEA, CA19-9 levels (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) and CA50 levels (with immunoradiometric assay) were determined in 94 patients with colorectal cancer, 20 patients with benign colorectal disorders and 37 controls. Results: The expressions of the serum tumor markers were significantly higher in patients with colorectal cancer than those in patients with benign colorectal disorders and controls (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the levels in the latter two groups. CEA assay had the highest sensitivity (57.4%) and specificity (85.9%). Combined assay of the three could enhance both the sensitivity (62.7%) and specificity (96.5%). The serum levels of the markers were significantly higher in patients with colonic cancer than those in patients with rectal cancer (P<0.05). The levels were positively correlated with the size of the growth and stage of the disease. Serum tumor marker levels were also significantly higher in patients with metastasis (regional/distant) than those in patients without metastasis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum CEA, CA50 and CA19-9 levels had definite value for the diagnosis and assessment of the pathology as well as biologic behavior colorectal cancer. Combined assay of the three could enhance the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. (authors)

  16. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C. [Toshiba America Nuclear Energy, Charlotte, North Carolina (United States); Arai, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B., E-mail: jim.powers@toshiba.com [Nuclear Innovation North America, Lake Jackson, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  17. Metagenomic characterization of ambulances across the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Niamh B; Reed, Harry J; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Harvin, Donell; Caplan, Nora; Rosen, Gail; Frye, Brook; Woloszynek, Stephen; Ounit, Rachid; Levy, Shawn; Butler, Erin; Mason, Christopher E

    2017-09-22

    Microbial communities in our built environments have great influence on human health and disease. A variety of built environments have been characterized using a metagenomics-based approach, including some healthcare settings. However, there has been no study to date that has used this approach in pre-hospital settings, such as ambulances, an important first point-of-contact between patients and hospitals. We sequenced 398 samples from 137 ambulances across the USA using shotgun sequencing. We analyzed these data to explore the microbial ecology of ambulances including characterizing microbial community composition, nosocomial pathogens, patterns of diversity, presence of functional pathways and antimicrobial resistance, and potential spatial and environmental factors that may contribute to community composition. We found that the top 10 most abundant species are either common built environment microbes, microbes associated with the human microbiome (e.g., skin), or are species associated with nosocomial infections. We also found widespread evidence of antimicrobial resistance markers (hits ~ 90% samples). We identified six factors that may influence the microbial ecology of ambulances including ambulance surfaces, geographical-related factors (including region, longitude, and latitude), and weather-related factors (including temperature and precipitation). While the vast majority of microbial species classified were beneficial, we also found widespread evidence of species associated with nosocomial infections and antimicrobial resistance markers. This study indicates that metagenomics may be useful to characterize the microbial ecology of pre-hospital ambulance settings and that more rigorous testing and cleaning of ambulances may be warranted.

  18. A BWR licensing experience in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.; Ogura, C.; Arai, K.; Thomas, S.; Mookhoek, B.

    2015-09-01

    The US-Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR), certified by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC), is a third generation, evolutionary boiling water reactor design which is the reference for the South Texas Project Units 3 and 4 (STP3-4) Combined License Application (Cola). Nuclear Innovation North America (Nina) is the License Applicant for this new build project, and Toshiba is the selected primary technology contractor. The STP3-4 project has finished the US NRC technical review of the Cola through the final meeting of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and the Final Safety Evaluation Report (FSER) is scheduled to be issued by the US NRC in the middle of 2015. The next steps are to support the Mandatory Hearing process, and voting by the NRC commissioners on the motion to grant the Combined License, which is scheduled beginning of 2016 according to US NRC schedule as of March 30, 2015. This paper summarizes the history and progress of the US-A BWR licensing, including the experiences of the Licensee, Nina, and Toshiba as the Epc team worked through the Code of Federal Regulations Title 10 (10-Cfr) Part 52 process, and provides some perspectives on how the related licensing material would also be of value within a 10-Cfr Part 50, two-step process to minimize schedule and financial risks which could arise from ongoing technical developments and regulatory reviews. (Author)

  19. Southwestern USA Drought over Multiple Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, M. W.; Kipfmueller, K. F.

    2014-12-01

    Severe to extreme drought conditions currently exist across much of the American West. There is increasing concern that climate change may be worsening droughts in the West and particularly the Southwest. Thus, it is important to understand the role of natural variability and to place current conditions in a long-term context. We present a tree-ring derived reconstruction of regional-scale precipitation for the Southwestern USA over several millennia. A network of 48 tree-ring chronologies from California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado was used. All of the chronologies are at least 1,000 years long. The network was subjected to data reduction through PCA and a "nested" multiple linear regression reconstruction approach. The regression model was able to capture 72% of the variance in September-August precipitation over the last 1,000 years and 53% of the variance over the first millennium of the Common Era. Variance captured and spatial coverage further declined back in time as the shorter chronologies dropped out of the model, eventually reaching 24% of variance captured at 3250 BC. Results show regional droughts on decadal- to multi-decadal scales have been prominent and persistent phenomena in the region over the last several millennia. Anthropogenic warming is likely to exacerbate the effects of future droughts on human and other biotic populations.

  20. The role of Ca(2+) mediated signaling pathways on the effect of taurine against Streptococcus uberis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Jinqiu; Liu, Ming; Lu, Jinye; Zhang, Yuanshu; Xu, Yuanyuan; Miao, Jinfeng; Yin, Yulong

    2016-08-30

    To provide insight into the mechanisms of taurine attenuation of pro-inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cell line (EpH4-Ev, purchased by ATCC, USA) after Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis, 0140J) challenge, we infected MECs with S. uberis (2.5×10(7)cfumL(-1), MOI=10) for 3h and quantified changes in TLR-2 and calcium (Ca(2+)) mediated signaling pathways. The results indicate that S. uberis infection significantly increases the expression of TLR-2, intracellular Ca(2+) levels, PLC-γ1 and PKC-α, the activities of transcription factors NF-κB and NFAT, and related cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, G-CSF, IL-2, KC, IL-15, FasL, MCP-1, and LIX) in culture supernatants. Taurine administration downregulated all these indices, the activities of NF-κB and NFAT. Cytokine secretions were similar using special PKC inhibitor Go 6983 and NFAT inhibitor VIVIT. Our data indicate that S. uberis infection induces pro-inflammatory response of MECs through a TLR-2 mediated signaling pathway. In addition, taurine can prevent MEC damage by affecting both PLC-γ1-Ca(2+)-PKC-α-NF-κB and PLC-γ1-Ca(2+)-NFATs signaling pathways. This is the first report to demonstrate the mechanisms of taurine attenuated pro-inflammatory response in MECs after S. uberis challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuronal Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomello, Marta; Oliveros, Juan C; Naranjo, Jose R; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of the N-terminal poly-glutamine tract of the huntingtin (Htt) protein is responsible for Huntington disease (HD). A large number of studies have explored the neuronal phenotype of HD, but the molecular aethiology of the disease is still very poorly understood. This has hampered the development of an appropriate therapeutical strategy to at least alleviate its symptoms. In this short review, we have focused our attention on the alteration of a specific cellular mechanism common to all HD models, either genetic or induced by treatment with 3-NPA, i.e. the cellular dyshomeostasis of Ca(2+). We have highlighted the direct and indirect (i.e. transcriptionally mediated) effects of mutated Htt on the maintenance of the intracellular Ca(2+) balance, the correct modulation of which is fundamental to cell survival and the disturbance of which plays a key role in the death of the cell.

  2. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of CA125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Gangming; Huang Biao; Zhu Liguo; Xiao Hualong; Tan Cheng; Tao Yonghui; Jin Jian

    2001-01-01

    A two-site time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TRFIA) of CA 125 based on the direct sandwich technique has been developed, with the equilibrium method. The monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against CA 125 was labelled with europium by the help of europium-chelate of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA). The luminescent enhancement system was an enhancement solution that contained mainly of 2-naphthoyltrifluoroacetone. The intra- and inter- assay CV of the TRFIA were 4.5% and 4.0%, respectively, and the recovery rate was 96.7%, the sensitivity was 3.3 μg/mL. The cross-reacting rate with CEA was negligible, and that with AFP and β-HCG was 4.6% and 12.4%, respectively. Compared with the imported IRMA Kit, the correlation coefficient was 0.999

  3. The Reliability of Highly Elevated CA 19-9 Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Osswald

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available CA 19-9 is used as a tumour marker of the upper gastrointestinal tract. However, extremely elevated CA 19-9 levels are found also in patients with benign diseases. Cholestasis was present in 97.1 % of patients with high elevated CA 19-9, independent of their primary disease. 50% of patients with non-malignant diseases and increased CA 19-9 levels showed liver cirrhosis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis and/or hepatitis. In 8.8% no explanation was found for the extremely high CA 19-9 level. The results provide evidence of different factors influencing the CA 19-9 level.

  4. Ameerika suursaadik Aldona Sofia Wos : toon kättpidi USA suurfirmad Eestisse / Aldona Zofia Wos ; interv. Airi Ilisson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wos, Aldona Zofia

    2005-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud Londonis USA riigidepartemangu korraldatud konverentsiga, kus Balti riikide juhid rääkisid USA ettevõtete esindajatele, miks tuleks investeerida Balti riikidesse. USA tehtud investeeringutest Eestisse, Eesti ettevõtjate võimalustest USA-s. Lisa: Tõhus rahapüüdja

  5. Astrocyte Ca2+ signalling: an unexpected complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Volterra, Andrea; Liaudet, Nicolas; Savtchouk, Iaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte Ca(2+) signalling has been proposed to link neuronal information in different spatial-temporal dimensions to achieve a higher level of brain integration. However, some discrepancies in the results of recent studies challenge this view and highlight key insufficiencies in our current understanding. In parallel, new experimental approaches that enable the study of astrocyte physiology at higher spatial-temporal resolution in intact brain preparations are beginning to reveal an unexpec...

  6. Mg,Ca-ATPase activity under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladutin, V.V.; Orlova, V.V.; Lob, P.A.; Gerasiminko, I.V.; Mack, E.I.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The influence of different doses irradiation at the Mg,Ca-ATPase activity at the rat brain has been investigated. The analyses were made at the apparatus of LKB and Carl-Ceis-Jena firm with help of reagents of Sigma and Boehringer firm. Rats decapitated after 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h after action of irradiation. Dose 0.206 C/kg. Erythrocytes. 1 and 3h after irradiation influence- decrease of Mg,Ca-ATPase activity to 86-87% relatively control level, 24 and 48 h - increase of activity to the control level. Dose 0.312 C/kg. Large hemispheres. 1h - decrease of ATPase activity to 90% relatively control, 3h - increase to control level, 24h - fall to 86%, after 48h small increase to 93% relatively control. Dose 9.287 C/kg. Large hemispheres. 1h - sharp fall of Mg, Ca-ATPase activity to 67 % relatively control, increase of activity to 96% after 3h and sharp fall of activity to 64% 6h after action of irradiation. Dose 9.287 C/kg. Cerebellum. 1h - sharp decrease of ATPase activity to 80%. After 3h -sharp increase to 160% relatively control level and sharp fall of ATPase activity to 47% relatively control after 6h. The mechanism of radiation pathology of active ion transport has been discussed

  7. Ämari baas sobib USA-le ja brittidele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Eelmisel nädalal Eestit külastanud USA ja Ühendkuningriigi sõjalised esindajad NATO juures kindralleitnandid David R. Hogg ja Christopher Harper kinnitasid, et on valmis oma lennukeid Ämari baasist opereerima

  8. Terroriekspert kujutab USA valitsust fanaatilise grupina / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA terroriekspert Richard Clarke maalib oma mälestustekogus "Against All Enemies" Bushi administratsioonist pildi kui kohe ametisse astumise järel fanaatiliselt Iraagi-vastaseid samme sepitsema hakanud grupist. Lisa: Neli presidenti terrori-raamatus

  9. Film teeb USA valmistumise Iraagi okupatsiooniks maatasa / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Dokumentaalfilm "Lõppu ei ole näha" ("No End in Sight") : autor ja režissöör professor Charles Ferguson : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2007. Lisa: USA vead Iraagis. Vt. samas: Sunniidid lahkusid Iraagi valitsusest

  10. USA uus ÜRO saadik alustas pealetungi / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide uus ÜRO suursaadik John Bolton nõuab 190 liikmesriigile saadetud kirjas ÜRO reformikavades suurte ja oluliste muudatuste tegemist: reformikavast peaks USA arvates kustutama vähemalt 400 paragrahvi

  11. News and Features Updates from USA.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Stay on top of important government news and information with the USA.gov Updates: News and Features RSS feed. We'll update this feed when we add news and featured...

  12. Reson 8101 Backscatter imagery of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Penguin Bank, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. These data provide almost complete coverage between 0 and 100 meters....

  13. Glucagon releases Ca2+ from a FCCP-sensitive pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus-Friedmann, N.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of physiological levels of glucagon on Ca 2+ efflux were examined in the perfused rat liver. Two methods were used to estimate Ca 2+ efflux: (1) prior labeling of the Ca 2+ pools with 45 Ca 2+ , and (2) measurement of perfusate Ca 2+ with atomic absorption. According to both methods, glucagon administration at the physiological level evoked Ca 2+ release. In order to identify the hormone-sensitive Ca 2+ pool, a method employed by several laboratories was used. In this method, mitochondrial Ca 2+ is released by FCCP, (carbonyl-cyanide 4 (trifluoro/methoxy) phenylhydrazone), a mitochondrial uncoupler. The effect of hormones on Ca 2+ release after such uncoupler administration is measured. A decreased release is taken as an indication that the pool is entirely or partially mitochondrial. FCCP released 90 +/- 29 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver. Glucagon (5 x 10 -9 M) released 107 +/- 45 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver before and 26 +/- 9 nmoles Ca 2+ /gr wet liver after FCCP. These data indicate that glucagon releases Ca 2+ mostly from the mitochondria

  14. CaMKII: linking heart failure and arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Paari Dominic; Purohit, Anil; Hund, Thomas J; Anderson, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    Understanding relationships between heart failure and arrhythmias, important causes of suffering and sudden death, remains an unmet goal for biomedical researchers and physicians. Evidence assembled over the last decade supports a view that activation of the multifunctional Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) favors myocardial dysfunction and cell membrane electrical instability. CaMKII activation follows increases in intracellular Ca2+ or oxidation, upstream signals with the capacity to transition CaMKII into a Ca2+ and calmodulin-independeant, constitutively active enzyme. Constitutively active CaMKII appears poised to participate in disease pathways by catalyzing the phosphorylation of classes of protein targets important for excitation-contraction coupling and cell survival, including ion channels and Ca2+ homeostatic proteins, and transcription factors that drive hypertrophic and inflammatory gene expression. This rich diversity of downstream targets helps to explain the potential for CaMKII to simultaneously affect mechanical and electrical properties of heart muscle cells. Proof of concept studies from a growing number of investigators show that CaMKII inhibition is beneficial for improving myocardial performance and reducing arrhythmias. Here we review the molecular physiology of CaMKII, discuss CaMKII actions at key cellular targets and results of animal models of myocardial hypertrophy, dysfunction and arrhythmias that suggest CaMKII inhibition may benefit myocardial function while reducing arrhythmias. PMID:22679140

  15. IP3 stimulates CA++ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositide breakdown plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells (Berridge and Irvine, 1984, Nature, 312:315). Upon stimulation, phospholipase C hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and diacylglycerol both of which act as cellular second messengers. IP 3 mobilizes Ca ++ from internal stores, hence the cytosolic free Ca ++ concentration increases and those physiological activities regulated by Ca ++ are stimulated. To test if plant cells also responded to IP 3 , Ca ++ efflux studies were done with fusogenic carrot protoplasts released in EGTA. The protoplasts were preloaded with 45 Ca ++ placed in a Ca ++ -free medium, and efflux determined as 45 Ca ++ loss from the protoplasts. IP 3 (10-20μM) caused enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux and the response was sustained for at least 15 min. In plants, as in animals, the observed IP 3 -enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux suggested that IP 3 released Ca ++ from internal stores, and the increased free cytosolic Ca ++ activated Ca ++ pumping mechanisms which restored the Ca ++ concentration in the cytosol to the normal level

  16. Ilves kohtub USA välisministri Rice'iga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves sõitis töövisiidile Ameerika Ühendriikidesse, kus kohtub USA asepresidendi Richard B. Cheney'ga ja riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice'iga, külastab USA kaitsejõudude staapi ja kohtub staabiülema kohusetäitja kindralleitnant Martin Dempsey'ga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  17. Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Daniel E. Crane

    2002-01-01

    Based on field data from 10 USA cities and national urban tree cover data, it is estimated that urban trees in the coterminous USA currently store 700 million tonnes of carbon ($14,300 million value) with a gross carbon sequestration rate of 22.8 million tC/yr ($460 rnillion/year). Carbon storage within cities ranges From 1.2 million tC in New York, NY, to 19,300 tC in...

  18. Some aspects of licensing procedures for NPP operation in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, A.N.

    2002-01-01

    Structure of the Code of Federal Regulations of USA is reviewed, aspects of licensing for NPP operation in USA associated with licensing procedures for service of NPP, prolongation of license as well as introduction of changes in prevailing licenses using risk-informed decisionmaking method are outlined. Fundamental stages of decision making with risk assessment for the particular station as well as values of acceptability for the frequency evaluation of reactor core disruption and large early discharges are presented [ru

  19. Incremental Aerodynamic Coefficient Database for the USA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annie Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In March through May of 2016, a wind tunnel test was conducted by the Aerosciences Branch (EV33) to visually study the unsteady aerodynamic behavior over multiple transition geometries for the Universal Stage Adapter 2 (USA2) in the MSFC Aerodynamic Research Facility's Trisonic Wind Tunnel (TWT). The purpose of the test was to make a qualitative comparison of the transonic flow field in order to provide a recommended minimum transition radius for manufacturing. Additionally, 6 Degree of Freedom force and moment data for each configuration tested was acquired in order to determine the geometric effects on the longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients (Normal Force, Axial Force, and Pitching Moment). In order to make a quantitative comparison of the aerodynamic effects of the USA2 transition geometry, the aerodynamic coefficient data collected during the test was parsed and incorporated into a database for each USA2 configuration tested. An incremental aerodynamic coefficient database was then developed using the generated databases for each USA2 geometry as a function of Mach number and angle of attack. The final USA2 coefficient increments will be applied to the aerodynamic coefficients of the baseline geometry to adjust the Space Launch System (SLS) integrated launch vehicle force and moment database based on the transition geometry of the USA2.

  20. Determination of the calcium species in coal chars by Ca K-edge XANES analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Juan; Liu, Hui-Jun; Cui, Ming-Qi; Hu, Yong-Feng; Zheng, Lei; Zhao, Yi-Dong; Ma, Chen-Yan; Xi, Shi-Bo; Yang, Dong-Liang; Guo, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jie

    2013-02-01

    Ca-based additives have been widely used as a sulfur adsorbent during coal pyrolysis and gasification. The Ca speciation and evolution during the pyrolysis of coal with Ca additives have attracted great attention. In this paper, Ca species in the coal chars prepared from the pyrolysis of Ca(OH)2 or CaCO3-added coals are studied by using Ca K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structural spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that Ca(OH)2, CaSO4, CaS and CaO coexist in the Ca(OH)2-added chars, while Ca(OH)2 and CaSO4 are the main species in the Ca(OH)2-added chars. Besides, a carboxyl-bound Ca is also formed during both the pyrolysis for the Ca(OH)2-added and the CaCO3-added coals. A detailed discussion about the Ca speciation is given.

  1. Selective reinnervation of hippocampal area CA1 and the fascia dentata after destruction of CA3-CA4 afferents with kainic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadler, J V; Perry, B W; Cotman, C W

    1980-01-20

    Intraventricular injections of kainic acid were used to destroy the hippocampal CA3-CA4 cells, thus denervating the inner third of the molecular layer of the fascia dentata and stratum radiatum and stratum oriens of area CA1. The responses of intact afferents to such lesions were then examined histologically. The hippocampal mossy fibers densely reinnervated the inner portion of the dentate molecular layer after bilateral destruction of CA4 neurons and to a lesser extent after unilateral destruction. Septohippocampal fibers replaced CA4-derived fibers in the dentate molecular layer only after particularly extensive bilateral CA4 lesions. Medial perforant path fibers showed no anatomical response to any of these lesions. Neither septohippocampal, temporoammonic nor mossy fibers proliferated in or grew into the denervated laminae of area CA1. These results show a preferential ordering in the reinnervation of dentate granule cells which is not readily explained by proximity to the degenerating fibers and also that removal of CA3-CA4-derived innervation more readily elicits translaminar growth in the fascia dentata than in area CA1. These results may be relevant to clinical situations in which neurons of the hippocampal end-blade are lost.

  2. Characterization of Bacillus subtilis YfkE (ChaA): a calcium-specific Ca2+/H+ antiporter of the CaCA family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Makoto; Wada, Yuko; Tsuchiya, Takahiro; Ito, Masahiro

    2009-08-01

    YfkE, a protein from Bacillus subtilis, exhibits homology to the Ca(2+):Cation Antiporter (CaCA) Family. In a fluorescence-based assay of everted membrane vesicles prepared from Na(+)(Ca(2+))/H(+) antiporter-defective mutant Escherichia coli KNabc, YfkE exhibited robust Ca(2+)/H(+) antiport activity, with a K (m) for Ca(2+) estimated at 12.5 muM at pH 8.5 and 113 muM at pH 7.5. Neither Na(+) nor K(+) served as a substrate. Mg(2+) also did not serve as a substrate, but inhibited the Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter activity. The Ca(2+) transport capability of YfkE was also observed directly by transport assays in everted membrane vesicles using radiolabeled (45)Ca(2+). Transcriptional analysis from the putative yfkED operon using beta-garactosidase activity as a reporter revealed that both of the yfkE and yfkD genes are regulated by forespore-specific sigma factor, SigG, and the general stress response regulator, SigB. These results suggest that YfkE may be needed for Ca(2+) signaling in the sporulation or germination process in B. subtilis. ChaA is proposed as the designation for YfkE of B. subtilis.

  3. Is tissue CA125 expression in epithelial ovarian adenocarcinoma heterogenic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, Morten H; Høgdall, Claus K; Nedergaard, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if heterogeneity of tissue cancer antigen 125 (CA125) expression is present in epithelial serous adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, to investigate whether there is a correlation between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade. A total of 10 patients...... diagnosed with serous ovarian adenocarcinomas were included. Preoperative blood samples were collected to determine serum CA125 levels. Tumor tissue from primary surgery was collected and processed for immunohistochemical analyses. CA125 was expressed in varying degrees in tumor tissues from all patients....... Mean tissue CA125 expression for each patient ranged from 36% to 98%. Intrapatient variations in tissue expression ranged from 10% to 90% point. No significant correlations between levels of CA125 tissue expression, serum level of CA125, stage, and grade were found. We found that the tissue expression...

  4. Modeling landslide recurrence in Seattle, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salciarini, Diana; Godt, Jonathan W.; Savage, William Z.; Baum, Rex L.; Conversini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    To manage the hazard associated with shallow landslides, decision makers need an understanding of where and when landslides may occur. A variety of approaches have been used to estimate the hazard from shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides, such as empirical rainfall threshold methods or probabilistic methods based on historical records. The wide availability of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital topographic data has led to the development of analytic methods for landslide hazard estimation that couple steady-state hydrological models with slope stability calculations. Because these methods typically neglect the transient effects of infiltration on slope stability, results cannot be linked with historical or forecasted rainfall sequences. Estimates of the frequency of conditions likely to cause landslides are critical for quantitative risk and hazard assessments. We present results to demonstrate how a transient infiltration model coupled with an infinite slope stability calculation may be used to assess shallow landslide frequency in the City of Seattle, Washington, USA. A module called CRF (Critical RainFall) for estimating deterministic rainfall thresholds has been integrated in the TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-Stability) model that combines a transient, one-dimensional analytic solution for pore-pressure response to rainfall infiltration with an infinite slope stability calculation. Input data for the extended model include topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water-table depth, material properties, and rainfall durations. This approach is combined with a statistical treatment of rainfall using a GEV (General Extreme Value) probabilistic distribution to produce maps showing the shallow landslide recurrence induced, on a spatially distributed basis, as a function of rainfall duration and hillslope characteristics.

  5. Sloping fan travertine, Belen, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Megan; Chafetz, Henry S.

    2017-05-01

    Pliocene to Quaternary age travertines are very well-exposed in quarries near Belen, New Mexico, U.S.A., on the western edge of the Rio Grande Rift system. A series of hillside springs produced travertine tongues tens of meters thick and hundreds of meters long. The accumulations represent deposits from individual springs as well as the amalgamation of deposits. The overall architecture is predominantly composed of sloping fans with a smaller component of terrace mounds. The sloping fan deposits commonly have a dip of step morphology. As a consequence of vertical accretion in the pools, terrace mounds morphed into sloping fans. The travertine is composed of a variety of commonly reported constituents, i.e., centimeter thick laminae of bacterial shrubs and oncoids, foam rock, sheets and rafts, and finely crystalline crusts that occur throughout the sloping fan and terrace mound accumulations. Sheets and rafts formed as precipitates in pools on the surfaces of the fans and terraces as well as spelean deposits on the water surfaces of pools within cavities in the overall accumulation. Thus, the spelean rafts provide valuable indicators of original horizontality in the sloping fan strata. In addition, intraformational breccias, composed of locally torn-up travertine intraclastic boulders and deposited in with other travertine, and extraformational breccias, composed of torn-up travertine intraclasts mixed with siliciclastic fines and sand and Paleozoic limestone clasts transported downslope from higher on the hillside, are a common constituent in the sloping fan accumulation. The Belen travertines provide a very well-exposed example of sloping fan travertines and may provide relevant data with regard to the subsurface Aptian Pre-Salt deposits, offshore Brazil.

  6. Iraagis on surma saanud juba 2000 USA sõjaväelast / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2005-01-01

    USA-s suri 2000. sõjaväelane Iraagis saadud haavadesse. Kui USA juhitud välismaiste relvajõudude esindaja Bagdadis kutsus meediat seda arvu mitte üle tähtsustama, siis USA meedia seevastu pidas seda just oluliseks märgiks. Diagrammid: Iraagi sõja inimkaotused

  7. Clinton: USA kaotab infosõjas Hiina, Venemaa ja Al Jazeeraga / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    USA välisministri Hillary Clintoni hinnangul on USA propaganda nõrgenenud ning USA mõjuvõim väheneb pidevalt. H. Clintoni vastusest Senati väliskomisjonis senaator Richard Lugari küsimusele USA pingutustest diplomaatilise kommunikatsiooni vallas

  8. USA järelevalve e-side üle maailmas tugevneb / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2007-01-01

    USA Kongress võttis vastu seaduse, mis annab eriteenistustele suurema tegutsemisvabaduse rahvusvahelise e-side jälgimisel ning nõuab USA-d külastavate viisavabade riikide ärimeestelt eelinfot oma tegevuse kohta. Lisa: USA-s heakskiidetud terrorismivastased abinõud

  9. USA kindral ei soovita sõjalist kohalolekut Iraagis niipea vähendada / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    USA vägede juhataja Iraagis David Petraeus ja suursaadik Iraagis Ryan Cocker käsitlesid USA Esindajatekoja relvajõudude ja väliskomitee ühisistungil olukorda Iraagis ja USA sõjalist kohalolekut. Nad soovisid Kongressilt USA vägede säilitamist enam-vähem praegusel tasemel kuni 2008. aasta suveni

  10. USA salajane riigiametnike komisjon võib panna ka oma kodanikud tapanimekirja / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2011-01-01

    Jeemenis USA droonirünnakus hukkunud Anwar al-Awlaki, keda USA valitsusesindajad nimetasid al-Qaida talendiotsijaks ja värvatute motiveerijaks, oli väidetavalt esimene USA kodanik, kes oli pandud USA vastu võitlevate terroristide nn. tapanimekirja

  11. Store-operated Ca2+ entry is not required for fertilization-induced Ca2+ signaling in mouse eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Miranda L; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Stein, Paula; Zhang, Yingpei; Williams, Carmen J

    2017-07-01

    Repetitive oscillations in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ due to periodic Ca 2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) drive mammalian embryo development following fertilization. Influx of extracellular Ca 2+ to support the refilling of ER stores is required for sustained Ca 2+ oscillations, but the mechanisms underlying this Ca 2+ influx are controversial. Although store-operated Ca 2+ entry (SOCE) is an appealing candidate mechanism, several groups have arrived at contradictory conclusions regarding the importance of SOCE in oocytes and eggs. To definitively address this question, Ca 2+ influx was assessed in oocytes and eggs lacking the major components of SOCE, the ER Ca 2+ sensor STIM proteins, and the plasma membrane Ca 2+ channel ORAI1. We generated oocyte-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice for Stim1 and Stim2, and also generated Stim1/2 double cKO mice. Females lacking one or both STIM proteins were fertile and their ovulated eggs displayed normal patterns of Ca 2+ oscillations following fertilization. In addition, no impairment was observed in ER Ca 2+ stores or Ca 2+ influx following store depletion. Similar studies were performed on eggs from mice globally lacking ORAI1; no abnormalities were observed. Furthermore, spontaneous Ca 2+ influx was normal in oocytes from Stim1/2 cKO and ORAI1-null mice. Finally, we tested if TRPM7-like channels could support spontaneous Ca 2+ influx, and found that it was largely prevented by NS8593, a TRPM7-specific inhibitor. Fertilization-induced Ca 2+ oscillations were also impaired by NS8593. Combined, these data robustly show that SOCE is not required to support appropriate Ca 2+ signaling in mouse oocytes and eggs, and that TRPM7-like channels may contribute to Ca 2+ influx that was previously attributed to SOCE. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. MicroRNA-145 suppresses ROS-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload of cardiomyocytes by targeting CaMKIIδ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Min-Ji [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Kyung [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Onju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Lee, Se-Yeon [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Yeon; Park, Jun-Hee [Department of Integrated Omics for Biomedical Sciences, Graduate School, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-759 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jiyun; Seo, Hyang-Hee [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eunhyun [Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University Health System, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Woo-min [Department of Animal Resource, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jin [Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 250 Seongsanno, Seodamun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyun-Taek [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, 52 HyoChangWon-Gil, Yongsan-ku, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2013-06-14

    Highlights: •CaMKIIδ mediates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. •miR-145 can inhibit Ca{sup 2+} overload. •A luciferase assay confirms that miR-145 functions as a CaMKIIδ-targeting miRNA. •Overexpression of miR-145 regulates CaMKIIδ-related genes and ameliorates apoptosis. -- Abstract: A change in intracellular free calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) is a common signaling mechanism of reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death. Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a critical regulator of Ca{sup 2+} signaling and mediates signaling pathways responsible for functions in the heart including hypertrophy, apoptosis, arrhythmia, and heart disease. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in the regulation of cell response, including survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and development. However, the roles of miRNAs in Ca{sup 2+}-mediated apoptosis of cardiomyocytes are uncertain. Here, we determined the potential role of miRNA in the regulation of CaMKII dependent apoptosis and explored its underlying mechanism. To determine the potential roles of miRNAs in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-mediated Ca{sup 2+} overload, we selected and tested 6 putative miRNAs that targeted CaMKIIδ, and showed that miR-145 represses CaMKIIδ protein expression and Ca{sup 2+} overload. We confirmed CaMKIIδ as a direct downstream target of miR-145. Furthermore, miR-145 regulates Ca{sup 2+}-related signals and ameliorates apoptosis. This study demonstrates that miR-145 regulates reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced Ca{sup 2+} overload in cardiomyocytes. Thus, miR-145 affects ROS-mediated gene regulation and cellular injury responses.

  13. Caffeine- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in honeybee photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, B; Baumann, O; Zimmermann, B; Ciriacy-Wantrup, E V

    1995-04-01

    Light stimulation of invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors causes a large rapid elevation in Cai, shown previously to modulate the adaptational state of the cells. Cai rises, at least in part, as a result of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release from the submicrovillar endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we provide evidence for Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in an insect photoreceptor. In situ microphotometric measurements of Ca2+ fluxes across the ER membrane in permeabilized slices of drone bee retina show that (a) caffeine induces Ca2+ release from the ER; (b) caffeine and Ins(1,4,5)P3 open distinct Ca2+ release pathways because only caffeine-induced Ca2+ release is ryanodine sensitive and heparin insensitive, and because caffeine and Ins(1,4,5)P3 have additive effects on the rate of Ca2+ release; (c) Ca2+ itself stimulates release of Ca2+ via a ryanodine-sensitive pathway; and (d) cADPR is ineffective in releasing Ca2+. Microfluorometric intracellular Ca2+ measurements with fluo-3 indicate that caffeine induces a persistent elevation in Cai. Electrophysiological recordings demonstrate that caffeine mimics all aspects of Ca(2+)-mediated facilitation and adaptation in drone photoreceptors. We conclude that the ER in drone photoreceptors contains, in addition to the Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive release pathway, a CICR pathway that meets key pharmacological criteria for a ryanodine receptor. Coexpression of both release mechanisms could be required for the production of rapid light-induced Ca2+ elevations, because Ca2+ amplifies its own release through both pathways by a positive feedback. CICR may also mediate the spatial spread of Ca2+ release from the submicrovillar ER toward more remote ER subregions, thereby activating Ca(2+)-sensitive cell processes that are not directly involved in phototransduction.

  14. Modeling CaMKII-mediated regulation of L-type Ca2+ channels and ryanodine receptors in the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L Greenstein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Excitation-contraction coupling (ECC in the cardiac myocyte is mediated by a number of highly integrated mechanisms of intracellular Ca2+ transport. Voltage- and Ca2+-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels (LCCs allow for Ca2+ entry into the myocyte, which then binds to nearby ryanodine receptors (RyRs and triggers Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum in a process known as Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release. The highly coordinated Ca2+-mediated interaction between LCCs and RyRs is further regulated by the cardiac isoform of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII. Because CaMKII targets and modulates the function of many ECC proteins, elucidation of its role in ECC and integrative cellular function is challenging and much insight has been gained through the use of detailed computational models. Multiscale models that can both reconstruct the detailed nature of local signaling events within the cardiac dyad and predict their functional consequences at the level of the whole cell have played an important role in advancing our understanding of CaMKII function in ECC. Here, we review experimentally based models of CaMKII function with a focus on LCC and RyR regulation, and the mechanistic insights that have been gained through their application.

  15. New anticancer drug candidates sulfonamides as selective hCA IX or hCA XII inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Halise Inci; Yamali, Cem; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Angeli, Andrea; Leitans, Janis; Kazaks, Andris; Tars, Kaspars; Ozgun, Dilan Ozmen; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2018-04-01

    In this study, new 4-[3-(aryl)-5-substitutedphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-yl]benzensulfonamides (19-36) were synthesized and evaluated their cytotoxic/anticancer and CA inhibitory effects. According to results obtained, the compounds 34 (4-[5-(2,3,4-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-yl] benzensulfonamide, Potency-Selectivity Expression (PSE) = 141) and 36 (4-[5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(thiophen-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-yl]benzensulfonamide, PSE = 54.5) were found the leader anticancer compounds with the highest PSE values. In CA inhibitory studies, the compounds 36 and 24 (4-[5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-yl]benzensulfonamide) were found the leader CA inhibitors depending on selectivity ratios. The compound 36 was a selective inhibitor of hCA XII isoenzyme (hCA I/hCA XII = 1250 and hCA II/hCA XII = 224) while the compound 24 was a selective inhibitor of hCA IX isoenzyme (hCA I/hCA IX = 161 and hCA II/hCA IX = 177). The compounds 24, 34, and 36 can be considered to develop new anticancer drug candidates. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sensing mechanisms involved in Ca2+ and Mg2+ homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferre, S.; Hoenderop, J.G.J.; Bindels, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions are involved in many vital physiological functions. In the human body, Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) homeostatic systems rely on three components: (i) tissues (re)absorbing or storing Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), mainly kidney, intestine, and bone; (ii) hormones that modulate

  17. Electronic structure of Ca, Sr, and Ba under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animalu, A. O. E.; Heine, V.; Vasvari, B.

    1967-01-01

    Electronic band structure calculations phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure electronic band structure calculations for fcc phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure electronic band structure calculations for fcc phase of Ca, Sr and Ba over wide range of atomic volumes under pressure

  18. Enhanced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release following intermittent sprint training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørtenblad, Niels; Lunde, Per; Levin, Kasper

    2000-01-01

    -977) arbitrary units Ca(2+). g protein(-1). min(-1) (after). The relative SR density of functional ryanodine receptors (RyR) remained unchanged after training; there was, however, a 48% (P RyR. No significant differences in Ca(2+) uptake rate and Ca(2+)-ATPase capacity were...

  19. Registration of CA0469C025C chickpea germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chickpea (Cicer arientinum L.) germplasm CA0469C025C (Reg. No. XXX; PI XXX), was released by the USDA-ARS in 2010. CA0469C025C was released based on its improved yield and reaction to Ascochyta blight relative to the popular commercial cultivars ‘Dwelley’, ‘Sierra’, and ‘Sawyer’. CA0490C025C is deri...

  20. Integrated Mechanisms of CaMKII-dependent ventricular remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Kreusser

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CaMKII has been shown to be activated during different cardiac pathological processes, and CaMKII-dependent mechanisms contribute to pathological cardiac remodeling, cardiac arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction during heart failure. Activation of CaMKII during cardiac stress results in a broad number of biological effects such as, on the one hand, acute effects due to phosphorylation of distinct cellular proteins as ion channels and calcium handling proteins and, on the other hand, integrative mechanisms by changing gene expression. This review focuses on transcriptional and epigenetic effects of CaMKII activation during chronic cardiac remodeling. Multiple mechanisms have been described how CaMKII mediates changes in cardiac gene expression. CaMKII has been shown to directly phosphorylate components of the cardiac gene regulation machinery. CaMKII phosphorylates several transcription factors such as CREB that induces the activation of specific gene programs. CaMKII activates transcriptional regulators also indirectly by phosphorylating histone deacetylases, especially HDAC4, which in turn inhibits transcription factors that drive cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction. Recent studies demonstrate that CaMKII also phosphorylate directly histones, which may contribute to changes in gene expression. These findings of CaMKII-dependent gene regulation during cardiac remodeling processes suggest novel strategies for CaMKII-dependent transcriptional or epigenetic therapies to control cardiac gene expression and function. Manipulation of CaMKII-dependent signaling pathways in the settings of pathological cardiac growth, remodeling, and heart failure represents an auspicious therapeutic approach.

  1. High-capacity Ca2+ binding of human skeletal calsequestrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Emiliano J; Lewis, Kevin M; Danna, Benjamin R; Kang, Chulhee

    2012-03-30

    Calsequestrin, the major calcium storage protein in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, binds large amounts of Ca(2+) in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases them during muscle contraction. For the first time, the crystal structures of Ca(2+) complexes for both human (hCASQ1) and rabbit (rCASQ1) skeletal calsequestrin were determined, clearly defining their Ca(2+) sequestration capabilities through resolution of high- and low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding sites. rCASQ1 crystallized in low CaCl(2) buffer reveals three high-affinity Ca(2+) sites with trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral, and pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries, along with three low-affinity Ca(2+) sites. hCASQ1 crystallized in high CaCl(2) shows 15 Ca(2+) ions, including the six Ca(2+) ions in rCASQ1. Most of the low-affinity sites, some of which are μ-carboxylate-bridged, are established by the rotation of dimer interfaces, indicating cooperative Ca(2+) binding that is consistent with our atomic absorption spectroscopic data. On the basis of these findings, we propose a mechanism for the observed in vitro and in vivo dynamic high-capacity and low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding activity of calsequestrin.

  2. High-capacity Ca2+ Binding of Human Skeletal Calsequestrin*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Emiliano J.; Lewis, Kevin M.; Danna, Benjamin R.; Kang, ChulHee

    2012-01-01

    Calsequestrin, the major calcium storage protein in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, binds large amounts of Ca2+ in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases them during muscle contraction. For the first time, the crystal structures of Ca2+ complexes for both human (hCASQ1) and rabbit (rCASQ1) skeletal calsequestrin were determined, clearly defining their Ca2+ sequestration capabilities through resolution of high- and low-affinity Ca2+-binding sites. rCASQ1 crystallized in low CaCl2 buffer reveals three high-affinity Ca2+ sites with trigonal bipyramidal, octahedral, and pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometries, along with three low-affinity Ca2+ sites. hCASQ1 crystallized in high CaCl2 shows 15 Ca2+ ions, including the six Ca2+ ions in rCASQ1. Most of the low-affinity sites, some of which are μ-carboxylate-bridged, are established by the rotation of dimer interfaces, indicating cooperative Ca2+ binding that is consistent with our atomic absorption spectroscopic data. On the basis of these findings, we propose a mechanism for the observed in vitro and in vivo dynamic high-capacity and low-affinity Ca2+-binding activity of calsequestrin. PMID:22337878

  3. Nature of uranium contamination in the agricultural drainage water evaporation ponds of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.C.; Amrhein, C.; Bradford, G.

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation ponds used for agricultural subsurface drainage water disposal in the Tulare Lake Bed (TLB) of the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA have elevated levels of U. Waterfowl which inhabit and forage the ponds and surrounding areas are threatened by exposure to U. The ponds, which receive irrigation drainage waters and seasonal rain, are subject to wetting and drying periods. The periods result in the accumulation of decaying algae and other organic material in surface sediments. Sediment and waters in the ponds were sampled to determine what factors control U solubility and sediment U concentrations. Data from a 1990 study conducted by Chilcott et al. in 1989 on the TLB ponds were used to help identify what factors may control U solubility. Pond sediment U concentrations decreased abruptly with depth and surface sediment U concentrations were related to dissolved Ca:HCO 3 ratios. Pond algal U bioaccumulation was favored in waters with high Ca:HCO 3 ratios, which had lower pH values and carbonate alkalinities than waters with low CA:HCO 3 ratios. Ponds with high salinities and high carbonate alkalinities contained the highest aqueous U concentrations relative to other TLB ponds. Sediment total organic carbon (TOC) was correlated with sediment U concentrations, suggesting that U is bound to organic matter. The source of TOC is most likely from algae deposition. (author)

  4. Significance of the tumor markers CA 125 and CA 15-3 in postoperative diagnosis of ovarian and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Bartel, U.; Elling, D.

    1989-01-01

    In 271 patients with ovarian carcinoma, benign ovarian tumors, breast cancer, and two control groups, serum levels of CA 125, CA 15-3, CEA and, partly, CA 19-9 were determined immunoradiometrically. According to the results of the determination of CA 125 in the follow-up of ovarian carcinoma, CA 125 represents a useful marker for early detection of recurrences, especially in cases of diffuse carcinoma dissemination. In incomplete tumor debulking, postoperative CA 125 serum levels did not prove to be helpful except that a positive level renders invasive diagnostic investigation no longer necessary. Postoperative follow-up in breast cancer early reveals distant metastases, with very high levels in patients with bone metastases. By simultaneous measurement of CA 15-3 and CEA the sensitivity could be increased from 86% (CA 15-3 only) to 93%. (author)

  5. Chemical purification of CaCO{sub 3} and CaWO{sub 4} powders used for CaWO{sub 4} crystal production for the CRESST experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh Thi, H.H.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Hampf, R.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Langenkaemper, A.; Morgalyuk, V.; Muenster, A.; Mondragon, E.; Oppenheimer, C.; Potzel, W.; Schoenert, S.; Steiger, H.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) uses CaWO{sub 4} single crystals as targets for the direct search for dark matter particles. Since several years these CaWO{sub 4} crystals are grown at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen. Thereby, commercially available CaCO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3} powders are used for the synthesis of CaWO{sub 4} powder. For the experiment low intrinsic contaminations of the crystals play a crucial role. In order to improve the radiopurity of the crystals it is necessary to reduce potential sources for radioactive backgrounds such as U and Th. In this poster we will present our studies of the chemical purification of the CaCO{sub 3} and CaWO{sub 4} powders.

  6. Mechanics of Old Faithful Geyser, Calistoga, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, M.L.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Johnston, Malcolm J.; Karlstrom, L.; Wang, Chun-Yong

    2012-01-01

    In order to probe the subsurface dynamics associated with geyser eruptions, we measured ground deformation at Old Faithful Geyser of Calistoga, CA. We present a physical model in which recharge during the period preceding an eruption is driven by pressure differences relative to the aquifer supplying the geyser. The model predicts that pressure and ground deformation are characterized by an exponential function of time, consistent with our observations. The geyser's conduit is connected to a reservoir at a depth of at least 42 m, and pressure changes in the reservoir can produce the observed ground deformations through either a poroelastic or elastic mechanical model.

  7. Tumor markers CA19-9, CA242 and CEA in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Yang, Jun; Li, Hongjuan; Wu, Yihua; Zhang, Honghe; Chen, Wenhu

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the worst prognosis and early detection is crucial for improving patient prognosis. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate and compare the sensitivity and specificity of single test of CA19-9, CA242, and CEA, as well as combination test in pancreatic cancer detection. We searched PubMed, Embase, Medline, and Wanfang databases for studies that evaluated the diagnostic validity of CA19-9, CA242, and CEA between January 1990 and September 2014. Data were analyzed by Meta-Disc and STATA software. A total of 21 studies including 3497 participants, which fulfilled the inclusion criteria were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivities for CA19-9, CA242, and CEA were 75.4 (95% CI: 73.4-77.4), 67.8 (95% CI: 65.5-70), and 39.5 (95% CI: 37.3-41.7), respectively. The pooled specificities of CA19-9, CA242, and CEA were 77.6 (95% CI: 75.4-79.7), 83 (95% CI: 81-85), and 81.3 (95% CI: 79.3-83.2), respectively. Parallel combination of CA19-9+CA242 has a higher sensitivity (89, 95% CI: 80-95) without impairing the specificity (75, 95% CI: 67-82). Our meta-analysis showed that CA242 and CA19-9 have better performance in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer than CEA. Furthermore, parallel combination test of CA19-9+CA242 could be of better diagnostic value than individual CA242 or CA19-9 test.

  8. Caffeine- and ryanodine-sensitive Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in honeybee photoreceptors

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Light stimulation of invertebrate microvillar photoreceptors causes a large rapid elevation in Cai, shown previously to modulate the adaptational state of the cells. Cai rises, at least in part, as a result of Ins(1,4,5)P3-induced Ca2+ release from the submicrovillar endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we provide evidence for Ca(2+)- induced Ca2+ release (CICR) in an insect photoreceptor. In situ microphotometric measurements of Ca2+ fluxes across the ER membrane in permeabilized slices of dron...

  9. The other side of cardiac Ca2+ signaling: transcriptional control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro eDomínguez-Rodríquez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ca2+ is probably the most versatile signal transduction element used by all cell types. In the heart, it is essential to activate cellular contraction in each heartbeat. Nevertheless Ca2+ is not only a key element in excitation-contraction coupling (EC coupling, but it is also a pivotal second messenger in cardiac signal transduction, being able to control processes such as excitability, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation. Regarding the latter, Ca2+ activates Ca2+-dependent transcription factors by a process called excitation-transcription coupling (ET coupling. ET coupling is an integrated process by which the common signaling pathways that regulate EC coupling activate transcription factors. Although ET coupling has been extensively studied in neurons and other cell types, less is known in cardiac muscle. Some hints have been found in studies on the development of cardiac hypertrophy, where two Ca2+-dependent enzymes are key actors: Ca2+/Calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII and phosphatase calcineurin, both of which are activated by the complex Ca2+/ /Calmodulin. The question now is how ET coupling occurs in cardiomyocytes, where intracellular Ca2+ is continuously oscillating. In this focused review, we will draw attention to location of Ca2+ signaling: intranuclear ([Ca2+]n or cytoplasmic ([Ca2+]c, and the specific ionic channels involved in the activation of cardiac ET coupling. Specifically, we will highlight the role of the 1,4,5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3Rs in the elevation of [Ca2+]n levels, which are important to locally activate CaMKII, and the role of transient receptor potential channels canonical (TRPCs in [Ca2+]c, needed to activate calcineurin.

  10. Nuclear chemistry and Radiochemistry in the USA; Kern- und Radiochemie in den USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Isotope and Nuclear Chemistry Div.; Stoyer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry are very young sciences which developed at an extremely brisk pace within a very short period of time after the discovery of nuclear fission in 1938, and caused profound societal changes. In the United States, nuclear chemistry developed very differently from Germany, where nuclear research initially had been banned after the Second World War. The prime mover in the development in the United States was the Manhattan Project, the construction of the atomic bomb. The counteract the impending shortage of qualified personnel, important institutions have begun to establish training and support programs in the field. The National Laboratories in the United States introduced a National Security Internship Program, while the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tries to promote cooperation, and thus the training of personnel, by launching programs of its own. Yet, a greater shortage of qualified personnel is becoming apparent. The situation of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry in the United States can be summarized in the finding that research at the National Laboratories is very wide ranging. It receives sufficient funds from the DOE. However, the National Laboratories show a very high proportion of elderly personnel, a problem which will have to be corrected in the years to come. This may be helped by the Summer Schools financed by the DOE, though a summer school of six weeks cannot replace a sound training in nuclear chemistry of the kind still to be found in Germany. (orig.) [German] Kern- und Radiochemie sind sehr junge Wissenschaften, die sich nach der Entdeckung der Kernspaltung 1938 innerhalb kuerzester Zeit extrem rasant entwickelt und tiefe gesellschaftliche Veraenderungen bewirkt haben. In den USA hat sich die Kernchemie sehr unterschiedlich im Vergleich zu Deutschland entwickelt, wo die Kernforschung nach dem 2. Weltkrieg vorerst verboten war. Massgeblich in den USA war dabei das Manhatten-Projekt zum Bau von Nuklearwaffen

  11. Volcano geodesy in the Cascade arc, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael; Lisowski, Michael; Dzurisin, Daniel; Kramer, Rebecca; McLay, Megan; Pauk, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Experience during historical time throughout the Cascade arc and the lack of deep-seated deformation prior to the two most recent eruptions of Mount St. Helens might lead one to infer that Cascade volcanoes are generally quiescent and, specifically, show no signs of geodetic change until they are about to erupt. Several decades of geodetic data, however, tell a different story. Ground- and space-based deformation studies have identified surface displacements at five of the 13 major Cascade arc volcanoes that lie in the USA (Mount Baker, Mount St. Helens, South Sister, Medicine Lake, and Lassen volcanic center). No deformation has been detected at five volcanoes (Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, Newberry Volcano, Crater Lake, and Mount Shasta), and there are not sufficient data at the remaining three (Glacier Peak, Mount Adams, and Mount Jefferson) for a rigorous assessment. In addition, gravity change has been measured at two of the three locations where surveys have been repeated (Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker show changes, while South Sister does not). Broad deformation patterns associated with heavily forested and ice-clad Cascade volcanoes are generally characterized by low displacement rates, in the range of millimeters to a few centimeters per year, and are overprinted by larger tectonic motions of several centimeters per year. Continuous GPS is therefore the best means of tracking temporal changes in deformation of Cascade volcanoes and also for characterizing tectonic signals so that they may be distinguished from volcanic sources. Better spatial resolution of volcano deformation can be obtained through the use of campaign GPS, semipermanent GPS, and interferometric synthetic aperture radar observations, which leverage the accumulation of displacements over time to improve signal to noise. Deformation source mechanisms in the Cascades are diverse and include magma accumulation and withdrawal, post-emplacement cooling of recent volcanic deposits, magmatic

  12. Elementary properties of CaV1.3 Ca(2+) channels expressed in mouse cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Lawrence, Neil D; Münkner, Stefan; Engel, Jutta; Knipper, Marlies; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized to process developmental signals during immature stages and sound stimuli in adult animals. These signals are conveyed onto auditory afferent nerve fibres. Neurotransmitter release at IHC ribbon synapses is controlled by L-type Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels, the biophysics of which are still unknown in native mammalian cells. We have investigated the localization and elementary properties of Ca(2+) channels in immature mouse IHCs under near-physiological recording conditions. Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels at the cell pre-synaptic site co-localize with about half of the total number of ribbons present in immature IHCs. These channels activated at about 70 mV, showed a relatively short first latency and weak inactivation, which would allow IHCs to generate and accurately encode spontaneous Ca(2+) action potential activity characteristic of these immature cells. The Ca(V)1.3 Ca(2+) channels showed a very low open probability (about 0.15 at 20 mV: near the peak of an action potential). Comparison of elementary and macroscopic Ca(2+) currents indicated that very few Ca(2+) channels are associated with each docked vesicle at IHC ribbon synapses. Finally, we found that the open probability of Ca(2+) channels, but not their opening time, was voltage dependent. This finding provides a possible correlation between presynaptic Ca(2+) channel properties and the characteristic frequency/amplitude of EPSCs in auditory afferent fibres.

  13. Variability of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca between and within the planktonic foraminifers Globigerina bulloides and Globorotalia truncatulinoides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand-Jha, P.; Elderfield, H.

    2005-01-01

    The variability in Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca within individual tests and chambers of tests, and samples consisting of differing numbers of individuals, was determined for Globigerina bulloides and Globorotalia truncatulinoides in a North Atlantic core top sample (52.918°N 16.917°W'). The variability in Mg/Ca

  14. Predictors of pretreatment CA125 at ovarian cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babic, Ana; Cramer, Daniel W; Kelemen, Linda E

    2017-01-01

    in CA125 between studies and linear regression to estimate the association between epidemiologic factors and tumor characteristics and pretreatment CA125 levels. RESULTS: In age-adjusted models, older age, history of pregnancy, history of tubal ligation, family history of breast cancer, and family...... history of ovarian cancer were associated with higher CA125 levels while endometriosis was associated with lower CA125 levels. After adjusting for tumor-related characteristics (stage, histology, grade), body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 kg/m2was associated with 10% (95% CI 2, 19%) higher CA125 levels...

  15. P and Ca requirements for Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariz, C B L; Silva, J H V; Filho, J J; Lima, M R; Costa, F G P

    2017-04-01

    Four experiments were conducted to estimate the phosphorus and calcium requirements for weight maintenance and weight gain in Japanese quails during their growth phase from 16 to 36 days. Japanese quails aged 16 days were used for estimating the phosphorous and calcium requirements for weight maintenance or weight gain, with these quails composing each reference slaughter group and the others distributed in a completely randomized design, housed in cages of galvanized wire (33 × 33 × 16 cm) that were stored in acclimatized chambers with specific environmental temperatures. The light programme used during the 20-day experimental period was 24 h of artificial light. Analysis of the data showed that the prediction equations for estimating the phosphorus and calcium requirements for weight maintenance and weight gain of Japanese quails between 16 and 36 days of age were P (g/quail/day) = P 0.75 *(9.3695 + 7.7397*T) + 9.70*WG, in which P is the phosphorus requirement, and Ca (g/quail/day) = P 0.75 *(363.99 - 8.0262*T) + 28.15*WG, in which Ca is the calcium requirement, P is BW (kg), T is temperature (°C) and WG (g/quail/day). Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Klotho regulates CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qin; Vo, Hai T; Wang, Jing; Fox-Quick, Stephanie; Dobrunz, Lynn E; King, Gwendalyn D

    2017-04-07

    Global klotho overexpression extends lifespan while global klotho-deficiency shortens it. As well, klotho protein manipulations inversely regulate cognitive function. Mice without klotho develop rapid onset cognitive impairment before they are 2months old. Meanwhile, adult mice overexpressing klotho show enhanced cognitive function, particularly in hippocampal-dependent tasks. The cognitive enhancing effects of klotho extend to humans with a klotho polymorphism that increases circulating klotho and executive function. To affect cognitive function, klotho could act in or on the synapse to modulate synaptic transmission or plasticity. However, it is not yet known if klotho is located at synapses, and little is known about its effects on synaptic function. To test this, we fractionated hippocampi and detected klotho expression in both pre and post-synaptic compartments. We find that loss of klotho enhances both pre and post-synaptic measures of CA1 hippocampal synaptic plasticity at 5weeks of age. However, a rapid loss of synaptic enhancement occurs such that by 7weeks, when mice are cognitively impaired, there is no difference from wild-type controls. Klotho overexpressing mice show no early life effects on synaptic plasticity, but decreased CA1 hippocampal long-term potentiation was measured at 6months of age. Together these data suggest that klotho affects cognition, at least in part, by regulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. New fluorescent reagents specific for Ca2+-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hail, Danya; Lemelson, Daniela; Israelson, Adrian; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► New reagents specifically inhibit the activity of Ca 2+ -dependent proteins. ► FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru allow for mechanism-independent probing of Ca 2+ -binding proteins. ► Changes in reagents fluorescence allow characterization of protein Ca 2+ -binding properties. -- Abstract: Ca 2+ carries information pivotal to cell life and death via its interactions with specific binding sites in a protein. We previously developed a novel photoreactive reagent, azido ruthenium (AzRu), which strongly inhibits Ca 2+ -dependent activities. Here, we synthesized new fluorescent ruthenium-based reagents containing FITC or EITC, FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru. These reagents were purified, characterized and found to specifically interact with and markedly inhibit Ca 2+ -dependent activities but not the activity of Ca 2+ -independent reactions. In contrast to many reagents that serve as probes for Ca 2+ , FITC-Ru and EITC-Ru are the first fluorescent divalent cation analogs to be synthesized and characterized that specifically bind to Ca 2+ -binding proteins and inhibit their activity. Such reagents will assist in characterizing Ca 2+ -binding proteins, thereby facilitating better understanding of the function of Ca 2+ as a key bio-regulator.

  18. Chronic Loss of CA2 Transmission Leads to Hippocampal Hyperexcitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Roman; Polygalov, Denis; Huang, Arthur J Y; Middleton, Steven J; Robert, Vincent; Wintzer, Marie E; Piskorowski, Rebecca A; Chevaleyre, Vivien; McHugh, Thomas J

    2017-05-03

    Hippocampal CA2 pyramidal cells project into both the neighboring CA1 and CA3 subfields, leaving them well positioned to influence network physiology and information processing for memory and space. While recent work has suggested unique roles for CA2, including encoding position during immobility and generating ripple oscillations, an interventional examination of the integrative functions of these connections has yet to be reported. Here we demonstrate that CA2 recruits feedforward inhibition in CA3 and that chronic genetically engineered shutdown of CA2-pyramidal-cell synaptic transmission consequently results in increased excitability of the recurrent CA3 network. In behaving mice, this led to spatially triggered episodes of network-wide hyperexcitability during exploration accompanied by the emergence of high-frequency discharges during rest. These findings reveal CA2 as a regulator of network processing in hippocampus and suggest that CA2-mediated inhibition in CA3 plays a key role in establishing the dynamic excitatory and inhibitory balance required for proper network function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CA-125 in Disease Progression and Treatment of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Connie G; Pacheco-Rodriguez, Gustavo; Steagall, Wendy K; Haughey, Mary E; Julien-Williams, Patricia A; Stylianou, Mario P; Gochuico, Bernadette R; Moss, Joel

    2018-02-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease of women caused by proliferation of neoplastic-like LAM cells, with mutations in the TSC1/2 tumor suppressor genes. Based on case reports, levels of cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), an ovarian cancer biomarker, can be elevated in patients with LAM. We hypothesized that elevated serum CA-125 levels seen in some patients with LAM were due to LAM, not other malignancies, and might respond to sirolimus treatment. Serum CA-125 levels were measured for 241 patients at each visit. Medical records were reviewed for co-morbidities, disease progression, and response to sirolimus treatment. CA-125 expression in LAM cells was determined by using immunohistochemical analysis. Almost 25% of patients with LAM had at least one elevated serum CA-125 measurement. Higher serum CA-125 levels correlated with lower FEV 1 , premenopausal status, and pleural effusion in a multivariate model (each P CA-125 levels decreased following sirolimus treatment (P = .002). CA-125 and α-smooth muscle actin were co-expressed in LAM lung nodules. Higher serum CA-125 levels were associated with pleural effusions and reduced pulmonary function and were decreased with sirolimus therapy. LAM cells express CA-125. Some elevated serum CA-125 levels may reflect serosal membrane involvement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Spectral components of cytosolic [Ca2+] spiking in neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardos, J; Szilágyi, N; Juhász, G

    1998-01-01

    We show here, by means of evolutionary spectral analysis and synthesis of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) spiking observed at the single cell level using digital imaging fluorescence microscopy of fura-2-loaded mouse cerebellar granule cells in culture, that [Ca2+]c spiking can be resolved into evolutio......We show here, by means of evolutionary spectral analysis and synthesis of cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) spiking observed at the single cell level using digital imaging fluorescence microscopy of fura-2-loaded mouse cerebellar granule cells in culture, that [Ca2+]c spiking can be resolved...... into evolutionary spectra of a characteristic set of frequencies. Non-delayed small spikes on top of sustained [Ca2+]c were synthesized by a main component frequency, 0.132+/-0.012 Hz, showing its maximal amplitude in phase with the start of depolarization (25 mM KCI) combined with caffeine (10 mM) application...

  1. Preparation of Heterogeneous CaO Catalysts for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, W.; Darmawan, T.; Hadiyanto, H.; Rosyid, R. Ar

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop heterogeneous catalysts from three CaO sources for biodiesel synthesis. The CaO catalyst were prepared from limestone, calcium hydroxide and calciun carbonate with thermal processing in a muffle furnace at 900°C.. The results showed that CaO catalyst from limestone has better characteristic than catalyst from Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. From morphology testing, the CaO catalyst derived from limestone formed a crystal, while The X-ray difraction analysis showed that the amount of CaO contained in limestone was the highest among the others. The yield of biodiesel obtained from the experiment was 89.98% for the catalyst from limestone; 85.15% for the catalyst Ca (OH)2; and 78.71% for CaCO3 catalyst.

  2. Spectroscopy of neutron-deficient nuclei around 36Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, A.; Stanoiu, M.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, Ch.; Franchoo, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Verney, D.; Dombradi, Zs.; Algora, A.; Fueloep, Zs.; Sohler, D.; Al-Khatib, A.; Bringel, P.; Engelhardt, C.; Huebel, H.; Bastin, B.; Benzoni, G.; Borcea, R.; Rotaru, F.; Sorlin, O.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was performed to extend the knowledge of excited states in neutron-deficient Ca isotopes. In particular, excited states in 36Ca were searched for to allow for a comparison with its stable mirror nucleus, 36S. Secondary beams of 37Ca and 36Ca were produced by fragmentation of a primary 40Ca beam with an energy of 95 · A MeV on the SISSI target at GANIL. A variety of nuclei around 36Ca has been produced in a secondary Be target by neutron and proton-removal at beam energies around 61 · A MeV. The produced nuclei were identified using the spectrometer SPEG, and prompt γ rays were measured with the Chateau de Cristal. A preliminary value for the energy of the first 2+ state of 36Ca has been determined

  3. Structure of the CaMKIIdelta/calmodulin complex reveals the molecular mechanism of CaMKII kinase activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rellos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation (LTP, a long-lasting enhancement in communication between neurons, is considered to be the major cellular mechanism underlying learning and memory. LTP triggers high-frequency calcium pulses that result in the activation of Calcium/Calmodulin (CaM-dependent kinase II (CaMKII. CaMKII acts as a molecular switch because it remains active for a long time after the return to basal calcium levels, which is a unique property required for CaMKII function. Here we describe the crystal structure of the human CaMKIIdelta/Ca2+/CaM complex, structures of all four human CaMKII catalytic domains in their autoinhibited states, as well as structures of human CaMKII oligomerization domains in their tetradecameric and physiological dodecameric states. All four autoinhibited human CaMKIIs were monomeric in the determined crystal structures but associated weakly in solution. In the CaMKIIdelta/Ca2+/CaM complex, the inhibitory region adopted an extended conformation and interacted with an adjacent catalytic domain positioning T287 into the active site of the interacting protomer. Comparisons with autoinhibited CaMKII structures showed that binding of calmodulin leads to the rearrangement of residues in the active site to a conformation suitable for ATP binding and to the closure of the binding groove for the autoinhibitory helix by helix alphaD. The structural data, together with biophysical interaction studies, reveals the mechanism of CaMKII activation by calmodulin and explains many of the unique regulatory properties of these two essential signaling molecules.This article can also be viewed as an enhanced version in which the text of the article is integrated with interactive 3-D representations and animated transitions. Please note that a web plugin is required to access this enhanced functionality. Instructions for the installation and use of the Web plugin are available in Text S1.

  4. Synaptic NMDA Receptor-Dependent Ca2+ Entry Drives Membrane Potential and Ca2+ Oscillations in Spinal Ventral Horn Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Michael H.; Alford, Simon

    2013-01-01

    During vertebrate locomotion, spinal neurons act as oscillators when initiated by glutamate release from descending systems. Activation of NMDA receptors initiates Ca2+-mediated intrinsic membrane potential oscillations in central pattern generator (CPG) neurons. NMDA receptor-dependent intrinsic oscillations require Ca2+-dependent K+ (KCa2) channels for burst termination. However, the location of Ca2+ entry mediating KCa2 channel activation, and type of Ca2+ channel – which includes NMDA receptors and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) – remains elusive. NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry necessitates presynaptic release of glutamate, implying a location at active synapses within dendrites, whereas VGCC-dependent Ca2+ entry is not similarly constrained. Where Ca2+ enters relative to KCa2 channels is crucial to information processing of synaptic inputs necessary to coordinate locomotion. We demonstrate that Ca2+ permeating NMDA receptors is the dominant source of Ca2+ during NMDA-dependent oscillations in lamprey spinal neurons. This Ca2+ entry is synaptically located, NMDA receptor-dependent, and sufficient to activate KCa2 channels at excitatory interneuron synapses onto other CPG neurons. Selective blockade of VGCCs reduces whole-cell Ca2+ entry but leaves membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations unaffected. Furthermore, repetitive oscillations are prevented by fast, but not slow, Ca2+ chelation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that KCa2 channels are closely located to NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry. The close spatial relationship between NMDA receptors and KCa2 channels provides an intrinsic mechanism whereby synaptic excitation both excites and subsequently inhibits ventral horn neurons of the spinal motor system. This places the components necessary for oscillation generation, and hence locomotion, at glutamatergic synapses. PMID:23646190

  5. Mitochondria Maintain Distinct Ca2+Pools in Cone Photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmarco, Michelle M; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Sloat, Stephanie R; Hurley, James B; Brockerhoff, Susan E

    2017-02-22

    Ca 2+ ions have distinct roles in the outer segment, cell body, and synaptic terminal of photoreceptors. We tested the hypothesis that distinct Ca 2+ domains are maintained by Ca 2+ uptake into mitochondria. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy of zebrafish cones revealed that nearly 100 mitochondria cluster at the apical side of the inner segment, directly below the outer segment. The endoplasmic reticulum surrounds the basal and lateral surfaces of this cluster, but does not reach the apical surface or penetrate into the cluster. Using genetically encoded Ca 2+ sensors, we found that mitochondria take up Ca 2+ when it accumulates either in the cone cell body or outer segment. Blocking mitochondrial Ca 2+ uniporter activity compromises the ability of mitochondria to maintain distinct Ca 2+ domains. Together, our findings indicate that mitochondria can modulate subcellular functional specialization in photoreceptors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ca 2+ homeostasis is essential for the survival and function of retinal photoreceptors. Separate pools of Ca 2+ regulate phototransduction in the outer segment, metabolism in the cell body, and neurotransmitter release at the synaptic terminal. We investigated the role of mitochondria in compartmentalization of Ca 2+ We found that mitochondria form a dense cluster that acts as a diffusion barrier between the outer segment and cell body. The cluster is surprisingly only partially surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum, a key mediator of mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake. Blocking the uptake of Ca 2+ by mitochondria causes redistribution of Ca 2+ throughout the cell. Our results show that mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake in photoreceptors is complex and plays an essential role in normal function. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372061-12$15.00/0.

  6. The origins of migrations of Albanians in USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Seferi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Albanians started to migrate in the US at the end of XIX-th century and beginning of XX-th century. The reasons of emigration were the persecutions carried out by Ottoman Empire as well as the Balkan countries which tried to take advantage of the weakening of Ottoman Empire. Migrations were also common from the Balkan countries such as Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece to USA. The migrations of Albanians in the US started very early when they initially emigrated from Albania into various countries and from there they continued their way to USA. In the archives of the USA they were recorded as people of countries from where they were coming, based on the passports issued by the country they migrated to and the Albanians, who were under the occupation of Ottoman empire, would be registered as Ottomans due to their Ottoman documentations whereas the Albanians of Orthodox religion would be registered as Greek in the USA. Main purpose of this study is the analysis of the origins of emigration of Albanians in USA.

  7. Integration of GCAM-USA into GLIMPSE: Update and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this presentation is to (i) discuss changes made to the GCAM-USA model to more fully support long-term, coordinated environmental-climate-energy planning within the U.S., and (ii) demonstrate the graphical user interface that has been constructed to construct modeling scenarios, execute GCAM-USA, and visualize and compare model outputs. GLIMPSE is intended to provide insights into linkages and synergies among the goals of air quality management, climate change mitigation, and long-range energy planning. We have expanded GLIMPSE to also incorporate the open-source Global Change Assessment Model-USA (GCAM-USA), which has state-level representation of the U.S. energy system. With GCAM-USA, GLIMPSE can consider more aspects of the economy, linkages to the water and climate systems, and interactions with other regions of the world. A user-friendly graphical interface allows the system to be applied by analysts to explore a range of policies, such emission taxes or caps, efficiency standards, and renewable portfolio standards. We expect GLIMPSE to be used within research and planning activities, both within the EPA and beyond.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and CA-MRSA strains in South America: comparative review to emergence of strains in North America and worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Leonardo Nogueira Farias

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last few years, 3 different strains of MRSA have emerged: Community-associated Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA, Hospital-associated (HA-MRSA, and Livestock-associated (LA-MRSA. The most common CA-MRSA strain is USA 300 lineage. In Brasil, this superbacteria is an important public health problem, once they are associated with severe infections (sepsis, shock and osteomyelitis, high mortality rates (including babies and low response to usual treatments. Aim: To review attempts to compare CA-MRSA strains in South America and propose an interconnection with patterns of North America and worldwide strains. Methods: Non-systematic review. Findings: Epidemiological and Genotyping definitions were used to compare different strains in different continents. Thus, we could determine ST30+ as the most common lineage in the Brazil and South America, USA 300 lineage as the most common in North America and ST80+ as the most common in Europe. Conclusion: MRSA is a seriously public health problem in Brazil and worldwide.  In few years scientist will need a better understand of bacteria-derived factors that participate in enhanced MRSA pathogenesis & host susceptibility. Also, scientists will need to improve tools for an early diagnosis and they will need to enhance preventative/therapeutic modalities. However, new challenges will keep emerging.

  9. Ca²+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII activity and sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cell energetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Yaniv

    Full Text Available : Ca(2+-activated basal adenylate cyclase (AC in rabbit sinoatrial node cells (SANC guarantees, via basal cAMP/PKA-calmodulin/CaMKII-dependent protein phosphorylation, the occurrence of rhythmic, sarcoplasmic-reticulum generated, sub-membrane Ca(2+ releases that prompt rhythmic, spontaneous action potentials (APs. This high-throughput signaling consumes ATP.We have previously demonstrated that basal AC-cAMP/PKA signaling directly, and Ca(2+ indirectly, regulate mitochondrial ATP production. While, clearly, Ca(2+-calmodulin-CaMKII activity regulates ATP consumption, whether it has a role in the control of ATP production is unknown.We superfused single, isolated rabbit SANC at 37°C with physiological saline containing CaMKII inhibitors, (KN-93 or autocamtide-2 Related Inhibitory Peptide (AIP, or a calmodulin inhibitor (W-7 and measured cytosolic Ca(2+, flavoprotein fluorescence and spontaneous AP firing rate. We measured cAMP, ATP and O2 consumption in cell suspensions. Graded reductions in basal CaMKII activity by KN-93 (0.5-3 µmol/L or AIP (2-10 µmol/L markedly slow the kinetics of intracellular Ca(2+ cycling, decrease the spontaneous AP firing rate, decrease cAMP, and reduce O2 consumption and flavoprotein fluorescence. In this context of graded reductions in ATP demand, however, ATP also becomes depleted, indicating reduced ATP production.CaMKII signaling, a crucial element of normal automaticity in rabbit SANC, is also involved in SANC bioenergetics.

  10. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote Ca2+ accumulation when dopamine receptors are activated in striatal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Molly E; Macías, Wendy; Youngs, Rachael M; Rajadhyaksha, Anjali; Dudman, Joshua T; Konradi, Christine

    2004-11-24

    Dopamine (DA) receptor-mediated signal transduction and gene expression play a central role in many brain disorders from schizophrenia to Parkinson's disease to addiction. While trying to evaluate the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in dopamine D1 receptor-mediated phosphorylation of the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), we found that activation of dopamine D1 receptors alters the properties of L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors and turns them into facilitators of Ca2+ influx. In D1 receptor-stimulated neurons, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers promote cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation. This leads to the activation of a molecular signal transduction pathway and CREB phosphorylation. In the absence of dopamine receptor stimulation, L-type Ca2+ channel blockers inhibit CREB phosphorylation. The effect of dopamine on L-type Ca2+ channel blockers is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA), suggesting that protein phosphorylation plays a role in this phenomenon. Because of the adverse effect of activated dopamine receptors on L-type Ca2+ channel blocker action, the role of L-type Ca2+ channels in the dopamine D1 receptor signal transduction pathway cannot be assessed with pharmacological tools. However, with antisense technology, we demonstrate that L-type Ca2+ channels contribute to D1 receptor-mediated CREB phosphorylation. We conclude that the D1 receptor signal transduction pathway depends on L-type Ca2+ channels to mediate CREB phosphorylation.

  11. Synthesis of Al₂Ca Dispersoids by Powder Metallurgy Using a Mg-Al Alloy and CaO Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Junji; Umeda, Junko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2017-06-28

    The elemental mixture of Mg-6 wt %Al-1 wt %Zn-0.3 wt %Mn (AZ61B) alloy powder and CaO particles was consolidated by an equal-channel angular bulk mechanical alloying (ECABMA) process to form a composite precursor. Subsequently, the precursor was subjected to a heat treatment to synthesize fine Al₂Ca particles via a solid-state reaction between the Mg-Al matrix and CaO additives. Scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and electron probe micro-analysis on the precursor indicated that 4.7-at % Al atoms formed a supersaturated solid solution in the α-Mg matrix. Transmission electron microscopy-EDS and X-ray diffraction analyses on the AZ61B composite precursor with 10-vol % CaO particles obtained by heat treatment confirmed that CaO additives were thermally decomposed in the Mg-Al alloy, and the solid-soluted Ca atoms diffused along the α-Mg grain boundaries. Al atoms also diffused to the grain boundaries because of attraction to the Ca atoms resulting from a strong reactivity between Al and Ca. As a result, needle-like (Mg,Al)₂Ca intermetallics were formed as intermediate precipitates in the initial reaction stage during the heat treatment. Finally, the precipitates were transformed into spherical Al₂Ca particles by the substitution of Al atoms for Mg atoms in (Mg,Al)₂Ca after a long heat treatment.

  12. PGC-1{alpha} accelerates cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} clearance without disturbing Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis in cardiac myocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Min, E-mail: chenminyx@gmail.com [Institute of Molecular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yunnan Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control, Kunming 650022 (China); Wang, Yanru [Institute of Molecular Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Biomembrane and Membrane Biotechnology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Qu, Aijuan [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2010-06-11

    Energy metabolism and Ca{sup 2+} handling serve critical roles in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1{alpha}) is a multi-functional coactivator that is involved in the regulation of cardiac mitochondrial functional capacity and cellular energy metabolism. However, the regulation of PGC-1{alpha} in cardiac Ca{sup 2+} signaling has not been fully elucidated. To address this issue, we combined confocal line-scan imaging with off-line imaging processing to characterize calcium signaling in cultured adult rat ventricular myocytes expressing PGC-1{alpha} via adenoviral transduction. Our data shows that overexpressing PGC-1{alpha} improved myocyte contractility without increasing the amplitude of Ca{sup 2+} transients, suggesting that myofilament sensitivity to Ca{sup 2+} increased. Interestingly, the decay kinetics of global Ca{sup 2+} transients and Ca{sup 2+} waves accelerated in PGC-1{alpha}-expressing cells, but the decay rate of caffeine-elicited Ca{sup 2+} transients showed no significant change. This suggests that sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA2a), but not Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchange (NCX) contribute to PGC-1{alpha}-induced cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} clearance. Furthermore, PGC-1{alpha} induced the expression of SERCA2a in cultured cardiac myocytes. Importantly, overexpressing PGC-1{alpha} did not disturb cardiac Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis, because SR Ca{sup 2+} load and the propensity for Ca{sup 2+} waves remained unchanged. These data suggest that PGC-1{alpha} can ameliorate cardiac Ca{sup 2+} cycling and improve cardiac work output in response to physiological stress. Unraveling the PGC-1{alpha}-calcium handing pathway sheds new light on the role of PGC-1{alpha} in the therapy of cardiac diseases.

  13. Usefulness of CA 130 kit based on IRMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Takashi; Kimura, Yoshiko; Ata, Mariko; Miyagawa, Naoko; Iio, Atsushi; Hamamoto, Ken

    1988-01-01

    Immunoradiometric assay for CA 130 was fundamentally and clinically evaluated using a commercially available D-7111 kit. Incubation time was 4 hr with the present CA 133 kit as compared with 16 - 24 hr with conventional CA 125 kit. Laboratory performance of CA 130 kit was satisfactory for standard curve, reproducibility, and recovery test. There was well correlation between the present CA 130 kit and CA 125 kit (r = 0.931). The concentration of CA 130 in the serum was significantly higher in healthy women than men (17.3 +- 10.5 U/ml vs 9.6 +- 5.1 U/ml). Serum CA 130 levels tended to decrease with aging, regardless of sex. These levels were changeable with menstrual cycle ; i.e., these were significantly higher during menstrual phase (24.2 +- 9.0 U/ml) and significantly lower during ovulatory phase (10.9 +- 2.4 U/ml) and during menopause (12.1 +- 3.4 U/ml). Cut off serum CA 130 levels were defined as 20 U/ml for men and 38 U/ml for women. Positive rate for CA 130 was the highest in cases of ovarian cancer (80 %), followed by endometrial cancer (50 %), pancreatic cancer (47 %), benign ovarian tumor (44 %), and lung cancer (39 %). (Namekawa, K.)

  14. The relationship between ovarian volume and serum CA-125 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, U K; Paydas, S; Guzel, A B; Vardar, M A; Urunsak, I F; Cetin, M T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ovarian volume and serum CA-125 levels. Serum CA-125 levels and ovarian volume were compared among the cases with benign ovarian neoplasms, primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Also, the correlation between CA-125 levels and ovarian volume were evaluated in the presence of peritoneal fluid and/or peritoneal carcinomatosis. Although ovarian volume was not different among the groups, CA-125 levels were higher in the cases with EOC than with benign ovarian tumors (p = 0.001). Baseline CA-125 levels were not found to have increased while ovarian volume went up with controlled hyperstimulation in the infertile group (p = 0.555). However, uncontrolled hyperstimulation of the ovaries and the presence of peritoneal fluid caused an increase in the levels of CA-125 (p = 0.001). There was no correlation between ovarian volume and CA-125 levels in the cases with malignant ovarian tumors (r = 0.083). The results of this study have confirmed that CA-125 is a peritoneal marker and increased ovarian volume with benign ovarian neoplasms or controlled hyperstimulation does not increase CA-125 levels in the same way. The presence of peritoneal carcinomatosis and/or peritoneal fluid seems to be an important factor for high CA-125 levels in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC).

  15. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively

  16. Radiolise de Ca14Co3

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Guadalupe Albarran Sanchez

    1986-01-01

    Resumo: A ação da radiação sobre carbonatos sólidos produz várias espécies. A dissolução do sólido resulta na formação de alguns compostos orgânicos que podem ser observados por diferentes métodos químicos. Dentro destes métodos, o da cromatografia líquida de partição/exclusão de íons tem sido utilizada para análise dos ácidos carboxílicos produzidos. Nosso estudo consistiu em reexaminar este método de análise, estendendo-o para possíveis compostos não ionizáveis obtidos na radiólise de CaCO3...

  17. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydroxylated xestospongins block inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release and sensitize Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release mediated by ryanodine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Tram Anh; Feng, Wei; Molinski, Tadeusz F; Pessah, Isaac N

    2006-02-01

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) often coexist within the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) membrane and coordinate precise spatial and temporal coding of Ca(2+) signals in most animal cells. Xestospongin C (XeC) was shown to selectively block IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release and IP(3)R-mediated signaling (Gafni et al., 1997). We have further studied the specificity of xestospongin structures possessing ring hydroxyl (-OH) substituents toward IP(3)R, RyR, and ER/SR Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activities. XeC potently inhibits IP(3)R, weakly inhibits RyR1, and lacks activity toward SERCA1 and SERCA2. XeD (9-OH XeC), 7-OH-XeA, and araguspongin C isolated from the marine sponge Xestospongia species also inhibit IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) release and lack activity toward SERCA. However, these hydroxylated derivatives possess a unique activity in that they enhance Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release from SR vesicles by a mechanism involving the sensitization of RyR1 channels within the same concentration range needed to block IP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release. These results show that xestospongins and related structures lack direct SERCA inhibitory activity, as suggested by some previous studies. A new finding is that XeD and related structures possessing a hydroxylated oxaquinolizidine ring are IP(3)R blockers that also enhance Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release mediated by RyRs. In intact cells, the actions of XeD are blocked by ryanodine pretreatment and do not interfere with thapsigargin-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization stemming from SERCA block. Hydroxylated bis-oxaquinolizadine derivatives isolated from Xestospongia species are novel bifunctional reagents that may be useful in ascertaining how IP(3)Rs and RyRs contribute to cell signaling.

  19. The many phases of CaC{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Sumit; Nylén, Johanna; Svensson, Gunnar; Bernin, Diana; Edén, Mattias [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Ruschewitz, Uwe [Department of Chemistry, University of Cologne, Greinstrasse 6, 50939 Cologne (Germany); Häussermann, Ulrich, E-mail: Ulrich.Haussermann@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-07-15

    Polymorphic CaC{sub 2} was prepared by reacting mixtures of CaH{sub 2} and graphite with molar ratios between 1:1.8 and 1:2.2 at temperatures between 700 and 1400 °C under dynamic vacuum. These conditions provided a well controlled, homogeneous, chemical environment and afforded products with high purity. The products, which were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, solid state NMR and Raman spectroscopy, represented mixtures of the three known polymorphs, tetragonal CaC{sub 2}-I and monoclinic CaC{sub 2}-II and -III. Their proportion is dependent on the nominal C/CaH{sub 2} ratio of the reaction mixture and temperature. Reactions with excess carbon produced a mixture virtually free from CaC{sub 2}-I, whereas high temperatures (above 1100 °C) and C-deficiency favored the formation of CaC{sub 2}-I. From first principles calculations it is shown that CaC{sub 2}-I is dynamically unstable within the harmonic approximation. This indicates that existing CaC{sub 2}-I is structurally/dynamically disordered and may possibly even occur as slightly carbon-deficient phase CaC{sub 2-δ}. It is proposed that monoclinic II is the ground state of CaC{sub 2} and polymorph III is stable at temperatures above 200 °C. Tetragonal I represents a metastable, heterogeneous, phase of CaC{sub 2}. It is argued that a complete understanding of the occurrence of three room temperature modifications of CaC{sub 2} will require a detailed characterization of compositional and structural heterogeneities within the high temperature form CaC{sub 2}-IV, which is stable above 450 °C. The effect of high pressure on the stability of the monoclinic forms of CaC{sub 2} was studied in a diamond anvil cell using Raman spectroscopy. CaC{sub 2}-II and -III transform into tetragonal CaC{sub 2}-I at about 4 and 1GPa, respectively. - Graphical abstract: The famous tetragonal form of CaC{sub 2}, CaC{sub 2}-I, is dynamically unstable. Why does it exist? Display Omitted - Highlights: • Critical review

  20. Enhanced Ca(2+)-activated Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange activity in canine pacing-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobai, I A; O'Rourke, B

    2000-10-13

    Defective excitation-contraction coupling in heart failure is generally associated with both a reduction in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) uptake and a greater dependence on transsarcolemmal Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange (NCX) for Ca(2+) removal. Although a relative increase in NCX is expected when SR function is impaired, few and contradictory studies have addressed whether there is an absolute increase in NCX activity. The present study examines in detail NCX density and function in left ventricular midmyocardial myocytes isolated from normal or tachycardic pacing-induced failing canine hearts. No change of NCX current density was evident in myocytes from failing hearts when intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) was buffered to 200 nmol/L. However, when [Ca(2+)](i) was minimally buffered with 50 micromol/L indo-1, Ca(2+) extrusion via NCX during caffeine application was doubled in failing versus normal cells. In other voltage-clamp experiments in which SR uptake was blocked with thapsigargin, both reverse-mode and forward-mode NCX currents and Ca(2+) transport were increased >2-fold in failing cells. These results suggest that, in addition to a relative increase in NCX function as a consequence of defective SR Ca(2+) uptake, there is an absolute increase in NCX function that depends on [Ca(2+)](i) in the failing heart.

  1. Selenoprotein W redox-regulated Ca2+ channels correlate with selenium deficiency-induced muscles Ca2+ leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haidong; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Xia; Zhao, Wenchao; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jie; Sattar, Hamid; Zhao, Jinxin; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-09-06

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces Ca2+ leak and calcification in mammal skeletal muscles; however, the exact mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, both Se-deficient chicken muscle models and selenoprotein W (SelW) gene knockdown myoblast and embryo models were used to study the mechanism. The results showed that Se deficiency-induced typical muscular injuries accompanied with Ca2+ leak and oxidative stress (P CACNA1S, ORAI1, STIM1, TRPC1, and TRPC3 (P CACNA1S, ORA1, TRPC1, and TRPC3; and caused abnormal activities of Ca2+ channels in response to inhibitors in myoblasts and chicken embryos. Thus, both Se deficiency and SelW knockdown induced Ca2+ leak, oxidative stress, and Ca2+ channel reduction. In addition, Ca2+ levels and the expression of the Ca2+ channels, RyR1, SERCA, CACNA1S, TRPC1, and TRPC3 were recovered to normal levels by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) treatment compared with SelW knockdown cells. Thus, with regard to the decreased Ca2+ channels, SelW knockdown closely correlated Se deficiency with Ca2+ leak in muscles. The redox regulation role of SelW is crucial in Se deficiency-induced Ca2+ leak in muscles.

  2. Serum tetranectin and CA125 in endometrial adenocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundstrøm, M S; Høgdall, C K; Nielsen, Anette Lynge

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CA125 and tetranectin (TN) are prognostic markers in ovarian cancer. This study examines the values of these markers in endometrial cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TN and CA125 were determined preoperatively in 99 patients with primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma and evaluated...... in relation to tumor grade, stage and cancer survival. RESULTS: The CA125 levels correlated significantly with tumor stage. Dichotomized according to a cut-off level of 35 U/ml, CA125 significantly correlated with cancer death. Multivariate regression analysis of cancer survival time showed that CA125 > 35 U....../ml was not an independent factor when stage was introduced. TN levels were within the normal range in all patients and did not show any association with tumor grade, stage or survival. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed the role of CA125 as a prognostic factor in endometrial cancer and may be of aid in pointing out patients...

  3. Residual sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ concentration after Ca2+ release in skeletal myofibers from young adult and old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Min; Tang, Shen; Messi, María Laura; Yang, Jenny J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting information suggests either almost complete depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) or significant residual Ca(2+) concentration after prolonged depolarization of the skeletal muscle fiber. The primary obstacle to resolving this controversy is the lack of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators targeted to the SR that exhibit low-Ca(2+) affinity, a fast biosensor: Ca(2+) off-rate reaction, and can be expressed in myofibers from adult and older adult mammalian species. This work used the recently designed low-affinity Ca(2+) sensor (Kd = 1.66 mM in the myofiber) CatchER (calcium sensor for detecting high concentrations in the ER) targeted to the SR, to investigate whether prolonged skeletal muscle fiber depolarization significantly alters residual SR Ca(2+) with aging. We found CatchER a proper tool to investigate SR Ca(2+) depletion in young adult and older adult mice, consistently tracking SR luminal Ca(2+) release in response to brief and repetitive stimulation. We evoked SR Ca(2+) release in whole-cell voltage-clamped flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers from young and old FVB mice and tested the maximal SR Ca(2+) release by directly activating the ryanodine receptor (RyR1) with 4-chloro-m-cresol in the same myofibers. Here, we report for the first time that the Ca(2+) remaining in the SR after prolonged depolarization (2 s) in myofibers from aging (~220 μM) was larger than young (~132 μM) mice. These experiments indicate that SR Ca(2+) is far from fully depleted under physiological conditions throughout life, and support the concept of excitation-contraction uncoupling in functional senescent myofibers.

  4. Causes of sinks near Tucson, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, John P.; Pool, Donald R.; Konieczki, A. D.; Carpenter, Michael C.

    Land subsidence in the form of sinks has occurred on and near farmlands near Tucson, Pima County, Arizona, USA. The sinks occur in alluvial deposits along the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River, and have made farmlands dangerous and unsuitable for farming. More than 1700 sinks are confined to the flood plain of the Santa Cruz River and are grouped along two north-northwestward-trending bands that are approximately parallel to the river and other flood-plain drainages. An estimated 17,000m3 of sediment have been removed in the formation of the sinks. Thirteen trenches were dug to depths of 4-6m to characterize near-surface sediments in sink and nonsink areas. Sediments below about 2m included a large percentage of dispersive clays in sink areas. Sediments in nonsink areas contain a large component of medium- to coarse-grained, moderately to well sorted sand that probably fills a paleochannel. Electromagnetic surveys support the association of silts and clays in sink areas that are highly electrically conductive relative to sand in nonsink areas. Sinks probably are caused by the near-surface process of subsurface erosion of dispersive sediments along pre-existing cracks in predominantly silt and clay sediments. The pre-existing cracks probably result from desiccation or tension that developed during periods of water-table decline and channel incision during the past 100 years or in earlier periods. Résumé Des effondrements en forme d'entonnoir se sont produits sur et près d'exploitations agricoles de Pima (Arizona). Ces entonnoirs apparaissent dans les alluvions le long de la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz ; ils ont rendu ces terrains dangereux et inexploitables pour l'agriculture. Plus de 1700 entonnoirs existent dans la plaine d'inondation de la rivière Santa Cruz et sont groupés en deux bandes orientées nord-nord-ouest, approximativement parallèles à la rivière et aux autres chenaux de la plaine d'inondation. Un volume de sédiments estim

  5. Improved custom statistics visualization for CA Performance Center data

    CERN Document Server

    Talevi, Iacopo

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of my project is to understand and experiment the possibilities that CA Performance Center (CA PC) offers for creating custom applications to display stored information through interesting visual means, such as maps. In particular, I have re-written some of the network statistics web pages in order to fetch data from new statistics modules in CA PC, which has its own API, and stop using the RRD data.

  6. Circularly permuted green fluorescent proteins engineered to sense Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, T; Sawano, A; Park, E S; Miyawaki, A

    2001-03-13

    To visualize Ca(2+)-dependent protein-protein interactions in living cells by fluorescence readouts, we used a circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP), in which the amino and carboxyl portions had been interchanged and reconnected by a short spacer between the original termini. The cpGFP was fused to calmodulin and its target peptide, M13. The chimeric protein, which we have named "pericam," was fluorescent and its spectral properties changed reversibly with the amount of Ca(2+), probably because of the interaction between calmodulin and M13 leading to an alteration of the environment surrounding the chromophore. Three types of pericam were obtained by mutating several amino acids adjacent to the chromophore. Of these, "flash-pericam" became brighter with Ca(2+), whereas "inverse-pericam" dimmed. On the other hand, "ratiometric-pericam" had an excitation wavelength changing in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. All of the pericams expressed in HeLa cells were able to monitor free Ca(2+) dynamics, such as Ca(2+) oscillations in the cytosol and the nucleus. Ca(2+) imaging using high-speed confocal line-scanning microscopy and a flash-pericam allowed to detect the free propagation of Ca(2+) ions across the nuclear envelope. Then, free Ca(2+) concentrations in the nucleus and mitochondria were simultaneously measured by using ratiometric-pericams having appropriate localization signals, revealing that extra-mitochondrial Ca(2+) transients caused rapid changes in the concentration of mitochondrial Ca(2+). Finally, a "split-pericam" was made by deleting the linker in the flash-pericam. The Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between calmodulin and M13 in HeLa cells was monitored by the association of the two halves of GFP, neither of which was fluorescent by itself.

  7. SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2007-04-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program conforms to the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001:2004. Elements of the ISO standard overlap with those of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, thus SNL/CA's EMS program also meets the DOE requirements.

  8. Combined Evaluation of AFP, CA15-3, CA125, CA19-9, and CEA Tumor Markers in Patients with Hepatitis B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmar, Mehdi; Yeganeh, Sara; Mansourghanaei, Fariborz; Amirmozafari, Nour

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of tumor markers AFP, CA15-3, CA125, CA19-9 and CEA in patients with hepatitis B and C. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed from Oct 2012 to Oct 2014. Serum samples of 129 patients with hepatitis B and C referred to Guilan Liver and Digestive Disease Research Center in Rasht, Iran were collected and checked for the existence of the listed tumor markers by ELISA. No increase in serum levels of tumor marker CA19-9, CEA and CA15-3 were seen in patients with hepatitis ( P >0.05). In patients with hepatitis B, increase in CA125 were observed ( P =0.03). In hepatitis C patients, there was an increase in AFP levels ( P =0.03). The levels of AFP and CA125 markers were high in hepatitis C and hepatitis B, respectively. However, the increased levels were not seen is malignancy. Due to the small sample size, further study is necessary to find the reasons of the increase.

  9. Influence of Ca substitution by Mg on the Ca3Co4O9 performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinescu, G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ca3-xMgxCo4O9 polycrystalline thermoelectric ceramics with small amounts of Mg have been synthesized by the classical solid state method. Microstructural characterizations have shown that all the Mg has been incorporated into the Ca3Co4O9 structure and no Mg-based secondary phases have been identified. Apparent density measurements have shown that samples do not modify their density until 0.05 Mg content, decreasing for higher contents. Electrical resistivity decreases and Seebeck coefficient slightly raises when Mg content increases until 0.05 Mg addition. The improvement in both parameters leads to higher power factor values than the usually obtained in samples prepared by the conventional solid state routes and close to those obtained in textured materials.Se han preparado cerámicas termoeléctricas policristalinas de Ca3-xMgxCo4O9, con pequeñas cantidades de Mg, utilizando el método clásico de estado sólido. La caracterización microestructural ha mostrado que el Mg se ha incorporado en la estructura del Ca3Co4O9 y que no se han formado fases secundarias con el Mg. Las medidas de densidad aparente han mostrado que las muestras prácticamente poseen la misma densidad hasta un contenido de 0.05 Mg, disminuyendo para contenidos mayores. La resistividad eléctrica disminuye y el coeficiente Seebeck aumenta cuando el contenido de Mg se incrementa hasta valores de 0.05. La mejora de ambos parámetros conduce a valores del factor de potencia mayores que los obtenidos en muestras preparadas por la vía convencional de estado sólido, alcanzando valores próximos a los que se encuentran en materiales texturados.

  10. A new tumor marker: CA125 for ovarian carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakahara, H.; Endo, K.; Nakajima, K.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate CA125 as a tumor marker for ovarian carcinomas, CA125 concentrations were measured by the simultaneous immunoradiometric assay. The binding of I-125 labeled monoclonal antibody to the bead-bound antigen was greatly influenced by many factors, such as the incubation time, pH, IgG concentrations of samples, the sequence of addition of the tracer and samples and so on. By applying the forward two-step assay, diminished binding was observed than in the simultaneous assay, probably due to the relatively low affinity of the antibody. This simultaneous immunoradiometric assay resulted in the ''prozone'' or ''hook'' effect at high CA125 samples and proper dilution was necessary to determine the accurate CA125 values. All 72 normal control subjects had low concentrations of under 35 U/ml. Elevated serum CA125 was observed in 43% (9/21) cases with malignant ovarian tumors, depending on the stage and the histopathological findings. All 4 serous cystadenocarcinomas and 2 of 3 endometrioid carcinomas were positive and the measurement of serum CA125 was useful in the sequential monitoring of these cases. In contrast, 51 benign gynecological diseases, none had elevated serum CA125 except one with follicular cyst. Among 75 cases with non-gynecological benign and malignant diseases, only 1 of 12 gastric carcinomas and 2 of 13 pancreatic carcinomas had elevated CA125 levels. In summary, CA125 is a promising and relatively specific marker for ovarian carcinomas

  11. TRPV5-mediated Ca2+ Reabsorption and Hypercalciuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Kirsten Y.; Hoenderop, Joost G. J.; Bindels, René J. M.

    2007-04-01

    The concerted action of the intestine, kidney and bone results in the maintenance of a normal Ca2+ balance, a mechanism that is tightly controlled by the calciotropic hormones vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin. Disturbances in the Ca2+ balance have been linked to diverse pathophysiological disorders like urolithiasis, hypertension, electroencephalogram abnormalities and rickets. Importantly, the final amount of Ca2+ that is released from the body is determined in the distal part of the nephron, where active Ca2+ reabsorption occurs. Here, Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid member 5 (TRPV5), a highly Ca2+-selective channel, has been recognized as the gatekeeper of active Ca2+ reabsorption. The in vivo relevance of TRPV5 has been further investigated by the characterization of TRPV5 knockout (TRPV5-/-) mice, which exhibit severe disturbances in renal Ca2+ handling, such as profound hypercalciuria, intestinal Ca2+ hyperabsorption and reduced bone thickness. Hypercalciuria increases the risk of kidney stone formation in these mice. This review highlights our current knowledge about TRPV5-mediated Ca2+ reabsorption and emphasizes the physiological relevance and the clinical implications related to the TRPV5-/- mice model.

  12. Hydriding and dehydriding properties of CaSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masakazu; Ohba, Nobuko; Noritake, Tatsuo; Towata, Shin-ichi

    2005-01-01

    The hydriding and dehydriding properties of CaSi were investigated both theoretically and experimentally. First-principles calculations suggested that CaSiH n is thermodynamically stable. Experimentally, the p -c isotherms clearly demonstrated plateau pressures in a temperature range of 473-573 K and the maximum hydrogen content was 1.9 weight % (wt.%) under a hydrogen pressure of 9 MPa at 473 K. The structure of CaSiH n is different from those of ZrNi hydrides, although CaSi has the CrB-type structure as well as ZrNi

  13. β decay of neutron-rich 53-56Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantica, P. F.; Crawford, H. L.; Damaske, A.; Pinter, J. S.; Stoker, J. B.; Broda, R.; Fornal, B.; Hecht, A. A.; Hoteling, N.; Hoffman, C.; Tabor, S. L.; Walters, W. B.; Horoi, M.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Zhu, S.; Pereira, J.; Sumikama, T.; Wang, X.

    2008-01-01

    β-decay properties of neutron-rich Ca isotopes have been obtained. Half-life values were determined for the first time for 54 Ca (86±7 ms), 55 Ca (22±2 ms), and 56 Ca (11±2 ms). The half-life of 230±60 ms deduced for 53 Ca is significantly longer than reported previously, where the decay chain 53 K → 53 Ca → 53 Sc was considered. A delayed γ ray with an energy of 247 keV was identified following β decay of 54 Ca and is proposed to depopulate the 1 1 + level in 54 Sc. The β-decay properties compare favorably with the results of shell-model calculations completed in the full pf space with the GXPF1 interaction. The half-lives of the neutron-rich Ca isotopes are also compared with gross β-decay theory. The systematic trend of the neutron-rich Ca half-lives is consistent with the presence of a subshell gap at N=32

  14. Kinetic studies of calcium in human by 41Ca tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaretto, E.; Paul, M.; Gelbart, Z.; Johnson, R.R.; Meirav, O.; Sossi, V.; Venczel, E.; Hollos, G.; Prior, J.

    1992-01-01

    41 Ca (T 1/2 = 1 x 10 5 years) is an ideal tracer for long-term studies of calcium kinetics in biological systems for several reasons: (a) it behaves as a stable nuclide for all practical purpose due to its very long radioactive half-life; (b) its natural abundance is extremely low; (c) 41 Ca isotopic concentrations can now be measured to very high sensitivity by accelerator mass spectrometry, requiring therefore injection doses with no collateral radiation effects. Such an experiment has been initiated in a human subject by intravenous injection of a 126 ng dose of 41 Ca on July 18, 1990. The 41 Ca concentration and the 41 Ca/Ca isotopic ratios in serum and urine have been measured at five times over a 270 days period, showing a decrease in agreement with known time constants of the different calcium pools. It is planned to follow up the steady-state 41 Ca level ( 41 Ca/Ca ∼9 x 10 -12 ) over time (e.g. menstrual cycle, age)

  15. Pathways for Energization of Ca in Mercury's Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possible pathways to produce the extreme energy observed in the calcium exosphere of Mercury. Any mechanism must explain the facts that Ca in Mercury's exosphere is extremely hot, that it is seen almost exclusively on the dawnside of the planet, and that its content varies seasonally, not sporadically. Simple diatomic molecules or their clusters are considered, focusing on calcium oxides while acknowledging that Ca sulfides may also be the precursor molecules. We first discuss impact vaporization to justify the assumption that CaO and Ca-oxide clusters are expected from impacts on Mercury. Then we discuss processes by which the atomic Ca is energized to a 70,000 K gas. The processes considered are (1) electron-impact dissociation of CaO molecules, (2) spontaneous dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules following impact vaporization, (3) shock-induced dissociative ionization, (4) photodissociation and (5) sputtering. We conclude that electron-impact dissociation cannot produce the required abundance of Ca, and sputtering cannot reproduce the observed spatial and temporal variation that is measured. Spontaneous dissociation is unlikely to result in the high energy that is seen. Of the two remaining processes, shock induced dissociative ionization produces the required energy and comes close to producing the required abundance, but rates are highly dependent on the incoming velocity distribution of the impactors. Photodissociation probably can produce the required abundance of Ca, but simulations show that photodissociation cannot reproduce the observed spatial distribution.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopic study of poldervaartite CaCa[SiO3(OH)(OH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Scholz, Ricardo; Lima, Rosa Malena Fernandes

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the mineral poldervaartite CaCa[SiO3(OH)(OH)] which forms a series with its manganese analogue olmiite CaMn[SiO3(OH)](OH) using a range of techniques including scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman and infrared spectroscopy. Chemical analysis shows the mineral is reasonably pure and contains only calcium and manganese with low amounts of Al and F. Thermogravimetric analysis proves the mineral decomposes at 485 °C with a mass loss of 7.6% compared with the theoretical mass loss of 7.7%. A strong Raman band at 852 cm-1 is assigned to the SiO stretching vibration of the SiO3(OH) units. Two Raman bands at 914 and 953 cm-1 are attributed to the antisymmetric vibrations. Intense prominent peaks observed at 3487, 3502, 3509, 3521 and 3547 cm-1 are assigned to the OH stretching vibration of the SiO3(OH) units. The observation of multiple OH bands supports the concept of the non-equivalence of the OH units. Vibrational spectroscopy enables a detailed assessment of the molecular structure of poldervaartite.

  17. Mineral composition and biomass partitioning of sweet sorghum grown for bioenergy in the southeastern USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Erickson, J.E.; Sollenberger, L.E.; Woodard, K.R.; Vendramini, J.M.B.; Fedenko, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Biomass yield and tissue mineral composition can affect total energy yield potential, conversion efficiencies and environmental impacts, but relatively few data are available for sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] grown in the southeastern USA. Therefore, a study was conducted at two locations in North and Central Florida on marginal sand soils comparing the effects of planting date (PD) on dry biomass yield and mineral composition of leaf, stem, and grain heads for ‘M-81E’ and ‘Dale’ sweet sorghum cultivars. Overall tissue mineral concentrations were relatively low for sweet sorghum, attributable to low K and Ca concentrations. Ash and mineral concentrations were generally greater for Dale, especially for the early PD. Leaf and grain heads were greater in mineral concentrations compared to stems. Dry biomass yield averaged 19.4 Mg ha −1 and was greater for M-81E and the early PD. Stems accounted for 73% of the total biomass compared to leaves (13%) across all treatments. Total N, P, and K removals averaged 136, 27.6, and 81.4 kg ha −1 , respectively. Overall, leaves removed 30, 23, and 19% of total N, P, and K compared to 34, 34, and 61% by stem, respectively. Considering lower biomass but greater mineral concentrations in leaf and grain heads compared to stems, returning leaf residues and possibly grain heads to the soil have the potential to offset nutrient and energy inputs needed on these marginal soils and enhance the sustainability of sweet sorghum cropping systems.

  18. Geochemical evaluation of flowback brine from Marcellus gas wells in Pennsylvania, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluszczak, Lara O.; Rose, Arthur W.; Kump, Lee R.

    2013-01-01

    Large quantities of highly saline brine flow from gas wells in the Marcellus Formation after hydraulic stimulation (“fracking”). This study assesses the composition of these flowback waters from the Marcellus shale in Pennsylvania, USA. Concentrations of most inorganic components of flowback water (Cl, Br, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, Ra, Fe, Mn, total dissolved solids, and others) increase with time from a well after hydraulic stimulation. Based on results in several datasets reported here, the greatest concentration of Cl − in flowback water is 151,000 mg/L. For total Ra (combined 226 Ra and 228 Ra) in flowback, the highest level reported is 6540 pCi/L. Flowback waters from hydraulic fracturing of Marcellus wells resemble brines produced from conventional gas wells that tap into other Paleozoic formations in the region. The Br/Cl ratio and other parameters indicate that both types of brine formed by the evaporation of seawater followed by dolomitization, sulfate reduction and subsurface mixing with seawater and/or freshwater. Trends and relationships in brine composition indicate that (1) increased salt concentration in flowback is not mainly caused by dissolution of salt or other minerals in rock units, (2) the flowback waters represent a mixture of injection waters with highly concentrated in situ brines similar to those in the other formations, and (3) these waters contain concentrations of Ra and Ba that are commonly hundreds of times the US drinking water standards.

  19. Napier ootab USA aktsiatelt 30% tõusu / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa suurpanga Credit Agricole üksuse CLSA strateegi Russell Napieri arvates on USA aktsiad karjuvalt madalalt hinnatud võrrreldes aktsiate dividendide ja ettevõtete kasumitega. Investeerimisel on tema soosingus kõrge dividenditootlusega aktsiad. Tema arvates hakkavad võlakirja tootlused järjekindlalt tõusma

  20. The System of Environmental Education in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasolya, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with studying the peculiarities of environmental education system in the USA. It has been defined that US environmental policy includes governmental actions at the federal, state and local level. It has been identified that US environmental education is characterized by an extraordinary variety of forms, directions and…

  1. Reflections on Women and the Law in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs

    2008-01-01

    The USA has undergone extraordinary changes over the past 35 years with respect to women's access to equality in education, employment and participation in political life. This has come about because of the introduction of anti-discrimination legislation and because of the activities of professional organisations in activating the implementation…

  2. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  3. Field investigations of historic covered timber bridges in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; Travis Hosteng; Brent. Phares

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Highway Administration is sponsoring a comprehensive research program on Historic Covered Timber Bridges in the USA. This national program's main purpose is to develop improved methods to preserve, rehabililate, and restore the timber bridge trusses that were developed during the early 1800s, and in many cases are still in service today. The overall...

  4. Comparing Nigeria With Other Countries – USA, China & India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined education for the world of work comparing Nigeria with other countries like USA, China and India. This was a theoretical survey carried out to showcase what happened in these countries over the years. Findings reveal a positive significant relationship between education and the world of works.

  5. Aspen, climate, and sudden decline in western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt; Dennis E. Ferguson; Nicholas L. Crookston

    2009-01-01

    A bioclimate model predicting the presence or absence of aspen, Populus tremuloides, in western USA from climate variables was developed by using the Random Forests classification tree on Forest Inventory data from about 118,000 permanent sample plots. A reasonably parsimonious model used eight predictors to describe aspen's climate profile. Classification errors...

  6. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-09-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA .  Created: 9/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/15/2014.

  7. Zur Martinů-Rezeption in den USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gabrielová, Jarmila

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 3, - (2010), s. 361-378. ISBN 978-3-03910-856-5. ISSN 1662-5366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Bohuslav Martinu * reception * USA Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  8. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates in 2 pet iguanas, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Ashley M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Koski, Marilyn A; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A; Swanson, Alexandra A; Rood, Michael P; Gee, Jay E; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A; Blaney, David D; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R; Beeler, Emily S

    2014-02-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  9. USA ajakirjaniku teos paljastab CIA nõrkusi / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 30. juuli 2007, lk. 6. New York Timesi ajakirjanik Tim Weiner annab oma äsjailmunud raamatus "Legacy of ashes: the history of the USA" põhjaliku ülevaate CIA ajaloost. Lisa: CIA läbikukkumiste jada

  10. USA sõdib terrorismi vastu sobimatul moel / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2008-01-01

    Mõttekoja Rand Corporation analüüsi kohaselt ei piisa USA-l islamiekstremistidega võitlemisel vaid vägede suurendamisest, panustada tuleb kohalike võimude tõhustamisse, nende paremasse koolitamisse ja infovahetusse. Lisa: Guantanamo kuuik kohtu all

  11. President Ilves töövisiidil USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves alustas töövisiiti USA läänerannikul, teadus- ja kõrgtehnoloogia keskuses Silicon Valley's. Riigipea kohtus ka San Francisco linnapea Gavin Newsom'iga ja Stanfordi Ülikooli rektori John L. Hennessy'ga. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 9.-16.06.2009

  12. EDITORIAL: THE STATUS OF LCA IN THE USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is alive and well in the USA. Concerns for environmental management, over strict command and control approaches, has led to an increasing presence of the life cycle concept since its initial appearance in the 1970's. In addition, the very reasonablen...

  13. An assessment of agroforestry systems in the southern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. C. Zinkhan; D. Evan Mercer

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the southern USA, based on a survey of land-use professionalsand a review of theliterature, revealed that it is a diverse region with substantial potential for agroforestry to address a combination of problems and opportunities. The survey indicated that silvopastoml systems are the most common form of agroforestry in the region. Increased economic...

  14. USA kapitalivoog jõuab Eestisse / Roland Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Autor leiab, et on soodne hetk hakata arendama rohkem start-up ettevõtteid, kuna USA Föderaalreserv on aasta jooksul juurde trükkinud 600 miljardit dollarit ning Eesti Arengufondil ja riskikapitalifondidel nagu ASI on vajalik investeerimisraha olemas

  15. Experiencing Second-Wave Feminism in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biklen, Sari; Marshall, Catherine; Pollard, Diane

    2008-01-01

    How has feminism mattered in the lives of particular academic feminists? Three scholars in education whose careers developed during the era of second-wave feminism describe how their personal and political stances were affected by theories, methodological advances, the milieus of academia as well as legal, and political events in the USA. The…

  16. USA esindajad Iraagis soovitasid Bushi kurssi / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2007-01-01

    USA vägede juht Iraagis kindral David Petraeus ja suursaadik Iraagis Ryan Crocker rõhutasid Kongressis esinedes, et Ameerika sõjaline kohalolu on Iraagis vajalik, sest vägivald on riigis vähenenud, vägede lahkumise korral hakkaks julgeolek vähenema

  17. Sexual Orientation Topics in Educational Leadership Programmes across the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examines the inclusion of sexual orientation topics within the formal curriculum of 55 public college and university educational administration/leadership programmes across the USA. The findings indicate that programmes place a low priority upon sexual orientation compared to other diversity topics and that 59.5% of programmes…

  18. Knemidocoptic mange in wild golden eagles, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Aslı; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A; Smallwood, Kenneth S; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-10-01

    During 2012-2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted.

  19. 76 FR 25527 - Law Day, U.S.A., 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Nation's values is our faith in the ideals of equality and justice under law. It is a belief embedded in... public outcry and at great personal risk, he accepted the case and showed the world that America is a... hereby proclaim May 1, 2011, as Law Day, U.S.A. I call upon all Americans to acknowledge the importance...

  20. The Current Landscape of the School Librarianship Curricula in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan; Turner, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    The current landscape of the School Librarianship educational programs and curricula of master's degrees in the USA has been explored. The master's programs are currently offered in the following four venues: (1) programs that are American Library Association (ALA) accredited but not American Association of School Librarians (AASL) recognized,…

  1. Introduction: Exotic annual Bromus in the western USA [Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Germino; Jeanne C. Chambers; Cynthia S. Brown

    2016-01-01

    The spread and impacts of exotic species are unambiguous, global threats to many ecosystems. A prominent example is the suite of annual grasses in the Bromus genus (Bromus hereafter) that originate from Europe and Eurasia but have invaded or are invading large areas of the Western USA. This book brings a diverse, multidisciplinary group of authors together to...

  2. Policy and innovation: Nanoenergy technology in the USA and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Na; Guan, JianCheng

    2016-01-01

    The USA is a leading country while China is an up-and-coming one in nanotechnology. We carried out a cross-country comparative study on policy and innovation of the two countries in subset nanoenergy field. They both created favorable policy environments for nanotechnology involving applications of nanotechnology in the energy sector. However, Chinese policy deployments for nanotechnology lack coordinated arrangements and effective assessment mechanisms. China performs better than the USA in technological quantity, but weaker in technological influence. The USA expresses an industry-oriented model in nanoenergy technological research and development, but China exhibits a university-and-institute-oriented model. Interorganizational collaboration relationships in the two countries are both still very rare and have huge development space. They both have a long way to go in converting their technological achievements into commercial products, especially China. Finally, we provide the policy implications of this study. In particular, the Chinese government should strengthen its efforts in policies by changing the national S&T evaluation system to set up the basic idea that quality is better than quantity in order to raise the original innovation motivations of innovators. - Highlights: •We compare development status of nanoenergy technologies between China and the USA. •We mainly focus on their policies, innovation performance and pattern in nanoenergy. •Differences are observed in nanoenergy technologies developed in these two countries. •We propose their endeavor directions in nanoenergy based on this study.

  3. Computers in Schools in the USA: A Social History

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Kevin,; Davey, Bill

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This chapter looks at the history of computers in the USA schools from a social history perspective. Instead of concentrating on innovations and leaders the story of mass adoption in schools is told. This history focuses on the 1980s when the major growth of student numbers and hours of contact with computers became a reality in American schools.

  4. USA investor loodab raha teenida Brasiilias ja Hiinas / Annika Matson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Matson, Annika, 1976-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 14. juuni lk. 25. USA investeerimisfirma Cumberland Advisors juht David Kotok osales Äripäeva korraldatud majanduskollokviumil. Tema investeerimisfirma on paigutanud raha Ida-Euroopasse, Hiinasse ja Lõuna-Ameerikasse. Vt. samas: Väikeinvestoril tuleb aktsiaid ostes kodutööd teha

  5. Julma USA sõdurit ootab elu vanglas / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2011-01-01

    USA sõjavägi hakkab mõistma kohut veebel Calvin Gibbsi üle, keda peetakse afgaani tsiviilisikuid tapnud ja ohvrite laipu rüvetanud jõugu eestvedajaks. Calvin Gibbs eitab kõiki talle esitatud süüdistusi

  6. Protecting nature : organizations and networks in Europe and the USA.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppen, van C.S.A.; Markham, W.T.

    2007-01-01

    This book offers a comparative analysis of organizations and networks involved in nature protection in France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the UK and the USA. It traces their development from their origins, more than a century ago, to the present day. Throughout this

  7. Monitoring Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in Oregon, USA sweet cherry orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii rapidly became a significant cherry pest in the western United States after it was observed damaging cherries in 2009 in California. It has caused significant damage to ripening cherries in all major USA cherry production districts leading to increased management costs and reduced...

  8. USA sepitseb uusi plaane Iraani mahasurumiseks / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Kommenteerides ÜRO ja Iraani tuumakõneluste ummikseisust väljumise võimalusi, tunnistas USA välisministeeriumi poliitikanõunik Nicholas Burns, et diplomaatia abil on keeruline veenda Iraani loobuma tuumatehnoloogia väljatöötamisest

  9. Artificial watershed acidification on the Fernow Experimental Forest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.B. Adams; P.J. Edwards; F. Wood; J.N. Kochenderfer

    1993-01-01

    A whole-watershed manipulation project was begun on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia, USA, in 1987, with the objective of increasing understanding of the effects of acidic deposition on forest ecosystems. Two treatment watersheds (WS9 and WS3) and one control watershed (WS4) were included. Treatments were twice-ambient N and S deposition, applied via NH...

  10. USA kriitikud pärjasid Clint Eastwoodi / A. F.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    A. F.

    2006-01-01

    USA rahvuslik filmikriitikute ühing (National Society of Film Critics) valis aasta parimaks filmiks Clint Eastwoodi "Kirjad Iwo Jimalt" ("Letters from Iwo Jima"), parimaks režissööriks Martin Scorsese ja parimaks võõrkeelseks filmiks Pedro Almodovari "Tagasitulek" ("Volver"). Sõnumis on ekslikult Iowa pro Iwa ja Almadovar pro Almodovar

  11. USA nõuab Iraani karistamist / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2011-01-01

    USA kutsub üles maailma riike vastu astuma Iraanile, mis väidetavalt plaanis Ühendriikide pinnal mõrvata Saudi Araabia suursaadiku Adel al-Jubeiri. Iraani võimude sõnul on süüdistus väljamõeldis

  12. Litterfall mercury dry deposition in the eastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin R. Risch; John F. DeWild; David P. Krabbenhoft; Randall K. Kolka; Leiming. Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in autumn litterfall frompredominately deciduous forestswas measured in 3 years of samples from 23 Mercury Deposition Network sites in 15 states across the eastern USA. Annual litterfall Hg dry depositionwas significantly higher (median 12.3 micrograms per square meter (µg/m2), range 3.5-23.4 µg/m2...

  13. Burkholderia pseudomallei Isolates in 2 Pet Iguanas, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Zehnder, Ashley M.; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Koski, Marilyn A.; Lifland, Barry; Byrne, Barbara A.; Swanson, Alexandra A.; Rood, Michael P.; Gee, Jay E.; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Beesley, Cari A.; Blaney, David D.; Ventura, Jean; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Beeler, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, was isolated from abscesses of 2 pet green iguanas in California, USA. The international trade in iguanas may contribute to importation of this pathogen into countries where it is not endemic and put persons exposed to these animals at risk for infection.

  14. USA kiidetud noise-rock Eestis / Annika Haas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haas, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel ja annab kaks kontserti - 13. nov. Tallinnas klubis Tapper ja 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv)

  15. Status and migration of irrigation in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigated agriculture produces 49% of crop market value on 18% of cropped lands in the USA. Irrigation is essential to the most highly productive, intensely managed, and internationally competitive sectors of our agricultural economy, which play a key role in meeting growing global food, fiber, and ...

  16. USA riigipeaks pürgijad saavad tuleristsed / Hendrik Vosman

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vosman, Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke 28. dets. lk. 8. 2008. aasta 3. jaanuaril saavad alguse Iowa osariigis toimuval USA kohalike vabariiklaste ja demokraatide nõupidamisel viis kuud kestvad presidendikandidaatide eelvalimised. Lisa: Demokraatide seas on kaks selget liidrit, vabariiklaste seas on shansse viiel mehel. Vt. samas: Vabariiklaste must hobune

  17. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  18. Bush lubas Bagdadi rohkem USA sõdureid / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Vt. ka Postimees : na russkom jazõke 28. juuli lk. 10. Iraagi peaministri Nuri Kamal al-Maliki USA visiidist, mille käigus ilmnesid kahe riigi vahelised erimeelsused, kokku lepiti lisajõudude saatmises Bagdadi. Lisa: Bagdadi julgeolek

  19. USA eitab Afganistani valimiste promomõju / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA suursaadiku Afganistanis Zalmay Khalilzadi väitel ei ole 9. oktoobril toimuvad valimised katse näidata enne Ameerika Ühendriikide valimisi, et valitsuse Afganistanis ja Iraagis võetud kurss on õige ja edukas. Lisa: Afganistani presidendivalimised

  20. USA on Iraagis ülbe ja rumal? / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2006-01-01

    USA välisministeeriumi ühe büroo avaliku diplomaatia direktor Alberto Fernandez tunnistas väidetavalt Al-Jazeera telekanalis esinedes, et ameeriklased olid Iraagis ülbed ja rumalad ning nüüd on vaja kõigi sealsete esindajatega läbirääkimisi pidada

  1. Järelkajad Eesti presidendi visiidist USA-sse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Töövisiit Ameerika Ühendriikidesse 17.-21.01.2006. Ülevaade president Arnold Rüütli USA-vsiidist, kohtumisest San Francisco ja Sunnyvale'i linnapeadega, investor Steve Jürvetsoniga, kohalike väliseestlastega, külaskäigust Silicon Valley tehnoloogiaettevõtetesse, California Ülikooli biotehnoloogia uurimiskeskusesse

  2. Nonspatial Sequence Coding in CA1 Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Timothy A; Salz, Daniel M; McKenzie, Sam; Fortin, Norbert J

    2016-02-03

    The hippocampus is critical to the memory for sequences of events, a defining feature of episodic memory. However, the fundamental neuronal mechanisms underlying this capacity remain elusive. While considerable research indicates hippocampal neurons can represent sequences of locations, direct evidence of coding for the memory of sequential relationships among nonspatial events remains lacking. To address this important issue, we recorded neural activity in CA1 as rats performed a hippocampus-dependent sequence-memory task. Briefly, the task involves the presentation of repeated sequences of odors at a single port and requires rats to identify each item as "in sequence" or "out of sequence". We report that, while the animals' location and behavior remained constant, hippocampal activity differed depending on the temporal context of items-in this case, whether they were presented in or out of sequence. Some neurons showed this effect across items or sequence positions (general sequence cells), while others exhibited selectivity for specific conjunctions of item and sequence position information (conjunctive sequence cells) or for specific probe types (probe-specific sequence cells). We also found that the temporal context of individual trials could be accurately decoded from the activity of neuronal ensembles, that sequence coding at the single-cell and ensemble level was linked to sequence memory performance, and that slow-gamma oscillations (20-40 Hz) were more strongly modulated by temporal context and performance than theta oscillations (4-12 Hz). These findings provide compelling evidence that sequence coding extends beyond the domain of spatial trajectories and is thus a fundamental function of the hippocampus. The ability to remember the order of life events depends on the hippocampus, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we addressed this issue by recording neural activity in hippocampal region CA1 while rats performed a

  3. Determination of standard free energies of formation of Ca3P2 and Ca2Sn at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, D. J.; Sano, N.

    1988-06-01

    The standard free energies of formation of calcium phosphide and calcium stannide were determined by a chemical equilibration technique, yielding the following results: 3Ca(1) + P2(g) = Ca3P2(s) Δ G° = -653,460(±7110) + 144.01(±4.98) T (J/mol)1000 °C to 1300 °C2Ca(1) + Sn(1) = Ca2Sn(s) Δ G° = -353,970(±1670) + 79.28(±1.26) T (J/mol)1000 °C to 1300 °C 1120 °C The experimental data to express the thermodynamics for removal of phosphorus and tin from molten iron by calcium based slags by other investigators were discussed in terms of the activity co-efficients of Ca3P2 and Ca2Sn in slag melts by using the present results described above.

  4. Tumour associated antigen CA-50, CA-242 immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in genitourinary malignancy and gastrointestinal carcinoma early diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhizhou.

    1992-04-01

    Tumour markers CA-50 and CA-242 were measured by immunometric assay (IRMA) to investigate their usefulness in the diagnosis of cancer of the pancreas, biliary tract, liver, breast, lung, gastrointestinal and genitourinary systems. The cutoff points, derived from studies on normal subjects and those with proven benign disease, were 20 u/ml and 12 u/ml for CA-50 and CA-242 respectively. Both markers were found to be generally useful with significant differences between malignant and non malignant disease. The highest positive rates, were found in cancers of the pancreas and gall bladder. The overall rate of false positives was low. It is concluded that measurements of CA-50 and CA-242 are useful in the detection of malignancy, particularly of the pancreas and biliary tract. 2 figs, 2 tabs

  5. Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, T.R.; Crittenden, P.D.; Young, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    The chemistry of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens indicate pollution distribution in Arctic Russia. - The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g -1 at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g -1 at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha -1 at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + ) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K + :Mg 2+ and K + : (Mg 2+ +Ca 2+ ) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 μmol l -1 at remote sites to ca. 19 μmol l -1 near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 μmol l -1 ) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources

  6. The USA-National Phenology Network Biophysical Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losleben, M. V.; Crimmins, T. M.; Weltzin, J. F.

    2009-12-01

    On January 1, 2009, the USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN, www.usanpn.org) launched the USA-NPN Biophysical Program. The overarching goal of the Biophysical Program (BP) is to link phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, with climate through the integration of phenology observations, meteorological, and spectral remote sensing measurements at sites across a broad a spectrum of environments. Phenology is critical for understanding a changing world. Many of the recurring plant and animal life cycle stages such as leafing and flowering of plants, maturation of agricultural crops, emergence of insects, and migration of birds are sensitive to climatic variation and change, and are simple to observe and record. Such changes can effect, for example, timing mismatches between the emergence of food sources and the arrival of migrating populations, or create new disease and invasive species vectors via increasingly suitable growing seasons relative to the climatic life cycle requirements of hosts or the organisms themselves. New vectors or crashing populations can have major repercussions on entire ecosystems and regional economics. Thus, to track phenology and build a national database, the USA-NPN is providing standard phenology monitoring protocols. Further, the integration of weather stations with phenological data provides an opportunity to understand how a changing climate is altering phenology. Thus, the USA-NPN Biophysical Program is developing an integrative biology-climate site template for widespread dissemination, in collaboration with the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL, http://rmbl.org/rockymountainbiolab/). This poster presents the USA-NPN Biophysical Program, and the results of the collaboration with RMBL during the summer of 2009, including the installation of an elevational network of climate stations. The National Science Foundation’s Major Research Instrumentation (NSF’s MRI) program provides funding

  7. Elementary properties of CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels expressed in mouse cochlear inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Johnson, Stuart L; Franz, Christoph; Lawrence, Neil D; Münkner, Stefan; Engel, Jutta; Knipper, Marlies; Magistretti, Jacopo; Masetto, Sergio; Marcotti, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized to process developmental signals during immature stages and sound stimuli in adult animals. These signals are conveyed onto auditory afferent nerve fibres. Neurotransmitter release at IHC ribbon synapses is controlled by L-type CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels, the biophysics of which are still unknown in native mammalian cells. We have investigated the localization and elementary properties of Ca2+ channels in immature mouse IHCs under near-physiological recording conditions. CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels at the cell pre-synaptic site co-localize with about half of the total number of ribbons present in immature IHCs. These channels activated at about −70 mV, showed a relatively short first latency and weak inactivation, which would allow IHCs to generate and accurately encode spontaneous Ca2+ action potential activity characteristic of these immature cells. The CaV1.3 Ca2+ channels showed a very low open probability (about 0.15 at −20 mV: near the peak of an action potential). Comparison of elementary and macroscopic Ca2+ currents indicated that very few Ca2+ channels are associated with each docked vesicle at IHC ribbon synapses. Finally, we found that the open probability of Ca2+ channels, but not their opening time, was voltage dependent. This finding provides a possible correlation between presynaptic Ca2+ channel properties and the characteristic frequency/amplitude of EPSCs in auditory afferent fibres. PMID:19917569

  8. Alar Laneman siirdub USA-sse kaitseatašeeks / Holger Roonemaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roonemaa, Holger

    2007-01-01

    Brigaadikindral Alar Lanemanist võib saada Eesti kaitseatašee USA-s. Endise kaitseministri Jürgen Ligi sõnul oli A. Laneman osaline mitmetes juhtimisvigades ning neist ühe puhul kestab senini kriminaalasi

  9. "Disko ja tuumasõda" jõuab USA-sse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Jaak Kilmi ja Kiur Aarma dokumentaalfilm "Disko ja tuumasõda" hakkab alates 12. novembrist jooksma New Yorgi kinos Cinema Village. 26. novembrist saab filmi näha Los Angeleses. Filmi levitaja USA-s on Icarus Film

  10. USA paneb välisabi kaitsma oma huve maailmas / Markus Larsson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Larsson, Markus

    2003-01-01

    USA valitsuse raporti kohaselt tuleb riigi välisabiprogramme hakata kohandama nii, et need oleksid suunatud USA rahvuslike huvide kaitsele ning vabaduse ja julgeoleku laiendamisele kogu maailmas. USAID juhataja Andrew Natsiose seisukohti

  11. Enamik Mõtteloo Sihtkapitali rahast kasvab USA aktsiates / Mart Trummal ; interv. Anne Oja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Trummal, Mart

    2006-01-01

    Intervjuu Eesti Mõtteloo Sihtkapitali juhi Mart Trummaliga. Tabel: Mõtteloo Sihtkapitali vara on USA-s noteeritud indeksifondides; Investeeringud Eesti aktsiatesse. Diagramm: Finantsinvesteeringute maht. Vt. samas: Anne Oja. Dividendisaajate esirinnas. Kommenteerib Annika Matson

  12. National Assessment of Tree City USA Participation According to Geography and Socioeconomic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree City USA is a national program that recognizes municipal commitment to community forestry. In return for meeting program requirements, Tree City USA participants expect social, economic, and/or environmental benefits. Understandingthe geographic distribution and socioeconomi...

  13. USA seab tõkkeid odavatele Hiinas toodetud kaupadele / Sirje Rank

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rank, Sirje, 1966-

    2003-01-01

    USA kaubandusdefitsiit Hiinaga kasvab, USA Kongress süüdistab Hiinat ebaausas konkurentsis ja on seadmas Hiina kaupadele impordipiiranguid. Hiina kaalub vastusanktsioone. Diagramm: Kaubandusdefitsiit Hiinaga süveneb

  14. USA rahatrükkimine tõstab ka Eestis hindu / Adele Pao

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pao, Adele

    2010-01-01

    USA Keskpanga otsus majanduse turgutamiseks lisaraha trükkida annab analüütikute hinnangul Eestis tunda eelkõige hinnatõusuna. USA keskpanga otsuse mõjust Saksamaa, Brasiilia, Hiina ja arenevate riikide majandusele

  15. USA kongresmen Chandler - sõber, kes aitas Eestil tunnustust leida / Eric A. Johnson, Oliver Prits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johnson, Eric A.

    2008-01-01

    Advokaadi ja USA kongressi liikme Walter M. Chandleri (1867-1935) tegevusest Balti riikide de jure tunnustamiseks. Lisatud: USA valitsuse avaldus Balti riikide tunnustamisest ; väike elulugu : Jeesuse advokaat

  16. USA finantskriis tabas Eestit eriti halval ajal / Lemmi Kann, Kaisa Tahlfeld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Lemmi

    2008-01-01

    USA-s puhkenud finantskriis ja Euroopa jahenev majanduskliima takistab Eesti majanduse taastumist. Küsimustele vastab Eesti Panga asepresident Andres Sutt. Kommenteerivad Aare Järvan ja Rain Tamm. Diagramm: Dow Jonesi ja OMXT indeksite muutus

  17. The evolution of nuclear power in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.K.

    1983-01-01

    The development and deployment of commercial nuclear power in the USA has been impressive since the programme began in the early 1950s. Today there are 73 commercial power reactors operating in the USA with combined capacity of about 56 GW(e). By 1990, an additional 64 nuclear power plants with a total capacity of approximately 123 GW(e) will be in operation supplying about 25% of US electrical energy requirements. Despite the cancellation of 91 new units since 1972 and lack of any new plant orders, there is a clear and continuing role for nuclear energy in the USA if we are to experience continued economic growth. New growth for US nuclear industry requires several things to happen. The prospective demand for electricity and new generating plants must increase; the US Government must show that it will fulfill its responsibilities to dispose of nuclear waste; a more stable regulatory process must be implemented so that nuclear power plants can be built with a reasonable degree of assurance beforehand as to what the final design, cost and schedule will be. President Reagan's July 1981 policy statement on Non-Proliferation and Peaceful Nuclear Co-operation and October 1981 Domestic Nuclear Policy Statement provide the policy framework necessary for the USA to maintain a viable domestic nuclear industry to enable nuclear power to make its essential contribution to future US energy needs and to re-establish the USA as a predictable and reliable partner for international nuclear co-operation under adequate safeguards. The US Government has structured its programmes and activities to implement these policies and initiatives. (author)

  18. RESEM-CA: Validation and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Vineeta; Carroll, William L.; Bourassa, Norman

    2002-09-01

    This report documents the results of an extended comparison of RESEM-CA energy and economic performance predictions with the recognized benchmark tool DOE2.1E to determine the validity and effectiveness of this tool for retrofit design and analysis. The analysis was a two part comparison of patterns of (1) monthly and annual energy consumption of a simple base-case building and controlled variations in it to explore the predictions of load components of each program, and (2) a simplified life-cycle cost analysis of the predicted effects of selected Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs). The study tries to analyze and/or explain the differences that were observed. On the whole, this validation study indicates that RESEM is a promising tool for retrofit analysis. As a result of this study some factors (incident solar radiation, outside air film coefficient, IR radiation) have been identified where there is a possibility of algorithmic improvements. These would have to be made in a way that does not sacrifice the speed of the tool, necessary for extensive parametric search of optimum ECM measures.

  19. 48Ca HETEROGENEITY IN DIFFERENTIATED METEORITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsin-Wei; Lee, Typhoon; Lee, Der-Chuen; Shen, Jason Jiun-San; Chen, Jiang-Chang

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic heterogeneities of 48 Ca have been found in numerous bulk meteorites that are correlated with 50 Ti and 54 Cr anomalies among differentiated planetary bodies, and the results suggest that a rare subset of neutron-rich Type Ia supernova (nSN Ia) was responsible for contributing these neutron-rich iron-group isotopes into the solar system (SS). The heterogeneity of these isotopes found in differentiated meteorites indicates that the isotopic compositions of the bulk SS are not uniform, and there are significant amounts of nSNe Ia dust incompletely mixed with the rest of SS materials during planetary formation. Combined with the data of now-extinct short-lived nuclide 60 Fe, which can be produced more efficiently from an nSN Ia than a Type II supernova ejecta, the observed planetary-scale isotopic heterogeneity probably reflects a late input of stellar dust grains with neutron-rich nuclear statistical equilibrium nuclides into the early SS.

  20. Asymmetries of the solar Ca II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasley, J.N.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of propagating acoustic pulses in the solar chromosphere upon the line profiles of the Ca II resonance and infrared triplet lines has been made. The major objective has been to explain the observed asymmetries seen in the cores of the H and K lines and to predict the temporal behavior of the infrared lines caused by passing acoustic or shock pulses. The velocities in the pulses, calculated from weak shock theory, have been included consistently in the non-LTE calculations. The results of the calculations show that these lines are very sensitive to perturbations in the background atmosphere caused by the pulses. Only minor changes in the line shapes result from including the velocities consistently in the line source function calculations. The qualitative changes in the line profiles vary markedly with the strength of the shock pulses. The observed differences in the K line profiles seen on the quiet Sun can be explained in terms of a spectrum of pulses with different wavelengths and initial amplitudes in the photosphere. (Auth.)

  1. Flavonoid Myricetin Modulates GABAA Receptor Activity through Activation of Ca2+ Channels and CaMK-II Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid myricetin is found in several sedative herbs, for example, the St. John's Wort, but its influence on sedation and its possible mechanism of action are unknown. Using patch-clamp technique on a brain slice preparation, the present study found that myricetin promoted GABAergic activity in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN by increasing the decay time and frequency of the inhibitory currents mediated by GABAA receptor. This effect of myricetin was not blocked by the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine- (BZ- binding site antagonist flumazenil, but by KN-62, a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase II (CaMK-II. Patch clamp and live Ca2+ imaging studies found that myricetin could increase Ca2+ current and intracellular Ca2+ concentration, respectively, via T- and L-type Ca2+ channels in rat PVN neurons and hypothalamic primary culture neurons. Immunofluorescence staining showed increased phosphorylation of CaMK-II after myricetin incubation in primary culture of rat hypothalamic neurons, and the myricetin-induced CaMK-II phosphorylation was further confirmed by Western blotting in PC-12 cells. The present results suggest that myricetin enhances GABAA receptor activity via calcium channel/CaMK-II dependent mechanism, which is distinctively different from that of most existing BZ-binding site agonists of GABAA receptor.

  2. Ab-initio calculations of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases CaMnO{sub 3}, CaO(CaMnO{sub 3}) and CaO(CaMnO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, C [CFC, Physics Department, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Borges, R P [Centro de Fisicada Materia Condensada - Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016, Lisbon (Portugal); Gasche, T [Centro de Fisicada Materia Condensada - Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016, Lisboa (Portugal); Godinho, M [Centro de Fisicada Materia Condensada - Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Ed. C8, 1749-016, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2008-01-23

    The present work reports ab-initio density functional theory calculations for the Ruddlesden-Popper phase CaO(CaMnO{sub 3}){sub n} compounds. In order to study the evolution of the properties with the number of perovskite layers, a detailed analysis of the densities of states calculated for each compound and for several magnetic configurations was performed. The effect of distortions of the crystal structure on the magnetic ground state is also analysed and the exchange constants and transition temperatures are calculated for the three compounds using a mean field model. The calculated magnetic ground state structures and magnetic moments are in good agreement with experimental results and previous calculations.

  3. Eesti saab tõenäoliselt USA-lt pooletoobise viisavabaduse / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2008-01-01

    Algasid läbirääkimised USA-ga viisavabaduse saavutamiseks. USA eksperdid tulevad hindama Eesti riigipiiri pidavust, koostatakse vastastikuse arusaamise memorandum. Tõenäoliselt hakkab Eesti puhul kehtima teistsugune süsteem kui on praegu 27 riigil, kellel on USA-ga viisavabadus ja kellest 15 on EL-i nn vanad riigid. USA sisejulgeoleku ministeeriumi asekantsleri Richard Barthi seisukohti. Vt. samas: Eesti näide võib tekitada vastuolulist reaktsiooni

  4. USA ärritab Poolat ideega ehitada raketikilp hoopis Leetu / Evelyn Kaldoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaldoja, Evelyn, 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Kuigi USA ja Poola vahel jätkuvad läbirääkimised raketikilbi üle, on rahvusvahelisse meediasse imbunud oletus, et USA võib raketikilbi paigutada hoopis Leetu. Poola asevälisministri Witold Waszczykowski hinnangul kasutab USA Leedut survestusvahendina. Nii Leedu välisministeerium kui ka USA-poolne kõneluste juht John Rood kinnitavad, et raketikilbiküsimust on riigid omavahel arutanud

  5. Afganistan ja USA tülitsevad vangide ja oopiumi pärast / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2005-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushiga kohtumise järel nõudis Afganistani president Hamid Karzai USA käes olevate Afganistani vangide väljaandmist, ta oli nördinud teadete üle, kuidas vange on koheldud. Karzai nõudis kontrolli Afganistanis viibivate USA sõdurite üle ja relvastatud reidide lõpetamist afgaanide kodudesse. Lisa: USA ründab Afganistani narkoäri

  6. Clinical analysis of the value of combined detection of serum CA199 and CA50 levels in patients with pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuo; Shi Jingbin; Zheng Yongsheng

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combined test of serum CA 199 and CA 50 levels in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with pancreatic cancer. Methods: Serum levels of CA 199 and CA 50 in 40 cases of pancreatic cancer, 20 cases of chronic pancreatitis and 30 normal controls were detected by radioimmunoassay. Results: Serum CA 199 and CA 50 levels in pancreatic cancer patients were significantly higher than those in normal controls and chronic pancreatitis patients (P 199 and CA 50 were detected simultaneously, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis of pancreatic cancer could be improved. Serum CA 199 and CA 50 levels in cancer patients with lymph node metastasis were much higher than those without lymph node metastasis (P 199 and CA 50 detected simultaneously could improve the sensitivity and accuracy in diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. The changes of serum CA 199 and CA 50 level were helpful to predict whether metastasis or recurrence had occurred

  7. Clinical evaluation of CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4 and CA125 in gastric cancer patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipeng; Zhang, Nengwei

    2014-12-29

    In the clinical practice of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, response markers are very important. We aimed o investigate whether tumor markers CEA(carcino-embryonic antigen), CA19-9(carbohydrate antigen 19-9), CA72-4(carbohydrate antigen 72-4), and CA125(carbohydrate antigen 125) can be used to evaluate the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to evaluate the diagnosis and prognosis value of four tumor markers in the patients of gastric cancer. A retrospective review was performed of 184 gastric cancer patients who underwent a 5-Fu, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen, followed by surgical treatment. Blood samples for CEA, CA19-9, CA72-4, and CA125 levels were taken from patients upon admission to the hospital and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Statistical analysis was performed to identify the clinical value of these tumor markers in predicting the survival and the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Median overall survival times of pretreatment CA19-9-positive and CA72-4-positive patients (14.0 +/-2.8 months and 14.8 +/-4.0 months, respectively) were significantly less than negative patients (32.5 +/-8.9 months and 34.0 +/-10.1 months, respectively) (P = 0.000 and P = 0.002, respectively). Pretreatment status of CA19-9 and CA72-4 were independent prognostic factors in gastric cancer patients (P = 0.029 and P = 0.008, respectively). Pretreatment CEA >50 ng/ml had a positive prediction value for clinical disease progression after neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the ROC curve (AUC: 0.694, 95% CI: 0.517 to 0.871, P = 0.017). The decrease of tumor markers CEA, CA72-4, and CA125 was significant after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.030, P = 0.010, and P = 0.009, respectively), especially in patients with disease control (including complete, partial clinical response, and stable disease) (P = 0.012, P = 0.020, and P = 0.025, respectively). A decrease in CA72-4 by more than 70% had

  8. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini) from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdahl, James C; Kavanaugh, David H

    2011-01-01

    Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft), 44.0675°; -115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft), 46.5528°; -115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of Pterostichus bousqueti and Pterostichus lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho.

  9. Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini from the mountains of central Idaho, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bergdahl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft, 44.0675°/-115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft, 46.5528°/-115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of P. bousqueti and P. lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho.

  10. The diagnostic value of serum tumor markers CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weigang; Xu, Xiaoqin; Tian, Baoguo; Wang, Yan; Du, Lili; Sun, Ting; Shi, Yanchun; Zhao, Xianwen; Jing, Jiexian

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to understand the diagnostic value of serum tumor markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cancer antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), cancer antigen 125 (CA125), cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), and tissue polypeptide-specific antigen (TPS) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). A total of 164 metastatic breast cancer patients in Shanxi Cancer Hospital were recruited between February 2016 and July 2016. 200 breast cancer patients without metastasis in the same period were randomly selected as the control group. The general characteristics, immunohistochemical, and pathological results were investigated between the two groups, and tumor markers were determined. There were statistical differences in the concentration and the positive rates of CEA, CA19-9, CA125, CA15-3, and TPS between the MBC and control group (Ptumor marker at 56.7% and 97.0%, respectively. In addition, two tumor markers were used for the diagnosis of MBC and the CEA and TPS combination had the highest diagnostic sensitivity with 78.7%, while the CA15-3 and CA125 combination had the highest specificity of 91.5%. Analysis of tumor markers of 164 MBC found that there were statistical differences in the positive rates of CEA and CA15-3 between bone metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =6.00, P=0.014; χ 2 =7.32, P=0.007, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity values of the CEA and CA15-3 combination in the diagnosis of bone metastases were 77.1% and 45.8%, respectively. The positive rate of TPS in the lung metastases group was lower than in other metastases (χ 2 =8.06, P=0.005).There were significant differences in the positive rates of CA15-3 and TPS between liver metastases and other metastases (χ 2 =15.42, Ptumor markers have varying diagnostic value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation of 45Ca(HDEHP)n and (CaH1502)2 samples for liquid scintillation counting, compared to 45caCl2 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Arcos, J. M. los; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    A procedure for preparation of liquid scintillation counting organic samples of the Di-2-ethylhexyl phosphate calcium complex and the 2-ethylhexanoate calcium salt, labelled with 45Ca, is described. The chemical quench, the counting stability and spectral evolution of both compounds is studied in six scintillators,Toluene-alcohol, Dioxane-naphtalene, Hi safe II, Ultimate-Gold and Instagel, and compared to results obtained from a commercial solution of 4 5CaCl2. (Author) 7 refs

  12. Studies of highly ionized atoms using internal conversion: 197Au, 57Fe; electric monopole transitions in 40Ca, 42Ca, and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    By using heavy-ion reactions, highly ionized electronic states of atoms may be produced. The interaction between excited nuclear levels and the surrounding atomic electrons via internal conversion allows the nucleus to be used as a probe of the electronic structure of the highly ionized atoms. Studies of such atoms were undertaken for strongly internally converted nuclear levels in 197 Au and 57 Fe. The nuclear levels were Coulomb excited by using 16 O and 32 S beams. Simultaneous measurement of the lifetime of the 77-keV state of 197 Au in both neutral gold atoms and gold atoms with mean charge +10 resulted in a measured change in the internal conversion coefficient of Δalpha/alpha equals - 1.7 +- 3.0)10 -3 . This result is consistent with calculations using a Hartree-Fock--Slater program. Measurements of the electric monopole strengths for 0 + → 0 + transitions were undertaken to determine the amount of core-deformation in calcium nuclei. The E0 strengths for the decays of the 0 + states at 5.21 MeV in 40 C, 1.84 MeV in 42 Ca, and 1.88 MeV in 44 Ca were observed. The branching ratios for the subsequent E0 pair decays were measured by observing the coincident annihilation radiation from the e + member of the pair in coincidence with protons feeding the state in the cases of 42 Ca and 44 Ca, and by observing the actual coincident e + --e - pair together with protons feeding the state in the case of 40 Ca. The resulting E0 strengths (rho less than or equal to 0.06, rho = 0.34 +- 0.03, rho = 0.30 +- 0.10 for 40 Ca, 42 Ca, and 44 Ca respectively) agree with theoretical descriptions

  13. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-161-LNG] Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket..., by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA Gas Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export... country with the capacity to import LNG via ocean-going carrier and with which trade is not prohibited by...

  14. Valge Maja hämab USA vägede tulevikust Iraagis / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    Kuigi USA president George W. Bush on kõnelenud ja USA vägede ülemjuhataja Iraagis George Casey esitanud konkreetse plaani USA vägede väljatoomisest Iraagist, pole Valge Maja konkreetset plaani ametlikult kinnitanud. Lisa: Sõjatandrilt lahkumine

  15. USA : rünnak võib olla parim kaitse / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2006-01-01

    USA uues rahvusliku julgeoleku strateegias rõhutatakse, et tuumaambitsioonidega Iraak kujutab USA jaoks suurimat strateegilist väljakutset ning märgitakse, et teatud juhtudel on ohtude ennetamiseks vajalik jõu kasutamine. Vt. samas: Ameeriklaste toetus Iraagi sõjale väheneb. Lisa: Pessimistlik USA

  16. ÜRO asesekretäri kriitika USA suunal ajas viimase marru / Liise Lehtsalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtsalu, Liise

    2006-01-01

    ÜRO asesekretär Malloch Brown kritiseeris oma kõnes USA tahtmatust teavitada ameeriklasi ÜRO osast USA välispoliitikas. USA ÜRO-suursaadiku John Boltoni reageering Browni märkustele. Lisa: Rikaste ja vaeste riikide vastuolud

  17. Eesti-USA suhetes loevad väärtused / Vello Andres Pettai

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pettai, Vello, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Järva Teataja 30. nov. lk. 6 lüh. Tartu Ülikooli võrdleva poliitika professor vastab Postimees Online'i lugejate küsimustele, mis puudutavad USA presidendi visiiti Eestisse, viisavabadust USA-ga, USA presidendi võimu, NATO-t, välispoliitikat, riikidevahelisi suhteid, ajakirjandusvabadust, inimõigusi ja demokraatiat

  18. Hiina mull on lõhkemas. USA on soosingus / Romet Kreek

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kreek, Romet, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    USA investeerimisveterani Richard Bernsteini väitel on Hiinas võrreldes USA-ga suur laenumull. USA väikese turuväärtusega ettevõtete aktsiaid peab ta suure turuväärtusega ettevõtete aktsiatest aktraktiivsemaks. Euroopa aktsiatesse suhtub ta positiivselt. Autor viitab Bernsteini vaadete muutumisele

  19. 78 FR 25304 - Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ..., USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), Including On-Site Leased Workers From Source... Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology), including on- site leased... of February 2013, Siemens Medical Solutions, USA, Inc., Oncology Care Systems (Radiation Oncology...

  20. Arab American Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Experience in the USA: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Arab American parents' perceptions of difficulties their children experience in the USA. Both Arab American children born outside the USA who later moved to the country and children born in the USA to Arab parents were examined. Fifty Arab American families were interviewed in two areas in the State of…

  1. Blair üritab muuta USA Euroopa-meelsemaks / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi ja Suurbritannia peaministri Tony Blairi kohtumine Valges Majas. Blairi parteikaaslase Helen Jacksoni kriitika Blairi USA-poliitika kohta. Suurbritannia endise välisministri Robin Cooki sõnul on USA ja Euroopa poliitilised väärtushinnangud pigem lahknemas kui ühtimas

  2. S&P: meie kohus oli USA riigireitingut alandada / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2011-01-01

    Standard & Poor´s langetas USA reitingut tasemelt AAA tasemeni AA+. Agentuuri esindaja sõnul oli reitingu alandamine nende kohustus, sest nende arvates oli USA senine reiting liiga kõrge. Hiina nõuab, et USA hakkaks oma võlaprobleemiga tegelema. AAA reiting on nüüd vaid 15 riigil või territooriumil maailmas

  3. USA saadik loodab võita eestlaste poolehoiu / Joseph M. DeThomas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    DeThomas, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis Joseph DeThomas vastab on-line intervjuus Eesti Päevalehe lugejate küsimustele Iraagi ründamise, USA ja Euroopa vahelise lõhe, USA Eesti saatkonna võimaliku ümberkolimise kohta

  4. USA moos määrib Eesti naabritest mõjukamaks / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2007-01-01

    Sel sügisel on toimunud mitu Eesti ja USA poliitikute kohtumist. Peaminister Andrus Ansipi ja kaitseminister Jaak Aaviksoo USA-visiitide korraldamisega kursis olevad ametnikud ei nõustu, et kohtumiste taga oleks olnud USA lobitöö Iraagi missiooni pikendamiseks

  5. Tšehhi võimud tahavad endale USA raketikilpi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    USA rajab 2011. aastaks raketirünnakute tõrje süsteemi. Raketikilbi Euroopa-keskuse asukohale kandideerivad Tšehhi ja Poola, samas on suur osa tshehhe USA baasi rajamise vastu. Skeem: USA tähesõdade programm. Lisa: Peaminister vaid nime poolest

  6. USA saadik : Lihula sammas oli solvav / Aldona Zofia Wos ; interv. Erkki Bahovski

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wos, Aldona Zofia

    2005-01-01

    USA suursaadik Eestis vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti-USA suhteid, eestlaste võimalust saada kunagi sõita USA-sse ilma viisata, Lihula mälestusmärgi mahavõtmist, valimisi ja jätkuvat vägivalda Iraagis, HI-viiruse levikut

  7. EL taotleb USA-lt viisavabaduse võrdsust / Ahto Lobjakas, Anneli Ammas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lobjakas, Ahto, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    Euroopa Komisjon soovib, et USA kiirendaks EL-i uute liikmesriikide kaasamist oma viisavabastusprogrammi. USA peab illegaalseid tööotsijaid üheks peamiseks tõkkeks viisavabaduse saavutamise teel. Kriteeriumidest, millele peavad USA-ga viisavabadust taotlevad riigid vastama

  8. 75 FR 8920 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Status; Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division (Xylitol, Xylose, Galactose and Mannose); Thomson, IL... subzone at the xylitol, xylose, galactose and mannose manufacturing facility of Danisco USA, Inc... xylitol, xylose, galactose and mannose at the facility of Danisco USA, Inc., Sweeteners Division, located...

  9. {sup 41}Ca measurements at the Zurich AMS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, C.; Gartenmann, P.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Gloris, M.; Leya, I.; Michel, R. [Hannover Univ. (Germany); Herpers, U. [Koeln Univ. (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    Proton-induced production cross sections for {sup 41}Ca from Fe and Ni determined using 6 MV tandem accelerator are presented. The calibration of two secondary standard materials to a standard material of {sup 41}Ca concentration determined by PTB (Braunschweig, Germany) has been carried out. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.

  10. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@ C 92 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... technique without recycling equipment. It is notable that higher metallofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 are also confirmed by LD-TOF mass spectrometry and characterrized by UV-Vis-NIR absorption measurements.

  11. Characterization of Binding Epitopes of CA125 Monoclonal Antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcos-Silva, Lara; Narimatsu, Yoshiki; Halim, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    The most used cancer serum biomarker is the CA125 immunoassay for ovarian cancer that detects the mucin glycoprotein MUC16. Several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) including OC125 and M11 are used in CA125 assays. However, despite considerable efforts, our knowledge of the molecular characteristics ...

  12. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@C92 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    allofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 are also ... est cage size for lanthanide and alkaline earth higher metallofullerenes isolated and ... suming stage is to remove abundant hollow small cage fullerenes and enrich higher ...

  13. Facile combustion synthesis of novel CaZrO 3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A facile sol–gel combustion route was reported for the direct preparation of CaZrO3:Eu3+ and CaZrO3:Eu3+, Gd3+. The obtained deposits were characterized by XRD, TGA-DSC, SEM, EDS, PL measurements and microscope fluorescence. When the Gd3+ ions were introduced in this compound, the emissions of ...

  14. SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2005-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Environmental Management System (EMS) Program Manual documents the elements of the site EMS Program. The SNL/CA EMS Program was developed in accordance with Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1 and incorporates the elements of the International Standard on Environmental Management Systems, ISO 14001.

  15. Isolation and characterization of higher metallofullerenes Ca@C92 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    allofullerenes containing alkaline earth metal ions could be isolated although their relative yields are extremely low. Ca@C92 and Ca@C94 ... laser vapourization of a graphite–metal composite in a helium filled tube oven at high ... robenzene extraction, chlorobenzene and benzene mo- bile phase for isolation of fullerenes ...

  16. Unanimous Model for Describing the Fast Bioluminescence Kinetics of Ca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eremeeva, Elena V.; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Berkel, van Willem J.H.; Vysotski, Eugene S.

    2017-01-01

    Upon binding their metal ion cofactors, Ca2+-regulated photoproteins display a rapid increase of light signal, which reaches its peak within milliseconds. In the present study, we investigate bioluminescence kinetics of the entire photoprotein family. All five recombinant hydromedusan Ca2+-regulated

  17. 76 FR 45180 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Alturas, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ...-0403; Airspace Docket No. 11-AWP-3] Modification of Class E Airspace; Alturas, CA AGENCY: Federal... Alturas Municipal Airport, Alturas, CA. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using... Alturas Municipal Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR...

  18. Characterization of the Ca2+ Channels Involved in the Progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is evidence that intracellular Ca2+ concentration plays significant roles in sperm function such as motility and acrosome reaction. Many calcium channels have been identified in the plasma membrane of sperm. Progesterone (P4) stimulates Ca2+ influx and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. The effects of ...

  19. PIK3CA mutant tumors depend on oxoglutarate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Nina; Birsoy, Kıvanç; Aguirre, Andrew J.; Kory, Nora; Pacold, Michael E.; Singh, Shambhavi; Moody, Susan E.; DeAngelo, Joseph D.; Spardy, Nicole A.; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Weir, Barbara A.; Cowley, Glenn S.; Root, David E.; Asara, John M.; Vazquez, Francisca; Widlund, Hans R.; Sabatini, David M.; Hahn, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations are found in a significant fraction of human cancers, but therapeutic inhibition of PI3K has only shown limited success in clinical trials. To understand how mutant PIK3CA contributes to cancer cell proliferation, we used genome scale loss-of-function screening in a large number of genomically annotated cancer cell lines. As expected, we found that PIK3CA mutant cancer cells require PIK3CA but also require the expression of the TCA cycle enzyme 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH). To understand the relationship between oncogenic PIK3CA and OGDH function, we interrogated metabolic requirements and found an increased reliance on glucose metabolism to sustain PIK3CA mutant cell proliferation. Functional metabolic studies revealed that OGDH suppression increased levels of the metabolite 2-oxoglutarate (2OG). We found that this increase in 2OG levels, either by OGDH suppression or exogenous 2OG treatment, resulted in aspartate depletion that was specifically manifested as auxotrophy within PIK3CA mutant cells. Reduced levels of aspartate deregulated the malate–aspartate shuttle, which is important for cytoplasmic NAD+ regeneration that sustains rapid glucose breakdown through glycolysis. Consequently, because PIK3CA mutant cells exhibit a profound reliance on glucose metabolism, malate–aspartate shuttle deregulation leads to a specific proliferative block due to the inability to maintain NAD+/NADH homeostasis. Together these observations define a precise metabolic vulnerability imposed by a recurrently mutated oncogene. PMID:28396387

  20. Purification and biochemical characterization of a Ca2+- ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the other hand, Ca+2 and EDTA (1 to 5 mM) did not significantly affect the enzyme activity. The main substrate for the enzyme was found to be starch but it could also hydrolyze raw starch, dextrin, γ-cyclodextrin and pullulan. Key words: Ca2+-independent, Bacillus sp, thermostable α-amylases, low pH profile, enzyme, ...