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Sample records for legend arthur ashe

  1. Interpretation of the key mythologems of Arthur legends within the novel series by Mary Stewart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manitskaya Ekaterina Olegovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the existence of myths in modern texts. As an example it was selected a series of novels about Merlin and King Arthur by British writer Mary Stewart, written in the twentieth century. In this novels, the author resorts to key mythologem of Arthurian myth, such as the sword Excalibur, the Holy Grail and the Round Table, turning them into symbols of pseudo-realities. Due to this the Sword and the Grail becom a Roman artifacts that Merlin is to give Arthur as real symbols of the power of predestination. Excalibur in this case becomes a symbol of the reunification of the country on both the political and the religious aspect. Grail turns into an object of false pursuit, because the role he must fulfill is given to Arthur. Roundtable loses its symbolic meaning: the author finds a historical explanation for this mythologeme and assigns a place in the Round Knights of Arthur’s house, which is really able to accommodate more than a hundred people at once. Thus, each of the myths in the text is not just a myth intended to make the myth-source recognizable, but also performs new functions ascribed by the author.

  2. Power in Jeopardy: A Poststructuralist Reading of the Arthurian Legend from Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur and Tennyson’s Idylls of the King to Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timuçin Buğra Edman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Power in Jeopardy: A Poststructuralist Reading of the Arthurian Legend from Malory’s Le Morte d’Arthur and Tennyson’s Idylls of the King to Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings Abstract The days of the classical heroes are over, as the days of Romance or Chivalric Romance and Epic that depict the hero in quest of the ideal are. A typical Romance situates the hero in a succession of challenges, each of which is overcome by him, who finally defeats the dark, evil force and brings peace and order to his community, thus offering to it the opportunity of living in a system defined by the norms of universal morality and enlightenment. The hero becomes a model of universal justice and stability, and he towers above all of his fellow men as a symbol of perfection and endurance of will against the powers of darkness. This plot of one-man challenge and task has been much fruitful in the creation of the stories of the pre-Christian times, the times of the foundation and expansion of Christianity, and the Medieval Age. During these eras such legendary figures as Osiris, Prometheus, Moses, Jesus Christ, and King Arthur of England have emerged as representative perfect super heroes and as universal and absolute role models. Known as monomyths, such stories have shown parallelism regarding the character and plot structure, all yielding similarities as dictated by Romance; this is mostly obvious through the continuous clash of good and evil. The clash creates a sustained tension in the reader whose moral understanding and conscience are kept busy in wondering whether the hero will lose the battle of righteousness or win it, announcing that human dignity has once again been victorious over evil forces. As suggested above, the days of such heroes are over, together with their references to super human qualities which have long been referred to as universal symbols that stand for ideal models for humanity. Such symbols, signifiers, refer to a sign both in

  3. Indian Legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting American Indian legends, this material provides insight into the cultural background of the Dakota, Ojibwa, and Winnebago people. Written in a straightforward manner, each of the eight legends is associated with an Indian group. The legends included here are titled as follows: Minnesota is Minabozho's Land (Ojibwa); How We Got the…

  4. Rethinking map legends with visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Jason; Wood, Jo; Slingsby, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    This design paper presents new guidance for creating map legends in a dynamic environment. Our contribution is a set of guidelines for legend design in a visualization context and a series of illustrative themes through which they may be expressed. These are demonstrated in an applications context through interactive software prototypes. The guidelines are derived from cartographic literature and in liaison with EDINA who provide digital mapping services for UK tertiary education. They enhance approaches to legend design that have evolved for static media with visualization by considering: selection, layout, symbols, position, dynamism and design and process. Broad visualization legend themes include: The Ground Truth Legend, The Legend as Statistical Graphic and The Map is the Legend. Together, these concepts enable us to augment legends with dynamic properties that address specific needs, rethink their nature and role and contribute to a wider re-evaluation of maps as artifacts of usage rather than statements of fact. EDINA has acquired funding to enhance their clients with visualization legends that use these concepts as a consequence of this work. The guidance applies to the design of a wide range of legends and keys used in cartography and information visualization.

  5. Granit, Prof. Ragnar Arthur

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1964 Honorary. Granit, Prof. Ragnar Arthur Nobel Laureate (Medicine) - 1967. Date of birth: 30 October 1900. Date of death: 11 March 1991. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the ...

  6. The Transitional Legend of Winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2006 a number of stories that featured the motive of great gain under dramatic circumstances were repeatedly told in betting-houses in Kragujevac, a town in Serbia. The main character of these legends is an empoverished victim of transition who, thanks to luck and help of friends, wins a great sum of money betting. Besides describing the preceding transitional "fall" of the winner (getting fired, failing in private enterprise, the legends describe his economical and social prosperity initiated by capital gained through betting (starting succesfull enterprises, buying good shares. Diachronically following other "sudden wealth" legends this transitional legend speaks about the establishing of a new system of values that, in the categories of social promotion, makes up for the old principles that marked the period of socialism.

  7. Arthur Prior and 'Now'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Jørgensen, Klaus Frovin

    2016-01-01

    On the 4th of December 1967, Hans Kamp sent his UCLA seminar notes on the logic of ‘now’ to Arthur N. Prior. Kamp’s two-dimensional analysis stimulated Prior to an intense burst of creativity in which he sought to integrate Kamp’s work into tense logic using a one-dimensional approach. Prior...... to a one-dimensional tense logic containing the ‘now’ operator J. Drawing on material from the Prior archive, and the paper “‘Now”’ that detailed Prior’s findings, we retell this story. We focus on Prior’s completeness conjecture for the hybrid system and the role played by temporal reference....

  8. The Chicano and the Black Legend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Porfirio

    An historical overview traces the Black Legend about persons of Spanish descent and seeks to demonstrate the influence of the Black Legend on Anglo attitudes towards Mexican Americans. The beginnings of the Black Legend are found in the sixteenth century when European countries in conflict with Spain used Spanish actions during the Sack of Rome,…

  9. Al Zubarah - eine vergessene Legende

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinzel, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    Jahre später auf einem Sechstel der ursprünglichen Siedlungsfläche wiedererrichtet und dann im ausgehenden 19. Jahrhundert / beginnenden 20. Jahrhundert endgültig aufgeben. Die Stadt lebt als Legende im Bewusstsein der katarischen Bevölkerung, doch der Name wird heute nicht mit der Stadtanlage sondern...

  10. The Legend of Louis Pasteur

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 1. The Legend of Louis Pasteur. S Mahadevan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 1 ... Author Affiliations. S Mahadevan1. Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.

  11. Rhythmical Alchemy: Village Drumming with Arthur Hull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerson, Gary R.; Hull, Arthur

    As a step toward writing a master's thesis in psychology, the connection between rhythm circles and psychotherapeutic process was explored. Arthur Hull, who experienced and preached about the healing power of rhythm for many years, was interviewed. This article recorded the interview between Arthur and the researcher. The interviewer learned that…

  12. Arthur Kelman: tribute and remembrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Luis

    2012-01-01

    With the death of Professor Arthur Kelman at age 90, the plant sciences, and particularly the field of plant pathology, lost one of its most influential and effective leaders. His long career involved important positions in the Departments of Plant Pathology at North Carolina State University (1949-1965) and the University of Wisconsin (1965-1989). Recognized not only for his achievements in research and his charismatic influence on his numerous students, Arthur was, most of all, an extraordinary teacher. He and his students made significant contributions in the fields of virulence, ecology, and control of bacterial plant pathogens. In addition, he was extremely active in service to professional societies, including the American Phytopathological Society, and a major force in the development of the International Society for Plant Pathology. In addition, he was an influential member of the Council of the National Academy of Sciences, and, after retirement from the University of Wisconsin, he served for two years as Chief Scientist of the Competitive Grants Program of the US Department of Agriculture. He received numerous awards as a teacher and researcher, and felt an intense sense of duty to his profession. He was one of the most influential plant pathologists of the twentieth century and will be remembered for his great intellect and his humanity.

  13. The hand in Irish legend and folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, E E; Prendiville, J B

    1991-06-01

    A brief review of the significance of the hand in the mythology, folklore, and religion of Ireland from ancient times is presented. Many of these accounts are also found in the history and legends of other Celtic countries.

  14. Symbolic Interactionism, Mass Panics and Urban Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The constructionist approach to social problems has developed a thesis about mass panics and urban legends as "unconstructed social problems". This thesis, advanced by the American sociologist Joel Best, and his analysis of the urban legend of Halloween sadism, have provided the model for studying three mass panics and two urban legends. The three panics in question are the mass exodus from Kraljevo because of a prophesy that the town would be destroyed in an earthquake, the mass fear of body parts thieves in three villages in Srem, and the panic over the appearance of a cannibal sect in the town of Šabac. The two urban legends involve the rich old emigrant whose acquaintance a child from a poor family made while dialling phone numbers at random, and the thieving postman who set up his own business in Russia with the stolen pension money he had been supposed to deliver.

  15. ["Imperial madness" - truth or legend?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Zerssen, D

    2011-03-01

    The notion of "imperial madness" was coined in the historical literature and belles-lettres of the 19th century. Around that time up to the first quarter of the 20th century, it was adopted by a few German psychiatrists. Two of them viewed "imperial madness" as ordinary forms of insanity which became excessive only due to reactions of the social environment. Another one, however, classified it as one of "mental borderland states" in between insanity and normality, although he conceived the final stage of the disorder as a paranoid one. In agreement with the historians he postulated that "imperial madness" resulted from unlimited power of predisposed rulers. In recent times the whole concept of "imperial madness" was referred to the realm of legends by historians of antiquity and other historically interested authors. Yet the existence of the phenomenon cannot be denied. Despite its rarity it has played and is still playing an important role with often catastrophic consequences in various cultures all over the world. Therefore, psychiatrists and other physicians as well as clinical psychologists should be acquainted with it. From a modern point of view, it is not a paranoid disorder but rather a syndrome of addiction-like behavioural excesses representing an intensification of a Hybris syndrome as described by Anglo-Saxon psychiatrists. According to the present authors' view, it should be classified nosologically as a chronic adjustment disorder. In this case, the underlying stresses need to be extended to situations of temptation (here: the temptation to abuse almost unlimited power). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. [From teratology to mythology: ancient legends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, A; Tourame, P

    2010-12-01

    The mythology of the Greeks and Romans is full of monsters of fiction: giants, cyclops, centaurs, hydras, Gorgons… The accounts of travelers, reproduced in the Natural History of Pline l'Ancien reported the existence, in distant countries, of men with a dog's head (baboons), of men with a single tall foot (sciapode), beings whose face is embedded in the chest (or acephala blemmyes), to which must be added a wide variety of men with no mouth, no nose, or equipped with giant ears or feet turned backwards, as well as hermaphrodites. Teratology reports on monstrous births, which have constituted the factual basis from which the imagination conceived adults whose morphology corresponds to the monsters of legend. Newborns sirenomelia were behind the legend of sciapode and sirens. Cyclopia have inspired the legend of the cyclops. Anencephaly probably explains the description of headless or blemmyes. The genesis of the legend of baboons may have multiple origins: firstly the existence of people suffering from congenital hypertrichosis, on the other hand, the influence of Egyptian mythology where the god Anubis has a dog's head. The acardiac fetus may explain some monstrous forms, features the work of Hieronymus Bosch. The significance of the monsters of legend, their genesis, their persistence through the ages is complex. By approaching teratology, we added a new field of exploration of real monsters of antiquity and Middle Ages. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Bembya Fedorov, Three Legends About Kalmyk Tea

    OpenAIRE

    Okonova, Altana; Churyumov, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Legend One. Kalmyk tea is a present from gods to the Kalmyk people. In the past, the Kalmyks drank kumis, cow milk and spring water only. One day god in the form of an old man descended on earth. When he entered a Kalmyk yurt, he saw a young bride cooking lunch. The old man offered to make Kalmyk tea. Every one in the family liked the new drink. Since then the Kalmyks make this tea and offer the first cup of fresh tea to gods. Legend Two. Upon his arrival in China from Tibet, Bodhidharma spe...

  18. The Onion and "When Legends Die."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Loren C.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the eight layers in Thomas Black Bull's ("When the Legends Die") journey to spiritual rebirth and stresses that students can easily identify these layers and can thereby achieve a clearer understanding of the relationship between structure and meaning in fiction. (CRH)

  19. Legends of Belogradchik (Strigachev, 2009 [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Toshev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This slim book contains 11 legends about Belogradchik and its vicinity and people. The book is illustrated. The author of the book is Stefan Strigachev (1935-2000. Additionally, the text of the book is exhilarated by several clever rhymes written also by the author.

  20. Arthur Fula | Sulzer | Tydskrif vir letterkunde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a translation of a chapter entitled “Arthur Fula” from Peter Sulzer's unpublished manuscript Südafrika im Spiegel der Afrikaans Literatur (1965), pages 381–91. This Swiss librarian and Africanist corresponded for at least eight years with Fula and met him in the early 1960s at his place of work, the Johannesburg ...

  1. An Interview with Arthur W. Combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolliver, Robert H.; Patterson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Presents biographical summary of Arthur Combs, well known for his perceptual point of view to earlier generation of humanistic educators, counselors, and psychologists. Discusses Combs's background, placing emphasis on academic career. Interview focuses on Combs's entry into humanistic education, his implementation of teacher education program…

  2. The Interethnic and Interreligious Values in Turkish and Crimean Legends

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiia Zherdieva

    2014-01-01

    The present paper examines interethnic and interreligious values in Turkish and Crimean folk legends. The folklore of both Crimea and Turkey has a multicultural background, which makes both corpuses of texts suitable for research. In the course of the study, a wide range of published Turkish and Crimean legends were reviewed and analysed. There are two deeply-rooted tendencies in the studied legends. First of all, the interethnic and interreligious relationships can be described as ghastly an...

  3. Arthur R. Jensen (1923-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubinski, David

    2013-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Arthur R. Jensen. Arthur R. Jensen epitomized the "London School" of psychological thought, studying human individuality as a branch of biology by teaming evolutionary, genetic, and experimental/multivariate/quantitative methods to examine psychological diversity. His intellectual ancestry traces back through his mentor Hans Eysenck to Cyril Burt, Charles Spearman, and, ultimately, Sir Francis Galton. Haggbloom et al. (2002, Review of General Psychology) ranked him among the top 50 eminent psychologists of the 20th century primarily for his work on the construct of general intelligence (g) and its antecedents. But he was also known for his studies in human learning, memory, the cumulative deficit hypothesis, Spearman's hypothesis, the speed of information hypothesis, and test bias. Yet, because of the controversial nature of his work, his career was conspicuously marked by tensions: The extent to which his work was either admired or reviled by many distinguished scientists is unparalleled.

  4. Sangadzhi Kononov, Legends from Dund Khurul

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaeva, Bair; Churyumov, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Legend One. In the past an astrologist calculated the time and place where a boy with the head of a wolf would be born. Upon hearing this terrible news, some worried people went to the prophesized place only to find a woman who was in labor. As soon as the woman gave birth, the newborn who had a wolf’s head set about running around the tent trying to escape from the crowd. The people caught the baby and when they were about to kill him, the baby said, ‘If only had I sucked the milk of my moth...

  5. DVD-d. Shrek Kolmas; Ma olen legend / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustused USA 2007.a. filmidele : animafilm "Shrek Kolmas" ("Shrek the Third", režissöörid Chris Miller, Raman Hui) ja ulmefilm "Ma olen legend" ("I Am Legend"; režissöör Francis Lawrence)

  6. Do learners really know best? Urban legends in Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2018-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at three pervasive urban legends in education about the nature of learners, learning, and teaching and looks atwhat educational and psychological research has to say about them. The three legends can be seen as variations on one central theme, namely, that it is

  7. The Interethnic and Interreligious Values in Turkish and Crimean Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Zherdieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines interethnic and interreligious values in Turkish and Crimean folk legends. The folklore of both Crimea and Turkey has a multicultural background, which makes both corpuses of texts suitable for research. In the course of the study, a wide range of published Turkish and Crimean legends were reviewed and analysed. There are two deeply-rooted tendencies in the studied legends. First of all, the interethnic and interreligious relationships can be described as ghastly and cursed. Thus, antagonists in the legends are often from ethnic minorities or strangers in relation to domestic ethnic groups. However, if the texts are analysed thoroughly, we can see that there are important sacred cultural values at the core of the legends, including values of life, health, and divinity.

  8. Influence of Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project on Serial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project on Serial Resources of Selected University Libraries in Nigeria. Bola Olure, Baba S Aduku. Abstract. This study was carried out to assess the Mac Arthur Journal Donation Project in Selected University Libraries in Nigeria. Four research questions were posed in order to ...

  9. Arthur R. Kroeber: China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Arthur R. Kroeber: China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. i-xii + 319 pp. including references and index. ISBN. 978-0-19023903-9.......Review of: Arthur R. Kroeber: China's Economy: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016. i-xii + 319 pp. including references and index. ISBN. 978-0-19023903-9....

  10. Arthur Schopenhauers betydning for Johannes Jørgensens omvendelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Johan Christian

    2013-01-01

    Artikel om Johannes Jørgensens interesse for Arthur Schopenhauers filosofi i tiden lige op til og efter Jørgensens konversion til katolicismen......Artikel om Johannes Jørgensens interesse for Arthur Schopenhauers filosofi i tiden lige op til og efter Jørgensens konversion til katolicismen...

  11. Basic Humor Techniques of Arthur A. Berger

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    Vesna Trifunović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay deals with basic techniques that can be detected in various humor genres, whose rationale is to generate amusement. A long list of basic humor techniques has come to attention as a result of problematising and analysis of different humor genres done by the American media professor Arthur A. Berger. A. Berger is by and large unknown to the Serbian scientific community, so the initial piece of the thesis is dedicated to the presentation of the aforementioned author and his body of work. What follows are the basic humor techniques that are perused through native yarns. Berger believes that the joke, due to its condensed form, is a particularly successful vehicle for illuminating the functioning of humor techniques, an explanation that is an integral part of the thesis. It is evident that not all techniques are helpful in the examination of jokes, which is why it was necessary, for a number of them, to divulge other humor genres. This fact, as indeed many others, has led to a critical reexamination of Berger's techniques and to analysis of how they could be further developed, modified and used in anthropological and folklore researcher, a matter that is dealt with in the conclusion. Basic humor techniques that are identified by Arthur A. Berger as containing great methodological potency that can be of significance in the analysis of different genres and narratives. As such, these techniques are certainly an admirable form from the standpoint of the effort that was put into their formation.

  12. The 1990 Arthur Kill oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astor, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    On January 1-2, 1990, Exxon discharged 567,000 gallons of No. 2 heating oil in the Arthur Kill, the strait separating Staten Island, New York from New Jersey. Lawsuits against Exxon were filed by the State of New Jersey, New York City, and the City of Elizabeth. They seek to force Exxon to reimburse the municipalities and the state for cleanup costs and to restore damaged wetlands and other natural resources. The three plaintiffs, joined by New York State and the federal government, initiated a three-tiered natural resource damage assessment study (Tier II), currently underway, includes sampling and chemical analysis of sediments and benthic invertebrates, mapping of impacted wetlands and measurement of direct impacts on water birds and their prey. The purposes of the study are to quantify the damages and determine the presence of Exxon's oil in the sediments. Since the Exxon spill, there have been two major spills and an intermediate-size spill. During the first size months of 1990, over one million gallons of petroleum products have been discharged into the Arthur Kill and nearby waters. This paper reports that a review of these incidents provides lessons for the prevention, investigation, and cleanup of spills in urban estuaries

  13. Book Review: Adolf Hitler. Legende, mythe, werkelijkheid | Ploeger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Adolf Hitler. Legende, mythe, werkelijkheid. Book Author: Werner Maser. Uitgeverij De Arbeiderspers, Amsterdam, 1973, pp. 531. Met aantekeninge [pp. 429 - 506] en bibliografie [pp. 507 - 531].

  14. "Legends Od Rockil" kõlab Ulthima Thule

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    2. detsembril Rocca ala Mare suurhallis toimuvast rocki suurüritusest "Legends of Rock", kontserdil esinevatest muusikutest. Ansamblist Brides In Bloom, kavast korraldada ühiskontsert koos ansambliga Aides 10. novembril, esitamaks ansambli Ulthima Thule loomingut

  15. LEGEND, a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Jer Chyi; Hall, Doyle T.

    2013-01-01

    LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model) is a three-dimensional orbital debris evolutionary model that is capable of simulating the historical and future debris populations in the near-Earth environment. The historical component in LEGEND adopts a deterministic approach to mimic the known historical populations. Launched rocket bodies, spacecraft, and mission-related debris (rings, bolts, etc.) are added to the simulated environment. Known historical breakup events are reproduced, and fragments down to 1 mm in size are created. The LEGEND future projection component adopts a Monte Carlo approach and uses an innovative pair-wise collision probability evaluation algorithm to simulate the future breakups and the growth of the debris populations. This algorithm is based on a new "random sampling in time" approach that preserves characteristics of the traditional approach and captures the rapidly changing nature of the orbital debris environment. LEGEND is a Fortran 90-based numerical simulation program. It operates in a UNIX/Linux environment.

  16. The Mozart effect: Tracking the evolution of a scientific legend

    OpenAIRE

    Bangerter Adrian; Heath Chip

    2004-01-01

    Theories of the diffusion of ideas in social psychology converge on the assumption that shared beliefs (e.g., social representations, rumours and legends) propagate because they address the needs or concerns of social groups. But little empirical research exists demonstrating this link. We report three media studies of the diffusion of a scientific legend as a particular kind of shared belief. We studied the Mozart effect (ME), the idea that listening to classical music enhances intelligence....

  17. Erzurum in the Turkmen Version of Koroglu Legend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Serbes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Turkmen version of Koroglu Legend, there exist lots of country, city and place names belonging to the Turkish world and neighboring folks. The places in the legend are not only composed of Turkmen lands and neighbors, but there are other extraordinary places like Kaf Mountain as well. The hero of the legend, Koroglu, has connections with neighboring places because of various reasons. In the most of the sections, Koroglu organizes wars against the neighboring countries and cities. He imposes a tax on some of those countries and cities. Arzılum (Erzurum is also one of the cities in which Koroglu is interested. Although it’s far from Turkmen geography, Erzurum takes place in the Turkmen version of the legend. The city is described in details. In the most sections of the legend, the name and the characteristics of the city, particularly “Erhasan and Tellihan” take place. In this study, the materials related to Erzurum, which is located in twenty one sections of the Turkmen version of Koroglu Legend, have been analyzed. The information given about the city has been evaluated, particularly by moving from the section of “Erhasan and Tellihan”.

  18. Urban Legends – American and/or Global Folklore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of modern technology, foremostly that of the Internet, has made feasible and, up to now, unimaginable reciprocity in the field of anthropological research. If only the wealthy scientific communities were be privy to a global research, while the rest of the world was deprived, the fast flow of information has made possible that each of its users be in the possession of relevant information for the study of, until now, unapproachable turfs, such as the US. Urban legends epitomize a paramount illustration of the possibility of examining American folklore from any world viewpoint, not least Serbia. That is possible for urban legends generated in America, are disseminated through the classic channels of globalization, and through the aforementioned World Wide Web. The study of urban legends activates reflexivity of traditional anthropological subject – diffusion, in the shape of dissecting reception and evolution of pursuit of generating native urban legends. Such a stance is taken by the study of urban legends in Serbia.

  19. Arthur Puksovi fondi auhind Tiiu Reimole / Sirje Lauring Vaska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lauring Vaska, Sirje

    2004-01-01

    Arthur Puksovi fond (Kanada) määras esimese preemia laureaadiks TPÜAR baltika ja haruldaste raamatute osakonna vanembibliograafi, TPÜ raamatuteaduse õppetooli juhataja professor Tiiu Reimo väljaande "Raamatukultuur Tallinnas 18. sajandi teisel poolel" eest

  20. Arthur E. Haas, His Life and Cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiescher, Michael

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the life and scientific development of Arthur E. Haas, from his early career as young, ambitious Jewish-Austrian scientist at the University of Vienna to his later career in exile at the University of Notre Dame. Haas is known for his early contributions to quantum physics and as the author of several textbooks on topics of modern physics. During the last decade of his life, he turned his attention to cosmology. In 1935 he emigrated from Austria to the United States. There he assumed, on recommendation of Albert Einstein, a faculty position at the University of Notre Dame. He continued his work on cosmology and tried to establish relationships between the mass of the universe and the fundamental cosmological constants to develop concepts for the early universe. Together with Georges Lemaître he organized in 1938 the first international conference on cosmology, which drew more than one hundred attendants to Notre Dame. Haas died in February 1941 after suffering a stroke during a visit in Chicago.

  1. The Economic Ethics of Arthur Fridolin Utz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present essay offers a detailed, reasoned synopsis and a brief discussion of the 1994 book Economic Ethics, written by the German-Swiss social philosopher Arthur Fridolin Utz (1908-2001. Utz is known chiefly in German-speaking theological circles and in Catholic ones in particular. He is also known in those of southern Europe where, to date, only a few of his many books have been translated into Spanish, French and Italian. Utz’s research deserves attention, both for its inherent value and in connection with Peter Koslowski’s reflections on economic ethics, about which Jacob Dahl Rendtorff has recently reported to our NSU research group. Thus, this essay is a spin-off of Jacob’s own foray into economic ethics and an integration of the same, for it deals with a different, well-established approach. Equally, it is an attempt at bringing to the attention of Nordic scholars, especially in the human and social sciences, the work of a thinker that is still hardly known in my adoptive country, Iceland, as well as in Scandinavia. Finally, given the absence of English-language translations and comprehensive studies of Utz’s books, it is also a useful reference work for Anglophone academia at large.

  2. The Legend of Queen Sheba, the Solomonic Dynasty and Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The existence of the Orthodox Tewahido church and other religious ceremonies, the presence of Beta Israel, the names of people like Makeda or Sheba and organizations such as the Sheba Miles are all testimonies to the legend living in the present Ethiopian communities. It purported to explain how the Ethiopian ruling ...

  3. The Legend of Queen Sheba, the Solomonic Dynasty and Ethiopian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ceremonies, the presence of Beta Israel, the names of people like Makeda or ... from Solomon and through him from Abraham and the early patriarchs. ..... the status of women in ancient. Ethiopian society. (kensey.schema.ca/GWH-Lecture 5b.htm). The legend debunks the popular dictum of seeing the role of women as just.

  4. The legend of laphet: A Myanmar fermented tea leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thazin Han

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Fermentation is the traditional method. Epigallocatechin gallate is a powerful constituent of laphet for human health. Its caffeinated effect is also popular in Myanmar society. This study will contribute to understanding Myanmar fermented tea leaves and spread the legend of laphet around the world.

  5. Edison's Modern Legend in Villiers' L'Eve future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Oancea

    2012-03-01

    International and Electrical Expositions of the 1870s and 1880s. Villiers’ depiction of the protagonist as astute showman does not, however, amount to a criticism of his technological abilities. Instead, the author’s emphasis on these characteristics goes to solidify his legend as a modern, unique tale of economic success through applied science.

  6. The Flight to Egypt in Slavic Etiological Legends about the Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Agapkina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Slavic etiological legends on the Flight to Egypt plot. These legends feature trees and bushes growing on the way of Maria’s and Joseph’s flight to Egypt. Some of these plants helped Christ and his parents escape while others betrayed them to the Herod’s army. Virgin Mary endowed the plants with “positive” or “negative” qualities respectively, as either a reward or a sign of damnation. The author analyzes folk legends that were familiar to Eastern, Western, and Southern Slavs; points out which plants were mentioned in the legends and describes the circle of plant symbols; enlists themes, types and motifs of these legends and compares them to other apocryphal legends that had the same source, namely the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew. The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew seemed to be influential mainly in Western Slavia where the main core of etiological legends was recorded.

  7. PRODUCT PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS - ARTHUR D. LITTLE MATRIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curmei Catalin Valeriu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades we have witnessed an unseen dynamism among companies, which is explained by their desire to engage in more activities that provide a high level of development and diversification. Thus, as companies are diversifying more and more, their managers confront a number of challenges arising from the management of resources for the product portfolio and the low level of resources with which companies can identify, at a time. Responding to these challenges, over time were developed a series of analytical product portfolio methods through which managers can balance the sources of cash flows from the multiple products and also can identify the place and role of products, in strategic terms, within the product portfolio. In order to identify these methods the authors of the present paper have conducted a desk research in order to analyze the strategic marketing and management literature of the last 2 decades. Widely were studied a series of methods that are presented in the marketing and management literature as the main instruments used within the product portfolio strategic planning process. Among these methods we focused on the Arthur D. Little matrix. Thus the present paper has the purpose to outline the characteristics and strategic implications of the ADL matrix within a company’s product portfolio. After conducting this analysis we have found that restricting the product portfolio analysis to the A.D.L. matrix is not a very wise decision. The A.D.L. matrix among with other marketing tools of product portfolio analysis have some advantages and disadvantages and is trying to provide, at a time, a specific diagnosis of a company’s product portfolio. Therefore, the recommendation for the Romanian managers consists in a combined use of a wide range of tools and techniques for product portfolio analysis. This leads to a better understanding of the whole mix of product markets, included in portfolio analysis, the strategic position

  8. Legends of Organ Theft: The Moral Dilemma of Contemporary Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Antonijević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Legends and rumors of organ theft became a global phenomenon in the beginning of the 80s, with the information originating from the "Third world" countries. Victims where poor and powerless, typically children. The rumor engaged a series of actions from anthropologists, NGO’s and media trying to ascertain their validity. Before long, the world was divided into two camps: on the one hand where those who believed the rumors, condemning the West for its exploitation of the underdeveloped and the poor that lead to organ theft from healthy individuals, to satisfy the needs of the rich white patients; and the other faction that, through the data, tried to negate these assertions as unfounded and illogical. At the beginning of the 90s, similar reports surfaced in the highly developed societies of Europe and the USA. Unlike the rumors, these where developed, structured narratives with specific content – legends of kidney theft, whose victims were left alive. Internet has brought about the expansion of such stories. None the less, they remained the under-analyzed, not attracting the attention of the politically minded and militant anthropologists who, in the Third world rumors, recognized material for their anti-colonial and mediatory theories. Few have tried to explain the legend and folklore origins of the First world narratives and to ascertain their function without insightful analysis. That is why I engaged in a semantic analysis of the legend in the context of the highly developed societies, with the intent of exposing their message of a deep moral dilemma concerning organ donation. I found that their hidden meaning is "revolutionary", not an inversion that I thought previously, but in accordance with the public discourse that encourages voluntary and legal donations, from cadaver as from living donors, wich is real disadaptive problem for those soceties. I proposed such a meaning by analysing the most unusual and astonishing element in the

  9. Tolerance or Assimilation: The Legends of the Chinese Restaurant and "The Gypsy's Tavern"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Studying urban legends, the French folklorist Véronique Campion-Vincent posed the question of whether some of the more recent legends preach tolerance. The "elevator incident" or "swallowed ticket" legends display a different attitude to Others from that found in classic xenophobic urban legends. This different attitude is also to be found in two legends recorded in Serbia, namely, the legend of the Chinese restaurant and the legend of "The Gypsy's Tavern". An analysis of the two legends shows that the ambiguity of "tolerance legends" does not arise from the fact that they speak about a xenophobic environment while at the same time having a denouement that "preaches" tolerance, but rather from the fact that the "preaching" relates to those Others who have gone through a process of acculturation, who have been assimilated and who have accepted the rules of "our" culture. These legends do not preach tolerance towards the Otherness of Others but towards Others who are striving to become or have managed to become "Us".

  10. Obituary: Arthur Dodd Code (1923-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marché, Jordan D., II

    2009-12-01

    Former AAS president Arthur Dodd Code, age 85, passed away at Meriter Hospital in Madison, Wisconsin on 11 March 2009, from complications involving a long-standing pulmonary condition. Code was born in Brooklyn, New York on 13 August 1923, as the only child of former Canadian businessman Lorne Arthur Code and Jesse (Dodd) Code. An experienced ham radio operator, he entered the University of Chicago in 1940, but then enlisted in the U.S. Navy (1943-45) and was later stationed as an instructor at the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. During the war, he gained extensive practical experience with the design and construction of technical equipment that served him well in years ahead. Concurrently, he took physics courses at George Washington University (some under the tutelage of George Gamow). In 1945, he was admitted to the graduate school of the University of Chicago, without having received his formal bachelor's degree. In 1950, he was awarded his Ph.D. for a theoretical study of radiative transfer in O- and B-type stars, directed by Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. hired onto the faculty of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (1951-56). He then accepted a tenured appointment at the California Institute of Technology and the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (1956-58). But following the launch of Sputnik, Code returned to Wisconsin in 1958 as full professor of astronomy, director of the Washburn Observatory, and department chairman so that he could more readily pursue his interest in space astronomy. That same year, he was chosen a member of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences (created during the International Geophysical Year) and shortly became one of five principal investigators of the original NASA Space Science Working Group. In a cogent 1960 essay, Code argued that astrophysical investigations, when conducted from beyond the Earth's atmosphere, "cannot fail to have a tremendous impact on the

  11. The Legends of the Serpent Island in the Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Shevchuk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The report presents a variety of ancient legends, connected with the cult of Achilles on the Serpent (Snake Island, located in 35 km far from the Danube Delta in the territorial waters of Ukraine. The sources of ancient legends are the essay of Flavius Arrian “Periplus Ponti Euxini (maritime guide”, Flavius Philostratus dialogue “On Heroes” (Heroikos, as well as the outlines of Arctinus of Miletus, Maximus of Tyre and Romanian folklore. The imageries of Achilles Pontarchis cult on the Serpent Island (in ancient times – Levka Island, White Island, Island of the Blessed, Fidonisi, Ilan-Ada, Sherpilor disclose the peculiarities of his worship in Scythia and Dacia.

  12. American Historian Arthur Schlesinger's Challenge to Women Historians and Scholars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Barbara Bennett

    In 1922, Arthur Schlesinger urged his fellow historians to write women into the history books. He recognized that the size and sweep of women's history offered scholars and students the opportunity of a new major field. His call failed to arouse skeptical minds through the 1940s and 1950s as feminism fell into disrepute. But with the resurgence of…

  13. The writing of Arthur Fula: Modernity, language, place and religion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-19

    Mar 19, 2018 ... Arthur Fula's debut novel Jôhannie giet die beeld (lit: Johannesburg moulds the graven image) was well received in the beginning of 1954 but has in .... kripte aan die brand gesteek [het]. (Fula, Letter iv–v) ..... mostly because of the fact that someone with his social and linguistic background originally wrote ...

  14. Exploring Arthur's Pass Topographic Map and Model Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastier, Murray; Macaulay, John

    1995-01-01

    Provides instructional materials, tasks, and activities to supplement a unit on map reading. Presents a two-page color topographical map of Arthur's Pass (New Zealand). Includes learning activities covering reading grid references, estimating distances, cross-sections, and sketch mapping. Briefly discusses and illustrates digital terrain models.…

  15. The writing of Arthur Fula: Modernity, language, place and religion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay introduces the emergence of the autodidact Fula's authorship amidst a period of profound change and adaptation in South Africa during the 1950s, tracing his personal history, the circumstances of his writing and choice of language, and the reception of his debut novel. Keywords: Afrikaans literature, Arthur Fula, ...

  16. Coyote and the Crane--A Legend of the Yakimas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Larry

    Written in plain terms, printed in large type, and accompanied by illustrations, this legend of the Yakima Indians tells of how the crane came to be; it is the story of how Coyote turns a man into a crane because the man would not share his catch of fish. "In the old days people shared things. It was our way of life. If a person was hungry…

  17. Our Magnetic Planet (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laj, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    It is a great honour to receive the Arthur Holmes Medal, certainly the highest scientific award of my life. My first thoughts and deep gratitude are with the people who have contributed to me being here today, from my PhD mentors, Pierre Berge and Pierre Pério, later Jacques Labeyrie, my colleagues and students and last, but not least, the members of the Committee on Education of EGU, with whom I have shared over 10 years of a wonderful educational activity. In this presentation, among the various scientific arguments in which I have been involved, I will recall only those mentioned in my letter of nomination to the Holmes Medal, trying to replace them in what was known at the time. After a PhD in Solid State Physics, working in a laboratory of the Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique, I obtained a post doctoral research position for the the study of liquid binary critical fluids, and worked on this topics for 5 years. I then joined the Centre des Faibles Radioactivités, a CNRS-CEA Institute dedicated to the study of geological-environmental phenomena. My first task there has been to develop a paleomagnetic laboratory, dedicated to the study of Earth Sciences, through the study of the magnetic properties of sediments and igneous rocks. From there on, my entire scientific activity has been devoted to the study of our "Magnetic Planet". My first project in Geophysics dealt with the geodynamical evolution of the Aegean Arc. At the time, only a few paleomagnetic studies existed in the Mediterranean realm, and none in the Aegean region. Moreover all of them dealt with rather old geological formations, so that almost nothing was known about the recent post-cretaceous evolution. The originality of our study was to start from the most recent to the older formations, in order to precisely describe "retro-tectonically" the different phases of rotational deformation. This intensive study (over 700 sampling sites, over 10,000 samples spread over continental Greece, the Aegean

  18. I Would Have Eaten You Too : Werewolf Legends in the Flemish, Dutch and German Area

    OpenAIRE

    de Blécourt, W.

    2007-01-01

    A geographical approach to werewolf legends results in the identification of a major werewolf area, stretching from mid-Germany into the Netherlands and Belgium-despite profound differences in the intensity of collecting the legends. Within this area there were people who were experiencing nightly encounters, especially with back-riding werewolves, and they advised each other about how best to overcome the beasts. Migratory legends, such as the Werewolf Lover/Husband and the Hungry Farmhand, ...

  19. Anna Sangadzhi-Goryaeva, A Legend About Lightning

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaeva, Bair; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Anna’s mother was born in the village of Khar-Tolga in Yashkul’skiy rayon. There, lightning, thunder and dust storms were frequent occurrences. Anna heard from her mother that she should not be afraid of lightning. According to a legend, once upon a time a god descended on earth but could not ascent back to the skies. He was helped by a pair of helping hands from Anna’s maternal clan. Since then lightning never harms people from this clan. One day when Anna lived in the village of Chilgir lig...

  20. I Would Have Eaten You Too : Werewolf Legends in the Flemish, Dutch and German Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blécourt, W.

    2007-01-01

    A geographical approach to werewolf legends results in the identification of a major werewolf area, stretching from mid-Germany into the Netherlands and Belgium-despite profound differences in the intensity of collecting the legends. Within this area there were people who were experiencing nightly

  1. The Legend of Jump Mountain: Narrative Dispossession of the Monacan in Postcolonial Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Jay Hansford C.

    2012-01-01

    In north central Virginia there is a local tale--The Legend of Jump Mountain, which purports to explain the origins of the Hayes Creek Indian Burial Mound. A highly romantic legend, it immortalizes post colonial intertribal warfare during the early nineteenth century while ignoring the antiquity of the mound and the local descendants of its…

  2. The Ordinary and the Fabulous: An Introduction to Myths, Legends and Fairy Tales. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth

    Written for teachers, for students who intend to be teachers or librarians, and for storytellers in general, this book interprets the familiar legends and tales (Greek, Scandinavian, German, and Celtic myths and legends; Arthurian romances; the Old Testament; and fairy tales) and describes how they can best be told to children. Parallel accounts…

  3. Spatial legend compatibility within versus between graphs in multiple graph comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Eva; Huestegge, Lynn

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has shown that spatial compatibility between the data region and the legend of a graph is beneficial for comprehension. However, in multiple graphs, data-legend compatibility can come at the cost of spatial between-graph legend incompatibility. Here we aimed at determining which type of compatibility is most important for performance: global (legend-legend) compatibility between graphs, or local (data-legend) compatibility within graphs. Additionally, a baseline condition (incompatible) was included. Participants chose one out of several line graphs from a multiple panel as the answer to a data-related question. Compatibility type and the number of graphs per panel were varied. Whereas Experiment 1 involved simple graphs with only two lines/legend entries within each graph, Experiment 2 explored more complex graphs. The results indicated that compatibility speeds up comprehension, at least when a certain threshold of graph complexity is exceeded. Furthermore, we found evidence for an advantage of local over global data-legend compatibility under specific conditions. Taken together, the results further support the idea that compatibility principles strongly determine the ease of integration processes in graph comprehension and should thus be considered in multiple-panel design.

  4. Russia's imperial blood: was Rasputin not the healer of legend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, John M L

    2004-09-01

    The only son of Russia's last Tsar, a great-grandson of Queen Victoria, continues to be used as the favorite example of the X-linked inheritance of hemophilia, in spite of the fact that this popular historical diathesis has never been confirmed by any form of modern medical laboratory testing. Certain to be controversial, a new study of the symptoms that were witnessed by those who were closest to the teenaged Russian heir now raises the possibility that his blood disorder might well have been something other than hemophilia. The key to discovering Tsarevich Alexei's true diagnosis is found in those now legendary allegations that the infamous "Mad Monk", Grigory Rasputin, had possessed a power of healing that was somehow responsible for the young boy's mysterious history of spontaneous recoveries. If we are to accept the popular diagnosis of history and call it a clotting factor deficiency, then the boy's now famous sudden recoveries will remain a complete mystery. The so-called "Mad Monk" Rasputin, as a direct result of the revolutionary propaganda of the time, is then overblown into a larger-than-life legend. If, however, we are to change the diagnosis and call it a platelet disorder, then the air is let out of the legend, and Rasputin is revealed to have been nothing more than a very ordinary middle-aged Siberian hippie who did not possess any healing powers at all. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Heroic Register, Oral Tradition, and the Alliterative Morte Arthure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Richardson Mouser

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available By employing an oral traditional approach to the text, this essay investigates how the use of alliteration and speech-acts in the _Alliterative Morte Arthure_ establishes a heroic register that marks the poem as participating in a tradition hearkening back to Old English heroic models. The text begins with an appeal to the audience to listen and to hear the tale, highlighting the importance of aurality and speech and signaling a way to “read” the poem that distinguishes it from Anglo-Norman literary tradition. By making such distinctions, this approach elucidates passages often deemed confusing, such as the two narrated deaths of the Roman Emperor Lucius.

  6. Serial killers, spiders and cybersex: Social and survival information bias in the transmission of urban legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbersfield, Joseph M; Tehrani, Jamshid J; Flynn, Emma G

    2015-05-01

    This study uses urban legends to examine the effects of the social information bias and survival information bias on cultural transmission across three phases of transmission: the choose-to-receive phase, the encode-and-retrieve phase, and the choose-to-transmit phase. In line with previous research into content biases, a linear transmission chain design with 60 participants aged 18-52 was used to examine the encode-and-retrieve phase, while participants were asked to rank their interest in reading the story behind a headline and passing a story on for the other two phases. Legends which contained social information (Social Type), legends which contained survival information (Survival Type), and legends which contained both forms of information (Combined Type) were all recalled with significantly greater accuracy than control material, while Social and Combined Type legends were recalled with significantly greater accuracy than Survival Type legends. In another study with 30 participants aged 18-22, no significant differences were found between legend types in either the choose-to-receive phase or the choose-to-transmit phase. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Some Case Studies on How Media Constructs Olympic Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lennartz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During the entire history of the modern Olympic Games, from their renaissance in 1896, when the firsth edition had been heldin Athens and until the Olympic Games in Berlin in 1936, the present paper makes an analyse of the real facts and of thelegends created around them. The sports journal and the other publications are important factors in the distorsion of the realityand keeping the legend. From the athletes heros like Spiridon Louis, the first winner of the marathon and the myth buildaround the way of winning this race , to the story of the 100m won by Jesse Owens at 36 Olympic Games who have been heldin Berlin and the fact that Hitler refused to shake the hand of the Olympic champion, the purpose of this paper is to combat themyths developed since. The facts are substantiated by using the chronological datas, using the notes and minutes of meetings,as well using photographic means.

  8. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  9. Kolonel Arthur von Buxhoevedeni (VR 1/2) ja tema abikaasa Kira ümbermatmine kodumaa mulda / Peep Pillak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pillak, Peep, 1957-

    2015-01-01

    Vabadusristi kavaler kolonel Arthur von Buxhoeveden ja tema abikaasa Kira sängitati sõjaväeliste austusavaldustega kodumaa mulda Tallinna Kaitseväe kalmistul 12. septembril. Kolonel Arthur von Buxhoeveden'i elukäigust

  10. 77 FR 1023 - Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2011-0727] RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... Navigation Area; Arthur Kill, NY and NJ. * * * * * (b) * * * (9) Suspension of enforcement: the Captain of...

  11. Mineralogy of fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moon Young; Park, Suk Whan [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moo Seung [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    This study is focused on mineralogical and chemical characteristics of coal fly ash collected from Boreong, Honam, Samcheonpo, Gunsan, Seocheon power plants. Mineralogical and chemical characters of fly ashes are clarified by experimental studies, using x-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, differential thermal analyzer, grain size analyzer and chemical analysis. The results of this study can be summarized as follows; The coal fly ashes from the all power plants are mainly consisted with mullite and quartz, and minor quantity of hematite. In particular, fly ash from the Honam power plant is converted into the anorthite under the 1200 degree. According to the result grain size analysis, most of the fly ashes are under the 200 mesh except 66% of fly ashes from the Boreong and Honam, 54% from Seocheon, 83% from Gunsan and 31% from Samcheonpo power plants. The unburned carbon contents are decreased in the small grain size of fly ashes. Under the 200 mesh grain size of Honam fly ashes shows particularly less than 1% content of unburned carbon. Chemical components of fly ashes are found to be 49-80% of SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} contents in the bituminous and anthracite coal ash are 49-69% and 75-80%, respectively. The Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO concentrations in the bituminous coal ash are higher than anthracite coal ash. The trace elements such as Pb and Zn are higher anthracite coal ash than bituminous coal ash, which is mainly due to the grain size characteristic. The fly ash from Honam power plant with high CaO content can be used potassium silicate fertilizer and raw materials for cements after separation of 200 mesh. Anorthite are formed after 1200 degree heating of bituminous coal ash, which can be utilized as aggregate and bricks. (author). 21 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Asymmetric Ashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    , it is. "This has some impact on the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles," says Ferdinando Patat. "This kind of supernovae is used to measure the rate of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, assuming these objects behave in a uniform way. But asymmetries can introduce dispersions in the quantities observed." "Our discovery puts strong constraints on any successful models of thermonuclear supernova explosions," adds Wang. Models have suggested that the clumpiness is caused by a slow-burn process, called 'deflagration', and leaves an irregular trail of ashes. The smoothness of the inner regions of the exploding star implies that at a given stage, the deflagration gives way to a more violent process, a 'detonation', which travels at supersonic speeds - so fast that it erases all the asymmetries in the ashes left behind by the slower burning of the first stage, resulting in a smoother, more homogeneous residue.

  13. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  14. Legends of Students’ "Clever Answers": Criticism or Affirmation of the Educational System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Baćević

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents an analysis of a group of urban legends from US universities, gathered from a number of web sites and in certain cases compared with analogous examples from Serbia. These legends concentrate around the motif of "clever answers", in which students use witty or otherwise unconventional means to solve problems or answer questions during exams or other forms of knowledge examination, and usually end up being rewarded for their creativity. The analysis of the formal structure of these legends, as well as their possible functions, indicates that, on the one hand, legends of "clever answers" can represent a form of criticism of the higher education system, but on the other actually aid its reproduction and reinforce its role in the social order. Finally, the implications of this interpretation are investigated in the context of contemporary global transformations of higher education.

  15. RUSSIAN LEGENDS IN THE HISTORICAL TALES BY M. MAKAROV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana V. Fedoseeva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the  works by  M. Makarov, one  of  the  littleknown Russian authors of  the fi rst third of  the  19th century. There is  an  interest to  the author’s works due to  the controversy of  the  genre specifi city of Russian prose of the 1830-s and the topicality of the Orthodoxoriented governmental way of  thinking, which is  expressed in  his  works. The  collection “Stories from the  Russian folk tales” targets folklore as  the form of expression of the national spirit and ethics. The historical, toponymical and ethnogenetic legends of Vladimir, Novgorod, Ryazan and Moscow lands form the plot of the stories of the collection. At the poetic and stylistic levels the article reveals the correspondence of the analyzed stories to Karamzin’s model of  a  sentimental pre-Romantic tale of  the  1800-s. Its typological specifi city consists in  a  broken plot line; in  special attention to  a  person’s destiny; in the “Gothic anthropologism”, which asserts the unity of human morals of the past and of the present. The fictionalized plots of the legends in Makarov’s tales serve to accentuate the Orthodox-based spiritual guidelines and moral values of the nation. As a result, the undertaken study substantiates the special type of  folklorism of  Russian historical prose in  the fi rst third of  the  19th  century. The combination of  the  features of  oral poetical and literary genres comprises its peculiarity

  16. Melting and Sintering of Ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Aslaug

    1997-01-01

    , the biggest deviations being found for salt rich (i.e. straw derived) ashes.A simple model assuming proportionality between fly ash fusion and deposit formation was found to be capable of ranking deposition rates for the different straw derived fly ashes, whereas for the fly ashes from coal/straw co......-firing, the model only had a qualitative agreement with the measured ash deposit formation rates.Sintering measurements were carried out by means of compression strength testing of ash pellets. This method showed to not be applicable for the salt rich fly ash derived from straw combustion. For the fly ashes...... have been employed in a simple model for prediction of ash deposit formation, the results of which have been compared to ash deposition formation rates measured at the respective boilers.The ash fusion results were found to directly reflect the ash compositional data:a) Fly ashes and deposits from...

  17. NOAA Ship McArthurII Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship McArthur II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. Arthur B. McDonald, Physics Nobel Laureate 2015, at CERN colloquium

    CERN Multimedia

    Ordan, Julien Marius

    2017-01-01

    Arthur B. McDonald, Physics Nobel Laureate 2015, photographed at CERN colloquium on the "Science of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) and SNOLAB” given in CERN Main Auditorium on Monday 4 Sep 2017

  19. Ingmar Bergman, the biographical legend and the intermedialities of memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaret Koskinen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingmar Bergman (1918–2007 wrote his autobiography The Magic Lantern (Laterna magica, 1987 5 years after he had finished his film career with Fanny and Alexander, his last feature made for the cinema screen. This arguably marked the second stage of his strictly literary career, the first being his plays for the stage in the 1940s. The Magic Lantern is of interest from an intermedial perspective in its forthright theatricalization or cinematization of the written text and the self-conscious performativity of its authorial voice. Of particular interest is the way the narrator turns into a kind of distanciated autobiographical witness, which in turn reminds the reader of the inherent narrative split in the autobiographical genre between the enunciating subject speaking from the present, and the described subject, the younger self in the past. In doing so the narrator seems to turn language itself into a performative venue: the medium of words becomes a theatrical stage or a cinematically charged mise-en-scène for memory as such.This is of course not only stylistically elegant, for what can be more natural than a film- and theater director who, as the very title of the autobiography announces, turns memories into cinematic and theatrical performances? But even more interesting is the extent to which Bergman in doing so seems to conjur forth his biographical legend, reminding the reader of who is in charge of text: the narrator becomes the director of the text, so to speak, lighting and setting the stage.Besides this artful approach, Bergman also clearly fictionalized his life in other ways, which is corroborated by the private note books and original manuscripts that the writer of this paper has gained access to.

  20. The Legend of the Nativity and Childhood of St. Onuphrius the Great

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voitenko Anton

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the provenance and circulation of the Legend of the nativity and childhood of St. Onuphrius the Great. The author suggests that originally the Legend was part of a hybridised version of Life of St. Onuphrius, which was presumably compiled in Italy in the 14th century. The probable cause of the appearance of the Legend was a desire to supply information on his childhood which was absent from the original version of his Life. Thereafter, one of the Italian editions of the hybridised version of the Life, which was compiled and published in the middle of the 17th century by Paolo Regio, became the basis (directly or indirectly for French, Polish and Church Slavonic versions. The Legend contained in a Polish hybridised version, which was published by Revd. Jósef Pietkiewicz at the end of the 17th century, came to be, in its turn, the basis for a separate story of the nativity and childhood of St. Onuphrius compiled by St. Dimitry of Rostov in Church Slavonic. It was published in the 4th volume of his Lives of Saints (Kiev, 1705. In the next editions, the text of the Legend was removed for censorship reasons, but it continued to be copied (in the first hand, by Old Believers. In Slavonic manuscripts, a shortened version also occurs.

  1. ROLE AND USE OF THE PHOTO-LEGEND IN RUSSIAN AND GERMAN MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenkova, T.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the most interesting themes of modern linguistics – media-linguistics. The author has researched the function and the role of the photo-legend. In the article we try to present the difference in the opinion of Russian and German scientists about how the journalists can use the photo-legend and how they can not do it. The Russian Journalists often use the photo archives offering to the absolutely different contexts one and the same illustration. This way to our mind the editors and the journalists of papers have to many possibilities for manipulation of the public opinion, this way is dangerous and very subjective. The German journalists deal with this theme more serious, they are sure that the photo and the photo-legend must concern to only one article, it is a guarantee of authentic and synonymous. The author is of opinion the competence of the photo-legend use depends on many different aspects, for example, on the client of the article, on the paper, on the readers. We are sure that the subject of the photo-legend, its role, function and use will be researched in future.

  2. Trace elements in coal ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Coal ash is a residual waste product primarily produced by coal combustion for electric power generation. Coal ash includes fly ash, bottom ash, and flue-gas desulfurization products (at powerplants equipped with flue-gas desulfurization systems). Fly ash, the most common form of coal ash, is used in a range of products, especially construction materials. A new Environmental Protection Agency ruling upholds designation of coal ash as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, allowing for the continued beneficial use of coal ash and also designating procedures and requirements for its storage.

  3. Arthur Morrison, Criminality, and Late-Victorian Maritime Subculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maltz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1897, the literary critic H. D. Traill accused Arthur Morrison’s novel, 'A Child of the Jago', of exaggerating the viciousness of East London’s poor, claiming that Morrison had distilled various criminal behaviors into one totalizing, nightmarish zone of barbarity. This essay looks to Morrison’s later novel, 'The Hole in the Wall' (1902, whose concentration of crime is more ambiguous. Morrison tells the reader that Blue Gate Fields, and the pub within it, Paddy’s Goose, are especial locales of danger, but in fact, criminality extends beyond them to wider Wapping, including the pub and home of Captain Nat Kemp and his grandson, the narrator Stephen Kemp. Through his portrayal of Wapping, Morrison conveys his childhood familiarity with the specific maritime culture of the docks and their associated industries. In this regard, we can classify Morrison not merely as an East End novelist, but as a docklands writer. He recognized the unusual topography of Wapping with its sailors’ pubs, lodging houses, and curio shops – and also the hazards inherent there for the sailor on leave: the risk of losing one’s freedom and wages to predatory crimps and ‘land sharks’. Given his commitment to representing the district with all of its idiosyncrasies, Morrison reminds us of the limits of generalizing the ‘East End’ as a homogenous region.

  4. Ernest Arthur Kendall: his life in peace and war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragher, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Ernest Arthur Kendall (1876-1938), whose father founded the first veterinary school in Australia, qualified as a veterinary surgeon, as did three of his brothers. He was commissioned in the Australian Army Veterinary Corps and fought with distinction in both the Boer War and World War I. He established an Australian Veterinary Hospital near Calais, France, in 1917. The Purple Cross Society of Victoria paid for the fit-out and necessary material for the running of the hospital, which treated 24,300 animals before it closed in 1919. In that year, Colonel Kendall resumed his career in the Department of Agriculture Victoria, where he was appointed Chief Veterinary Officer in 1926 and Chairman of the Milk Board in 1934. He worked toward a pure milk supply, enabled the establishment of a laboratory to test milk samples, and looked forward to a well-planned campaign for the eradication of bovine tuberculosis. © 2011 The Author. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2011 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. The Ordinary and the Fabulous: An Introduction to Myths, Legends, and Fairy Tales for Teachers and Storytellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth

    Written for teachers, librarians, students, parents, and other storytellers, this book emphasizes the value and enchantment which children can find in the fabulous stories of four main European traditions--Greek myths and legends, Northern myths and legends, Arthurian Romances, and fairy tales. The four chapters contain (1) discussions of myths,…

  6. Protecting black ash from the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Les Benedict

    2010-01-01

    Black ash (Fraxinus nigra) is an important resource for Tribes in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions of the North American continent. Ash in North America is being threatened with widespread destruction as a result of the introduction of emerald ash borer beetle (Agrilus planipennis) in 2002. Measures are being taken to slow the spread of emerald ash borer beetle....

  7. ROLE AND USE OF THE PHOTO-LEGEND IN RUSSIAN AND GERMAN MEDIA DISCOURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkova, T.A.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to one of the most interesting themes of modern linguistics – media-linguistics. The author has researched the function and the role of the photo-legend. In the article we try to present the difference in the opinion of Russian and German scientists about how the journalists can use the photo-legend and how they can not do it. The Russian Journalists often use the photo archives offering to the absolutely different contexts one and the same illustration. This way to our...

  8. Last Chance Well : legends and legacies of Leduc No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, B.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, Beatrice Hunter began a series of interviews with oil-patch personalities focusing on their lives and the times surrounding the pivotal events of the Leduc No. 1 oil discovery in 1947. In 1946, Imperial Oil Ltd. was facing a decision which would be of great importance to Alberta and to the rest of Canada. In the preceding 25 years, Imperial had spent millions of dollars on exploration and had drilled 133 dry holes. When the company asked Vern Hunter to drill its 134th hole on the Canadian prairies, few people knew that Imperial's board of directors had decided that this was to be the company's last try at finding oil, and that the jobs of everyone in the crew would depend on the results. As we all know, the 134th hole, that was to become famous as Leduc no. 1, was successful and its success opened the door to potential treasures beyond anyone's expectations. Indeed, the Leduc find can be considered to have been the most important economic event in Canada, certainly in Alberta, during the post-war years, an event that set in motion an industrial expansion in Alberta that has never been equaled in Canada before or since. Despite the implication of its title, this book is not a chronological history of Alberta's oil industry. Rather, it is a human interest account of the lives and times of the people who were directly involved in bringing in Leduc no. 1, and to a lesser extent, the lives and times of some other individuals whose lives have been unalterably affected by the rapidly developing industry during its formative years. Their stories, anecdotes and tall tales form the legend of the Leduc Field. The value of the book lies in its ability to bring to life for the benefit of future generations the spirit, the colour and the memory of the conditions that existed then. That the stories are preserved in the words of the individuals themselves, makes the book particularly useful as an introduction to better understanding of the pioneering spirit of the West

  9. Shedding of ash deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, Ana; Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2009-01-01

    . Deposit shedding can be defined as the process of deposit removal from the heat transfer surfaces. Mechanical and thermal shock devices for deposit removal can be implemented within into the boiler, which can be then referred to as artificial shedding. Sootblowing is one such process, where a pressurized...... on the ash characteristics and the boiler operation. Different deposit characteristics will govern the ash deposit behaviour, and thus the mechanism of deposit shedding. The deposit strength will influence the erosion and gravity shedding mechanisms. The ash viscosity and the melting behaviour will govern...

  10. First international ash marketing and technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    A total of 42 papers were presented in sessions with the following headings: production and disposal of ash - an international review; environmental, health, safety, and legal aspects of ash handling; marketing of ash; development of new uses for ash; cementitious use of ash; ash in manufactured products; and geotechnical uses of ash.

  11. Bright's Disease, Malaria, and Machine Politics: The Story of the Illness of President Chester A. Arthur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Theodore N

    2017-10-01

    In July of 1881, President James A. Garfield was shot in the back at the Sixth Street Train Station in Washington, D.C. Garfield died after an extended illness and Chester A. Arthur assumed the presidency on September 20, 1881. He served the remaining three and a half years but was ill for most of his term. Arthur died of the complications of Bright's disease less than two years after leaving office. In the 1880s, Bright's disease was the syndrome that described renal failure associated with proteinuria, but the etiology of Arthur's kidney failure has never been determined. Arthur is one of our least understood Presidents, owing to his brief tenure in office, his death shortly after leaving office, and the fact that he burned all his personal papers just prior to his death. This manuscript will explore the medical history of Chester A. Arthur, including his presumed diagnosis of malaria, his symptoms during his declining health, and will define the differential diagnosis of the causes of his renal failure that culminated in his death in November of 1886.

  12. “The Birds of Clay”: An Apocryphal Motif in Folklore Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Belova

    2015-08-01

    The fairly large group of folk legends with apocryphal motifs, occurring in different Slavic traditions from the 19th to the 21st centuries, thus testifies not only to the continued relevance of the biblical plots for oral culture, but also to the importance of the Apocrypha for the broadcasting and preservation of biblical stories in the folk tradition.

  13. Exploring Social Studies through Multicultural Literature: "Legend of the St Ann's Flood"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Sara Winstead

    2009-01-01

    The search for literature that is of high quality and interest, is written at age-appropriate levels for adolescent readers, addresses social studies topics, and presents multicultural perspectives can be daunting. "Legend of the St Ann's Flood" is a fiction trade book that meets all of these criteria. Its setting in Trinidad and Tobago…

  14. The legend of the Caboclo D’água: a folkcommunicative enunciative trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simome dos Santos Mendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Truth or not, the fact is that the Caboclo D’água’s legend, present in various Brazilian cities, is more alive than never. From 2009 up till now, the legend transformed itself into a mediatic phenomenon, with one of the most immediate implications being the inauguration of a two-meter-high statue at Barra Longa’s city entrance (Minas Gerais/Brazil and the creation of a Ghost Hunter Association, dedicating itself to capturing the Caboclo D’água - the association even offering a R$ 10,000.00 reward to who succeeds in taking a picture of the creature. Moreover, the present work aims at analyzing, from the discursive point of view, the modern (reconstruction of the legend through mediatic means and dwellers claiming to have seen the creature. Furthermore, we intend to reflect on the impacts of mediatization suffered by the legend, from its discursive construction point of view. The theoretical contribution we used is linked to Foucault’s archive concept (1995, folkcommunication (BELTRÃO, 1967, folkmedia (LUYTEN, 2002, and Bravin’s reflections (2011 on the legend’s mediatic repercussion in newspapers and on the Internet.

  15. 15 CFR Appendix D to Part 30 - AES Filing Citation, Exemption and Exclusion Legends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false AES Filing Citation, Exemption and... Appendix D to Part 30—AES Filing Citation, Exemption and Exclusion Legends I. USML Proof of Filing Citation AES ITN Example: AES X20060101987654. II. AES Proof of Filing Citation subpart A § 30.7 AES ITN...

  16. «I Am Legend»: comparison of the fictional virus infection and Rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco CAMACHO AGUILERA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using the movie I am legend (2007 by, the rabies virus infection is reviewed in this article, given its strong resemblance to the fictional disease created in this film caused by the virus Krippin. A review of history, virus characteristics, viral transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostics, mortality, treatment and prevention, are presented and are contrasted with the film.

  17. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  18. 76 FR 36910 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC... Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power [[Page... subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online service, please e-mail [email protected

  19. 76 FR 36914 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC... Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC, Dunkirk Power LLC, Huntley... when a document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online service, please...

  20. 76 FR 34692 - Astoria Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC... Generating Company, L.P., NRG Power Marketing LLC, Arthur Kill Power LLC, Astoria Gas Turbine Power LLC... notification when a document is added to a subscribed docket(s). For assistance with any FERC Online service...

  1. Emerald ash borer aftermath forests: the future of ash ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Daniel A. Herms; John Cardina; Robert Long; Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Catharine P. Herms

    2011-01-01

    The effects of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) on forest ecosystems are being studied through a collaborative research program between the U.S. Forest Service and The Ohio State University. We are monitoring ash demographics, understory light availability, EAB population dynamics, native and non-native plants, and effects of ash...

  2. Ash Properties of Alternative Biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capablo, Joaquin; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence...... on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion....

  3. Arthur Lismer, Canada's Artist/Adult Educator: Art as a Lifelong Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barer-Stein, Thelma

    This document examines the key elements of Canadian artist Arthur Lismer's life (1885-1969) and depicts his philosophy as an art educator by excerpting his writings. In addition, the paper examines that philosophy against the framework of Barer-Stein's Universal Learning Process to emphasize the difference between "role internalizing"…

  4. Planning for MacArthur: Harnessing the Complexity of Postwar Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    communities leaving most citizens homeless . Nevertheless, the small military delegation confidently and stiffly arrived on a hot August day in...contributes to the subsistence, clothing and shelter of the population.” 31 Major General William Marquat, former deputy to MacArthur, became the lead...14 efficiently developed a plan of action after noticing the lack of Japanese progress in

  5. 2016-2017 Travel Expense Reports for John McArthur, Governor

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Beata Bialic

    Purpose: Board meetings. Date(s):. 2016-06-20 to 2016-06-22. Destination(s):. Ottawa. Airfare: $1,011.70. Other. Transportation: $0.00. Accommodation: $393.40. Meals and. Incidentals: $0.00. Other: $0.00. Total: $1,405.10. Comments: 2016-2017 Travel Expense Reports for John. McArthur, Governor.

  6. Did the waste management audit failures signal lower firm-wide audit quality at Arthur Andersen?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cahan, S.; Zhang, W.; Veenman, D.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates Arthur Andersen’s audit quality in the decade before the collapse of Enron. Andersen’s involvement in the Waste Management audit failures — which relate to audits of the company’s 1992- 1996 financial statements — led the SEC to accuse Andersen of issuing false and misleading

  7. Research for the Classroom: Playing with Difficult Poetry--High School Seniors and Arthur Sze's "Quipu"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The author had been assigned two sections of Contemporary Literature, a semester-long senior elective, and he wanted to do something new with poetry. He planned to teach Arthur Sze's "Quipu." Sze's poetry is nonlinear, adopting principles from science, anthropology, and history into a multilayered poetic texture--text unlike anything students…

  8. 2016-2017 Travel Expense Reports for John McArthur, Governor

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chantal Taylor

    Purpose: Board meetings. Date(s):. 2016-11-21 to 2016-11-23. Destination(s):. Ottawa. Airfare: $707.13. Other. Transportation: $88.55. Accommodation: $393.40. Meals and. Incidentals: $76.79. Other: $0.00. Total: $1,265.87. Comments: 2016-2017 Travel Expense Reports for John. McArthur, Governor.

  9. Theatre as truth practice : Arthur Miller’s The Crucible - a play waiting for the occasion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Aamir

    2014-01-01

    In my reading of, and dealing with Arthur Miller’s play The Crucible, I found that it is concerned with truth, or different forms of truth. As the plural suggests, these are not absolute or objective truths, let alone universal ones, nor is there one ‘deep’ truth in the play, in a basic

  10. Arthur Danto, the End of Art, and the Philosophical View of History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, C.M.

    2018-01-01

    This essay takes Arthur Danto’s end-of-art thesis as a case in point of a substantive philosophy of history. Such philosophy explains the direction that art has taken and why that direction could not have been different. Danto never scrutinized the philosophy of history that his end-of-art thesis

  11. Developmental Education and the Liberal Arts: An Interview with Arthur M. Cohen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Gwyn; Cohen, Arthur M.

    1988-01-01

    Arthur M. Cohen responds to questions concerning the issue of excellence vs. access; the importance of the liberal arts as an enculturating device; cultural literacy; general education; strengthening of the associate in arts degree; the remedial function of community colleges; the evolution of developmental studies as a discipline; and outcomes…

  12. Professor Arthur von Oettingeni lahkumine Tartu Ülikoolist 1893. aastal / Jaan Ross

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ross, Jaan, 1957-

    2010-01-01

    Vene keelest eesti keelde tõlgitud Arthur von Oettingeni kiri haridusministrile ja Riia õpperingkonna kuraatori vastus Oettingeni kirjale. Erinevalt tavast oli õpperingkonna kuraatori vastus palvele jätkata töötamist professorina 30-aastase staaži järel eitav. Poliitilistest vastuoludest 19. sajandi lõpus. Oettingeni ja Lavrovski kirjades peegelduvatest maailmavaatelistest erinevustest

  13. LEAGUE OF LEGENDS GAME CHARACTERS SELECTION PROBLEMS OF THE MULTICRITERIA DECISION MAKING METHOD AND SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    ERCAN, Merve; YILDIRIM, Meral; OTURAK, Çiğdem; EREN, Tamer

    2018-01-01

    Strategy games occupy a very important place in gaming industry. In this study, characterselection is made according to the rival team which is created by developing scenarios for Summoner's Rift inLeague of Legends (LOL) strategy game and Howling Abyss modes. In order to solve the problem, AnalyticalHierarchy Process (AHP), TOPSIS and PROMETHEE methods are utilized from multicriteria decision makingmethods in Summoner's Rift and Howling Abyss mode. For the problem, five alternative...

  14. “The Birds of Clay”: An Apocryphal Motif in Folklore Legends

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Belova

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the adaptation of the apocryphal Gospels motif—the revival of clay birds by Jesus—in the folk traditions of Eastern and Western Slavs. The texts of folk legends demonstrate not only the active inclusion of apocryphal motifs in oral narratives, but they also incorporate the motifs’ biblical contexts and they emphasize themes that are close to everyday life and that reflect local history. The folklore texts analyzed here are from different regions of the Slavic world (Russ...

  15. The rise and rise of e-Sports, tournament videogaming and the League of Legends

    OpenAIRE

    Grundy, David

    2015-01-01

    The final of the 2015 World Championship of League of Legends, a fantasy-themed, real-time strategy videogame, is being streamed worldwide by the BBC. Like the most popular of sporting occasions such as football tournaments and the Olympic Games, video gaming tournaments attract thousands of spectators to arenas and millions more watching live broadcasts. So how did videogames cross from being a bedroom activity to a highly competitive tournament sport with serious prizes to match?

  16. Fallen star legends and traditional religion of Japan: an aspect of star lore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Japanese star lore is a complex mixture of animism, Buddhism, Shinto-ism, Confucianism and folk beliefs. Although some studies have been done on rituals concerning constellation developed in esoteric Buddhism (e.g. Journal Culture and Cosmos, Vol. 10 no 1 and 2), studies on other aspects of Japanese star lore are limited, in particular, to the English audience.In historic literatures, there often mentioned abnormal astronomical phenomena, such as, eclipse, meteors and comets. In this paper, I will discuss the possibility of reference to these astronomical phenomena in order to talk about some historical facts.In western part of Japan, there are Shinto shrines and Buddhistic temples that are said to be built as monuments of fallen stars. Usually fallen stars were divided into three, and a trio of shrines/temples are said to be the remnants of this phenomenon. Similar legends are found in Kudamatsu (that means "fallen pine=pine where stars fallen") of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Bisei-cho (that means "beautiful star") of Okayama Prefecture, Hoshida (that means "rice field or village of star") shrine of Osaka, and also Hoshida shrine of Nagoya.The purpose of this presentation is not to argue whether fallen star legend was truly astronomical phenomenon, such as, meteor or not. Instead, I will discuss why similar legends have been talked concerning the origin of particular shrines or temples. Citing Eliade who related gorge and alchemy producing spark to astronomical phenomena, I will disclose the possibility to relate these astronomical legends to the coming of the naturalized Japanese from Korean Peninsula who introducd forge to Japan abound 5 to 6 centuries.

  17. Silica from Ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and may change the product characteristics (colour, etc.). This method of quality assessment is more suitable to workers at the processing site as it does not involve lab-scale analysis. Process. The initial step is extraction of silica from ash as sodium silicate using caustic soda. This reaction is carried out at a temperature.

  18. Differential utilization of ash phloem by emerald ash borer larvae: Ash species and larval stage effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Michael D. Ulyshen; Therese M. Poland

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the extent to which ash species (black, green and white) and larval developmental stage (second, third and fourth instar) affect the efficiency of phloem amino acid utilization by emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) larvae. EAB larvae generally utilized green ash...

  19. Ash study for biogas purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez V, R. I.

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the ashes generated from the wood and coal combustion process of the thermoelectric plant in Petacalco, Guerrero (Mexico) in order to determine its viability as a filter in the biogas purification process. The ash is constituted by particles of morphology and different chemical properties, so it required a characterization of the same by different analytical techniques: as was scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, in order to observe the microstructure and determine the elemental chemical composition of the particles. Prior to the analysis, a set of sieves was selected to classify as a function of particle size. Four different types of ashes were evaluated: one generated by the wood combustion (wood ash) and three more of the Petacalco thermoelectric generated by the coal combustion (wet fly ash, dry fly ash and dry bottom ash). (Author)

  20. Eastern Tales for Western Readers: A Combination of Traditions within D. Mamin-Sibiryak’s Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuliakova, Natalia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses Mamin-Sibiriak’s Legends (1898 cycle, which appeared at the time when legends in Russia were at the peak of popularity. The cycle is a masterful stylization of Asian folk tales belonging to some of the minorities of the Russian Empire, and it fuses together Oriental and Occidental literary and geopoetic traditions. The background of the cycle creation and an analysis of the Asian and European roots of the legends reveal the ways in which the two cultures are combined by the author. Mamin-Sibiryak uses Oriental stylization, typical of the folk-lore of minor ethnic groups of the Trans-Urals, on the levels of language and imagery. His artful employment of linguistic and poetic devices such as foreign words, alien names and realias, zoomorphic metaphors and similes, as well as concepts and sets of values not typical of European mentality, misled his contemporaries into thinking that he had published some collected folk material. However, the writer created his own plots, following patterns and motifs mostly characteristic of both Western and Eastern cultures. There are similarities between the plots and the motifs of the cycle and those of the European Romanticism, Buddhism, Indian epics, and Biblical scenes. Consequently, Mamin-Sibiryak’s choice of plots may be aimed at identifying some basic similarities between these traditions. A study of the cycle proves that the impact on the legends by A. Schopenhauer’s philosophy, which exploits ideas shared by Eastern and Western cultures, contributes to the interaction of Occidental and Oriental cultures within the cycle on the underlying levels, though the connotation of some Eastern motifs is contradictory to the Western tradition. While creating the legends, the author did not aim just at making the Russian reader acquainted with the folklore of minority groups. Rather, the chosen ‘alien’ form was intended to help the reader forget about everyday life and perceive some

  1. Ashes for organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kousa, T.; Heinonen, M.; Suoniitty, T.; Peltonen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays only eight percent of the cultivated field area is used for organic farming. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry has published the guidelines for the program of organic farming to diversify the supply and the consumption of organic food. The aim is to increase organically arable land to 20% by the year 2020.The demand of organic fertilizer products is strongly increasing. Interest in forestry by-products (ash, bark, zero fiber, etc.) for use in organic production has recently be...

  2. Ash Management Review—Applications of Biomass Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpuneet S. Ghuman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In industrialized countries, it is expected that the future generation of bioenergy will be from the direct combustion of residues and wastes obtained from biomass. Bioenergy production using woody biomass is a fast developing application since this fuel source is considered to be carbon neutral. The harnessing of bioenergy from these sources produces residue in the form of ash. As the demand for bioenergy production increases, ash and residue volumes will increase. Major challenges will arise relating to the efficient management of these byproducts. The primary concerns for ash are its storage, disposal, use and the presence of unburned carbon. The continual increase in ash volume will result in decreased ash storage facilities (in cases of limited room for landfill expansion, as well as increased handling, transporting and spreading costs. The utilization of ash has been the focus of many studies, hence this review investigates the likely environmental and technological challenges that increased ash generation may cause. The presence of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, chlorine, sulphur and silicon influences the reactivity and leaching to the inorganic phases which may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. Discussed are some of the existing technologies for the processing of ash. Unburned carbon present in ash allows for the exploration of using ash as a fuel. The paper proposes sieve fractionation as a suitable method for the separation of unburnt carbon present in bottom ash obtained from a fixed-bed combustion system, followed by the application of the gasification technology to particle sizes of energy importance. It is hoped that this process will significantly reduce the volume of ash disposed at landfills.

  3. MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamon, M; Katsumi, T; Sano, Y

    2000-09-15

    The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength tests, leachate tests, and soaking tests. The behavior of soluble salts contained in the MSW fly ash significantly affects strength development, soaking durability, and the hardening reaction of the stabilized MSW fly ash mixtures. The cement stabilization of the MSW fly ash does not have enough effect on strength development and soaking durability. The addition of cement only contributes to the containment of heavy metals due to the high level of alkalinity. When using FCA as a stabilizing agent for MSW fly ash, the mixture exhibits high strength and durability. However, the Cd leachate cannot be prevented in the early stages of curing. Using a combination of cement and FCA as a MSW fly ash stabilizer can attain high strength, high soaking durability, and the containment of heavy metals. The stabilized MSW fly ash with cement and FCA can be practically applied to embankments.

  4. An improved ashing procedure for biologic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zongmei

    1992-01-01

    The classical ashing procedure in muffle was modified for biologic samples. In the modified procedure the door of muffle was open in the duration of ashing process, the ashing was accelerated and the ashing product quality was comparable to that the classical procedure. The modified procedure is suitable for ashing biologic samples in large batches

  5. Conocer los Factores que Intervienen en el Desarrollo de los Siete Vectores de Arthur W. Chickering en el Estudiante Universitario

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo Minaburo, Luis E.

    2016-01-01

    El estudio busca conocer cuáles son los factores que intervienen en el desarrollo de los siete vectores de Arthur W. Chickering en el estudiante universitario de la Universidad Interamericana para el desarrollo (UNID), con sede en Playa del Carmen. El Dr. Arthur W. Chickering junto con Linda Reisser (1993), desarrollan la teoría del desarrollo del estudiante conformada por siete vectores o estadios para desarrollar la identidad, los cuatro primeros corresponden al logro de la identidad del...

  6. Study in Arthur's thesis about Marx's Being influenced by Hegel's Master-Servant in Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Seifi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available o one is denying that Hegel had a strong influence on Marx, especially influenced by the Master-Servitude of Phenomenology of Spirit. For people like Arthur, however, it is not more than a Myth. Sartre and Hyppolite who influenced by Kojeve are the creators of this famous theory, but, they have claimed this without any evidences. Based on Marcuse’s citation of Marx's Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, Arthur begins to criticize the theory. His argument is that Marx never refers to this section of Phenomenology of Spirit. Here, I argue that Marx used the keywords of this section in his other writings such as; Gauderies and Capital. Furthermore, it can be said that the meaning of very influence is not clear enough.

  7. Reginald Crundall Punnett: first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics, Cambridge, 1912.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A W F

    2012-09-01

    R. C. Punnett, the codiscoverer of linkage with W. Bateson in 1904, had the good fortune to be invited to be the first Arthur Balfour Professor of Genetics at Cambridge University, United Kingdom, in 1912 when Bateson, for whom it had been intended, declined to leave his new appointment as first Director of the John Innes Horticultural Institute. We here celebrate the centenary of the first professorship dedicated to genetics, outlining Punnett's career and his scientific contributions, with special reference to the discovery of "partial coupling" in the sweet pea (later "linkage") and to the diagram known as Punnett's square. His seeming reluctance as coauthor with Bateson to promote the reduplication hypothesis to explain the statistical evidence for linkage is stressed, as is his relationship with his successor as Arthur Balfour Professor, R. A. Fisher. The background to the establishment of the Professorship is also described.

  8. Ash in the Soil System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  9. O fundamento epistemológico da metafísica da Vontade de Arthur Schopenhauer The epistemological basis of the metaphysics of the Will of Arthur Schopenhauer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarlee Oliveira Silva Salviano

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisamos neste artigo a teoria do conhecimento de Arthur Schopenhauer com base em sua dissertação Sobre a quádrupla raiz do princípio de razão suficiente (1813, seu ensaio Sobre a visão e as cores (1816, os dois primeiros livros de O mundo como vontade e representação (1819, bem como o apêndice a esta obra intitulado Crítica da filosofia kantiana. Aqui temos em mente a relação de Schopenhauer com as filosofias anteriores (em especial a de Kant e a fundamentação de sua intuição do mundo como Vontade baseada em uma epistemologia de raízes kantianas.We analyse in this article the theory of knowledge by Arthur Schopenhauer included in his dissertation On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason (1813, his essay On Vision and Colours (1816, the two first books of The World as Will and Representation (1819, and the appendix at this work, intitled Criticism of the Kantian Philosophy. We have here in mind the relation of Schopenhauer with the previous philosophies (especially that by Kant and the establishment of his intuition of world as Will based in an epistemology of Kantian sources.

  10. Strategy, Operational Art and MacArthur in the Southwest Pacific 1944

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    defense successes enabled MacArthur to go on the offensive. U.S. and Australian forces moved steadily along the New Guinea coast with attacks at Lae ...distribution a serious problem.28 Armies relied on human power , either native or their own, to carry supplies which limited speed of movement and...which modern fire- power is launched. Sometimes they are true islands like Wake or Midway, sometimes they are localities on large land masses. Port

  11. Rapports 2016-2017 sur les frais de voyage pour John McArthur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Beata Bialic

    Date(s). 2016-06-20 à 2016-06-22. Destination(s). Ottawa. Billet d'avion. 1 011.70 $. Frais de transport au sol ou autrement. 0.00 $. Frais de logement. 393.40 $. Repas et frais divers. 0.00 $. Autre frais. 0.00 $. Total. 1 405.10 $. Commentaires. Rapports 2016-2017 sur les frais de voyage pour. John McArthur, gouverneur.

  12. Rapports 2017-2018 sur les frais de voyage pour John McArthur ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Chantal Taylor

    Billet d'avion. 416.31 $. Frais de transport au sol ou autrement. 53.03 $. Frais de logement. 361.86 $. Repas et frais divers. 77.75 $. Autre frais. 0.00 $. Total. 908.95 $. Commentaires. À partir de sa résidence à Washington DC, É.-U.A.. Rapports 2017-2018 sur les frais de voyage pour John McArthur, gouverneur.

  13. Rapport de frais de 2016-2017 pour John McArthur | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rapport de frais de 2016-2017 pour John McArthur. Total des frais de déplacement : CAD$6,102.11. Réunion du Conseil des gouverneurs. 20 mars 2017 au 22 mars 2017. CAD$1,288.38. Réunion du Conseil des gouverneurs. 21 novembre 2016 au 23 novembre 2016. CAD$1,265.87. Réunion du comité ad hoc 31 ...

  14. Arthur S. Eddington, The nature of the physical world Gifford lectures of 1927

    CERN Document Server

    Eddington, Arthur S

    2014-01-01

    Arthur S. Eddington, FRS, (1882-1944) was one of the most prominent British scientists of his time. He made major contributions to astrophysics and to the broader understanding of the revolutionary theories of relativity and quantum mechanics. He is famed for his astronomical observations of 1919, confirming Einstein's prediction of the curving of the paths of starlight, and he was the first major interpreter of Einstein's physics to the English-speaking world. His 1928 book, The Nature of th...

  15. Representing Sikhism: essays in memory of the Irish scholar Max Arthur Macauliffe

    OpenAIRE

    Shackle, Christopher; Bocking, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This is an introduction, by the guest editors, to the special issue of JISASR (Vol 4, 2017) entitled 'Representing Sikhism: Essays in Memory of the Irish Scholar Max Arthur Macauliffe'. The genesis of this special issue lies in pioneering work on Macauliffe's Irish identity and personal and scholarly life undertaken by Professor Tadhg Foley (Galway). The active interest and support of members of the Sikh community in Ireland led to a conference, hosted by the Study of Religions Department at ...

  16. Environmental Assessment for Perimeter Security Lighting at Fort MacArthur, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    many areas as it is used for potable water, agricultural irrigation, and industrial applications. Groundwater properties are often described in...MacArthur 51 S<wmo:U.S. I:jlt eau or thO <.:oi\\SUS 2000. 3-44 100. ~0 70 £0 40 30 𔃺 10 United States State of California r Asian - IO,:UZ,998

  17. Electrodialytic treatment of fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    Heavy metals are removed from the fly ashes by an electrodialytic treatment with the aim of up-grading the ashes for reuse in stead of disposal in landfill.A great potential for upgrading of bio- and waste incineration ashes by electrodialytic treatment exists. In the future, the applicability...... of the treated products for reuse in construction or farming sectors should be explored further, as should the possibility of recycling of valuable, extracted elements in the metallurgical industry....

  18. Utilization of Coal Fly Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    T1 Thallium Br Bromine U Uranium C Carbon V Vanadium Ca Calcium W Tungsten Cd Cadmium Zn Zinc Ce Cerium Cl Chlorine Co Cobalt Cr Chromium Cu Copper...2933 (1987). £ 46 I A 3 Christensen, J., L. Kryger, and N. Pind, "The Determination of Traces of Cadmium, Lead, and Thallium in Fly Ash by...Elements and Radioactivity in Fly Ashes, Adsorption of Elements by Cabbage Grown in Fly Ash-Soil Mixtures," Environmental Science and Technology, v.11

  19. Operational-phase waste rock management at Cameco's McArthur River operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, G.; Rezansoff, D.; Richardson, L.

    2006-01-01

    The McArthur River underground uranium mine is the world's largest high-grade uranium deposit. This mine, which is located in northern Saskatchewan and began operations in 1999, is jointly owned by Cameco Corporation (70%) and by the Areva subsidiary COGEMA Resources Inc. (30%). Early in the planning and environmental assessment stages for this project, the need for a well-articulated waste rock management plan was identified. Waste rock can prove to be one of, if not the largest long-term potential liability of any mine. Mine site decommissioning costs can be a significant part of the total liability if not properly managed. Proper management of waste rock is instrumental in developing and operating a mine using sustainable development principles. The McArthur River plan required that a process be developed to classify the various categories of waste rock with reasonable precision and that, where possible, waste rock be used for valued added purposes. The plan also requires that waste rock storage areas be designed to minimize environmental impacts. This paper summarizes the McArthur River waste rock management plan along with the benefits that have been derived from its use. (author)

  20. Cross-Cultural Adaptations of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Ali; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmoud; Akasheh, Goodarz; Sehat, Mojtaba; Zanjani, Zahra; Larijani, Bagher

    2016-03-01

    According to general ethical and legal principles, valid consent must be obtained before starting any procedure. Due to the lack of a standard tool for assessing patients' capacity to consent to medical treatment in Iran, the present study was carried out aiming to devise a Persian version of a cross-cultural adaptation of the MacArthur competence assessment tool. By reviewing different methods of cultural translation and adaptation for assessment tools, and due to the lack of consensus on its processes, we selected Wild's model as one of the most comprehensive methods in this regard. Wild's (2005) 10-stage model includes preparation, forward translation, reconciliation of the forward translation, back translation of reconciliation, back translation review, cognitive debriefing and cognitive review, and finalization, proofreading and final reporting. Using this model, we translated the MacArthur assessment tool and made it adaptable to Iranian patients. The MacArthur assessment tool is not dependent on any specific culture and language. As a result, if translation and its scientific adaptation are done based on an integrated and detailed model, the tool can be used for every culture and language. In other words, this tool is not culture-specific; so, it is applicable in cases where a translation is needed, and it can be culturally adapted to suit different societies. In the present study, we are able to focus on and prove the efficacy and benefits of this measurement tool.

  1. Toward a Generative Model of Legend: Pizzas, Bridges, Vaccines, and Witches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. Tangherlini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a generative model of the legend. The model is elaborated based on two case studies, the first of contemporary storytelling related to vaccination on parenting blogs, and the second of historical storytelling related to witchcraft and folk healing in nineteenth century Denmark. The model reveals the interdependent levels of the multiscale model, solving a problem of poor fit related to many two level models of folklore genre structure. The model supports the study of rumor, and the dynamics of storytelling, including the hyperactive transmission state of “viral” stories.

  2. Inevitable recidivism--the origin and centrality of an urban legend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, Tamara Rice

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the pervasive conviction that sex offenders - particularly child molesters - will continue to re-offend. This belief in inevitable recidivism turns out to be absolutely essential to both the justification for, and the structure of, the sexually violent predator laws. When actual evidence of sex offender recidivism is examined, however, a huge gap exists between what is assumed and what the data actually show because most sex offenders do not in fact re-offend. Thus there is a galaxy of sexually violent predator laws and an entire branch of Supreme Court jurisprudence that is founded upon a demonstrable urban legend. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fly ash quality and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B. [Inst. for Energy, Budapest (Hungary); Beer, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  4. Arthur Neiva e a 'questão nacional' nos anos 1910 e 1920 Arthur Neiva and the 'national question' in the 1910s and 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de analisar as interpretações e os diagnósticos sobre o Brasil elaborados pelo cientista e escritor Arthur Neiva entre as décadas de 1910 e 1920, especialmente a partir de suas crônicas literárias e do relatório da expedição científica realizada ao interior do Brasil em 1912, destaco suas críticas contra a mentalidade das elites dirigentes e dos homens de letras, sobretudo pela falta de ação política, pelo apego à imitação das ideias e ao uso exagerado da retórica bacharelesca - considerados por ele os principais responsáveis pelo atraso cultural e político do país. Analiso também a maneira como Arthur Neiva lidou com a questão racial e os dilemas da formação nacional, tema considerado, no início do século XX, de fundamental importância para a compreensão da realidade e do destino do Brasil no chamado 'concerto das nações'.The article analyzes the interpretations and diagnoses of Brazil developed by scientist and writer Arthur Neiva in the 1910s and 1920s, focusing especially on his literary crônicas and his report on the 1912 scientific expedition to the interior of Brazil. I highlight the author's criticisms of the mentality of the governing elite and men of letters, especially their failure to take political initiative, their penchant for imitating ideas, and their exaggerated use of pretentious rhetoric, which Neiva believed to be the main culprits behind Brazil's cultural and political backwardness. I also analyze how Neiva addressed the race issue and the dilemma of nation building, which in the early twentieth century was considered a theme of prime importance in understanding Brazil's reality and destiny within the so-called concert of nations.

  5. [Divine cadavers: gender, medical discourse, and anatomical collections in the legend of Pedro González de Velasco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo, Alba

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the public image of Pedro Gonzólez de Velasco (1815-1882), famous for his anatomical collections and his Anthropological Museum, founded in 1875 in Madrid, and the popular legend related to the death, embalming and exhumation of his daughter Concepción. The doctor who is committed to the nation becomes a mad scientist, and his official biography is transformed into an urban legend. Beyond the merely anecdotal, I show how the aesthetics associated with female corpses and artificial women organize cultural imaginaries, bringing together medical discourses and literary and artistic representations.

  6. Emerald ash borer flight potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin A. Taylor; Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robert A. Haack

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) that is rapidly spreading from the probable introduction site in Detroit, Michigan. The rapid spread to areas outside Michigan is undoubtedly due to phoretic transport on nursery stock, logs, and...

  7. Dielectric properties of fly ash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fly ash (FA) is a coal product generated from coal fired thermal power stations. ... million tons during 2001–2010 AD (Muraka et al 1987;. Satyanarayan and Pushpalata 1991). Disposal of FA and bottom ash are today's burning problems as they have .... Muraka I P, Boyd R H and Harbert H P 1987 Solid waste disposal and ...

  8. Emerald ash borer biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah Bauer; Juli Gould; Jian Duan; Mike. Ulyshen

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid from northeast Asia, was identified in 2002 as the cause of ash (Fraxinus) tree mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Ontario, Canada. This destructive beetle apparently arrived in North America via infested solid wood packaging materials from...

  9. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  10. Leaching from biomass combustion ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomass combustion ashes for fertilizing and liming purposes has been widely addressed in scientific literature. Nevertheless, the content of potentially toxic compounds raises concerns for a possible contamination of the soil. During this study five ash samples generated at four...

  11. Herman Merivale’s black legend: rethinking the intellectual history of free trade imperialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusses on the lectures and theories of economist and colonial bureaucrat Herman Merivale on the imperial transition of British colonialism from slave labour to free labour, and toward free trade, in 1839. Author specifically shows how Merivale propagated the free trade imperialism of the reformed British Empire by using the "Black Legend" way of thinking, i.e. criticizing Spanish colonialism, to caricaturize the second British Empire, and thus justify imperial policy reforms. Author elaborates on this Black Legend tradition, going back to writings of Las Casas, and how it served as justification for "better" imperialisms of other colonial powers than Spain, and how Merivale's views followed this tradition. He shows how Merivale as part of this criticized the mismanagement, slavery, brutality, mercantilism, and the concentration of power and wealth in Cuba and other Spanish colonies, as negative examples contrasted to the British approach. Author points out, however, how Merivale's views were in part paradoxical and ambiguous, as he favoured a social hierarchy and an imperial authoritarianism limiting free labour.

  12. The SiteLegend: twelve components of a new strategy for providing website documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, R M; Pealer, L N

    2000-04-01

    The World Wide Web continues to evolve dramatically with an estimated 57 million users in the United States. Some two-thirds of Internet users in the United States searched for health information the past year, with 90% indicating they found the information they sought. Thus, health and medical information represents the single most popular topic on the Web, surpassing all other categories. Yet, few measures exist to ensure the accuracy of information provided to children and adults through such sites. Some existing quality control measures such as assessment instruments, authoritative guidelines, and seal of approval systems provide screening mechanisms, but none of these measures guarantees protection for users. This article proposes a new approach to ensuring full and accurate disclosure of information about a website. Referred to as a SiteLegend, the approach uses a hyperlink to fully inform consumers regarding 12 essential components of website. This article describes each of the 12 essential components, then provides an example of an active online link that illustrates actual use of the SiteLegend hyperlink approach.

  13. Fact, Myth and Legend in Matthew Arnold’s Westminster Abbey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Braček

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the multilayered elegy “Westminster Abbey;” which was not given a lot of attention by Matthew Arnold’s critics. The poem is dedicated to Arnold’s life-long friend Dean Stanley; who was; like Arnold himself; “a child of light.” The term refers to their common fight against Philistinism in the English society of the time. As the poem is about a real person; it contains real data; such as excerpts from Stanley’s life; described in the form of praise. However; the poem also introduces the old Saxon legend of consecration of the Abbey; namely the consecration by the light; performed by the First Apostle (St Peter himself. In addition to the legend; Arnold also used some classical Greek allusions to depict the late Dean’s character. In one of the allusions; Stanley is associated with Demophon; whose immortality was never achieved due to the fault of another human; and in the second he is transformed into an everlasting oracle of the Abbey using the Trophonius; a builder of Delphi; metaphor. All elements of the poem form a homogenous eulogy; making it worthwhile reading for English scholars and students; and possibly a candidate for the English poetic canon.

  14. TOPONYMIC LEGENDS OF KAZAKH TURKS KAZAK TÜRKLERİNİN TOPONOMİK EFSANELERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyfullah YILDIRIM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history humans have always made up some thoughts and theories when they haven’t been able to understand what is going around in external world. In this process of defining and recognition some ideas about the origin, creation and composition of the world were developed. This course of thinking ended up with the formation of oral literature. One of the genres of this literature is myth. Legends are short narratives that are believed to be true, that have no stylistic features and that have educational aspects to give moral messages. They dictate us about the consequences of our inappropriate behaviors. Kazakh Turks name the term “legend” with the words “aŋız”, “äpsana” or “hikayat”. The academicians, although some of them offer some different classifications, generally classify the legends of Kazakh Turks under two topics as historical and toponymic legends. This paper examines twenty toponymic legends that were created to explain the names of regional places and places of water. Thus it is aimed to clarify the importance of these legends in Turkish culture and mythology. İnsan dış dünyayı tanıma ve tanımlama sürecinde çaresiz kaldığı durumlarda çevresini kendisine göre düşünüp değerlendirerek yapı, köken ve oluşumla ilgili birtakım düşünceler geliştirmiştir. Zamanla değişen ve gelişen bu düşünce serüveni sözlü türlerin oluşmasını sağlamıştır. İşte bizim yaşadığımız dünyayı tanımlama ve anlamlandırma sürecimizin ürünü olan türlerden birisi de efsanedir. Kısa, üslup özelliklerinden yoksun, gerçek olduğuna inanılan, terbiyevîkarakterdeki anlatmalardır ve bize davranışlarımızın sonucuyla ilgili olarak birtakım çıkarımlarda bulunur. İnceleme konusu olarak ele alınan Kazak Türklerinde efsane kavramı genel olarak “aŋız”, “äpsana” ve “hikayat” gibi kavramlarla ifade edilir. Kazak Türklerinin efsaneleriyle ilgili

  15. Dispersal of Volcanic Ash on Mars: Ash Grain Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdalen, Z.; Fagents, S. A.; Fitch, E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Many ash dispersal models use spheres as ash-grain analogs in drag calculations. These simplifications introduce inaccuracies in the treatment of drag coefficients, leading to inaccurate settling velocities and dispersal predictions. Therefore, we are investigating the use of a range of shape parameters, calculated using grain dimensions, to derive a better representation of grain shape and effective grain cross-sectional area. Specifically, our goal is to apply our results to the modeling of ash deposition to investigate the proposed volcanic origin of certain fine-grained deposits on Mars. Therefore, we are documenting the dimensions and shapes of ash grains from terrestrial subplinian to plinian deposits, in eight size divisions from 2 mm to 16 μm, employing a high resolution optical microscope. The optical image capture protocol provides an accurate ash grain outline by taking multiple images at different focus heights prior to combining them into a composite image. Image composite mosaics are then processed through ImageJ, a robust scientific measurement software package, to calculate a range of dimensionless shape parameters. Since ash grains rotate as they fall, drag forces act on a changing cross-sectional area. Therefore, we capture images and calculate shape parameters of each grain positioned in three orthogonal orientations. We find that the difference between maximum and minimum aspect ratios of the three orientations of a given grain best quantifies the degree of elongation of that grain. However, the average aspect ratio calculated for each grain provides a good representation of relative differences among grains. We also find that convexity provides the best representation of surface irregularity. For both shape parameters, natural ash grains display notably different shape parameter values than sphere analogs. Therefore, Mars ash dispersal modeling that incorporates shape parameters will provide more realistic predictions of deposit extents

  16. Arthur Bispo do Rosario além dos muros do asilo Colônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resumo Este trabalho propõe um olhar sobre a obra de Arthur Bispo do Rosario, que secundariza a patologia e prioriza o vivido. É frequente o cotejamento com Marcel Duchamp por conta da similaridade formal sustentada por algumas de suas obras. Mas a heterogeneidade dos percursos desafia a recepção a uma reflexão mais detida sobre suas respectivas experiências. Em Arthur Bispo do Rosario, a condição de recluso notadamente incorre em fortes restrições materiais e contextualiza a obra. Em seu inventivo e inusitado projeto, funda tanto menos uma estética da feiura e tanto mais - por sua força de verdade - o belo artístico, não como lei formal e plástica, mas como resultado ou êxito de uma experiência estética que se torna experiência artística. Espera-se adotar um ponto de vista que, prescindindo dos caminhos usuais - como a reincidente aproximação entre esses dois artistas -, busque ver além dos limites discerníveis do volume das obras, evidenciando uma verdade interposta como “quase-sujeitos”, nos termos de Georges Didi-Huberman. Examinar a obra têxtil de Arthur Bispo do Rosario pelos vãos da percepção é assumir sua indeterminação e considerá-la na categoria de instável a que pertencem os objetos de arte mediadores de realidades vividas. Evidenciar sua magnitude é também evidenciar sua importância como um possível instrumento de descontaminação e despreconceitualização do olhar que categoriza e penaliza artistas e obras, diagnosticando-as.

  17. Africa’s Legends: digital technologies, aesthetics and middle-class aspirations in Ghanaian games and comics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijnaker, T.; Spronk, R.

    2017-01-01

    Africa’s Legends is a mobile application developed by the Ghanaian game development company Leti Arts in 2012. The app consists of one game and two comics about eight ‘African’ superheroes. This article aims to give insight into the intersection of digital technologies and social class; it

  18. Learning Form and Function by Dance-Dramatizing Cultural Legends to Drum Rhythms Wearing Student-Made Animal Masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Phyllis; Rule, Audrey C.; Kirkland Holmes, Gloria; Logan, Stephanie R.; Alert, Andrea L.; Mason, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the self-efficacy in science, art, dance, and music; attitudes concerning contributions of people of various ethnic/cultural groups; and science learning of students involved in an after-school arts-integrated science enrichment project. Students dramatized three traditional animal legends from African, Native American, and…

  19. [Arthur Kronfeld (1886-1941)--a psychiatrist in the service of psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, C

    1986-07-01

    The psychotherapeutic life-work of psychiatrist Arthur Kronfeld has almost fallen into oblivion. Against the background of the 100th anniversary of his birth the author traces Kronfeld's psychotherapeutic career, pointing out his activity at the Berliner "Institute of Sexual Research" under Magnus Hirschfeld, and his psychotherapeutic concept--the psychagogic guidance of the patient--and its connection with the individual psychology of Alfred Adler. Kronfeld translated his theoretical positions into activities directed towards socialization and the teachability of psychotherapy which are still worthy of note by those engaged in the field.

  20. From structuralism to neutral monism in Arthur S. Eddington's philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherab-Martin, Karim J.

    2013-11-01

    Arthur S. Eddington is remembered as one of the best astrophysicists and popularizers of physics in the twentieth century. Nevertheless, his stimulating speculations in philosophy produced serious disputes among philosophers of his time, his philosophy remaining linked to idealism and mysticism. This paper shows this label to be misleading and argues for the identification of Eddington's philosophy with a kind of neutral monism regained from Bertrand Russell and influenced by the Gestalt psychology. The concept of structure is fundamental to our argument for the existence of a veiled neutral monism in Eddington's ideas.

  1. How Paiutes science education is influenced by their myths and legends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistrant, Susan Lee

    The Paiutes science education is influenced by their myths and legends. To the People, these are their truths, just like the Bible is to the Christians, the Torah is to the Jews and the Koran is to the Muslims. The more connected the Native person is to his/her traditional beliefs, the more likely they are to reject certain aspects of science, (personal communication, 7/3/2012). The worldview of the Paiutes also influences how they perceive science. To the Paiute, the earth is alive and everything has a soul. The birds, animals and plants give them information about their environment. Gregory Cajete stated that "Education is an art of process, participation and making connection. Learning is growth and life process; and Life and Nature are always in relationship!" Learning for the Native American is a form of "culture shock" because the White man's school is so different. The Native person's culture is passed on from generation to generation through oral traditions, such as songs, stories, legends, myths, their history, language and traditions. Indigenous science needs to be mixed with Western science. The student's knowledge base has to be acknowledged. The teacher of these students need to be familiar with their values and not expect the same as they would from the other students. The teacher should become a culture broker to help the Paiute student cross back and forth between the two sciences. The curriculum should have these ideas included in it. The best way to change the curriculum is to include the elders, the parents, grandparents, community leaders, and others. They can help fuse the Paiutes' culture into the science classroom and help it merge with Western science. The results of the research questions showed that the Paiutes need to have their values, their myths and legends, included in their science classrooms. The Paiute student's worldview is different from that of Western science. Therefore, the help of a "border crossing" teacher is encouraged to

  2. Constructing a Soil Class Map of Denmark based on the FAO Legend Using Digital Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Minasny, Budiman; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Soil mapping in Denmark has a long history and a series of soil maps based on conventional mapping approaches have been produced. In this study, a national soil map of Denmark was constructed based on the FAO–Unesco Revised Legend 1990 using digital soil mapping techniques, existing soil profile...... observations and environmental data. This map was developed using soil-landscape models generated with a decision tree-based digital soil mapping technique. As input variables in the model, more than 1170 soil profile data and 17 environmental variables including geology, land use, landscape type, area...... of wetlands, digital elevation model and its derivatives were compiled. The predicted map showed that Podzols and Luvisols were the most frequent soil groups, covering almost two-thirds of the area of Denmark. Geographically, Podzols occupied a major portion of western Denmark, where the soils have developed...

  3. Die Entstehung einer Legende. Alexander von Humboldts angeblicher Ausspruch über Salzburg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hoffmann

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Article in German, Abstract in English.This paper sheds light on the history of the quotation “I regard the environs of Salzburg, Naples, and Constantinople as the most beautiful on earth”, which is usually attributed to Alexander von Humboldt. The author shows that Humboldt’s alleged praise of Salzburg first appeared around 1870, and thus the quotation cannot be regarded as authentic. As a local legend it was meant to connect permanently the famous name of Humboldt with that of the growing centre of tourism. The circumstances under which the quotation found its way into the literature remain to be investigated; however, it seems clear that this can be seen as a typical example of what Eric Hobsbawm has called „invention of tradition“. Invented traditions – this might comfort the tourist industry of Salzburg – have particularly long lives.

  4. Rumors and Realities: Making Sense of HIV/AIDS Conspiracy Narratives and Contemporary Legends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The social context of the early HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States provided fertile ground for rumors about transmission. Today, however, rumors about HIV/AIDS persist only within the African American public. Focus group and public discourse data reveal the content and distribution of HIV/AIDS origin and conspiracy rumors. Rumor and contemporary legend theory allows reinterpretation of rumors as a measure of trust between the African American public and health professionals, not as evidence of ignorance or of historical racial oppression. To improve public health results in the African American community, HIV/AIDS efforts must acknowledge the sources and meanings of rumors, include rumors as a measure of trust, and address the underlying distrust that the rumors signify. PMID:25393166

  5. Transactional Reading in EFL Learning: A Path to Promote Critical Thinking through Urban Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Leal Hernandez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the research methodology and the findings of an action-research study conducted with a group of EFL eleventh graders’ at a public school in Bogotá. The study aimed at helping learners develop critical thinking through the implementation of the Transactional approach to reading. Individual and social transactions during the reading process of several urban legends enabled learners to discuss social conflicts that were also related to their lives, including, for instance, social irresponsibility, violence, drug consumption, and dishonesty. Data analysis from teachers’ observations, students’ opinions in an interview, and artifacts (workshops completed in a pedagogical intervention show that the students fostered critical thinking. The main findings indicate that they criticized human behaviors, generated solutions to conflicts, and planned and produced new knowledge based on previous information. An equal significant finding is that they became critical learners when they used the foreign language.

  6. Clinical empathy and narrative competence: the relevance of reading talmudic legends as literary fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John H

    2015-04-01

    The "curative potential" in almost any clinical setting depends on a caregiver establishing and maintaining an empathic connection with patients so as to achieve "narrative competence" in discerning and acting in accord with their preferences and best interests. The "narrative medicine" model of shared "close reading of literature and reflective writing" among clinicians as a means of fostering a capacity for clinical empathy has gained validation with recent empirical studies demonstrating the enhancement of theory of mind (ToM), broadly conceived as empathy, in readers of literary fiction. Talmudic legends, like that of Rabbi Judah's death, are under-appreciated, relevant sources of literary fiction for these efforts. The limitations of narrative medicine are readily counterbalanced by simultaneously practiced attention to traditional bioethical principles, including-especially-beneficence, non-maleficence, and autonomy.

  7. The Legend of Hot Tar or Pitch as a Defensive Weapon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In popular culture and even in academic discourse surrounding castles, hot tar pitch has been depicted as a widespread defensive weapon. The identification of "machicoulis" (machicolations) as an architectural provision for pouring down liquid tar pitch goes back to the early days of castle...... research. In reality, this way of fighting can only be seen as a legend, i.e. a story with only a relative truth at its core. This paper will examine the origin of this historical tradition and its archaeological and architectural sources. The chemical and physical properties of tar pitch and its...... production and use during the Middle Ages will be discussed with special focus on the application of tar pitch as an ingredient in medieval and post-medieval thermal weapons (especially Greek Fire, the firebomb and the fire arrow). The punishment of tarring and feathering will also be considered...

  8. Characterisation of wood combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto

    The combustion of wood chips and wood pellets for the production of renewable energy in Denmark increased from 5.7 PJ to 16 PJ during the period 2000-2015, and further increases are expected to occur within the coming years. In 2012, about 22,300 tonnes of wood ashes were generated in Denmark....... Currently, these ashes are mainly landfilled, despite Danish legislation allowing their application onto forest and agricultural soils for fertilising and/or liming purposes. During this PhD work, 16 wood ash samples generated at ten different Danish combustion plants were collected and characterised...... for their composition and leaching properties. Despite the relatively large variations in the contents of nutrients and trace metals, the overall levels were comparable to typical ranges reported in the literature for other wood combustion ashes, as well as with regards to leaching. In general, the composition...

  9. Conditioning processes for incinerator ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Ouvrier, N.; Teulon, F.

    1990-01-01

    Three conditioning processes for alpha-bearing solid waste incineration ashes were investigated and compared according to technical and economic criteria: isostatic pressing, cold-crucible direct-induction melting and cement-resin matrix embedding

  10. Urban Legends and Paranormal Beliefs: The Role of Reality Testing and Schizotypy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Dagnall

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that unconventional beliefs are locatable within a generic anomalous belief category. This notion derives from the observation that apparently dissimilar beliefs share fundamental, core characteristics (i.e., contradiction of orthodox scientific understanding of the universe and defiance of conventional understanding of reality. The present paper assessed the supposition that anomalous beliefs were conceptually similar and explicable via common psychological processes by comparing relationships between discrete beliefs [endorsement of urban legends (ULs and belief in the paranormal] and cognitive-perceptual personality measures [proneness to reality testing (RT and schizotypy]. A sample of 222 volunteers, recruited via convenience sampling, took part in the study. Participants completed a series of self-report measures (Urban Legends Questionnaire, Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization, Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire Brief. Preliminary analysis revealed positive correlations between measures. Within schizotypy, the cognitive-perceptual factor was most strongly associated with anomalistic beliefs; disorganized and interpersonal produced only weak and negligible correlations respectively. Further investigation indicated complex relationships between RT, the cognitive-perceptual factor of schizotypy and anomalistic beliefs. Specifically, proneness to RT deficits explained a greater amount of variance in ULs, whilst schizotypy accounted for more variance in belief in the paranormal. Consideration of partial correlations supported these conclusions. The relationship between RT and ULs remained significant after controlling for the cognitive-perceptual factor. Contrastingly, the association between the cognitive-perceptual factor and ULs controlling for RT was non-significant. In the case of belief in the paranormal, controlling for proneness to RT

  11. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  12. Bernard O’Kane. « Arthur Upham Pope and the Study of Persian Islamic Architecture »

    OpenAIRE

    Piram, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Dans cette contribution, extraite de l’ouvrage Arthur Upham Pope and A New Survey of Persian Art, publié à la suite d’un colloque international à l’Art Institute de Chicago (9-10 septembre 2010), Bernard O’Kane s’intéresse à la figure de l’orientaliste américain Arthur Upham Pope (1881-1969) et à son étude de l’art iranien de période islamique. O’Kane commence par dresser un portrait critique de Pope. Il considère ainsi que les faiblesses de Pope se manifestaient surtout dans ses analyses, ju...

  13. Islands as model systems in ecology and evolution: prospects fifty years after MacArthur-Wilson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Ben H; Simberloff, Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Aguilée, Robin; Condamine, Fabien L; Gravel, Dominique; Morlon, Hélène; Mouquet, Nicolas; Rosindell, James; Casquet, Juliane; Conti, Elena; Cornuault, Josselin; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Hengl, Tomislav; Norder, Sietze J; Rijsdijk, Kenneth F; Sanmartín, Isabel; Strasberg, Dominique; Triantis, Kostas A; Valente, Luis M; Whittaker, Robert J; Gillespie, Rosemary G; Emerson, Brent C; Thébaud, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The study of islands as model systems has played an important role in the development of evolutionary and ecological theory. The 50th anniversary of MacArthur and Wilson's (December 1963) article, 'An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography', was a recent milestone for this theme. Since 1963, island systems have provided new insights into the formation of ecological communities. Here, building on such developments, we highlight prospects for research on islands to improve our understanding of the ecology and evolution of communities in general. Throughout, we emphasise how attributes of islands combine to provide unusual research opportunities, the implications of which stretch far beyond islands. Molecular tools and increasing data acquisition now permit re-assessment of some fundamental issues that interested MacArthur and Wilson. These include the formation of ecological networks, species abundance distributions, and the contribution of evolution to community assembly. We also extend our prospects to other fields of ecology and evolution - understanding ecosystem functioning, speciation and diversification - frequently employing assets of oceanic islands in inferring the geographic area within which evolution has occurred, and potential barriers to gene flow. Although island-based theory is continually being enriched, incorporating non-equilibrium dynamics is identified as a major challenge for the future. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Pengaruh Kombinasi Fly Ash dan Bottom Ash sebagai Bahan Substitusi pada Campuran Beton terhadap Sifat Mekanis

    OpenAIRE

    Yahya, Tengku Tantoni; Kurniawandy, Alex; Djauhari, Zulfikar

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash were waste that generated from the power plant burning coal process. Fly ash and bottom ash has the potential to be developed as a basic ingredient in concrete composites. This research aimed to obtain the properties of fresh concrete and hard concrete of the combined effect of fly ash and bottom ash as a substitute ingredient in composite concrete. This research has examined the influence of a combination of waste fly ash and bottom ash to the compressive strength of a...

  15. Characterization of ashes from biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, F.J.; Hansen, L.A. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. Dept. of Chemical Engineering (Denmark); Soerensen, H.S. [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (Denmark); Hjuler, K. [dk-TEKNIK. Energy and Environment (Denmark)

    1998-02-01

    One motivation for initiating the present project was that the international standard method of estimating the deposit propensity of solid fuels, of which a number of variants exist (e.g. ISO, ASTM, SD, DIN), has shown to be unsuitable for biomass ashes. This goal was addressed by the development of two new methods for the detection of ash fusibility behaviour based on Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA) and High Temperature Light Microscopy (HTLM), respectively. The methods were developed specifically for ashes from biofuels, but are suitable for coal ashes as well. They have been tested using simple salt mixtures, geological standards and samples from straw CHP and coal-straw PF combustion plants. All samples were run in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C/min. In comparison with the standard method, the new methods are objective and have superior repeatability and sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods enable the melting behavior to be characterized by a continuous measurement of melt fraction versus temperature. Due to this two-dimensional resolution of the results, the STA and HTLM methods provide more information than the standard method. The study of bottom ash and fly ash as well as deposit samples from straw test firings at the Haslev and Slagelse Combined Heat and Power plants resulted in a better understanding of mineral behaviour during straw grate firing. In these tests a number of straws were fired which had been carefully selected for having different qualities with respect to sort and potassium and chlorine contents. By studying bottom ashes from Slagelse it was found that the melting behaviour correlated with the deposition rate on a probe situated at the outlet part of the combustion zone. (EG)

  16. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  17. Reception of Arthur Sutherland Neill's Pedagogical Concept and His Summerhill School in Hungarian and German Pedagogical Literature and Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer-Buchwald, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Arthur Sutherland Neill is one of the most debated personalities among the representatives of the classic reform pedagogy, due to his pedagogical concept and its practical realization, and his Summerhill School, equally. He is often mentioned during public debates, where mostly the "three S"--"sex, swearing and smoking", are…

  18. Alkali ash material: a novel fly ash-based cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Rostami; William Brendley [Philadelphia University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2003-08-01

    The United States generates 110 million t of coal ash annually. Approximately 70 million t of this coal ash is fly ash, of which 27% is recycled and the remaining 73% is landfilled. Disposal of such a huge quantity of ash poses a significant environmental problem. A new cementitious material has been developed, called alkali ash material (AAM), which is used to produce concrete for construction. AAM can be used to create a variety of concrete strengths and could revolutionize the concrete product manufacturing industry due to its economic advantage. AAM contains 40-95% Class F fly ash and is used as cement to bind sand, stone, and fibers creating concrete. AAM concrete has been tested for strength, durability, mechanical properties, and, most importantly, economic viability. AAM concrete is economically and technically viable for many construction applications. Some properties include rapid strength gain (90% of ultimate in 1 d), high ultimate strengths (110 MPa or 16 000 psi in 1 d), excellent acid resistance, and freeze-thaw durability. AAM's resistance to chemical attack, such as sulfuric (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), nitric (HNO{sub 3}), hydrochloric (HCl), and organic acids, is far better than portland cement concrete. AAM is resistant to freeze-thaw attack based on ASTM C-666 specifications. Potential immediate applications of AAM are blocks, pipe, median barriers, sound barriers, and overlaying materials. Eventual markets are high strength construction products, bridge beams, prestressed members, concrete tanks, highway appurtenances, and other concrete products. 28 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  20. ARTHUR DANTO: ¿ARTE POST-HISTÓRICO O ARTE CONTEMPORÁNEO?

    OpenAIRE

    R., MARÍA DEL CARMEN OLEAS

    2013-01-01

    Resumen:El arte contemporáneo es un concepto difícil de definir y Arthur Danto, como filósofo del arte ha sido uno de los que ha tratado de hacerlo. La siguiente reflexión intenta una aproximación al pensamiento de Danto sobre el arte contemporáneo al que él llama “arte post histórico”. Para Danto, el arte ha muerto y todo lo que sucede después de su muerte es arte post histórico: es de esta manera que él define al arte contemporáneo. Desde un punto de vista filosófico, el arte contemporáneo ...

  1. McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI: Proposal of an abbreviate version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamarrita Farkas Klein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI assesses language development en children, through a significant caregiver report. The first inventory assesses verbal and non verbal language in infants who are from 8 to 18 months old and it is composed of 949 items distributed in 6 scales. This study proposes an abbreviate form of this instrument, and was tested on families and educators of 130 Chilean children of 11-15 months old. Analyses related to the items, reliability and validity of the instrument and factorial analyses of subscales were realized. The abbreviate version consider 241 items distributed in 4 scales. The evaluation of the psychometric properties of the instrument was acceptable, demonstrating adequate reliability and validity.

  2. The epistemological basis of the metaphysics of the Will of Arthur Schopenhauer

    OpenAIRE

    Salviano, Jarlee Oliveira Silva

    2009-01-01

    Analisamos neste artigo a teoria do conhecimento de Arthur Schopenhauer com base em sua dissertação Sobre a quádrupla raiz do princípio de razão suficiente (1813), seu ensaio Sobre a visão e as cores (1816), os dois primeiros livros de O mundo como vontade e representação (1819), bem como o apêndice a esta obra intitulado Crítica da filosofia kantiana. Aqui temos em mente a relação de Schopenhauer com as filosofias anteriores (em especial a de Kant) e a fundamentação de sua intuição do mundo ...

  3. O fundamento epistemológico da metafísica da Vontade de Arthur Schopenhauer

    OpenAIRE

    Salviano,Jarlee Oliveira Silva

    2009-01-01

    Analisamos neste artigo a teoria do conhecimento de Arthur Schopenhauer com base em sua dissertação Sobre a quádrupla raiz do princípio de razão suficiente (1813), seu ensaio Sobre a visão e as cores (1816), os dois primeiros livros de O mundo como vontade e representação (1819), bem como o apêndice a esta obra intitulado Crítica da filosofia kantiana. Aqui temos em mente a relação de Schopenhauer com as filosofias anteriores (em especial a de Kant) e a fundamentação de sua intuição do mundo ...

  4. Uma nova e moderna sociedade? O esporte no teatro de Arthur Azevedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Andrade de Melo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo tem por objetivo discutir como um dos mais importantes dramaturgos brasileiros, Arthur Azevedo, ao lançar olhares sobre a sociedade do seu tempo (final do século XIX, incorporou o esporte em sua produção teatral. Considerando o destaque da presença do tema nas obras, analisamos "O Bilontra" (1885, "O Tribofe" (1892 e "A Capital Federal" (1897. Conclui-se que a representação da prática nessas peças expressa tanto a força da sua presença social quanto a sua capacidade de dramatizar as contradições do processo de modernização em marcha no Brasil daquele momento.

  5. Solidification of radioactive incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, T.F.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ashcrete process will solidify ash generated by the Beta Gamma Incinerator (BGI) at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The system remotely handles, adds material to, and tumbles drums of ash to produce ashcrete, a stabilized wasteform. Full-scale testing of the Ashcrete unit began at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in January 1984, using nonradioactive ash. Tests determined product homogeneity, temperature distribution, compressive strength, and final product formulation. Product formulations that yielded good mix homogeneity and final product compressive strength were developed. Drum pressurization and temperature rise (resulting from the cement's heat of hydration) were also studied to verify safe storage and handling characteristics. In addition to these tests, an expert system was developed to assist process troubleshooting

  6. Geopolymer obtained from coal ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, V.; Bissari, E.S.; Uggioni, E.; Bernardin, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geopolymers are three-dimensional alumino silicates that can be rapidly formed at low temperature from naturally occurring aluminosilicates with a structure similar to zeolites. In this work coal ash (Tractebel Energy) was used as source of aluminosilicate according a full factorial design in eight formulations with three factors (hydroxide type and concentration and temperature) and two-levels. The ash was dried and hydroxide was added according type and concentration. The geopolymer was poured into cylindrical molds, cured (14 days) and subjected to compression test. The coal ash from power plants belongs to the Si-Al system and thus can easily form geopolymers. The compression tests showed that it is possible to obtain samples with strength comparable to conventional Portland cement. As a result, temperature and molarity are the main factors affecting the compressive strength of the obtained geopolymer. (author)

  7. La legende de Dona Marinha: mythologie et génealogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delpech, F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The medieval legend of Dona Marinha is an account of the origins of the galician family of the Marinhos. It tells of the rape of a mysterious and mute seamaid by a knight, and of her gradual integration into human society.
    This tale belongs to the subgroup of genealogical traditions based on mythical backgrounds,which were in use in the peninsular culture at the end of the Middle Ages. It differs however from the melusinian type, with which it only has some slight analogies.
    In this legend is experimentally tested an imaginary model of resolution of the conflictive duality which opposes Nature and Culture, exogamy and assimilation, masculine predominance and matrilineal trends. This model is embodied by a type of marriage in which the mediation of filiation conveys a softening and, at last, an elimination of the inconveniences of hyper-exogamy.

    La leyenda medieval de Doña Marinha, en la que se explica el origen del linaje gallego de los Marinhos, cuenta el rapto por un caballero de una mujer marina misteriosa y muda y la progresiva integración de la misma en la sociedad humana.
    Este relato forma parte del subgrupo de las tradiciones genealógicas de fondo mítico que florece en la península hacia el final de la Edad Media. Sin embargo se distingue claramente del tipo de las leyendas «melusinianas », con las que sólo comparte analogías superficiales. En esta leyenda se pone a prueba e ilustra un imaginario modelo experimental de resolución de la dualidad conflictiva entre Naturaleza y Cultura,, exogamia y asimilación, poder masculino y orientación matrilineal, y se propone, al nivel mítico, un tipo de alianza matrimonial mediatizada en el que la filiación y el ritual ayudan a mitigar, y finalmente anular, los inconvenientes de una exogamia excesiva.

  8. Horror’s Effect on Identity in Life of Pi and Arthur Gordon Pym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyx Steensma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Both Life of Pi by Yann Martel and The Narative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket by Edgar Allen Poe provide climatic moments of horror that lead to a change of motivation. Specifically, I will be taking a look at one important scene from each novel: the arrival and departure of the ‘death ship’ when Arthur Gordon Pym is stranded on a slightly sunk ship and the materialization of the mystical green island that Pi comes across. With the entrance of horror, both scenes portray a change in the narrator, a renewal then subsequent loss of hope, a moment of self-assessment that changes the young boys’ lives. I will be evaluating the effect of horror through the lens of Julia Kristeva’s “The Powers of Horror: an Essay on Abjection”. According to Kristeva, the abject refers to the human reaction (which is horror to a threatened breakdown in meaning caused by the loss of the distinction between subject and object or between self and other. The primary example for what causes such a reaction is the corpse (which traumatically reminds us of our own materiality which is the object of horror that changes the identities of Pi and Pym. The questions I will pursue are: Why does horror change the identities or conscious motivations of these boys? Are their reactions universal or individualized? What previous notions do they project on the horror they face?   Keywords: Abjection, Identity, Universality, Isolation, Survival.

  9. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: the potential for early stage recovery of North American ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    In many parts of North America, ash stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees and young basal sprouts, saplings, and seedlings. Without a seed bank, ash tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these younger cohorts...

  10. Effects of Wood Ash on Soil Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla

    Reutilizing biomass ash on soil has been proposed to counteract soil acidity and to save fertilizer inputs by recycling valuable nutrients contained in biomass ash such as calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and phosphorus (P). However, the heavy metal content of biomass ashes, such as cadmium (Cd...... in agricultural and forest soils focusing on soil microbial communities’ composition and function, particularly mycorrhizal fungi. Two study sites were used for this study, one in an agricultural field where different biomass ashes were evaluated as replacements for P fertilizers in barley, and a second one...... of wood ash with factorial additions of lime and Cd to disentangle the pH and Cd effects of wood ash amendments using community trait distributions. Barley yield, P content, and Cd content were not affected by biomass ashes. Some arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species were reduced when biomass ashes...

  11. Exploring the molecular and biochemical basis of ash resistance to emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin G.A. Whitehill; Daniel A. Herms; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis) feed on phloem of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. It is hypothesized that the resistance of Asian species of ash (e.g., Manchurian ash, F. mandshurica) to EAB is due to endogenous defenses present in phloem tissues in the form of defensive proteins and/or...

  12. Interment of ashes: Cremation service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maake Masango

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a liturgy of worship service which is to be conducted at the crematorium. This interment of ashes service can also take place at the church in the garden of remembrance. The aim of this service is to help members of the family achieve closure as far as the issue of the ashes of their loved one is concerned. The liturgy developed is focused on a continuation of the pastoral elements which aim to take care of the souls of those who are bereaved.

  13. ASH exhibition at the ICA

    OpenAIRE

    Dening, Geraldine; Elmer, Simon

    2017-01-01

    From the 14-20 August ASH had a residency in the Upper Galleries of the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London. During the week we hosted several talks on aspects of London’s housing ‘crisis’, including a presentation by Co-ops for London, a workshop by Achilles Fanzine, and an ASH meeting on the terms of reference in the Public Inquiry into the Grenfell Tower fire. During our residency we created a wall-size map identifying the site of every London estate regeneration, and on the weekend w...

  14. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Bai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem.Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species.The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future ash breeding programs for marker development.

  15. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  16. FLY ASH: AN ALTERNATIVE TO POWDERED ACTIVATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    fly ash were measured through N2 adsorption at 77 K using a TRISTAR-3000 surface area and porosity analyzer (Micromeritics). Surface morphology of fly ash was characterized by a SM-. 6700F field emission scanning electron microscope. Table 2. Chemical composition of fly ash. Oxide of metal. Percentage composition.

  17. A method for treating bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Van Craaikamp, H.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Sierhuis, W.; Van Kooy, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    A method for treating bottom ash from a waste incineration plant. The invention relates in particular to a method for treating bottom ash from a domestic waste incineration plant. In accordance with the invention bottom ash having a size ranging up to 2 mm is treated by removing a previously

  18. Evaluation of fly ash quality control tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    Many entities currently use fly ash in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and structures. Although the body of knowledge is : great concerning the use of fly ash, several projects per year are subject to poor performance where fly ash is named ...

  19. Kentucky pharmacists' opinions of the potential reclassification of pseudoephedrine as a legend drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Kathleen E.; Freeman, Patricia R.; Goodin, Amie J.; Talbert, Jeffery; Blumenschein, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To collect and analyze Kentucky pharmacists' opinions of the effectiveness of current methamphetamine precursor controls, to analyze proposed legislation to make pseudoephedrine (PSE) a legend drug, and to analyze the potential impact of such legislation on pharmacy practice and patients. Design Descriptive, nonexperimental survey study. Setting Kentucky; June through October 2012. Participants 431 Kentucky community pharmacists. Intervention Mailed survey. Main outcome measures Perceived efficacy of current methamphetamine precursor controls, anticipated impact on individual pharmacy practices and patients of proposed legislation to make PSE available by prescription only, and current opinions about the proposed legislation. Results Analysis of 431 community pharmacists showed that approximately 77% believed proposed legislation to make PSE available by prescription only would be effective in reducing methamphetamine abuse and methamphetamine-related laboratory incidents, with 56.2% indicating support for the proposed legislation. Pharmacists practicing in chain pharmacies were 2.9 times more likely to support the legislation than pharmacists practicing in independent pharmacies. Additional factors influencing pharmacist support included Kentucky region of practice, anticipated impact on time spent on PSE activities, pharmacy profit, methamphetamine abuse, and methamphetamine-related laboratory incidents. Pharmacists practicing in regions of Kentucky associated with higher methamphetamine abuse appear to more strongly support the proposed legislation. Conclusion Pharmacists are at the frontline of PSE distribution. Gaining a better understanding of issues surrounding the distribution of PSE will enhance the likelihood that future legislation may be crafted to reduce methamphetamine production, laboratory incidents, and abuse while minimizing inconvenience and cost. PMID:25063261

  20. Pemanfaatan Bottom Ash Dan Fly Ash Tipe C Sebagai Bahan Pengganti Dalam Pembuatan Paving Block

    OpenAIRE

    Klarens, Kevin; Indranata, Michael; Antoni, Antoni; Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2016-01-01

    PT. PLTU Paiton menghasilkan 7.5 ton fly ash dan 2.5 ton bottom ash setiap jam. Pemanfaatan bottom ash masih sangat minimal, sehingga mengakibatkkan timbunan bottom ash yang semakin meningkat, dan cendrung mencemari lingkungan dan kesehatan. Berdasarkan alasan tersebut maka perlu adanya USAha untuk memanfaatkan limbah batu bara, salah satunya melalui pembuatan paving block. Sampel tahap pertama terbuat dari campuran semen dan bottom ash (lolos ayakan 2 atau 5 mm) dengan perbandingan massa 1:3...

  1. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Deng-Fong; Lin, Kae-Long; Luo, Huan-Lin

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4-2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20-30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil.

  2. Coal ash removal in Schkopau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler

    1945-05-22

    This short paper outlined an ash removal process as revealed by a conversation with a Mr. Boerner. Boerner worked with Dr. Strohfeldt in February and March of 1945 on an ash removal process performed at the Schkopau Works. A mill supplied 3 tons/hr of crushed coal, which was mixed with a dilute HCl solution. The acid suspension was immediately supplied to the first concentrator. The thickened paste was transferred by means of a diaphragm pump to the second concentator where a small amount of HCl solution was added. After concentrating in the second apparatus, the paste went to a tank car where the suspension was maintained by air bubbling. Difficulty in filtration was avoided by introduction of a rotating filter cake remover and equally-sized coal granules. The filter yield was estimated at 150 kg of wet cake per m/sup 2/ per hr. The water content of the cake was approximately 50% to 55%, and it was thought that a decrease in water content would result by slowing down the throughput rate. Ash and water analyses of the processed coal were set up, but were not run. No other specific values were given such as ash content, acid concentation, or amounts of reagents added.

  3. Engineering Behavior and Characteristics of Wood Ash and Sugarcane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Grau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Biomasses are organic materials that are derived from any living or recently-living structure. Plenty of biomasses are produced nationwide. Biomasses are mostly combusted and usually discarded or disposed of without treatment as biomass ashes, which include wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes. Thus, recycling or treatment of biomass ashes leads to utilizing the natural materials as an economical and environmental alternative. This study is intended to provide an environmental solution for uncontrolled disposal of biomass ashes by way of recycling the biomass ash and replacing the soils in geotechnical engineering projects. Therefore, in this study, characteristic tests of wood and sugarcane bagasse ashes that are considered the most common biomass ashes are conducted. The test of chemical compositions of biomass ashes is conducted using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and heavy metal analysis is also conducted. Engineering behaviors including hydraulic conductivity, constrained modulus and shear modulus are examined. Also, coal fly ash Class C is used in this study for comparison with biomass ashes, and Ottawa 20/30 sands containing biomass ashes are examined to identify the soil replacement effect of biomass ashes. The results show that the particle sizes of biomass ashes are halfway between coal fly ash Class C and Ottawa 20/30 sand, and biomass ashes consist of a heterogeneous mixture of different particle sizes and shapes. Also, all heavy metal concentrations were found to be below the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA maximum limit. Hydraulic conductivity values of Ottawa 20/30 sand decrease significantly when replacing them with only 1%–2% of biomass ashes. While both the constrained modulus and shear modulus of biomass ashes are lower than Ottawa 20/30 sand, those of mixtures containing up to 10% biomass ashes are little affected by replacing the soils with biomass ashes.

  4. Geotechnical engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhunthan, B; Taha, R; Said, J

    2004-08-01

    The incineration of solid waste produces large quantities of bottom and fly ash. Landfilling has been the primary mode of disposal of these waste materials. Shortage in landfill space and the high cost of treatment have, however, prompted the search for alternative uses of these waste materials. This study presents an experimental program that was conducted to determine the engineering properties of incinerator ash mixes for use as construction materials. Incinerator ash mixes were tested as received and around optimum compacted conditions. Compaction curves, shear strength, and permeability values of fly ash, bottom ash, and their various blends were investigated. Bottom ash tends to achieve maximum dry density at much lower water content than does fly ash. The mixes displayed a change in their cohesion and friction angle values when one of the two mix components was altered or as a result of the addition of water. The permeability of bottom ash is quite comparable to that of sand. The permeability of fly ash lies in the range of those values obtained for silts and clays. A 100% bottom ash compacted at the optimum water content has a lower density value and yields a higher friction angle and cohesion values than most construction fills. This would encourage the use of bottom ash as a fill or embankment material because free drainage of water will prevent the buildup of pore water pressures.

  5. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eAughenbaugh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS, calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS, a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  6. Strength Properties of Processed Fly Ash Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Anandan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on the mechanical treatment of fly ash for improving the delayed reactivity of fly ash with the hydration product of cement. Grinding of fly ash was carried out in a ball mill for different time durations and processing time was optimized for maximum fineness. Concrete mixes were prepared using various proportions of processed and unprocessed fly ash replacement in cement (25% and 50%. The influence of steel fiber addition on the mechanical properties of the concrete was studied for different curing periods. The test results on pozzolanic activity and lime reactivity indicate that the processed fly ash exhibited a higher strength gain than the unprocessed fly ash, with a maximum increase in compressive strength of up to 12%. Improved pozzolanic properties were noticed due to the increase in fineness of the fly ash particles.

  7. IG Statement: Arthur A. Elkins, Jr., on OIG report Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in Landover, Maryland, Requires Immediate EPA Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of Inspector General Arthur A. Elkins, Jr., on the Office of Inspector General (OIG) report Early Warning Report: Main EPA Headquarters Warehouse in Landover, Maryland, Requires Immediate EPA Attention.

  8. Arthur von Oettingen ja tema orthtonophonium oma aja kontekstis / Karl Traugott Goldbach ; tõlkinud Anu Sõõro ; toimetanud Mart Humal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldbach, Karl Traugott, 1974-

    2009-01-01

    Arthur von Oettingen kuulus nende arvukate 19. sajandi lõpu õpetlaste hulka, kes otsisid muusikateooriale eksperimentaalset tuge. Oluliseks instrumendiks olid siin puhta häälestusega harmooniumid.

  9. Risk to ash from emerald ash borer: can biological control prevent the loss of ash stands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche; Leah S. Bauer; Daniel M. Kashian; Daniel A. Herms

    2015-01-01

    Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) are an important components of both natural forests and urban plantings in the United States and Canada (Federal Register, 2003; Nowak et al., 2003). There are approximately 16 species of Fraxinus native to North America (Harlow et al., 1996; USGS, 2014), each adapted to different ecological niches across...

  10. effect of neem seed husk ash em seed husk ash em seed husk ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    therefore can be used for non-structural and mass concrete application structural and ... ilable material with minor. Waste materials can concrete if they are not term properties of. Neem seed husk ash (NSHA) the waste husk obtained during the ex from neem seed. ... strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was designed using.

  11. How to boost shallow geothermal energy exploitation in the adriatic area: the LEGEND project experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesco, Tinti; Annamaria, Pangallo; Martina, Berneschi; Dario, Tosoni; Dušan, Rajver; Simona, Pestotnik; Dalibor, Jovanović; Tomislav, Rudinica; Slavisa, Jelisić; Branko, Zlokapa; Attilio, Raimondi

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation, monitoring and reduction of the heating and cooling consumptions are topics of increasing importance. One promising technology is the geothermal heat pump. Despite its undoubted advantages compared to fossil fuels in terms of RES production, CO 2 reduction and primary energy savings, there are still significant barriers for the creation of sustainable local markets. Many regions present similar conditions in terms of climate, geology, hydrogeology, infrastructure and political conditions. Because of the context-driven nature of shallow geothermal systems, similarities should be taken into account and strategies shared across borders to foster the introduction and exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. Focusing on the results of the LEGEND Project, this paper presents an attempt at creating an interregional strategy for the widespread introduction of geothermal heat pumps in the Adriatic area, which includes EU and non-EU countries. The multi-level approach adopted (a combination of desk studies on the transferability potential, pilot plants across the regions and programs to involve, educate and train stakeholders) allowed to set up the strategy. Therefore, different actions are proposed to stimulate the development of the market, whose interconnection across the Adriatic can accelerate the achievement of the main energy and climate targets for all the countries involved. - Highlights: •The Interregional Adriatic strategy for shallow geothermal energy is presented. •The strategy speeds up renewable energy introduction in border countries. •Geological, climate, market and political similarities must be taken into account. •The preparatory action is the creation of trained market and supply chain.

  12. The Effects of Bottom Ash on Setting Time and Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affandhie, B. A.; Kurniasari, P. T.; Darmawan, M. S.; Subekti, S.; Wibowo, B.; Husin, N. A.; Bayuaji, R.; Irawan, S.

    2017-11-01

    This research is to find out the contribution of waste energy utilization of fly ash and bottom ash coal as binding agent of geopolymer concrete. This research methodology uses experimental approach in laboratory by making cylinder paste test object with dimension diameter of 2.5 cm x height 5 cm with some combination of fly ash and bottom ash mix with time setting test (ASTM C 191-04a) and compressive strength (ASTM C 39-04a). The research concludes that the effect of bottom ash on fly ash-based geopolymer paste shows good results in setting time and compressive strength.

  13. Reliability of the MacArthur scale of subjective social status - Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Luana; Camelo, Lidyane do Valle; Rodrigues, Jôsi Fernandes de Castro; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2012-12-20

    The MacArthur Scale of Subjective Social Status intend to measure the subjective social status using a numbered stepladder image. This study investigated the reliability of the MacArthur scale in a subsample of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Three scales were employed using different references: 1) the overall socioeconomic position; 2) the socioeconomic situation of the participant's closer community; 3) the workplace as a whole. A total of 245 of the ELSA participants from six states were involved. They were interviewed twice by the same person within an interval of seven to fourteen days. The reliability of the scale was assessed with weighted Kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), with their respective 95% confidence interval (CI). Kappa values were 0.62(0.58 to 0.64) for the society ladder; 0.58(0.56 to 0.61) for the community-related ladder; and 0.67(0.66 to 0.72) for the work-related ladder. The ICC ranged from 0.75 for the work ladder to 0.64 for the community ladder. These values differed slightly according to the participants' age, sex and education category. The three ladders showed good stability in the test-retest, except the community ladder that showed moderate stability. Because the social structure in Brazil is rapidly changing, future qualitative and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm and understand the construct underlying the MacArthur Scale in the country.

  14. Volcanic Ash on Slopes of Karymsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A volcanic eruption can produce gases, lava, bombs of rock, volcanic ash, or any combination of these elements. Of the volcanic products that linger on the land, most of us think of hardened lava flows, but volcanic ash can also persist on the landscape. One example of that persistence appeared on Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula in spring 2007. On March 25, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around the Karymsky Volcano. In this image, volcanic ash from earlier eruptions has settled onto the snowy landscape, leaving dark gray swaths. The ash stains are confined to the south of the volcano's summit, one large stain fanning out toward the southwest, and another toward the east. At first glance, the ash stain toward the east appears to form a semicircle north of the volcano and sweep back east. Only part of this dark shape, however, is actually volcanic ash. Near the coast, the darker color may result from thicker vegetation. Similar darker coloring appears to the south. Volcanic ash is not really ash at all, but tiny, jagged bits of rock and glass. These jagged particles pose serious health risks to humans and animals who might inhale them. Likewise, the ash poses hazards to animals eating plants that have been coated with ash. Because wind can carry volcanic ash thousands of kilometers, it poses a more far-reaching hazard than other volcanic ejecta. Substantial amounts of ash can even affect climate by blocking sunlight. Karymsky is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. It is one of many active volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, which is part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Rim. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  15. Challenges associated with the design of underground grinding plant at McArthur River project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrozek, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    McArthur River is an unique high grade uranium underground mine. Ore grinding and thickening are part of the underground operation. The grinding circuit is designed to operate in conditions different from conventional plant environments. Design of the grinding plant was a collective effort of a multi-disciplinary engineering team closely cooperating with project operating personnel. The equipment had to be selected to reflect widely varying ore properties. A user-friendly plant layout provides access to equipment inspections, services, and the delivery of necessary components. The size of the grinding chamber was limited in order to keep the rock stress levels within allowable values. All underground equipment brought to the construction site was restricted in size and weight. Plant construction faced limited storage space underground, tight erection sequencing, and schedule. Plant ventilation is a critical design feature. It efficiently removes radioactive dust from work areas, eliminates stagnant air pockets, and separates clean air from contaminated air areas. Radiation shielding on the equipment is designed to correspond with operational and maintenance functions. Plant operation is remotely controlled and requires little attendance. Video cameras are used on critical equipment and in controlled access areas. An extensive program of preventive and predictive maintenance allows highly reliable plant operation. (author)

  16. MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment in Alzheimer disease: cross-cultural adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Luiza Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: We adapted the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T to Brazilian Portuguese, pilot testing it on mild and moderate patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: The cross-cultural process required six steps. Sixty-six patients with AD were assessed for competence to consent to treatment, global cognition, working memory, awareness of disease, functionality, depressive symptoms and dementia severity. Results: The items had semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalence. We found no difference between mild and moderate patients with AD on the MacCAT-T domains. The linear regressions showed that reasoning (p = 0.000 and functional status (p = 0.003 were related to understanding. Understanding (p = 0.000 was related to appreciation and reasoning. Awareness of disease (p = 0.001 was related to expressing a choice. Conclusions: The MacCAT-T adaptation was well-understood and the constructs of the original version were maintained. The results of the pilot study demonstrated an available Brazilian tool focused on decision-making capacity in AD.

  17. Anti-reductionism at the confluence of philosophy and science: Arthur Koestler and the biological periphery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, James F.

    2016-01-01

    The Hungarian-born intellectual Arthur Koestler produced a wide-ranging corpus of written work throughout the mid twentieth century. Despite being the subject of two huge biographies in recent years, his long-standing engagement with numerous scientific disciplines remains unexplored. This paper situates Koestler's scientific philosophy within the context of mid-twentieth-century science and explores his relationship with key figures, including Dennis Gábor, C. H. Waddington, Ludwig von Bertalanffy and J. R. Smythies. The argument presented is threefold. First, surprisingly, serious scientists, particularly in the biological sciences, took Koestler's scientific work seriously; second, despite Koestler's best efforts, his allies could not agree on a single articulation of anti-reductionism; and third, the reductionist/anti-reductionist debates of the mid twentieth century constituted a battle for the authority to speak on behalf of ‘science’ that led Koestler into direct conflict with figures including Peter Medawar. By exploring the community associated with Koestler, the paper sheds new light on the status of scientific authority and the relationship between scientists’ metaphysical beliefs and their practices.

  18. The Fall of Alger’s Success Myth in Arthur Miller’s Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsela Turku

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alger’s theory supported the idea that the key to success lies in the character. His heroes rise to the top by being devout (but not pious. They are likeable chaps with a ready quip and a vigorous sense of humour. Alger’s belief that all people are equal in God’s eye, implied that opportunities offered to people are equal, thus their success lies inside their personality, their personal magnetism, their virtues, their gifts. Therefore it is only our character that seals our success or failure. This theory not only prevailed before the twentieth century, but also was a model that many people believed and created their way of living. Arthur Miller in his play Death of a Salesman examines the fall of Alger’s success myth in modern society through the main character. Willy’s restless and uneasy psychological aspect is the main aspect where Miller based this tragedy. In this paper we will focus in the Alger’s myth theory, its influence in the play and the tragedy it provokes by not changing the attitude.

  19. "Drunken Boat": Samuel Beckett's Translation of Arthur Rimbaud's "Le Bateau ivre"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald M. Macklin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes Samuel Beckett's translation of Arthur Rimbaud's famous poem "Le Bateau ivre." After a short introductory section which outlines how Beckett's translation fortuitously reached the public domain through the endeavors of James Knowlson and Felix Leakey and then raises some of the main issues arising from this encounter between two such celebrated authors, the article proceeds to offer a close analysis of the Beckett text in terms of Rimbaud's original. This involves a stanza-by-stanza consideration of the original and the translation as reproduced by Knowlson and Leakey and a suggested division of the two texts into four sections for the purposes of close examination. The paper attempts to bring out both the accuracy and the fidelity of Beckett's work but equally the majesty and ingenuity of the "translation" that he has produced. While his work reveals many fascinating insights into both the Rimbaldian aesthetic and the Beckettian, ultimately one is struck by the fact that Beckett has produced something that goes far beyond what we originally designate as a "translation." "Drunken Boat" emerges as a poem in its own right as well as a staggeringly successful rendering of a poem that has so often resisted satisfactory translation.

  20. Arthur Neve (1859-1919) and a Mission Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Rais

    2011-11-01

    Mark Harrison has said that hospitals occupy a central place within health-care systems, not only on account of their curative functions but also as centres of teaching and research. The indigenous system of medicine practised by Hakims in Kashmir is the Unani. The Mission Hospital in Srinagar, Kashmir became the most important hospital attracting patients, not only within Kashmir but also in the surrounding countries and not only because of the curative facilities provided at the hospital but also because of the humane approach of its physicians, outstanding among them being Arthur Neve. The patients represented every class of society. Patients come from villages scattered throughout Kashmir and the Plains of India, and a few from Tibet, Afghanistan, Yarkand and Khostan. According to Neve, in 1912 there were 23,642 new outpatients and 1979 inpatients. Physical, socio-cultural and political conditions hinder access to the Mission Hospital. Neve's younger brother Ernest F Neve (1861-1946) made significant contributions when an earthquake struck and during cholera outbreaks in Kashmir at the end of the 19th century.

  1. Geopolymer Mortar with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry accounts for about 7% of all CO2 emissions caused by humans. Therefore, it is necessary to find another material in order to support sustainable material. An alternative way is replacing cement material with alternative material as fly ash. Fly ash as binder need to be added alkaline activator in the form of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 or potassium silicate (K2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH or potassium hydroxide (KOH. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of activator liquid concentration on geopolymer mortar properties and to know the value of compressive strength. Molarity variation of NaOH are 8, 12, 14, and 16 M with ratio of Na2SiO3/NaOH = 1.0. Ratio of sand/fly ash = 2.75 and ratio of activator/fly ash = 0.8. The cube-shaped specimen 50 × 50 × 50 mm is cured by steam curing with a temperature of 60°C for 48 hours. The experimental result of fresh mortar reported that the molarity of NaOH affect the slump flow and setting time, higher of NaOH produces the smaller value of slump and the faster time of setting. The experimental of density results reported that the increase of specific gravity when the molarity of NaOH increased. The experimental results of the compressive strength are showed that the maximum compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 14 M is 10.06 MPa and the lowest compressive strength produced by geopolymer mortar 8 M is 3.95 MPa. Testing the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar 16 M produces compressive strength lower than 14 M geopolymer mortar is 9.16 MPa.

  2. Asháninka Messianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veber, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    as 'messianic' has significant interpretive implications. In their readeing og historical records and narratives, anthropologists have attributed a messianic proclivity to the Asháninka and other native populations in the Peruvian Amazon. Taking off from interpretation of the figure of Juan Santos Atahuallpa...... scholarly repetition than from grounded analysis; it has created a 'black hole' in place of ethnography that an approach that takes heed of practices, narrative and structural, may begin to fill....

  3. Arsenic, chromium and mercury removal using mussel shell ash or a sludge/ashes waste mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco-Reigosa, Natalia; Peña-Rodríguez, Susana; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J; Alvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2013-04-01

    Different batches of valued mussel shell and waste mussel shell ash are characterised. Shell ash has pH > 12 and high electrical conductivities (between 16.01 and 27.27 dS m(-1)), while calcined shell shows pH values up to 10.7 and electrical conductivities between 1.19 and 3.55 dS m(-1). X-ray fluorescence, nitric acid digestion and water extractions show higher concentrations in shell ash for most parameters. Calcite is the dominant crystalline compound in this ash (95.6%), followed by aragonite. Adsorption/desorption trials were performed for mussel shell ash and for a waste mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash, showing the following percentage adsorptions: Hg(II) >94%, As(V) >96% and Cr(VI) between 11 and 30% for shell ash; Hg(II) >98%, As(V) >88% and Cr(VI) between 30 and 88% for the waste mixture. Hg and As desorption was ash and the waste mixture, while Cr desorption was between 92 and 45% for shell ash, and between 19 and 0% for the mixture. In view of that, mussel shell ash and the mixture including shell ash, sewage sludge and wood ash could be useful for Hg(II) and As(V) removal.

  4. El videojuego League of legends y su efecto en memoria de trabajo visual y solución de problemas

    OpenAIRE

    Leyva-Rodríguez, Jesús Eduardo; Varela-García, Juan David

    2016-01-01

    El propósito de este estudio es medir los efectos que tiene el videojuego League of Legends en los procesos cognitivos de memoria de trabajo visual (MVT) y solución de problemas (SP). Para medir dichos efectos se implementó un diseño pre test-post con un grupo experimental y uno control, compuestos cada uno por siete participantes, en donde se evaluaron los procesos previamente mencionados utilizando los cubos de Corsi para MVT y las matrices del WAIS III para SP. Después de realizar los resp...

  5. Characterization of fly ash from bio and municipal waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Ana T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2008-01-01

    Four different fly ashes are characterized in the present paper. The ashes differ in the original fuel type and were sampled at distinct plants. The investigation includes two different ashes from municipal solid waste incineration (with and without sorbents addition), a straw ash and an ash from...

  6. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Simonsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    fly ashes was studied. Four fly ashes were investigated, originating from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. One of the straw ashes had been pre-washed and was obtained suspended in water, the other ashes were obtained naturally dry...

  7. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  8. Possibilities of utilizing power plant fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezencevová Andrea

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of fossil fuels in industrial power stations plays a significant role in the production of thermal and electrical energy. Modern thermal power plants are producing large amounts of solid waste, mainly fly ashes. The disposal of power plant waste is a large environmental problem at the present time. In this paper, possibilities of utilization of power plant fly ashes in industry, especially in civil engineering, are presented. The fly ash is a heterogeneous material with various physical, chemical and mineralogical properties, depending on the mineralogical composition of burned coal and on the used combustion technology. The utilization of fly ashes is determined of their properties. The fineness, specific surface area, particle shape, density, hardness, freeze-thaw resistance, etc. are decisive. The building trade is a branch of industry, which employs fly ash in large quantities for several decades.The best utilization of fluid fly ashes is mainly in the production of cement and concrete, due to the excellent pozzolanic and cementitious properties of this waste. In the concrete processing, the fly ash is utilized as a replacement of the fine aggregate (fine filler or a partial replacement for cement (active admixture. In addition to economic and ecological benefits, the use of fly ash in concrete improves its workability and durability, increases compressive and flexural strength, reduces segregation, bleeding, shrinkage, heat evolution and permeability and enhances sulfate resistance of concrete.The aim of current research is to search for new technologies for the fly ash utilization. The very interesting are biotechnological methods to recovery useful components of fly ashes and unconventional methods of modification of fly ash properties such as hydrothermal zeolitization and mechanochemical modification of its properties. Mechanochemistry deals with physico - chemical transformations and chemical reactions of solids induced by

  9. Composites Based on Fly Ash and Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidancevska, E.; Jovanov, V.; Angusheva, B.; Srebrenkoska, V.

    2014-01-01

    Fly ash is a waste generated from the coal combustion during the production of electricity in the thermal power plants. It presents industrial by-product containing Technologically Enhanced Natural Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) with the great potential for valorisation. Fly ash is successfully utilized in cement and concrete industry, also in ceramics industry as component for manufacturing bricks and tiles, and recently there are many investigations for production of glass-ceramics from fly ash. Although the utilization of fly ash in construction and civil engineering is dominant, the development of new alternative application for its further exploitation into new products is needed. This work presents the possibility for fly ash utilization for fabricating dense composites based on clay and fly ash with the potential to be used in construction industry

  10. Characterization and valorization of biomass ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nikhilesh S; Mandavgane, Sachin A; Mehetre, Sayaji; Kulkarni, Bhaskar D

    2016-10-01

    In India, farming is the primary source of income for many families. Following each harvest, a huge amount of biomass is generated. These are generally discarded as "agrowaste," but recent reports have indicated several beneficial uses for these biomasses and their ashes. However, before the utilization of biomass ashes (BMAs), their chemical and physical properties need to be investigated (characterized) so as to utilize their potential benefit to the fullest. In this paper, eight different biomass ashes (soybean plant ash, mustard plant ash, maize ash, groundnut plant ash, cotton plant ash, wheat plant ash, pigeon peas ash, and groundnut shell ash) were characterized, and their chemical properties are discussed. Surface chemical composition analysis, proximate analysis, and ultimate analysis were performed on all BMA samples, and properties such as porosity, particle density, bulk density, point of zero charge, BET surface area, water-absorption capacity, and bulk parameters such as surface pH and surface charges were determined. BMAs were characterized by SEM and FTIR. The surface areas of biomass ashes vary from 1.9 to 46 m 2 /g, and point of zero charge for all BMAs exceed 9.8, which confirmed the alkaline nature of these samples. Based on the chemical composition, BMAs are categorized into four types (S, C, K, and CK), and their utilization is proposed based on the type. BMAs find applications in agriculture and construction industries; glass, rubber, and zeolite manufacturing; and in adsorption (as a source of silica/zeolites). The paper also discusses the research challenges and opportunities in utilization of BMAs.

  11. Göç Ve Ergenekon Destanlarında Mitostan Ütopyaya Yolculuk A Passage From Mythos To Utopia In The Legends Of Migration And Ergenekon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru ŞENOCAK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The legends are historical mirrors that reflect the cultural life,national conscious and memory of a nation with a literary pleasure. Thelegends of Migration and Ergenekon that constitute the basis of Easternliterature are the products of experiences produced by society’s memoryto struggle against the West by the aim of examining the identity searchand causes of migration. These narrations in which centenaryexperiences are kept alive in oral tradition from one generation to theother are historical, mythological and cultural heritages lightening ourfuture by the past.The legends of migration and Ergenekon tell how a nation thatcannot hold on its history, cultural values, on its “sacred stone”,becomes homeless. Those legends are woven with many mythologicalsymbols that attach a nation to its past. The symbols in the legendssuch as tree, mountain, water, fire, iron, dream etc. are like a road mapby which we can examine the life story and historical data of Turkishnation. This road map can only become clear by clarifying the contentsof conscious and unconscious. Tree, mountain and water symbolswhich are the myths of birth and re-birth are eternal power sourcesfeeding the life energy of the legend. The cases of appearing ofmythological mother who exists from the beginning to the end of thelegend, are the symbols selected by the public memory to transmit thesensitivity of legend spirit to the reader. Those mythological elements,which lead the way for the hero by giving meaning to his sacredjourney, give a potential strength to the legend that is a stop-and-thinkplace.In this study, in the light of mythological symbols existing in thelegends of migration and Ergenekon, we will examine the search forculture and identity under the subtitles such as leaving thefather/mother land, the process of enlightment, turning back to thefather/mother land, and mythological rebirth.

  12. Method of reversibly immobilizing sulfate ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    A sulphate ash at least 20% by weight of which consists of sulphates of transuranic elements is immobilised by heating to melting a mixture of the ash, a metal, and a fluxing agent; the metal used is Al, Ce, Sm, Eu or mixtures thereof and it is used in an amount sufficient to reduce the transuranic sulphates in the ash to metal and form an alloy with the metal so produced; sufficient of the fluxing agent is used to reduce the percentage of transuranic sulphates in the mix to form 1% to 10% of the mix and the molten mixture is cooled and the alloy containing the immobilised ash separated. (author)

  13. Utilization of hospital waste ash in concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, S.; Sheikh, M.

    2013-01-01

    Hospital waste management is a huge problem in Pakistan. The annual production of medical waste produced from health care facilities, in Pakistan, is around 250,000 tons. This research paper is intended to evaluate the feasibility of using of hospital waste ash obtained from Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi, Pakistan, as partial replacement of cement. The main variable in this research is the amount of hospital waste ash (2, 4, 6 and 8% by weight of cement) while the amount of cementitious material, water to cementitious material ratio, fine and coarse aggregate content were kept constant. Test results substantiate that hospital waste ash can be used in concrete. XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) of hospital waste ash showed that it is rich in calcite while scanning electron micrographs indicated that the particles of hospital waste ash have highly irregular shape. The slump value, density of fresh concrete and water absorption decreased with the increase in the quantity of hospital waste ash in the mix. At 3 days of testing, the compressive strength of mixes with hospital waste ash was higher than the control mix while at 7 and 28 days the CM (Control Mix) showed higher strength than the hospital waste ash mixes except the mix containing 2% hospital waste ash by weight of cement. (author)

  14. Hazards Associated With Recent Popocatepetl Ash Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A.; Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Ferres, D.

    2013-05-01

    Popocatepetl has been producing ash from small eruptions since 1994. Until 2012 about 650 small ash emissions have been recorded at the monitoring system of Popocatépetl Volcano. Ash consists mainly of glassy lithic clasts from the recent crater domes, plagioclase and pyroxene crystals, and in major eruptions, olivine and/or hornblende. Dome forming eruptions produced a fine white ash which covers the coarser ash. This fine ash consists of plagioclase, glass and cristobalite particles mostly under15 microns. During the recent crisis at Popocatépetl, April and May2012 ash fell on villages to the east and west of the volcano, reaching Mexico City (more than 20 million people) and Puebla (2 million people). In 14 cases the plumes had heights over 2 km, the largest on May 2 and 11 (3 and 4 km in height, respectively). Heavier ash fall occurred on April 13, 14, 20, and 23 and May 2, 3, 5, 11, 14, 23, 24 and 25. A database for ash fall was constructed from April 13 with field observations, reports emitted by the Centro Nacional de Comunicaciones (CENACOM), ash fall advisories received at CENAPRED and alerts from the Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano (SENEAM). This aim of this database is to calculate areas affected by the ash and estimate the ash fall volume emitted by Popocatépetl in each of these events. Heavy ash fall from the May 8 to May 11 combined with reduced visibility due to fog forced to closure of the Puebla airport during various periods of time, for up to 13 hours. Domestic and international flights were cancelled. Ash eruptions have caused respiratory conditions in the state of Puebla, to the east of the volcano, since 1994 (Rojas et al, 2001), but because of the changing wind conditions in the summer mainly, some of these ash plumes go westward to towns in the State of Mexico and even Mexico City. Preliminary analyses of these eruptions indicate that some ash emissions produced increased respiratory noninfectious problems

  15. Solidification on fly ash, Yugoslav experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D. [Mining Institute, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Popov, S.; Salatic, D. [Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-12-31

    A study was performed on ashes produced in the combustion process of coal from the Kosovo coal basin, in order to determine the potential and conditions of ash self-solidification. Investigations showed that the ash properties allows for the transformation into a solid mass through a controlled mixing with water. The optimal concentration of ash is 50 percent and the hydro-mixture is behaving as a Bingham plastic fluid. Solidification is obtained in a relatively short period (within 3 to 5 days) without additives. The resulting solidified mass is very consistent and stable

  16. Emerald Ash Borer: Invasion of the Urban Forest and the Threat to North America's Ash Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough

    2006-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), a phloem-feeding beetle native to Asia, was discovered killing ash trees in southeastern Michigan and Windsor, Ontario, in 2002. Like several other invasive forest pests, the EAB likely was introduced and became established in a highly urbanized setting, facilitated by international trade and abundant hosts. Up to 15 million ash trees in...

  17. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Justin G.A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region...

  18. Use of unwounded ash trees for the detection of emerald ash borer adults: EAB landing behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan M. Marshall; Melissa J. Porter; Andrew J. Storer

    2011-01-01

    Incorporation of multiple trapping techniques and sites within a survey program is essential to adequately identify the range of emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) infestation. Within natural forests, EAB lands on stick band traps wrapped around girdled ash trees at a rate similar to that on unwounded ash trees. The objective of...

  19. The Role of Biocontrol of Emerald Ash Borer in Protecting Ash Regeneration after Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) is an invasive Asian beetle that is destroying ash in forests over much of eastern North America because of the high susceptibility of our native ash and a lack of effective natural enemies. To increase mortality of EAB larvae and eggs, the USDA (FS, ARS and APHIS) is carryin...

  20. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah McCullough; Therese Poland; David. Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling (bark and phloem removed...

  1. Attraction of the emerald ash borer to ash trees stressed by girdling, herbicide treatment, or wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Therese M. Poland; David Cappaert

    2009-01-01

    New infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fainnaire, an invasive pest native to Asia, are difficult to detect until densities build and symptoms appear on affected ash (Fraxinus spp). We compared the attraction of A. planipennis to ash trees stressed by girdling(bark and phloem removed from a 15...

  2. Stopped hearts, amputated toes and NASA: contemporary legends among healthy volunteers in US phase I clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jill A

    2015-01-01

    The first stage of testing new pharmaceuticals in humans is referred to as a phase I clinical trial. The purpose of these studies is to test the safety of the drugs and to establish appropriate doses that can later be given to patients. Most of these studies are conducted under controlled, in-patient conditions using healthy volunteers who are paid for their participation. To explore healthy volunteers' experiences in clinical trials, an ethnographic study was conducted at six in-patient phase I clinics in the USA. In addition to the observation of clinic activities (from informed consent procedures to dosing to blood draws), 268 semi-structured interviews were conducted, 33 with clinic staff and 235 with healthy volunteers. Drawing on this dataset, this article explores healthy volunteers' exchange of contemporary legends about phase I clinical trials. In addition to potentially scaring the listener and communicating distrust in the medical community, these incredible stories help participants cope with perceived stigma and establish a gradient of risk of trial participation, creating potential boundaries to their participation in medical research. The article argues that contemporary legends play a productive role in society, shaping how people view themselves and others and influencing their decisions about risky activities. © 2015 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Coronary Tree of the Anatomical Machines of the Prince of Sansevero: The reality of a legend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele, Sara Di; Mirabelli, Francesca; Gregorio, Giovanni; Lama, Diana; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Galzerano, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    During the 18 th century in Naples, Raimondo di Sangro, Prince of Sansevero, gave definitive form to the family chapel, the so-called "Cappella San Severo". The chapel houses not only extraordinarily beautiful and spectacularly detailed statues but also two human skeletons known as anatomical machines ("Macchine Anatomiche") in the basement. These two skeletons, a man and a pregnant woman, are entirely surrounded by their own circulatory system, just as they were suddenly and mysteriously, fixed. Legend, believed as truth until few years ago, tells that Prince Raimondo had prepared and injected an unknown embalming substance in their blood vessels convicting them to eternal fixity. Most recent investigations, however, demonstrated that while the bones are authentic, the blood vessels are actually an extraordinary artifact, even though the perfect reproduction of the coronary vascular tree, including congenital malformations in detail, raises some doubts about the technique used by the Prince. The dreadful aspect of these two skeletons appears to be in strident contrast with the classic beauty of the statues, which glorifies and celebrates the ideal of morphology. Conversely, the two "Anatomical Machines", protagonists of legends and superstitions since centuries, represent a marvelous example of science and art.

  4. Optimization of soil stabilization with class C fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Previous Iowa DOT sponsored research has shown that some Class : C fly ashes are cementitious (because calcium is combined as calcium : aluminates) while other Class C ashes containing similar amounts of : elemental calcium are not (1). Fly ashes fro...

  5. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett [Park City, UT

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  6. Arthur Roger Thatcher's contributions to longevity research: A Reflexion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Robine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Arthur Roger Thatcher, CB, died in London on February 13, 2010, at 83 years of age. He was actively engaged in demographic research until his death. One of his last papers, The Compression of Deaths above the Mode, is published in this volume of Demographic Research (Thatcher et al., 2010. Roger signed the copyright agreement for the paper on January 24, just a few weeks before his death. Another contribution will appear in a forthcoming monograph entitled Supercentenarians (Maier et al., 2010. In this note, we, the co-authors of his Demographic Research paper, will briefly review his remarkable research accomplishments. Roger Thatcher was born in Birmingham in 1926. He worked for 26 years as a statistician in several national government offices. Later, he served as Registrar General for England and Wales, and was Director of the Office of Population Censuses and Survey (OPCS from 1978 to 1986. A short description of his professional career up to his retirement can be found in Population Trends (1986. He had a long-standing affinity for the history of actuarial sciences and statistics in England, taking particular interest in the early years of the Statistical Society of London, and helping to compile extracts from its 1830s Proceedings (see Boreham et al., 1988 and Rosenbaum, 2001. He published a historical abstract (1970 of British labour-force statistics back to 1886. Thatcher was also a scientist with broad interests, publishing papers in a wide range of fields, such as archaeology, mathematics (number theory, and cosmology (1972, 1973 and 1982.

  7. [Arthur Vick Prize 2017 of the German Society of Orthopaedic Rheumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bause, L; Niemeier, A; Krenn, V

    2018-03-01

    The German Society of Orthopaedic Rheumatology (DGORh) honored Prof. Dr. med. Veit Krenn (MVZ-ZHZMD-Trier) with the Arthur Vick Prize 2017. With this award, scientific results with high impact on the diagnosis, therapy and pathogenetic understanding of rheumatic diseases are honored. In cooperation with pathologists and colleagues from various clinical disciplines Prof. Dr. med. Veit Krenn developed several histopathologic scoring systems which contribute to the diagnosis and pathogenetic understanding of degenerative and rheumatic diseases. These scores include the synovitis score, the meniscal degeneration score, the classification of periprosthetic tissues (SLIM classification), the arthrofibrosis score, the particle score and the CD15 focus score. Of highest relevance for orthopedic rheumatology is the synovitis score which is a semiquantitative score for evaluating immunological and inflammatory changes of synovitis in a graded manner. Based on this score, it is possible to divide results into low-grade synovitis and high-grade synovitis: a synovitis score of 1-4 is called low-grade synovitis and occurs for example in association with osteoarthritis (OA), post-trauma, with meniscal lesions and hemochromatosis. A synovitis score of 5-9 is called high-grade synovitis, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, Lyme arthritis, postinfection and reactive arthritis as well as peripheral arthritis with Bechterew's disease (sensitivity 61.7%, specificity 96.1%). The first publication (2002) and an associated subsequent publication (2006) of the synovitis score has led to national and international acceptance of this score as the standard for histopathological assessment of synovitis. The synovitis score provides a diagnostic, standardized and reproducible histopathological evaluation method for joint diseases, particularly when this score is applied in the context with the joint pathology algorithm.

  8. Edward Albee and Arthur Kopit: Look Who’s Wearing the Pants!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra AGAFIȚEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is, on the one hand, to make the readers acquainted with the realities of the twentieth century American family, as perceived by the two American playwrights, and, on the other hand, to underline the unusual phenomena that have been brought by the changing dynamics of the family relationships. All the five plays under discussion—All Over, A Delicate Balance, The American Dream, The Sandbox by Edward Albee, and Oh Dad, Poor Dad, Mamma's Hung You in the Closet and I'm Feelin’ So Sad by Arthur Kopit — present situations in which the female characters seem to have become the leader, taking the place of the head of the family, of the pater familias. They stop acting like loving mothers and wives, they forget to take care of their families; instead, they lock away their hearts and assume the part of some sort of tyrant: they control everyone and everything in the house, their word being the equivalent of a rule. The female characters are endowed with masculine traits, whereas the male characters are emasculated, effeminate, deprived of any kind of power. The purpose of the paper is to demystify the myth of the ideal, perfect American family,to make the readers realize that the image that has been presented to the non-American public is, in the twentieth century, nothing but a disguise. Our goal is to display the image of the new American family hoping that, in doing so, we will succeed in making the readers realize the fact that human relationships, especially the ones within the family, need to be re-established on a deeper and more meaningful level.

  9. Destino e liberdade: Um ensaio sobre a teleologia latente na filosofia da arte de Arthur Danto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Pazetto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Em seus escritos analíticos, Arthur Danto critica as “filosofias substantivas da história”, que adotam uma atitude profética ao descrever acontecimentos passados ou presentes de acordo com um sentido histórico que pressupõe acontecimentos futuros. Contudo, em A transfiguração do lugar comum, o autor afirma claramente que busca uma definição de arte que não possa ser refutada por contraexemplos futuros. Nesse contexto, a Brillo Box de Andy Warhol aparece como a expressão da autoconsciência da arte que marca o final de sua história. No entanto, afirmar que a história da arte acabou pressupõe uma concepção substantiva da história, dirigida para um telos final que dá significado a seus estágios anteriores. Em outras palavras, contrariamente a suas pretensões analíticas anteriores, a filosofia da arte dantiana não consegue evitar previsões do futuro baseadas em uma noção teleológica da história. Em sua narrativa, tudo se passa como se a essência da arte exigisse certa história, e não como se a história construísse, em função de um imenso jogo de interesses e contingências, o conceito de arte.

  10. Phantoms in artists: the lost limbs of Blaise Cendrars,Arthur Rimbaud, and Paul Wittgenstein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien; Boller, François

    2014-01-01

    There have been an increasing number of reports of postamputation pain and problems linked to phantom limbs over recent years, particularly in relation to war-related amputations. These problems, which are often poorly understood and considered rather mysterious, are still relevant because they are difficult to treat medically. Functional neuroimaging techniques now enable us to better understand their pathophysiology and to consider new rehabilitation techniques. Phantom limbs have often been a source of inspiration to writers, particularly in the period following the First World War, which was responsible for thousands of amputees. Some artists have suffered from postamputation complications themselves and have expressed them through their artistic works. Blaise Cendrars (1887-1961), one of the greatest authors of the twentieth century, suffered from stump pain and phantom limb phenomena for almost half a century following the amputation of his right arm during the First World War. He suffered from these phenomena until the end of his life and his literary work and personal correspondence are peppered with references to them. Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891), one of the most famous poets in world literature, developed severe stump pain after his right leg was amputated due to a tumor. He survived for only six months after the procedure but left behind an account of the pain he experienced in correspondence to his family. The famous pianist Paul Wittgenstein (1887-1961), whose right arm was amputated during the First World War, became a famous left-handed concert pianist. The phantom movements of his right hand helped him to develop the dexterity of his left hand. The impact on the artistic life of these three men provides an original illustration of the various postamputation complications, specifically phantom limbs, stump pain, and moving phantom.

  11. Emerald ash borer biocontrol in ash saplings: The potential for early stage recovery of North American ash trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Leah S. Bauer; Roy G. Van Driesche

    2017-01-01

    In many parts of North America, ash (Fraxinus) stands have been reduced by the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) invasion to a few surviving mature trees, saplings, basal sprouts, and seedlings. Without a soil seed bank for Fraxinus spp., tree recovery will require survival and maturation of these...

  12. 10 Risk to Ash from Emerald Ash Borer: Can Biological Control Prevent the Loss of Ash Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of EAB, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002. As of February 2014, EAB had been detected in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, killing millions of ash ...

  13. Cementing Efficiency of Low Calcium Fly Ash in Fly Ash Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    T. D. Gunneswara Rao; Mudimby Andal

    2014-01-01

    Research on the utilization of fly ash will no longer refer the fly ash as a waste material of thermal power plants. Use of fly ash in concrete making, makes the concrete economical as well as durable. The fly ash is being added to the concrete in three ways namely, as partial replacement to cement, as partial replacement to fine aggregates and as admixture. Addition of fly ash to the concrete in any one of the form mentioned above, makes the concrete more workable and durable than the conven...

  14. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration.......The aim of the Ph.D. work was to develop the electrodialytic remediation method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. The work was focused on two types of fly ashes: fly ashes from wood combustion and fly ashes from municipal solid waste incineration....

  15. Effect of leachate solutions from fly ash bottom ash on groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopsick, D.A.; Angino, E.E.

    1981-12-01

    Leaching experiments on fly ash and bottom ash for Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb indicated a potential for contamination of ground- and surface-water supplies. Due to the variability in chemical composition of coals, it is difficult to make generalizations concerning the chemistry of leachate solutions from the ashes of the coals. A decrease in concentration with time of leaching was observed for all elements, except for Ca which was released at a constant rate. Fly ash from a Missouri coal generated a leachate enriched in Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Cd, reflective of the high Pb-Zn mineralization present in the surrounding area. With a pH of 3.0 this ash has the greatest potential for groundwater contamination. Conversely, leachates from Wyoming fly and bottom ashes exhibited low trace-metal concentrations. These same solutions were high in K, Na, Ca and Mg, and also showed strong pozzolanic behaviour, which will reduce the leachability of these ashes. In most instances, fly and bottom ash from Kentucky and Illinois coals yielded leachates intermediate in elemental composition to leachates of Missouri and Wyoming coal ashes. Leaching experiments indicate that it is not valid to predict the chemistry of leachates from fly and bottom ash based solely on the chemical composition of the ash. (16 refs.)

  16. Flight potential of the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Robin A.J. Taylor; Robert A. Haack

    2004-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive pest of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. Native to several Asian countries, EAB was discovered in six southeastern Michigan counties and southwestern Ontario in 2002. EAB presumably emerged from infested solid wood...

  17. Biology of emerald ash borer parasitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Jian J. Duan; Jonathan P. Lelito; Houping Liu; Juli R. Gould

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle introduced from China (Bray et al., 2011), was identified as the cause of ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002; Federal Register, 2003; Cappaert et al., 2005)....

  18. Emerald ash borer biology and invasion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Yuri Baranchikov; Leah S. Bauer; Therese M. Poland

    2015-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to eastern Asia and is primarily a pest of ash (Fraxinus) trees (Fig. 1). Established populations of EAB were first detected in the United States and Canada in 2002 (Haack et al., 2002), and based on a dendrochronology study by Siegert...

  19. Ash Leachate Can Reduce Surface Erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    George J. Holcomb; Philip B. Durgin

    1979-01-01

    In laboratory analyses of the Larabee soil from north-western California, ash leachate flocculated the clay fractions. As a result, the soil quickly settled out of suspension. To test the hypothesis that field plots on disturbed areas treated with ash leachate would be more resistant to erosion than nontreated plots, a study was done in July and August 1978, on two...

  20. Coal combustion ashes: A radioactive Waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michetti, F.P.; Tocci, M.

    1992-01-01

    The radioactive substances naturally hold in fossil fuels, such as Uranium and Thorium, after the combustion, are subjected to an increase of concentration in the residual combustion products as flying ashes or as firebox ashes. A significant percentage of the waste should be classified as radioactive waste, while the political strategies seems to be setted to declassify it as non-radioactive waste. (Author)

  1. Wet physical separation of MSWI bottom ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muchova, L.

    2010-01-01

    Bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) has high potential for the recovery of valuable secondary materials. For example, the MSWI bottom ash produced by the incinerator at Amsterdam contains materials such as non-ferrous metals (2.3%), ferrous metals (8-13%), gold (0.4 ppm),

  2. Emerald ash borer survival in firewood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack; Toby R. Petrice

    2005-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to Asia and was first discovered in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. As of October 2004, EAB was only found to breed in ash (Fraxinus) trees in North America. EAB is spreading naturally through adult flight as well as artificially through...

  3. Bottom ash test section evaluation Erwinville, LA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    Bottom ash is a by-product of the energy industry and the residual of burning coal in a kiln : firing process. Bottom ash is black and the consistency of coarse sand with gravel clinker : traces. The product is used in other states as embankment mate...

  4. AsH3 ultraviolet photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Freeman, L A; Schroeder, W P; Wittig, C

    2009-03-12

    High-n Rydberg time-of-flight spectroscopy has been used to study the 193.3 nm photolysis of AsH(3). The center-of-mass translational energy distribution for the 1-photon process, AsH(3) + h nu --> AsH(2) + H, P(E(c.m.)), indicates that AsH(2) internal excitation accounts for approximately 64% of the available energy [i.e., h nu - D(0)(H(2)As - H)]. Secondary AsH(2) photodissociation also takes place. Analyses of superimposed structure atop the broad P(E(c.m.)) distribution suggest that AsH(2) is formed with significant a-axis rotation as well as bending excitation. Comparison of the results obtained with AsH(3) versus those of the lighter group-V hydrides (NH(3), PH(3)) lends support to the proposed mechanisms. Of the group-V hydrides, AsH(3) lies intermediate between the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes, requiring high-level electronic structure theory.

  5. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...

  6. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered during biomass combustion. Ash deposition adversely influences the boiler efficiency, may corrode heat transfer surfaces, and may even completely block flue gas channels in severe cases, causing expensive unscheduled boiler shutdown...

  7. Coal Bottom Ash for Portland Cement Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Argiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of industrialization growth, the amount of coal power plant wastes has increased very rapidly. Particularly, the disposal of coal bottom ash (CBA is becoming an increasing concern for many countries because of the increasing volume generated, the costs of operating landfill sites, and its potential hazardous effects. Therefore, new applications of coal bottom ash (CBA have become an interesting alternative to disposal. For instance, it could be used as a Portland cement constituent leading to more sustainable cement production by lowering energy consumption and raw material extracted from quarries. Coal fly and bottom ashes are formed together in the same boiler; however, the size and shape of these ashes are very different, and hence their effect on the chemical composition as well as on the mineralogical phases must be studied. Coal bottom ash was ground. Later, both ashes were compared from a physical, mechanical, and chemical point of view to evaluate the potential use of coal bottom ash as a new Portland cement constituent. Both ashes, produced by the same electrical power plant, generally present similar chemical composition and compressive strength and contribute to the refill of mortar capillary pores with the reaction products leading to a redistribution of the pore size.

  8. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    disposal or to minimize the environmental impact. One of the approaches is the conversion of fly ash to zeolites, which have wide applications in ion exchange, as mole- cular sieves, catalysts, and adsorbents (Breck 1974). The present study is concerned with the synthesis of zeolite from coal fly ash and its characterization ...

  9. Column leaching from biomass combustion ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maresca, Alberto; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of biomass combustion ashes for forest soil liming and fertilizing has been addressed in literature. Though, a deep understanding of the ash chemical composition and leaching behavior is necessary to predict potential benefits and environmental risks related to this practice...

  10. Evaluation of atomic absorption Spectrophotometry (ashing, non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three commonly used techniques, namely atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS-Ashing and AAS-Non Ashing) and titrimetry (potassium permanganate titration) have been evaluated in this study to determine the calcium content in six food samples whose calcium levels ranged from 0 to more than 250mg/100g ...

  11. Mazama ash in the northeastern pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C H; Kulm, L D; Carlson, P R; Duncan, J R

    1968-07-05

    Volcanic glass in marine sediments off Oregon and Washington correlates with continental deposits of Mount Mazama ash by stratigraphic position, refractive index, and radiocarbon dating. Ash deposited in the abyssal regions by turbidity currents is used for tracing of the dispersal routes of postglacial sediments and for evaluation of marine sedimentary processes.

  12. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  13. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  14. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  15. Dr Arthur Wakefield on Mount Everest in 1922: "this has not been by any manner of means a picnic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Ronald

    2003-08-01

    In 1922 Dr Arthur Wakefield, a general practitioner from Cumbria, reached the North Col of Mt Everest at 23,000 feet as a member of the first British team to attempt the summit. As well as being a climber, he provided medical care to his comrades, who included George Leigh Mallory and George Finch. Yet, in their accounts of the expedition, several climbers portrayed him as a nervous old man and a "complete passenger". However, his letters home and a small daily diary suggest he was a wise and caring physician. His motivation for joining this expedition at the age of 46 was somewhat different from that of his companions.

  16. Causes of unity and disunity in Psychology and Behaviorism: An encounter with Arthur W. Staats' Psychological Behaviorism

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Virués-Ortega

    2005-01-01

    Neste estudo te??rico apresenta-se a s??ntese de v??rias entrevistas com Arthur W. Staats. Durante os ??ltimos cinquenta anos A. W. Staats contribuiu de modo relevante para a psicologia do desenvolvimento, psicologia da aprendizagem, comportamento emocional, linguagem, teoria comportamental, e unifica????o te??rica da Psicologia, entre outras ??reas. A sua proposta te??rica, o comportamentalismo psicol??gico, apresenta-se como um marco n??o ecl??tico de unifica????o entre compo...

  17. Dal mondo dell’arte al regno delle ombre (e ritorno. Arthur Danto, Maya Lin e la bellezza interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Fimiani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthur Danto asserts that Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington embodies the rhetoric paradigm of internal beauty’s meaning. However, the relationship to the Kant’s pulchritudo adhaerens is not an easy one: Danto’s recalls against the self-referent formalism of Greenberg’s Modernism and his tacit issues about the environmental non-monumentality of Richard Serra’s Minimalism, are, most importantly, haunted by the unquestioned spectral logic of the image embodiment. The beholders’ reflecting shape on the funeral Wall is, finally, both a pathetic index and a medial incarnation (Verkörperung of the underworld.

  18. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  19. Bookshelf (Early Quantum Electrodynamics - A Source Book, by Arthur I. Miller)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Many people these days would say that quantum electrodynamics, the quantum picture of electromagnetic radiation, dates from 1947-8 with the work of Sin-itoro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger and Richard Feynman. However this was the modern reformulation of a theory whose genesis was Paul Dirac's 1927 work on the quantization of radiation and was subsequently, and painfully, pieced together in the 1930s. Until the Second World War, the science of quantum electrodynamics advanced steadily, driven for the most part by the intellects which had produced modern quantum mechanics - notably Dirac, Heisenberg and Pauli. After Dirac's 1928 relativistic theory of the electron, Heisenberg and Pauli went on to cast an initial quantum formalism for the interaction between radiation and electrons. During this time many intellectual hurdles had to be crossed - the negative energy states predicted by Dirac's equation and their final identification as antimatter electrons (positrons), the whole problem of explaining quantum force mechanisms as particle exchanges, Fermi's explanation of beta decay, and Yukawa's explanation of the nuclear force. Heisenberg's invention of the S-matrix and his ideas on the transmission of nuclear forces through exchange mechanisms revolutionized both our picture of the quantum world. These problems were not easy - several times during the 1920s even these intellects almost despaired. A shadow across the subject was the continual problem of troublesome infinities in mass terms and elsewhere. It was not until the ordered renormalization recipes of the immediate post-war period that these infinities were finally hidden from sight. Science historian Arthur Miller traces these developments in the first half of the book, and signals how these early developments were eventually to dovetail with the exciting new developments of the late 1940s. Supplementing the survey are eleven fascinating landmark papers by Heisenberg, Dirac, Weisskopf

  20. Processed bottom ash for replacing fine aggregate in making high-volume fly ash concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bottom ash is a coal plant by-product that is abundant and underutilized. There is the potential use of bottom ash as a fine aggregate replacement in concrete mixtures; however, the problems of water absorption and uniformity of quality of the material need to be overcome first. In this study, bottom ash was treated by sieve separation and pounding to smaller particle size for use as a sand substitute. The physical and chemical characteristics of bottom ash were tested after treatment including water absorption, sieve analysis, and fineness modulus. Highvolume fly ash (HVFA mortar specimens were made and the compressive strength and flowability test using bottom ash after treatment are compared with that of the sand specimen. Low water to cementitious ratio was used to ensure higher strength from the cementitious paste and superplasticizer demand was determined for each treatment. The result showed that bottom ash can be used as fine aggregate replacement material. Sieve separation of the bottom ash could produce 75% of the compressive strength compared with the control sand specimen, whereas pounded bottom ash could have up to 96% of the compressive strength of the control specimen. A 28-day compressive strength of 45 MPa was achievable with 100% replacement of fine aggregate with bottom ash.

  1. Classification of acid sulphate soils of Finland according to Soil taxonomy and the FAO/Unesco legend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. YLI-HALLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to place acid sulphate soils (a.s. soils of Finland in an international context, five pedons from cultivated a.s. soils from Liminka, Ylistaro and Laitila on the western coast of Finland were analyzed and classified according to Soil Taxonomy and the revised legend of the FAO/Unesco Soil Map of the World. Three of the pedons (Liminka 1 and 2, Laitila 1 had sulfuric horizons within 50 cm of soil surface and qualify as Typic Sulfaquepts. One pedon (Ylistaro had a sulfuric horizon at the depth of 100-150 cm and was classified as a Sulfic Cryaquept. The fifth pedon (Laitila 2 did not have either a sulfuric horizon or sulfidic materials, but it had a pH

  2. Native Legends in Juan María Gutiérrez and Adolfo Berro´s Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ortiz Gambetta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to consider how Caicobé and Liropeya´s legends had fictionalized in Adolfo Berro´s “Yandubayú y Liropeya (año de 1574” (1840 and Juan M. Gutiérrez´s “Caicobé” and “Irupeya” (1843. These pieces are linked to other poems, plays and novels from Argentina and Uruguay. All of its was based on the work Argentina y conquista del Río de la Plata (1602 by M. del Barco Centenera and use its ethnographic topics to construct the River Plate identity. These works make up the imagery of the “mythology of absence” in relation to the Charruas and Guarani people, modeller speeches of Buenos Aires and oriental fiction.

  3. The climatic impact of supervolcanic ash blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Morgan T.; Sparks, R.S.J. [University of Bristol, Department of Earth Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom); Valdes, Paul J. [University of Bristol, School of Geographical Sciences, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Supervolcanoes are large caldera systems that can expel vast quantities of ash, volcanic gases in a single eruption, far larger than any recorded in recent history. These super-eruptions have been suggested as possible catalysts for long-term climate change and may be responsible for bottlenecks in human and animal populations. Here, we consider the previously neglected climatic effects of a continent-sized ash deposit with a high albedo and show that a decadal climate forcing is expected. We use a coupled atmosphere-ocean General Circulation Model (GCM) to simulate the effect of an ash blanket from Yellowstone volcano, USA, covering much of North America. Reflectivity measurements of dry volcanic ash show albedo values as high as snow, implying that the effects of an ash blanket would be severe. The modeling results indicate major disturbances to the climate, particularly to oscillatory patterns such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Atmospheric disruptions would continue for decades after the eruption due to extended ash blanket longevity. The climatic response to an ash blanket is not significant enough to investigate a change to stadial periods at present day boundary conditions, though this is one of several impacts associated with a super-eruption which may induce long-term climatic change. (orig.)

  4. McArthur River underground exploration program: report of the joint Federal-Provincial panel on uranium mining developments in Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A report of the joint federal-provincial panel on uranium mining developments in northern Saskatchewan, on the McArthur River underground exploration program. The proposal to construct the surface and underground facilities required for the exploration and delineation of the McArthur River ore body, and any necessary additional infrastructure has been examined and public hearings have been held. The panel recommends that the underground exploration program as described by Cameco in its Environmental Impact Statement, and as clarified in its written and oral responses to the panel, be allowed to proceed under the conditions described within the report

  5. [Measuring subjective social status in health research with a German version of the MacArthur Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoebel, Jens; Müters, S; Kuntz, B; Lange, C; Lampert, T

    2015-07-01

    In health research, socio-economic status (SES) is traditionally assessed using objective indicators (education, occupation, income). For a couple of years, there has been a growing body of studies that additionally assess the subjective social status (SSS) of respondents, mostly using the MacArthur Scale. The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of a German-language version of this instrument and to investigate whether SSS is associated with health over and above objective SES. Analyses were based on data from a population-based pilot study carried out within the 'German Health Update' (GEDA) study conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (n = 1,571; age: 18-79 years). SSS was measured with the MacArthur scale asking respondents to place themselves on a 10-rung "social ladder". The strongest correlations to SSS were found with measures of similar constructs such as a multidimensional index of objective SES, income level, occupational position and educational attainment (r = 0.32-0.60; p social support, mental well-being, depressiveness, and body-mass-index (r = - 0.29-0.30; p social disadvantage may have health implications beyond the impact of objective SES.

  6. NEW TECHNOLOGY OF ASH AND SLAG CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVLENKO T. M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Purpose. Development of scientific-technical bases of manufacture and application of concrete on the basis of ash and slag mixes of thermal power plants. Methods. It is proposed a new technology of preparation of ash and slag concrete mixes. First the ash and slag mix is dispersed through the sieve with meshes 5 mm in a fine-grained fraction and slag. Then, in accordance with the composition of the concrete, obtained fine-grained fraction, slag, cement and tempering water are separately dosed into the mixer. Results. It is proven the high efficiency of the proposed technology of manufacture of ash and slag concretes. It is established that this technological solution allows to increase the strength of concrete by 20...30%, and in the preparation of full-strength concrete to reduce the cement consumption by 15...20%. Scientific novelty. It is developed the new technology of ash and slag mixes application. The concrete mix on the basis of ash and slag mix has an optimal particle size distribution, which ensures the best compaction and, accordingly, the greatest strength of ash and slag concrete with the given cement consumption. Practical significance. The research results promote the mass application of ash and slag mixes of thermal power plants in construction, obtaining of products from the proposed concretes of low cost with high physical-mechanical properties. Conclusion. It is proven the high efficiency of the proposed technology of production of ash and slag concretes. It is established that this technological solution allows increasing concrete strength, and obtaining full-strength concrete to reduce cement consumption. The extensive application of such concrete in construction makes it possible to solve the problem of aggregates for concrete, promotes recycling of TPP waste and consequently the protection of the environment.

  7. Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)

  8. Utilization of mixed pond ash in integrated steel plant for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    response. Keywords. Fly ash; integrated steel plant; fly ash bricks; ash disposal; building materials. 1. Introduction. The problem of collection and disposal of the process residues such as the fly ash (FA) and sludges from the various industrial operations has become one of the most potent environmental problems facing the ...

  9. Hypocotyl derived in vitro regeneration of pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micah E. Stevens; Paula M. Pijut

    2012-01-01

    Pumpkin ash (Fraxinus profunda (Bush) Bush) is at risk for extirpation by an exotic insect, the emerald ash borer (EAB). Pumpkin ash is limited to wetland areas of the Eastern United States, and has been listed as an endangered species because of EAB activity. Pumpkin ash provides many benefits to the ecosystem, and its wood is used in the...

  10. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Damoe, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    was investigated with the aim of enabling reuse of the ashes. The ashes originated from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. A series of laboratory scale electrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted with each ash. The initial Cd...

  11. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g....../kg for zinc, 2,4 g/kg for lead, 1,7 g/kg for iron, and 7,9 g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91 mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash....

  12. Fusibility and sintering characteristics of ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ots, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    The temperature characteristics of ash fusibility are studied for a wide range of bituminous and brown coals, lignites, and shales with ratios R B/A of their alkaline and acid components between 0.03 and 4. Acritical value of R B/A is found at which the fusion temperatures are minimal. The sintering properties of the ashes are determined by measuring the force required to fracture a cylindrical sample. It is found that the strength of the samples increases sharply at certain temperatures. The alkali metal content of the ashes has a strong effect on their sintering characteristics.

  13. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied ...

  14. Penggunaan Bottom Ash Sebagai Pengganti Agregat Halus Pada Mortar Hvfa

    OpenAIRE

    Sulistio, Aldi Vincent; Wahjudi, Samuel; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Antoni, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Bottom ash adalah material limbah PLTU yang melimpah dan kurang dimanfaatkan. Terdapat potensi pemanfaatan bottom ash sebagai agregat halus dalam campuran beton. Dalam penelitian ini, bottom ash diberi treatment ayak dan tumbuk untuk digunakan sebagai pengganti pasir dalam campuran beton. Hal pertama yang dilakukan adalah pengujian karateristik fisik dan kimiawi dari bottom ash. Dilakukan pengujian water content, sieve analysis, fineness modulus, dan berat isi dari pasir dan bottom ash yang d...

  15. Ash Decline Assessment in Emerald Ash Borer Infested Natural Forests Using High Spatial Resolution Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Murfitt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire infects and eventually kills endemic ash trees and is currently spreading across the Great Lakes region of North America. The need for early detection of EAB infestation is critical to managing the spread of this pest. Using WorldView-2 (WV2 imagery, the goal of this study was to establish a remote sensing-based method for mapping ash trees undergoing various infestation stages. Based on field data collected in Southeastern Ontario, Canada, an ash health score with an interval scale ranging from 0 to 10 was established and further related to multiple spectral indices. The WV2 image was segmented using multi-band watershed and multiresolution algorithms to identify individual tree crowns, with watershed achieving higher segmentation accuracy. Ash trees were classified using the random forest classifier, resulting in a user’s accuracy of 67.6% and a producer’s accuracy of 71.4% when watershed segmentation was utilized. The best ash health score-spectral index model was then applied to the ash tree crowns to map the ash health for the entire area. The ash health prediction map, with an overall accuracy of 70%, suggests that remote sensing has potential to provide a semi-automated and large-scale monitoring of EAB infestation.

  16. Biotoxicity evaluation of fly ash and bottom ash from different municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jing-Dong; Wey, Ming-Yen; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2009-08-30

    Different types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly and bottom ash were extracted by TCLP and PBET procedures. The biotoxicity of the leachate of fly ash and bottom ash was evaluated by Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. The results indicate the following: (1) The optimal solid/liquid ratio was 1:100 for PBET extraction because it had the highest Pb and Cu extractable mass from MSWI fly ash. (2) The extractable metal mass from both fly ash and bottom ash by PBET procedure was significantly higher than that by TCLP procedure. (3) The metal concentrations of fly ash leachate from a fluidized bed incinerator was lower than that from mass-burning and mass-burning combined with rotary kiln incinerator. (4) The TCLP and PBET leachate from all MSWI fly ash samples showed biotoxicity. Even though bottom ash is regarded as a non-hazardous material, its TCLP and PBET leachate also showed biotoxicity. The pH significantly influenced the biotoxicity of leachate.

  17. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  18. Volcanic Ash Advisory Database, 1983-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volcanic ash is a significant hazard to aviation and can also affect global climate patterns. To ensure safe navigation and monitor possible climatic impact, the...

  19. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  20. Basic soil benefits from ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martens, D.C.; Plank, C.O.

    1970-01-01

    The beneficial effects of fly ash application shown herein are expected to encourage future disposal of the material in agricultural soils. It is foreseen, however, that fly ash disposal in agricultural soils would be unsuccessful if adverse effects on crop production result from its misuse. It seems evident, therefore, that quality control measures will be required to insure proper disposal of the material in agricultural soils. It will be necessary to consider differences in chemical properties of various samples of fly ash and in chemical reactions of samples of fly ash and soils. Differences in tolerances of plants to soluble salt damage and to specific nutrient deficiencies and toxicities will also have to be taken into account. 9 tables.

  1. Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different fly ashes. Influence of heavy metal speciation in the ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2003-01-01

    -moval efficiencies were observed, especially for Pb and Zn. Cd, the sole heavy metal of environmental concern in the wood ash, was found more tightly bonded in this ash than in the two MSWI ashes. It was suggested that complex Cd-silicates are likely phases in the wood ash whereas more soluble, condensed phases......Electrodialytic Remediation has recently been suggested as a potential method for removal of heavy metals from fly ashes. In this work electrodialytic remediation of three different fly ashes, i.e. two municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes and one wood combustion fly ash was studied...... in lab scale, and the results were discussed in relation to the expected heavy metal speciation in the ashes. In initial leaching experiments the pH-dependent desorption characteristics of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu were analogous in the two MSWI ashes, and thus it was expected...

  2. Ash composition of oils of West Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakirova, S.F.; Aleshin, G.N.; Kalinin, S.K.; Kotova, A.V.; Nadirov, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of studying the distribution of trace elements in oils of new fields of West Kazakhstan. It is indicated that for the majority of oils studied, the concentration of trace elements does not depend on the ash content of oils. For resinous asphaltenes and highly sulfur oils of the Buzachi region, there is an increase in the content of iron, vanadium, nickel with a rise in ash content of oils. This is possibly associated with their secondary enrichment with trace elements.

  3. Leaching of saltstones containing fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.W.; Roy, D.M.; Langton, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two types of fly ash were incorporated in saltstones designed for potential encapsulation of Savannah River Plant low level defense waste. These fly ashes have some cementitious properties while at the same time their presence in substitution for cement slows early hydration. Class C fly ash has a high calcium content and is considered cementitious; Class F fly ash has a low calcium content and is not classified as cementitious. Leach tests were performed and physical properties were measured for saltstones containing each class, to see the differences in the effect of the fly ashes. The four waste ions nitrate, nitrite, sodium and sulfate were shown to leach by diffusion. Effective diffusivities were determined for these ions. Data for nitrate, the most important species from the environmental point of view, are shown in Table A. Saltstones made with Class C fly ash have substantially lower leach rates than those made with Class F fly ash. The leach rates, and therefore the square roots of the effective diffusivities, have been found to be proportional to the pore surface area per unit volume (or the ratio of pore volume to pore radius), to the fraction of waste containing solution, and to the inverse of the fraction of calcium in the saltstone. Rates and diffusivities are not proportional to the water to cement ratio, because this number depends on whether the fly ash is counted as cementitious, as in Class C cement, or not cementitious, as in Class F cement. In fact the relatively small amount of calcium in Class F cement contributes to the cementitious properties overall, though not so much as Class C cement. 4 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Aggregation of volcanic ash in explosive eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, J. W.; Dufek, J.

    2009-12-01

    We present the result of a recent experimental and numerical investigation of ash aggregation in volcanic plumes. Eruption dynamics are sensitive to microphysical processes, like ash aggregation, yet are difficult to parameterize based on dynamics simulations of whole eruption columns due to the lack of sufficient resolution. Here we present the results of experiments that develop a probabilistic relationship for ash aggregation based on impact velocity and atmospheric conditions (water vapor and atmospheric pressure). The probabilistic relationship can be integrated, in conjunction with a reconstructed velocity distribution of the ash in the column, and then can be readily incorporated in large-scale simulations of eruption column behavior. We also conduct detailed Eulerian-Lagrangian simulations at the scale of our experiment as a test of the ash aggregation relationship. The physical experiment was carried out in a contained tank designed to allow for the control of ‘atmospheric’ conditions. The tank can be depressurized as needed, using the gas inlet and the attached vacuum pump, and the ambient humidity can be altered by adjusting the gas mixture at the inlet. Image data is recorded with a high speed camera and post-processed to determine the number of collisions, energy of collisions and probability of aggregation. We will present the results of aggregation probability and the effects of incorporating these results into a multiphase model of a three-dimensional eruption column, where the effects of ash aggregation are especially important in regions of high shear and high granular temperature.

  5. Use of wood ash for road stabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagerkvist, A.; Lind, B.

    2009-01-01

    Due to warmer winters in Sweden, the bearing capacity of forestry roads has become increasingly problematic in recent years. Road stabilization is needed in order to get timber out from the forests. This usually involves the addition of cement to the road body. However, wood ash is a possible substitute for cement because it has similar properties. Using wood ash has the added advantage of saving landfill space. This paper presented an ongoing laboratory study on leaching and mechanical stability, as well as frost-sensitivity using a 30 per cent ash addition to natural soils for reinforcing a forestry road near Timra in central Sweden. The road was being monitored with regard to environmental impact and mechanical properties. The paper discussed the potential of biofuel ashes and the increasing need to reinforce infrastructure due to climate change. The environmental impact from ash use in road constructions was then addressed. It was concluded that the application of ash in road construction would help to strengthen forest roads, make them more resistant to climatic change and render them accessible year-round. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  7. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its

  8. Warm Pants and Wild Places: Domestic Anxieties in Malory’s Morte D’Arthur and T. H. White’s The Once and Future King

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCausland, Elly

    2017-01-01

    Thomas Malory’s 'Morte D’Arthur' depicts the centripetal activities of questing knights as they continually return to the safety of the court following trials in the forest or battlefield, but posits the domestic spaces of Camelot as equally perilous, associated with the ultimate collapse of the ...

  9. Chemistry of fly ash and cyclone ash leachate from waste materials and effects of ash leachates on bacterial growth, nitrogen-transformation activity, and metal accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Mio; Kawahata, Hodaka; Gupta, Lallan P; Itouga, Misao; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Ohta, Hidekazu; Komai, Takeshi; Ono, Yoshiro

    2009-06-15

    The effects of waste ash leachates on soil microorganism were evaluated along with a chemical characterization of ash leachates. Thirty fly ash samples and cyclone ash samples obtained from the incineration of municipal solid waste, plastic waste, and construction waste were used. Twenty-one and 22 samples inhibited N transformation activity of soil microorganism and growth of Bacillus subtilis, respectively. On the other hand, 11 and 18 samples stimulated bacterial activity and growth, respectively, at low concentrations. Generally, cyclone ash contained a smaller amount of toxic metals than fly ash. Our results suggest that cyclone ash can be further studied for reuse, perhaps as a soil amendment. Pb was found to be highly accumulated in B. subtilis cells, and should be carefully monitored when waste ash is reused in the environment.

  10. Amasya Taş Kesilme Efsaneleri ve Motifleri Üzerine On Amasya Petrifaction Legends and Motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğrul BALABAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of topics of the the type of legends brings with thedifficulity of making a common definition. Variety of topics exceptfolklore interest many different disciplines. Each field’s definition oflegend in accordance with its own view, thought and perceptionresulted in seeing different dimensions. For this reason, descriptions oflegend can be made by sequencing the significant characteristics of thespecies. Because, legend is more than one thing at the same time.Narratives express thousands of years of experience that reason ofreflections of past cultural experiences to present belief and especiallythey supplied from the mythological legends and named theaforementioned fed and formation of the shape of the change in theconversion. In this way, the stages in the adventure of life of thecommunity to which they belong and they reflect the effects of thevalues they have today.In this study, to present 19 petrifaction which is located in theprovince of Amasya and the public recognition of the trail around theproperty that composed of several practices is aimed. Fixing legendsgenerally located outside of farmland and steep areas. There stonesexhibit topographical differences in the form of requiring explanation onthe field. For this reason, they are tried to mean by analogy most of thetime. Petrifaction legends tell the strain in a stone, rock or mountainformation, and they explained the origin. In this sense, the function ofreporting and disclosure are fulfilled.In the study, when exhausted remedies to get rid of an unwantedsituation of 19 petrifaction legends that compiled by us in the provinceof Amasya, it is mentioned converting to stone rather than surrender tothe enemy or downgrade unwanted wishing to get rid of the unwantedsituation status. Efsane türünün konu zenginliği beraberinde ortak bir tanım yapma güçlüğünü de getirir. Konularının çeşitliliği halkbilimi dışında pek çok farklı disiplinin ilgisini çeker. Her

  11. Environmental effects of ash application in forest ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette

    of ashes being produced and the export of nutrients from the forests. This PhD project aims at investigating how ash application in forest ecosystems affects soil and soil solution properties and whether ash application can be used in a Danish context without environmental harm but with positive effects...... rate, ash application can have negative impact on the soil capacity to store C. This PhD study shows that ash application can be used in a Danish context without environmental harm. To ensure the practice to be more widespread than it is today, measures can be made to improve the Danish legislation...... defining the rules for ash application. Based on my findings, I suggest that the dose of ash applied is increased to 6 Mg ha-1 instead of 3 Mg ha-1, while at the same time reducing the initial Cd concentration in the ash and/or prohibiting the use of fly ashes alone....

  12. Epidemiology and public health in 1906 England: Arthur Newsholme's methodological innovation to study breastfeeding and fatal diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo; Rubenstein, Beth; Victora, Cesar G

    2013-07-01

    In 1906 Arthur Newsholme linked artificial feeding and fatal diarrhea in infants aged one year and younger on the basis of two independent sources of information: mortality registration and a three-year (1903-1905) census of infants from Brighton, United Kingdom. Artificial feeding was more common in the infants who had died (89.3%) than in those in the survey (22.3%). However, boldly assuming the two data sources were nested, Newsholme computed the risks of fatal diarrhea: these were 48 times greater for infants fed fresh cow's milk and 94 times greater for those fed condensed milk than for infants who were exclusively breastfed. This mode of computing risks and risk ratios before the invention of the cohort study design was more innovative than was the usual investigation techniques of his contemporary epidemiologists. Newsholme's conclusions were consistent with the current knowledge that breastfeeding protects against fatal diarrhea.

  13. Influence of Fly Ash, Bottom Ash, and Light Expanded Clay Aggregate on Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Invention of new methods in strengthening concrete is under work for decades. Developing countries like India use the extensive reinforced construction works materials such as fly ash and bottom ash and other ingredients in RCC construction. In the construction industry, major attention has been devoted to the use of fly ash and bottom ash as cement and fine aggregate replacements. In addition, light expanded clay aggregate has been introduced instead of coarse aggregate to make concrete have light weight. This paper presents the results of a real-time work carried out to form light weight concrete made with fly ash, bottom ash, and light expanded clay aggregate as mineral admixtures. Experimental investigation on concrete mix M20 is done by replacement of cement with fly ash, fine aggregate with bottom ash, and coarse aggregate with light expanded clay aggregate at the rates of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% in each mix and their compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete were discussed for 7, 28, and 56 days and flexural strength has been discussed for 7, 28, and 56 days depending on the optimum dosage of replacement in compressive strength and split tensile strength of concrete.

  14. Density and morphology studies on bottom ash and fly ash geopolymer brick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, Laila Mardiah; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Ming, Liew Yun; Hussin, Kamarudin

    2017-04-01

    This paper studies the finding density and morphology analysis of geopolymer bricks using bottom ash and fly ash as a geopolymer raw material. The study has been conducted to produce bottom ash and fly ash geopolymer bricks by varying the ratio of fly ash/bottom ash, ratio solid/liquid and ratio sodium silicate (Na2SiO3)/ sodium hydroxide (NaOH) in the mix design. The compressive strength range between 3.8-4.5 Mpa was obtained in theprevious study [9]. The density and morphology analysis are done based on the optimum ratio selected from bottom ash/fly ash, solid/liquidand Na2SiO3/NaOH which is 1:2, 2.0 and 4.0 respectively for non-loading application brick. The morphology analysis of the bricks is closely related to the density recorded. The highest density shows the highest value of compressive strength and a denser microstructure of morphology.

  15. Differential response in foliar chemistry of three ash species to emerald ash borer adult feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Justin G.A. Whitehill; Pierluigi Bonello; Therese M. Poland

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire; Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic wood-boring beetle that has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources since its discovery in Michigan and Ontario in 2002. In this study, we investigated the phytochemical responses of the three most common North...

  16. High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

    2011-08-01

    Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) symptoms in infested areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen S. Knight; Britton P. Flash; Rachel H. Kappler; Joel A. Throckmorton; Bernadette Grafton; Charles E. Flower

    2014-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (A. planipennis) (EAB) has had a devastating effect on ash (Fraxinus) species since its introduction to North America and has resulted in altered ecological processes across the area of infestation. Monitoring is an important tool for understanding and managing the impact of this threat, and the use of common...

  18. Laboratory bioassay of emerald ash borer adults with a Bacillus thuringiensis formulation sprayed on ash leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leah S. Bauer; Deborah L. Miller; Diana. Londono

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), a buprestid native to Asia that feeds on ash trees (Fraxinus spp.), was discovered in southeast Michigan and nearby Ontario in 2002. It apparently arrived in the 1990's via infested solid-wood packing materials from China. As of 2011, areas considered generally infested with...

  19. The role of biocontrol of emerald ash borer in protecting ash regeneration after invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian J. Duan; Roy G. Van Driesche; Leah S. Bauer; Richard Reardon; Juli Gould; Joseph S. Elkinton

    2017-01-01

    Long-term monitoring in Michigan and several northeastern states has documented increasing parasitism and reduced EAB attack rates. Ash regeneration is currently benefiting from releases of introduced parasitoids, which now cause 20-80% parasitism of EAB larvae in ash saplings (1-2 inch dia.) and young trees (5-8 inch dia.).

  20. How did Popular Science Become a Legend? On the linguistic communication of “Science Culture” book series in 1990s Taiwan from the approach of text analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruey-Lin Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonwealth Publishing Co. in Taiwan has published a series of popular science books, named Science Culture, since 1991. This series has achieved great success in publication and in marketing and up to the present has published over 164 volumes and sold out a great number of hard copies. It is well regarded as a publication legend. How did it succeed? What strategies has it adopted to become such a legend? This paper shows that the series’ success depends on two strategies: exciting subjects and strengthening the first impression. This research applies three related tactics or techniques publishing scientific biographies, literary rhetoric, and using romanticizing titles to realize two strategies of the series. This paper reveals these strategies and techniques by investigating the writing style of books in the series, comparing the titles of the series with other titles of popular science books before 1990, and conducting interviews with the editors of that series.

  1. Fresh Bottom Ash Characteristics Dependence on Fractional Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgita Seniūnaitė; Saulius Vasarevičius

    2017-01-01

    Waste incineration process generates two main by-products streams: fly ash and bottom ash. Bottom ash is composed of a variety of oxides, heavy metals and salts. Chemical materials distributed unevenly in different fractions of bottom ash. This study investigates the heavy metals (Pb, Cd) content dependence of bottom ash and fraction composition. Studies were performed with five different fractions (0–2 mm; 2–5.6 mm; 5.6–11.2 mm; 11.2–22,4 mm; 22.4–40 mm) of fresh bottom ash. After a one-step...

  2. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative status compared in workers at a bottom ash recovery plant and fly ash treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Chen, I-Ju; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Fly ash and ambient emissions of municipal solid waste incinerators contain polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), other organic compounds, metals, and gases. Hazardous substances such as PCDD/Fs, mercury vapors and other silicates, and the components of bottom ash and fly ash elevate the oxidative damage. We compared oxidative damage in workers exposed to hazardous substances at a bottom ash recovery plant and 3 fly ash treatment plants in Taiwan by measuring their levels of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Significantly higher MDA levels were found in fly ash treatment plant workers (3.20 microM) than in bottom ash plant workers (0.58 microM). There was a significant association between MDA levels in workers and their working environment, especially in the fly ash treatment plants. Levels of 8-OH-dG varied more widely in bottom ash workers than in fly ash workers. The association between occupational exposure and 8-OH-dG levels may be affected by the life style of the workers. Because more dioxins and metals may leach from fly ash than from bottom ash, fly ash treatment plant workers should, as much as possible, avoid exposing themselves to fly ash.

  3. Effects of the addition of oil shale ash and coal ash on physic-chemical properties of CPJ45 cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabih K.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We focused our research on recycling industrial wastes, fly ash (F.A, bottom ash (B.A and oil shale ash (S.A in cement production. The study concerns physico-chemical characterization of these products and the influence of their addition on the mechanical proprieties of the CPJ45 cement. XRF allowed us to rank the three additives used according to their contents on major oxides. Coal ashes belong to the class F, and thus possess poozzolanic properties and oil shale ash belongs to the class C and possesses hydraulic and poozolanic properties. The crystalline phases constituting each ash were analysed by XRD. We observe in bottom ash the presence of quartz and mullite. The same crystals are found in fly ash with hematite and magnetite. Oil shale ash is composed of quartz, anhydrite, gehlenite, wollastonite and periclase. The microstructures of fly ash and bottom ash were studied using SEM. The bottom ash was composed respectively of fine particles that are generally irregularly shaped, their dimensions are between 5 and 28μm and of big particles(300 μm. The EDX analysis coupled with an electronic microscope provided some information about the major elements that constitute our samples. The dehydrations of anhydrous and three days hydrated cement were examined by DSC. For hydrated cements we noticed endothermic peaks related to the dehydration of CSH, CH and decomposition of carbonates. The study of the mechanical properties of CPJ45 cement by adding different proportions of fly ash, bottom ash and oil shale ash helped clarifying the percentage of ash that leaded to improve the 28 days mechanical strength. The results show that the cements studied have their maximum mechanical resistance with the addition at 7% of fly ash or 10% of oil shale ash.

  4. Interspecific proteomic comparisons reveal ash phloem genes potentially involved in constitutive resistance to the emerald ash borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Justin G A; Popova-Butler, Alexandra; Green-Church, Kari B; Koch, Jennifer L; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has killed millions of ash trees since its accidental introduction to North America. All North American ash species (Fraxinus spp.) that emerald ash borer has encountered so far are susceptible, while an Asian species, Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica), which shares an evolutionary history with emerald ash borer, is resistant. Phylogenetic evidence places North American black ash (F. nigra) and Manchurian ash in the same clade and section, yet black ash is highly susceptible to the emerald ash borer. This contrast provides an opportunity to compare the genetic traits of the two species and identify those with a potential role in defense/resistance. We used Difference Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE) to compare the phloem proteomes of resistant Manchurian to susceptible black, green, and white ash. Differentially expressed proteins associated with the resistant Manchurian ash when compared to the susceptible ash species were identified using nano-LC-MS/MS and putative identities assigned. Proteomic differences were strongly associated with the phylogenetic relationships among the four species. Proteins identified in Manchurian ash potentially associated with its resistance to emerald ash borer include a PR-10 protein, an aspartic protease, a phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase (PCBER), and a thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase. Discovery of resistance-related proteins in Asian species will inform approaches in which resistance genes can be introgressed into North American ash species. The generation of resistant North American ash genotypes can be used in forest ecosystem restoration and urban plantings following the wake of the emerald ash borer invasion.

  5. Ash aggregation in explosive volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, J. W.; Dufek, J.

    2010-12-01

    We present the result of a recent experimental and numerical investigation of ash aggregation in volcanic plumes. Eruption dynamics are sensitive to microphysical processes, like ash aggregation, yet are difficult to parameterize based on dynamics simulations of whole eruption columns due to the lack of sufficient resolution. Here we present the results of experiments that develop a probabilistic relationship for ash aggregation based on particle size, collisional energy and atmospheric water vapor. These relationships can be integrated into large-scale simulations of eruption column behavior in conjunction with a reconstructed velocity distribution of the ash in the column. The physical experiment was carried out in a contained tank designed to allow for the control of atmospheric water vapor. Image data is recorded with a high speed camera and post-processed to determine the number of collisions, energy of collisions and probability of aggregation. We will present the results of aggregation probability and the effects of incorporating these results into a multiphase model of a three-dimensional eruption column, where the effects of ash aggregation are especially important in regions of high shear and high granular temperature.

  6. Preliminary Study of Fly Ash Ceramic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herry-Poernomo; Djoko-Sardjono, Ign.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary study of ceramic production process from two components ofwhich are fly ash and feldspar has been done. Aluminosilicate substancecontained in the fly ash is a basic material a former ceramic body, if itfired at the temperature of 1000 o C forms mullite (3Al 2 O 3 .2SiO 2 ). Mulliteis a refractory material which is very stable at the temperature changing.This experiment studies the ceramic production process of two componentsnamely fly ash with particle size of o C.Steps of processes are making paste of fly ash and feldspar, making of greenpellets, and firing of pellets, physical analysis of ceramic including volumedecrease, lost ignition, porosity, density, water sorption, compressivestrength. The experiment result at firing temperature of 1000 o C were shownthat best composition at the weight ratio of fly ash to feldspar are 60/40and 50/50. It physical characteristic respectively are decrease of volume0.54 and 0.69 %, lost ignition = 11.98 and 11.78 %, porosity = 0.159 and0.155, density = 2.05 and 2.06 g/cm 3 , water sorption = 18.96 and 18.36 %,compressive strength = 24.82 and 24.79 kN/mm 2 . (author)

  7. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  8. Thermal treatment of ashes[Fly Ash from Municipal Waste Incineration]; Termisk rening av askor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus; Bjurstroem, Henrik [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordin, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics and Electronics

    2003-04-01

    In this project descriptions of different processes for thermal treatment of ashes have been compiled. A technical and economic evaluation of the processes has been done to identify possibilities and problems. The focus in the project lays on treatment of fly ash from municipal waste incineration but the processes can also be used to treat other ashes. When the ash is heated in the thermal treatment reactor, with or without additives, the material is sintered or vitrified and at the same time volatile substances (Zn, Pb, Cd, Hg etc.) are separated. In general the separation is more effective in processes with reducing conditions compared to oxidizing conditions. Oxidizing processes have both worse separation capacity and require more energy. The oxidizing processes are mainly used to stabilize the ash through vitrification and they are in some cases developed for management of municipal sewage sludge and bottom ash. However, these processes are often not as complex as for example an electric arc melting furnace with reducing conditions. The research today aim to develop more effective electrical melting systems with reducing conditions such as plasma melting furnaces, electric resistance melting furnaces and low frequency induction furnaces. A central question in the evaluation of different thermal treatment processes for ash is how the residues from the treatment can be used. It is not certain that the vitrified material is stable enough to get a high economic value, but it can probably be used as construction material. How the remaining metals in the ash are bound is very important in a long-time perspective. Further studies with leaching tests are necessary to clarify this issue. The heavy metal concentrate from the processes contains impurities, such as chlorine, which makes it unprofitable to obtain the metals. Instead the heavy metal concentrate has to be land filled. However, the amount of material for land filling will be much smaller if only the heavy

  9. Regular Recycling of Wood Ash to Prevent Waste Production (RecAsh). Technical Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Lars E-mail: lars.t.andersson@skogsstyreslen.se

    2007-03-15

    At present, the extraction of harvest residues is predicted to increase in Sweden and Finland. As an effect of the intensified harvesting, the export of nutrients and acid buffering substances from the growth site is also increased. Wood ash could be used to compensate forest soils for such losses. Most wood fuel ash is today often deposited in landfills. If the wood ash is recycled, wood energy is produced without any significant waste production. Ash recycling would therefore contribute to decreasing the production of waste, and to maintaining the chemical quality of forest waters and biological productivity of forest soils in the long term. The project has developed, analysed and demonstrated two regular ash-recycling systems. It has also distributed knowledge gathered about motives for ash recycling as well as technical and administrative solutions through a range of media (handbooks, workshops, field demonstrations, reports, web page and information videos). Hopefully, the project will contribute to decreasing waste problems related to bio-energy production in the EU at large. The project has been organised as a separate structure at the beneficiary and divided in four geographically defined subprojects, one in Finland and three in Sweden (Central Sweden, Northern Sweden, and South-western Sweden). The work in each subproject has been lead by a subproject leader. Each subproject has organised a regional reference group. A project steering committee has been established consisting of senior officials from all concerned partners. The project had nine main tasks with the following main expected deliverables and output: 1. Development of two complete full-scale ash-recycling systems; 2. Production of handbooks of the ash recycling system; 3. Ash classification study to support national actions for recommendations; 4. Organise regional demonstrations of various technical options for ash treatment and spreading; 5. Organise national seminars and demonstrations of

  10. Assessing the environmental impact of coal ash disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudd, G.M.; Kodikara, J.; McKinley, T.

    1997-01-01

    Ash produced from the combustion of brown coal in Victoria's Latrobe Valley is currently slurried into ash disposal ponds for storage. Subsequent to a review of ash production rates at the Loy Yang Power Station, a number of options for ash pond management were considered. These included excavating the aged ash from the existing pond and then depositing them downstream of the pond or into a nearby overburden dump. Prior to the re-classifying of ash, analytical testing was generally conducted on a total concentration basis and did not consider the leachable fraction of various elements from the ash. The current study of ash leaching involved the collection and testing of ash in three states, aged ash, slurry ash, and fresh ash. The analysis confirms that the aged ash, deposited within the disposal pond for 6 to 12 months, has reached the steady state point and can be considered to have a low potential for adverse impact on the beneficial use of groundwater and surface waters when excavated from the pond and dumped at other locations. It should also be noted that batch tests, where the material is shaken overnight, represents a worst case scenario of leaching. Such vigorous mixing would not normally occur in the field and consequently the leachates produced in the field can be expected to have a lower salinity for a longer period of time. (author). 6 tabs., 10 refs

  11. Mercury release from fly ashes and hydrated fly ash cement pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen; Zhang, Chao-yang; Kong, Xiang-ming; Zhuo, Yu-qun; Zhu, Zhen-wu

    2018-04-01

    The large-scale usage of fly ash in cement and concrete introduces mercury (Hg) into concrete structures and a risk of secondary emission of Hg from the structures during long-term service was evaluated. Three fly ashes were collected from coal-fired power plants and three blend cements were prepared by mixing Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with the same amount of fly ash. The releasing behaviors of Hg0 from the fly ash and the powdered hydrated cement pastes (HCP) were measured by a self-developed Hg measurement system, where an air-blowing part and Hg collection part were involved. The Hg release of fly ashes at room temperature varied from 25.84 to 39.69 ng/g fly ash during 90-days period of air-blowing experiment. In contrast, the Hg release of the HCPs were in a range of 8.51-18.48 ng/g HCP. It is found that the Hg release ratios of HCPs were almost the same as those of the pure fly ashes, suggesting that the hydration products of the HCP have little immobilization effect on Hg0. Increasing temperature and moisture content markedly promote the Hg release.

  12. Fly ash utilization to ecology purpose products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasae, T.; Kinugawa, M. (En-Tech Research Institute Inc. (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Fly ash contains many elements necessary for plant growth. En-Tech Research Institute has a 100 ton/month fly ash granulation plant which produces 0.5-10mm diameter granules which are used in the cultivation of approximately 15,000 Onsidumu and Denpharae orchids in a 3,000 m[sup 2] greenhouse and as a soil improver for a 1,600m[sup 2] test lawn. The granules are also used as agricultural chemical adsorbents for drainage of the test lawn. Orchids cultivated using the fly ash granules are shipped to market as cut flowers regularly. There they fetch the same price or a higher price than orchids cultivated in the usual way. Good results have also been achieved with the soil improvement test and the adsorption test. Tests to obtain design data are being carried out on two golf courses in the Kumamoto Prefecture. 8 figs., 10 tabs., 7 photos.

  13. Study of PCDD/Fs distribution in fly ash, ash deposits, and bottom ash from a medical waste incinerator in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzhe; Jin, Yuqi; Lu, Shengyong; Peng, Zheng; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-02-01

    Over the past decades in China, the number of medical waste incinerators (MWIs) has been rising rapidly, causing emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In this study, samples of fly ash, ash deposits, and bottom ash from typical MWIs were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and their distribution characteristics. Results showed international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ) values in the range of 6.9-67 ng I-TEQ/g in fly ash and ash deposits, whereas the concentration in bottom ash was extremely low (only 1.33 pg I-TEQ/g), yet the generation of PCDD/Fs was mostly de novo synthesis in fly ash and ash deposits according to the ratio of PCDFs to PCDDs; the major distribution differences of PCDD/Fs in fly ash was manifested by the content of toxic furan 2,3,7,8-TCDF but other toxic PCDD/Fs showed similar distribution. Other findings are that 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF had the most contribution to TEQ concentration, and that the most abundant toxic furan congener is 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between PCDD/Fs concentration and several other physical and chemical parameters. This paper is of interest because it presents the emission performances of PCDD/Fs in ash from medical waste incineration in China. PCDD/F contents in fly ash and ash deposits vary between 6.9 and 67.3 ng I-TEQ/g. However, the concentration in bottom ash was extremely low (only 1.33 x 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/g). The fingerprints of PCDD/Fs in fly ash are almost similar, except for 2,3,7,8-TCDF. There is no marked correlation between PCDD/Fs and other physicochemical properties.

  14. Utilization of blended fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash in geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Rattanasak, Ubolluk

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, synthesis of geopolymer from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) ash and pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash was studied in order to effectively utilize both ashes. FBC-fly ash and bottom ash were inter-ground to three different finenesses. The ashes were mixed with as-received PCC-fly ash in various proportions and used as source material for synthesis of geopolymer. Sodium silicate (Na(2)SiO(3)) and 10M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solutions at mass ratio of Na(2)SiO(3)/NaOH of 1.5 and curing temperature of 65 degrees C for 48h were used for making geopolymer. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), degree of reaction, and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were performed on the geopolymer pastes. Compressive strength was also tested on geopolymer mortars. The results show that high strength geopolymer mortars of 35.0-44.0MPa can be produced using mixture of ground FBC ash and as-received PCC-fly ash. Fine FBC ash is more reactive and results in higher degree of reaction and higher strength geopolymer as compared to the use of coarser FBC ash. Grinding increases reactivity of ash by means of increasing surface area and the amount of reactive phase of the ash. In addition, the packing effect due to fine particles also contributed to increase in strength of geopolymers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Properties of Fly Ash Blocks Made from Adobe Mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokhani, Alankrit; Divakar, B. S.; Jawalgi, Archana S.; Renukadevi, M. V.; Jagadish, K. S.

    2018-02-01

    Fly ash being one of the industrial waste products poses a serious disposal problem. This paper presents an experimental study of utilization of fly ash to produce blocks with varying proportions and mix combinations. Composition of fly ash blocks mainly consist of fly ash and sand, with cementitious product as either cement, lime or both, such as fly ash-sand-cement, fly ash-sand-lime and fly ash-sand-cement-lime are used. Four different proportions for each of the mix combinations are experimented. Compressive strength, water absorption, Initial rate of absorption, and dry density of fly ash blocks are studied. The influence of partial and complete replacement of cement by lime is examined.

  16. Emerald ash borer infestation rates in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith; Andrew J. Storer; Bryan K. Roosien

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain an estimate of the infestation rate of ash trees with emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis, Fairmaire; Coleoptera; Buprestidae), across its primary infestation zone of...

  17. Production of mineral ash-wool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micevic, Z.; Djekic, S.

    1996-01-01

    The project entitled 'Production of Mineral Ash-Wool' presents a new technology of possible use of the fly ash, generated as a waste product from the fossil fueled power plants, as a basic raw material for manufacturing of different products from a new mineral ash-wool. The wide area of mineral ash-wool application (civil engineering, industry, power generation, etc.) and the advantages of this new technology (important raw material obtained free of charge, substitution of expensive silicate stone, use of electric energy for melting instead for coke, vicinity of factory location close to the fossil fueled power plant, lower product price, reduction of environmental pollution, etc.) have resulted in the performance of the bench scale tests. Positive results have been obtained, as a good initial base for the realization of this project. The named study as an detailed analysis has been carried out for the assessment of: supply and sales market, analysis of possible and selection of an optimal location of the factory in the frame of fossil fueled power plant 'Kosovo', selection of the production capacity and alternative preliminary technical designs of the factory for the mineral ash-wool production. For the studied alternatives, specifications and capital investments evaluations for equipment and works (mechanical, civil engineering and electromechanical part) have been made as well as assessments of production costs. Based on the performed economical and financial analyses, as well as the sensitivity analyses one could be concluded that the investments in the factory for the mineral ash-wool production is highly economically acceptable. (author). 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  18. Microphysical Properties of Alaskan Volcanic Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthukkudy, A.; Espinosa, R.; Rocha Lima, A.; Remer, L.; Colarco, P. R.; Whelley, P.; Krotkov, N. A.; Young, K.; Dubovik, O.; Wallace, K.; Martins, J. V.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic ash has the potential to cause a variety of severe problems for human health and the environment. Therefore, effective monitoring of the dispersion and fallout from volcanic ash clouds and characterization of the aerosol particle properties are essential. One way to acquire information from volcanic clouds is through satellite remote sensing: such images have greater coverage than ground-based observations and can present a "big picture" perspective. A challenge of remote sensing is that assumptions of certain properties of the target are often a pre-requisite for making accurate and quantitative retrievals. For example, detailed information about size distribution, sphericity, and optical properties of the constituent matter is needed or must be assumed. The same kind of information is also needed for atmospheric transport models to properly simulate the dispersion and fallout of volcanic ash. Presented here is a laboratory method to determine the microphysical and optical properties of volcanic ash samples collected from two Alaskan volcanoes with markedly different compositions. Our method uses a Polarized Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) and a system that re-suspends the particles in an air flow. The PI-Neph measures angular light scattering and polarization of the re-suspended particles from 3o to 175o in scattering angle, with an angular resolution of 1o . Primary measurements include phase function and polarized phase function at three wavelengths (445nm, 532nm, and 661nm). Size distribution, sphericity, and complex refractive index are retrieved indirectly from the PI-Neph measurements using the GRASP (Generalized Retrieval of Aerosol and Surface Properties) inversion algorithm. We report the results of this method applied to samples from the Mt. Okmok (2008) and Mt. Katmai (1912) volcanic eruptions. To our knowledge, this is the first time direct measurements of phase matrix elements of ash from Mt. Okmok and Mt. Katmai have been reported. Retrieved

  19. Proceedings: Ninth international ash use symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the 1991 International Coal Ash Use Symposium, the ninth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash technology. The three-volume publication contains 80 papers, presented at seventeen sessions during the January 1991 event. Volume 1 contains papers related to concrete and related products like cellular concrete, and aggregates. This volume before (Volume 2) covers the growing market in waste stabilization/solidification and aquatic uses. Volume 3 brings together papers on a variety of high-volume uses, and R ampersand D projects. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases

  20. Utilization options for fly ash, bottom ash, and slag in Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, O.E.

    1995-12-01

    Since 1967, at least six ash utilization symposiums have been held in the United States, with papers presented by several European authors on the utilization of coal by-products in Eastern Europe. There is currently over 80,000 megawatts of installed coal-fired capacity available in that region. Unfortunately, of the 117,778,000 tonnes of fly ash, bottom ash, and slag produced in Eastern Europe in 1989, only 13% was utilized. This paper outlines the research and levels and kinds of coal by-product utilization taking place in Eastern Europe since the late 1960s.

  1. Possibilities for stabilization of fly ash from REK 'Bitola' dump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrushevska, Ljubica; Ivanovska, Pavlina; Ilievski, Zlatko; Peeva, Liljana

    2002-01-01

    The Coal Power Plants environmental problems, mainly, arise from deposited fly ash-solid particles which, under the influence of the wind, heavily pollute the atmospheric air. Prevention of the environmental problems, coming from spraying from the energetic dumps, is achieved with technical and biological stabilization of dumped fly ash. The choice of the stabilization means and methods depends on the physical-chemical properties of the ash. Therefore, the stabilization possibilities of REK 'Bitola' fly ash were investigated. (Original)

  2. Associative properties of 137Cs in biofuel ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.; Holm, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present study aims to reveal how radiocesium is associated to the ash particles derived from biofuel combustion. A sequential extraction procedure was carried out for the characterisation of radiocesium speciation in ash generated by different fuels and burner types. The ash types considered were fly ash and bottom ash collected from Swedish district heating plants using bark wood or peat as fuel. A fraction of the radiocesium in biofuel ash can easily become solubilised and mobilised by water and also, a significant fraction of the radionuclides can be bound to the ash particles in cation-exchangeable forms. Therefore, at using the ash derived from biofuels to recycle mineral nutrients for forestry or short rotation coppicing, radiocesium solubilised and leached from the ash by rains has a potential to rather quickly enter the rooting zone of forest vegetation or energy crops. On the other hand, radiocesium strongly bound to the ash will migrate slowly into the soil column with the successive accumulation of litter and in the process act to maintain the external dose rate at an elevated level for a long time. The results of the sequential extraction procedure and activity determination of the different extracted fractions implies that the bioavailable fraction of radiocesium in ash from bark, wood or peat is in the range between 20-85% of the total ash contents. Peat ash collected from a powder burner strongly retained a large fraction (70-90%) of its radiocesium content while the peat ash from a continuos fluidized bed type burner retained nearly 100% of the radiocesium in the bottom ash and only about 15% in the fly ash

  3. Evaluation of fly ash in water reduced paving mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Fly ash was used to replace 15% of the cement in C3WR and C6WR concrete : paving mixes containing ASTM C494 Type A water reducin9 admixtures. Two Class : C ashes and one Class F ash from Iowa approved sources were examined in each : mix. When Class C...

  4. 77 FR 55895 - Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Permanent Closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of permanent closure of Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ). SUMMARY: The... Cincinnati advising that on August 29, 2012, it was permanently closing Cincinnati Blue Ash Airport (ISZ...

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in municipal waste ashes from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The levels of isolated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ash residues of wastes from some major waste dumps in Lagos, Nigeria, were determined. The total amounts of the PAH in the ashes were in the range of 0.06 – 0.4 mg/g. The ash from the waste dump that contains the highest level also displayed greatest ...

  6. STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL USING BAGASSE ASH & LIME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tekimerry

    Keywords: Expansive soil, bagasse ash, lime, plasticity, compaction and strength characteristics. INTRODUCTION. Expansive clays are known to exhibits dual .... Variations of plasticity index with the addition of 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 3% lime in combination with/plus 15% bagasse ash are presented in Fig. 1.

  7. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the potential use of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement replacement material. In this study, bagasse ash sample was collected from Wonji sugar factory and its chemical properties were investigated. The bagasse ash was then ground until the particles passing the 63μm sieve size reach about ...

  8. Effect of municipal solid waste ash on comprehensive strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The blocks were moulded in a CINVA-Ram machine by replacing 0%, 2%, 5% and 10% of municipal solid waste ash (MSW ash) as a stabilizing agent. The compressive strengths of individual blocks were obtained after curing for 7, 14 and 28 days. The 2%MSW ash replacement gave the highest compressive strength and ...

  9. Emerald ash borer biological control release and recovery guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juli S. Gould; Leah S. Bauer; Jonathan Lelito; Jian. Duan

    2012-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), a beetle from Asia that feeds on ash trees, was discovered as the cause of extensive ash mortality in southeast Michigan and adjacent areas of Canada in 2002. It is thought that this destructive pest was introduced in the early 1990's in infested solid wood packing material originating in Asia. Shortly after EAB was discovered in North...

  10. The chemical composition of tertiary Indian coal ash and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coal ash, and a relationship has been established to predict the melting behaviour of the ash (Vassilev et al. 1995; Vassileva and Vassilev 2002). The effects of major oxides, the ratio of silica-alumina. Keywords. Ash Fusion Temperature (AFT); Detrital-authigenic index (DAI); fouling; slagging; abrasion indices. J. Earth Syst.

  11. Evaluation of fly ash quality control tools : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Many entities currently use fl y ash in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and structures. Although : the body of knowledge is great concerning the use of fl y ash, several projects per year are subject to poor : performance where fl y ash is n...

  12. Evaluation of Fly Ash Quality Control Tools : Technical Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Many entities currently use fl y ash in portland cement concrete (PCC) pavements and structures. Although : the body of knowledge is great concerning the use of fl y ash, several projects per year are subject to poor : performance where fl y ash is n...

  13. Emerald ash borer in Russia: 2009 situation update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Baranchikov; Y. Gninenko; G. Yurchenko

    2011-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is a beetle native to East Asia and the Russian Far East where it is considered a minor pest, attacking weakened or dying ash trees. In 2006, EAB was found to be responsible for enormous damage of ash species in Moscow, which causes serious concern for Europe. Recently we reviewed the EAB...

  14. Economic analysis of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M

    2012-02-01

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.

  15. Evaluation of Pollutant Leaching Potential of Coal Ashes for Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D.; Woo, N. C.; Kim, H.; Yoon, H.; Chung, D.

    2011-12-01

    By 2009, coal ashes produced from coal-based power plants in Korea have been reused as cement supplement materials; however, the rest is mostly disposed in landfills inside the plant properties. Continuous production of coal ashes and limited landfill sites require more recycles of coal ashes as base materials, specifically in constructions of roads and of huge industrial complex. Previous researches showed that coal ashes could contain various metals such as arsenic(As), chromium(Cr), lead(Pb), nickel(Ni), selenium(Se), etc. In this study, we collected four types of bottom ashes and two of fly ashes from four coal-based power plants. These ash samples were tested with distilled water through the column leaching process in oxidized conditions. The column test results were compared with those of total digestion, sequential extraction processes and TCLP. Concentrations of metals in outflows from columns are generally greater in fly ashes than in bottom ashes, specifically for As, Se, B, Sr and SO4. Only one fly ash (J2-F) shows high concentrations of arsenic and selenium in leachate. Sequential extraction results indicate that these metals are in readily soluble forms, such as adsorbed, carbonated, and reducible forms. Results of TCLP analysis indicate no potential contaminants leached from the ashes. In conclusion, recycling of coal combustion ashes could be encouraged with proper tests such as sequential and leaching experiments.

  16. Mazama and Glacier Peak Volcanic Ash Layers: Relative Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, R

    1965-03-12

    Physiographic and stratigraphic evidence supports the regional correlation of two volcanic ash layers with extinct Mount Mazama at Crater Lake, Oregon, and Glacier Peak in the northern Cascade Range of Washington. A radiocarbon age of 12,000 +/- 310 years confirms geological evidence that ash derived from the Glacier Peak eruption is substantially older than ash from the Mazama eruption of 6600 years ago.

  17. Physical, meteorological, wave spectra, and other data from CTD casts and current meters aboard NOAA Ship McARTHUR in the Columbia River (Wash./Oregon) from 1981-05-06 to 1981-11-25 (NODC Accession 8300033)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, meteorological, wave spectra, and other data were collected from CTD casts and current meters from NOAA Ship McARTHUR and other platforms in the Columbia...

  18. Book Review: Evans, Arthur V. 2014. Beetles of Eastern North America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A. 560 pp. ISBN 978-0-691-13304-1 (paperback). Price: US $35.00

    Science.gov (United States)

    A book review is presented for “Beetles of Eastern North America” by Arthur V. Evans. This 560 page book was published in 2014 and treats over 1,400 species of beetles distributed in eastern North America....

  19. Current components, physical, and other data from moored current meters and CTD casts from NOAA Ship McARTHUR and other platforms from 1983-10-04 to 1984-02-01 (NODC Accession 8500128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current components, physical, and other data were collected by moored current meters and CTD casts from NOAA Ship McARTHUR and other platforms. Data were collected...

  20. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ernesto Kalaw

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC, which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1 their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2 they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3 within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA and coal bottom ash (CBA, and rice hull ash (RHA. The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR

  1. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaw, Martin Ernesto; Culaba, Alvin; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Gallardo, Susan; Promentilla, Michael Angelo

    2016-07-15

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1) their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2) they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3) within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO₂. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC) use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA) and coal bottom ash (CBA), and rice hull ash (RHA). The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogical composition. The raw materials' thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI) were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP) analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning

  2. Optimizing and Characterizing Geopolymers from Ternary Blend of Philippine Coal Fly Ash, Coal Bottom Ash and Rice Hull Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaw, Martin Ernesto; Culaba, Alvin; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Gallardo, Susan; Promentilla, Michael Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers formed from the alkaline activation of amorphous alumino-silicate materials resulting in a three-dimensional polymeric network. As a class of materials, it is seen to have the potential of replacing ordinary Portland cement (OPC), which for more than a hundred years has been the binder of choice for structural and building applications. Geopolymers have emerged as a sustainable option vis-à-vis OPC for three reasons: (1) their technical properties are comparable if not better; (2) they can be produced from industrial wastes; and (3) within reasonable constraints, their production requires less energy and emits significantly less CO2. In the Philippines, the use of coal ash, as the alumina- and silica- rich geopolymer precursor, is being considered as one of the options for sustainable management of coal ash generation from coal-fired power plants. However, most geopolymer mixes (and the prevalent blended OPC) use only coal fly ash. The coal bottom ash, having very few applications, remains relegated to dumpsites. Rice hull ash, from biomass-fired plants, is another silica-rich geopolymer precursor material from another significantly produced waste in the country with only minimal utilization. In this study, geopolymer samples were formed from the mixture of coal ash, using both coal fly ash (CFA) and coal bottom ash (CBA), and rice hull ash (RHA). The raw materials used for the geopolymerization process were characterized using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for elemental and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogical composition. The raw materials’ thermal stability and loss on ignition (LOI) were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and reactivity via dissolution tests and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP) analysis. The mechanical, thermal and microstructural properties of the geopolymers formed were analyzed using compression tests, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning

  3. The last deglaciation in New Zealand ; revisiting the Misery moraines at Arthur's Pass in the Southern Alps of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, David; Rother, Henrik; Woodward, Craig; Shulmeister, James; Wilcken, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Recent debate on mid-latitude New Zealand glaciation has focused on reconstructing paleo-climate conditions leading into the (global) Last Glacial Maximum and subsequent deglaciation dynamics during the last termination. Paleo-environmental evidence coupled with reliable glacial chronologies supporting a Southern Hemisphere glacial readvance commensurate with Younger Dryas timing ( 11.5-12.5 ka) showing similar cooling as observed in the Northern Hemisphere has also been hotly debated. Many New Zealand lake and pollen records suggest a minor cooling or hiatus in warming during the period from 14.5 - 12.0 ka which pre-dates YD onset and is more commonly associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) (14.7 - 13.0 ka). Achieving the required sub-millennial temporal differentiation using in-situ cosmogenic exposure dating comes with numerous difficulties. The Arthur's Pass Moraine complex, deposited by an alpine glacier advancing out of the Otira Gorge splaying east and westward over the divide of the Southern Alps in New Zealand ( 950 masl), exhibits a full post-LGM glacial chronology. The moraines consist of multiple cross-valley terminal, lobate and discontinuous latero-terminal moraines up to 3 kilometres down valley from the proximal Misery moraines at the outlet of Otira Gorge. Within the gorge towards the headwall only 1 km up-valley from the Misery sequence, no other moraines are evident. We have determined paired 10-Be and 26-Al exposure ages from 58 greywacke samples taken from all major moraines, including repeat sampling from the Misery moraines. The new exposure ages show that the Arthur's Pass moraine system spans a period of 19.5 ka to 12.0 ka (Putnam local NZ production rate) with mean recessional moraine ages in chrono-stratigraphic sequence. The overall timing of deglaciation after peak LGM conditions is similar to that observed at down-valley terminal positions of the larger outlet river systems of the Rakaia, Waimakariri and Rangitata Valleys

  4. Processing of Sugarcane Bagasse ash and Reactivity of Ash-blended Cement Mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajay, Goyal; Hattori, Kunio; Ogata, Hidehiko; Ashraf, Muhammad

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA), a sugar-mill waste, has the potential of a partial cement replacement material if processed and obtained under controlled conditions. This paper discusses the reactivity of SCBA obtained by control burning of sugarcane bagasse procured from Punjab province of India. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to ascertain the amorphousness and morphology of the minerals ash particles. Destructive and non-destructive tests were conducted on SCBA-blended mortar specimens. Ash-blended cement paste specimens were analyzed by XRD, thermal analysis, and SEM methods to evaluate the hydration reaction of SCBA with cement. Results showed that the SCBA processed at 600°C for 5 hours was reactive as ash-blended mortar specimens with up to 15% substitution of cement gave better strength than control specimens.

  5. Mössbauer characterization of feed coal, ash and fly ash from a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Caballero, F.; Martínez Ovalle, S. A.; Moreno Gutiérrez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was apply 57 Fe Transmission Mössbauer Spectroscopy at room temperature in order to study the occurrence of iron-containing mineral phases in: 1) feed coal; 2) coal ash, obtained in different stages of the ASTM D3174 standard method; and 3) fly ash, produced when coal is burned in the TERMOPAIPA IV thermal power plant localized in Boyacá, Colombia. According to obtained results, we can conclude the occurrence of pyrite and jarosite in the feed coal; Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ crystalline paramagnetic phases, superparamagnetic hematite and hematite in coal ash; Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ noncrystalline and crystalline phases, magnetite and hematite in fly ash. Precisely, for a basic understanding, this work discusses some the possible transformations that take place during coal combustion

  6. Slowing ash mortality: a potential strategy to slam emerald ash borer in outlier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah G. McCullough; Nathan W. Siegert; John Bedford

    2009-01-01

    Several isolated outlier populations of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) were discovered in 2008 and additional outliers will likely be found as detection surveys and public outreach activities...

  7. Emerald ash borer genetics: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia M. Bray; Leah S. Bauer; Robert A. Haack; Therese Poland; James J. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, samples were collected from introduced sites in Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Pennsylvania, Illinois, and Ontario, Canada, as well as native sites in China, Japan, and South Korea with the help of a network of collaborators. The beetles were analyzed using DNA sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome...

  8. Zeolite from fly ash: synthesis and characterization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coal fly ash was used to synthesize X-type zeolite by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The synthesized zeolite was characterized using various techniques such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, BET method for surface area measurement etc.

  9. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2003-01-01

    is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2 g...

  10. CHES and ASHE build bridges in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrill, Gordon D

    2007-08-01

    The Canadian Healthcare Engineering Society (CHES) and the American Society for Healthcare Engineering (ASHE) are partnering with a significant education initiative. They are providing construction and contract personnel with the insights necessary to recognise the inherent risks of progressing healthcare facility projects in patient-occupied buildings, writes Gordon D. Burrill, P. Eng.

  11. Phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge char ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atienza-Martinez, M.; Gea, G.; Arauzo, J.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Kootstra, A.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus was recovered from the ash obtained after combustion at different temperatures (600 °C, 750 °C and 900 °C) and after gasification (at 820 °C using a mixture of air and steam as fluidising agent) of char from sewage sludge fast pyrolysis carried out at 530 °C. Depending on the leaching

  12. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  13. Hjälp alla så långt du förmår! : En undersökning av Arthur Schopenhauers etik

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlkvist, Felix

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the ethics of German 19th century philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. The study examines Schopenhauer’s ethics and investigates his criticism of the ethics of his older German colleague Immanuel Kant. By arguing that all true morally acceptable and good actions originate from compassion, Schopenhauer distinguishes his view from the deontological ethics held by Kant. The study focuses on Schopenhauer’s view on the basis of morals. Its purpose is to consider an ethica...

  14. Book review of ‘Opening the doors of wonder : reflections on religious rites of passage’ by Arthur J. Magida, Berkeley, CA : University of California Press, 2006.

    OpenAIRE

    Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb

    2008-01-01

    Arthur J. Magida of University of Baltimore analyzes in this book the wonderful experiences of coming-of-age ceremonies with reference to the believers of different religions in the United States. The book is an account on the evolution of rites of passage in five major religions, including Jewish bar and bat mitzvah, Christian confirmations, Muslim shahadas, Hindu sacred thread ceremonies and Zen jukai ceremonies in Buddhism, by explaining the theological concepts associated with these cerem...

  15. Procedure for ash-poor cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geissler

    1945-04-01

    This article was composed of four sections which dealt with de-ashing processes or uses of ash-poor coke. The general procedure for de-ashing started with 1 mm coal grains mixed with dilute HCl and then decanted from a concentrator. The thick paste was crushed finely and pasted with tar from the Low Temperature Carbonization (LTC). The paste was kneaded, washed, and then formed. The resulting briquettes were dried, crushed, and reformed. The LTC then took place at 550/sup 0/C followed by coking at 900/sup 0/C. The oven dimensions were given as 3.25 m tall, 0.65 wide, and 4 m deep for the LTC sections, and 3.25 m x 0.60 m x 4 m for the coking section. These dimensions were designed for 100 kg coke per hour. Methods were discussed for decreasing costs of coke production by substitution of a cheaper binding tar than that of the LTC recycle. CS/sub 2/ production was proposed using coke processed by the above de-ashing procedure. This process which substituted coke for the usual charcoal was shown to work, but was very sensitive to ash and solids content in the coke. Coke substitution for reducing charcoal in the production of light metals was tested. It was found that the iron content of the coke product has to be less than 0.05%, so that the coal used must have only slight traces of iron. Experiments were carried out to use de-ashed cokes as fuel to power automibiles, where a major difficulty was found in the tendency of the coke briquettes to flake and crumble. Different methods and binders were tried for briquetting, thus eliminating many difficulties. For the production of electrode cokes, flotation, separation, and lye treatment preceeded the de-ashing procedure outlined above. It was concluded that the properties of the cokes were greatly influenced by the quality of the briquette binder. It was intended to research and classify the types of binders.

  16. The influence of sugarcane bagasse ash as fly ash on cement quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, N.; Damayanti, M. C.; Pratama, S. W. I.

    2017-01-01

    Fly ash often is used as the third material for cement. The fly ash from sugarcane bagasse is usually considered as industrial waste material that can be added to the base material of cement (clinker, trash, gypsum and lime stone) for economic and environment reason. The amount of fly ash usually up to 30 % of cement material, but in this research the percentage of sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA) is added to cement material is up to 15% total weight. Then the x-rays fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine its chemical composition of raw material and cement samples. The physical properties of cement such as fineness, setting time, expansion, and compressive strength were measured using Automatic Blaine, Vicat, Autoclave, respectively. The result show that the percentage of sugarcane bagasse ash influences the quality of cement and concrete, and this is confirmed with Indonesia National Standard (SNI). It is showed that the sugarcane bagasse ash could be use as material to improve the quality of cement and will solve the environment waste material

  17. Glass-ceramic from mixtures of bottom ash and fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Dinh Hieu; Wang, Kuen-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Hsing; Nam, Bui Xuan; Bac, Bui Hoang

    2012-12-01

    Along with the gradually increasing yield of the residues, appropriate management and treatment of the residues have become an urgent environmental protection problem. This work investigated the preparation of a glass-ceramic from a mixture of bottom ash and fly ash by petrurgic method. The nucleation and crystallization kinetics of the new glass-ceramic can be obtained by melting the mixture of 80% bottom ash and 20% fly ash at 950 °C, which was then cooled in the furnace for 1h. Major minerals forming in the glass-ceramics mainly are gehlenite (Ca(2)Al(2)SiO(7)) & akermanite (Ca(2)MgSiO(7)) and wollastonite (CaSiO(3)). In addition, regarding chemical/mechanical properties, the chemical resistance showing durability, and the leaching concentration of heavy metals confirmed the possibility of engineering and construction applications of the most superior glass-ceramic product. Finally, petrurgic method of a mixture of bottom ash and fly ash at 950 °C represents a simple, inexpensive, and energy saving method compared with the conventional heat treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bottom Ash Waste Used in Different Construction Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Volokitin, O. G.; Lutsenko, A. V.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Litvinova, V. A.; Semenovykh, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents the investigations of the composition and properties of the bottom ash waste generated by Seversk thermal power plant of the Tomsk region. The compositions suggested for construction materials (fired and hydrothermal) are based on the bottom ash waste. Mechanical-and-physical and physicochemical properties of the produced specimens are investigated in this paper. Phase compositions are determined for fired materials based on the bottom ash waste, and a possibility of producing ash-based mineral wool is defined herein. The produced ash-containing fiber possesses a higher chemical resistance and performance characteristics due to its higher acidity index.

  19. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  20. Explosibility boundaries for fly ash/pulverized fuel mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastidar, A G; Amyotte, P R

    2002-05-27

    Incomplete combustion and subsequent fuel contamination of a waste stream can pose a serious explosion hazard. An example of this type of incident is the contamination of fly ash with unburned pulverized coal. The coal, if present in sufficient quantities in the mixture, can act as a fuel source for a potential explosion. Experiments were conducted in a 20l Siwek explosibility test chamber to determine the minimum fuel contamination of fly ash required to form an explosible mixture. A sample of fly ash from Ontario Power Generation (OPG) (Ont., Canada) was artificially contaminated with Pittsburgh pulverized coal dust (the surrogate used to represent unburned fuel dust). Additionally, the influence of fly ash particle size on the amount of fuel contaminant required to form an explosible mixture was examined. Fine and coarse size fractions of fly ash were obtained by screening the original sample of OPG fly ash. The results show that at least 21% Pittsburgh pulverized coal (or 10% volatile matter) was required to form an explosible mixture of the original fly ash sample and coal dust. The results also illustrate that fly ash particle size is important when examining the explosibility of the mixture. The fine size fraction of fly ash required a minimum of 25% coal dust (12% volatile matter) in the mixture for explosibility, whereas the coarse fly ash required only 10% coal dust (7% volatile matter). Thus, the larger the particle size of the inert fly ash component in the mixture, the greater the hazard.

  1. [Carl Arthur Scheunert's experiments on human nutrition, 1938-1943: boundary transgressions of a scientist under national socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Carl Arthur Scheunert (1879-1957) was a German scientist who supervised several studies with prisoners that were designed to assess the optimal vitamin and nutrient supply, and were conducted by his associate Karl-Heinz Wagner (1911-2007) from 1938 to 1943. This contribution describes the aims, results and conclusions of Scheunert's research 1923 to 1945 in comparison with the national and international vitamin research and its consequences for public health measures. Conditions and results of the human experiments are reconstructed and compared with similar studies performed in other countries. Burden as well as health risks for the study participants are assessed. In addition, it is discussed whether general rules for human experimentation were followed (e.g. informed consent and minimizing of health risks). Although the available documents support the conclusion that no deaths or lasting injuries were caused, the experiments violated ethical standards, in particular because of the conditions in the Waldheim prison including progressive deterioration of nutrition and health.

  2. Arthur Simons (1877-1942) and Tonic Neck Reflexes With Hemiplegic "Mitbewegungen" (Associated Reactions): Cinematography From 1916-1919.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdorff, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Tonic neck reflexes were investigated by Rudolf Magnus and Adriaan de Kleijn in animals and men in 1912 and eventually by Arthur Simons, a neurologist in Berlin and coworker of Hermann Oppenheim. Simons studied these reflexes in hemiplegic patients, who were mainly victims of World War I. This work became his most important contribution and remained unsurpassed for many years. The film (Filmarchiv, Bundesarchiv [Film Archive, National Archive] Berlin) with Simons as an examiner shows 11 war casualties with brain lesions that occurred between 1916 and 1919. The injuries reveal asymmetric neck reflexes with "Mitbewegungen," that is, flexion or extension on the hemiplegic side. Mitbewegungen is identical with Francis Walshe's "associated reactions" caused by neck rotation and/or by cocontraction of the nonaffected extremities, for example, by closing of the fist (Walshe). The knowledge of the neck reflexes is important in acute neurology and in rehabilitation therapy of hemiplegics for antispastic positions. Simons' investigations were conducted in the early era of increasing use of cinematography in medical studies. The film had been nearly forgotten until its rediscovery in 2010.

  3. Deployment of a Prototype Plant GFP Imager at the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse of the Haughton Mars Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Ferl

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of engineered plants as biosensors has made elegant strides in the past decades, providing keen insights into the health of plants in general and particularly in the nature and cellular location of stress responses. However, most of the analytical procedures involve laboratory examination of the biosensor plants. With the advent of the green fluorescence protein (GFP as a biosensor molecule, it became at least theoretically possible for analyses of gene expression to occur telemetrically, with the gene expression information of the plant delivered to the investigator over large distances simply as properly processed fluorescence images. Spaceflight and other extraterrestrial environments provide unique challenges to plant life, challenges that often require changes at the gene expression level to accommodate adaptation and survival. Having previously deployed transgenic plant biosensors to evaluate responses to orbital spaceflight, we wished to develop the plants and especially the imaging devices required to conduct such experiments robotically, without operator intervention, within extraterrestrial environments. This requires the development of an autonomous and remotely operated plant GFP imaging system and concomitant development of the communications infrastructure to manage dataflow from the imaging device. Here we report the results of deploying a prototype GFP imaging system within the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse (ACMG an autonomously operated greenhouse located within the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian High Arctic. Results both demonstrate the applicability of the fundamental GFP biosensor technology and highlight the difficulties in collecting and managing telemetric data from challenging deployment environments.

  4. Translation difficulties in the Romanian version of Arthur Schopenhauer’s Aphorisms. A contrastive and diachronic analysis (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia-Iuliana Vârlan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concentrates on a late work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer, Aphorisms on the Wisdom of Life, and on its only Romanian version, delivered at the end of the 19th century by Titu Maiorescu. The existence of five editions of this Romanian version, that have been published by the translator himself during a period of 40 years, represents a clear proof of the fact that transposing a German philosophical text into Romanian involved a series of translating difficulties. Observing the way Titu Maiorescu tried to overcome these difficulties by adopting specific translation solutions produced an analysis which was conducted from the linguistic perspective and which followed two directions: the contrastive one (as a result of direct comparison between source-text and target-text and the diachronic one (which considered the interventions made by the same translator on his own text at different points in time. The linguistic analysis of a philosophical text was considered to be the most appropriate and useful approach not only for the present research, but also for future translators of the Aphorisms, who would aim at adapting the discourse of Titu Maiorescu’s version to the contemporary Romanian language, by taking into consideration its obvious evolution, especially in terms of its philosophical vocabulary.

  5. Diplomacia e ciência no contexto da Segunda Guerra Mundial: a viagem de Arthur Compton ao Brasil em 1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olival Freire Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A literatura em história documenta bem os esforços dos Estados Unidos para buscar o alinhamento dos países latino-americanos com os Aliados às vésperas da entrada daquele país na Segunda Guerra Mundial. Depois de um momento de hesitação e de negociações o governo Vargas alinhou-se com os Estados Unidos. Desconhecido até agora, contudo, tem sido o envolvimento de cientistas nesses arranjos diplomáticos. Fontes recentemente descobertas mostram que a missão do físico norte-americano Arthur Compton no Brasil, em 1941, para participação em uma conferência sobre raios cósmicos, estava articulada com os esforços do Office for Inter-American Affairs liderado por Nelson Rockefeller. Para os físicos brasileiros, que tinham adquirido reputação naquela área de pesquisa sob a liderança de Gleb Wataghin na segunda metade da década de 1930, cooperação científica foi uma forte motivação para a organização dessa visita, mas ela não foi isenta de conotações políticas e de interesses profissionais.

  6. Travel, Ethnography, and Nation in the Writings of Rómulo Lachatañéré and Arthur Ramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia M.G. Cunha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analyses how the traveling to and residence in the US of Arthur Ramos from Brazil and Rómulo Lachtañéré from Cuba, between 1939 and 1952, influenced their (anthropological writings on Afro-American cultures and religions, specifically with regard to the relation between nation and race. Author describes that while Ramos and Lachatañéré went to the US under differing conditions, in the case of Lachatañéré in exile, and had dissimilar intellectual and political perspectives, their writings during and after their stay revealed identical approaches to interpreting the relation between nation and race in respectively Brazil and Cuba. She describes how Ramos and Lachatañéré developed a broader perspective on Afro-American culture, whilst moving in the same intellectual, anthropological circles, including contacts with Melville Herskovits and Fernando Ortiz, in the US. Author relates how both compared between African-Americans, in Louisiana in the case of Ramos and in New York in the case of Lachatañéré, and Afro-Brazilians and Afro-Cubans (including Caribbean migrants in the US, and thus between different race relations in the US, Brazilian, and Cuban contexts.

  7. Toward a Pragmatist Epistemology: Arthur O. Lovejoy's and H. S. Jennings's Biophilosophical Responses to Neovitalism, 1909-1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Doug

    2015-01-01

    The sustained interdisciplinary debate about neovitalism between two Johns Hopkins University colleagues, philosopher Arthur O. Lovejoy and experimental geneticist H. S. Jennings, in the period 1911-1914, was the basis for their theoretical reconceptualization of scientific knowledge as contingent and necessarily incomplete in its account of nature. Their response to Hans Driesch's neovitalist concept of entelechy, and his challenge to the continuity between biology and the inorganic sciences, resulted in a historically significant articulation of genetics and philosophy. This study traces the debate's shift of problem-focus away from neovitalism's threat to the unity of science - "organic autonomy," as Lovejoy put it - and toward the potential for development of a nonmechanististic, nonrationalist theory of scientific knowledge. The result was a new pragmatist epistemology, based on Lovejoy's and Jennings's critiques of the inadequacy of pragmatism's account of scientific knowledge. The first intellectual move, drawing on naturalism and pragmatism, was based on a reinterpretation of science as organized experience. The second, sparked by Henri Bergson's theory of creative evolution, and drawing together elements of Dewey's and James's pragmatisms, produced a new account of the contingency and necessary incompleteness of scientific knowledge. Prompted by the neovitalists' mix of a priori concepts and, in Driesch's case, and adherence to empiricism, Lovejoy's and Jennings's developing pragmatist epistemologies of science explored the interrelation between rationalism and empiricism.

  8. Between Galen, Geddes, and the Gael: Arthur Brock, modernity, and medical humanism in early-twentieth-century Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, David

    2005-01-01

    Arthur Brock (1879-1947) is generally remembered as the physician who treated poet Wilfred Owen for shell shock and as the translator of Galen and other ancient physicians. He was also a key figure in the early-twentieth-century humanist revival within medicine. Brock's interest in humanism, I argue, was inspired by a broader concern about modernity and by a desire to return medicine and society to the more harmonious, organic existence that he believed was characteristic of ancient Greece and could still be found among "primitive" peoples, such as the Scottish Gaels. This article explores Brock's anxieties about modernity and its relations to his interests in ancient and "primitive" peoples; to his medical thought and practice; to his interests in history, sociology, language, and translation; and to his involvement in the social and political life of Edinburgh and North Queensferry, where he moved in 1925. Crucially, it shows how all these interests and activities were influenced by Brock's mentor, Edinburgh polymath Patrick Geddes. The article concludes with a discussion of Brock's place in early-twentieth-century medical humanism.

  9. CERN Library | Arthur I. Miller presents "Colliding worlds: How Cutting-Edge Science Is Redefining Contemporary Art" | 21 October

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, an exciting new art movement has emerged in which artists illuminate the latest advances in science.   Some of their provocative creations - a live rabbit implanted with the fluorescent gene of a jellyfish, a gigantic glass-and-chrome sculpture of the Big Bang itself - can be seen in traditional art museums and magazines, while others are being made by leading designers at Pixar, Google's Creative Lab and the MIT Media Lab. Arthur I. Miller takes readers on a wild journey to explore this new frontier. From the movement's origins a century ago - when Einstein shaped Cubism and X-rays affected fine photography - to the latest discoveries of biotechnology, cosmology and quantum physics, Miller shows how today's artists and designers are producing work at the cutting edge of science. Tuesday, 21 October 2014 at 14:30 in the Library, Bldg. 52 1-052 https://indico.cern.ch/event/346299/ *Coffee will be served from 2 p.m.* "Colliding Worlds: How Cutt...

  10. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Radioactivity aspects of Indian fly ash for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, V.; Behera, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Fly ash is a major component of solid waste material produced by the coal-fired thermal power plants. In India the total amount of fly ash produced per annum is around 60 million tons. However fly ash has a great potential for utilization in making industrial products such as cement, concrete mix, bricks as well as building materials, besides being used as a soil conditioner and a provider of macro and micro nutrients in agriculture. It can also be used as a material for mine fills. However, given the large amount of fly ash fly that accumulate at thermal power plants, their possible reuse and dispersion and mobilization into the environment of the various elements depend on climate, soils, indigenous vegetation and agriculture practices, hence there is a need to characterize the radioactivity of ash. This paper presents the results of a study of the radioactivity aspects of fly ashes and pond ashes from thermal power plants of India. (author)

  12. Ash transformation during co-firing coal and straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2007-01-01

    Co-firing straw with coal in pulverized fuel boilers can cause problems related to fly ash utilization, deposit formation, corrosion and SCR catalyst deactivation due to the high contents of Cl and K in the ash. To investigate the interaction between coal and straw ash and the effect of coal...... quality on fly ash and deposit properties, straw was co-fired with three kinds of coal in an entrained flow reactor. The compositions of the produced ashes were compared to the available literature data to find suitable scaling parameters that can be used to predict the composition of ash from straw...... and coal co-firing. Reasonable agreement in fly ash compositions regarding total K and fraction of water soluble K was obtained between co-firing in an entrained flow reactor and full-scale plants. Capture of potassium and subsequent release of HCl can be achieved by sulphation with SO2 and more...

  13. Mapping ash properties using principal components analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric; Cerda, Artemi; Ubeda, Xavier; Novara, Agata; Francos, Marcos; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesus; Bogunovic, Igor; Khaledian, Yones

    2017-04-01

    In post-fire environments ash has important benefits for soils, such as protection and source of nutrients, crucial for vegetation recuperation (Jordan et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2015a; 2016a,b). The thickness and distribution of ash are fundamental aspects for soil protection (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Pereira et al., 2015b) and the severity at which was produced is important for the type and amount of elements that is released in soil solution (Bodi et al., 2014). Ash is very mobile material, and it is important were it will be deposited. Until the first rainfalls are is very mobile. After it, bind in the soil surface and is harder to erode. Mapping ash properties in the immediate period after fire is complex, since it is constantly moving (Pereira et al., 2015b). However, is an important task, since according the amount and type of ash produced we can identify the degree of soil protection and the nutrients that will be dissolved. The objective of this work is to apply to map ash properties (CaCO3, pH, and select extractable elements) using a principal component analysis (PCA) in the immediate period after the fire. Four days after the fire we established a grid in a 9x27 m area and took ash samples every 3 meters for a total of 40 sampling points (Pereira et al., 2017). The PCA identified 5 different factors. Factor 1 identified high loadings in electrical conductivity, calcium, and magnesium and negative with aluminum and iron, while Factor 3 had high positive loadings in total phosphorous and silica. Factor 3 showed high positive loadings in sodium and potassium, factor 4 high negative loadings in CaCO3 and pH, and factor 5 high loadings in sodium and potassium. The experimental variograms of the extracted factors showed that the Gaussian model was the most precise to model factor 1, the linear to model factor 2 and the wave hole effect to model factor 3, 4 and 5. The maps produced confirm the patternd observed in the experimental variograms. Factor 1 and 2

  14. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  15. Effect of addition of bottom ash on the rheological properties of fly ash slurry at varying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K.; Kumar, S.; Gupta, M.; Garg, H. C.

    2016-09-01

    Presently, fly ash is transporting through slurry pipeline in the thermal power plant. Aim of the present investigation is to examine the rheological behaviour of finer particle (fly ash) slurry suspension with and without addition of coarser particles (bottom ash). Mixture of fly and bottom ash is taken with proportion of 9:1, 8:2 and 7:3 (by weight). The temperature of slurry suspension is varying from 25 to 40°C at solid concentration 30 % (by weight). Rheological tests are conducted with the variation of shear rate from 100 to 300 sec-1 for all slurry samples. Addition of coarse particles of bottom ash in finer particles of fly ash slurry, leads to improve the rheological characteristics of slurry suspension. The addition of bottom ash can result substantial saving in energy consumption with reduction in relative viscosity.

  16. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, A.T.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2012-01-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialy......Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through...... the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even...... consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted...

  17. Fundamental study of low-NOx combustion fly ash utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.

    1998-01-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives

  18. Coal ash usage in environmental restoration at the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scanlon, P.L.; Sonnichsen, J.C.; Phillips, S.J.

    1994-08-01

    The ash stockpiled next to the 284E steam plant is mixed fly ash, bottom ash, and slag. The ash consists of (1) baghouse residue and (2) a mixture of bottom ash and slag which is washed out of the bottom of the boilers daily. In 1991, a Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on several samples of this ash (Hazen Research 1991). This procedure is designed to determine the mobility of organic and inorganic anatytes present in liquid, solid, or multiphasic wastes (EPA 1994). The ash tested came from surge bins, conveyor samples, and bottom ash and fly ash from the boilers at 284E. Antimony, cadmium, germanium, molybdenum, silver, thallium, tungsten, and vanadium were tested for, but on all samples were below detection Limits for the testing method. Analytes present in relatively high concentrations (but less than one part per thousand) included barium, boron, chromium, fluorine, and zinc. The size of ash particles passing through a Taylor sieve series was very evenly distributed from 1 to 200m.

  19. Treatment of fly ash from power plants using thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al-Mayman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash from power plants is very toxic because it contains heavy metals. In this study fly ash was treated with a thermal plasma. Before their treatment, the fly ash was analyzed by many technics such as X-ray fluorescence, CHN elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. With these technics, the composition, the chemical and physical proprieties of fly ash are determined. The results obtained by these analysis show that fly ash is mainly composed of carbon, and it contains also sulfur and metals such as V, Ca, Mg, Na, Fe, Ni, and Rh. The scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that fly ash particles are porous and have very irregular shapes with particle sizes of 20–50 μm. The treatment of fly ash was carried out in a plasma reactor and in two steps. In the first step, fly ash was treated in a pyrolysis/combustion plasma system to reduce the fraction of carbon. In the second step, the product obtained by the combustion of fly ash was vitrified in a plasma furnace. The leaching results show that the fly ash was detoxified by plasma vitrification and the produced slag is amorphous and glassy.

  20. Ash and burn control through fishbones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, V.; Miley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal alphas will accumulate in the center of the ignited thermonuclear plasma in the long pulse experiments. This accumulation increases the Z{sub eff} leading to increased synchrotron losses and decreases the effective fuel density which reduces the power output. Also the ignited plasma is burn-unstable and its temperature is expected to increase above the design point until a stable equilibrium is reached at a higher temperature. This higher operating temperature is not expected to be beneficial. Thus we are faced with the dual problem of ash accumulation and thermonuclear burn instability in the steadily burning tokamak plasma. So some means of controlling them is desirable. Several control schemes for both problems have been proposed. But it is felt that we need alternatives with more desirable characteristics. In this paper, we explore the use of fishbones' as possible scheme that will achieve the dual purpose of ash and burn control. 3 refs.

  1. Production of ceramics from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angjusheva Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense ceramics are produced from fly ash from REK Bitola, Republic of Macedonia. Four types of fly ash from electro filters and one from the collected zone with particles < 0.063 mm were the subject of this research. Consolidation was achieved by pressing (P= 133 MPa and sintering (950, 1000, 1050 and 11000C and heating rates of 3 and 100/min. Densification was realized by liquid phase sintering and solid state reaction where diopside [Ca(Mg,Al(Si,Al2O6] was formed. Ceramics with optimal properties (porosity 2.96±0.5%, bending strength - 47.01±2 MPa, compressive strength - 170 ±5 MPa was produced at 1100ºC using the heating rate of 10ºC/min.

  2. Fly ash as a liming material for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Gene; Dunn, David

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of fly ash from a coal combustion electric power facility on soil acidity in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. Fresh fly ash was applied to a Bosket fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Mollic Hapludalf) soil with an initial soil pH(salt) of 4.8. The fly ash was equivalent to 42 g kg(-1) calcium carbonate with 97% passing through a 60 mesh (U.S. standard) sieve. Fly ash was applied one day before cotton planting in 1999 at 0, 3.4, 6.7, and 10.1 Mg ha(-1). No fly ash was applied in 2000. Within 60 d of fly ash application in 1999, all rates of fly ash significantly increased soil pH above 6.0. Manganese levels in cotton petioles were reduced significantly by 6.7 and 10.1 Mg ha(-1) of fly ash. Soil boron (B) and sodium (Na) concentrations were significantly increased with fly ash. In 1999, B in cotton leaves ranged from 72 to 84 mg kg(-1) in plots with fly ash applications. However, no visual symptoms of B toxicity in plants were observed. In 1999, cotton lint yield decreased on average 12 kg ha(-1) for each Mg of fly ash applied. In 2000, cotton yields were significantly greater for the residual 3.4 and 6.7 Mg fly ash ha(-1) plots than the untreated check. Due to the adverse yield effects measured in the first year following application, fly ash would not be a suitable soil amendment for cotton on this soil at this time.

  3. Paving Geopolimer Berbahan Dasar Bottom Ash dan Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Freddya Eka Prasandha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak— Penelitian ini berfokus pada pemanfaatan bottom ash sebagai bahan dasar pembuatan paving geopolimer. Diketahui bahwa bottom ash merupakan limbah hasil pembakaran batu bara yang jarang dimanfaatkan dibandingkan dengan fly ash. Selain itu digunakan SCBA (Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash sebagai sumber silika aktif untuk menambah kandungan silika pada bottom ash. Agregat atau filler pada paving geopolimer menggunakan abu batu, sedangkan untuk binder (pengikat menggunakan larutan alkali aktifator. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa semakin banyak penambahan berat SCBA pada paving geopolimer justru menurunkan kualitas dari paving tersebut. Dari pengujian kuat tekan paving diperoleh hasil kuat tekan maksimal pada umur 28 hari dengan penambahan berat SCBA 0%, yaitu sebesar 11.60 MPa. Nilai keausan paling besar terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 35%, yaitu yaitu sebesar 3.12 mm/menit, sedangkan keausan paling kecil terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 30% yaitu sebesar 0.72 mm/menit, terjadi ketimpangan nilai keausan paving dikarenakan benda uji terendam banjir sehingga menyebabkan perbedaan kualitas antar paving dalam pengujian keausan, sedangkan resapan air paving paling kecil terjadi pada paving dengan penambahan berat SCBA 0% yaitu sebesar 10.58%. Sehingga diperoleh kesimpulan akhir bahwa paving geopolimer tidak memenuhi persyaratan standar paving berdasarkan SNI 03-0691-1996 namun memenuhi syarat untuk dijadikan bata sebagai pasangan dinding kelas I berdasarkan SNI 03-0349-1989.

  4. Mineralogy of Indian coal fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.; Sahu, K.C.; Powell, M.A.; Hart, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    Samples of ash obtained from a number of Indian thermal plants, from various points of collection have been chemically analysed and their stoichiometric mineral compositions have been calculated. Mineralogical constituents have also been determined by X-ray analysis as well as observed under optical microscope. The results have been compared. Formation of various mineral phases have been discussed and their environmental implication in solid waste disposal has been pointed out. (author). 22 refs

  5. Ash plume top height estimation using AATSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Virtanen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm is presented for the estimation of volcanic ash plume top height using the stereo view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR aboard Envisat. The algorithm is based on matching top of the atmosphere (TOA reflectances and brightness temperatures of the nadir and 55° forward views, and using the resulting parallax to obtain the height estimate. Various retrieval parameters are discussed in detail, several quality parameters are introduced, and post-processing methods for screening out unreliable data have been developed. The method is compared to other satellite observations and in situ data. The proposed algorithm is designed to be fully automatic and can be implemented in operational retrieval algorithms. Combined with automated ash detection using the brightness temperature difference between the 11 and 12 μm channels, the algorithm allows efficient simultaneous retrieval of the horizontal and vertical dispersion of volcanic ash. A case study on the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 is presented.

  6. Protein-Rich Fraction of Cnidoscolus urens (L. Arthur Leaves: Enzymatic Characterization and Procoagulant and Fibrinogenolytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamara A. S. de Menezes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Proteolytic enzymes are important macromolecules in the regulation of biochemical processes in living organisms. Additionally, these versatile biomolecules have numerous applications in the industrial segment. In this study we have characterized a protein-rich fraction of Cnidoscolus urens (L. Arthur leaves, rich in proteolytic enzymes, and evaluated its effects on the coagulation cascade. Three protein-rich fractions were obtained from the crude extract of C. urens leaves by precipitation with acetone. Fraction F1.0 showed higher proteolytic activity upon azocasein, and thus, was chosen for subsequent tests. The proteolytic activity of F1.0 on fibrinogen was dose-dependent and time-dependent. The extract demonstrated procoagulant activity on citrated plasma and reduced the APTT, not exerting effects on PT. Despite the fibrin(ogenolytic activity, F1.0 showed no defibrinogenating activity in vivo. The fraction F1.0 did not express hemorrhagic nor hemolytic activities. The proteolytic activity was inhibited by E-64, EDTA and in the presence of metal ions, and increased when pretreated with reducing agents, suggesting that the observed activity was mostly due to cysteine proteases. Several bands with proteolytic activity were detected by zymography with gelatin, albumin and fibrinogen. The optimal enzymatic activity was observed in temperature of 60 °C and pH 5.0, demonstrating the presence of acidic proteases. In conclusion, these results could provide basis for the pharmacological application of C. urens proteases as a new source of bioactive molecules to treat bleeding and thrombotic disorders.

  7. Arthur Posnansky y su Obsesion Milenaria. Biografia lntelectual de un Pionero, by Carlos Ponce Sangines, 1994, La Paz: Producciones Cima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available Ponce proposes to develop an intellectual history of Posnansky, whom many view as the father of Bolivian archaeology, which he hopes will contribute to the establishment of context for the development of local prehistory. However, for the most part, the volume serves more as a foil for Ponce to refer to his own work and publications, as they update, contradict, and improve on the earlier archaeological reconstructions of Posnansky. Arthur Posnansky (1873-1946 was an important contributor to Bolivian culture history, being not only a pioneer in Bolivian archaeology, but also in Bolivian cinematography, in the development of the national park system, and in the introduction of the first automobile into Bolivia. He was trained as a naval engineer in his native Vienna, a skill which he quickly parlayed into a fortune in Bolivia in the rubber boom, in terms of transporting the latex by river transport. With the loss of Arce to Brazil in 1903, he shifted his focus to other fields. He brought the first gasoline-powered motorboat to Lake Titicaca that year, and while visiting the excavations of the French Crequi-Montfort and Senechal de La Grange Mission, under the direction of George Courty, during trips to the lake, he became very intrigued with the site of Tiwanaku and its place in Bolivian prehistory. Posnansky shortly thereafter began his extensive collection of material artifacts from Tiwanaku, constructing the -"Palacio Tihuanacu" in 1917-1918 to house the stela, ceramics and other materials which he collected. This structure and its collections were subsequently sold to the state, becoming the current Museo Nacional de Arqueologia.

  8. Causes of unity and disunity in Psychology and Behaviorism: An encounter with Arthur W. Staats' Psychological Behaviorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Virués-Ortega

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio teórico se presenta la síntesis de varias entrevistas mantenidas con Arthur W. Staats. Durante los últimos cincuenta años A. W. Staats ha realizado relevantes contribuciones en psicología del desarrollo, psicología del aprendizaje, comportamiento emocional, lenguaje, teoría conductual y unificación teórica de la psicología, entre otras áreas. Su propuesta teórica, el conductismo Psicológico, se presenta como un marco no ecléctico de unificación entre conductismo y psicología. En el presente documento se discuten especialmente: (a aspectos históricos del desarrollo del conductismo, incluyendo las similitudes e influencias entre conductismos de primera, segunda y tercera generación, (b fragmentación teórica en Psicología, (c papel del eclecticismo como marco artificial para la unificación de la Psicología, (d unificación de la Psicología, (e distinciones entre conductismo radical y paradigmático con respecto a análisis funcional, conducta emocional, concepción teórica del vínculo entre investigación básica y aplicada, y (f conceptos clave del conductismo psicológico (e.g. repertorios básicos de conducta, teoría de las tres funciones del estímulo, teoría multinivel, método experimental-longitudinal, uso conductual de tests psicométricos, teoría paradigmático-conductista de la inteligencia.

  9. Update to the legend of the reconnaissance soil map of Espírito Santo state and the implementation of Geobases interface for data usage in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexson de Mello Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was the upgrade of soil mapping units defined in surveys published by the Radambrasil/ IBGE in 1983 and 1987, with the main focus on the clas - ses of soils. To accomplish this, data from representative soil profiles of those surveys were used to classify them in the current Brazilian Classification System. The mapping units which do not have representative profiles were updated based solely on the direct correlation between the denomination used in the old and current classification. This work has also updated the legend of the reconnaissance soil map. The layer of information related to soil, in shape format, containing an attribute table with data regarding mapping units and the respective updated legends (taxonomy, symbols and colors is currently available and can be downloaded by the general public using the Geobases browser. A specific geographic interface for the partners of Geobases dedicated to soil studies has also been created. This interface allows the analysis, acquisition and input of new data, which contributes to the non-duplication of efforts and financial resources on activities of surveying, registering and maintenance of geospatial database related to soils in the State

  10. Occupational exposure and DNA strand breakage of workers in bottom ash recovery and fly ash treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Chen, I-Ju; Chia, Tai-Pao

    2010-02-15

    Various environmental hazards and metals are liberated either into bottom ash or carried away with gases and subsequently trapped in fly ash. Many studies have reported an increase of DNA damage is related to hazardous exposure of municipal waste incinerators. By detecting DNA damage, we compared the DNA migration imposed in workers potentially exposed to hazardous substances, including PCDD/Fs, metals, and silica particles, at a bottom ash recovery plant and fly ash treatment plants in Taiwan. Higher tail moment (TMOM) was found in workers at fly ash treatment plants (7.55) than in the workers in bottom ash plants (2.64), as well as those in blue collar was higher than in white collar workers (5.72 vs. 3.95). Meanwhile, the significantly higher DNA damage was also shown in workers with high integrated exposure score than those with low. The air samplings for particle mass, Cr, and Al concentrations also showed the higher levels in fly ash treatment plants than in the workers in bottom ash plants. Meanwhile, the air samplings inside the two plants suggested that the particle size might be important to affect the workers inhaling the metal into the human body and finally caused to their DNA damage. The data concluded that an elevated DNA damage may be expected in workers at fly ash treatment plants than those at bottom ash plants; however, the occupational hazards in both types of plants, especially at different particle size interval, need more thorough assessment in future studies.

  11. Three-year progression of emerald ash borer-induced decline and mortality in southeastern Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal J.K. Gandhi; Annemarie Smith; Robert P. Long; Robin A.J. Taylor; Daniel A. Herms

    2008-01-01

    We monitored the progression of ash (Fraxinus spp.) decline and mortality due to emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, in 38 forest stands in the upper Huron River watershed region of southeastern Michigan from 2004-2007. Black ash (F. nigra), green ash (F. pennsylvanica), and white ash...

  12. Ecological and Topographic Features of Volcanic Ash-Influenced Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Kimsey; Brian Gardner; Alan Busacca

    2007-01-01

    Volcanic ash distribution and thickness were determined for a forested region of north-central Idaho. Mean ash thickness and multiple linear regression analyses were used to model the effect of environmental variables on ash thickness. Slope and slope curvature relationships with volcanic ash thickness varied on a local spatial scale across the study area. Ash...

  13. Genetic transformation of Fraxinus spp. for resistance to the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula M. Pijut; Rochelle R. Beasley; Kaitlin J. Palla

    2010-01-01

    The emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (Coleoptera; Buprestidae) is a wood-boring beetle that poses substantial risk to the ash resource in North America. Ash species native to the United States and known to be susceptible to EAB are Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash), F. americana (white ash...

  14. Crowdsourcing genomic analyses of ash and ash dieback – power to the people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean Dan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ash dieback is a devastating fungal disease of ash trees that has swept across Europe and recently reached the UK. This emergent pathogen has received little study in the past and its effect threatens to overwhelm the ash population. In response to this we have produced some initial genomics datasets and taken the unusual step of releasing them to the scientific community for analysis without first performing our own. In this manner we hope to ‘crowdsource’ analyses and bring the expertise of the community to bear on this problem as quickly as possible. Our data has been released through our website at oadb.tsl.ac.uk and a public GitHub repository.

  15. Chemical and Physical Characterization of Fly Ash as Geopolymer Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risdanareni Puput

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on finding suitable cement substitute material becomes massive due to environmental effect. Geopolymer as inorganic material is potential to be the smart solution to overcome global warming issue. Fly ash is a waste material rich in silica and alumina becomes popular raw material to produce geopolymer. The best properties ofgeopolymer paste come from the high quality of fly ash. Therefore, it is important to investigate various types of fly ash and geopolymer properties. Their chemical and physical properties characterized by XRF, pH value, XRD and SEM. The results showed that type of fly ash depended on amount of Si-based of Ca-based compound which consisted of spherical morphology. Geopolymer paste produced from the ash with different compound has bulky and irregular shape morphology. The pH value of each ash has also a correlation with the setting time of fresh paste.

  16. Vitrification of bottom ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y; Oorsprong, M; Yang, Y; Voncken, J H L

    2008-01-01

    During incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), various environmentally harmful elements and heavy metals are liberated either into bottom ash, or carried away with the off-gases and subsequently trapped in fly-ash. If these minor but harmful elements are not properly isolated and immobilized, it can lead to secondary environmental pollution to the air, soil and water. The stricter environmental regulations to be implemented in the near future in The Netherlands require a higher immobilization efficiency of the bottom ash treatment. In the present study, MSW incinerator bottom ash was vitrified at higher temperatures and the slag formed and metal recovered were examined. The behaviour of soluble elements that remain in the slag is evaluated by standard leaching test. The results obtained can provide a valuable route to treat the ashes from incinerators, and to make recycling and more efficient utilization of the bottom ash possible.

  17. Moessbauer Studies of Thermal Power Plant Coal and Fly Ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneja, S. P.

    2004-01-01

    Iron-57 Moessbauer spectroscopic studies were carried out at room temperature on samples of coal, slag (bottom ash) and mechanical ash collected from Bhatinda (India) thermal power plant. Hyperfine parameters such as isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and total internal magnetic field of 57 Fe nuclei were used to characterize various iron-bearing minerals. The observed parameters indicate the presence of pyrite, siderite and ankerite in coal sample while magnetic fractions of mechanical ash and slag samples show the formation of hematite and Al-substituted magnesio-ferrite. The non-magnetic fraction of slag ash shows the dominance of Fe 2+ phases while that of mechanical ash demonstrates the formation of both Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ phases. These findings are compared with Moessbauer and magnetic susceptibility studies on fly ash samples of Panipat (India) thermal power plant reported earlier.

  18. Strontium isotopic characterization of soils and coal ashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattigod, S.V.; Rai, D.; Fruchcter, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratios and Rb and Sr concentrations were measured for a number of soils and samples of coal-derived fly and bottom ashes. Fly and bottom ashes from a given coal rank are similar in their concentrations of Rb and Sr and their 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. Values of 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratios of ashes decrease in the order bituminous > subbituminous > lignitic, reflecting the decreasing rank of parent coals. The 87 Sr/ 86 Sr isotopic ratios of soils vary widely, differing significantly only from the ratios observed for lignitic ashes. The results indicate that the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr values may be used as a tracer for detecting dispersion of lignitic ashes on soils. In these coal ashes, the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios of the biogeologically available fraction of Sr are linearly correlated with the logarithm of the Sr concentrations, the logarithm of the Rb/Sr ratios, and the Rb concentrations. (author)

  19. Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Hougaard

    2008-01-01

    Application of Fly Ash from Solid Fuel Combustion in Concrete Kim H. Pedersen Abstract Industrial utilization of fly ash from pulverized coal combustion plays an important role in environmentally clean and cost effective power generation. Today, the primary market for fly ash utilization...... is as pozzolanic additive in the production of concrete. However, the residual carbon in fly ash can adsorb the air entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete in order to increase its workability and resistance toward freezing and thawing conditions. The problem has increased...... with implementation of low-NOx combustion technologies. The present thesis concerns three areas of importance within this field: 1) testing of fly ash adsorption behavior; 2) the influence of fuel type and combustion conditions on the ash adsorption behaviour including full-scale experiments at the power plant...

  20. Biofuel Combustion Fly Ash Influence on the Properties of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Daugėla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cement as the binding agent in the production of concrete can be replaced with active mineral admixtures. Biofuel combustion fly ash is one of such admixtures. Materials used for the study: Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, sand of 0/4 fraction, gravel of 4/16 fraction, biofuel fly ash, superplasticizer, water. Six compositions of concrete were designed by replacing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% 20%, and 25% of cement with biofuel fly ash. The article analyses the effect of biofuel fly ash content on the properties of concrete. The tests revealed that the increase of biofuel fly ash content up to 20% increases concrete density and compressive strength after 7 and 28 days of curing and decreases water absorption, with corrected water content by using plasticizing admixture. It was found that concrete where 20% of cement is replaced by biofuel ash has higher frost resistance.

  1. Wood ash as a soil additive and liming agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.; Etiegni, L.; Mahler, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated wood ash as an agricultural soil supplement and liming material. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and poplar (Populus sp.) were grown in a greenhouse on six different Idaho soils amended with different ash concentrations. At ash levels equal to or lower than 2%, no detrimental effects were observed. In fact, the biomass of the wheat and the caliper and height of the poplar cuttings increased more at 2% ash 940 metric tons/ha than with the control soil. These results suggest that wood ash could be used in agricultural applications as a low analysis fertilizer containing potassium and as a liming agent. Land application of wood ash could be less expensive and more environmentally sound than present landfilling practices

  2. Acidolysis of coal fly ash by Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torma, A.E.; Singh, A.K. (EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Center for Biological Processing Technology)

    1993-12-01

    The kinetics of aluminium extraction were investigated, using as-received and calcined fly ash samples and a pure culture of [ital Aspergillus niger]. This fungus metabolized sucrose to citric and oxalic acids, which were involved in the acidolysis of fly ash. Aluminium extraction from as-received fly ash was only 5-8%, whereas from calcined fly ash it was up to 93.5%. The order of reaction and the overall reaction rate constant were determined by the van't Hoff technique with respect to the concentration of calcined fly ash. A linearized form of a modified Monod expression was applied to the experimental data to assess the kinetic constants for the acidolysis process. Statistically designed experiments were carried out with calcined fly ash and synthetic solutions containing citric and oxalic acids to determine the optimum leaching conditions. The acidolysis reaction mechanism is discussed. 28 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Tensile Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits: Effect of the Temperature Gradient and Ash Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Nair, Akhilesh Balachandran; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2018-01-01

    Replacing coal with biomass in power plants is a viable option for reducing net CO2 emissions and combating climate change. However, biomass combustion in boilers may exacerbate problems related to ash deposition and corrosion, demanding effective deposit removal. The tensile adhesion strength....... Furthermore, migration of molten/vapor species from the outer layer of the depositto the deposit–tube interface, causing liquid-state sintering, was observed at high flue gas temperatures, leading to an increase in the tensile adhesion strength. Varying the ash chemistry of the model deposits revealed...

  4. Removal mechanism of phosphate from aqueous solution by fly ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, S G; Bai, S Q; Zhu, L; Shan, H D

    2009-01-15

    This work studied the effectiveness of fly ash in removing phosphate from aqueous solution and its related removal mechanism. The adsorption and precipitation of phosphate by fly ash were investigated separately in order to evaluate their role in the removal of phosphate. Results showed that the removal of phosphate by fly ash was rapid. The removal percentage of phosphate in the first 5min reached 68-96% of the maximum removal of phosphate by fly ash. The removal processes of phosphate by fly ash included a fast and large removal representing precipitation, then a slower and longer removal due to adsorption. The adsorption of phosphate on fly ash could be described well by Freundlich isotherm equation. The pH and Ca2+ concentration of fly ash suspension were decreased with the addition of phosphate, which suggests that calcium phosphate precipitation is a major mechanism of the phosphate removal. Comparison of the relative contribution of the adsorption and precipitation to the total removal of phosphate by fly ash showed that the adsorption accounted for 30-34% of the total removal of phosphate, depending on the content of CaO in fly ash. XRD patterns of the fly ash before and after phosphate adsorption revealed that phosphate salt (CaHPO4 x 2H2O) was formed in the adsorption process. Therefore, the removal of phosphate by fly ash can be attributed to the formation of phosphate precipitation as a brushite and the adsorption on hydroxylated oxides. The results suggested that the use of fly ash could be a promising solution to the removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment and pollution control.

  5. Utilization of ash from municipal solid waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.; Hahn, J.; Magee, B.; Yuen, N.; Sandefur, K.; Tom, J.; Yap, C.

    1999-09-01

    This ash study investigated the beneficial use of municipal waste combustion combined ash from the H-POWER facility in Oahu. These uses were grouped into intermediate cover for final closure of the Waipahu landfill, daily cover at the Waimanalo Gulch Landfill, and partial replacement for aggregate in asphalt for road paving. All proposed uses examine combined fly and bottom ash from a modern waste-to-energy facility that meets requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments for Maximum Achievable Control Technology.

  6. Geoenvironmental aspects of coal refuse-fly ash blends

    OpenAIRE

    Albuquerque, Allwyn J.

    1994-01-01

    The separate land disposal of coal refuse and fly ash presents difficulties throughout the Appalachian region, both in terms of disposal costs per acre and in terms of its potential environmental impacts on soil, ground water, revegetation, and slope stability. The purpose of this study was to determine how fly ash addition to coal refuse would impact on certain geotechnical properties of the refuse disposal piles, and whether the refuse-fly ash blends would be suitable as co-d...

  7. Ash chemistry and sintering, verification of the mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In this project four sintering mechanisms have been studied, i.e., partial melting with a viscous liquid, partial melting with a non-viscous liquid, chemical reaction sintering and solid state sintering. The work has aimed at improving the understanding of ash sintering mechanisms and quantifying their role in combustion and gasification. The work has been oriented in particular on the understanding of biomass ash behavior. The work has not directly focused on any specific technical application. However, results can also be applied on other fuels such as brown coal, petroleum coke, black liquor and different types of wastes (PDF, RDF, MSW). In one part of study the melting behavior was calculated for ten biomass ashes and compared with lab measurements of sintering tendencies. The comparison showed that the T{sub 15} temperatures, i.e. those temperatures at which the ashes contained 15 % molten phase, correlated fairly well with the temperature at which the sintering measurements detected sintering. This suggests that partial melting can be predicted fairly accurate for some ashes already with the today existing thermodynamic calculation routines. In some cases, however the melting calculations did not correlate with the detected sintering temperatures. In a second part detailed measurements on ash behavior was conducted both in a semi full scale CFB and a lab scale FBC. Ashes and deposits were collected and analyzed in several different ways. These analyses show that the ash chemistry shifts radically when the fuel is shifted. Fuels with silicate based ashes behaved totally different than those with an oxide or salt based ash. The chemistry was also affected by fuel blending. The ultimate goal has been to be able to predict the ash thermal behavior during biomass thermal conversion, using the fuel and ash elemental analyses and a few operational key parameters as the only input data. This goal has not yet today been achieved. (author)

  8. Thermal stability of nano structured fly ash synthesized by high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to modify the micro sized fly ash into nano structured fly ash using High Energy Ball Mill. The smooth, glassy and an inert surface of the fly ash can be altered to a rough and more reactive state by this technique. Ball milling was carried out for the total duration of 30 hours. The sample ...

  9. A radoilogical evaluation of fly ash in cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranden, E.

    1981-01-01

    The radiological consequences of using fly ash as a component of cement are discussed. Measurements of the activity concentrations of emanation coefficients and exhalation rates. The radon exhalation rate was found to be significantly lower in concrete containing fly ash than in ordinary concrete. Dose calculations suggest that the fly ash will contribute to a reduction in effec- tive dose equivalent due to the reduced radon exhalation rate. (Auth)

  10. Ash accumulation effects using bench marked 0-D model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.C.; Guo, J.P.; Miley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Ash accumulation is a key issue relative to our ability to achieve D- 3 He ARIES III burn conditions. 1-1/2-d transport simulations using the BALDUR code have been used to examine the correlation between the global ash particle confinement time and the edge exhaust (or recycling) efficiency. This provides a way to benchmark the widely used 0-D model. The burn conditions for an ARIES-III plasma with various ash edge recycling coefficients are examined

  11. A Crítica da Economia Política e a Nova Dialética: Marx, Hegel e o Problema da Tese da Homologia de Christopher J. Arthur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Louisa Lange

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a Nova Dialética de Christopher J. Arthur tem tido um forte impacto sobre os estudos de Marx no mundo anglófono, destacando a correlação da dialética sistemática de Hegel (não histórica com a obra central de Marx, O Capital, e, especialmente, na teoria de Marx da forma de valor. Ele afirma que as categorias da Lógica de Hegel e aquelas do início de O Capital de Marx mostram uma homologia impressionante [...] à luz de algum trabalho de reconstrução menor. (Arthur, 2004, p. 4. Este ensaio critica a leitura de Arthur de Marx e, especialmente, de Hegel contra o background das importantes contribuições para os estudos de Hegel das últimas décadas. Estes estudos foram pioneiros na teoria da dialética e na teoria das categorias, na sistematização da estrutura antinômica do conceito e o problema do pressuposto semântico-pragmático (semantisch-pragmatischer Präsuppositionsbegriff da exposição científica. Não obstante o seu caráter fundamental para um tratamento erudito e para a compreensão da dialética de Hegel, essas abordagens estão ausentes na intervenção de Arthur. Isto, como será mostrado, tem graves consequências para 1 a leitura de Arthur da Lógica de Hegel, 2 a aplicação de Arthur da dialética de Hegel para a apresentação da forma de valor de Marx e 3 a suprassunção de Marx em Hegel desenvolvida por Arthur. Será argumentado que o não-reconhecimento de Arthur do método dialético de Hegel também afeta negativamente o entendimento de Arthur do escopo e intenção do projeto crítico de Marx, especialmente a necessária relação interna entre trabalho abstrato, valor e dinheiro no início de O Capital vol. 1.

  12. Legender om Norden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2015-01-01

    Gennem Middelalderen og indtil nyere tid har Skandinavien altid fremstået som et land i det fjerne - et udkants-Europa, om man vil. Hvis Skandinavien blev omtalt, var det ofte i forbindelse med de brutale vikingetogter der hærgede kontinentet og ikke mindst England... Weekendavisen, Sektion: 4...

  13. Strength Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Quarry Dust Stabilized Fly Ash

    OpenAIRE

    Akshaya Kumar Sabat; Bidula Bose

    2015-01-01

    Effects of quarry dust and polypropylene fiber on compaction properties, shear strength parameters, and California bearing ratio (CBR) of a fly ash have been discussed in this paper. Quarry dust was added to a fly ash from 0 to 60% at an increment of 10%, compaction and soaked CBR tests were conducted on fly ash-quarry dust mixes and the optimum percentage of quarry dust was found out to be 40%. Polypropylene fiber was added to fly ash stabilized with optimum percentage of quarry dust, from 0...

  14. Fresh Bottom Ash Characteristics Dependence on Fractional Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita Seniūnaitė

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Waste incineration process generates two main by-products streams: fly ash and bottom ash. Bottom ash is composed of a variety of oxides, heavy metals and salts. Chemical materials distributed unevenly in different fractions of bottom ash. This study investigates the heavy metals (Pb, Cd content dependence of bottom ash and fraction composition. Studies were performed with five different fractions (0–2 mm; 2–5.6 mm; 5.6–11.2 mm; 11.2–22,4 mm; 22.4–40 mm of fresh bottom ash. After a one-step leaching test (distilled water was used as a solvent, was determinate, that highest concentrations of the lead (Pb (from 0.141 to 0.146 mg/l are leached from the smallest (0–2 mm 2–5.6 mm bottom ash fractions particles. Heavy metals concentration in these fractions eluates respectively was 2.83 and 2.91 times higher than the limit value of leaching. The highest concentration of cadmium (4.214 mg/l was determinate in 0–2 mm fraction bottom ash eluate. concentration of cadmium was 1.40 times higher than the limit value of leaching. It can be concluded that 0–2 mm; 2–5.6 mm fraction bottom ash can’t be used in civil engineering, without pre-treatment (eg. washing or aging.

  15. Creep Behaviour of Fly Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wallah S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete is manufactured using fly ash as its source material and does not use Portland cement at all. Beside fly ash, alkaline solution is also utilized to make geopolymer paste which binds the aggregates to form geopolymer concrete. This paper presents the study of creep behaviour of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Four series of specimens with various compressive strengths were prepared to study its creep behaviour for the duration of test up to one year. The te...

  16. Multitechnique multielemental analysis of coal and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    The coal sample is first ashed with high temperature ashing or with RF plasma low temperature ashing. The coal ash or fly ash can be analyzed for major ash elements by fusing with lithium tetraborate in an automatic fusion device, the Claisse Fluxer. The ash samples are also dissolved in a Parr bomb in a mixture of aqua regia and HF. Subsequently, the solutions are analyzed for eight major (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, and Ti) and 20 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, U, V, and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Mercury in coal and fly ash is determined on a separate aliquot by the cold vapor atomic absorption technique. Fluorine and chlorine in the samples are determined by fusing with Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and Eschka mixture, respectively, and then measuring the two ions in solution with specific ion electrodes. Oxygen in the samples can be determined rapidly and nondestructively by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis. These methods have been tested by analyzing several NBS coal and fly ash standards with good accuracy and reproducibility. 10 tables.

  17. Multitechnique multielemental analysis of coal and fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadkarni, R.A.

    1980-05-01

    The coal sample is first ashed with high temperature ashing or with RF plasma low temperature ashing. The coal ash or fly ash can be analyzed for major ash elements by fusing with lithium tetraborate in an automatic fusion device, the Claisse Fluxer. The ash samples are also dissolved in a Parr bomb in a mixture of aqua regia and HF. Subsequently, the solutions are analyzed for eight major (Al,Ca,Fe,K,Mg,Na,Si and Ti) and 20 trace elements (As,B,Ba,Be,Cd,Co,Cr,Cu,Li, Mn,Mo,Ni,P,Pb,Sb,Se,Sr,U,V,and Zn) by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Mercury in coal and fly ash is determined on a separate aliquot by the cold vapor atomic absorption technique. Fluorine and chlorine in the samples are determined by fusing with Na2CO3 and Eschka mixture, respectively, and then measuring the two ions in solution with specific ion electrodes. Oxygen in the samples can be determined rapidly and nondestructively by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis. These methods have been tested by analyzing several NBS coal and fly ash standards with good accuracy and reproducibility.

  18. Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A. [Univ. of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD (United States). Dept. of Natural Sciences; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A. [Delmarva Power, Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  19. Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, A.T.

    2010-12-17

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-03-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dewatering to stabilize fly ash disposal ponds. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delaney, B.T.; Cluen, G.J.; Floess, C.

    1985-05-01

    The required removal of an inactive fly ash pond at the Seward Generating Station posed three related problems to Pennsylvania Electric Company. The saturated, unstable fly ash was difficult to excavate, to transport and to place on the disposal pile at slopes steep enough to be contained within the limited available storage area. This report describes: the performance of a limited field testing using a vacuum wellpoint dewatering system; the extrapolation of the test data into an overall dewatering scheme; the testing and monitoring performed on the fly ash and dewatering system during ash removal; and the recommended procedures to be used for applying the methods described to other fly ash ponds. The wellpoint system utilized at this site was capable of improving the condition of the fly ash to the extent that excavation of the ash could easily be performed with a tire mounted front end loader operating from the natural clay bottom of the pond. Of the initial twelve-foot average thickness of ash, the residual unstable material after dewatering was less than one foot thick. Hauling and disposal problems were also improved since the ash would no longer flow when being bumped. 21 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Sorption behaviour of some radioactive isotopes on treated fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Raouf, M.W.; El-Dessouky, M.I.; Aly, H.F.

    1997-01-01

    The uptake of the radioactive isotopes 134 Cs, 60 Co and 152 , 1 54 Eu from aqueous solutions on treated fly ash has been investigated in terms of the factors affecting the sorption using the batch method at room temperature (20 1 degree C). The selectivity order for the studied radioisotopes on the treated fly ash was found in accordance with their cationic charges, i.e., Eu 3+ > Co 2+ >> Cs + . Pyrolysis residue of domestic waste was investigated as an alternative sorbent and its sorption capability was compared with that of fly ash. The feasibility of using treated fly ash as a sorbent, has been assessed. 3 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrodialytic removal of cadmium from straw combustion fly ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    Fly ash from straw combustion contains valuable nutrients when returned to agricultural soils. In many instances, however, this fly ash may contain heavy metals, such as cadmium, at levels which often exceed the limits given by the Danish legislation. Thus before utilizing the nutrients, cadmium...... must be removed from these ashes. The use of an electrodialytic remediation method to remove cadmium from fly ash arising from straw combustion and containing 11.2 mg Cd kg$+-1$/ DM (dry matter) was accessed. After 36 days of remediation at a constant current density of 5.6 mA cm$+-2$/ more than 97...

  5. Risk assessment of replacing conventional P fertilizers with biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Lopez Garcia, Alvaro; Rubæk, Gitte H.

    2017-01-01

    in biomass ashes in a barley crop grown on soil with adequate P status. Two contrasting doses of three different types of ashes were applied to an agricultural field with spring barley and compared to similar doses of triple-superphosphate fertilizer. In the second growing season after biomass ash...... application, grain, straw and root dry matter yield, and P and Cd uptake were determined. Resin-extractable P was measured in soil and the symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal activity, colonization, and community composition were assessed. Crop yield was not affected by ash application, while P...

  6. Arthur Bispo do Rosário a arte bruta e a propagação na cultura pós-moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka de Araújo Soares

    Full Text Available O biográfico como representação de alteridades será fonte de explanação neste estudo, cujo interesse advém da considerável repercussão da produção artística de Arthur Bispo do Rosário no circuito cultural contemporâneo e da peculiar execução e expressão de sua obra, produzida mediante diretrizes da atividade delirante, tão proeminentes no decurso de sua psicose.

  7. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey, Mississippi and Florida airborne survey: Lake Charles and Port Arthur quadrangles of Louisiana and Texas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Lake Charles and Port Arthur quadrangles cover approximately 10,950 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River delta area. The area overlies thick sections of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Surficial exposures are dominated by Recent and Pleistocene sediment. A search of available literature revealed no known uranium deposits. A total of 82 uranium anomalies were detected and are discussed briefly in this report. None were considered significant and all appear to relate to cultural features. Magnetic data appear to be in agreement with existing structural interpretations of the area

  8. The relationship between the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) and ash (Fraxinus spp.) tree decline: Using visual canopy condition assessments and leaf isotope measurements to assess pest damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Flower; Kathleen S. Knight; Joanne Rebbeck; Miquel A. Gonzalez-Meler

    2013-01-01

    Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in North America are being severely impacted by the invasive emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) which was inadvertently introduced to the US in the 1990s from Asia. The emerald ash borer (EAB) is a phloem boring beetle which relies exclusively on ash trees to complete its life cycle. Larvae...

  9. Alkali content of fly ash : measuring and testing strategies for compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Sodium and potassium are the common alkalis present in fly ash. Excessive amounts of fly ash alkalis can cause efflorescence : problems in concrete products and raise concern about the effectiveness of the fly ash to mitigate alkali-silica reaction (...

  10. A review on the effect of fly ash characteristics and their variations on the synthesis of fly ash based geopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattimena, Oswyn K.; Antoni, Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2017-09-01

    There are more than four decades since the last 1970s where geopolymers concrete was first introduced and developed to use as a replacement to conventional concrete material which uses cement as a binder. And since the last two decades, geopolymers which utilized fly ash as aluminosilicate source material, i.e. fly ash based geopolymers, have been investigated. Many researchers present how to produce the best fly ash based geopolymer with a various source of constituent material as well as mixing formula to achieve exceptional concrete performance. Although there is a similar trend towards factors affecting the result of fly ash based geopolymer synthesis, there is still remain a wide range in mixture proportion. The considerable variation in fly ash characteristics as source material in the synthesis can very likely be one of the causes of this problem. This paper attempts to identify the effect of source material variation of geopolymer concrete, particularly which use fly ash as source material and focuses on the variation of its characteristics and the effects to properties of concrete. From the reviews it concluded that different sources (and even the same source, but different batch) of fly ash materials will give some different characteristics of the fly ash, where it would affect the synthesis process of the fly ash based geopolymer concretes.

  11. Effects of chemical composition of fly ash on efficiency of metal separation in ash-melting of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2013-03-01

    In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stabilize ash using Clemson's sintering process (Part 1 - Phase 1 results): Mixed waste fly ash stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Incineration of applicable Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes has produced a secondary waste stream of radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous fly ash that also requires treatment before land disposal. Unlike bottom ash, fly ash usually contains constituents making efficient stabilization difficult. For example, fly ash from the DOE Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains volatile metals, metal salts, high concentrations of zinc, and unburned organic residues. All of these constituents can effect the stabilization process. The Department of Energy, and in particular the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of EM-50, has stated the need for improved stabilization methods would accept a higher ash waste loading while meeting waste form disposal criteria. These alternative stabilization technologies should include delivery systems to minimize worker exposure and minimize secondary waste generation, while maximizing operational flexibility and radionuclide containment. Currently, the standard practice for stabilizing ash is mixing with Portland cement at room temperature. This standard practice produces a significant increase of waste material volume or has difficulty in adequately stabilizing the components in the fly ash to ensure regulatory requirements are consistently satisfied. To address these fly ash stabilization shortcomings, the MWFA, a DOE/EM-50 program, invested in the development of several fly ash stabilization alternatives, including the Clemson University sintering method

  13. Effects of water availability on emerald ash borer larval performance and phloem phenolics of Manchurian and black ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sourav; Whitehill, Justin G A; Hill, Amy L; Opiyo, Stephen O; Cipollini, Don; Herms, Daniel A; Bonello, Pierluigi

    2014-04-01

    The invasive emerald ash borer (EAB) beetle is a significant threat to the survival of North American ash. In previous work, we identified putative biochemical and molecular markers of constitutive EAB resistance in Manchurian ash, an Asian species co-evolved with EAB. Here, we employed high-throughput high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-MS) to characterize the induced response of soluble phloem phenolics to EAB attack in resistant Manchurian and susceptible black ash under conditions of either normal or low water availability, and the effects of water availability on larval performance. Total larval mass per tree was lower in Manchurian than in black ash. Low water increased larval numbers and mean larval mass overall, but more so in Manchurian ash. Low water did not affect levels of phenolics in either host species, but six phenolics decreased in response to EAB. In both ashes, pinoresinol A was induced by EAB, especially in Manchurian ash. Pinoresinol A and pinoresinol B were negatively correlated with each other in both species. The higher accumulation of pinoresinol A in Manchurian ash after attack may help explain the resistance of this species to EAB, but none of the responses measured here could explain increased larval performance in trees subjected to low water availability. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Application of Coal Ash to Postmine Land for Prevention of Soil Erosion in Coal Mine in Indonesia: Utilization of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Matsumoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of coal-fired power plants with the increase in coal production and its consumption has caused the problem of the treatment of a large amount of coal ash in Indonesia. In the past studies, coal ash was applied to postmine land with the aim of improving soil conditions for plant growth; however, heavy rain in the tropical climate may cause soil erosion with the change in soil conditions. This study presents the effects of application of coal ash to postmine land on soil erosion by performing the artificial rainfall test as well as physical testing. The results indicate that the risk of soil erosion can be reduced significantly by applying the coal ash which consists of more than 85% of sand to topsoil in the postmine land at the mixing ratio of over 30%. Additionally, they reveal that not only fine fractions but also microporous structures in coal ash enhance water retention capacity by retaining water in the structure, leading to the prevention of soil erosion. Thus, the risk of soil erosion can be reduced by applying coal ash to topsoil in consideration of soil composition and microporous structure of coal ash.

  15. Patterns among the ashes: Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and the emerald ash borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2010-01-01

    Landscape metrics, including host abundance and population density, were calculated using forest inventory and land cover data to assess the relationship between landscape pattern and the presence or absence of the emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire). The Random Forests classification algorithm in the R statistical environment was...

  16. Spectral analysis of white ash response to emerald ash borer infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Laura

    The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is an invasive insect that has killed over 50 million ash trees in the US. The goal of this research was to establish a method to identify ash trees infested with EAB using remote sensing techniques at the leaf-level and tree crown level. First, a field-based study at the leaf-level used the range of spectral bands from the WorldView-2 sensor to determine if there was a significant difference between EAB-infested white ash (Fraxinus americana) and healthy leaves. Binary logistic regression models were developed using individual and combinations of wavelengths; the most successful model included 545 and 950 nm bands. The second half of this research employed imagery to identify healthy and EAB-infested trees, comparing pixel- and object-based methods by applying an unsupervised classification approach and a tree crown delineation algorithm, respectively. The pixel-based models attained the highest overall accuracies.

  17. Modulus for the coal ash. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, V.

    1944-06-30

    This summary outlined the procedure for obtaining a modulus to determine the effects of varying ash content. This modulus was to indicate the relative amounts of aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide after addition of alkalais or alkaline-earth constituents found in catalysts. The calculation of the modulus was based upon stoichiometric ratios of these oxides to other major components of ash as represented in the major minerals in the ash. The assumptions about the conditions in low- to intermediate-temperature coking included the following: (1) magnesium oxide was found only in biotite, which contained potassium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, and water in the respective mole ratios 1:4:2:6:1. (2) Potassium oxide outside of biotite was found only in muscovite, which contained potassium oxide, aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, and water in the respective mole ratios 1:1:6:2. (3) Sodium oxide was combined only with aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide in the mole ratios 1:1:6. (4) Phosphoric acid was found as aluminum phosphate. (5) Lime was found in anortite, which contained calcium sulfate, calcium carbonate, or calcium oxide combined with aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide in the mole ratios 1:1:2. (6) Aluminum oxide and silicon dioxide existed mainly in the hydrated state with the two of them combined with water in the mole ratios 1:2:2. The completed formula for the modulus was given as M = (aluminum oxide) + (silicon dioxide) - 0.65(magnesium oxide) - 4.90(potassium oxide + sodium oxide) - 3.96(calcium oxide) - 0.72(phosphorous pentoxide), where the parentheses should be filled by numbers in weight units for the respective compounds.

  18. Synthesis of geopolymer from biomass-coal ash blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadhi, Tjokorde Walmiki; Wulandari, Winny; Prasetyo, Muhammad Iqbal; Fernando, Muhammad Rizki; Purbasari, Aprilina

    2017-09-01

    Geopolymer is an environmentally attractive Portland cement substitute, owing to its lower carbon footprint and its ability to consume various aluminosilicate waste materials as its precursors. This work describes the development of geopolymer formulation based on biomass-coal ash blends, which is predicted to be the prevalent type of waste when biomass-based thermal energy production becomes mainstream in Indonesia. The ash blends contain an ASTM Class F coal fly ash (FA), rice husk ash (RHA), and coconut shell ash (CSA). A mixture of Na2SiO3 and concentrated KOH is used as the activator solution. A preliminary experiment identified the appropriate activator/ash mass ratio to be 2.0, while the activator Na2SiO3/KOH ratio varies from 0.8 to 2.0 with increasing ash blend Si/Al ratio. Both non-blended FA and CSA are able to produce geopolymer mortars with 7-day compressive strength exceeding the Indonesian national SNI 15-2049-2004 standard minimum value of 2.0 MPa stipulated for Portland cement mortars. Ash blends have to be formulated with a maximum RHA content of approximately 50 %-mass to yield satisfactory 7-day strength. No optimum ash blend composition is identified within the simplex ternary ash blend compositional region. The strength decreases with Si/Al ratio of the ash blends due to increasing amount of unreacted silicate raw materials at the end of the geopolymer hardening period. Overall, it is confirmed that CSA and blended RHA are feasible raw materials for geopolymer production..

  19. Experimental aggregation of volcanic ash: the role of liquid bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Kueppers, U.; Jacob, M.; Ayris, P. M.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions may release vast quantities of ash. Because of its size, it has the greatest dispersal potential and can be distributed globally. Ash may pose severe risks for 1) air traffic, 2) human and animal health, 3) agriculture and 4) infrastructure. Such ash particles can however cluster and form ash aggregates that range in size from millimeters to centimeters. During their growth, weight and aerodynamic properties change. This leads to significantly changed transport and settling behavior. The physico-chemical processes involved in aggregation are quantitatively poorly constrained. We have performed laboratory ash aggregation experiments using the ProCell Lab System® of Glatt Ingenieurtechnik GmbH. Solid particles are set into motion in a fluidized bed over a range of well-controlled boundary conditions (e.g., air flow rate, gas temperature, humidity, liquid composition). In this manner we simulate the variable gas-particle flow conditions expected in eruption plumes and pyroclastic density currents. We have used 1) soda-lime glass beads as an analogue material and 2) natural volcanic ash from Laacher See Volcano (Germany). In order to influence form, size, stability and the production rate of aggregates, a range of experimental conditions (e.g., particle concentration, degree of turbulence, temperature and moisture in the process chamber and the composition of the liquid phase) have been employed. We have successfully reproduced several features of natural ash aggregates, including round, internally structured ash pellets up to 3 mm in diameter. These experimental results help to constrain the boundary conditions required for the generation of spherical, internally-structured ash aggregates that survive deposition and are preserved in the volcanological record. These results should also serve as input parameters for models of ash transport and ash mass distribution.

  20. A robust method to forecast volcanic ash clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Pavolonis, Mike; Sieglaff, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Ash clouds emanating from volcanic eruption columns often form trails of ash extending thousands of kilometers through the Earth's atmosphere, disrupting air traffic and posing a significant hazard to air travel. To mitigate such hazards, the community charged with reducing flight risk must accurately assess risk of ash ingestion for any flight path and provide robust forecasts of volcanic ash dispersal. In response to this need, a number of different transport models have been developed for this purpose and applied to recent eruptions, providing a means to assess uncertainty in forecasts. Here we provide a framework for optimal forecasts and their uncertainties given any model and any observational data. This involves random sampling of the probability distributions of input (source) parameters to a transport model and iteratively running the model with different inputs, each time assessing the predictions that the model makes about ash dispersal by direct comparison with satellite data. The results of these comparisons are embodied in a likelihood function whose maximum corresponds to the minimum misfit between model output and observations. Bayes theorem is then used to determine a normalized posterior probability distribution and from that a forecast of future uncertainty in ash dispersal. The nature of ash clouds in heterogeneous wind fields creates a strong maximum likelihood estimate in which most of the probability is localized to narrow ranges of model source parameters. This property is used here to accelerate probability assessment, producing a method to rapidly generate a prediction of future ash concentrations and their distribution based upon assimilation of satellite data as well as model and data uncertainties. Applying this method to the recent eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, we show that the 3 and 6 h forecasts of ash cloud location probability encompassed the location of observed satellite-determined ash cloud loads, providing an

  1. Penggunaan Bottom Ash Yang Telah Diolah Untuk Pembuatan Beton Hvfa Mutu Menengah

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Yohanes; Wirananda, Andry; Antoni, Antoni; Hardjito, Djwantoro

    2017-01-01

    Bottom ash merupakan limbah pembakaran batu bara dari PLTU. Di Indonesia pemanfaatan bottom ash sebagai material konstruksi belum maksimal. Terdapat potensi penggunaan bottom ash sebagai pengganti agregat halus pada beton. Dalam penelitian ini, bottom ash akan diberikan treatment ayak dan tumbuk sebelum digunakan sebagai pengganti agregat halus pada beton high volume fly ash (HVFA). Pengujian awal dilakukan dengan menguji karakteristik dari pasir Lumajang dan bottom ash yang akan dipakai sepe...

  2. Volcanic ash modeling with the NMMB-MONARCH-ASH model: quantification of offline modeling errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Alejandro; Folch, Arnau

    2018-03-01

    Volcanic ash modeling systems are used to simulate the atmospheric dispersion of volcanic ash and to generate forecasts that quantify the impacts from volcanic eruptions on infrastructures, air quality, aviation, and climate. The efficiency of response and mitigation actions is directly associated with the accuracy of the volcanic ash cloud detection and modeling systems. Operational forecasts build on offline coupled modeling systems in which meteorological variables are updated at the specified coupling intervals. Despite the concerns from other communities regarding the accuracy of this strategy, the quantification of the systematic errors and shortcomings associated with the offline modeling systems has received no attention. This paper employs the NMMB-MONARCH-ASH model to quantify these errors by employing different quantitative and categorical evaluation scores. The skills of the offline coupling strategy are compared against those from an online forecast considered to be the best estimate of the true outcome. Case studies are considered for a synthetic eruption with constant eruption source parameters and for two historical events, which suitably illustrate the severe aviation disruptive effects of European (2010 Eyjafjallajökull) and South American (2011 Cordón Caulle) volcanic eruptions. Evaluation scores indicate that systematic errors due to the offline modeling are of the same order of magnitude as those associated with the source term uncertainties. In particular, traditional offline forecasts employed in operational model setups can result in significant uncertainties, failing to reproduce, in the worst cases, up to 45-70 % of the ash cloud of an online forecast. These inconsistencies are anticipated to be even more relevant in scenarios in which the meteorological conditions change rapidly in time. The outcome of this paper encourages operational groups responsible for real-time advisories for aviation to consider employing computationally

  3. Optimizing Use of Girdled Ash Trees for Management of Low-Density Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, Nathan W; McCullough, Deborah G; Poland, Therese M; Heyd, Robert L

    2017-06-01

    Effective survey methods to detect and monitor recently established, low-density infestations of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), remain a high priority because they provide land managers and property owners with time to implement tactics to slow emerald ash borer population growth and the progression of ash mortality. We evaluated options for using girdled ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees for emerald ash borer detection and management in a low-density infestation in a forested area with abundant green ash (F. pennsylvanica). Across replicated 4-ha plots, we compared detection efficiency of 4 versus 16 evenly distributed girdled ash trees and between clusters of 3 versus 12 girdled trees. We also examined within-tree larval distribution in 208 girdled and nongirdled trees and assessed adult emerald ash borer emergence from detection trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site. Overall, current-year larvae were present in 85-97% of girdled trees and 57-72% of nongirdled trees, and larval density was 2-5 times greater on girdled than nongirdled trees. Low-density emerald ash borer infestations were readily detected with four girdled trees per 4-ha, and 3-tree clusters were as effective as 12-tree clusters. Larval densities were greatest 0.5 ± 0.4 m below the base of the canopy in girdled trees and 1.3 ± 0.7 m above the canopy base in nongirdled trees. Relatively few adult emerald ash borer emerged from trees felled 11 mo after girdling and left on site through the following summer, suggesting removal or destruction of girdled ash trees may be unnecessary. This could potentially reduce survey costs, particularly in forested areas with poor accessibility. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Failure to phytosanitize ash firewood infested with emerald ash borer in a small dry kiln using ISPM-15 standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, P Charles; Bumgardner, Matthew S; Herms, Daniel A; Sabula, Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Although current USDA-APHIS standards suggest that a core temperature of 71.1 degrees C (160 degrees F) for 75 min is needed to adequately sanitize emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire-infested firewood, it is unclear whether more moderate (and economical) treatment regimes will adequately eradicate emerald ash borer larvae and prepupae from ash firewood. We constructed a small dry kiln in an effort to emulate the type of technology a small- to medium-sized firewood producer might use to examine whether treatments with lower temperature and time regimes successfully eliminate emerald ash borer from both spilt and roundwood firewood. Using white ash (Fraxinus americana L.) firewood collected from a stand with a heavy infestation of emerald ash borer in Delaware, OH, we treated the firewood using the following temperature and time regime: 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 30 min, 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) for 60 min, 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 30 min, and 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) for 60 min. Temperatures were recorded for the outer 2.54-cm (1-in.) of firewood. After treatment, all firewood was placed under mesh netting and emerald ash borer were allowed to develop and emerge under natural conditions. No treatments seemed to be successful at eliminating emerald ash borer larvae and perpupae as all treatments (including two nontreated controls) experienced some emerald ash borer emergence. However, the 56 degrees C (132.8 degrees F) treatments did result in considerably less emerald ash borer emergence than the 46 degrees C (114.8 degrees F) treatments. Further investigation is needed to determine whether longer exposure to the higher temperature (56 degrees C) will successfully sanitize emerald ash borer-infested firewood.

  5. Variation in the Volatile Profiles of Black and Manchurian Ash in Relation to Emerald Ash Borer Oviposition Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigsby, Chad M; McCartney, Nathaniel B; Herms, Daniel A; Tumlinson, James H; Cipollini, Don

    2017-08-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) is a devastating pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in its invaded range in North America. Its coevolved Asian hosts are more resistant and less preferred for oviposition than susceptible North American species. We compared EAB oviposition preferences and bark and canopy volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of resistant Manchurian ash and susceptible black ash, and examined relationships between VOC profiles and oviposition. In the field, black ash was highly preferred for oviposition while no eggs were laid on Manchurian ash, and we found clear differences in the VOC profiles of Manchurian and black ash. We detected 78 compounds emitted from these species, including 16 compounds that elicited EAB antennal activity in prior studies. Four compounds were unique to black and 11 to Manchurian ash. Emission rates of 14 canopy and 19 bark volatiles varied among the two species, including four previously reported as antennally active. Specifically, 7-epi-sesquithujene (bark) emissions were greater from black ash, while β-caryophyllene (canopy), linalool (bark), and α-cubebene (bark) were emitted at higher rates by Manchurian ash. No relationships were found between the emission rate of any single compound or group of compounds (e.g. monoterpenes) suggesting that preference may be based on complex profile combinations. This is the first study to directly compare VOCs of black and Manchurian ash as well as the first to examine bark- and canopy-specific VOCs. The unique bark and canopy VOC profiles of these two species implicates potentially important variation in VOCs between a closely related resistant and susceptible species that provides a foundation for future studies of host preferences of EAB.

  6. Kaliophilite from fly ash: synthesis, characterization and stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    hydrogen production, ammonia synthesis and catalytic combustion of diesel soot (Juntgen 1985). As for the syn- thesis, kaliophilite was mostly synthesized using flint clay or sodalite (Juntgen 1985) as raw materials and syn- thesis from fly ash has not been reported yet. Fly ash is a by-product derived from the combustion of.

  7. Dynamic response of fly ash reinforced functionally graded rubber ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamic analysis of jute-epoxy sandwiches with fly ash reinforced functionally gradient (FG) flexible, compliant rubber core is presented. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified by weight method. An attempt is made to study the influence of fly ash weight ...

  8. Stabilization of expansive soil using bagasse ash & lime | Wubshet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7-5 soil on the AASHTO classification was stabilized using 3% lime, 15% bagasse ash and 15% bagasse ash in combination with 3% lime by dry weight of the soil. The effect of the additives on the soil was investigated with respect to plastcity, ...

  9. Use of Unprocessed Coal Bottom Ash as Partial Fine Aggregate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012r

    plastic density to decrease and bleeding to increase. Moreover, above 40% replacement of bottom ash, compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus of elasticity decreased sharply. In addition, an increase in bottom ash content improved the drying shrinkage performance of the concrete. The research also.

  10. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-21

    Oct 21, 2008 ... fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results show that the. Mount Cameroon ash particles have a variety of shapes .... populations in the Bakingili-Batoke health districts. These studies reported irritation of the eyes (Afane et al. 2001) and respiratory ...

  11. Volcanic Ash from the 1999 Eruption of Mount Cameroon Volcano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volcanic ash from the 1999 eruption of Mount Cameroon volcano has been characterized for its particle size and shape (by scanning electron microscopy, SEM), and mineralogy (by X-ray diffractometry, XRD). Also the total fluorine (F) content of the ash was determined by the selective ion electrode method. The results ...

  12. Utilization of mixed pond ash in integrated steel plant for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tests will be helpful in persuading the local brick manu- facturers to use pond ash as a raw material. 2. Experimental. The FA and mixed FA samples were obtained from vari- ous ashes and sludge dumping ponds of Bhilai Steel. Plant, Bhilai. The samples were analysed to find out their chemical composition and loss on ...

  13. Reactivity of fly ashes in a spray dryer FGD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.T.; Reed, G.D.

    1983-05-01

    During the period 1981-1982, a study was performed to determine the ability of various fly ashes to retain sulfur dioxide in a pilot plant spray dryer/fabric filter flue gas desulfurization system. This knowledge would provide design engineers with the necessary data to determine whether the fly ash from a particular utility could be used as an effective supplement or substitute for slaked lime in a spray dryer system. The study commenced with the collection of 22 fly ashes from lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous eastern and western coals. The ashes were contacted with the flue gas entering the pilot plant by two different techniques. In the first, the ashes were slurried in water and injected into the spray dryer through a spinning disk atomizer. In the second, the ashes were injected as a dry additive into the flue gas upstream of the spray dryer. Analyses were conducted to determine the ability of each ash to retain sulfur dioxide in the system followed by statistical correlations of the sulfur retention with the physical/chemical properties of each ash. 17 references, 32 figures, 19 tables.

  14. Response of cowpea, okra and tomato sawdust ash manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were conducted at Akure and Obaile in Southwest Nigeria to test effect of sawdust ash manure treatments on cowpea (var. 1T82D – 716), okra (var. NAAe – 47 – 4) and Roma variety of tomato. The nutrient analysis of leaf and pod of okra given by different sawdust ash manure treatments was done.

  15. Occurrence of volcanic ash in the Quaternary alluvial deposits, lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    morphological and chemical details of glass shards and pumice fragments have formed the basis of this study. The ash has been correlated .... ment of internal friction due to loss of water (Miall. 1996). The gravel lenses are crudely ... The glass shards make up 90% of the ash although pumice fragments are also present.

  16. Reclaimed fly ash as select fill under PCC pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    With the support of the Iowa Fly Ash Affiliates, research on reclaimed fly ash for use as a : construction material has been ongoing since 1991. The material exhibits engineering : properties similar to those of soft limestone or sandstone and a ligh...

  17. Thermal enrichment and speciation of copper in rice husk ashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Hu, Ming-Jan; Peng, Yen-Hsun

    2010-12-15

    Copper(II) was considerably enriched in the residual ash via thermal treatment of copper-sorbed rice husk at 700-1100°C for 2h, and the copper speciation was quantitatively determined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. After the thermal process, the resulting ash only represents by weight 18.7-26.4% of the pre-heated samples. Copper content in the ashes is >7% which is far above the required minimum copper content in copper ores for the copper smelting sector, 0.5%. Crystalline SiO(2) is observed only in the ash generated at 1100°C, with more copper in this ash being available for leaching in acidic solution. It is suggested that this is due to the considerable dissimilarity in crystalline structure between copper compounds and crystalline SiO(2). No chemical reaction between copper and SiO(2) is observed in any ash. In fact, we suggest that the SiO(2) crystalline phase repels copper during the thermal process; this would make it easy to extract copper from the ashes. For copper speciation in the ashes, CuO merely represents 0-12% of the total copper, while Cu(2)O and Cu(0) represent 34-42% and 46-63%, respectively. The lower copper oxidation state would be beneficial for the copper smelting process due to less usage of coke. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Some studies on the reaction between fly ash and lime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Introduction. In the presence of moisture, fly ash reacts with lime at ordinary temperature and forms a compound possessing cementitious properties. The reaction between lime and fly ash produces calcium silicate hydrates, which are respon- sible for development of strength in fly ash–lime in the form of bricks and blocks.

  19. Influence of Rice Husk Ash on Mechanical Properties and Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three SCC mixes with optimized quantities of mineral admixtures like fly ash(FA), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and combination were designed based on Nan-Su method of mix design and are taken for investigation. To these optimized mixes rice husk ash (RHA) was added in different proportions and ...

  20. Determination of ash-forming elements in lignite coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischnewski, C.; Werner, G.; Vogt, J.; Just, G.

    1990-01-01

    The most important methods are discussed suitable for the determination of ash-forming elements in coal. In this connection questions of the concentrations of elements in lignites, of the sample preparation, and of the selection of methods for the determination of ash-forming elements are addressed. Advantages and disadvantages of different analysis techniques are shown using concrete examples. (author)

  1. Test result of on-line coal ash content meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Jiro

    1988-10-25

    A two-line permeation type coal ash content meter was tested in on-line measurement. The used coal ash content meter irradiates gamma rays from A/sub m/ and C/sub s/, radioactive isotopes, to coal layer on the belt conveyer, continuously detects each of those gamma rays in permeation intensity by the scintillation counter, and digitally indicates the ash content indication value through the signal processing. At the coal quarrying stage by the low ash content coal preparation belt conveyer, test sample was collected at all times, and the relation of its ash content with the gamma ray intensity was investigated. In ash content range of 15 to 35%, an assumed error of 1.3% was obtained. The standardized intensity of gamma rays, as varying due to the thickness of belt, ambient temperature of detector and other factors, must be periodically tested in accuracy. Against sample, large in variance in water and vapor content, the adjustment by the water content meter is required. Further in case of the variance in H atom in coal, and Ca and Fe atoms in ash, as the mass damping coefficient varies against the Am gamma rays, it is advisable to apply, to each individual brend, the ash content calculation purpose regression formula. 8 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  2. Phosphorus removal from wastewater by fly ash ceramsite in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, the fly ash ceramsite with higher P adsorption capacity was applied in a constructed wetland as a substrate to continuously treat wastewater. It is noteworthy that the adoption of fly ash ceramsite in such an environment significantly improved P removal from wastewater: the total P and dissolved orthophosphate ...

  3. Speciation of arsenic and selenium during leaching of fly ash

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, E.E. van der

    1995-01-01

    The leaching (release) of large amounts of oxyanions, such as those of arsenic and selenium, is an major environmental problem when it comes to the disposal or use of coal fly ash. To predict environmentally safe conditions for the disposal or use of fly ash in, for example,

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF A TREATED PALM OIL FUEL ASH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of palm oil fuel ash in high-strength concrete. Journal of Materials in Civil. Engineering, 16(6), 623-628. Sata, V., Jaturapitakkul, C. and Rattanashotinunt, C. (2010). Compressive strength and heat evolution of concretes containing palm oil fuel ash. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 22(10), 1033-1038.

  5. Recovery of carbonates and hydroxides from cocoa pod ash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashes of cocoa pods contain alkali which is traditionally leached out and used to produce 'alata' soap. Ghana's Institute of Industrial Research has tested a pilot plant that produces liquid soap from cocoa pod ash, waste lime (Ca(OH)2), and palm kernel oil by initially converting the potassium carbonate in the leachate to ...

  6. Management tactics for emerald ash borer: chemical and biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. McCullough; Daniel A. Herms; Leah S. Bauer; Juli R. Gould; Andrew R. Tluczek

    2011-01-01

    Emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis), an invasive buprestid native to northeast Asia, has killed tens of millions of ash (Fraxinus) trees in infested areas of eastern North America. EAB apparently arrived in infested solid wood packaging materials from China in the early 1990s near Detroit, MI, but was not identified as...

  7. Surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Dharmalingam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fly ash, an inorganic alumino silicate has been used as filler in epoxy matrix, but it reduces the mechanical properties due to its poor dispersion and interfacial bonding with the epoxy matrix. To improve its interfacial bonding with epoxy matrix, surface treatment of fly ash was done using surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate and silane coupling agent glycidoxy propyl trimethoxy silane. An attempt is also made to reduce the particle size of fly ash using high pressure pulverizer. To improve fly ash dispersion in epoxy matrix, the epoxy was modified by mixing with amine containing liquid silicone rubber (ACS. The effect of surface treated fly ash with varying filler loadings from 10 to 40% weight on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of modified epoxy composites was investigated. The surface treated fly ash was characterized by particle size analyzer and FTIR spectra. Morphological studies of surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites indicate good dispersion of fillers in the modified epoxy matrix and improves its mechanical properties. Impact strength of the surface treated fly ash filled modified epoxy composites show more improvement than unmodified composites.

  8. Effects of gas conditions on ASH induced agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, T.; Fan, C. G.; Hao, L. F.

    2016-01-01

    on agglomeration tendency with two types of biomass ash, including rice straw and wheat straw ash. The agglomerates are analyzed by SEM-EDS for morphology and elemental composition. Defluidization temperature (Td) in those two types of gas conditions is quite different. Tdin gasification condition is much lower...

  9. The Suitability of Lime Rice Husk Ash Cement as Construction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, by gradually increasing the percentage contents of silica, potassium oxide and sodium oxide in the Portland cement to the values found in the rice husk ash a new product, "Artificial Lime Rice Husk Ash" (ALRHA) cement was produced. The new product ALRHA cement compared favourably with the ordinary rice ...

  10. Occurrence of volcanic ash in the Quaternary alluvial deposits, lower ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This communication reports the occurrence of an ash layer intercalated within the late Quaternary alluvial succession of the Madhumati River, a tributary of the lower Narmada River. Petrographic, morphological and chemical details of glass shards and pumice fragments have formed the basis of this study. The ash has ...

  11. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses...

  12. Metal analyses of ash derived alkalis from banana and plantain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to determine the metal content of plantain and banana peels ash derived alkali and the possibility of using it as alternate and cheap source of alkali in soap industry. This was done by ashing the peels and dissolving it in de-ionised water to achieve the corresponding hydroxides with pH above ...

  13. Screening coal combustion fly ashes for application in geopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valcke, S.L.A.; Pipilikaki, P.; Sarabér, A.J.; Fischer, H.R.; Nugteren, H.W.

    2013-01-01

    Driven by cost and sustainability, secondary resource materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, and bottom ash are increasingly used for alternative types of concrete binders, such as geopolymers. Because secondary resources may be highly variable from the perspective of geopolymers, it is

  14. The Arthur Interactive Media Study: Initial Findings From a Cross-Age Peer Mentoring and Digital Media-Based Character Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond P. Bowers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the midst of increasing emphasis on the inclusion of character education in both school and out-of-school time programs, digital technologies have become ubiquitous in these settings. Based on the potential of these technologies to enhance children’s character development, the Arthur Interactive Media (AIM study investigated if one specific unit or set of digital media-based activities engaged youth in discussions about character. First and second grade students were paired with 4th and 5th grade students, respectively, while engaging with an online interactive graphic novel (IGN about a character-relevant story based on the Arthur cartoon series. Teachers (n = 8 completed surveys about the AIM Unit, and conversations between cross-age peer dyads (n = 27 dyads during their engagement with the IGN were analyzed. Results indicated that teachers were very satisfied with the materials and reported that children were very engaged throughout. Analyses of children’s conversations indicated that children participated in character-relevant conversations involving humility, forgiveness, and future-mindedness while engaging with the IGN.

  15. Integrated Solid Earth Science: the right place and time to discover the unexpected? (Arthur Holmes Medal Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-04-01

    The fascination of learning more about the way system Earth operates has driven generations of Earth scientists. This has been the case for early pioneers such as Arthur Holmes, focusing on the geological record in continental settings, as well as for the founding fathers of plate tectonics, who built upon the results of exploring the ocean floor. Two years ago we celebrated the centenary of the discovery by Mohorovicic of the seismic discontinuity that separates the crust from the mantle, which now carries his name. Reading the rocks and mapping the (sub)surface of the Earth has provided the foundation for a great deal of what we conceptually pursue today in developing and validating coupled deep Earth and surface processes. The unexpected is probably characterizing most of my scientific career. It started in 1968 when, as a student, entering the geology program of Groningen University headed by Professor Philip Kuenen, a pioneer in marine geology and sedimentology, the textbook of Arthur Holmes just happened to be my first purchase. It was during those years that plate tectonics drastically changed everything we were learning. I was also privileged to enter a few years later as an MSc student the Utrecht geophysics school at a time where Nico Vlaar as a young professor was developing a vigorous research program with a focus on seismology, attracting and stimulating many talented students. When he and Rinus Wortel started research on Tectonophysics in Utrecht, I decided to go for a PhD research project tackling the problem of the initiation of subduction, a first order problem in geodynamics, with still many aspects to be resolved. This research and the joint work with Rinus Wortel on modeling intraplate stresses in the Faralon, Nazca and Indo-Australian plates led quite unexpectedly to exploring, together with Kurt Lambeck, intraplate stress fluctuations in the lithosphere as possible tectonic causes for the origin of third-order cycles in relative sea

  16. Tolerancia y Asimetría Ética Una humilde crítica al maestro Arthur Kaufmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Darío Santodomingo Payeras

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe demuestra a través de este ensayo que el “imperativo de la tolerancia” expuesto por el filósofo alemán Arthur Kaufmann en su libro “Filosofía del derecho”, es propio de los Estados liberales capitalistas que imponen la tolerancia represiva, es decir, aquella que se ajusta solo a los intereses de los dominantes, pues tiene un contenido mesiánico imperialista que, ante la ejecución de acciones injustas contra la humanidad para sostener y acrecentar sus niveles de vida desarrollados y su concentración de riqueza, deben proponerse tratar de “evitar o hacer menos miserable” la vida de los seres humanos; pero en caso de no poderse se debe proseguir con la injusticia sin medir el grado de desgracia que pueda producirse. El “Imperativo de la Tolerancia” tiene su génesis en la “Asimetría Ética” del sistema capitalista, hoy día más aguda y voraz con las políticas neo – conservadores o neo – liberales, que imponen una política criminal mundial encaminada a la represión social. En este sentido, el Derecho como instrumento de fuerza, tiene un “ser del deber ser” donde toda la nano-normatividad de un sistema jurídico local, regional e inclusive mundial, van encaminados no a la protección de los derechos humanos, sino a la exaltación de la concentración de la propiedad y su riqueza – madre de todas las miserias -; sin embargo, ante el sufrimiento, la humanidad no se rinde, la tierra de los filósofos, Grecia y otros países del mundo, se resisten y al igual que el autor de este ensayo se acogen al imperativo propuesto: “actúa para erradicar totalmente la miseria humana”.Palabras claveÉtica, “Asimetría Ética”, Derechos Humanos, Miseria Humana, “ser del deber ser” del Derecho. AbstractThis study shows the “imperative of tolerance” developed by the German philosopher Arthur Kaufmann in his book “Philosophy of Right” as a typical characteristic of liberal capitalist

  17. Compton, Prof. Arthur Holly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nobel Laureate (Physics) - 1927. Date of birth: 10 September 1892. Date of death: 15 March 1962. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog ... Gandhi University, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh Register Statistical Mechanics 02 to 16 May 2018. Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics, Bishop Moore College, Kerala

  18. Use of ash in the fertilisation of peatland forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moilanen, M.; Korpilahti, A.

    2000-01-01

    About 100,000 tonnes of bark and other wood-based ash are produced annually by the forest industries and heating plants in Finland. This amount would be sufficient for fertilising about 25,000 hectares of forest. When applied to peatland forests, this would produce extra forest growth of about 75,000 m 3 per a year. When considering the objectives of forestry, the practical benefits and economic profitability of ash fertilisation are at their peak on peatlands rich in nitrogen. Wood ash induces added tree growth (measured in terms of stemwood) in pine stands on herb- and sedge-rich parklands within 2-3 years of application. On nitrogen-deficient dwarf-shrub and Sphagnum-rich peatlands this growth reaction manifests itself only after 7-8 years have passed and even then at a considerably lower level. The application of mere ash does not result in notable increases in tree growth on upland forest sites. However, ash does change the growth conditions by reducing the acidity of the soil and by accelerating microbial decomposition. The phosphorus contained in ash has not been observed to have been leached into drainage waters on drained sites, at least not during the first two years after application, provided that care has been practised when spreading ash. However, the movement of readily-soluble nutrients has been observed and more so on nutrient-poor sites than on nutrient-rich sites. Although the suitability of ash as fertiliser in peatland forests has been recognised on the basis of long-term ash trials established at the Finnish Forest Research Institute, ash fertilisation has not been carried out made on a practical scale mainly because of the dust problem when spreading it. The purpose of pretreatment with ash is first and foremost to transform the ash into sufficiently dust-free form to enable it to be spread readily. An added advantage is that pelletised ash causes a lesser pH shock to plank than ash in dust form. (orig.)

  19. Phosphorus Recovery from Ashes of Sewage Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornel, Peter; Schaum, Peter

    2003-07-01

    About 90% of the incoming phosphorus load of waste water is eliminated by waste water treatment and transferred into the sewage sludge. Considerable amounts of sewage sludge can not be used agriculturally but are incinerated. Thus the ash from mono sludge incineration plants contains significant amounts of phosphorus (up to 25% P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) and could be used as raw material in fertilizer industry. The ash is hygienically harmless and free of organic substances. The ratio of phosphorus to heavy metals is basically the same as in the sewage sludge. The first step in separating phosphorus from heavy metals is to dissolve phosphorus by extraction. The most promising way seems to be the release of phosphorus with acids or bases. With 1 m sulphuric acid it is possible to release phosphorus completely. By use of acid most of the heavy metals dissolve, too. With caustic soda as solvent, only 30-40% of the phosphorus can be dissolved but the eluate is almost free of heavy metals. The amount of phosphorus which can be released with caustic soda, depends on the applied precipitant (Al or Fe salts) for phosphorus elimination at the waste water treatment. (author)

  20. Radioactive wastes dispersed in stabilized ash cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Carey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most widely-used methods for the solidification/stabilization of low-level radwaste is by incorporation into Type-I/II ordinary portland cement (OPC). Treating of OPC with supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) has been shown to significantly increase the density, while simultaneously decreasing porosity. In addition, the process significantly reduces the hydrogenous content, reducing the likelihood of radiolytic decomposition reactions. This, in turn, permits increased actinide loadings with a concomitant reduction in disposable waste volume. In this article, the authors discuss the combined use of fly-ash-modified OPC and its treatment with SCCO 2 to further enhance immobilization properties. They begin with a brief summary of current cement immobilization technology in order to delineate the areas of concern. Next, supercritical fluids are described, as they relate to these areas of concern. In the subsequent section, they present an outline of results on the application of SCCO 2 to OPC, and its effectiveness in addressing these problem areas. Lastly, in the final section, they proffer their thoughts on why they believe, based on the OPC results, that the incorporation of fly ash into OPC, followed by supercritical fluid treatment, can produce highly efficient wasteforms