Brents, Barbara G.; Hausbeck, Kathryn
This article examines violence in legalized brothels in Nevada. Debates over prostitution policies in the United States have long focused on questions of safety and risk. These discourses inevitably invoke the coupling of violence and prostitution, though systematic examinations of the relationship between the two are sparse. This article explores…
van Wijk, E.G.
What is often called ‘the legalization of prostitution in the Netherlands’ is to be precise the lifting of the ban on brothels. From the year 2000 on, it became legal to exploit businesses offering prostitution like brothels and window prostitution. The lifting of the ban meant that these businesses
Huisman, W.; Kleemans, E.R.
In 2000, the Dutch authorities lifted the ban on brothels in the Netherlands. The essence of their approach was to regulate prostitution. People of legal age could now voluntarily sell and purchase sexual services. Brothels which complied with certain licensing conditions were legalized. This paper
Seo-Young Cho; Axel Dreher; Eric Neumayer
This paper investigates the impact of legalized prostitution on human trafficking inflows. According to economic theory, there are two opposing effects of unknown magnitude. The scale effect of legalized prostitution leads to an expansion of the prostitution market, increasing human trafficking, while the substitution effect reduces demand for trafficked women as legal prostitutes are favored over trafficked ones. Our empirical analysis for a cross-section of up to 150 countries shows that th...
Full Text Available On 1 October 2000, the Netherlands became the first European country to legalize prostitution as a profession, with its rights and duties. On the other hand, this new Dutch law excluded those sex workers, who come from outside the EU. The majority of women working in the sex industry, who are considered illegal migrants in the Netherlands, had two choices: either leaving the country or disappearing into the illegal criminal circuit. For law enforcement and assistant services, it became extremely difficult to control the sector. In this paper, the consequences of the 'Brothel Law' are presented. What happens with illegal non-European sex workers in the Netherlands, how the problem of human trafficking is constructed in Dutch media and combated in the country, what could be learned from the 'Dutch case'? The paper aims to answer these questions and contribute to the general study on human trafficking and voluntary prostitution in Europe.
In December 2005 the Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network released Sex, work, rights: reforming Canadian criminal laws on prostitution. The report examines the ways in which the prostitution-related provisions of the Criminal Code, and their enforcement, have criminalized many aspects of sex workers' lives and have promoted their social marginalization. Evidence indicates that the criminal law has contributed to health and safety risks, including the risk of HIV infection, faced by sex workers. The Legal Network calls for the decriminalization of prostitution in Canada, and for other legal and policy reforms that respect the human rights and promote the health of sex workers. Despite the report's Canadian focus, its human rights analysis is relevant to the situation of sex workers in other countries where prostitution is illegal and sex workers face rights abuses. In this article, Glenn Betteridge, the principal author of the report, briefly sets out the case for law reform.
The thesis looks at the legal responses to prostitution in Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic under State Socialism and in Transition, and the understanding of gender equality therein. It argues that both, the legal regimes and the understandings of prostitution, varied between these periods. Under State Socialism, professional prostitutes were criminally liable under provisions on parasitism. In Transition, the ‘boom’ of prostitution after 1989 lead to the adoption of containment provi...
Rio, L M
In maintaining criminal prohibitions on prostitution and prostitution-related activity, the United States has ignored the two alternative approaches successfully invoked in many other countries: legalization and decriminalization of prostitution. This article questions the justifications usually advanced in favor of criminal sanctions and against the two alternatives. Studies of prostitutes and their clients, as well as larger societal studies, undercut the arguments against decriminalization and legalization, and reveal that none of the traditional goals of imposing criminal sanctions (punishment, deterrence, and rehabilitation) are furthered by the current prohibition of prostitution. These studies also reveal the advantages offered by a system of decriminalized or legalized prostitution. Further policy arguments for the removal of such sanctions are discussed and legal arguments are offered to attempt to limit the reach of current criminal prostitution laws while the present system remains in effect.
Hansen, Kirsten Grønbæk; Henningsen, Inge Biehl; Pedersen, Bodil Maria
It is estimated that globally 40-42 million people are involved in prostitution (Fondation Scelles, 2012), and that 70% of the women engaged in prostitution in Western Countries are migrants. As involved criminal groups earn around 3 billion USD a year, prostitution is assumed to be one of the most...... organisations such as the UN and the EU. On the one hand it is argued that a general decriminalisation of all practices concerning prostitution should be legalised and normalised, including procuring. Lately, Amnesty International advocated full decriminalisation/legalisation of all aspects of prostitution...
Mukhopadhyay, K K
This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.
Harcourt, Christine; O'Connor, Jody; Egger, Sandra; Fairley, Christopher K; Wand, Handan; Chen, Marcus Y; Marshall, Lewis; Kaldor, John M; Donovan, Basil
In order to assess whether the law has an impact on the delivery of health promotion services to sex workers, we compared health promotion programs in three Australian cities with different prostitution laws. The cities were Melbourne (brothels legalized if licensed, unlicensed brothels criminalized), Perth (criminalization of all forms of sex work) and Sydney (sex work largely decriminalized, without licensing). We interviewed key informants and gave questionnaires to representative samples of female sex workers in urban brothels. Despite the different laws, each city had a thriving and diverse sex industry and a government-funded sex worker health promotion program with shopfront, phone, online and outreach facilities. The Sydney program was the only one run by a community-based organisation and the only program employing multi-lingual staff with evening outreach to all brothels. The Melbourne program did not service the unlicensed sector, while the Perth program accessed the minority of brothels by invitation only. More Sydney workers reported a sexual health centre as a source of safer sex training and information (Sydney 52% v Melbourne 33% and Perth 35%; p<0.001). Sex workers in Melbourne's licensed brothels were the most likely to have access to free condoms (Melbourne 88%, Sydney 39%, Perth 12%; p<0.001). The legal context appeared to affect the conduct of health promotion programs targeting the sex industry. Brothel licensing and police-controlled illegal brothels can result in the unlicensed sector being isolated from peer-education and support. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.
Weng, Millie Cammilla
Prostitution in Denmark - Poor slut or independent woman? Criminalization or legalization? The main subject in this project is prostitution in Denmark and the Danish legalisation concerning the subject. First the circumstances and living conditions of the prostitutes´ will be studied. After this the current legalization on the subject will be discussed and it will be discussed whether prostitution should be legalized as a business or criminalized to buy. There have been made some...
In the mid-1970s, following a series of police raids on prostitution inside downtown nightclubs, a community of approximately 200 sex workers moved into Vancouver's West End neighborhood, where a small stroll had operated since the early 1970s. This paper examines the contributions made by three male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals of color to the culture of on-street prostitution in the West End. The trans women's stories address themes of fashion, working conditions, money, community formation, violence, and resistance to well-organized anti-prostitution forces. These recollections enable me to bridge and enrich trans history and prostitution history – two fields of inquiry that have under-represented the participation of trans women in the sex industry across the urban West. Acutely familiar with the hazards inherent in a criminalized, stigmatized trade, trans sex workers in the West End manufactured efficacious strategies of harm reduction, income generation, safety planning, and community building. Eschewing the label of “victim”, they leveraged their physical size and style, charisma, contempt towards pimps, earning capacity, and seniority as the first workers on the stroll to assume leadership within the broader constituency of “hookers on Davie Street”. I discover that their short-lived outdoor brothel culture offered only a temporary bulwark against the inevitability of eviction via legal injunction in July 1984, and the subsequent rise in lethal violence against all prostitutes in Vancouver, including MTF transsexuals.
Full Text Available The essay explores the connections between the abolition of legalized prostitution and the processes of democratization in Germany and Italy, starting from the history of human rights and its interaction with the political system. The main sources are the parliamentary debates and the laws that brought about the closedown of brothels and the abolition of the surveillance system in Germany in 1927 and in Italy in 1958. The debates on prostitution also pose a question of equality and gender justice. In particular, the problem of the regulation of prostitution, whose efficiency has been verified by an ever growing number of researchers during the XX century, deploys factors of sanitary policy, human rights and morals, aspects of social policy and security, questioning not only the gender hierarchy, but also the social one.
Kartika Sari K.A.
Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.
Andrea Gutiérrez García
Full Text Available Gender-based violence has moved from being understood as a private matter to social problem. This manifestation of discrimination, inequality and power of men over women in the context of relationships is condemn in our country by the Law on Integral Protection Measures against Gender Violence 1/2004 of December 28.However, prostitution which has its foundations in the same patriarchal structure has no specific legislation that highlights this fact and condemns it. In our paper, taking as an example the Organic Law 1/2004, we developed a proposal justified on the actions that should be carried out at this respect. We mainly focus on three issues: equal education; discourage demand and protection and assistance to victims. We also bear in mind the need of social intolerance and legal condemnation in relation to the people who get benefits from the exploitation of others. La violencia de género ha pasado de ser considerada un asunto privado a entenderse como un problema social. Esta manifestación de discriminación, desigualdad y poder de los hombres sobre las mujeres en el marco de las relaciones de pareja es condenada en nuestro país por la Ley Orgánica de Medidas de Protección Integral contra la Violencia de Género 1/2004 de 28 de diciembre.Sin embargo, la prostitución, que hunde sus cimientos en la misma estructura patriarcal en la que se asienta la violencia de género, carece de una legislación específica que ponga de manifiesto esta relación y la condene. En este trabajo tomando como ejemplo la Ley Orgánica 1/2004 de medidas de protección integral contra la violencia de género, elaboramos una propuesta justificada sobre las actuaciones que deberían abordarse al hacer frente a esta problemática. Nos centramos principalmente en tres cuestiones que consideramos básicas: educación en igualdad; desincentivación de la demanda; protección y ayuda a las víctimas. Además, resulta imprescindible la construcción de entorno
whether or not to prosecute prostitution, and in some cases they tolerated it. For this purpose, local police issued special regulations that were compulsory for prostitutes, kept an official register of prostitutes and brought them under control by keeping their “indecent profession” registered. Registered prostitutes had to undergo regularly scheduled medical examinations. Because of the complexity of prostitution as a social phenomenon and its numerous implications, in addition to criminal provisions, communities sought to take action against the presence of prostitution within local police regulations and health regulations.
Sophie Wittstrøm Selsbæk, Simone; Brandstrup Larsen, Rasmus; Thor Larsen, Patricia
The Subject Field of this project is prostitution and how politicians legislate on the area. The project revolves around how former and current legislation of prostitution is. Which legal strategies are at the politicians’ disposal when they are making legislation on the area of prostitution and how the authorities in Germany, The Netherlands and Sweden have handled the process? Which experiences has the authorities in these countries had with legalization and criminalizat...
Sophie Wittstrøm Selsbæk, Simone; Brandstrup Larsen, Rasmus; Thor Larsen, Patricia
The Subject Field of this project is prostitution and how politicians legislate on the area. The project revolves around how former and current legislation of prostitution is. Which legal strategies are at the politicians’ disposal when they are making legislation on the area of prostitution and how the authorities in Germany, The Netherlands and Sweden have handled the process? Which experiences has the authorities in these countries had with legalization and criminalization. The base for an...
Thomsen, Frej Klem
Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Thomsen, Frej Klem
Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...... arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception....
Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...
Kartika Sari K.A.
Full Text Available Prostitution is still a complicated problemworldwide including in Western Australia. Itis estimated that there are 1700 sex workersand 38 identified brothels in WesternAustralia1 and prostitution legislation is stillan ongoing debatable issue in the state.There has been a significant change inprostitution laws and enforcement practices,which is due to the rising worldwideproblem of sex trafficking and its relation toprostitution.
Guereña, J L
After two centuries of official abolition, regulated prostitution came back during the reign of Isabella II and particularly from the Progresist period onwards (1854-1856). After recalling the origins of such regulations (1845-1847) and the rules applied in Madrid, which are worth noting because of their importance and influence, we are presenting the different decrees enforced in some regions of Spain (and particularly in the province of Cadiz), in a chronological way which enables the reader to understand the formation, administrative and medical, of these regulations. Instead of putting the prostitute in a house of correction or expelling her from the town as done before, these regulations would put her in a brothel, pretending that she would not move freely and that she would regularly be controlled concerning sexually transmitted diseases. The tolerance of prostitution confirmed as well the space and role of brothels in the social life of the main Spanish towns.
Giovanni Immordino; Francesco Flaviano Russo
We study the opinions on prostitution that emerged from the World Value Survey. We show that individuals tends to justify prostitution more in countries where it is legal or regulated and less in countries where it is prohibited, even after controlling for religious, cultural and sociological factors. To overcome the endogeneity of the policy to the opinions, we propose an instrumental variable strategy, instrumenting prostitution policy with legal origins. At least for the case of prostituti...
Cwikel, J; Ilan, K; Chudakov, B
Study objectives: This study examined working conditions, reported morbidity, symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression and their relation to an index of occupational health risk among women working in brothels in Israel.
An extensive body of literature exists on sex work and prostitution, covering a variety of topics. The relation between prostitution and the informal economy, however, has not been widely studied. This article aims to contribute to this under-researched domain. Furthermore, it empirically contributes to the current topical policy debate on prostitution by offering insights into the perceptions of prostitutes and other stakeholders in the prostitution business and policy towards it in Ghent, B...
Recent research and Canadian government committee reports concerning juvenile prostitution are reviewed. Proposals are made in the realms of law and social policy; and existing programs are described. (DB)
Brown, Marjorie E.
This paper explores: precipitating social conditions which might predispose an adolescent girl to deviant sexual activity; experiences which may initiate entrance into prostitution; and the treatment of sexual deviance in young girls by the Juvenile Justice System. (Author)
A random sample of 28 out of 86 brothels along the G. B. Road in India revealed that almost 60% of the prostitutes were children. The law does not punish prostitutes who are older than 18 and do not solicit business publicly, but it does punish running a brothel, living on the earnings of prostitutes, procuring or inducing people to become prostitutes, and soliciting in public places. The law, which is mostly used to harass prostitutes, invokes penalties of imprisonment for procuring or trafficking and for forcible detention for the purpose of prostitution while creating a special police force to stop trafficking, special courts to deal with cases, and protective homes for "rescued" girls. The law fails to punish clients or make provisions for the rehabilitation of rescued women. Offenses rarely end in convictions. In fact, police officers extort money from traffickers, prostitutes, and madams and abet the system of prostitution through a scheme of false registration of the girls that creates the fiction that they are not minors and creates a debt paid by the madams that places the girls in virtual bondage. There is a set rate for police bribes, depending upon the size of the brothel. Police also are clients themselves and/or extort money from clients. When arrests are made (to make police records look good), police deliberately target adult prostitutes instead of the minors because it is harder to get the minors released back into prostitution. The police are reluctant to release records about prostitution and are complicit when madams present false affirmations that they are relatives of minor girls to get them released from juvenile remand homes. The girls are recruited from impoverished families in the countryside who are paid for giving their daughters in false marriages.
Seib, Charrlotte; Dunne, Michael P; Fischer, Jane; Najman, Jackob M
The nature of sex work changes over time for many reasons. In recent decades around the world, there has been movement toward legalization and control of sex economies. Studies of the possible impact of legalization mainly have focused on sexually transmitted infections and violence, with little attention to change in the diversity of sexual services provided. This study examined the practices of sex workers before and after legalization of prostitution. Cross-sectional surveys of comparable samples of female sex workers were conducted in 1991 (N = 200, aged 16-46 years) and 2003 (N = 247, aged 18-57 years) in Queensland, Australia, spanning a period of major change in regulation of the local industry. In 2003, male clients at brothels and private sole operators (N = 161; aged 19-72 years) were also interviewed. Over time, there was a clear increase in the provision of "exotic" sexual services, including bondage and discipline, submission, fantasy, use of sex toys, golden showers, fisting, and lesbian double acts, while "traditional" services mostly remained at similar levels (with substantial decrease in oral sex without a condom). Based on comparisons of self-reports of clients and workers, the demand for anal intercourse, anal play, and urination during sex apparently exceeded supply, especially in licensed brothels. Within this population, legalization of sex work coincided with a substantial increase in diversity of services, but it appears that in the regulated working environments, clients who prefer high risk practices might not dictate what is available to them.
Mehlsen, Line; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Amilon, Anna
Dette statusnotat for projektet ”Exit Prostitution” belyser de foreløbige resultater og tendenser for projektet. Exit Prostitution løb oprindeligt fra april 2012 til udgangen af 2015, men med en nylig forlængelse løber projektet til udgangen af 2016. Projektet befinder sig således i slutningen af...... afprøvet med succes i forhold til hjemløshed både nationalt og internationalt. Målet med anvendelsen af metoden i forhold til målgruppen for Exit Prostitution er, at borgere med prostitutionserfaring, som ønsker at ophøre med salg af seksuelle ydelser eller ønsker at opleve en forbedring af deres...
Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas
This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between
Full Text Available Prostitution has been the subject of intense debate in all societies and cultures though to varying degrees of public acceptance or rejection. The choice of legal approach to deal with this issue (i.e., legalization or prohibition may be influenced by ideological factors. The primary aim of this study was to assess, in a sample of 620 individuals drawn from general population, the legal stances towards prostitution, and attitudes and beliefs regarding the underlying motives and behaviour of men who resort to prostitution. Moreover, the effects of sexist attitudes and beliefs and the legal stance towards prostitution on victim-blaming in cases of physical or sexual assault to prostitutes were assessed. The results reveal significant differences in legal stance towards prostitution in relation to attitudes and beliefs concerning the underlying motives and behaviour of men who procure the services of a prostitute. In other words, a high score in prohibition was associated to hostile attitudes and belief regarding the behaviour of men who resort to prostitution whereas a high score in legalization predicted benevolent attitudes and beliefs towards these men. Furthermore, the results show that a high degree of hostile sexism and the legal stance of prohibition predicted victim-blaming in physical or sexual assault to prostitutes.
In many European countries, foreigners constitute the majority of certain groups of prostitutes, e.g., approximately 90% of the window prostitutes in the red light district of Amsterdam are not native to the Netherlands. The same is true for prostitutes working in bars in Vienna. In cities where registered prostitution is legal, unregistered prostitutes, most of whom are foreigners, often outnumber the registered ones. Central European countries often receive "sex workers" from eastern Europe, e.g., from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, whereas the majority of migratory prostitutes in Great Britain and continental western Europe come from Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. In northern Europe, women from Russia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and the Baltic states are prostituting themselves in increasing numbers. Scandinavia has so far been affected relatively less by this mobility. In Spain, France, and Italy, women from Arabic and subSaharan countries are common among prostitutes. Foreign prostitutes move into Turkey along two main routes: women from the Balkan countries come to the western part of the country, whereas those from the former Soviet Union cross the border from Georgia, where they usually operate at resorts along the eastern Black Sea coast. Prostitutes are also mobile within the former communist bloc. For instance, women from Russia prostitute themselves in Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. the customers are locals, particularly those with "hard currency", such as businessmen and "sex tourists" from the West. Following the outbreak of civil war in the former Yugoslavia, women from that country are now more frequently seen among the population of migratory prostitutes in Europe.
Henriksen, Theresa Dyrvig; Aslaug Kjær, Agnete; Christensen, Gunvor
Dette midtvejsnotat omhandler projektet ”Exit prostitution”. Exit-projektet blev påbegyndt i april 2012 og løber til udgangen af 2015 og befinder sig i øjeblikket midtvejs i projektets afprøvningsfase. I projektet anvendes metoden Critical Time Intervention (CTI), der er en evidensbaseret...... til det. Exit-projektet er dermed en central socialpolitisk indsats overfor borgere i prostitution i det danske samfund. I dette notat belyser vi midtvejsresultater for, hvordan udviklingen er for de borgere, der er nået halvt igennem et CTI-forløb. I den afsluttende evaluering af projektet i 2015 vil...
Lena Edlund; Evelyn Korn
Prostitution is low-skill, labor intensive, female, and well paid. This paper proposes a marriage market explanation to this puzzle. If a prostitute compromises her marriage market prospects, she will have to be compensated for forgone marriage market opportunities. We discuss the link between poverty and prostitution and show that prostitution may decrease with male income if wives and prostitutes are drawn from the same pool of women. We point to the role of male sex ratios, and males in tr...
Thappa Devinder; Singh Nidhi; Kaimal Sowmya
Prostitution describes sexual intercourse in exchange for remuneration. The legal status of prostitution varies in different countries, from punishable by death to complete legality. The great degree of social stigma associated with prostitution, of both buyers and sellers, has lead to terminology such as ′commercial sex trade′, ′commercial sex worker′ (CSW), female sex worker (FSW) or sex trade worker. Organisers of prostitution are typically known as pimps (if ma...
Full Text Available The article discusses the problem of prostitution in Old Testament texts. First it analyses the vocabulary znh and qᵉdēšāh (qādēš and then legal, narrative, prophetic and wisdom texts. The analysis shows that the phenomenon of prostitution was quite common in the ancient world. Narrative texts show that although accepted the prostitutes lived on the fringe of society. Moreover legal, prophetic and wisdom texts always give negative assessment of prostitution.
Løvstad, Charlotte Vange
En case hvor borgeren beskriver hvordan prostitution oplevelse og hvordan indsatserne virker for den enkelte.......En case hvor borgeren beskriver hvordan prostitution oplevelse og hvordan indsatserne virker for den enkelte....
Religion, culture, socioeconomics, political factors, and even geography play important roles in the spread of HIV in Thailand. The author discusses these factors, emphasizing the role of Thailand's significant commercial sex trade. Politics, poverty, and geography together form much of the basis of the patterns of HIV's spread throughout Thailand. Although 80% of the Thai population lives in rural areas, the Thai government since the 1950s has invested disproportionately large amounts of resources in the urban sector at the expense of rural areas. Opportunities for economic gain and overall advancement are therefore greater in urban centers. Girls and young women of predominantly poor rural households therefore migrate to Thai cities to work in brothels. As prostitutes, they make, without education, better wages than they could working in factories. After buying what they need to accommodate their urban lifestyles, the women may send money in support of their rural-based families as well as to monasteries and temples. These latter contributions are made in keeping with Theravada Buddhism, the predominant faith, which regards female prostitutes are very low on the cosmological scale in the quest for nirvana both because they are women and they come from poor families. It is hoped that by contributing to the faith, one's karma will be improved, thus allowing return in the next lifetime as a man, preferably wealthy. There are an estimated 80,000-1,000,000 prostitutes in Thailand. Each may have sexual intercourse with up to twenty clients per day. Their clients include international tourists as well as local Thai men. At least 450,000 Thai men visit prostitutes daily, with at least 75% of Thai men having had paid sex at least once. One researcher found that 72% of the low-class prostitutes were HIV-seropositive, while another examination of a few brothels found all prostitutes to be infected. 50% of Thai men reported in a 1990 study that they never use a condom, 26
Tan, M; De Leon, A; Stoltzfus, B; O'donnell, C
An estimated 200,000-500,000 men, women, and children work in prostitution in the Philippines in a variety of venues, including brothels, nightclubs, pubs, massage parlors, and other legitimate entertainment establishments. Few, however, are voluntary prostitutes. Many people who work as prostitutes have been recruited from the provinces, kept in conditions similar to slavery, and forced to earn money from prostitution to pay for their transportation, board, and lodging. Many prostitutes work in urban centers and tourist resorts in the countryside. During the 1970s, then President Ferdinand Marcos promoted tourism as a major industry, effectively marketing attractive Filipinas to tourists. Sex tourism has flourished in the country ever since. Thousands of prostitutes are also located in Olongapo and Angeles, 2 cities north of Manila, from where they serve the sexual desires of US military personnel. The presence of US military personnel in the Philippines has always been associated with prostitution. The country's social hygiene centers, prostitutes in Manila and Davao, and AIDS education are briefly discussed.
Đapović Lasta S.
Full Text Available Rape was identified as a criminal act in the earliest known legal writings, Hamurabi's legal code (cir. 2000 BC. In the Balkans, in the Middle Ages, rape was always punished in one way or another, in the statutes of the Adriatic maritime towns, which were under the rule of the Nemanjić state or the West. All categories of women, even prostitutes and slaves, were protected by law from sexual violence in many statutes. Also in Dušan's legal code the regulation is found, severely punishing rapists. Laws following the Second Serbian Uprising, also provide severe punishment for sexual violence, especially towards women but also male minors. Legal and court practice, following the Second World War, indicate that the protection of women from sexual violence is completely inadequate and this at a time when women had achieved equal rights with men in many spheres of life. World events at the end of the 20th century: collapse of the Soviet Union: as well as the happenings in this region,: war, ethnic and religious conflicts resulted in massive rape of women, opening of brothels, trading women and family violence. Non state organizations, mainly women in expert associations, invest great effort to rectify this very unsatisfactory situation. They exert pressure for change in the law and in court practice, by which women would have more effective defense against sexual violence, as well as organized assistance for women victims of traffic, and warning of the possible danger.
Okafor, Uchenna O.; Crutzen, Rik; Sylvia, Adebajo; Ifeanyi, Okekearu; Van Den Borne, Bart
Support by brothel leaders and the promotion of a conducive environment for HIV prevention programs within brothel establishments are important to promote a safe working environment for Brothel-Based Female Sex Workers (BB FSWs). This study assesses the effects of a cluster randomized pilot trial
I analyze prostitution policy changes regarding worker rights and health protection for legal prostitutes in The Netherlands, Germany, and Nevada to determine whether the changes benefit the prostitutes. I critically analyze and compare laws, government policy briefs, advocacy studies, books, articles, and ethnographic studies. Problems were revealed in recognizing prostitution as legitimate work and in realization of health protection. Health and safety concerns exist in The Netherlands and Germany where policy does not mandate health requirements and condom usage. Nevada law requires safety precautions, health testing, and condom usage, resulting in no legal prostitutes testing positive for HIV.
Full Text Available The author analyses the activity of an association: the Community Pope John XXIII, where he works on the liberation of thousands of victims of human trafficking and the fight against prostitution. More specifically, he describes the methods of intervention and provides some data about people who are trafficked for and clients of prostitutes. In conclusion, some legislation models about prostitution in Europe are briefly discussed.
The author analyses the activity of an association: the Community Pope John XXIII, where he works on the liberation of thousands of victims of human trafficking and the fight against prostitution. More specifically, he describes the methods of intervention and provides some data about people who are trafficked for and clients of prostitutes. In conclusion, some legislation models about prostitution in Europe are briefly discussed.
The purposes of this research are to investigate Thai teens’ attitude toward prostitution on the internet, to discover the causes of teenage prostitution and to study the relationship between teenage promiscuity and the causes of teenage prostitution. This study is a mixed research which utilized both qualitative and quantitative approach. The population of this study included teenagers and early adults between 14-21 years old who were studying in high schools, colleges, or universities. A to...
Marisa Adriana Miranda
Full Text Available This work is concentred about the public management of prostitution, considered as a biopolitic strategy that was applied over the binomial "sexuality-reproduction", especially in Argentina and Spain during the end of XIX Century and the beginning of the XX Century. This comparative interest was sustained in the existence of cities with similar cultural levels, as Buenos Aires and Barcelona, with increasing urbanization and parallel male immigration, on the one hand; and, on the other hand, in the slant toward an eugenics-biotipologyc that was shared between both towns and that was functional to some hypothesis organized about the venereal diseases
Full Text Available An age-old profession, prostitution has always been a controversial subject. Although from the point of view of morality, prostitution is not an activity to honour those who practice it must be noted that it exists irrespective of whether society blames it or tolerates it.
Kofod, Jens Erik; Frøkjær Dyrvig, Theresa; Markwardt, Kristoffer
Denne rapport præsenterer resultaterne af SFI’s kortlægning af prostitution i Danmark. Rapporten belyser omfanget af prostitution og de prostitueredes levevilkår. Rapporten er dels baseret på en omfattende kvalitativ interviewundersøgelse blandt nuværende og tidligere prostituerede samt relevante...
This collection of essays spans ten years (1984-1994) of theoretical and activist work on prostitution. Hypocrisies and mystifications attached to prostitution are closely examined in an attempt to reveal their underlying political logic. What are the realities of sex work and what exactly do laws
En national undersøgelse af unges prostitutionserfaringer samt en kvalitativ undersøgelse af socialpædagogers blik for prostitution som social problemstilling......En national undersøgelse af unges prostitutionserfaringer samt en kvalitativ undersøgelse af socialpædagogers blik for prostitution som social problemstilling...
Full Text Available The author focuses on the question of prostitution in the medieval Cracow in the light of edited-by- himself treaty by John Falkenberg Iudicium de aedificandis domis pro meretricibus. Writing his treaty Falkenberg was trying, at the request of the Municipal Council, answer the following questions: do laws established by people allow the existence of prostitutes, and: can the ruler of the city or councillors build brothels, put prostitutes there and then profit from such business. The text contains a short review of the problem of prostitution in Cracow of that time as well as the explanati of a context in which Falkenberg’s work was written. In the last part of the article, the author presents a two-part edition of the treaty.
The phenomenon of prostitution has been controversial in many countries, including Switzerland. Policy regimes on prostitution differ drastically between countries. In recent years, there have been two opposing trends regarding the reform of prostitution laws. Some countries, such as Germany and the Netherlands, have moved towards legalisation and normalisation of the sex industry. Prostitution is thereby regarded as a normal trade and feminist supporters of this model focus mainly on legal r...
Francisco Cortés Gabaudán
Full Text Available I offer a new interpretation of the first speech from the Lysias collection, On the Murder of Erastothenes. I propose that the adultery that led to Erastothenes’ death was consented and that, as such, this case is closer to prostitution than the seduction of a young wife by a Casanova. I believe that, in this way, the circumstances referred to in the narration and the argumentation of the speech are much better explained. This interpretation is related to the known legal regulations regarding prostitution in recent publications on prostitution in Greece, including that of female citizens, which was more common than is usually thought.
Stuart P. Green
Full Text Available What counts, or should count, as prostitution? In the criminal law today, prostitution is understood to involve the provision of sexual services in exchange for money or other benefits. But what exactly is a ‘sexual service’? And what exactly is the nature of the required ‘exchange’? The key to answering these questions is to recognize that how we choose to define prostitution will inevitably depend on why we believe one or more aspects of prostitution are wrong or harmful, or should be criminalized or otherwise deterred, in the first place. These judgements, in turn, will often depend on an assessment of the contested empirical evidence on which they rest. This article describes a variety of real-world contexts in which the ‘what counts as prostitution’ question has arisen, surveys a range of leading rationales for deterring prostitution, and demonstrates how the answer to the definition question depends on the answer to the normative question. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how analogous questions about what should count as sexual conduct arise in the context of consensual offences such as adultery and incest, as well as non-consensual offences such as sexual assault.
Lee, Samuel; Persson, Petra
We study sex trafficking in a marriage market model of prostitution. When traffickers can coerce women to sell sex, trafficked prostitutes constitute a non-zero share of supply in any unregulated market for sex. We ask if regulation can eradicate trafficking and restore the equilibrium that would arise in an unregulated market without traffickers. While all existing approaches – criminalization of prostitutes (“the traditional model”), licensed prostitution (“the Dutch model”), and criminaliz...
Cao, Liqun; Lu, Ruibin; Mei, Xiaohan
The nature of collective perception of prostitution is understudied in Canada. Except some rudimentary reports on the percentages of the key legal options, multivariate analysis has never been used to analyze the details of public opinion on prostitution. The current study explores the trend of public attitude toward prostitution acceptability in Canada over a 25-year span and examines the social determinants of the acceptability of prostitution, using structural equation modeling (SEM), which allows researchers to elaborate both direct and indirect effects (through mediating variables) on the outcome variable. Results show that the public has become more acceptant of prostitution over time. In addition, the less religious, less authoritarian, and more educated are more acceptant of prostitution than the more religious, more authoritarian, and less well educated. The effects of religiosity and authoritarianism mediate out the direct effects of age, gender, gender equality, marriage, marriage as an outdated institution, Quebec, race, and tolerance. The findings may serve as a reference point for the law reform regarding the regulation of prostitution in Canada.
Faber, Stine Thidemann; Emerek, Ruth
The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit at London Metropolitan University is working with the European Commission and the European Network on Gender Equality (ENEGE) to produce a report on prostitution policy in member states. In this report the data from Denmark are presented.......The Child and Woman Abuse Studies Unit at London Metropolitan University is working with the European Commission and the European Network on Gender Equality (ENEGE) to produce a report on prostitution policy in member states. In this report the data from Denmark are presented....
Stormhøj, Christel; Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Hansen, Kirsten Grønbæk
Prostitution is a worldwide phenomenon, and so are the controversies surrounding it. In Denmark, as in many countries, there is an ongoing public debate about whether it should be seen as a social/political problem, or as a job like any other. The debate takes place within the tension between...
Gil, V E; Wang, M S; Anderson, A F; Lin, G M; Wu, Z O
China's opening to the world has enabled massive social and economic transformations and the liberalization of many policies, but also the rise of coincident social problems and diseases. A revival of wide-scale female prostitution since the 1980s has now accelerated to a nationwide dilemma. Prostitutes have long been considered to be reservoirs, if not 'vectors' for the transmission of sexual diseases. A well established STD epidemic in the last decade, plus the presence of growing HIV infections in China now, underscore the need to evaluate the prostitute's role in STD and HIV propagation. This report examines unobtrusive data on female prostitutes in the People's Republic of China through an analysis of prison records from eight sexually segregated prisons (six in Sichuan Province and two in Guizhou Province), two female re-education institutions, and arrest records for convicted prostitutes from four counties in Sichuan Province and Chengdu City (also in Sichuan). Collectively, these data represent 2057 female prostitution cases, and span the years 1988-1990. Demographics are examined to enable a profile of the prostitute as based on data reviewed, and this is contrasted to the stereotype of the prostitute as described in government propaganda against prostitution. STD prevalence rates in the samples are examined and contrasted to two other studies on STDs in nonprostitution populations made available to the authors. Prostitute arrest records reveal a majority had active STD infection[s] at the time of their apprehension, with gonorrhea being the most common bacterium; in many instances, prostitutes also had a history of other sexually transmitted diseases. Thus, data examined support the notion of prostitution as an agent in STD transmission. Presence of HIV infection in prostitutes could not be corroborated through sampled records, nor could prostitution itself be confirmed as an agent in HIV transmission at present. However, given the type of clients
McMullen, Richie J.
Discusses the issues of child and adolescent prostitution, focusing on the youth prostitution situation in London, England. Briefly describes "Streetwise," a support and counseling program developed to aid London youth who have been involved in any form of prostitution. (NB)
Levin, Lia; Peled, Einat
Contemporary developments in social attitudes toward prostitution and prostitutes influence both social policies and the social work profession. Understanding individuals' attitudes toward these issues is necessary for the development of social interventions and policies aimed at reducing stigmata attached to them. This article describes a new…
Salfati, C. Gabrielle; James, Alison R.; Ferguson, Lynn
It has been estimated that women involved in street prostitution are 60 to 100 times more likely to be murdered than are nonprostitute females. In addition, homicides of prostitutes are notoriously difficult to investigate and, as such, many cases remain unsolved. Despite this large risk factor, little literature exists on homicides of…
Gaspari, V; D'Antuono, A; Bellavista, S; Trimarco, R; Patrizi, A
Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. As sexual behaviour is an important determinant in transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), sex workers (SWs), transgenders and clients are often labeled as a "high risk group" in the context of HIV and STDs. It has been documented that female sex workers in particular have an increased prevalence of untreated STDs and have been hypothesized to affect the health and HIV incidence of the general population. People involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why they remain in this type of activity given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. The aim of this paper is to provide a clinical and epidemiological analysis of the relationship between prostitution, sexual behavior and outbreaks of STDs; to assess the role that migrants, transgenders and clients of SWs have in prostitution and in the outbreaks of STDs. In addition, we also want to highlight how new sexual networks, like the Internet, have become an increasingly important vehicle to sharing information about prostitution, sexual behavior and STDs. Finally we present what may be the prevention strategies and the goals in order to stem the spread of STDs among these hard-to-access groups.
Wells, Melissa; Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ji, Kai
This exploratory analysis examines the role of the Internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement. The National Juvenile Prostitution Study (N-JPS) collected information from a national sample of law enforcement agencies about the characteristics of juvenile prostitution cases. In comparison to non-Internet juvenile prostitution cases, Internet juvenile prostitution cases involved younger juveniles and police were more likely to treat juveniles as victims rather than offenders. In addition, these cases were significantly more likely to involve a family or acquaintance exploiter. This analysis suggests that the role of the Internet may impact legal and social service response to juveniles involved in prostitution. In addition, it highlights the need for interventions that acknowledge the vulnerabilities of youth involved in this type of commercial sexual exploitation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV prevalence among female populations involved in sex work in Nigeria has heightened interest in HIV prevention programming for this sub-population with brothel-based female sex workers (BB FSWs having a prevalence of 27.4%, six times higher than the prevalence in the general population. Methods/design The clusters in the randomized pilot trial will be brothels and female sex workers (FSWs residing in the brothels will be the participants of the study. The participants will receive free condom distribution as well as HIV prevention messages on condom use and negotiation skills to increase self-efficacy in handling social and gender power plays within their environment. Twelve brothels will be randomized into experimental and control conditions with a minimum total sample size of 200 participants. Recruitment of participants will be carried out from within the brothels. The control condition will receive a standard intervention consisting of a minimum of six interactive sessions with peer educators (PE engaging their peers through group discussions and one on one interaction using pre-designed HIV prevention messages. The experimental condition will receive the standard intervention as well as interactive sessions with the brothel leadership (chairladies and brothel managers to facilitate consistent condom use and appropriate condom use policies, conditions, and messaging. Both interventions will be delivered over a maximum period of 16 weeks, and male and female condoms will be distributed during the intervention. Quantitative assessments will be carried out at baseline and at 16 weeks follow-up, and the pilot findings will inform feasibility of and sample size estimation for a phase III trial. The primary outcomes measured are recruitment rate attrition rate and adherence to the intervention. Consistent condom use outcomes by FSWs within the brothel with all partner types and enhanced self-efficacy for condom
Szentkuti, Nóra Tünde; Benko, Imola Zsanett; Iqbal, Kumal; Arraji, Chaymae
The project is a case study based on prostitution in Nevada, in the United States. The project seeks to understand how the government of Nevada regulates prostitution with laws and policies, as well as describe and analyse the living and social conditions of the prostitutes. Prostitution has existed in Nevada for a long period, and the perception of prostitution has changed within the state. Some parts of the society have refused the traditional ideology that are prostitutes unethical and imm...
Miranda, Marisa A
This paper explores the medical-legal discourse around female prostitution that was articulated in Buenos Aires during the first decades of the 20th century. It focuses on the use of different ideological resources and on the policies and laws that were introduced to gain control over the sex trade and describes parallelisms between prostitution, disease and crime. In fact, the capital of Argentina was internationally known as a centre of prostitution and white slave trafficking, and Jewish participation in these activities allowed the consolidation of xenophobic theories. Medicine and law, among other disciplines, made important inputs into a simplified approach to this problem.
Okafor, Uchenna; Crutzen, Rik; Okekearu, Ifeanyi; Adebajo, Sylvia; Uzoh, Adaora; Awo, Egbe Aneotah; Chima, Chukwuemeka; Agwagwa, Ogechukwu; Van Den Borne, Bart
Background The HIV prevalence among female populations involved in sex work in Nigeria has heightened interest in HIV prevention programming for this sub-population with brothel-based female sex workers (BB FSWs) having a prevalence of 27.4%, six times higher than the prevalence in the general
Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen
Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…
Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.
Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…
Domingo Ojer Tsakiridu
Full Text Available The aim is to investigate the factors that might be associated with the presence of induced abortion (IA in women prostitutes in Asturias (Spain.Cross-sectional descriptive study by self-completion questionnaire of 212 women prostitutes who attended the three Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Asturias, between January-December 2003. The questionnaire was designed to investigate the women's perceived knowledge (what they claimed to know, their real knowledge (what they really knew, the use of contraceptive methods and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate analysis was carried out. 92% of the participants were immigrants. 76% were practising at brothel. 37.6% (95%CI:30.7-44.4% reported to have undergone at least one IA during their life. According to the logistic regression the "presence of IA" was directly associated with the variables "number of pregnancies" (OR:65.82;95%IC:7.73-560.14 and "years of practising prostitution" (OR:1.13;95%CI:0.99-1.29; and inversely associated with "children" (0 = no children;1 = one or more children; OR:0.005;95%CI:0.000-0.057, "women's age" (OR:0.89;95%CI:0.82-0.97 and "real contraceptive knowledge" (OR:0.50; 95%CI:0.34-0.75. Married women were more likely to have undergone an IA (OR:2.74;95%IC:1.05-7.13. No association with "perceived contraceptive knowledge" was found.The characteristics more closely linked to the reproductive history of the women (such as "pregnancies", "children", together with the "real contraceptive knowledge" and the "time practising prostitution" explain the presence of IA better than factors more closely linked to the conditions in which the women practise prostitution ("place of activity", "other activities compatible with prostitution", "use of safe method in commercial relation". It is possible that IA is being used as a birth control method, hypothesis suggested by the inverse association observed between the variable "children" and the "presence of IA". Therefore, the
Rugpao, S; Wanapirak, C; Sirichotiyakul, S; Yutabootr, Y; Prasertwitayakij, W; Suwankiti, S; Wongworapat, K; Tovanabutra, S; Natpratan, C; Saba, J
One hundred and ninety five (195) brothel-based commercial sex workers (CSW) in Chiang Mai, Thailand, were screened for sexually transmitted disease (STD) between October 1994 and April 1995, prior to their enrollment in a multi-center comparative trial of the effectiveness of two strategies using male and female condoms. These CSW had a mean age of 22.2 (SD 4.3) years. Forty-seven per cent were Thai and 57.4 per cent had no formal education. Median duration of prostitution was 16 months and median cost for sexual service was 50 baht (US$ 2) per client. Ninety-four per cent of CSW reported always using condoms with clients. There were 63 (32.3%) CSW infected with at least one type of the STD screened. The prevalence of STD included chlamydial infection (16.9%), gonococcal infection (14.4%), condyloma accuminata (4.6%), moluscum contagiosum (2.6%) and trichomoniasis (1.0%). There was no statistically significant risk factor for STD found in this study. Despite an active programme for prevention of STD in CSW and the provision of free condoms, STD were diagnosed in one-third of the screened CSW in Chiang Mai. The programme needs to be strengthened by more intensive education and practice in the correct and consistent use of condoms and integrated with other STD prevention programmes.
In 1861 in Italy a repressive law was passed against prostitution to reduce syphilis transmission. After the constitution of the Kingdom of Italy there began a debate on this law which was harsh on prostitutes and failed to resolve the health problem in question. In 1880, in Italy, studies were promoted under the aegis of a royal commission to understand the social situation of prostitution and the epidemic spread of syphilis. In 1888 Crispi issued new regulations concerning prostitution, prevention and therapy of infectious diseases: three years later a new regulation was established which partly restored the 1861 law. In this paper we present not only the question of prostitution in Italy in relation to syphilis, but also the serious problem of infection transmission to unweaned babies and to wet nurses in orphanages.
Tiosavljević, Danijela; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Turza, Karel; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jeremić, Vida
This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in d...
Pedersen, Pia Vivian; Arnfred, Anders; Algren, Maria Holst
regression analyses to compare data from 88 women working in brothels in 2010 with data from 3,225 women of similar age from the nationally representative Danish Health Survey 2010. Compared to Danish women, the prevalence of daily and heavy smoking was higher among brothel workers, but the prevalence......Previous research on behavioral risk factors for illness among sex workers has been limited and based on mixed, poorly defined groups of sex workers. Our aim was to compare the health behaviors and weight of women brothel workers with women in the general population in Denmark. We used logistic...... of wanting to quit smoking was lower. The prevalence rates of exceeding the Danish high-risk level of alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and illicit drug use were higher among women brothel workers compared to Danish women. The prevalence of underweight was higher and overweight and obesity lower among...
Tiosavljević, Danijela; Djukić-Dejanović, Slavica; Turza, Karel; Jovanović, Aleksandar; Jeremić, Vida
This paper presents the morally controversial phenomenon of prostitution. As the basis for contemplating the prostitution issue the most important is revealing and understanding its primitive ethical root. For understanding its "soul", its essence, also important is comprehending sexual, "elementary thoughts" of mankind, through the relationship between prostitution and religious, social, political and spiritual life, and its nature as a reflection of the sexual-ethical concepts in different epochs and nations. We emphasize the connection between prostitution and psychiatry. Placing a special focus on importance of personality for deciding to become a prostitute, and by pulling it through a moral prism we define prostitution as a new medical situation. In favor of that, we stress the importance of the presence, position and role of psychiatrists within an indispensable multidisciplinary team, which is complementary despite its heterogeneousness, synergistically and simultaneously dealing with psychological, physical and social health-problems of women engaged in prostitution. We propose peer education as a way of promoting healthy and safer behaviors among the subculture of prostitutes, where we see another important role of psychiatrists in selecting/recruiting, training and motivating peer educators among them.
Using the example of the city of Frankfurt am Main the paper examines the conflict relationship between increasing acceptance and persistent demands for stringent controls that characterizes the perception of prostitution in Germany today. Focusing on prevalent socio-spatial forms of control, that aim at excluding the field from « normal » everyday life, the first part will demonstrate how and why prostitution, though legalized and more and more accepted, remains powerfully stigmatized t...
Agueda Gómes Suárez
Full Text Available Today, the prostitution in our society turns out to be an indicator of the dominant “sexual culture” in the patriarchal and capitalist societies. This article tries to contribute with another approach to the analysis of the sexual industry in our country, adjusting, principally, to the experiences of the men involved in the phenomenon of the prostitution in Galicia. The dramatic quality in which the women in prostitution live their reality and the levity and idleness, in which the clients enjoy themselves, show the controversial and worrying face of this reality. The analysis of the clients’ speech across the “Frame Analysis”, and the study of the feminine dominant imaginary among them are portrayed in this text, together with the speech of the women in prostitution and of the men who occupy masculinized spaces. This article tries to be a contribution to the complex study of the phenomenon of the prostitution in our country.
This paper addresses key philosophical and social questions that shape the contemporary discourse on prostitution. The initial section outlines the contemporary challenges facing legislative practice on prostitution in England. This involves analysing moral and legal framework surrounding prostitution that has made the current legislative dilemma surrounding prostitution practice possible. The second part of the paper then outlines the history of the philosophy of human rights from Aquinas to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948). The paper concludes by analysing whether the current ontology employed by human rights theory is effective in creating a system of just relatedness between agents, made visible in concrete legislative guidance. I argue that legislation guided by a fragmented teleology and ontological anthropology enables asymmetrical patterns of relatedness that can cause genuine physical and psychological harm to individuals.
Full Text Available This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957, it is generally ignored by the police, which results in a quasi-legalised reality on the ground. In recent years there has been growing demand for the decriminalisation of prostitution, and as a result the issue is currently under consideration by the South African Law Reform Commission. The Commission released a Discussion Paper on Adult ProSstitution in May 2009, and is expected to make recommendations to parliament for legal reform in this area. An exploratory survey of 512 South Africans revealed interesting correlations between opinion on prostitution and both demographic characteristics (including gender, age, race and education level and so-called "social" characteristics (including religiosity, belief in the importance of gender equality, the acceptance of rape myths, and a belief that prostitutes have no other options. The survey reveals two key findings in respect of the attitudes of South Africans to prostitution. Firstly, an overwhelming majority of South Africans - from all walks of life - remain strongly morally opposed to prostitution, and would not support legal reforms aimed at decriminalising or legalising prostitution. Secondly, our data confirm that these views are strongly influenced by certain demographic and 'social' variables. In particular, race, gender, religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be statistically significantly related to opinions on prostitution, while other variables - particularly the belief in the importance of gender equality and the
Eelmaa, Taavi, 1971-
Mis jääb vaatajale teatrietendusest meelde? Ilmus Kris Moori raamat "Homefucking is Killing Prostitution". Raamat sisaldab tekste ja Erki Lauri fotosid Von Krahli Teatri samanimelisest etendusest, mida kordagi ei mängitud
D??ez Guti??rrez, Enrique Javier
P. 96-101 Prostitution is not the oldest "trade" in the world; rather, it is the oldest form of exploitation, slavery and gender-based violence devised by men to subjugate women and keep them at men's sexual disposal. Whenever prostitution is discussed, the role played by the client is disregarded, protected and minimised. However, it is essential to understand the starting point of this situation: "There is no supply without demand". It is men who, as a class, maintain, enforce ...
Pedro María EGEA BRUNO
Full Text Available The regulation of the «old trade» was assumed during the 19th century by the local and provincial authorities. The surveillance on that group spread with particular emphasis during the period of the Restoration. Medical and police control, had become a way to discipline women and to control dangerous classes. The figure of the prostitute was, then, supported by the established power. Cartagena —military port and working nucleus— emerges as a pioneering model in such an intervention, when the profession was regulated in 1874 and it was established the register of prostitutes. The source gives us a whole series of considerations: the development in the family area, structure of the brothels, urban geography of the activity and the Spanish prostitution network connections. Other variables of interest are: marital status and age, while the previous occupation indicates us the majority presence of the popular classes. Anthometric parameters are also included from height to the eyes colour, appearing scars, which indicate violence of genre. The last point includes personal problems, which allows understanding their decisions and their experiences in life. Selling their bodies was the only possible option for many of them to face up misery. Genre and classes agreed in that exploitation.
Full Text Available This article analyses prostitution in the Barents Region as a social question through the subjective experiences of female Russian prostitutes. The women who were interviewed for this research live their everyday lives in the context of Russia. The operational possibilities of the women are based on a sociocultural framework which differs from that of Western countries. This article addresses the following question: How does prostitution construct the agency of women in the Barents Region? The question is explored in terms of the social relationships of the women, their everyday agency within the local environment, their living conditions, and the marginal conditions of their lives. Our focus is on the social structures and the position of the women within them. The data used in this article consist of observational material as well as interviews with 17 women, wherein they discuss their experiences of prostitution in the Barents Region. All of the material was collected in Murmansk, Russia between 2004 and 2008. Qualitative content analysis was performed as a means to understand the aforementioned women’s experiences of prostitution and its relation to everyday life. Prostitution is a product of social structures, a woman’s position, the accessibility of support, and the available personal, social and mental resources. Sometimes prostitution is a way to survive. Women who practice prostitution are often seen only as stereotypes, but the individual paths of their lives and the social contexts in which they live are integral to an understanding of the causes and effects of sex work.
The sale of sexual services between consenting adults is legal under Canadian law, yet the Criminal Code prohibits many activities related to prostitution and the sex trade. As a result, many people who work in the sex trade come into conflict with the law. In recent reports, two Canadian organizations have called for the repeal of the current Criminal Code prohibitions on activities related to the sex trade. Pivot Legal Society's report, "Voices for Dignity: A Call to End the Harms Caused by Canada's Sex Trade Laws," was released in March 2004. The Conseil permanent de la jeunesse, a 15-member advisory panel to the Québec government, released "Prostitution de rue: avis" in April 2004.
This article analyzes child prostitution based on a review of the literature, in order to support an approach to this problem by the field of Public Health. First, health, prostitution, and violence are discussed as categories. Prostitution has traditionally been analyzed from a medical perspective, mostly within a hygienist point of view. However, the issue is dealt with here from a different perspective. After this discussion, several aspects about the cruelty of Brazilian reality are revealed showing that prostitution among children and teenagers is a way of survival. From this angle, poverty and child prostitution are closely related, although the study concludes that the latter is not solely a consequence of the former. Over the course of the review, a number of publications on the current issue are taken into consideration in order to best contribute to the discussion of the matter. Finally, the author concludes that to confront this problem it must be considered within the family context and linked to macro-social questions.
Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut
The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, Mee Lian; Teo, Alvin Kuo Jing; Tai, Bee Choo; Ng, Alwyn Mao Tong; Lim, Raymond Boon Tar; Tham, Dede Kam Tyng; Kaur, Nashwinder; Tan, Rayner Kay Jin; Kros, Sarath; Touch, Savun; Chhit, Maryan; Lubek, Ian
Following Cambodia's implementation of the 100% condom use program with enforcement of condom use and STI treatment services for sex workers in 2001, sexually transmitted infection and HIV declined markedly. In 2008, Cambodia implemented a law to ban brothel-based sex work. We reported trends in unprotected vaginal intercourse with sex workers among heterosexual men buying sex before (2003-2008) and after (2009-2012) the brothel ban in Cambodia. We also determined the association of brothel ban with these men's reports of unprotected intercourse with sex workers. In this serial cross-sectional study, we collected yearly behavioural data on random cross-sectional samples of heterosexual men buying sex who attended the only government health centre in Siem Reap for voluntary confidential counselling and testing (VCCT) between 2003 and 2012. We used multivariable Poisson regression analysis on the 10-year data of 976 men to obtain the adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) of unprotected intercourse in the last 6 months by brothel closure. Men buying sex from non-brothel-based sex workers increased almost 3-fold from 17% in 2007-2008 before brothel closure to 55% in 2011-2012 after brothel closure (p < 0.001). Unprotected intercourse with sex workers in the last week increased significantly from 37% (2003-2004) before brothel closure to 65% (2011-2012) after brothel closure. This increase corresponded closely with the increase in self-reported unprotected intercourse from 35% to 61% by the sex workers (n = 1805) attending the same clinic for VCCT. Brothel closure was associated with an increased risk (aPR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.40-1.94) of unprotected intercourse with sex workers. HIV prevalence in the heterosexual men declined significantly from 26% in 2003-2004 to 4.8% in 2007-2008 and 0 case in 2009-2010 before increasing to 5.6% in 2011-2012. Our findings suggest that the brothel ban had led to an increase in unprotected intercourse with all sex workers for men buying
Marlene Teixeira Rodrigues
Full Text Available Public policy initiatives aimed at prostitution have undergone changes since the end of the 20th century. They are no longer the exclusive objective of police intervention and hygienic concerns, and have come to include the perspective of prostitutes themselves. In Brazil, it is possible to identify legislative initiatives in the field of healthcare that refer to labor and human rights in this field. The purpose of this article is to examine two of these initiatives: Proposed Law n. 98/2003, presented by federal deputy Fernando Gabeira to recognize prostitution as a “service of a sexual nature” and the labor legislation that sought to insert the activity of sex professionals within the Brazilian Classification of Occupations.
McDonnell, R J
This study examined the health risk profile of prostitutes in Dublin. Clinical records of all 150 new prostitutes who attended a drop-in clinic for prostitutes in Dublin city during the period 1991-1997 were reviewed. Variables examined included: age, use of injectable drugs, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, hepatitis B and C status, presence of sexually transmitted disease (STD), cervical cytology. Results showed the mean age of the women was 32 years. Among those tested, 2.5% were HIV positive, 5% were hepatitis B positive, 8% were hepatitis C positive and 25% had an STD. Almost 8% were injecting drug users (IDU) with higher prevalences of HIV, hepatitis B and C compared with non-IDU (P < 0.001). The clinic has been successful in providing a health-care facility for the specific health needs of this patient cohort.
Tsakiridu, Domingo Ojer; Franco Vidal, Amalia; Vázquez Valdés, Fernando; Junquera Llaneza, Maria Luisa; Varela Uría, Jose Antonio; Cuesta Rodríguez, Mar; López Sanchez, Carmen; Busto Folgosa, Margarita; Fernández Ollero, Maria Jesús
Background The aim is to investigate the factors that might be associated with the presence of induced abortion (IA) in women prostitutes in Asturias (Spain). Methodology/Principal Findings Cross-sectional descriptive study by self-completion questionnaire of 212 women prostitutes who attended the three Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinics in Asturias, between January–December 2003. The questionnaire was designed to investigate the women's perceived knowledge (what they claimed to know), their real knowledge (what they really knew), the use of contraceptive methods and socio-demographic variables. Multivariate analysis was carried out. 92% of the participants were immigrants. 76% were practising at brothel. 37.6% (95%CI:30.7–44.4%) reported to have undergone at least one IA during their life. According to the logistic regression the “presence of IA” was directly associated with the variables “number of pregnancies”(OR:65.82;95%IC:7.73–560.14) and “years of practising prostitution”(OR:1.13;95%CI:0.99–1.29); and inversely associated with “children”(0 = no children;1 = one or more children; OR:0.005;95%CI:0.000–0.057), “women's age”(OR:0.89;95%CI:0.82–0.97) and “real contraceptive knowledge”(OR:0.50; 95%CI:0.34–0.75). Married women were more likely to have undergone an IA (OR:2.74;95%IC:1.05–7.13). No association with “perceived contraceptive knowledge” was found. Conclusions/Significance The characteristics more closely linked to the reproductive history of the women (such as “pregnancies”, “children”), together with the “real contraceptive knowledge” and the “time practising prostitution” explain the presence of IA better than factors more closely linked to the conditions in which the women practise prostitution (“place of activity”, “other activities compatible with prostitution”, “use of safe method in commercial relation”). It is possible that IA is being used as a birth control
... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostitution and lewd behavior. 38.11... Prostitution and lewd behavior. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will: (a) Engage in prostitution. “Prostitution” means the giving or receiving of the body for sexual intercourse for hire; or (b...
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prostitution and commercialized vice. 40.24... Certain Crimes § 40.24 Prostitution and commercialized vice. (a) Activities within 10 years preceding visa... United States solely, principally, or incidentally to engage in prostitution, or has engaged in...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prostitution or solicitation. 11.453 Section 11.453... LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.453 Prostitution or solicitation. A person who commits prostitution or solicitation or who knowingly keeps, maintains, rents, or leases, any house, room, tent, or...
Willis, Brian M; Levy, Barry S
Child prostitution is a significant global problem that has yet to receive appropriate medical and public health attention. Worldwide, an estimated 1 million children are forced into prostitution every year and the total number of prostituted children could be as high as 10 million. Inadequate data exist on the health problems faced by prostituted children, who are at high risk of infectious disease, pregnancy, mental illness, substance abuse, and violence. Child prostitution, like other forms of child sexual abuse, is not only a cause of death and high morbidity in millions of children, but also a gross violation of their rights and dignity. In this article we estimate morbidity and mortality among prostituted children, and propose research strategies and interventions to mitigate such health consequences. Our estimates underscore the need for health professionals to collaborate with individuals and organisations that provide direct services to prostituted children. Health professionals can help efforts to prevent child prostitution through identifying contributing factors, recording the magnitude and health effects of the problem, and assisting children who have escaped prostitution. They can also help governments, UN agencies, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to implement policies, laws, and programmes to prevent child prostitution and mitigate its effects on children's health.
Critical comment is made concerning the plight of prostitutes children in India. Little attention has been paid to these children who are victims of their circumstances from birth, denied the opportunity to be free of their background, and deprived of an environment conducive to healthy physical and psychological development. The children suffer from nutritional deficiencies, minimal health care, nonavailability of basic needs, and social handicaps. Although government has initiated measures to improve conditions for these children, their status isolated them from the mainstream and places them on the lowest social rung. They are also likely to follow in their mothers footsteps, and eventually engage in procurement or pimping. Discrimination among the children is exhibited in education where boys are given priority, in denial of choice in joining a trade for self development, and/or in inheritance where prostitution earnings accrue to sons. The estimate 5,000,000 children of prostitutes in India deserve priority treatment. The mothers' backgrounds divide the children into several categories children of mothers dedicated as Devadasis or joins to fulfill parental religious belief, to combat poverty, or because of social pressures; children of those belonging to communities where prostitution is an accepted practice; those pursuing singing and dancing careers and who are attached to men as concubines for a longer period of time; and those who are hoodwinked into joining the trade. Prostitutes bear children out of a desire to enter into a tangible human relationship that is genuine, meaningful, and lasting. Sometimes children are economic and emotional necessities. There have been government efforts to provide benefits to Devadasi children. In addition, Chapter III of the Juvenile Justice Act attempts to protect neglected juveniles. Other approaches needed are Development Care Centers in every red-light district. Mothers need to realize the importance of keeping
Music and dance, the esoteric performing arts, were markers of culture in medieval India. A number of these differing forms developed into well-recognized and reputed arts over time. The practitioners were, accordingly, regarded as agents of refinement and culture. At the same time, music and dance were also among the most popular forms of entertainment and physical pleasure. This aspect remained crucial in classifying musicians, singers and dancers as entertainers, alongside prostitutes. While the labelling together might have reduced the status of performers at times, the labelling hardly remained fixed. Certain practitioners, even if involved in practices otherwise considered immoral, could remain within the elite circle, while for others the ‘evil’ characteristics got emphasized. There were, within the class of women who prostituted themselves, courtesans trained in the skills of music and dancing and educated in the fine arts, who were treated more as embodiments of culture. These categories—artists, skilled entertainers, courtesans—were quite fluid, with the boundaries seemingly fused together. Still, there were certainly some distinctions among the categories and those did not totally disappear, affording sanctity and purity to certain kinds of performers and allowing them to claim distinctiveness. Notably, the class of courtesans clearly stood apart from the common prostitutes. The attempt in this article is to look at different categories of women performers and prostitutes, their apparent coalescing boundaries and specialities as a separate group, their societal position, their shifting roles and the changes that affected their status. In this, it is worthwhile to consider the state’s attitude towards them, besides societal views that remained quite diverse.
Anallely BELLO; Juan Carlos MONTERRUBIO
Tourism has been commonly related to prostitution. However, very few studies have evidenced this relationship in different contexts. Several studies on local community attitudes towards tourism impacts have briefly assessed the increase of prostitution as one of several indicators of social change. Due to the importance that such relationship has both for tourism impact management and social development, the impact of tourism on prostitution should be studied in detail. This study explores th...
Creating supportive environments for street working children requires children's nurses to be knowledgeable. Strengthening community action requires awareness of existing groups who currently work with child prostitutes. Nurses need to develop counselling skills to enable child prostitutes to make healthy choices. Building healthy public policies challenges nurses to mediate with politicians regarding policies which may adversely affect children. A health service, re-oriented to improve the care of school age prostitutes, necessitates collaboration with health, community and charity workers.
Full Text Available Das Prostitutionsgesetz von 2002 hat das Geschäft mit der Liebe in Deutschland erstmals aus der illegalen Schmuddelecke geholt. Formal ist die Prostitution damit ein Beruf neben anderen. Eine moralische Neubewertung der „Sexarbeiterinnen“ ist damit nicht einhergegangen. Im vorliegenden Buch, das die wichtigsten Beiträge der Tagung „Frauenhandel und Prostitution in Europa“ versammelt, wird zum Paradigmenwechsel aufgerufen: Ja, es gibt sie, die Frauen (und Männer, die in der Prostitution einen alternativen, durchaus gangbaren Lebensweg sehen. Aber: Es gibt sie mindestens genauso häufig, die „weißen Sklavinnen“, Opfer des internationalen Menschenhandels, die zur Prostitution gezwungen werden. Die Beiträger/-innen des Bandes versuchen, sowohl deren Realität als auch der der freiwilligen Sexarbeiterinnen gerecht zu werden. Dazu werden die gesetzlichen Grundlagen in Deutschland und in ausgewählten europäischen Ländern vorgestellt (sowie die EU-weiten Bemühungen um eine gemeinsame Anti-trafficking-Politik. Der Abdruck modellhafter Arbeitsverträge oder internationaler Statuten von Sexarbeitervereinigungen dient der mit dem Band verbundenen aufklärerischen Absicht, Prostitution als Beruf zu etablieren/wahrzunehmen.The prostitution law of 2002 freed the world’s oldest profession in Germany from the illegal back-alleyways. Formally, prostitution is now a profession like any other. A moral reconsideration of “sex workers,” however, does not necessarily go along with this. The book, which brings together the most important papers from the conference “The Trafficking of Women and Prostitution in Europe,”(“Frauenhandel und Prostitution in Europa” calls for a paradigm shift: Yes, they exist, those women (and men who see prostitution as an alternative and absolutely viable path. However, the “white slaves” also exist, those victims of international human trafficking who are forced into prostitution. The book attempts to
Ideational representation of prostitution in Chika Unigwe's on black sisters' street. Ikenna Kamalu, Blessing O. Ejezie. Abstract. Previous studies on ChikaUnigwe's On Black Sisters' Street (OBSS henceforth) have focused mainly on the thematic concerns of the text - prostitution, sex trafficking and sex slavery, without paying ...
This paper examines twentieth century social constructions of child prostitutes and child prostitution, the origins of these representations and the extent to which they have been used as metaphors for other perceived social, economic and political problems. It is important to recognise that these children have been sexually abused and that…
Child prostitution is increasing in Asia, and is estimated to include more than a million children. Asian countries are prosecuting more offenders, but actual convictions are negligible, often because police are in collusion with the syndicates. One factor sustaining the child prostitution industry is the belief that the children are free of AIDS.
Context: Adolescent prostitution, an interesting area of reproductive health focus, is of great socioeconomic and medical burden in Nigeria. Objective: This study aims to determine the demographic characteristics and risk factors for adolescent prostitution in Nigeria Method: This was a cross- sectional study using ...
Murphy, Lyn Stankiewicz
Prostitution involves the exchange of sexual services for economic compensation. Due to the sexual promiscuity surrounding prostitution, women involved in prostitution constitute a high-risk group for contracting and transmitting STDs, including HIV. Prostitution is not only a public health concern, but also an economic one. Cities throughout the United States spent an average of $7.5 to $16 million per year enforcing prostitution laws and addressing negative outcomes associated with prostitution. Thus, women involved in prostitution are a cause for concern from both public health and economic perspectives. However, little is known about why women remain in this type of behavior given the risks prostitution presents, and even less is known about how to intervene and interrupt the complex cycle of prostitution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to understand what factors contribute to a woman's decision to remain in prostitution. A series of interviews were conducted with 12 women engaged in street-level prostitution. Results of the study revealed that drug use not only spurs entry into prostitution, but also contributes to the tenure of prostitution. Further, social support and economic stability are plausible reasons for women remaining in prostitution. These findings lead us to recommendations for policy and program development. Women involved in prostitution are a highly marginalized population, rarely recognized as individuals with life histories. Understanding why women remain in prostitution is important, because until these determinants are known, intervention programs designed to interrupt the cycle, and ultimately prevent prostitution, cannot be formulated.
Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E.; Hickle, Kristine E.; Loubert, Martha Perez; Egan, Tom
The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors and the impact of a prostitution diversion program on prostitution recidivism. Risk factors and recidivism were explored using chi-square, t tests, and survival analysis. Participants were 448 individuals who were arrested for prostitution and attended a prostitution-focused diversion…
Full Text Available This article delineates scholarship in Latin American history (mostly in English defined by gender relations and/or focused on women. From 1492 until 1750, the honor code, the process of miscegenation or race mixture, and property rights are emphasized. Scholarship has overturned the traditional view that colonial households and production were invariably patriarchal, since between 25 to 45 percent of households were headed by women. Illegitimacy and consensual unions were found to be prevalent principally among the non-white and non-elite populations. From 1750 to 1930, profound and contradictory changes included a secularization process that caused women’s loss of many colonial protections. However, new opportunities developed for women’s employment and control of property. Women were essentially controlled within the private sphere during the colonial period, but that control moved to the workplace in the nineteenth century, and to the state in the early twentieth century. Gender was an important discourse in struggles to define the nation-state, with prostitution and disease as central themes. In the twentieth century social historians have demonstrated the differential gender impacts of economic and technological change brought by development projects, industrialization, and shifting strategies of multinational corporations. The most striking contributions of recent books on gender in Latin America include the continuing significance of honor after independence. Motherhood is another recurring theme in writings about women and their history in Latin America.
Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios
Full Text Available Many children in Mexico are working in registered places where the sex trade is allowed, such as canteens, bars or nightclubs. This article, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in-depth interviews with owners of 73 centers dedicated to the sexual commerce in nine Mexican States, examines the prostitution of minors in these places towards the appreciations of the pimps, and concludes that the spread of a culture of bribery in the prostitution industry leads to the solidification of networks of complicity between the police and pimps leading to the prostitution of minors.
There is an enormous supply of children and young adolescents worldwide who have sex for money and other forms of tangible compensation. Child prostitution is far from new, but it has only recently grown to become a multibillion dollar industry with children bought, sold, and traded like other mass-produced goods. Brazil has 250,000-500,000 children in the sex trade and the number of children involved in Colombia, Russia, and Benin is growing rapidly. Asia is the center of child prostitution with an estimated 60,000 child prostitutes in the Philippines, 400,000 in India, and 800,000 in Thailand. Most of the sex workers are under 16 years old and most are female, although some parts of the world offer almost exclusively young male prostitutes. Indeed, almost all of Sri Lanka's 20,000-30,000 child prostitutes are boys. The overwhelming majority of children who have sex for money do so out of economic need, particularly in the context of widespread rural poverty. Some children leave home on their own in search of opportunity, some are stolen or sold into slavery, and others are kicked out of their homes. An International Labor Organization study found that a woman in the sex industry in Thailand can make about 25 times more than she could in any other occupation open to her. Such financial reward is often hard to resist. Demand for child prostitutes comes from a range of sources. In Asia, child prostitution, and prostitution in general, is deeply embedded in many local and national cultures. For example, an Harvard University researcher has determined that 75% of all men in Thailand have had sex with a prostitute. While nationals frequent and effectively support the prostitution industry, many foreign travelers also visit countries in search of sex. Young prostitutes are in particular demand due to the myth that youngsters are somehow relatively virgin and bereft of infection with sexually transmitted diseases. The author discusses the causes of rural poverty, the
Full Text Available Tourism has been commonly related to prostitution. However, very few studies have evidenced this relationship in different contexts. Several studies on local community attitudes towards tourism impacts have briefly assessed the increase of prostitution as one of several indicators of social change. Due to the importance that such relationship has both for tourism impact management and social development, the impact of tourism on prostitution should be studied in detail. This study explores the ‘responsibility' of tourism on the increase of prostitution in an urban destination as perceived by local residents. It was found that while local community residents do not perceive tourism as the only causing factor, the tourist involvement in commercial sex does exist, but it is commonly an incidental rather than a purposive experience.
... shall include, as express terms and conditions, the applicable provisions of this clause in all... prostitution or sex trafficking. (Note: The term “contract” includes “order” wherever it appears in this clause...
Chu, Sandra Ka Hon
In September 2010, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice held that three provisions of the Criminal Code dealing with prostitution violated sex workers' constitutional rights, were not in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice and must be struck down.
Full Text Available Study of sexual tourism in Saint Martin/Sint Maarten, where prostitution is a widespread reality. Author argues that on this island where rapid economic development is based on the tourist industry and on offshore financial services, sexual relationships are determined by geopolitical and financial (neoliberal interests that go beyond sexuality per se. She focuses on the precarious situation of the foreign prostitutes who have no working papers.
Ui, Miyoko; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukutomi, Mamoru; Narita, Ken'ichi; Kamise, Yumiko; Yashiro, Kaoru
The present study analyzed demographic and psychological factors that affect adult men's decisions to solicit a prostitute. We administered a questionnaire to 1400 randomly sampled men aged 20 to 59, who live in the Tokyo metropolitan area (obtaining 664 valid responses). The results revealed that 14.6 percent of respondents have had the experience of being a client in prostitution at some point over the past four to five years. Men in their 50s, who spent their adolescence before the enforcement of anti-prostitution laws, had high prostitution acceptability. Those in their 20s and 30s, who spent their adolescence in the 1990s when "Enjyo-Kousai" (Japanese amateur prostitution) gained topicality, also showed high rates. These findings are considered to be birth cohort effects. In addition, those men who reported greater sexual drive and desire for intimate contact with others, as well as those who reported fewer attitudes of gender egalitarianism, had higher rates of prostitution solicitation. Finally, those men who reported less emotional family bonds also showed higher rates.
Hernán D. Grbavac
Full Text Available This paper show the implications of the Act n.° 26.842 in the configuration of the crime of promotion and/or facilitation of adult’s prostitution (article 125 bis Argentine Penal Code. Particularly the amendments introduced by this Act are going to be investigated as well as the possibility that the new legal regulation has taken in a surreptitious manner, the so-called “Swedish model”, which means that the legal system, while still recognized as not offensive the exercise of the voluntary prostitution of adults, punishes the customer or claimant of surch services. On that line, this paper analyses the constitutionality or the unconstitutionality of the usefulness or the uselesness, of the current system in Sweden.
Full Text Available The paper demonstrates common mechanisms underlying state control of prostitute and pregnant women. On a global level, institutional regulation of pregnancy and prostitution has been incorporated into “population control” and “migration control” under the name of “family planning” and “anti trafficking”. Although those policies fit within a coherent system, reproductive and sexual issues are most often isolated, or framed as ideological and strategic opposites, also by feminist theorists and activists. This false dichotomy reinforces the division of women and colludes with social hypocrisy and injustice.El artículo muestra los mecanismos comunes subyacentes en el control estatal a mujeres prostitutas y embarazadas. Aun nivel global, la regulación institucional del embarazo y de la prostitución ha sido incorporada al “control de la población” y al “control de la migración” bajo el nombre de “planeamiento familiar” y “antitráfico”. Aunque estas políticas se incluyen dentro de un sistema coherente, las cuestiones sobre reproducción y sexualidad son muy a menudo aisladas o enmarcadas como oposiciones ideológicas y estratégicas, incluso por feministas teóricos y activistas. Esta falsa dicotomía refuerza la división de la mujer y refuerza la hipocresía social y la injusticia.
András Kővári; Erik Pruyt
This paper presents a model-based exploration and policy analysis related to prostitution and prostitution-related human trafficking. After a brief introduction to prostitution and prostitution-related human trafficking, the paper zooms in on the Dutch situation. A System Dynamics simulation model related to the Dutch situation developed to explore and provide policy insights is subsequently presented. Using the simulation model, policies are first of all tested, and preliminary conclusions a...
Marcio Jose Ornat
Full Text Available This paper discusses about the relation between discontinuous paradoxical territory, LGBT movement, prostitution and pimping in Southern Brazil. Such proposition relates to the content analysis of 22 interviews with travestis which acted in sexual services and with 7 more interviews with people acting in NGOs concerned with the travestis group. We verified that this knowledge flow is made through the participation of various social actors and it is constituted with the relations established between travestis, NGOs and owners of ‘boarding houses for travestis’, from paradoxes and complementarities between legal and illegal activities. The multiple scale of the phenomenon highlights how these relations have a mobile and indeterminate position, thus surpassing the notion that conceives categories as something fixed and it shows how complex the relations among subjects and space are.
La prostitution est-elle une profession comme une autre ou une forme d’exploitation des femmes ? Une simple activité génératrice de revenus ou une expression de violence à l’égard des femmes ? Un métier librement choisi ou une contrainte imposée ? Cet article présente quelques définitions de la prostitution et en identifie certaines causes. Il examine également la question du trafic sexuel et décrit un profil des clients de la prostitution, des proxénètes et des prostituées. Finalement, il tr...
Cates, Jim A.; Markley, Jeffrey
Compared 15 male prostitutes and 15 nonprostitutes from same cohort. Found heavier drug and alcohol use, more limited vocational success and aspirations, and greater alcohol use among family members of male prostitutes. Male prostitutes were also more likely to identify themselves as drug or alcohol addicted. No significant differences were found…
The study explored the characteristics of child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. A convenience sample of children in prostitution, specifically girls below age 18 (n=243), were recruited on 83 prostitution sites identified in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. A survey instrument, consisting of 71 closed-ended question items, was used to explore various variables including profile of children in prostitution, factors of vulnerability to prostitution; prostitution practices, compensations and related issues in child prostitution. The findings show that most children in prostitution in the city were from Burkina Faso (63%) and Nigeria (30%), two countries that do not share borders. Most native respondents practiced prostitution for survival and to support their families. In contrast, all the respondents from Nigeria practiced prostitution as victims of international sex trafficking. An important finding was that 77% of the children in prostitution surveyed were educated. Among the respondents, there were similarities in the major life events that contributed to their situation of prostitution. These life events include early separation with parents, sexual abuse, foster care, and forced marriage. Implications for policy, practice and research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reid, Joan A; Piquero, Alex R
Researchers have consistently linked commercial sexual exploitation (CSE) of youth and involvement in prostitution with substance dependency and delinquency. Yet, important questions remain regarding the directionality and mechanisms driving this association. Utilizing a sample of 114 CSE/prostituted youth participating in the Pathways to Desistance study-a longitudinal investigation of the transition from adolescence to adulthood among serious adolescent offenders-the current study examined key criminal career parameters of CSE/prostitution including age of onset and rate of recurrence. Additionally, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore concurrent associations and causal links between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement. Findings show a general sequential pattern of the ages of onset with substance use and selling drugs occurring prior to CSE/prostitution, evidence that a small group with chronic CSE/prostitution account for the majority of CSE/prostitution occurrences, and high rates of repeated CSE/prostitution. SEM results suggest CSE/prostituted youth persist in drug involvement from year to year but infrequently experience perpetuation of CSE/prostitution from year to year. Concurrent associations between CSE/prostitution and drug involvement were found across the length of the study. Additionally, drug involvement at one year was linked to CSE/prostitution during the subsequent year during early years of the study. © The Author(s) 2014.
Carmen Meneses Falcón
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las circunstancias y las consecuencias del consumo de cocaína en el entorno del ejercicio de la prostitución. Material y métodos: Estudio cualitativo sobre una muestra de 60 personas, de 18-50 años de edad, que ejercen la prostitución en la calle, apartamentos y clubs de 6 ciudades españolas, mediante entrevista semiestructurada. Resultados: El alcohol y la cocaína son las principales sustancias de consumo en este contexto. Se trata de consumos ocasionales e instrumentales que permiten a las personas que ejercen la prostitución sobrellevar la actividad que realizan, resistir muchas horas la prestación de prácticas sexuales con diferentes clientes, obtener mayores beneficios económicos y eludir los servicios sexuales. Las consecuencias del consumo por parte de estas personas pueden llevar a la desprotección en las prácticas sexuales y a ser víctimas de agresión o violencia por parte del cliente. Las personas prostituidas desarrollan estrategias de disminución del consumo: reducción de las dosis de consumo, simulación del uso de drogas o selección de los clientes consumidores. Conclusiones: El estudio destaca que los consumos de drogas se encuentran asociados al contexto de realización de los servicios sexuales. Sin embargo, las consecuencias de éstos pueden implicar riesgos para la salud por la desprotección de las prácticas sexuales que demanda el cliente.Objective: To describe the circumstances and consequences of cocaine use in the setting of prostitution. Material and method: We performed a qualitative study with fieldwork in 6 Spanish cities. Semi-structured interviews were carried out to 60 persons aged between 18 and 50 years old involved in prostitution in different settings: street, flat and brothel. Results: The main substances used in prostitution were alcohol and cocaine. Consumption was occasional and instrumental and helped to reduce psychological barriers or inhibition and increase
A reading of modern African novels reveals that some female heroines are presented as prostitutes. Prominent among them are Firdaus in Nawal El Saadawi's Woman at Point Zero, Mara in Amma Darko's Beyond the Horizon, Jagua Nana and Filia in Cyprain Ekensis Jaygua Nana and People of the City respectively, ...
In 1911 a new public morality act was enacted in the Netherlands. Article 250bis of the penal code states that it is forbidden to give opportunity for prostitution. This so called article on brothelkeeping was the result of growing pressure of a coalition between christian puritans, socialists and
This paper examines the causes of women trafficking and forced prostitution in. Nigeria. The paper was unambiguous in respect of the superiority of the argument that these are as a result of the general level of poverty within the economy even though the problem is a social one. After an analysis of Nigeria's experience at
Silbert, Mimi H.; Pines, Ayala M.
Surveyed 200 female street prostitutes to determine whether they were sexually exploited during childhood. Results showed 60 percent of the subjects were sexually exploited. The few girls who discussed their abuse with others were met with shame and most often inaction. Only 10 percent were abused by strangers. (JAC)
Golenbock, D T; Guerra, J; Pfister, J; Golubjatnikov, R; Tejada, A; Abugattas, J; Kemper, R; Maki, D G
We serologically tested 140 female prostitutes (mean age, 30 years) from the port city of Callao, Peru, for evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex viruses (HSV) I and II, and hepatitis B virus. The women had worked as prostitutes for an average of 5 years; one-fourth serviced foreign visitors exclusively, mainly sailors. Only 4 women used condoms, and only 1 woman gave a history of parenteral narcotic abuse, although 53% were regularly exposed to unsterile needles outside the medical setting for injections of vitamins, antibiotics, or steroids; another 29% are thought to probably use unsterile needles. None of the 140 prostitutes screened was seropositive for HIV, despite a very high prevalence of antibody to T. pallidum (24%), C. trachomatis (97%), HSV I and II (100%), and hepatitis B (51%); 5% were HbsAg positive. These data indicate that HIV has not yet been introduced into female prostitutes in the Peruvian port city. We believe that widespread use of unsterile needles in developing countries, such as Peru, represents a serious health threat and will amplify the spread of HIV, once introduced.
Rosemberg, Fulvia; Andrade, Leandro Feitosa
Examines representations of street children and child and youth prostitution disseminated through literature and by international and Brazilian media during the 1980s and 1990s. Argues that dissemination of images that stigmatize the poor is caused by the need of the media and of modern philanthropy to make an impact on the public. (Author)
Previous studies on Chika Unigwe's On Black Sisters' Street (OBSS henceforth) have focused mainly on the thematic concerns of the text – prostitution, sex trafficking and sex slavery, without paying considerable attention to the role of language in the projection of the phenomena. This study critically examines ideation as a ...
Ayre, Patrick; Barrett, David
Examines some reasons for the failure to protect young people in England and Wales from sexual abuse inherent in prostitution. Identifies characteristics of the child protection system which fit poorly for work with these youth. Argues that lasting improvement of these children's well-being depends on the creation of "joined-up,"…
Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.
Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…
Adolescent prostitution is a particular social phenomenon characterized by the fact that adolescents (those under the age of eighteen), either females or males, engage more than once (at least two times) in extramarital sexual relations with a large number of people for some particular (material) consideration owing to social, economic,…
Cortoni, Franca; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J
Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender-specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women. © The Author(s) 2014.
For several reasons it is difficult to find examples of pederastic practices in historical and ethnological sources. Besides the social taboo, these practices have always been mixed up with other forms of sexual contact. However, existing material shows pederastic practices in primitive societies as initiation rituals for male youth. Several examples of institutionalized pederasty, especially from the area of Papua-New Guinea and Melanesia are described. These practices, with a clear societal function, are part of a distinct outlook on life and only superficially resemble the man-boy relationships we can observe today. In other parts of the world, pederastic practices were forms of prostitution. Taking place in a religious context, it was also a different form of prostitution than the one we commonly know. Both forms of man-boy involvement attempt to attain assimilation through physical contact. In these practices sexuality serves purposes other than sexual satisfaction and procreation.
Full Text Available This paper is aimed to show how engaging in sexual services affect psychosocial image of women. Investigating causes of women engagement in prostitution and the point of the problems women face daily life, it is possible to see psychosocial aspects changes when women take decision to offer sexual services. The author of the paper comes to the conclusion that for women who provide sexual services must be developed social services.
This thesis explores male prostitution in early modern culture and calls for a reconsideration of linguistic representations of sodomy and homoeroticism in literary and historical criticism. It argues that as a variant expression of homoeroticism, its examination unfolds significant ideological and cultural implications for established perceptions of male relations. As instructed by classical textuality and misogynistic stigmatization of prostitution, the boy prostitute becomes a relational c...
Cet article examine les formes du discours des lettrés chinois sur la prostitution de la fin du XIXe siècle à la Première Guerre mondiale. Il met en lumière le caractère ambivalent de ce discours qui, centré sur les courtisanes - la strate supérieure du monde de la prostitution - constitue une forme d’apologie ou de vision positive de la prostitution. Cette vision a pour partie imprégné la représentation collective de la prostitution en Chine. Toutefois cette représentation univoque masque un...
Mar, Leon; Betteridge, Glenn
In December 2006, the House of Commons Subcommittee on Solicitation Laws released its longawaited report on the criminal laws related to prostitution in Canada, entitled The Challenge of Change: A Study of Canada's Criminal Prostitution Laws. The Subcommittee's report fails to call for amendments to the Criminal Code provisions which have been demonstrated to increase the health and safety threats faced by sex workers. The Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network and two sex worker organizations, Stella and Maggie's, jointly published an analysis of the report.
Korsby, Trine Mygind
in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time...
Kovari, A.; Pruyt, E.
The meeting of the oldest profession with modern slavery is the topic of this paper. After a brief introduction to prostitution and prostitution-related human trafficking, this paper focuses on the Dutch policy debate. A System Dynamics simulation model related to the Dutch situation developed to
usually stigmatized while their male clients are often covered up in most patriarchal societies, the men who are served by female prostitutes are as “guilty” as the females for supporting and sustaining an odious institution, since it takes patronage for prostitution to flourish. It is only when we realize this that the problems ...
LeBlanc, L. Suzanne
This document presents a systematic, comparative review of three reports: (1) "Community Consultation on Prostitution in British Columbia: Overview of Results" (released in March 1996 by the Ministry of the Attorney General in British Columbia); (2) "Children Involved in Prostitution" (from Alberta in January 1997); and (3)…
Simons, Ronald L.; Whitbeck, Les B.
Studied 40 adolescent runaways and 95 homeless women to examine impact of early sexual abuse on prostitution and victimization. Findings suggest that early sexual abuse increases probability of involvement in prostitution irrespective of influence of running away, substance abuse, and other deviant acts; only indirectly affects chances of…
Young, Jeffrey R.
This is an ethnographic study of a self-regulated Internet site that facilitates illegal female prostitution in South Florida. The purpose is to identify the social and economic characteristics of the site that can contribute to acceptable prostitution reform. The members of the site appear to sustain an orderly and mutually respectful exchange of…
Aalbers, M.B.; Deinema, M.
Amsterdam's red-light district is the paradigmatic case of window prostitution, but it is not a stable case: both the regulatory context of prostitution in the Netherlands and the socio-spatial dynamics of the district have changed throughout the years. This paper advances our understanding of
Wells, Melissa; Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Ji, Kai
This exploratory analysis examines the role of the Internet in juvenile prostitution cases coming to the attention of law enforcement. The National Juvenile Prostitution Study (N-JPS) collected information from a national sample of law enforcement agencies about the characteristics of juvenile prostitution cases. In comparison to non-Internet…
Buriticá López, Isabel Cristina; Kulick, Don
Uno de los libros más relevantes sobre la temática de los travestis y, que debe pasar por las manos de cualquier conocedor sobre el tema, es el libro de Don Kulick, Travesti: Sex, Gender, and Culture among Brazilian Transgendered Prostitutes. Este libro de cinco capítulos nos introduce en el contexto social y cultural del travesti que reside en Brasil. El autor realiza un exhaustivo trabajo etnográfico que permite mostrar, desde la cotidianidad del travesti, cómo se concibe y se constituye el...
Modan, B; Goldschmidt, R; Rubinstein, E; Vonsover, A; Zinn, M; Golan, R; Chetrit, A; Gottlieb-Stematzky, T
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence was studied in an unselected group of 216 female and transsexual prostitutes. Subjects were asked about age, biological sex, marital status, children, length of occupation, sexual practices, and drug abuse history. Blood was drawn on site. All 128 females who did not admit to drug abuse were seronegative; 2 of the 52 females (3.8%) who admitted to intravenous drug abuse were seropositive. In contrast, 11.1% of the 36 male transsexuals (including 3 out of 32 non-drug abusers) were seropositive. The results support the notion that vaginal transmission of HIV is less effective than anal transmission. PMID:1546782
In this short critical analysis, the author examines the recent argument by Moen in his article 'Is Prostitution Harmful?' In highlighting why prostitution does not cause harm to either member involved in the act, Moen argues that prostitution is not an ethical concern. However, while Moen is able to clearly challenge contemporary objections to prostitution, the author of this review will suggest that Moen's argument is itself incomplete as it does not address essential key ontological issues. This critical analysis will briefly suggest why this omission weakens Moen's argument. Finally, it will conclude with examining why prostitution differs substantially from other professions through the type of harm that it causes to the moral agents involved.
Simon, Cristiane Paulin; Silva, Rosalina Carvalho da; Paiva, Vera
To investigate perception of AIDS and to obtain information for developing AIDS prevention programs targeting female juvenile prostitution. Thirteen young women aged 18 to 21 years working as prostitutes in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire focused on sociodemographic aspects, HIV-related knowledge, sexual behavior, relations with clients and other sexual partners, and suggestions for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS prevention programs. Though all subjects demonstrated knowledge of safe sex and HIV transmission, this contrasted with their belief that destiny determines who gets infected and their search for affection in their relationships with partners and clients. These contradictions act as possible factors preventing safe sex behavior. The strategies of HIV/AIDS prevention should incorporate the need of allowing room for discussion in order to clarify this group's social imaginary beliefs and concepts about AIDS. In addition, discussions about the belief in the safety of affective relationships should take place since this encourages unsafe sexual practices. Another key issue is how to approach this group and strategies sensitive to their individualities should be applied.
Full Text Available Criminalistic characteristic of crimes related to prostitution is given (Articles 240, 241 of the RF Criminal Code. Sex industry is represented by three groups of subjects: organizers, perpetrators, services consumers. However, not all these individuals are criminally liable for their actions. Bringing a criminal case is preceded by detection of elements of crime, which is often carried out by a test purchase. Underworld evolution dictates the need for active use of other crime detection actions. The role of rapid and well-coordinated work of the inquiry body, its interaction with the preliminary investigation agency at the stage of detection of these crimes is emphasized. The attributes of these crimes are: advertisements on the recruitment of women to work in the service (leisure sector and personal vehicles drivers; advertisements on the services of an intimate nature; business cards and leaflets advertising the services of an intimate nature (directly or covertly; Internet advertisements offering the services of an intimate nature; groups of girls, constantly residing in baths and saunas, headed by young men or their presence at the same locations along the main streets or busy highways; information received on the law enforcement bodies hotlines; statements and complaints of the people against girls of easy virtue living in adjacent apartments. The issue of the moment of test purchase completion (transfer of money is considered. The problem of proving guilt in cases of reporting involvement in prostitution to the police is analyzed. Information verification is proposed to be implemented by experiment in crime detection.
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
Herrmann, Janne Rothmar
The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....
This article begins the arduous work of undermining the firmly entrenched image of the wanton "wahine", starting with stories about Hawaiian women resisting the amorous advances of foreign ship captains who assumed that women should be made available to them if they offered material or monetary remuneration. What emerges is a picture of…
Lutya, Thozama Mandisa
The United Nations estimates that 79% of teenage girls trafficked globally every year are forced into involuntary prostitution. About 247 000 South African children work in exploitative conditions; about 40 000 South African female teenagers work as prostitutes. This paper investigates lifestyles and routine activities of teenagers at risk of being trafficked for involuntary prostitution. The key concepts involuntary prostitution, intergenerational sex and exploitative conditions are defined in relation to the lifestyles and routine activities of South African female teenagers. Human trafficking for involuntary prostitution is described, based on a literature review. Lifestyle exposure and routine activities theories help to explain the potential victimisation of these teenagers in human trafficking for involuntary prostitution. Actual lifestyle and routine activities of South African teenagers and risky behaviours (substance abuse, intergenerational sex and child prostitution) are discussed as factors that make teens vulnerable to such trafficking. This paper recommends that human trafficking prevention efforts (awareness programmes and information campaigns) be directed at places frequented by human traffickers and teenagers in the absence of a capable guardian to reduce victimisation, as traffickers analyse the lifestyles and routine activities of their targets. South Africa should also interrogate entrenched practices such as intergenerational sex.
Farley, Melissa; Lynne, Jacqueline; Cotton, Ann J
We interviewed 100 women prostituting in Vancouver, Canada. We found an extremely high prevalence of lifetime violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-two percent of our interviewees were women from Canada's First Nations, a significant overrepresentation in prostitution compared with their representation in Vancouver generally (1.7-7%). Eighty-two percent reported a history of childhood sexual abuse, by an average of four perpetrators. Seventy-two percent reported childhood physical abuse, 90% had been physically assaulted in prostitution, 78% had been raped in prostitution. Seventy-two percent met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. Ninety-five percent said that they wanted to leave prostitution. Eighty-six percent reported current or past homelessness with housing as one of their most urgent needs. Eighty-two percent expressed a need for treatment for drug or alcohol addictions. Findings are discussed in terms of the legacy of colonialism, the intrinsically traumatizing nature of prostitution and prostitution's violations of basic human rights.
Child and juvenile prostitution in Brazil has reached such proportions that a parliamentary commission launched an inquiry. The Brazilian Center of Children and Adolescents (CBIA) estimated that there are about 500,000 such prostitutes in the country, a record in Latin America. This type of prostitution flourishes in poor urban areas and in the North and Central-East. Not only girls become prostitutes; in Rio de Janeiro, 4000 boys cater to tourists from the industrialized world. 79% of these youngsters say that they use condoms, but 42% are infected with HIV. In many cases their families tolerate their homosexual encounters because of the extra income received. In the interior of the state of Rio, girls aged 11-15 years are enticed to cities as domestics and end up in prostitution. In Niteroi there is a prostitution network specializing in 13-year-old girls. Although there are 30,000 prostitutes in the state of Rio, the distribution of condoms among them has caused negative reactions among conservatives and Catholics claiming that it would increase licentiousness. The Brazilian Center for the Defense of the Rights of Children and Adolescents countered that condoms help prevent the spread of diseases. In Para, Acre, and Rondonia, 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old girls sell their bodies in order to survive. In the maternity ward of Barbara Heliodora, Rio Branco, Acre, 31% of deliveries are to girls aged 10-16 years. In Sao Paulo and in the neighborhoods of Bras and Belem, girls as young as 10 years of age become prostitutes under the protection of corrupt police who exact sexual favors or a share of receipts. According to CBIA, 80% of sexual violence against children and adolescents occurs in the home, with fathers being the main aggressors. The prostitution of children and adolescents in Brazil is connected to the destruction of the family and is the result of misery and hunger.
Meskó, Norbert; Láng, András; Bernáth, László
Until now prostitution has only been explained from two evolutionary points of view. According to the short-term mate choice strategy approach motives for seeking prostitutes are to be found in the nature of male sexuality. Another theory - the evolutionary interpretation of female promiscuity's motivational base - indirectly completes the understanding of prostitution. This theory emphasizes the adaptive benefits of female promiscuity under certain circumstances. The aim of our study was to test a third idea (Adaptive Support Theory), according to which women in long-term relationships support their partners' (husbands') sexual relations with prostitutes. University female students (n=208, age mean±SD=23.55±7.13, min=18, max=50) completed our questionnaire. Female participants are presumed to recognize the advantages and threats of their partners' sexual relations with prostitutes compared to other possible forms of betrayal. Hence it is hypothesized that women overtly support the possibility of their partners' relations with prostitutes. Our results show that women are able to assess the favorable and unfavorable effects of their partners' relations with prostitutes. At the same time they do not directly support this form of betrayal over other possibilities. However, female participants were more approving of their partners' relations with prostitutes (in a thought- experiment), than they guessed their partner would demand such services. According to our model women living in long-term relationship are adaptively interested in their partner's cheating on them with a prostitute (rather than engaging in other kinds of sexual relations), because this finance based external sexual liaison is the least threatening for the stability of the long-term relationship.
Male prostitution altered its form dramatically over the course of the twentieth century. While some of these changes relate to economics and general cultural shifts (the Depression of the 1930s, the rise of a counterculture during the 1960s and 70s), some of the most important changes have arisen in response to transformations in the idea of "homosexuality," and the growing influence this idea had within middle-class and then working-class culture. This essay identifies the diverse forms male prostitution has taken since the late-Victorian period, and also examines the way in which male prostitution has been written about by various commentators in different eras.
Botelho, Stella Maris Nogueira; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho
Research carried out aiming at learning and analysing the context and significance of the dynamics in the family institution and its interfaces with the prostitution of adolescents. Data collection was carried out by means of life story interviews, and the content of the speeches underwent thematic analysis. We found a wide gap caused by the lack of dialogue and by how situations of abandonment, mother's death and life with family members being not a biological daughter of one of the parents have been experienced, breaking up with trust, respect and affect relationships, thus causing the loss of individual and collective identity. Violence within the family was identified through situations of sexual abuse, negligence and physical violence, thus making evident a true school of disrespect, abuse of power and gender/age hierarchy.
Full Text Available Michelle T. King. Between Birth and Death: Female Infanticide in Nineteenth-Century China. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 264 pp. $50.00 (cloth/e-book. Elizabeth J. Remick. Regulating Prostitution in China: Gender and Local Statebuilding, 1900–1937. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014. 288 pp. $45.00 (cloth/e-book. The two works under review are both compelling historical studies that use gender as a category of analysis to make important contributions to our understanding of the construction of the modern Chinese state, the periodization of modern Chinese history, and the political and cultural significance of controlling the female body. While both books engage with gender as broadly construed, they adopt different approaches. Michelle King’s analysis focuses on discursive representations that took place, for the most part, outside the context of the state—what Confucian elites, foreign experts and missionaries, and Chinese nationalists wrote about female infanticide over the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This discursive approach has been used before but rarely to such insightful effect. King’s research deepens our understanding of gender and imperialism in the nineteenth century by illustrating how imperialist notions of China as a backward and heathen place were constructed in part on dubious claims that identified female infanticide as an emblematically Chinese cultural practice. Elizabeth Remick’s gender analysis, in contrast, centers on the state institutions that were developed in the early 1900s to regulate prostitution, including tax policies, licensing fees, zoning regulations, medical examinations, and police supervision. Her study of the newly erected local and provincial government regulatory regimes is a pathbreaking demonstration of how the regulation of gender roles was at the heart of state-building efforts in early twentieth-century China...
Full Text Available In this article we will present the information obtained in the project entitled "Investigation on conditions of work and opinion on trafficking in persons between population that he exercises the feminine prostitution in Uruguay " from 188 interviews to sexual workers. First we analyse the concept of child prostitution in the frame of the sexual exploitation of children and teenagers, to advance then in the result of the fieldwork. 29 % of the sample expresses to know cases of child prostitution in his areas of work, which confirms a worrying presence of this phenomenon, especially in the street prostitution. As for the opinion, 77% of the interviewed ones have a negative opinion of the phenomenon.
Farley, Melissa; Deer, Sarah; Golding, Jacqueline M; Matthews, Nicole; Lopez, Guadalupe; Stark, Christine; Hudon, Eileen
We examined social and physical violence experienced by American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in prostitution and their impacts on the mental and physical health of 105 women (81% Anishinaabe, mean age = 35 years) recruited through service agencies in three Minnesota cities. In childhood, abuse, foster care, arrests, and prostitution were typical. Homelessness, rape, assault, racism, and pimping were common. The women's most prevalent physical symptoms included muscle pain, impaired memory or concentration, and headaches. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation were common, with more severe psychological symptoms associated with worse health. Most of the women wanted to leave prostitution and they most often identified counseling and peer support as necessary to accomplish this. Most saw colonization and prostitution of AI/AN women as connected.
Decker, Michele R.; Mack, Katelyn P.; Barrows, Jeffery J.; Silverman, Jay G.
Synopsis Prostituted women report disempowerment-related barriers to condom use, extensive violence victimization and trafficking experiences; findings indicate that disempowerment must be addressed within STI/HIV prevention efforts. PMID:19577234
Research acknowledges that stigma affects women in prostitution and impacts on their lives, yet there is an assumption that this stigma is a personal attribute, that derives from their „profession‟. Moreover, this body of work has not given sufficient voice to the women who have had the „lived experience‟ of prostitution. As a result these voices and experiences of stigma remain underrepresented, especially stories from women who have left the sex trade. Following an examination of Goffman‟s ...
Gómez Suárez, Agueda; Pérez Freire, Silvia; Verdugo Matés, Rosa Maria
This paper focuses on the study of clients of prostitution in Spain in order to understand why these men pay for sex. We analyzed the narratives of clients of prostitution through in-depth semidirected interviews, group interviews, and discussion groups. This material is given structure by the application of the theory of frame analysis. We obtained four ideal client types of clients were obtained, namely: misogynist (hatred of women), consumerist (everything is for sale), friend ...
This thesis researches attitudes, justifications and judgements of sex tourists towards responsible travelling, sex tourism, prostitution, prostitutes and human trafficking. The aim was to find out how sex tourists are thinking about the con-cepts related to the phenomena. The research was executed by surveying using quantitative research method via webropol.com. The questionnaire was spread in discussion forums regard-ing sex and sex tourism. The questionnaire generated altogether 75 res...
Based upon field work conducted in Patpong – a neighborhood in Bangkok dedicated to tourist-prostitution – I put forth a critical sociology of “sex tourism” that, through the combination of an ethnographic and historical survey, attempts to typify the plurality of the economies that run through prostitutional exchanges. More than just money, prostitution involves material, moral, emotional and symbolic goods that are traded and circulate according to specific rationales. This ethnographic stu...
The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....
The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...
Zeegers, Nicolle; Althoff, Martina
Is the Nordic model of combating the trafficking of women for sexual purposes to be followed by all member states of the eu? At the moment, the member states still differ considerably in their legislative approaches towards prostitution and the extent to which this is linked to the combat against
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effects of Article 113 of the Albanian Criminal Code on women. This article appears to be gender neutral, but it’s enforcement affects women disproportionately and face them with forms of indirect gender discrimination. Through monitoring of Tirana Judicial District Court’s decisions, with object article 113 of the ACC, “Prostitution”, for a four year period from 2010 through 2013 and interviews with women who have exercised prostitution, there are brought in attention the profiles of the individuals who exercise prostitution and also social aspects of this phenomena. The hypothesis raised in this paper is that the profile of an individual who exercises prostitution is a vulnerable woman, with low education, unemployed, with low income, who is faced with family and social problems. This paper analyses the relation between the social aspects and legal dynamics of article 113 of ACC. The changes of 2012 introduced in the article 113 of the ACC brought sanctions for persons who buy the service of prostitution reflecting the process of social changes and understanding of gender equality. The issue of the next steps to address this phenomenon is analysed in this article too.
Esther Torrado Martín-Palomino
Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of prostitution from the perspective of one of its multiple stakeholders and today is the most invisible and polo national system: the client-user. For this, a theoretical review game where the phenomenon of prostitution in general terms is conceptualized, analyzing the legal framework of Western Europe from the comparative analysis of the different regulatory models that attempt to regulate prostitution, finally has, and from the gender perspective, make an approach to user prostitution, exposing the need to insist on his figure, his motivations and opinions to the phenomenon. Este artículo analiza el fenómeno de la prostitución desde la perspectiva de uno de sus múltiples actores y que en la actualidad constituye el polo más invisibilizado y naturalizado del sistema: el cliente-usuario. Para ello, se ha partido de una revisión teórica donde se conceptualiza el fenómeno de la prostitución de un modo general, analizando el marco jurídico de parte de Europa Occidental desde el análisis comparativo de los diferentes modelos normativos que intentan regular la prostitución, para finalmente, y desde la perspectiva de género, realizar un acercamiento al usuario de prostitución, exponiendo la necesidad de insistir en la su figura, sus motivaciones y su opinión ante el fenómeno. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2707090
Renner, Karen J
During the antebellum era, increased attention to the prostitute coincided with a prevalent conception of women as, in Nancy Cott's words, essentially "passionless" unless aroused by sincere romantic love. Yet it seems paradoxical that this ideology existed alongside an increasing awareness of women whose livelihood depended upon manufacturing and marketing sexual desire. In this essay I argue that the prostitute became an object of antebellum fascination and concern less because of her defiance of the ideology of passionlessness and more because of the extent to which she could be made to reinforce this ideology. Casting the prostitute as a victim of seduction preserved predominant beliefs about the dependency of female desire on male impetus. The popular novels of George Thompson and Osgood Bradbury elide the sexual autonomy of the prostitute by making her a victim of men, but they do so in different ways. Thompson employs two variants of the seduction narrative that differ according to class, but both result in the subjection of female desire to male control. His indigent females are chaste victims of violent forms of sexual exploitation, while his licentious rich women reveal an inherent tendency toward monogamy or an inability to command their own aberrant desires. Bradbury, in contrast, is remarkable for his willingness to allow fallen women and prostitutes the chance to reform. As refreshingly progressive as Bradbury's novels seem, however, his adherence to the seduction narrative ultimately suggests that female desire is doomed to dissatisfaction unless properly channeled toward working-class men.
Antonietta Caffaro Rouget
Full Text Available Four groups of adolescents – 35 juvenile prostitutes, 36 street youth, 31 monogamous sexually active adolescents and 35 non-sexually active adolescents – were studied between January 1, 1988 and December 31, 1988 for the presence of sexually transmitted diseases and other genital pathogens. The high prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases found in the juvenile prostitutes (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 49%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 83% is in contrast to other studies, which document much lower rates of infection. This could be due to the fact that there are few studies done on juvenile prostitutes as a well defined group. Despite high risk sexual behaviour, the consistent use of contraception was low. No contraceptives were used by 57% of the juvenile prostitutes and 85% of the street youth. None of the adolescents sought medical attention although 48% of the juvenile prostitutes and 53% of the street youth had genital symptoms. It appears that the present public health education and health care delivery do not reach this high risk population.
This article is based on empirical research with West African migrant women working in prostitution in Paris. Given current migration regulations in Western Europe, as well as state policies on prostitution, the traffickers and people considered to be trafficking victims de facto form part of the
Full Text Available This article considers the theme of prostitution in the decadent writings of the fin-de-siecle French author, Rachilde. It proposes that an analysis of this critically-neglected trope of her work reveals new connections between the erotics and aesthetics of her fiction. As a vector for considering tensions between fantasy and truth, and illusion and reality, prostitution, in Rachilde's texts, invites us to reflect on two of the most common cultural manifestations of decadence: sexual non-conformism and the cult of artifice. The article focuses in particular on the (male prostitute-body of Monsieur Venus, arguing that, in its transcendence of nature, reality and utilitarian purpose, it is elevated to the status of art in Rachilde's fictional world.
Full Text Available Content analysis is used to examine the representation of prostitutes in film between 1960 and 2000 in order to describe the forced atonement of deviant characters. Consistently across all four decades, the film prostitute is subject to a forced atonement, victimized by one or more abusive situations as a prerequisite to her transformation from criminal (prostitute to non-criminal (occurring in thirty-three out of thirty-eight movies. This finding is significant because (1 cinematic depictions of predominately female deviance consistently use forced atonement to resolve female deviance and (2 when male characters use violence to punish women for having sex outside of marriage, the message is sent that female sexuality may be controlled with violence
Full Text Available Big mobility of groups of Albanian organized crime and their systematic, and sometimes extreme use of violence has probably two elements, which can explain the increase of exploitation of prostitution committed by Albanian criminals in Western Europe. They became inevitable in trafficking in women from Central and Eastern Europe for prostitution in Western Europe. They are located in the centers of recruitment, in transport channels as well as in forced sexual exploitation. The analysis of the above-mentioned situation is the subject of this paper.
Full Text Available This article draws upon the work of Judith Butler, in particular her approach to ethics and the concepts of vulnerability and „liveable lives,‟ in order to provide a critical analysis of reform proposals contained in the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill (now Act 2008 in relation to street prostitution. The article will argue that the proposals presented in the Bill problematically use the vulnerability of street sex workers in order to promote a moralistic agenda. In contrast it will be argued that managed zones, as proposed by Liverpool City Council, provide a potentially more ethical approach to the issue of street prostitution.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare personality traits and defense mechanism among prostitutes, addicted and normal. Method: The research design was causal comparative research design. By available sampling 42 postulates, 45 addicted and 43 normal women selected. Andler and Parker’s Psychological stress resistance questionnaire and NEO personality questionnaire were administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed significant difference between three groups on openness and agreeableness subscales. That is, female prostitutes had lower scores in comparison of two other groups. Conclusion: The results have applied implications.
Sophia I Akhuemokhan
Full Text Available Peer reviewed article. The essay examines Nur, a female prostitute in The Thief and the Dogs, with a view to analyzing her personhood. It looks at two cardinal areas in which her personhood is affirmed - her identity, and her relationship with the outside world - and demonstrates that her occupation is detrimental, but not absolutely lethal, to her positive self-concept. By comparing Nur periodically with Said, the male protagonist, the essay highlights her fundamental merit in spite of her controversial career. Mahfouz is not a spokesman for prostitution, but his treatment of Nur establishes his discernment when judging women in the oldest profession.
for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...
In recent years, child prostitution has dramatically increased. Associations for the protection of children in many European and Asian countries are calling for an international campaign against child sexual exploitation. The program targets the practice of sexual tourism, and it has been successful so far. (SM)
Bernat, Frances P.
Analyzed court files for 809 defendants arrested for prostitution or patronizing to examine whether gender-based classifications exist in pretrial release decisions. Results generally showed women would not be released as quickly as men. Reforms instituted during the three-year study improved equality. (JAC)
Adriaenssens, Stef; Hendrickx, Jef
Unsafe sexual practices are persistent in prostitution interactions: one in four contacts can be called unsafe. The determinants of this are still matter for debate. We account for the roles played by clients' preferences and the hypothetical price premium of unsafe sexual practices with the help of a large dataset of clients' self-reported commercial sexual transactions in Belgium and The Netherlands. Almost 25,000 reports were collected, representing the whole gamut of prostitution market segments. The first set of explanations consists of an analysis of the price-fixing elements of paid sex. With the help of the so-called hedonic pricing method we test for the existence of a price incentive for unsafe sex. In accordance with the results from studies in some prostitution markets in the developing world, the study replicates a significant wage penalty for condom use of an estimated 7.2 per cent, confirmed in both multilevel and fixed-effects regressions. The second part of the analysis reconstructs the demand side basis of this wage penalty: the consistent preference of clients of prostitution for unsafe sex. This study is the first to document empirically clients' preference for intercourse without a condom, with the help of a multilevel ordinal regression. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
We live in an increasingly sexualised society, and the buying and selling of sex is a feature of this society. The laws about prostitution are complex, but the act of selling or buying sex is in itself not illegal. The author has extensive clinical experience of hearing the stories of men with learning disabilities who do use commercial sex…
Lajimodiere, Denise K.
This article is written by a Native female author. It delves into the historical stereotypes of Native females as drudges, princesses, and prostitutes perpetrated by media, movies, and literature. The author reviews research on the traditional and modern roles of Native females, including roles as warriors, leaders, and healers. Current literature…
Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ
The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.
Full Text Available Este trabajo examina la lucha del cuerpo médico colombiano contra las enfermedades 'venéreas' entre 1886 y 1951. En este período, Colombia sufrió procesos de urbanización, crecimiento de población, nacimiento de la industria y aparición de una clase media y de un proletariado urbano. Los médicos encontraron una conexión estrecha entre la difusión del contagio de la sífilis y la gonorrea, y el aumento del ejercicio de la prostitución en las ciudades. A finales del siglo XIX, los médicos y los organismos de higiene asumieron la prostitución como inevitable; en 1907 consiguieron reglamentarla y fundaron dispensarios para aplicar los tratamientos de mercurio y compuestos arsenicales. Hacia los años 1930 y 1940, la curación de las enfermedades venéreas se asumió como un deber estatal de defensa de la raza y a favor de la civilización y del progreso. Hacia 1950, el uso eficaz de la penicilina hizo que la cuestión de la prostitución se volviera a plantear en términos más morales y estéticos, y se impuso la abolición de las normas que regulaban su ejercicio, por lo menos en Bogotá.The article examines the Colombian medical field's fight against so-called venereal diseases between 1886 and 1951, a period when the country was undergoing processes of urbanization, population growth, and the emergence both of industry as well as of a middle class and an urban proletariat. Physicians found a close connection between the spread of syphilis and gonorrhea and the rise of prostitution in cities. At the close of the 19th century, doctors and public health bodies assumed prostitution was inevitable. In 1907 they managed to have it legalized and they opened clinics to dispense mercury therapy and treatment with arsenic compounds. Starting in the 1930s and 1940s, treatment of venereal diseases was viewed as the State's duty, necessary to protect "la raza" and safeguard progress and civilization. As of 1950, the efficient use of penicillin
On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...
Othman, Basem M; Monem, Fawza S
In studies of risk factors among patients presenting with acute and chronic hepatitis C, a history of intravenous drug use is the most common finding, accounting for 40% or more of subjects. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies among intravenous drug users is considered one of the highest numbers among high risk groups. Whether hepatitis C virus is transmitted efficiently or at all via sexual contact remains controversial. Therefore, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among a group of Syrian intravenous drug users, prostitutes, and blood donors was studied. The prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus in a population of 38 Syrian intravenous drug abusers, 102 Syrian prostitutes, and 2100 blood donors, was carried out in the laboratory of Al-Assad University Hospital, Damascus, Syria. Antibodies of hepatitis C virus were studied by 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay. Hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis B core were carried out using enzyme immunoassays. Liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase) and total bilirubin were measured using reagents on chemistry autoanalyzer (Hitachi 911). Intravenous drug users group (38) was aged 31 5.6 years, 33 males and 5 females. Prostitutes group (102) were aged 25.1 7 years. Blood donors group (2100) aged were 26.3 10.3 years, 1960 males and 140 females. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies was 60.5% among intravenous drug abusers, 1.96% among the prostitutes group, and 0.95% among blood donors group. Whereas, the positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen was 5.3% among the intravenous drug abusers, 10.8% among the prostitutes group, and 3.8% among blood donors group. Biochemical parameter results were compared to the results of these parameters that were determined in a group of healthy members (blood donors) during our study. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies among intravenous drug abusers is considered the highest number among high risk
Regushevskaya, Elena; Tuormaa, Tuija
Information on the health values and positioning of health among prostitution customers is limited. The aim is to explore the positioning of health among prostitution customers using data from Internet forums in Finland. Qualitative study using a purposive sample of public online forums among prostitution customers in 2002-2012. Health beliefs in relation to infections and risky sexual behavior were diverse, from correct to false. Although men were aware of health risks in prostitution, it was common to have multiple sexual partners and unprotected sex. Although there were men who warned others about possible health consequences when a condom is not used, typically men were proud not to use a condom with a prostitute and found different explanations for not using a condom. Condom breakage was not an issue discussed in forums. Unexpected findings were beliefs that one fifth of the Nordic population is resistant to HIV, that the possibility of HIV transmission is exaggerated by medical specialists, and that men should control their behavior in order not to degrade prostitutes. Discussions on health service use were few. Sexual satisfaction and entertainment were the main reasons to post in the analyzed forums health discussion was not common although condom use was reported, attention to health risks was selective information on health service use was limited, which may suggest this topic was not valued among men and should be a topic of future studies. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Full Text Available This paper examines some of the tensions surrounding the PRC’s official policy of banning prostitution by focusing on two highly publicized cases of deceptive recruiting for sexual services—the ‘Tang Shengli Incident’ and the ‘Liu Yanhua Incident’. Both cases involve young rural women who had migrated from their native homes to other more economically developed parts of China to look for work. Both were forced to sell sex and both resisted. However, whereas Tang Shengli jumped from a building rather than be forced into prostitution, Liu Yanhua escaped from conditions akin to sexual servitude by stabbing her ‘employer’. An examination of these cases highlights some of the problems associated with efforts by the Chinese women’s media to promote and protect women’s rights in a country marked by rapid, yet unequal, economic growth and an expanding, albeit banned, sex industry.
Amaya, Javier Guillermo Díaz; Acosta, Miguel Barrios; Rojas, Rafael Vásquez
Child upbringing of women engaged in prostitution has been little explored. Child upbringing beliefs, attitudes and practices regarding sexuality in prostitutes' children and adolescents were explored downtown in Bogota. Analytical-interpretive research included in-depth interviews and a focus group. There were ten women between 28 and 56 years of age. Core issues were their subjectivity as mothers, sexual development challenges, upbringing social and cultural conditions. Structural, symbolic and economic violence are the main determinants of parenting. Sexual abuse and the possibility of pregnancy in their adolescent daughters are the most important concerns. In general, the participants share the same values and reproduce traditional ideals in gender and sexuality, which are transmitted and modeled from upbringing. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The ancient sources on Lais are misleading: apparently they concern only one hetaira, but actually they must refer to two or even three “courtesans” of the same name. This naturally reduces the possibility of writing the biography of a single hetaira called Lais, but on the other hand allows us to trace a genre biography, true, in its main lines, for more than one “courtesan” of Antiquity. “Lais”, the second, for whom we dispose of more individualised historical details, was a hetaira of brilliant erotic and social success, but she was at the beginning of her life a prisoner of war, sold as a slave in Sicily and then moving to Corinth.
Keywords: prigionieri di guerra, schiave, prostitute, etere; prisoners of war, slaves, prostitutes, courtesans.
Full Text Available The ancient sources on Lais are misleading: apparently they concern only one hetaira, but actually they must refer to two or even three “courtesans” of the same name. This naturally reduces the possibility of writing the biography of a single hetaira called Lais, but on the other hand allows us to trace a genre biography, true, in its main lines, for more than one “courtesan” of Antiquity. “Lais”, the second, for whom we dispose of more individualised historical details, was a hetaira of brilliant erotic and social success, but she was at the beginning of her life a prisoner of war, sold as a slave in Sicily and then moving to Corinth.Keywords: prigionieri di guerra, schiave, prostitute, etere; prisoners of war, slaves, prostitutes, courtesans.
This article reexamines the "prostitution objection" to paid surrogacy, and argues that rebuttals to this objection fail to focus on surrogates as embodied persons. This failure is based on the false distinction between "selling one's reproductive services" and "selling one's body." To ground the analysis of humans as embodied persons, this article uses Kant's late ethical theory, which develops the conceptual framework for understanding human beings as embodied selves. Literature on surrogacy commonly emphasizes that all Kantian duties heed to the categorical prohibition to treat persons as mere means. What this literature leaves out is that this imperative commands us more specifically to engage ourselves and others as embodied persons. This article aims to relate this point to a specific issue in assisted reproduction. It argues that a Kantian account of human beings as embodied persons prohibits paid surrogacy on exactly the same grounds as it prohibits prostitution.
van den Hoek, J A; van Haastrecht, H J; Coutinho, R A
OBJECTIVE--to assess whether male prostitution is an independent risk factor for HIV infection among male (intravenous and nonintravenous) drug users. DESIGN--a cross-sectional study. SETTING--various low-threshold methadone clinics and the sexually transmitted diseases clinic of the Municipal Health Service in Amsterdam and a drug-treatment centre in The Hague. PARTICIPANTS--343 male intravenous drug users and 106 male non-intravenous drug users. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--characteristics concer...
Kowalczyk, Małgorzata Henryka
Aetiology of indecent behaviours is a multidimensional issue. It is impossible to explain the conditions of prostitution while only referring to mono-causal concepts. In the previous traditional aetiological approaches, the simultaneous perspective is dominating and this emphasises the interrelated systems of factors found in educational environments and resulting from the economic conditions and cultural changes which modify the attitudes towards mores, sexuality and morals. H...
This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....
Reid, Joan A
Due to inaccessibility of child victims of commercial sexual exploitation, the majority of emergent research on the problem lacks theoretical framing or sufficient data for quantitative analysis. Drawing from Agnew's general strain theory, this study utilized structural equation modeling to explore: whether caregiver strain is linked to child maltreatment, if experiencing maltreatment is associated with risk-inflating behaviors or sexual denigration of self/others, and if these behavioral and psychosocial dysfunctions are related to vulnerability to commercial sexual exploitation. The proposed model was tested with data from 174 predominately African American women, 12% of whom indicated involvement in prostitution while a minor. Findings revealed child maltreatment worsened with increased caregiver strain. Experiencing child maltreatment was linked to running away, initiating substance use at earlier ages, and higher levels of sexual denigration of self/others. Sexual denigration of self/others was significantly related to the likelihood of prostitution as a minor. The network of variables in the model accounted for 34% of the variance in prostitution as a minor.
Pivar, David J
British moral reformers, under the leadership of Josephine Butler, Henry J. Wilson and James Stansfeld, successfully campaigned for the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts. These Acts had introduced a military system of regulated prostitution into England modeled on state regulated prostitution utilized on the Continent from 1864 to 1869. These initial antiprostitution agitations later took the form of a social purification movement. Repeal in 1886 left the British Army in India in noncompliance with Parliamentary efforts at abolition. In 1891 American members of the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union undertook a sociological investigation of Indian military cantonments-the Abolitionist cause had been extended to the United States and the Continent. Based on these reports, reformers at home were able to extract admissions from the military and government that the system continued in existence. Nevertheless, the British Army reorganized its program, according to subsequent investigations, into neoregulationism. During World War I, the British Army in India finally abandoned its neoregulationist policy. Symbolic reform was another matter. British reformers met with successes in introducing social purity into Indian social reform. Future campaigns against temple prostitution and Indian social progress grew from these efforts. The American experience with the Philippines was a logical extension of reform policy toward India. Failures paralleled those of British and Indian reformers. As in the case of British reform, there was a redirection of efforts to antiopium and antigambling reforms. Generally, anti-vice reforms were instrumentalities contributing to early efforts at "modernization."
Dovis, Vonyca; Setyowati; Kurniawati, Wiwit
Young women face a difficult situation when they live in a prostitution area or red light district. A phenomenological approach was applied to explore the experiences in maintaining reproductive health of 10 young women living in the prostitution area in Lampung, one of the provinces in Sumatra. Thematic content analysis found 7 themes including: (1) The participants' perception of prostitution as a place of naughty women and free sexual activity that can transmit STDs and influence adolescent psychology; (2) The ways the participants kept their reproductive organs healthy were through maintaining friendships, maintaining personal hygiene, avoiding free sexual activity, eating healthy food, and having routine medical checkups; (3) Information support was gained from family, health workers, media, and teachers; (4) Emotional support from family and friends; (5) Barriers to maintaining good health were inaccessible health facilities and an underfunded health service; (6) The needs of the participants were reproductive health services and clean environment; (7) The participants hoped for health education and intensive health services with friendly nurses. The results of this research illustrate that there is a need for socializing intensive ways to maintain reproductive health, especially in a risky environment.
In my dissertation, I examine the representation of prostitution in the novels of twentieth-century Mexicana writers. This study will focus on what I call the Mexicana novel of prostitution, texts that feature female protagonists who have been compelled to enter the profession of prostitution out of necessity for financial or personal reasons. Examples of this genre that I analyze include Antonia Mora's "Del oficio" (1972), Sarah Sefchovich's Demasiado amor (1990), and Cristina Rivera Garza's...
Full Text Available South African policy makers are reviewing legislation of prostitution, concerned that criminalisation hampers HIV prevention. They seek to understand the relationship between transactional sex, prostitution, and the nature of the involved men.1645 randomly-selected adult South African men participated in a household study, disclosing whether they had sex with a woman in prostitution or had had a provider relationship (or sex, participation in crime and violence and completing psychological measures. These became outcomes in multivariable regression models, where the former were exposure variables.51% of men had had a provider relationship and expected sex in return, 3% had had sex with a woman in prostitution, 15% men had done both of these and 31% neither. Provider role men, and those who had just had sex with a woman in prostitution, were socially conservative and quite violent. Yet the men who had done both (75% of those having sex with a woman in prostitution were significantly more misogynist, highly scoring on dimensions of psychopathy, more sexually and physically violent to women, and extensively engaged in crime. They had often bullied at school, suggesting that this instrumental, self-seeking masculinity was manifest in childhood. The men who had not engaged in sex for economic exchange expressed a much less violent, more law abiding and gender equitable masculinity; challenging assumptions about the inevitability of intersections of age, poverty, crime and misogyny.Provider role relationships (or sex are normative for low income men, but not having sex with a woman in prostitution. Men who do the latter operate extensively outside the law and their violence poses a substantial threat to women. Those drafting legislation and policy on the sex industry in South Africa need to distinguish between these two groups to avoid criminalising the normal, and consider measures to protect women.
Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday
South African policy makers are reviewing legislation of prostitution, concerned that criminalisation hampers HIV prevention. They seek to understand the relationship between transactional sex, prostitution, and the nature of the involved men. 1645 randomly-selected adult South African men participated in a household study, disclosing whether they had sex with a woman in prostitution or had had a provider relationship (or sex), participation in crime and violence and completing psychological measures. These became outcomes in multivariable regression models, where the former were exposure variables. 51% of men had had a provider relationship and expected sex in return, 3% had had sex with a woman in prostitution, 15% men had done both of these and 31% neither. Provider role men, and those who had just had sex with a woman in prostitution, were socially conservative and quite violent. Yet the men who had done both (75% of those having sex with a woman in prostitution) were significantly more misogynist, highly scoring on dimensions of psychopathy, more sexually and physically violent to women, and extensively engaged in crime. They had often bullied at school, suggesting that this instrumental, self-seeking masculinity was manifest in childhood. The men who had not engaged in sex for economic exchange expressed a much less violent, more law abiding and gender equitable masculinity; challenging assumptions about the inevitability of intersections of age, poverty, crime and misogyny. Provider role relationships (or sex) are normative for low income men, but not having sex with a woman in prostitution. Men who do the latter operate extensively outside the law and their violence poses a substantial threat to women. Those drafting legislation and policy on the sex industry in South Africa need to distinguish between these two groups to avoid criminalising the normal, and consider measures to protect women.
Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday
Background South African policy makers are reviewing legislation of prostitution, concerned that criminalisation hampers HIV prevention. They seek to understand the relationship between transactional sex, prostitution, and the nature of the involved men. Methods 1645 randomly-selected adult South African men participated in a household study, disclosing whether they had sex with a woman in prostitution or had had a provider relationship (or sex), participation in crime and violence and completing psychological measures. These became outcomes in multivariable regression models, where the former were exposure variables. Results 51% of men had had a provider relationship and expected sex in return, 3% had had sex with a woman in prostitution, 15% men had done both of these and 31% neither. Provider role men, and those who had just had sex with a woman in prostitution, were socially conservative and quite violent. Yet the men who had done both (75% of those having sex with a woman in prostitution) were significantly more misogynist, highly scoring on dimensions of psychopathy, more sexually and physically violent to women, and extensively engaged in crime. They had often bullied at school, suggesting that this instrumental, self-seeking masculinity was manifest in childhood. The men who had not engaged in sex for economic exchange expressed a much less violent, more law abiding and gender equitable masculinity; challenging assumptions about the inevitability of intersections of age, poverty, crime and misogyny. Conclusions Provider role relationships (or sex) are normative for low income men, but not having sex with a woman in prostitution. Men who do the latter operate extensively outside the law and their violence poses a substantial threat to women. Those drafting legislation and policy on the sex industry in South Africa need to distinguish between these two groups to avoid criminalising the normal, and consider measures to protect women. PMID:22911711
Thaysen, Jens Damgaard
This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....
Full Text Available The legislator has acted to criminalize the field of public chastity in order to preserve public morality; one of these cases considers prostitution. Publication of some news and images, especially those that may appear today in various mass media, such as Internet websites, certainly leads to the dissemination and spread of content that contradicts public morality and ethics, that confronts ethical norms and values. That’s why the publication of such information is prohibited by law. Concerning the spread of prostitution, this paper analyzes two instances of abuse, that contradict public morality and are related to each other. The main question in this paper is, what does the Iranian criminal policy do against the spread of prostitution, covered in the Islamic Penal Code approved in 2013? After an introduction (Chapter I, we analyze some jurisprudential concepts and principles related with this matter (Chapter II. In Chapter III we see some examples of the spread of prostitution in domestic law. Finally, we take care of the role of corruption in the spread of prostitution (Chapter IV and then we resume some conclusions (Chapter V.
Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...
A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)
Muhammad Latif Fauzi
Full Text Available This paper addresses the bylaw on prostitution issued by the Bantul authority in May 2007. It specifically examines the relation between the involvement of religious symbolism, the call for public participation and political interests in the legislation process. The paper argues that, on the one hand, the law relates prostitution to issues of immorality, social illness, and the degradation of women due to economic discrimination or sexual exploitation. The subject of prostitution has been extended, covering not only sex workers and pimps, but everyone committing indecent acts, such as showing a ‘sexy’ performance. On the other hand, this regulation is considered to be ambiguous in determining the standard of public morality and, therefore, puts women in a marginalised position. That the implementation of this law contributes to institutionalising the criminalisation against women is another fact which is believed to diminish the meaning of democracy. The government is blamed as taking too much care with procedural democracy but giving less attention to education and employment opportunities.[Artikel merupakan hasil studi peraturan daerah tentang larangan pelacuran yang dikeluarkan oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Bantul pada Mei 2007. Studi ini menguji keterkaitan antara simbol-simbol keagamaan, partisipasi publik, dan kepentingan politik yang muncul dan menyertai proses legislasi. Penulis berpendapat bahwa pada satu sisi, dalam peraturan tersebut, pelacuran dikaitkan dengan perusakan terhadap nilai agama dan sosial serta penurunan martabat perempuan, terlepas akibat diskriminasi ekonomi atau eksploitasi seksual. Subjek pelacuran ternyata juga diperluas, tidak hanya pekerja seks dan mucikari, tetapi setiap orang yang melakukan perbuatan cabul, seperti berpenampilan seksi. Pada sisi yang lain, ukuran moralitas publik dalam peraturan ini dianggap kurang jelas dan menempatkan perempuan pada posisi yang terpinggirkan. Bahwa penerapan peraturan
Galletly, Carol L; Lazzarini, Zita
This paper examines comprehensive data on arrests for HIV-specific crimes within a single jurisdiction, the Nashville Tennessee prosecutorial region, over 11 years. There were 25 arrests for HIV exposure and 27 for aggravated prostitution. Eleven of the arrests for HIV exposure involved nonsexual behaviors; none alleged transmission. Sixteen of the arrests for HIV exposure involved sexual behavior; three alleged transmission. Aggravated prostitution cases (i.e. prostitution while knowing one has HIV) often involved solicitation of oral sex; none alleged transmission. Maximum sentences for HIV-specific crimes ranged from 5 to 8 years. We conclude that enforcement of US HIV-specific laws is underestimated. Fifty-two arrests over 11 years were recorded in one jurisdiction. Over half of the arrests involved behaviors posing minimal or no HIV transmission risk. Despite concerns about malicious, intentional HIV transmission, no cases alleged malice or intention.
Full Text Available Human trafficking (especially women and young girls, though men count equally among the victims are recently developed worldwide. The situation in certain regions of Central and Eastern Europe (with the opening of borders, increasing unemployment and poverty, dislocations and reducing state control structures tend to favour the development of all forms of trafficking, especially of human trafficking forsexual exploitation. To adopt appropriate measures to prevent and combat we have to know first the causes and conditions that generate human beings trafficking. Analysis of case studies and police statistics allowed the structuring of categories of causes and conditions that generate and sustain the phenomenon of traffickingin order to practice prostitution.
Full Text Available Cette recherche porte sur les discours sur la prostitution dans la presse féministe, entre 1968 et 1986 en France. Durant cette période, le mouvement féministe est composé de courants conflictuels (courants réformistes et révolutionnaires, différentialistes et universalistes et il porte des discours hétérogènes (informations sur la prostitution, analyses théoriques et politiques, témoignages de prostituées. Pourtant, ces discours s'accordent sur la revendication d'une libération des rapport...
An estimated 1.5% of Senegal's 5 million adult population is HIV-seropositive, with 3000 people having already died of AIDS-related illnesses. Although 75% of those with AIDS are men, women comprise the majority of people infected with HIV. This latter phenomenon is most likely the result of men having become infected before women because of the former's greater degree of travel relative to women. Infection with HIV-2 accounts for 70% of those with HIV, but for only 30% of AIDS cases. HIV-1 is, however, becoming a growing problem since it seems to be transmitted more easily and develop into AIDS more quickly. 15% of prostitutes in Senegal are HIV-seropositive compared to more than 50% of comparable subgroups in most African countries. Experts cannot say for sure why Senegal has a comparatively low rate of HIV, but several factors have been posited as explanations. The comparatively low rate of infection could be related to the long distance between Senegal and the HIV-1 epicenters of east and central Africa, the ability of HIV-2 infection to help the body fight off HIV-1, the strong Islamic influence which has made male circumcision universal thus reducing the risk of contracting HIV, the provision of AIDS awareness and prevention early in the epidemic, and the government's permissive approach to commercial sex. This latter factor is probably the most important related to the current status of HIV/AIDS in Senegal. It has been legal since 1966 to sell sex as long as the sex worker is registered, over 21 years old, has a regular medical check-up, and can present an up-to-date medical report card to the police upon request. This approach was established by then-president Senghor to reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Registered sex workers since 1986 have been tested for HIV, advised on how to avoid infection, and given free condoms. In anonymous questionnaires, 70-75% of all Dakar's official sex workers reported always using
Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven
The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task
Monto, Martin A; Milrod, Christine
Recent media attention implies that prostitution seeking is widespread, an "ordinary" aspect of masculine sexual behavior. Other accounts suggest that customers are "peculiar," characterized by distinct qualities, perversions, or psychological impairments. Using the nationally representative General Social Survey (GSS), this study demonstrates that prostitution seeking is relatively uncommon. Only about 14% of men in the United States report having ever paid for sex, and only 1% report having done so during the previous year. Furthermore, this study dissects whether customers are ordinary or peculiar by comparing a new sample of active customers who solicit sex on the Internet with an older sample of arrested customers, a sample of customers from the GSS, and a nationally representative sample of noncustomers. The customers of Internet sexual service providers differed greatly from men in general and also from other customers. The remaining samples of customers differed slightly from noncustomers in general. We argue for a balanced perspective that recognizes the significant variety among customers. There is no evidence of a peculiar quality that differentiates customers in general from men who have not paid for sex. © The Author(s) 2013.
Full Text Available This study attempts to investigate the implementation of religious guidance for prostitute and its influence to Woman Social Institution Silih Asih in Palimanan, Cirebon. It formulated on four research questions: 1 How is the process of religious guidance in Social Institution Silih Asih; 2 What is the participants’s efforts to achieve the goal of religious guidance; 3 How is the material of religious guidance in Social Institution Silih Asih Palimanan; 4 How is the approach and method of religious guidance applied in Social Institution Silih Asih Palimanan to support and achieve the aim of religious guidance. The study used qualitative-naturalistic, research design with descriptive method. The data were collected through observation, interview, and document analysis. The results of the study show that: 1 there were two stages of religious guidance: identification stage and rehabilitation process; 2 the participants were identified by their age, marital status, education background, parents’ job, and reasons of being prostitute; 3 the materials presented on theoretical and natural materials based on Islam thoughts; 4 the religious guidance used various approaches: experience, habituation, emotional, rational, and holistic.
Norma T. Gross
Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the use of miconazole among female prostitutes in Costa Rica as well as the distribution of vaginal yeasts and the susceptibility pattern to azoles of strains obtained from this population. Our intention was to relate a frequent use of miconazole to occurrence of vaginal yeasts resistant to azoles. Methods. Vaginal samples were taken from 277 patients that have previously used azoles. Vaginal swabs were obtained for direct microscopy and culture. Yeast isolates were identified by germ tube test and assimilation pattern. Susceptibility testing was determined using a tablet diffusion method. Results. The number of clinical Candida isolates (one from each patient was 57 (20.6%. C. albicans was the predominant species (70%, followed by C. parapsilosis (12%, C. tropicalis (5.3%, C. glabrata and C. famata (3.5% each, C. krusei, C. inconspicua and C. guilliermondii (1.7% each. The majority of vaginal Candida isolates were susceptible to ketoconazole (91%, fluconazole (96.5%, and itraconazole (98%. A lower susceptibility of some isolates to miconazole (63% was observed as compared to the other azoles tested. Moreover, the strains, nonsusceptible to miconazole, were more often obtained from patients that have used this antifungal at least four times within the last year before taking the samples as compared to those with three or less treatments (P<.01. Conclusion. An indiscriminate use of miconazole, such as that observed among female prostitutes in Costa Rica, results in a reduced susceptibility of vaginal yeasts to miconazole but not to other azoles.
Joshua David Gonsalves
Full Text Available Keats and Swinburne loom large as purveyors of the “aesthetic” in its early and late nineteenth-century forms—that is, as a discourse of subject-formation through the exercise of tasteful distinction and as a self-referential discourse of art for art’s sake, respectively. In this essay, I analyse how Swinburne constructs a “Keats” that will allow him to master a “manliness in crisis” that affected both writers. If this “crisis” is historicized by the body as a social matter that Victorian legislators were policing in the forms of prostitution and pornography, it is, I argue, this materiality that Keats and Swinburne insist of enjoying rather than sublimating. The ultimate question I pose is this: can aesthetics become the critical discourse that recent revisionary readings have postulated if both a Romantic and a Decadent aesthetic insist on enjoying the body, materiality, gender instability and other topoi communicated by prostitution, pornography and poetry.
Blume, Peter Erik
This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...
Full Text Available This paper aims at drawing a picture, as complete as possible, of an anthropocentric reality hidden in the synonyms of prostitute which have been incorporated into the English lexico-semantic system from other languages since the beginning of the 19th century. The body of Present-day English synonyms of prostitute to be analysed includes horizontal, geisha, shawl and poule de luxe. Apart from providing the source languages from which English borrowed the afore-mentioned synonyms of prostitute, an attempt will be made at discovering the plausible cultural and sociological justification for the lexical borrowings to have taken place. In order to make the onomasiological picture of the sense ‘prostitute’ as complete as it can be within the limits of this paper, a mention will be made of the lexical heritage within the range of the synonyms of prostitute which were incorporated into the English language in the course of Middle English, Early Modern English and Late Modern English.
van den Hoek, J. A.; Coutinho, R. A.; van Haastrecht, H. J.; van Zadelhoff, A. W.; Goudsmit, J.
In December 1985 we started a study to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HIV infection among drug users and drug-using prostitutes in Amsterdam. Recruitment took place at methadone posts (not drug-free; i.e. a low-threshold programme on which some drug users continue to use hard drugs,
Wilson, Helen W.; Widom, Cathy Spatz
Behaviors beginning in childhood or adolescence may mediate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and involvement in prostitution. This paper examines 5 potential mediators: early sexual initiation, running away, juvenile crime, school problems, and early drug use. Using a prospective cohort design, abused and neglected children (ages…
Orchard, Treena Rae
The emotive issue of child prostitution is at the heart of international debates over 'trafficking' in women and girls, the "new slave trade", and how these phenomena are linked with globalization, sex tourism, and expanding transnational economies. However, young sex workers, particularly those in the 'third world', are often represented through tropes of victimization, poverty, and "backwards" cultural traditions, constructions that rarely capture the complexity of the girls' experiences and the role that prostitution plays in their lives. Based on ethnographic fieldwork with girls and young women who are part of the Devadasi (servant/slave of the God) system of sex work in India, this paper introduces an alternative example of child prostitution. Demonstrating the ways in which this practice is socially, economically, and culturally embedded in certain regions of rural south India underlies this new perspective. I argue that this embeddedness works to create, inform, and give meaning to these girls as they grow up in this particular context, not to isolate and produce totally different experiences of family, gender identity, and moral character as popular accounts of child prostitution contend. Data pertaining to socialization, 'positive' aspects of being a young sex worker in this context, political economy, HIV/AIDS, and changes in the Devadasi tradition are used to support my position. Taken together, this alternative example presents a more complex understanding of the micro- and macro-forces that impact child prostitution as well as the many factors that affect the girls' ideas of what they do and who they are as people, not just sex workers.
Henriksen, Theresa Dyrvig; Mehlsen, Line; Kjær, Agnete Aslaug
helhedsorienteret indsats gennem én fast tilknyttet støtteperson. Evalueringen viser overordnet, at erfaringerne fra de fire kommuner er positive: Færre er i risiko for at udvikle stress og depression, deltagerne beretter om forbedret selvværd, de oplever at få bedre relationer til venner og familie, bedre styr på...
Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas
Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…
Umaña, A O
Abortion is a social problem and criminal sanctions are very ineffective in limiting it and are seldom applied (133 legal actions vs. 65,600 cases of induced abortion in 1965). Abortion is a social disease, as are prostitution, juvenile delinquency, drug abuse, and so far has been an insoluble problem. Colombian laws should be modified to reflect reality. Sex education must be emphasized, because ignorance is one of the main causes of abortion. Leniency should be applied toward women who cooperate with the authorities in identifying the person who performed an abortion. Legalization of abortion and enforcement of strict laws against it are considered as possible solutions, but both are rejected. The former is regarded as morally unacceptable and as imposing an excessive burden on scarce health services, the latter as even worse, imposing an equivalent burden on the court system, without s olving either health or social problems. The best and probably only solution is to improve education in family planning, to promote knowledge and motivation to enable the population to make sound and responsible decisions.
presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...
Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing
PILAR RODRÍGUEZ MARTÍNEZ
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of violence against women (intimate partner violence and workplace violence. The subject of the research is a qualitative sample of 12 autochthonous and migrant women who work in low-paid prostitution in Almería. The study uses an intersectional and multi-level approach, focusing on the perspectives of groups who experience multiple discrimination. The results show that violence has an impact on the identity of women. It also shows that in the different paths of the women in the study, different webs of violence occur, which lead them to distinct understandings of the violence they experience. In addition, we have analyzed how age, education level, and above all, social stigma, are related to the possibility of these women experiencing violence in their work and to their perceptions of that work.
Cabrerizo Egea, María Jesús; Barroso García, María Pilar; Rodríguez-Contreras Pelayo, Rafael
To analyze the performance of induced abortion (IA) in prostitutes in Almería (Spain) and its association with the use of contraceptive methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 110 women. A bivariate analyses using either the χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test was carried out (significance level used condoms and 35.5% of them also used another contraceptive method. No statistically significant association was found between condom breakage and the performance of IA or in the use of other contraceptive methods. A high percentage of this group of women had undergone IA, despite widespread condom use. However, there was a high percentage of condom breakage and a low percentage of use of emergency contraceptive pills after risky sexual relationships. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Caterino-de-Araujo, A; de-los-Santos Fortuna, E
The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and its relationship with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was investigated by serological determinations in a group of 45 women working as prostitutes in Santos, State of São Paulo. Seropositivity to HIV-1 was demonstrated in 4 (9%) of the cases and to HIV-2 in one case. Syphilis and hepatitis B were detected in 29% and 43% of the 45 women, respectively. Specific antibodies to C. trachomatis were found in all subjects. The high seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), syphilis and C. trachomatis in this population was related to predisposing factors such as number of sexual contacts, sexual practices, drug use and episodes of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
Thorpe, L; Ford, K; Fajans, P; Wirawan, D N
This study examines the commercial sex activity of both tourist client and local prostitute groups in the host country of Indonesia. The study provides a profile of social and behavioural characteristics of foreign tourist men and Indonesian women engaging in commercial sex, using cross-sectional data gathered in the tourist resort town of Kuta, Bali. Univariate statistical analysis and multiple logistic regression are used to assess psychosocial and other factors associated with consistent condom use in commercial sex encounters, drawing from the Health Belief model and social cognitive theory. Results from both respondent groups indicate that condom use is high between tourist clients and female Indonesian sex workers, although not 100% consistent. Beliefs about condom efficacy and effects on pleasure, as well as susceptibility to STD infection were related to condom use for female sex workers. Beliefs about condoms being too much trouble, and self-efficacy were related to condom use for tourist clients.
Ristivojević Branislav R.
Full Text Available In this paper, the author investigates the new Public Order and Peace Act (Ser. ZoJRM and the provisions on so-called morale offences contained therein. Of these provisions, the one he recognizes as the most revolutionary is that of a new instance of perpetration under the old offence of prostitution. With this novelty, the Act extends liability for the offence not only to the prostitute, but also to the user of her services. The author first puts forward a general criticism to the criminal and misdemeanour laws when these attempt to turn morality into the object of protection, which already has a general place in science. Then he investigates what perception of morality is protected by this offence, concluding that it crosses over into the sphere in which the freedom of citizens must in no way be interfered with - the sphere of voluntary sexual intercourse of two persons. For this reason, the author, in somewhat humorous fashion, warns, through the paper's title, that the state will have to undertake a moral crusade against bedroom if it wants to consistently enforce these provisions. Moreover, the author sheds light on the origin of this moral stance, finding its roots in the societies with dominant protestant religious ethics as the moral foundation, as well as on its genesis, seeing it in the rise in sexual morality standards that occurred in the developing industrial societies in the second half of the nineteenth century. The author concludes that to our society and our natural moral stance such foreign moral implants are unnecessary, particularly if one considers that it is precisely in the country of their origin, the US, that they have long been rejected and marked as symbols of repression and non-liberty.
Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Dunkle, Kristin; Penn-Kekana, Loveday
Sex motivated by economic exchange is a public health concern as a driver of the Sub-Saharan African HIV epidemic. We describe patterns of engagement in transactional sexual relationships and sex with women in prostitution of South African men, and suggest interpretations that advance our understanding of the phenomenon. Cross-sectional study with a randomly-selected sample of 1645 sexually active men aged 18-49 years who completed interviews in a household study and were asked whether they had had sex with a woman in prostitution, or had had a relationship or sex they took to be motivated by the expectation of material gain (transactional sex). 18% of men had ever had sex with a woman in prostitution, 66% at least one type of transactional sexual relationship, only 30% of men had done neither. Most men had had a transactional relationship/sex with a main partner (58% of all men), 42% with a concurrent partner (or makhwapheni) and 44% with a once off partner, and there was almost no difference in reports of what was provided to women of different partner types. The majority of men distinguished the two types of sexual relationships and even among men who had once-off transactional sex and gave cash (n = 314), few (34%) reported that they had had sex with a 'prostitute'. Transactional sex was more common among men aged 25-34 years, less educated men and low income earners rather than those with none or higher income. Having had sex with a woman in prostitution varied little between social and demographic categories, but was less common among the unwaged or very low earners. The notion of 'transactional sex' developed through research with women does not translate easily to men. Many perceive expectations that they fulfil a provider role, with quid pro quo entitlement to sex. Men distinguished these circumstances of sex from having sex with a woman in prostitution. Whilst there may be similarities, when viewed relationally, these are quite distinct practices
Yirdam R, Mutia; Yealta, Den
Mexico is one of the leading hot spot for sexual exploitation of children. ECPAT as NGO which fights against sexual exploitation of children have some role in cases of child prostitution in Mexico. Based on the high level of child prostitution in Mexico and ECPAT have some role in that cases, the authors conducted a study to find out some role that ECPAT done for this child sexual exploiations case.This study use a constructivist perspective and International organizations theory. This study ...
This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.
Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman
Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...
Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard
This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....
Stephanie Lynn Budin: The Myth of Sacred Prostitution in Antiquity. Cambridge u.a.: Cambridge University Press 2008. Stephanie Lynn Budin: The Myth of Sacred Prostitution in Antiquity. Cambridge u.a.: Cambridge University Press 2008.
Julian Herbert Köck
Full Text Available Stephanie Lynn Budin liefert mit vorliegender Studie einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Debatte um die Existenz von Tempelprostitution im Altertum. Systematisch untersucht sie die Quellen zur Tempelprostitution und kann weitgehend überzeugend darlegen, dass die betreffenden Stellen nicht für die Existenz von Tempelprostitution im Altertum sprechen, sondern nur aufgrund von tendenziösen Interpretationen so verstanden wurden. Dabei greift die Studie die Ergebnisse anderer Wissenschaftler/-innen auf, bietet aber – besonders zu Herodot und Strabon – auch neue Erkenntnisse.Stephanie Lynn Budin’s study offers up an important contribution to the debate on the existence of temple prostitution during antiquity. She systematically examines the sources on temple prostitution and can demonstrate, fairly convincingly, that the passages in question do not prove the existence of temple prostitution during antiquity, but instead have been merely understood to do so based on tendentious interpretations. In so doing, the study takes up conclusions offered by other scholars, but it also provides – especially when it comes to Herodotus and Strabo – new insights.
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, apresentamos uma reflexão acerca das tensões identitárias vivenciadas por mulheres brasileiras que migraram para a Espanha para exercer a prostituição a partir de uma crítica às perspectivas eurocêntricas e coloniais. Tais perspectivas, desde o surgimento dos estados nacionais, têm propiciado a invenção do outro, naturalizando relações desiguais de raça, etnia, gênero, nacionalidade. Apresentamos aqui como brasileiras, imigrantes e prostitutas, vivenciam as heterodesignações como outras, enfocando possíveis interpelações às hierarquias sociais a partir de sua condição de imigrantes na Europa e prostitutas. Para tanto, faremos uma análise da crise que os estados-nacionais europeus têm vivido e que tem como consequência o acirramento de práticas xenófobas e racistas. Apresentaremos também a análise de entrevistas em profundidade realizadas com prostitutas imigrantes brasileiras em Madri, Espanha.This work presents a reflection about the identity tensions experienced by Brazilian women who migrated to Spain to practice prostitution from a critical perspective on Eurocentric and colonial logics. Such prospects, since the emergence of national states, have brought the invention of other, naturalizing unequal relations of race, ethnicity, gender, nationality. We will see how Brazilian immigrants and prostitutes live heterodesignations as the other focusing on possible questions to social hierarchies from their status as immigrants and prostitutes in Europe. For this, we will review the crisis that the European national states have experienced and which as a consequence has been worsening xenophobic and racist practices. We also present the analysis of interviews conducted with Brazilian immigrant prostitutes in Madrid, Spain.
Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we
Full Text Available Die wissenssoziologische Arbeit untersucht die beruflichen Habitusformationen von sozialen Akteur/-innen in deutschen, polnischen und tschechischen Kommunen, die in ihrem beruflichen Alltag an der Regulierung von Prostitution beteiligt sind und/oder sich der Bekämpfung und Prävention von Menschenhandel zum Zweck der sexuellen Ausbeutung bzw. der Betreuung von Betroffenen widmen. Anhand 45 Expert/-inneninterviews wurden die Wahrnehmungs-, Denk- und Handlungsmuster von Verwaltungsakteur/-innen aus Polizeibehörden, Ordnungs- und Gesundheitsämtern sowie von Praktiker/-innen aus der Sozialen Arbeit rekonstruiert. Die Untersuchung liefert wertvolle Einblicke in die Verwaltungspraxis und in die sie konstituierenden Faktoren, die in der Analyse von Prostitutionspolitiken sonst häufig unbeachtet bleiben.This study, located in the field of sociology of knowledge, analyzes the professional habitus formations of social workers in German, Polish, and Czech municipalities, who are concerned with the regulation of prostitution in their daily work routine and/or who are dedicated to fighting and preventing human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation or to the care of victims. Based on forty-five expert interviews, the perceptual, thought, and action patterns of administrative agents in police departments, regulatory authorities, and health authorities as well as of social work practitioners are reconstructed. The study offers valuable insights into the administrative practice and its constituting factors that otherwise frequently remain unnoticed in the analysis of prostitution politics.
Full Text Available Interrelations between the circulation of images concerning race and gender in the context of global hierarchies and new local forms and meanings of partnership and prostitution in Cuba have not been adequately understood until now. This is due to the image of a “sudden” revival of prostitution, after it had allegedly been eradicated in socialist Cuba. Exploring prostitution, marriage and womanhood in Havana from a historical perspective and examining jineterismo as part of the local ‘informal’ economy, this article demonstrates how these institutions were modified in a global context long before the 1990s. In the transcultural relations between foreigners and locals, models of womanhood, partnership and love were not merely ‘given’ by the social structure in the context of a globalized modernity. Instead they were to a large extent influenced by ideas concerning gender, race and morality, created and negotiated by agents as they interacted, Cuban women having resorted to these ideas and related institutions as arenas of empowerment.
Full Text Available The discourses of prostitutes are far less visible than the discourses on prostitutes. Based on this fact, we have in this article studied a corpus that is narrow albeit particularly heterogeneous and consisting entirely of books written by prostitutes and sex workers. While recognizing, along with Gail Pheterson and Paola Tabet, the obsolescence and arbitrariness of (the use of terms such as “prostitute” and “prostitution”, we have tried to show that those different written discourses are systematically (enframed. By describing the mechanisms of this (enframing process (mystification, expurgation, censorship, collaborative writing, editorial pretexts in different publishing contexts, we have claimed that it operates at the same time as enhancement and control of the concerned discourses. We have further weighed, from a gender point of view, the discursive high-jacking and disqualification – on an ideological as well as esthetic level – undergone by the authors we have studied. The ongoing struggle of certain sex workers / authors to get rid of (enframing procedures and their pressing need for discursive autonomy reveal the necessity to carry on this examination on a broader spectrum.
Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex motivated by economic exchange is a public health concern as a driver of the Sub-Saharan African HIV epidemic. We describe patterns of engagement in transactional sexual relationships and sex with women in prostitution of South African men, and suggest interpretations that advance our understanding of the phenomenon. Methods Cross-sectional study with a randomly-selected sample of 1645 sexually active men aged 18–49 years who completed interviews in a household study and were asked whether they had had sex with a woman in prostitution, or had had a relationship or sex they took to be motivated by the expectation of material gain (transactional sex. Results 18% of men had ever had sex with a woman in prostitution, 66% at least one type of transactional sexual relationship, only 30% of men had done neither. Most men had had a transactional relationship/sex with a main partner (58% of all men, 42% with a concurrent partner (or makhwapheni and 44% with a once off partner, and there was almost no difference in reports of what was provided to women of different partner types. The majority of men distinguished the two types of sexual relationships and even among men who had once-off transactional sex and gave cash (n = 314, few (34% reported that they had had sex with a ‘prostitute’. Transactional sex was more common among men aged 25–34 years, less educated men and low income earners rather than those with none or higher income. Having had sex with a woman in prostitution varied little between social and demographic categories, but was less common among the unwaged or very low earners. Conclusions The notion of ‘transactional sex’ developed through research with women does not translate easily to men. Many perceive expectations that they fulfil a provider role, with quid pro quo entitlement to sex. Men distinguished these circumstances of sex from having sex with a woman in prostitution. Whilst there may be
Agueda Gómez Suárez
Full Text Available Hoy, la prostitución en nuestra sociedad resulta un indicador de la "cultura sexual" dominante en las sociedades patriarcales y capitalistas. Este artículo pretende aportar otro enfoque al análisis de la industria sexual en nuestro país, ajustándose, principalmente, a las experiencias de los hombres implicados en el fenómeno de la prostitución en Galicia. El dramatismo con que las mujeres en prostitución viven su realidad y la frivolidad y ociosidad en la que se recrean los clientes, muestra el controvertido e inquietante semblante de esta realidad. El análisis del discurso de los clientes a través del "Frame Analysis", y el estudio de los imaginarios femeninos dominantes entre ellos son retratados en este texto, junto con el discurso de las mujeres en prostitución y el de los hombres que ocupan espacios masculinizados. Este artículo pretende ser una contribución más al complejo estudio del fenómeno de la prostitución en nuestro país.Today, the prostitution in our society turns out to be an indicator of the dominant "sexual culture" in the patriarchal and capitalist societies. This article tries to contribute with another approach to the analysis of the sexual industry in our country, adjusting, principally, to the experiences of the men involved in the phenomenon of the prostitution in Galicia. The dramatic quality in which the women in prostitution live their reality and the levity and idleness, in which the clients enjoy themselves, show the controversial and worrying face of this reality. The analysis of the clients' speech across the "Frame Analysis", and the study of the feminine dominant imaginary among them are portrayed in this text, together with the speech of the women in prostitution and of the men who occupy masculinized spaces. This article tries to be a contribution to the complex study of the phenomenon of the prostitution in our country.
Pope, Thaddeus Mason
This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.
Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.
Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy
Taylor, Kelley R.
The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…
This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…
What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.
Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro
This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...
María de las Nieves Puglia
Full Text Available This paper analyzes trajectories of initiation of paid domestic workers into the world of prostitution in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, through certain social meanings and uses of money. For this I will recover some scenes from the practice of dobleta as moments in which domestic services and sex services begin to intermingle, tensing preconceptions of prostitution as “easy life”, “easy money” and the idea of women as a “victim” of both a structural system of sexual exploitation and poverty. I will inquire the transmission of knowledge of sexual practices, place of work or territory and introduction of reliable customers by intermediate figures who act as initiators. Then, I will show the symbolic displacement of violence into the realm of marriage and the construction of the occupation of prostitution as a source not only of income but also of pride. Finally, I will conclude that the idea that women “fall” into prostitution as inevitable, undesirable and objectionable destination is problematic because its complexity includes social meanings made possible by the money obtained and the gender social order that it founds. The results were obtained from extensive fieldwork with ethnographic approach during the years 2011 to 2013, with affiliated to the Association of Women Prostitutes of Argentina. The techniques used were informal and spontaneous group interviews and participant observation, building a dialogue that takes this group of women as key interlocutors to produce knowledge.
Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).
Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first
Badke, Lara K.
A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.
“Charlotte, we’re Jewish” says Cher in the opening scene of Mermaids, as she passes her adolescent daughter, Wynona Ryder genuflecting ecstatically at her private shrine to St. Perpetua. Charlotte abandons her worship of the martyr with a rather dramatic effect on her nascent sex life. What might it be about a young Christian woman tortured to death in the arena in third century North Africa that would so attract an American Jewish teenager as a model and ego ideal? In...
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Minor girls are legally considered as incapable, under the authority of their parents. Difficulties can arise when a minor becomes pregnant. The law takes account of this situation: under certain conditions, she can decide by herself to undertake certain actions, medical or otherwise, without the consent of her parents. These include access to contraception, abortion or anonymous birth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Legal pluralism calls into question the monopoly of the modern state when it comes to the production and the enforcement of norms. It rests on the assumption that juridical normativity and state organization can be dissociated. From an early modern historian’s perspective, such an assumption makes perfect sense, the plural nature of the legal order being the natural state of affairs in imperial spaces across the globe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This article will provide a case study of the collaborative nature of the interaction between spiritual and temporal legal orders in Spain and its overseas territories as conceived by Tomás de Mercado (ca. 1520–1575, a major theologian from the School of Salamanca. His treatise on trade and contracts (1571 contained an extended discussion of the government’s attempt to regulate the grain market by imposing a maximum price. It will be argued that Mercado’s view on the bindingness of economic regulations in conscience allowed for the internalization of the regulatory power of the nascent state. He called upon confessors to be strict enforcers of state law, considering them as fathers of the republic as much as fathers of faith. This is illustrative of the »collaborative form of legal pluralism« typical of the osmotic relationship between Church and State in the early modern Spanish empire. It contributed to the moral justification of state jurisdictions, while at the same time, guaranteeing a privileged role for theologians and religious leaders in running the affairs of the state.
In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks...
Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won
Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal research and preparation of legal... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT LEGAL MATTERS Inmate Legal Activities § 543.11 Legal research and preparation of legal... program or work assignment), to do legal research and to prepare legal documents. Where practical, the...
Full Text Available In this paper the author analyses all the cases from the 2002 practice of Magistrate Court in Belgrade, which relate to prostitution and illegal migration. The main aim of this paper is to show who are the women and men who are accused and punished for prostitution and illegal migration, as well as to argue that the part of them are in fact victims of trafficking in human beings. In conclusion, the author suggests the necessity for training of magistrate judges in order to be able to recognize victims of trafficking and, consequently, to be able to treat them as victims rather than as offenders.
María Luisa Maqueda Abreu
Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo se propone analizar las razones por las que las prostitutas, a causa de su opción sexual, han sido criminalizadas por imposición de distintos órdenes normativos, fuertemente coercitivos, que censuran gravemente su desviación. Ellos –y sus potentes discursos-se muestran capaces de explicar ese continuum ininterrumpido e inacabable de estigma, persecución, inferiorización, aislamiento social o encarcelamiento que acompaña a la historia de la prostitución de las mujeres y que la mantiene todavía hoy en las profundidades de la jerarquía sexual de la sociedad. Abstract: This article aims to analyze the reasons why prostitutes because of their sexual option have been criminalized by imposing highly coercive normative orders that censure severely their deviation. These normative orders -and their powerful discourses- explain the continuous and endless continuum of stigma, persecution, inferiority, social isolation or imprisonment that accompains the history of prostitution of women and that remain still today in the depths of the sexual hierarchy of society.
McMillan, Karen; Worth, Heather; Rawstorne, Patrick
This article considers the terms prostitution, sex work, transactional sex, and survival sex, the logic of their deployment and utility to research concerned with people who are paid for sex, and HIV. The various names for paid sex in HIV research are invested in strategically differentiated positionings of people who receive payment and emphasize varying degrees of choice. The terminologies that seek to distinguish a range of economically motivated paid sex practices from sex work are characterized by an emphasis on the local and the particular, efforts to evade the stigma attached to the labels sex worker and prostitute, and an analytic prioritizing of culture. This works to bestow cultural legitimacy on some locally specific forms of paid sex and positions those practices as artifacts of culture rather than economy. This article contends that, in HIV research in particular, it is necessary to be cognizant of ways the deployment of alternative paid sex categories relocates and reinscribes stigma elsewhere. While local identity categories may be appropriate for program implementation, a global category is necessary for planning and funding purposes and offers a purview beyond that of isolated local phenomena. We argue that "sex work" is the most useful global term for use in research into economically motivated paid sex and HIV, primarily because it positions paid sex as a matter of labor, not culture or morality.
Full Text Available The article investigates the discursive practices of the Chilean State in relation to women who practice prostitution, sex trade or sex work. We perform an analysis based on the studies made on discourse about the issue, from pragmatic and realizative perspectives of the language. From the 18 regulations and laws we identify acts of speech, such as implicatures or indirect reference and interdiscourses. In the results we present three categories as we call them: definitions, prescriptions and transformations. The definitions are used to describe an activity and the intervention agents. Prescriptions materialize the discourse through obligations and instructions dictated to impose social control. And the transformations, which is related to the first and the second, creates a new situation regarding the activity through the updating of mechanisms and the definition of new subjects. We conclude that the rules produce discursive practices for the social control of the bodies of prostitutes and sex workers, placing them in the line of abnormality, in this way they define a behavioral guide for the rest of women. © Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Sociales.
This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication technology (ICT impacted on the availability of legal information resources, but its effects are also noticed in various law-related areas such as legal practice management, legal education, corporate governance and the law per se. The question addressed by this article is whether the application of ICTs has an effect on the practice of law, and specifically whether information and knowledge management affects the processes of legal research in modern legal practice. Various issues are considered in this regard, including what the concept of knowledge management (KM entails in a law firm and what the current KM trends in South African law firms are. The article investigates global trends in the application of ICTs for legal research purposes, what the specific applications of KM in support of legal research may be, how information technology applications and KM systems and strategies can support the legal research process, and what the benefits of KM are to legal research. It finally discusses the impact technology has had on the skills required of competitive legal professionals.
Z. Gonul BALKIR
Full Text Available The necessity of examination of every case within its peculiar conditions in social sciences requires different approaches complying with the spirit and nature of social sciences. Multiple realities require different and various perceptual interpretations. In modern world and social sciences, interpretation of perception of valued and multi-valued have been started to be understood by the principles of fuzziness and fuzzy logic. Having the verbally expressible degrees of truthness such as true, very true, rather true, etc. fuzzy logic provides the opportunity for the interpretation of especially complex and rather vague set of information by flexibility or equivalence of the variables’ of fuzzy limitations. The methods and principles of fuzzy logic can be benefited in examination of the methodological problems of law, especially in the applications of filling the legal loopholes arising from the ambiguities and interpretation problems in order to understand the legal rules in a more comprehensible and applicable way and the efficiency of legal implications. On the other hand, fuzzy logic can be used as a technical legal method in legal education and especially in legal case studies and legal practice applications in order to provide the perception of law as a value and the more comprehensive and more quality perception and interpretation of value of justice, which is the core value of law. In the perception of what happened as it has happened in legal relationships and formations, the understanding of social reality and sociological legal rules with multi valued sense perspective and the their applications in accordance with the fuzzy logic’s methods could create more equivalent and just results. It can be useful for the young lawyers and law students as a facilitating legal method especially in the materialization of the perception and interpretation of multi valued and variables. Using methods and principles of fuzzy logic in legal
The AIDS epidemic has brought to the fore many social injustices; for instance, inappropriate laws. The groups of people most at risk of HIV/AIDS are women, young people, and sex workers. More appropriate laws are needed to protect their rights. In many instances sex workers are prosecuted for selling their services, but their clients are not prosecuted for seeking these services. Most people become sex workers so they can feed, clothe, and supply the basic needs for themselves and their families. Many sex workers are abandoned wives, mothers with no means of support, and poverty stricken people. A Health Ministry commission in Sweden proposed that prostitutes, clients, and pimps be prosecuted and be liable to imprisonment. Authorities in Scotland, where prostitution is illegal, have granted licenses to more than 20 clubs in Edinburgh in which sex is for sale. In the UK, the Royal College of Nursing called for a measure to decriminalize prostitution and to introduce licensed, regulated brothels. The legalization of sex clubs and brothels will occur soon in the Netherlands. In Poland, 30,000-50,000 youth, 33% of whom are underage, sell sex during holidays. Organizations are beginning to work only with male prostitutes in Belgium. In the countries of the former Soviet Union and China, prostitution is becoming more and more common. Some young girls in these countries practice currency prostitution. In almost all Asian countries except Thailand condom use is low; yet prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases are very common. Some people participate in the corrupt trade in women from Nepal to supply the sex market in Bombay, India. Sex tourism is still common in cities of Eastern Europe and the former USSR and in areas where tourism is increasing. There are more than 1 million prostitutes aged under 16 in eight Asian countries, with 400,000 in India. Sweden and the UK have taken steps to prosecute natives who have sex with children abroad. Philippine authorities
Bench-Capon, Trevor; Prakken, Henry; Sartor, Giovanni
A popular view of what Artificial Intelligence can do for lawyers is that it can do no more than deduce the consequences from a precisely stated set of facts and legal rules. This immediately makes many lawyers sceptical about the usefulness of such systems: this mechanical approach seems to leave out most of what is important in legal reasoning. A case does not appear as a set of facts, but rather as a story told by a client. For example, a man may come to his lawyer saying that he had developed an innovative product while working for Company A. Now Company B has made him an offer of a job, to develop a similar product for them. Can he do this? The lawyer firstly must interpret this story, in the context, so that it can be made to fit the framework of applicable law. Several interpretations may be possible. In our example it could be seen as being governed by his contract of employment, or as an issue in Trade Secrets law.
This paper reviews the case for and against mandatory legal capital rules. It is argued that legal capital is no longer an appropriate means of safeguarding creditors' interests. This is most clearly the case as regards mandatory rules. Moreover, it is suggested that even an 'opt in' (or default) legal capital regime is unlikely to be a useful mechanism. However, the advent of regulatory arbitrage in European corporate law will provide a way of gathering information regarding investors' prefe...
Schäfke, Werner; Mayoral, Juan A.; Hvidt, Martine Stagelund
This article provides novel empirical survey evidence on socialization factors leading lecturers to implement interdisciplinary teaching in law. Recent debates on the legal scholarship and higher education legal institutions advocates for the introduction of interdisciplinary approaches to legal...... of the teaching staff in this institution. To explain the adoption of interdisciplinary teaching, we rely on socialization factors connected to their former higher education and socialization in research and multidisciplinary environments....
data machines may be able to (or are thought to be able to) make a prediction profile, leaving risks for individuals for being excluded from life and health insurances, being targets for computational policing etc. An additional dimension to the prefabricated decisions is the commercial aspect......) decisions which has implications for legal orders, legal actors and legal research, not to mention legal legitimacy as well as personal autonomy and democracy. On the one hand automation may facilitate better, faster, more predictable and more coherent decisions and leave cumbersome and time consuming...
Raisler, K.M.; Gregory, A.M.
This chapter focuses on the legal issues relating to the derivatives market in the USA, and analyses the Commodity Futures Trading Commission's (CFTCs) information on swaps and hybrid instruments. The law and regulation in the USA is examined and the jurisdictional reach of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), CFTC, and the Commodity Exchange Act (CEA) is described. The forward contract exclusion and the case of Transnor (Bermuda) Ltd. versus BP North America Petroleum, state laws, swap policy statement issues by the CFTC, the Futures Trading Practices Act of 1992, swaps exemptions, the exemption of hybrid instruments from the CEA, and energy contract exemption are discussed. Enforceability, derivatives, and issues before regulators are considered
Ovidiu – Horia Maican
Full Text Available The Brexit referendum vote has mainly political implications and no direct legal effect. The article 50 of the Treaty on European Union allows member states to withdraw from the European Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements. After the referendum is a period of two years from the british notice of intention to withdraw to negotiate terms of exit unless all the other member states agree to extend it. Article 50 put the balance of power firmly in the hands of the 27 other states more than the leaving state. After the time limit in article 50 is expiring, Europen Union in theory law ceases to apply in the United Kingdom. In the same time, separating European law from british national law will be an complicated process.
Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan
Introduction Since 2003, US government funding to address the HIV and AIDS pandemic has been subject to an anti-prostitution clause. Simultaneously, the efficacy of some HIV prevention efforts for sex work in areas receiving US government funding has diminished. This article seeks to explain why. Methods This analysis utilizes a case story approach to build a narrative of defining features of organizations in receipt of funding from the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and other US funding sources. For this analysis, multiple cases were compiled within a single narrative. This helps show restrictions imposed by the anti-prostitution clause, any lack of clarity of guidelines for implementation and ways some agencies, decision-making personnel, and staff on the ground contend with these restrictions. Results Responses to PEPFAR's anti-prostitution clause vary widely and have varied over time. Organizational responses have included ending services for sex workers, gradual phase-out of services, cessation of seeking US government HIV funds and increasing isolation of sex workers. Guidance issued in 2010 did not clarify what was permitted. Implementation and enforcement has been dependent in part on the interpretations of this policy by individuals, including US government representatives and organizational staff. Conclusions Different interpretations of the anti-prostitution clause have led to variations in programming, affecting the effectiveness of work with sex workers. The case story approach proved ideal for working with information like this that is highly sensitive and vulnerable to breach of anonymity because the method limits the potential to betray confidences and sources, and limits the potential to jeopardize funding and thereby jeopardize programming. This method enabled us to use specific examples without jeopardizing the organizations and individuals involved while demonstrating unintended consequences of PEPFAR's anti-prostitution
Гаврилова, Ілона Олександрівна; Університет державної фіскальної служби України
In the article the features of the administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine; The experience of foreign countries on the administrative liability of legal entities, proposed measures to improve the administrative and tort legislation on administrative liability of legal entities in Ukraine.The problems of liability of legal entities were always relevant and important for administrative and legal science. Legal entities, performing administrative and legal relationships, may commit...
Gribnau, J.L.M.; Soeteman, A.
Instrumentalist legislation usually underestimates the importance of legal principles in modern law. Legal principles are the normative core of a value oriented conception of law. They function as essential criteria of evaluation for lawmaking by the legislator and the executive. In fact,
What is being suggested as the most feasible course now is a standfast position on the legal front; an aggressive, directed research program planned to answer the critical questions about marijuana; and a discouragement policy for adolescents. Legalization is not seen as a tenable solution for many reasons, and it is one that may be irreversible and regretted.
This article discusses the cultural and other turns in relation to legal culture and situates Western legal culture in context. It deals with concepts and their relations to trends and fashions and introduces methodological reflections such as use of interdisciplinary methods, personal experience...
... United States Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request... Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and production...
... Patent and Trademark Office Legal Processes ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO). The rules for these legal processes may be found under 37 CFR Part 104, which outlines procedures for service of process, demands for employee testimony and...
Discusses proposals for a new guest worker program with Mexico, reviewing characteristics of U.S. farmworkers, the current federal H-2A program for admitting legal guest workers for farm work, major proposals being debated to turn unauthorized into legal farmworkers, and new considerations after September 11 that may affect the negotiations. (SM)
The book discusses the most typical legal challenges met in the chartering, broker, agent or port management part of the shipping industry. It discusses these issues in both English and Scandinavian law and gives indications on how to best ensure your legal risk management in these parts...
Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...
Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry
This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child prostitution were more symptomatic than those who were married early. Respondents for whom less time had elapsed since their first experience of abuse demonstrated a significantly higher level of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative reactions by others, self-blame, and guilt than those for whom more time had elapsed since such an experience. The respondents in an intact marital relationship were found to be less symptomatic than their never married and divorced counterparts. Implications for intervention and further investigations are discussed.
Santé mentale et usage idéologique de l’“état de stress post-traumatique” dans les discours sur la prostitution et la traite Mental Health and the Ideological Use of “Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder” in Discussing Prostitution and Slavery
Full Text Available Analysant les conditions d’émergence et de diffusion du “posttraumatic stress disorder” dans les documents produits par les militants luttant pour la disparition de la prostitution, cet article propose de rendre compte de certains enjeux moraux et idéologiques associés à la mobilisation du registre sanitaire dans les discours sur la prostitution et la traite. Pour cela, seront dans un premier temps examinés les arguments visant à démontrer, antérieurement à l’apparition du ptsd, les conséquences psychiques de la pratique prostitutionnelle. Dans un deuxième temps, après avoir développé le contenu de cette catégorie psychiatrique et montré en quoi elle procède d’un mouvement plus général de médicalisation de la société, nous présenterons les principales investigations à l’origine de sa reconnaissance chez les prostituées. Enfin, la dernière partie sera consacrée à considérer l’efficience idéologique de cette “psychiatrisation” de la rhétorique entourant la prostitution.Analyzing the conditions of the emergence and spread of “posttraumatic stress disorder” in documents produced by militants fighting for the abolition of prostitution, this article proposes an account of some of the moral and ideological issues associated with using health records in discussing prostitution and slavery. To do that, initially, arguments are examined aimed at showing the psychic consequences of the practice of prostitution, developed before the appearance of PTSD. Secondly, after having described the contents of this psychiatric category and having shown that it proceeds from a more general tendency towards the medicalization of society, we will present the principal investigations at the origin of its recognition among prostitutes. The last part will be devoted to considering the ideological efficiency of “psychiatrizing” the rhetoric surrounding prostitution.
Abat Ninet, Antoni
The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...
Wetherall, Anthony; Robin, Isabelle
The responsible use of nuclear technology requires the safe and environmentally sound management of radioactive waste, for which countries need to have stringent technical, administrative and legal measures in place. The legal aspects of radioactive waste management can be found in a wide variety of legally binding and non-binding international instruments. This overview focuses on the most relevant ones, in particular those on nuclear safety, security, safeguards and civil liability for nuclear damage. It also identifies relevant regional instruments concerning environmental matters, in particular, with regard to strategic environmental assessments (SEAs), environmental impact assessments (EIAs), public access to information and participation in decision-making, as well as access to justice
Feteris, E.; Kloosterhuis, H.
In the past thirty years legal argumentation has become an important interdisciplinary field of interest. The study of legal argumentation draws its data, assumptions and methods from disciplines such as legal theory, legal philosophy, logic, argumentation theory, rhetoric, linguistics, literary
This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)
This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage
Mekuria, Melkem Lengereh
THE OVERALL SITUATION OF FEMALE STREET CHILDREN (11 18 YEARS) ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL SEX WORK IN DIRE DAWA - ETHIOPIA (SURVEY IN CASE STUDY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO CHILD PROSTITUTION) By MELKAM LENGEREH MEKURIA 2004 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MASTER OF PHILOSOPHY IN SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF OSLO FACULTY OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF SPECIAL NEEDS EDUCATION ABSTRACT Prostitution in gene...
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery slope. Proponents argue that euthanasia is sometimes ethically appropriate for minors and that, with proper safeguards, it should be legally available in appropriate circumstances for patients at any age. In this Ethics Rounds, we asked philosophers from the United States and the Netherlands, and a Dutch pediatrician, to discuss the ethics of legalizing euthanasia for children. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.
Hillebrand, Jennifer; Olszewski, Deborah; Sedefov, Roumen
This article describes the findings of a descriptive analysis of 27 online drug retailers selling legal alternatives to illegal drugs, commonly referred to as "herbal highs" and "legal highs" in 2008 . The study attempted to quantify the online availability of drug retailers, to describe common products and characteristics in EU-based retail sales. The findings highlight the concern about the lack of objective information about products offered, including potential risks to health. Systems should be developed to assess the contents of products and the accuracy of information provided on the Internet, alongside continued monitoring of this market for "legal high" substances.
A phenomenon called legal argumentation is analyzed in the dissertation. The aim of the thesis is to identify the prerequisites that allow to consider the legal argumentation to be correct, also to evaluate those prerequisites logically. Legal argumentation is analyzed as a phenomenon per se, without relating it to any particular arguing subject. Other dimensions of the process of making a legal decision, such as legal reasoning, legal discourse, interpretation of law and others are discu...
Full Text Available In some legal surroundings telepathology is considered a breach of registrational barriers. The recommendation of the G 8 states in Europe for required legislation in telemedicine suggests to recognise that the localization of the remote health care professional defines the site not only of licensure but also of liability. This approach must be considered helpful, since it can solve many problems brought about by the doubtful results of private international law and conventions like the European Union (EU and Lugano Convention. Under today's conditions in private international law it must be considered essential to agree upon a choice of law and stipulate a court of jurisdiction when doing telepathology. However, the opposing aims of insuring the patients claims and avoiding jurisdictions that exceed the local expectations of the medical professional must be reconciled. Data protection and data security are other crucial topics that require attention. Generally speaking, the principles of minimum data exchange, anonymity, pseudonymity and cryptography must be established as a basis for all telepathology procedures. Only when personal data is needed, its use can be legitimated. Written consent of the patient is advised. To guarantee a cross‐border security level the regulations of the EU‐Data Protection Directive need to be transformed into national law. In practise, cross‐border dataflow shall only take place where the security level can be maintained even within the other country. Finally, reimbursement questions must be answered to establish a sound economical basis for telepathology. The spatial distance between the participants may yield the question, whether the service has been rendered to an extent necessary and sufficient for reimbursement. If reimbursement takes place on a cross‐border or cross‐regional level, severe disturbances of the health systems can occur. Regulation schemes or treaties need therefore to be developed to
І. M. Alieksieieva
Full Text Available One of the distinguishing features of man as a biological individual who is able to comprehend meaningfully the reality surrounding him and manage his actions is consciousness. Depending on the scientific-theoretical approaches or applied needs, it is customary to apply a certain differentiation of definitions of the concept of consciousness, for example, everyday or political, individual or mass, the consciousness of school or student youth, and other. One of its varieties, perhaps the most important at the present stage of development of society and statehood, is the legal consciousness of man. The problem of the formation and functioning of the human sense of justice is one of the most popular and constantly developed in a number of scientific fields. The purpose of the work is to study the state of scientific knowledge of the legal consciousness and legal culture of student, future pharmacists in the context of legal education in the university. Materials and methods. According to a specific goal, the research was based on the analysis of international and national legislation, the database of scientific research developments of the National Library of Ukraine V.I. Vernadsky, the study of author's scientific works and professional publications on the formation of consciousness, legal consciousness and legal culture of youth, in particular, student. Methods of research - bibliographic, linguistic, comparative analysis, content-legal analysis. Results. The basic link of society is a person, as a biological individual, to which such mental entities as mind, consciousness and will are inherent. These qualities enable it to critically perceive the surrounding being, to realize and determine its place in the society, to program its perspective and direct its actions according to a specific goal. A specific form of consciousness is legal consciousness (legal awareness - the system of reflecting the legal reality in views, theories, concepts
Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...
Full Text Available At each stage of the resettlement process, the presence of counsel – legal advocates – can help refugees to present their complete cases efficiently and avoid unnecessary rejections. This provides benefits to decision makers as well.
. The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...
João Maurício Adeodato
Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.
Ramírez García, Hugo Saúl
This article explores the legal meanings of biopiracy concept, linked to subjects such as intellectual property rights on genetic resources, bioprospecting contracts, right to food, and food security. It overcomes the critical function of biopiracy concept related to world-wide extended tendencies: privatization and technification. Likewise, protectionism shows the opportunity that biopiracy concept represents for the enrichment of the legal interpretation related to the bioethical statue of biotech developments.
Full Text Available « L’histoire du travail féminin est comme doublée de noir par l’histoire de la prostitution ». Par ces propos, Evelyne Sullerot suggérait déjà en 1968 que l’histoire du genre et a fortiori l’histoire des femmes gagneraient à emprunter la voie sombre des prostituées. Or, en France, tel que le notaient en 2003 Christine Bard et Christelle Taraud, la prostitution « n’apparaît pas comme un thème important de l’histoire des femmes ». Comme si l’histoire des péripatéticiennes avait longtemps été ta...
Rani, Faisyal; Rafiqa, Adni Luthfi
This research purpose to explain about the role of End Child Prostitution, Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes (ECPAT) International to solve child trafficking case in Albania (2007-2012). ECPAT International is a non-governmental organization which take focus on solving child trafficking case and ECPAT International has had affiliate in some country in the world, one of them is Albania.Authors analyze and explain about child trafficking condition which is occure...
Rodica Diana APAN
Full Text Available The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, meaning the ex lege determination of its level is applicable only in the case of non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation. The applicability of the system of legal evaluation of the interest is generally determined by the absence of a document that ascertains the agreement of the parties, such as a contract, through which the parties, following this agreement, evaluate the prejudice caused by the non-fulfillment of a monetary payment obligation, before the prejudice has occurred. The legal evaluation of the penalty interest, as a component of the regulation in the field of legal interest has the purpose to ensure creditor’s protection. Regardless of the prejudice caused to the creditor, the legal penalty interest shall be determined by relating it to a variable benchmark that is the level of the reference interest rate of the National Bank of Romania, which is the monetary policy interest rate of the National Bank of Romania.
Full Text Available The relevance of the topic to the continuing importance of legal regulation of human behavior, the necessity of foreseeing the adverse consequences of social disorders and urgency of the prevention of deconditioning and deviant behavioral manifestations. In this regard, it is important to examine the phenomenon of legal socialization, causing interest among the representatives of the human Sciences and specialists in different branches of psychological knowledge. Taking into account the multidimensional nature of this phenomenon, it is an essential consideration of the trajectories of its occurrence in correlation with different interacting with other determinants. Such determinants include age psychological characteristics, experience crises of mental development, socially conditioned factors, and the influence of the professional environment. In article are characterized by individual patterns of legal socialization of a personality, revealing its essence, on the basis of summarizing opinions of scientists based on their own point of view. On the basis of the theoretical analysis made assumptions about the peculiarities of legal socialization of the individual occurring in different age periods of life; formulated likely areas for further study the phenomenon under research legal psychology.
Berlingher Remus Daniel
Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.
Full Text Available Cybercrime has become a global phenomenon, which is causing more harm to individual citizens, organizations, society and the state. Most countries in the world compare cybercrime with offences such as terrorism and drug trafficking due to its risks and profitability. Cybersecurity is the central category to fight cybercrime in cyberspace. Therefore, the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity is one of the most relevant problems in EU, including Lithuania. So far cybersecurity legal regulation analysis in scientific literature has been rather limited. The European Commission, together with the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, has published a cybersecurity strategy alongside a Commission proposed directive on network and information security (NIS. The cybersecurity strategy – “An Open, Safe and Secure Cyberspace” - represents the EU’s comprehensive vision on how best to prevent and respond to cyber disruptions and attacks. The purpose of its is to further European values of freedom and democracy and ensure the digital economy can safely grow. Specific actions are aimed at enhancing cyber resilience of information systems, reducing cybercrime and strengthening EU international cyber-security policy and cyber defence. The main goal of the paper is to analyze and compare the EU cybersecurity strategy and experience of several foreign countries with the strategic legal regulation of cybersecurity in Lithuania. The article consists of four parts. The first part dealt with the EU cybersecurity strategy. The second part of the article examines the comparative aspect of foreign cybersecurity strategic legal regulation. The third part deals with attempts in Lithuania to draft cybersecurity law and the holistic approach of cybersecurity legal regulation. The fourth part examines Lithuanian cybersecurity strategy and comments on the main probleas related with the strategy. Several different approaches
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a prostituição infantil, a partir de uma revisão bibliográfica, com vistas a subsidiar a abordagem desta problemática no campo da Saúde Pública. Inicialmente, as categorias saúde, prostituição e violência são discutidas. tradicionalmente, a prostituição em geral tem sido contemplada pelo saber médico, principalmente dentro de uma ótica higienista. Entretanto, a questão aqui colocada é de natureza distinta daquela presente nesse tradicional saber. Após essa discussão, são apontados aspectos sobre a dinâmica da cruel realidade brasileira, que revela o fato de crianças e adolescentes se prostituírem para sobreviver. Neste quadro, a prostituição infantil e a miséria entrecruzam-se, sem que a primeira se reduza à segunda. Ao longo da análise, procura-se estabelecer uma articulação entre diferentes obras sobre o assunto, no sentido de se contribuir para um avanço no campo do conhecimento relacionado à temática em questão. Finalmente, constata-se que, para se enfrentar o problema, faz-se necessário situá-lo dentro do contexto familiar e articulá-lo a questões macrossociais.This article analyzes child prostitution based on a review of the literature, in order to support an approach to this problem by the field of Public Health. First, health, prostitution, and violence are discussed as categories. Prostitution has traditionally been analyzed from a medical perspective, mostly within a hygienist point of view. However, the issue is dealt with here from a different perspective. After this discussion, several aspects about the cruelty of Brazilian reality are reveled showing that prostitution among children and teenagers is a way of survival. From this angle, poverty and child prostitution are closely related, although the study concludes that the latter is not solely a consequence of the former. Over the course of the review, a number of publications on the current issue are
Gabriela Silva Leite
Full Text Available ABSTRACTSex workers have been the protagonists and focus of HIV prevention campaigns and research since the late 1980s in Brazil. Through a review of national and international literature, combined with a history of sex workers' involvement in the construction of the Brazilian response, this article explores the overlaps and disconnects between research and practice in contexts of prostitution over the past three decades. We review the scientific literature on the epidemiology of HIV among sex workers and prevention methodologies. We conclude that although research focus and designs often reinforce the idea that sex workers' vulnerability is due to their sexual relationships with clients, their greatest vulnerability has been found to be with their nonpaying intimate partners. Few studies explore their work contexts and structural factors that influence safe sex practices with both types of partners. The negative effects of criminalization, stigma, and exclusively biomedical and peer education-based approaches are well documented in the scientific literature and experiences of sex worker activists, as is the importance of prevention programs that combine empowerment and human rightsbased approach to reduce HIV infection rates. We conclude that there is a need for actions, policies, and research that encompass the environment and context of sex workers' lives and reincorporate the human rights and citizenship frame that dominated the Brazilian response until the end of the 2000s. As part of HIV prevention efforts, female sex workers need to be considered above all as women, equal to all others.
The legal basis for the use of nuclear energy is generally given by an Atomic Energy Act. Additionally, however, a system of regulations and standards has to be set up to lay down more detailed requirements. The fundamental philosophy and strategy has to be specified by governmental organizations. For the specification and implementation of the requirements some minimum organizational arrangements are necessary, which are not only restricted to governmental organizations. Furthermore procedural regulations have to be laid down before the implementation phase. This includes aspects like public participation in the licensing procedure. In practice, however, the implementation of the legal requirements always shows some weakness of the basic legal requirements. To learn from this experience some examples are presented, which gave rise to difficulties in the implementation procedure. (orig./RW)
Patrícia Verônica Nunes Carvalho Sobral
Full Text Available This study reflects on the Legal Education, considering the criticism of contemporaneity. To reach the goal, the text is divided into: Critical, idealization and reality of legal education; Professor of law schools; The educational legislation Questions of legal education methodology; Pedagogy and the law. The reading of the sources referred the thought inferences about the teaching of law, the methodological approach and the didactic- pedagogic preparation, according to Associação Latino Americana de Metodologia do Ensino do Direito. Contributes to the continuity of academic debate in progress, it is a problem that concerns the professional higher education.
depends on the translation strategy chosen. To meet the needs of learners, legal translation dictionaries should be designed as augmented reference tools. Electronic and printed dictionaries should include sections or CD-ROMs with syntactic, translation etc. data as well as exercises and illustrative......Legal translation dictionaries for learners are reference tools that can help users with domain-specific discourse in a foreign language. The most common type is the bilingual law dictionary covering several or all the sub-fields within the general field of law. However, such law dictionaries tend...... strategies. When learners translate legal texts into a foreign language, it is important that their dictionaries can help them produce texts that conform to the expected style. This style requirement may be met by producing translations that use natural and idiomatic language, and really crafted dictionaries...
An overview of those legal areas which directly affect technical and planning decisions is presented in the form of 2 legal approaches which constrain the indiscriminate release of thermal discharges to receiving waters. One takes the form of private remedies which have traditionally been available to aggrieved parties who are in some way damaged by the harmful discharge. The 2nd approach utilizes the various statutory constraints leading to direct governmental action. It appears that statutory law is playing the prominent role in restricting the temperature to which receiving waters may be raised as a result of such discharges by using effluent limitations and water quality standards. (Water Resour. Abstr.)
textabstract“The language – and therefore also to some large degree the practice – of morality today is in great disorder,”1 Alasdair MacIntyre writes, and as long as our moral world is diverse and pluralistic, the confusion will not be easily overcome. Indeed, the legal world is daily confronted
Advances in the information and communication technologies have led to the availability of a range of primary and secondary legal research publications online via the Internet, rather than on other storing devices such as compact discs or publications in the print media. Not only has information and communication ...
Hvingel, Line Træholt; Aunsborg, Christian; Christensen, Finn Kjær
Traditionally, and by law, new urban areas in Denmark are regulated and planned through legally binding local plans. Recently a tendency has occurred: The municipalities make the legally binding local plans quite open for future adjustment, and they are using a substantial amount of ‘empowerment......, which seem to be beyond the scope of the Danish Planning Act. This paper deals with this problem through case studies and a legal analysis of present law. If the combination of the legally binding local plan and subsequent added requirements is misused, it will weaken the legal rights of the citizens...... the considerations of legal rights, the extend of the legal use of empowerment provisions and the combination of the use of legal binding local plans and other legal instruments such as easements and sales agreements....
Sloat, Robert S.
Discussed from a teacher's perspective are the legal and cultural ramifications of drug abuse. The importance of teachers' examining their own values concerning drug use is emphasized. Also reviewed are the history of drug use and of narcotics legislation. Recommendations concerning legislative reform are discussed. (CL)
Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 40-49 ISSN 1805-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-26910S Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : biometric data * consumer protection * data protection Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences OBOR OECD: Law
Brouwer, Marije; Kaczor, Christopher; Battin, Margaret P; Maeckelberghe, Els; Lantos, John D; Verhagen, Eduard
Voluntary active euthanasia for adults at their explicit request has been legal in Belgium and the Netherlands since 2002. In those countries, acceptance of the practice for adults has been followed by acceptance of the practice for children. Opponents of euthanasia see this as a dangerous slippery
Winkels, R.; Boer, A.; Vredebregt, B.; van Someren, A.
In this paper we present the results of ongoing research aimed at a legal recommender system where users of a legislative portal receive suggestions of other relevant sources of law, given a focus document. We describe how we make references in case law to legislation explicit and machine readable,
Nowadays geriatric rehabilitation is recognized as a matter of social law performance. Nevertheless there are very small chances to realize corresponding legal claims in view of the infra-structural deficits. This subscription works out the claims of social law for geriatric rehabilitation, names questions of delineation between illness, prevention and care indigence and discusses problems of geriatric rehabilitant institutions and services.
National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.
In a recent opinion the Supreme Court of the United States recognized that for many communities "school sports play a prominent role." Whatever purpose they serve, school sports also raise a number of legal issues that a school district must carefully handle in order to operate its athletics program with minimal risk of liability. This handbook is…
Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.
Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations
Based on harsh criticism of legal education by students, offers suggestions for improvement that do not require additional time for law studies, will increase the exposure of students both to law as practice and to law as an intellectual discipline, and involve no greater burden on law schools. A main suggestion involves elimination of teaching…
Macdonald, R. St. J.
Education in law, which was suspended during the 1976 Chinese Cultural Revolution, is now being steadily developed. Since 1978 the concept of law nihilism has been repudiated, juridical debate has expanded, publications and translated articles are appearing, and legal advisory offices have reappeared. (MSE)
Report published in the Proceedings of the National Conference on "Education and Research in the Information Society", Plovdiv, May, 2014 The paper examines the impact of virtual reality on legal education. Association for the Development of the Information Society, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Plovdiv University "Paisii Hilendarski"
Babín Vich, Francisco de Asís
The debate over drug legalization appears frequently in the media as a potential solution to issues such as drug trafficking and other problems related to drug use. In Spain, private consumption or even the production of small quantities of certain plants, whose active ingredients are considered illegal drugs, if clearly for own consumption are not practices criminalized by any law. In addition, a drug addict is considered a person who is ill. Although it has not always been like that even in the countries that have called for this debate, where at times the law prosecutes consumers. The population of our country, according to the views expressed in the opinion polls, prefer to increase preventive measures, foster the treatment freely assumed by drug addicts and make stricter the repression on drug trafficking. Therefore, when speaking of "legalization" we should be scrupulous with the semantics; legalize and decriminalize are not the same, it is not the same decriminalize consumption than decriminalize trafficking, neither is the same decriminalize private consumption than public consumption. Decriminalize private consumption is a fact in our country. Beyond this, we advocate for the strict need to analyze from a scientific perspective the hypothetical benefits that would result from drug legalization. Certainly, from the public health perspective, they are hard to find. We believe that the same logic applied to tobacco, increasing the restrictions on its use, is the path to follow with any addictive substance.
Explores the more purely theoretical side of the legal scholar's vocation, using Max Weber's text on the scholar's role titled "Science as a Vocation." Discusses the consequences of the tension between law schools' generalist "pretensions" and increasingly specialist character, and Weber's fact/value distinction. (EV)
Lisett D. Páez Cuba
Full Text Available This research analyzes the legal reasoning as essential skills to the teaching - learning process of law. This approach is based on a theoretical systematization of the Theory of Legal Argumentation (TLA that allows the conception of law as an argumentative act itself. It also determines, as a new element, the inclusion of legal argumentation as the final phase of the law cycle, which has particular impact on the teaching of this science. In this regard, the proposal of three skills of legal reasoning is made: interpreting the law, enforce the rule of law and legally argue the legal decision.
T du Plessis
Full Text Available Since the advent of the latest constitutional dispensation in South Africa, legal researchers have been presented with new opportunities for research into constitutional issues, development and the relationship between constitutional law and other fields. This article investigates how information technology applications can support the legal research process and what the benefits of technology are likely to be to legal research. Furthermore, it investigates the changes and the impact that electronic resources and the digital information environment might have on legal research. This entails a study of the unique characteristics of digital legal research and of the challenges that legal researchers face in a changing information environment.
Full Text Available As in other medieval towns, local authorities of Castelló de la Plana controled legal prostitution. Town council supported public brothel in order to dissuade some passions that, otherwise, could degenerate into adultery and violence, and in the lastanalysis into disorders that threaten marriage as guarantee of material and social reproduction of community and its hierarchies. In this paper we analyze moral and politic arguments, places and protagonists of legal prostitution, and repression of transgressor behaviours.
Com en altres poblacions medievals, les autoritats municipals de Castelló de la Plana regulaven I'exercici legal de la prostitució. El municipi sostenia el bordell públic per a desviar unes passions que, altrament, podien degenerar en adulteris i violències, i en última instància en desordres que amenaçaven el matrimoni com a garantia de la reproducció material i social de la comunitat i de les seues jerarquies. En aquest article s'analitzen els arguments morals i polítics, els espais i els protagonistes de la prostitució legal, així com la repressió dels comportaments que se n'eixien d'aquest marc.
Ristivojević Branislav R.
Full Text Available The writer deals in his work with the issue of the consent of a victim to sexual and labor exploitation under the provisions of the Protocol on the Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children on the UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crime. By analyzing preliminary assumptions on which the majority of science stand for, according to which it is possible for a passive subject to consents to its own sexual and labor exploitation, the author finds that the legislative and technical shaping of the relevant provisions of the Protocol is not satisfied concerning this matter. Equalization of all provided manners or instruments of perpetration of criminal offence of human trafficking has brought about a logical error. It is not possible to make equal the effect of coercion and deceit with the effect of providing or accepting the benefits as manners of perpetration of criminal offence of human trafficking on people consent. The first two, if used for sexual exploitation lead to rape instead to human trafficking, which represents a legaldogmatic obstacle to such legislative-technical approach to the Protocol. The second one can lead to human trafficking according to what is given as a provision of this criminal offence, but the writer also complains about decision from the point of a criminal policy. When it comes to sexual exploitation, such legislativetechnical approach along with the consent of the victim covers classical prostitution, and when it comes to labor exploitation the award replaces it as a key mechanism for the regulation of economic relations in ordinary labor markets, with the criminal justice coercion.
Full Text Available In Zimbabwe, as in most traditionally conservative, patriarchal and Christian dominated countries, female sex work is abhorred on moral grounds as an unbecoming means of livelihood which takes away the practising woman’s social respectability. In such societies, then, the moral threat and stigma associated with female sex work affect women’s decisions on whether or not to take up sex work as a permanent means of livelihood. One can, however, ask how sustainable and stable these patriarchally constructed notions of morality and female identity are, especially in the face of crises? This article uses Virginia Phiri’s novel Highway queen, which is set in one of Zimbabwe’s economically tumultuous eras, to demonstrate how cultural texts grapple with the discourse of female sex work in contemporary Zimbabwe. The gist of my argument is that dominant prostitute identity constructs shaped by Zimbabwe’s patriarchal social and economic system are unstable. I find that the novel Highway queen manipulates such instability not only to re-inscribe sex work as a product of patriarchal impairment of female agency but, perhaps more importantly, to reflect on how women who are forced by circumstances to become sex workers can rise above their passive victimhood to achieve personal goals despite the social odds charted by patriarchy. Zooming in on the representation of the daily experiences of the female sex worker and protagonist, Sophie, the article explores the various ways in which the novel deconstructs stereotypical perceptions of female sex work and sex workers. The analysis ends with the argument that, whilst Sophie’s situation is fundamentally tragic, it affectively appeals to our sense of morality in a way which destabilises dominant (patriarchal constructs of sex work.
Yzermans, Maria; van Blom, C.L.; Broers, E.J.M.F.C.
The instructions classical rhetoric gives for the use of emotional means of persuasion still prove to be useful in modern professional legal practice, albeit that they need to be adapted to modern psychological concepts and current legal practice.
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
Full Text Available This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On the other hand, the negative effects of communication leading to the deterioration of the legal message, so that much of the legal message becomes legal noise. Another negative effect of miscommunication of law is the phenomenon of legislative inflation, which has a profound impact on the way in which legal rules are understood and respected by community members. All these negative effects produce serious consequencesin civil law, company law, tax law, and in many other areas of law.
99 Legal Regulation of the Commercial Register Summary In my master diploma thesis, I describe legal regulation of the Commercial Register. This legal institution serves for the registration of entrepreneurs (both legal entities and natural persons - entrepreneurs) and is very important for free market economy. For these reasons, it is supposed to be one of the substantial topics in the field of contemporary Commercial Law. I chose this particular theme because I am interested in the Commerci...
Elena Codruta BADEA
In the last two decades, legal English has attracted increasing interest and awareness, especially because English is predominantly the language of international legal practice. Legal English must be seen in the overall context of English for Specific Purposes , as it shares the important elements of need analysis, syllabus design, course design, and materials selection and development which are common to all fields of work in ESP. As with other varieties of ESP, Legal English implies the def...
Claudiu Ramon D. Butculescu
This article addresses some aspects of legal communication or legal effects of communication. As such, legal communication can have positive and negative effects. Both effects are briefly analyzed, and for the negative effects of legal communication we have also presented proposals to reduce the negative effects of law communication. Thus, the article presents the positive effects of right communication in various branches of law such as civil, constitutional law or tax law. On th...
A consideration of the diversity and fragmentation which characterise contemporary legal practice with particular reference to the situation in the North West of England. Article by Professor David Sugarman, Director, Centre for Law and Society, Lancaster University Law School - published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.
Att människohandel för sexuell exploatering utgör ett brott mot mänskliga rättigheter står klart. Människohandel kränker flertalet av individens rättigheter och staters skyldigheter gentemot dessa individer finns således stadgade i flertalet internationella konventioner. Palermoprotokollet stadgar den första internationellt gemensamma definitionen av människohandel och stadgar vidare ett krav på att definitionen utgör ett brott i konventionsstaternas nationella lagstiftning. Om prostitution a...
Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine Amma; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Soekarjo, Damayanti D
the potential success of food fortification strategies. The lessons from these experiences show that a mandatory approach to fortification, with costing, monitoring and enforcement, and social marketing clearly defined and well embedded in the legal framework and in the implementation structures, is the best......Food fortification is a cost-effective, powerful, and sustainable strategy to combat micronutrient deficiency, with the potential to reach large sections of the population with minimal cost and effort. However, the implementation of food fortification on a systematic and large scale, for instance...... in national programs, has often been challenging. This paper takes a closer look at food fortification efforts and legislation mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia in order to determine specific factors and components in the legal framework that are crucial to the success of fortification programs...
Christensen, T P; Kirking, D M; Ascione, F J; Welage, L S; Gaither, C A
To review the potential legal liability of the pharmacist in the drug product selection process. Published articles identified through MEDLINE, published law reviews identified through InfoTrac, and appellate court decisions. Search terms used included pharmacist liability, drug product selection, and generic substitution. Additional articles, books, and appellate court decisions were identified from the bibliographies of retrieved articles and citations in appellate court decisions. Pharmacists engaging in drug product selection are civilly liable under three legal theories: negligence, express or implied warranties, and strict product liability. Potential criminal liability includes prosecution for insurance fraud, deceptive business practices, and violation of state drug product selection laws and regulation. Pharmacists increase their liability when engaging in drug product selection, but the increase is small. Still, the law continues to evolve as pharmacists seek expanded roles and responsibilities. When courts give closer examination to pharmacists' expanded role, it is likely that pharmacists' liability will increase.
Full Text Available Mediation is a language activity that has been unjustly neglected when preparing law students for their future professional careers. When trained in a professional context, students need to develop and improve complex communicative skills. These include not only the traditional language skills such as reading, writing, listening and speaking, but also more advanced skills such as summarizing, providing definitions, changing registers etc. All these are involved in the students’ acquisition of ‘soft skills’ that are particularly important for students of law since much of their future work involves interpersonal lawyer-client interaction. This article argues that mediation is a crucial (though previously underestimated skill and that law-oriented ESP instruction should provide training aimed at developing this skill. Showing a practical application of this approach, the paper demonstrates that mediation can be successfully integrated in the legal English syllabus and make the learning of legal English more effective.
In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise
J.P.B. De Mot (Jef); B. Depoorter (Ben); M.G. Faure (Michael)
textabstractBecause legal insurance policies cover the expenses of plaintiffs in bringing legal claims, such policies increase the risk of negligent or careless acts by tortfeasors. For this reason, potential tortfeasors would prefer to avoid injuring holders of legal insurance policies. Since
Serebrennikova, Anna; Mashkova, Yekaterina
This article examines the concept of terrorism as a social and legal phenomenon, its international legal and criminal-legal characteristics. Highlighted are the main aspects of cooperation of the states and the international community to counter terrorist activities. Terrorism as a social phenomenon is determined by paragraph 1 of article 3 of the…
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.
To address agility in public administration, we have developed a knowledge acquisition infrastructure for legal knowledge, based on an implementation-oriented conceptualization of the legal system. Our objective is to reframe legal knowledge as a knowledge source in a design-oriented task ontology,
The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of...
Meyer, John W.
Legalization here refers to the introduction into the educational system of new legal rules, emanating from outside the routine channels of educational management. It includes general legal rules from legislation, from the courts, or from higher administrative levels. The key to the definition is lack of integration of the new rules with the main…
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal custody. 1275.14... THE NIXON ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 1275.14 Legal custody. The Archivist of the United States has or will obtain exclusive legal custody and control of all Presidential historical materials of...
The Legal Counsel works with, and provides legal and strategic advice to, staff throughout the Centre, at all levels. The Legal Counsel assists the Corporate Secretary and General Counsel in advising, and providing support to, Centre management and the Board of Governors on corporate governance matters.
M. Bodig (Matyas)
textabstractThe paper offers a legal theoretical analysis of the disciplinary character of the contemporary practice of legal scholarship. It is assumed that the challenges of interdisciplinary engagement are particularly revealing about the nature of legal scholarship. The paper argues for an
Oswald, Ramona Faith; Kuvalanka, Katherine A.
In this article, the authors present a typology for organizing our current knowledge regarding same-sex couples in the United States who have and have not established legal ties between partners. This framework is complemented by a discussion of key rulings that define what is legally possible as well as the introduction of "legal consciousness,"…
In this paper the thesis is argued that there is no need for a special legal logic to deal with the defeasibility of legal arguments. An important argument for this thesis is that legal judgements ask for a complete justification and that such a complete justification requires a deductively valid
Andrey Valeryevich Skorobogatov
Full Text Available Objective to develop the sciencebased knowledge about essential and substantial aspects of the current legal reality of Russia in the context of postclassical paradigm. Methods the methodological basis of this research is the synthesis of classical and postclassical paradigms that determine the choice of specific methods of research formallegal comparative legal modeling method hermeneutic discursive methods. Results basing on the postclassical methodology it is proved that the legal reality of Russia consists of three levels legislation law enforcement and legal behavior. The determinant level of legal reality is legal behavior that is aimed at observing the unwritten rules. The legal reality of Russia is characterized by a transgressive state of the modern Russian society expressed in broad application of nonlegislative nonlegal practices low level of legal culture legal nihilism and legal infantilism. Scientific novelty the article for the first time analyzes the ontological and phenomenological essence of the legal reality in Russia and determines its transgressive nature at the present stage of development. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature and content of legal development. nbsp
... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal proceedings. 180.965 Section 180.965 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.965 Legal proceedings. Legal proceedings means any criminal proceeding or any civil judicial...
The incumbent provides first-level management of the legal operations in the Office of the Secretary and General Counsel, with particular emphasis on supporting the lawyers, monitoring and coordinating the flow of legal information and workload, conducting basic research including through the use of legal databases, and ...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.3 Section 3.3 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Federal Tort Claims Act § 3.3 Legal review. Any... that is likely to result in multiple claimants, shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal adviser. 327.6 Section 327... PUBLIC HEARINGS § 327.6 Legal adviser. At each public hearing, the district counsel or his designee may serve as legal advisor to the presiding officer. In appropriate circumstances, the district engineer may...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal action. 326.5 Section 326.5... § 326.5 Legal action. (a) General. For cases the district engineer determines to be appropriate, he will... the district engineer determines that legal action is appropriate, he will prepare a litigation report...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal review. 3.22 Section 3.22 Money... OF DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY EMPLOYEES Claims Under the Small Claims Act § 3.22 Legal review. Claims filed under this subpart shall be forwarded to the legal division of the bureau or office out of whose...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal guardians. 3b.5... INFORMATION General § 3b.5 Legal guardians. For the purposes of this part, the parent of any minor, or the legal guardian of any individual who has been declared to be incompetent due to physical or mental...
Oye, K; Baird, L G; Chia, A; Hocking, S; Hutt, P B; Lee, D; Norwalk, L; Salvatore, V
In April 2012, MIT's Center for Biomedical Innovation and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) cosponsored a workshop on legal foundations of adaptive pharmaceuticals licensing. Past and present attorneys from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the EMA, and Health Sciences Agency Singapore (HSA) found that existing statutes provided authority for adaptive licensing (AL). By contrast, an attorney from Health Canada identified gaps in authority. Reimbursement during initial phases of adaptive approaches to licensing was deemed consistent with existing statutes in all jurisdictions.
This paper briefly deals with relevant technological advances, business prospects for space tourism and related policy developments with a view to forecast the viability of space tourism industry. It further analyses applicable international space law and some national laws that particularly have direct relevance to space tourism. Legal lacunae are identified and suggestions are made with a view to encourage the development of this newest application of space technology.
Full Text Available As a member of the European Union and of other regional and world organizations responsible for global environmental protection, Romania has adopted internally a set of measures aimed at protecting the environment. In this paper we conducted a general review of the developments of the way of legal defense of the most important environmental values at international and national level, with an emphasis on internal legal rules. We also examined briefly the civil, administrative, and criminal liability of individual and legal entity that violates the current environmental laws. Our research regards the means by which there are protected by the rules of law the main values of the environment, by examination and critical remarks. The results of the research presented at the conclusions, highlight the need to harmonize the national legislation with the European one and the need to amend and supplement the New Criminal Code with a special chapter covering major environmental offenses. The study is useful for those who carry out their activity in this domain, especially professors and students of the law faculty
This is because the discounts and rebates offered in the past to some resulted in higher prices for others. But on average, however, prices should drop slightly because the. SEPs are based on figures from last year. DISPENSING FEES. The new law on dispensing fees only comes into effect on. 2 August 2004. Until then ...
Full Text Available In the article on the basis of the methodology of system analysis the legal nature and sources of legal regulation of the legal regime of official information in Ukraine in the conditions of adaptation of Ukrainian legislation to the legislation of the European Union are considered. A comparative legal analysis of official information in the public-law and private-law spheres in the context of legal regimes of restricted information, confidential information and information classified as state secrets has been conducted.
The article outlines archival sources for legal biography held at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, focussing on primary sources of information on individuals, including the Law Society and Bar Examination results. It also summarises additional sources which provide biographical information on legal practitioners and scholars eg. the archives of The Society of Legal Scholars and the Council of Legal Education, IALS institutional archives, The Bar Council, The International Law Associat...
Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals’ conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment......This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious...... refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural...
Setya Asih Widyastuti, Elisabet
Background: Adolescents are important groups that reported have potentially high risk from unwanted pregnancy, STIs and HIV/AIDS infections. Recent studies reported that they were earlier engaged premarital sex, have multiple partners and inconsistent on using condom.Adolescents who are living in brothel areas, their daily lives were exposed by prostitutions environment and living in more permissive sub-culture.Method: This current study that conducted at two brothels in Semarang namely Sunan...
Full Text Available The publication stemming from the research project “Governing Prostitution” at the University of Leipzig approaches the question as to which problems of definition, categorization, and inventories of knowledge local administrators in Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic use as a basis for regulating prostitution. The study shows that law not only implements partially autonomous governing acts but also produces them. The monograph enters into uncharted territory with its local focus on the regulation of prostitution as its subject and its state-based ethnographical approach. A little more information as to methodology as well as a more explicit take on the theoretical concepts in the format of the empirical materials would have been desirable.Die aus dem Forschungsprojekt ‚Verwaltung der Prostitution‘ an der Universität Leipzig heraus entstandene Publikation geht der Frage nach, welche Problemdefinitionen, Kategorisierungen und Wissensbestände lokale Verwaltungsakteure/-innen in Deutschland, Polen und Tschechien der Prostitutionsregulierung zugrunde legen. Die Studie zeigt, dass teilautonomes Verwaltungshandeln Recht nicht nur umsetzt, sondern auch produziert. Durch den Fokus auf die lokale Ebene der Prostitutionsregulierung und durch den staatsethnographischen Zugang ist die Monographie in zweierlei Hinsicht innovativ. Lediglich etwas mehr Informationen zum methodischen Vorgehen sowie ein expliziteres Aufgreifen der theoretischen Konzepte bei der Aufbereitung des empirischen Materials wären wünschenswert gewesen.
This study examined how the police conceptualize juveniles involved in prostitution as victims of child sexual exploitation (CSE) or delinquents. Case files from six police agencies in major U.S. cities of 126 youth allegedly involved in prostitution, who were almost entirely girls, provided the data for this inquiry. This study found that 60% of youth in this sample were conceptualized as victims by the police and 40% as offenders. Logistic regression predicted the youths' culpability status as victims. The full model predicted 91% of youth's culpability status correctly and explained 67% of the variance in the youths' culpability status. The police considered youth with greater levels of cooperation, greater presence of identified exploiters, no prior record, and that came to their attention through a report more often as victims. In addition, the police may consider local youth more often as victims. It appears that the police use criminal charges as a paternalistic protective response to detain some of the youth treated as offenders, even though they considered these youth victims. Legislatively mandating this form of CSE as child abuse or adopting a ''secure care'' approach is needed to ensure these youth receive the necessary treatment and services.
Full Text Available Este artigo tem como base de análise uma pesquisa etnográfica localizada numa antiga zona de prostituição feminina fechada na cidade do Rio de Janeiro - a Vila Mimosa. Aqui apresento a problemática de que espaços criados em função do consumo de sexo local também estão sendo voltados para o encontro entre trabalhadoras/es do sexo locais e estrangeiros. A discussão centra-se em como este macro espaço de prostituição feminina transforma-se num palco de conflito quando se torna um mercado sexual também utilizado pelos estrangeiros.This article is based on ethnographic research conducted in an old zone of closed female prostitution in Rio de Janeiro - Vila Mimosa. I argue that the spaces created for the consumption of local sex are being used also for encounters between local sex laborers and foreigners. The discussion rises the question that this macrospace of female prostitution is becoming a stage for conflict when it becomes also a sex market used by foreigners.
Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.
Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra
Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.
Full Text Available The importance of prevention in the fight against corruption is indisputable. However, prevention is effective and sustainable if it works, meaning that tools and strategies that are fit to achieve this goal need to be identified. The regulation of persons who give integrity warnings (whistleblowers and, in this context, their legal protection are part of efforts to identify such instruments. The present study reveals aspects of the evolution of regulation for those who give integrity warnings in Romania and the world in an attempt to identify solutions for this instrument itself to become effective in preventing corruption.
The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...
Full Text Available Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities that can be reflected and analysed by obtaining and maintain the sole trader status.
Trading is a part of our society. The man has been trading from ancient times so the amount of trades and transactions around the world is huge. In order for us to initiate, organize and deploy such trades we have to have certain rules which can help regulate the social and professional or legal aspect of trades. Therefore the sole trader capacity must be obtained and used in order for the contracts to be valid. The right and obligations that come with this capacity constitute activities t...
Kierski, W S
Noise abatement is a problem of technology, medicine, law, and education. In the technical field, the problem of avoiding hazards is the primary one. In respect of encroachment upon neighbours mutual regard should be the foremost consideration. From the legal angle, a distinction is made between protection of the individial-above all under the provisions of the German Civil Code (Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch)-and of the community-under the provisions of criminal law and administrative law. Future legislation will have to concentrate increasingly upon governmental control measures especially with a view to prevention, instead of the issue of protection of the individual.
Tax rate problems The subject of the graduation thesis is legal problems of tax rate. The aim of this thesis is description and estimation of the flat tax rate and states, where is established. First of all I define the basic kinds of tax systems - the tax system with one tax rate, the progressive tax system and the flat tax system. Further I deal with the principles and elements of the flat tax rate as interpreted by American economists Robert E. Hall and Alvin Rabushka who are generally ack...
Malheiros, T.M.M.; Knoefell, T.M.J.
The goal of this paper is to discuss the main legal aspects related to the application of ionizing radiation in the industry, medicine, agriculture, scientific activities to envisage from the in force legislation the competence and responsibility for the control of radiation facilities comprising regulation, licensing and inspection. Legislation does not embrace all the aspects related to radiation facilities regarding to the specific provisions on civil liability concerning damages caused by non nuclear radiological accidents. The law nr.6.453 is applied only to nuclear accident, as defined in its rules. (author) [pt
Cloney, T J
This article discusses legal characteristics of derivatives that a not-for-profit health care company may use in a conduit financing in which a governmental issuer issues bonds for the benefit of a health care company. This article also presents the Master Agreement promulgated by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association; discusses how to get out of a derivative; discusses the status of a derivative after insolvency of a counterparty; presents disclosure issues relating to documents prepared in connection with an issue of bonds; and describes the treatment of derivatives under commodities regulations. It concludes with a presentation of possible new regulations applying to derivatives.
Doctors want to save lives and promote health. But their patients have the right to decide for themselves about what doctors do with them, and they are free to refuse treatment, even if it is unreasonable from a medical perspective. The law acknowledges this freedom even if a patient is incapable of responsible self-determination as a result of (mental) illness. Treatment contrary to the patient's declared intention will be allowed only under specific, narrow circumstances. These requirements must be legally established in a clear and precise manner. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Widrig, Daniel; Tag, Brigitte
Legal analysis can highlight important issues that are relevant when deciding whether a medical technology should be implemented or reimbursed. Literature and studies show that even though the law is an acknowledged part of health technology assessment (HTA), legal issues are rarely considered in practice. One reason for this may be the lack of knowledge about the diversity of legal issues that are relevant for HTA. Therefore, this contribution aims primarily to identify and then explain the relevant legal issues in HTA. This study offers a framework for identifying the legal issues in HTAs in different jurisdictions and provides a basis for further research. After extensive literature search, the authors review Swiss health law to identify legal issues that are relevant to HTA. The authors then categorize these legal issues using a framework with an inside and outside perspective. Finally, they explain a selection of these legal issues with several examples. This study reveals numerous legal issues that are relevant for HTA and underlines the necessity of incorporating legal analysis in HTAs. The suggested perspectival framework in this study provides a basis to structure the legal analysis. The identified legal issues are relevant in other countries and the perspectival framework is transferable to other jurisdictions. The article underlines the importance of in-depth discussion about the role of law in HTA. It provides a structured overview of the legal issues in HTA and suggests a development of more concrete instruments toward a standardized legal technology assessment.
Paul, Simone; Smith, Peter K; Blumberg, Herbert H
In the UK schools are required by law to protect students from bullying; the responsibility of teachers to govern such behaviour has been extended outside the school setting to include cyberbullying. In this investigation, cyberbullying in secondary education is explored from the student perspective using a qualitative method of enquiry. Reported awareness and understanding about the legal aspects of cyberbullying are investigated; consideration is given to legislation, cybercrime, children's rights, school sanctions and safeguarding responsibilities. A total of 197 male and female students aged between 11 and 14 years old participated. Despite the availability of information on guidelines and legislation at national, local, and school level, this does not appear to have reached ground level of the individual student. There is a considerable gap between what students should know and what they report to be aware of with regard to legal aspects of cyberbullying. To address concerns of keeping up with the pace of change in cyberbullying, a collaborative approach is required with young people and adults sharing expertise.
Full Text Available The proliferation of technology emphasized new forms of payment. During the last years, current literature highlighted the role of virtual currency, the channels of payment through digital coins and the importance of assimilation of such platforms. Bitcoin or BTC is known as a digital coin, issued for the first time in 2009 and based on a peer to peer system. The difference from other forms of payment is that BTC is not controlled by any institution or central authority. BTC transactions have grown rapidly, ”asking" for regulation measures or legal approval of governments. Although BTC has become very popular, the market is poor and unfortunately of no confidence. There is a lack of regulation which can determine a number of risks associated with criminal financing activities. However, the legal status of Bitcoin is present in many European countries like Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovenia, Switzerland or Turkey. Also, this type of currency has experienced a rapid evolution among coffee shops and restaurants.
The objective of this article is to: (1) evaluate the rationality and opportunity of this debate; (2) try to establish links with legal drugs; (3) evaluate the available data on the effect of legalization of a drug; and (4) propose an alternative drug police based on clear objectives to be reached; (5) describe how Sweden is dealing with the theme of drugs restriction as a social care. Methodologically the text constitutes in a summary of readings and elaborations of the author, placed to incite a discussion. It is concluded that four aspects need to be taken into consideration when a drug police of a country is analyzed, they are: (1) external factors influence the police: international agreements, health and social assistance police, individual rights, authority and autonomy of physicians and other professionals; (2) the objective established influence formal polices and its implementation; (3) the symbolic influence that excels the implementation. Influent people make declarations that strongly reach the legitimacy and adhesion to actions; (4) formal polices and their implementation receive direct influence to socially perceived damages by the drugs use, which could be independent of the real level of its use in a determined society.
Full Text Available The analysis of the international legal framework for media in a real structural form is a challenge that needs to be scientifically proven because of the exceptional role of media in general and its constant and substantial impact on the democratic processes taking place in the world. If we analyze media through the eyes of history, we cannot ignore the impression of the exceptional importance of freedom of expression as the source and promoter of many substantive changes and valuable components in the overall functioning of social and political settings. In this regard, special attention is given to the impact of media on contemporary trends related to the EU integration process, the development of democracy and the rule of law. It particularly emphasizes the freedom of expression, respect for values and standards principles, human rights and freedoms. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the international legal framework for the media and to show the determination of the most important covenants which represent a source of media law containing rules for the creation and implementation of media freedom, the expressive quality of ideas and definitely and inevitably this paper stresses the power of the media.
Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L
Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
Teenage Prostitution and Child Pornography. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session (April 23 and June 24, 1982).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
This document contains the transcript of hearings on teenage prostitution and child pornography. The first day of the hearings focuses on the testimony of six witnesses who are experts in dealing with and combatting sexual abuse of children. Their remarks to the committee are transcribed and copies of their prepared statements are provided…
Murphy, Johnna S; Lawton, Ellen M; Sandel, Megan
Many of the social determinants of health are rooted in legal problems. Medical-legal partnerships (MLPs) have the potential to positively change clinical systems. This change can be accomplished by integrating legal staff into health care clinics to educate staff and residents on social determinants of health and their legal origins. When the MLP team works directly with patients to identify and address legal needs that improve health outcomes, and incorporate legal insights and solutions into health care practice where the patient population is overwhelmingly impacted by social conditions, outcomes are beneficial to children and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article describes accessible means of marketing legal services under restrictive regulations in the Polish market. As attorneys-at-law and legal advisers face significant legal and ethical limitations in their market communication, they are forced to seek alternative tools of promoting their services and reaching potential clients. Electronic media turned out to be an effective and convenient channel in marketing legal services, often prevailing offline marketing communication. The article presents legal restrictions in the market, with emphasis to fundamental barriers that prevent implementation of traditional marketing tools and techniques broadly available in market communication. The second part presents selected tools of online marketing applicable in promotion of legal services, examplified with their use in practice.
Lyudmila V. Butko
Full Text Available The article presents the genesis of the origins of forming the legal mechanisms to protect the personal dignity in the European legal culture. It is noted that the legal content of dignity is predetermined by the moral aspect of consideration. In addition, the definition of "dignity" was transformed under the influence of the development of legal norms, doctrine and practice of protecting a person's rights and freedoms, the foundations of civil society and legal awareness. The chronological period of research was limited to the XIII-XIX centuries, within which the authors, using a comparative legal method, defined the directions of conceptualization and formalization of the personal dignity by scientists and legislation in the European countries. As a conclusion, it is shown that the observance of the right to personal dignity by the state will not only promote the exaltation of human dignity, but also simultaneously initiate the expansion of public law compensated by increasing the subjective rights.
Ivan Anatol’yevich Bliznets
Full Text Available The spread of disruptive technology in the digital era is the ruling condition of modern sustainable development. The authors proceed from the fact that legal tools for the creation and use, protection of advanced technologies provide the technology transfer process from the owner to interested parties for further practical, commercial application or further improvement. The article analyzes the legal positions of the concept of technology, legal ways to use modern technologies, stages of their implementation and practical application. In the innovation process legal mechanism in combination with the modern means of innovative development stimulates the creation and transfer of new technologies and at the same time it is a key factor for sustainable development in the context of modern digital technology revolution. In the modern digital revolution, the technology transfer acquires new features and ways for the dissemination of technical innovation, which creates new challenges for legal theory and practice, and legal tools should meet the challenges of the time.
This paper investigates whether inherited legacies such as legal origin allow of explaining deforestation in 110 developed and developing countries. The hypothesis is that differences in deforestation between countries can be attributed to their legal systems. Also, since nearly all common law countries are former English colonies, and nearly all civil law countries were colonized by France, Spain or Portugal, legal origin and colonial history are strongly correlated, so that one can not attr...
The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Becchetti, Leonardo; Ciciretti, rocco; Conzo, Pierluigi
The legal origin literature documents that civil and common law traditions have different impact on rules and economic outcomes. We contribute to this literature by investigating the relationship between corporate social responsibility and legal origins. Consistently with the main differences in historical and legal backgrounds and net of industry specific effects, the common law origin has a significant and positive impact on the Corporate Governance and Community Involvement domains, while ...
Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene
Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...
Dragone, Davide; Prarolo, Giovanni; Vanin, Paolo; Zanella, Giulio
We provide first-pass evidence that the legalization of the cannabis market across US states may be inducing a crime drop. Exploiting the recent staggered legalization enacted by the adjacent states of Washington (end of 2012) and Oregon (end of 2014) we find, combining county-level difference-in-differences and spatial regression discontinuity designs, that the legalization of recreational marijuana caused a significant reduction of rapes and thefts on the Washington side of the border in 20...
Tsai, Jack; Jenkins, Darlene; Lawton, Ellen
To examine civil legal needs among people experiencing homelessness and the extent to which medical-legal partnerships exist in homeless service sites, which promote the integration of civil legal aid professionals into health care settings. We surveyed a national sample of 48 homeless service sites across 26 states in November 2015. The survey asked about needs, attitudes, and practices related to civil legal issues, including medical-legal partnerships. More than 90% of the homeless service sites reported that their patients experienced at least 1 civil legal issue, particularly around housing, employment, health insurance, and disability benefits. However, only half of all sites reported screening patients for civil legal issues, and only 10% had a medical-legal partnership. The large majority of sites reported interest in receiving training on screening for civil legal issues and developing medical-legal partnerships. There is great need and potential to deploy civil legal services in health settings to serve unstably housed populations. Training homeless service providers how to screen for civil legal issues and how to develop medical-legal partnerships would better equip them to provide comprehensive care.
For artificial intelligence, understanding the forms of human reasoning is a central goal. Legal reasoning is a form that makes a new set of demands on artificial intelligence methods. Most importantly, a computer program that reasons about legal problems must be able to distinguish between questions it is competent to answer and questions that human lawyers could seriously argue either way. In addition, a program for analyzing legal problems should be able to use both general legal rules and decisions in past cases; and it should be able to work with technical concepts that are only partly defined and subject to shifts of meaning. Each of these requirements has wider applications in artificial intelligence, beyond the legal domain. This dissertation presents a computational framework for legal reasoning, within which such requirements can be accommodated. The development of the framework draws significantly on the philosophy of law, in which the elucidation of legal reasoning is an important topic. A key element of the framework is the legal distinction between hard cases and clear cases. In legal writing, this distinction has been taken for granted more often than it has been explored. Here, some initial heuristics are proposed by which a program might make the distinction
Full Text Available The paper proposes a targeted model for translating legal texts, developed by the author by combining translation science (i.e. functionalist approaches with the findings of comparative law and legal linguistics. It consists of ten guidelines directing the translator from defining the intended function of the target text and selecting the corresponding translation type, through comparing the legal systems involved in the translation and analysing the memetic structure of the source text and parallel texts in the target culture to designing the target text as a cultureme and ensuring its legal security.
Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Lynnerup, Niels
At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies.......At 2.7% in 1970, the Danish medico-legal autopsy frequency was lower than recent frequencies observed in the Nordic countries (4-24%). The aim of this study was to analyse trends in the number and frequency of Danish medico-legal autopsies....
А. А. Kablukov
Full Text Available Legal training of medical workers is an urgent problem that must be solved in order to improve the comprehensive process of teaching students at the Ukrainian medical schools. An example of implementation the initial stage of legal training for medical students based on existing training programs, within existing departments is described in this article. The acquisition of the primary skills for students in fi nding and selecting the legal documents and the ability to navigate skillfully in the chosen material is the result of the introduction of legal content information systemsinto the studying curriculum.
Munthe, Christian; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul
This article analyzes the idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals from a basic legal ethical standpoint, using refusal to perform tasks related to legal abortion (in cases of voluntary employment) as a case in point. The idea of a legal right to conscientious refusal is distinguished from ideas regarding moral rights or reasons related to conscientious refusal, and none of the latter are found to support the notion of a legal right. Reasons for allowing some sort of room for conscientious refusal for healthcare professionals based on the importance of cultural identity and the fostering of a critical atmosphere might provide some support, if no countervailing factors apply. One such factor is that a legal right to healthcare professionals' conscientious refusal must comply with basic legal ethical tenets regarding the rule of law and equal treatment, and this requirement is found to create serious problems for those wishing to defend the idea under consideration. We conclude that the notion of a legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession is either fundamentally incompatible with elementary legal ethical requirements, or implausible because it undermines the functioning of a related professional sector (healthcare) or even of society as a whole.
Trevino, Roberto A; Richard, Alan J
Research shows that support for legalization of drugs varies significantly among different sociodemographic and political groups. Yet there is little research examining the degree of support for legalization of drugs among drug users. This paper examines how frequency and type of drug use affect the support for legalization of drugs after adjusting for the effects of political affiliation and sociodemographic characteristics. A sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users were asked whether they would support the legalization of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. Respondents reported their use of marijuana, crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines during the previous 30 days. Support for legalization of drugs was analyzed by estimating three separate logistic regressions. The results showed that the support for the legalization of drugs depended on the definition of "drug user" and the type of drug. In general, however, the results showed that marijuana users were more likely to support legalizing marijuana, but they were less likely to support the legalization of cocaine and heroin. On the other hand, users of crack, cocaine, heroin, speedball, and/or methamphetamines were more likely to support legalizing all drugs including cocaine and heroin.
The thesis deals with the legal aspects of Internet advertising. The main aim of this thesis is to define a legal code corresponding to this issue and to compare with the laws in Russia. The aim also is specify the efficiency of this legal aspects and review sufficiency of protection of consumers. Further explain the issue of spamming, find out its benefits to the retailer and negative aspects for consumers, and also to compare legal aspects of spamming with legislation in Russia.i
The starting point for this book is the question of how we research sex for sale and the implications of the choices we make in terms of epistemology and ethics. Which dilemmas and ethical aspects need to be taken into account when producing qualitative data within a highly politicised and moral-...... to the field, this innovative volume will appeal to international scholars and students from across the social sciences and humanities in areas such as sociology, anthropology, criminology, media studies, feminist studies, human geography and history....
This U.S. contribution to the syllabus for Subgroup 5C treats with environmental and ecological aspects specific to fast breeder reactors, physical protection and safeguarding of the FBR cycle, fuel cycle centers (site selection problems for different degrees of collocation) and administrative and legal problems. Decommissioning of an FBR power plant, syllabus item C.1.7, is treated in separate contribution, more information on advanced safeguards for the fast breeder fyel cycle is contained in the contribution, USA WG 5C-tbd. A key conclusion of this is that with safeguards planning initiated early in the development of the FBR fuel cycle, time is available to develop, evaluate, and implement improved safeguards techniques and incorporate them into the design phase of all FBR cycle facilities
Brakel, S J
Workplace violence is a growing social problem. Some of this growth may be perceptual, reflecting our new awareness of what constitutes violence in the workplace. Furthermore, much of what falls under its current rubric does not correspond to the classic image of worker-on-worker or worker-on-employer mayhem. Nevertheless, the total number of incidents is alarmingly large; the problem is real. It is natural to consider law (i.e., legal liability) as a potential solution. Aiming the liability threat at the employer may be the most effective and efficient strategy. There are ample theories to choose from: negligence (tort) law, agency law, contract, civil rights, and regulatory law. Judges and juries appear eager to hold employers accountable for violent incidents in the workplace, sometimes in the face of other, more logical constructions of the facts or theory. One's best hope is that the fear this strikes in the hearts of employers will make for maximum preventive results.
Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Smart, Rosanna
State-level marijuana liberalization policies have been evolving for the past five decades, and yet the overall scientific evidence of the impact of these policies is widely believed to be inconclusive. In this review we summarize some of the key limitations of the studies evaluating the effects of decriminalization and medical marijuana laws on marijuana use, highlighting their inconsistencies in terms of the heterogeneity of policies, the timing of the evaluations, and the measures of use being considered. We suggest that the heterogeneity in the responsiveness of different populations to particular laws is important for interpreting the mixed findings from the literature, and we highlight the limitations of the existing literature in providing clear insights into the probable effects of marijuana legalization.
Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a diffusive infectious disease whose typical behavior differentiates it from other infectious diseases spread by human-to-human transmission (flu, chicken pox, cholera, etc. which follow a classically epidemic pattern. Indeed, in the presence of a known source of Koch bacilli capable of spreading them by air, not all exposed individuals inhale the bacteria, not all those who inhale them absorb them, not all those who absorb them are unable to eliminate them, not all who are able to eliminate them do so using delayed hypersensitivity, not all those who react with delayed hypersensitivity suffer lasting tissue damage (among other things, minor, not all who suffer tissue damage have anatomical sequelae, not all those who have anatomical sequelae, however minimal, become carriers of bacilli in the latent period. The vast majority (90-95% of the latter – which are in any case a portion, not the totality of those exposed – remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and never develop active tuberculosis. Based on these biological characteristics and the legal concepts of “epidemic” and “disease,” it becomes highly problematic, if not impossible, to assert both that tuberculosis can cause events of sufficient magnitude to be associated with the crime of “epidemic,” and that the mere diagnosis of a latent tuberculosis infection is sufficient to assume the presence of an illness legally prosecutable in criminal proceedings or a disability prosecutable in civil proceedings. Further, clinically apparent tuberculosis is a temporarily—in some cases permanently—disabling condition, and in certain work environments, even with the difficulties caused by the lack of available effective diagnostic tools and the insidious behavior of the disease in the early stages, it appears appropriate to engage in targeted monitoring, also for the early identification of persons who may become ill.
Head, Legal Unit, AIDS Law Project, and Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg. South Africa has a strong legal framework that offers a high level of .... medical practitioners preformed the transplant without confirming the HIV status of the donor. A claim for damages is pending ...
Breland, Hunter M.; Hart, Frederick M.
This study examined legal writing as it was represented in legal memoranda prepared by first-semester law students at 12 different law schools. The study was based on the cumulative judgments of the instructors and professors of law in those institutions, humanities specialists at the Educational Testing Service, and two legal consultants. A…
Anichkin, Eugene S.
The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…
Doležal, Adam; Doležal, Tomáš
Roč. 10, č. 7 (2014), s. 53-70 ISSN 1857-7881 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : causation * tort law * legal liability Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://www.eujournal.org/index.php/esj/article/view/2968
van den Bos, K.; Hulst, Liesbeth
In this paper we discuss some strengths, stumbling blocks, common mistakes, and controversial issues that can be important when conducting experiments in the legal domain. To this end, we first briefly introduce the experimental method and note some of its strengths when used in legal research
Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan
We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of
Palali, A. (Ali); J.C. van Ours (Jan)
textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential
Recently, the issue of legal representation at internal disciplinary hearings and CCMA arbitrations has been a fervent topic of labour law discourse in South Africa. While the courts have consistently accepted the common law principle that there is no absolute right to legal representation at tribunals other than courts of law, ...
Article XXIV of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) lays down the legal principles with which regional trade agreements have to conform. Based on these principles, WTO members have the mandate to determine the legality of Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) under the GATT. Article XXIV permits both ...
Fosch Villaronga, Eduard; Husty, M.; Hofbaur, M.; Can Dede, M.I.
This paper describes some relevant legal aspects concerning non-social robots. Special attention is drawn to Person Carrier Robots (PCaR) and Physical Assistant Robots (PAR). Although concrete legal binding regulations concerning these two sub-types of Personal Care Robots (PCR) are missing, the
In this lecture the legal framework for a radiation safety infrastructure are presented. The objective of this lecture are: Legal framework; Regulatory programme; Role of Regulatory Authority in emergency situations; Assessment of the effectiveness of the regulatory programme; Cost effectiveness of the regulatory framework; and Priority actions
Full Text Available the article describes different approaches in definition of transnational corporation’s legal personality. The reviewed approaches have become available for the last fifty years and they contain completely opposite views on the legal personality of TNC. The methods of analyze, synthesis, ranging have been used during preparation of this article.
Timmer, Sjoerd; Prakken, Hendrik; Meyer, John-Jules Charles; Renooij, Silja; Verheij, Bart
Recent developments in the forensic sciences have confronted the field of legal reasoning with the new challenge of reasoning under uncertainty. Forensic results come with uncertainty and are described in terms of likelihood ratios and random match probabilities. The legal field is unfamiliar with
: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....
L. J. Du Plessis
Full Text Available In this article, which has not been published before, the late Prof. du Plessis lays bare the philosophical roots of the liberal-democratic state, or the legal state, as he preferred to call it. After a recapitulative version of the theory of the legal state, het indicates the origin of this form in Greek philosophy and in Medieval thought. The stress, however, is on the Modem Era, in which he distinuishes two main periods in the development of the theory of the legal state:the jusnaturalistic period and thepositivistic or formal period.He argues that positivism has destroyed the original ideal o f individual freedom in facts by regarding justice as a purely formal matter susceptible to any content. All guarantees for individual freedom which rested on a universal normative system fe ll away. The state defines its own competence and limits itself to legal forms in all its activities. The legal state thus merely becomes the state, any state as determined by fixed rules o f its own making to which it binds itselfin all its functioning. Law sinks to a mere form in which the juristic personality of the state manifests its supremacy, and from this there is only one step to the concept that the state is identical with law, so that any state necessarily is a legal state, and any state action which is formally correct, is legal. The article concludes with a brief representation o f the author’s own political and legal vision.
Patterson, Jeanne Boland; Patrick, Adele; Parker, Randall M.
The concept of choice has evolved into legal mandates and ethical challenges for rehabilitation professionals during the latter part of the 20th century. This article identifies the ethical and legal issues related to choice, summarizes a pilot project on rehabilitation counselors' perceptions of choice, and provides recommendations for…
Hawley, Richard A.
History reveals that drug legalization accelerates new use and contributes to a larger population of chronic users. When states energetically enforce antidrug laws and policies, illegal drug use is reduced and eliminated. Drug use is incompatible with healthy child development and learning. Legalizing drugs is the shallowest response to the…
Gasaway, Laura N.
Copyright and other intellectual property issues have dominated discussions of legal issues surrounding the Internet. There are other issues of considerable importance that also attract attention. Five legal issues affecting the Internet are addressed: copyright, online service-provider liability, database protection, obscenity, and privacy. Cited…
This article deals with the project on legal terminology in the African languages. It focuses on terminology aspects relating to the coining of terms for the legal profession. Terminology development in South Africa has been hampered by a number of sociolinguistic factors. During recent years South Africa has seen ...
Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask
complex analysis which takes legal validity seriously but as a genuinely empirical object of study. This article constructs this position by identifying a distinctively European realist path which takes as its primary inspirations Weberian sociology of law and Alf Ross’ Scandinavian Legal Realism...
Maintains that the basic business communication course is the ideal course in which to discuss the legal aspects of business communication. Reviews some of the most important legal considerations: contract communications, credit and collections communication, employment communication, and other interpersonal communication. (SR)
Sellers, Mortimer; Sellers, Mortimer
The internationalization of commerce and contemporary life has led to a globalization of legal standards and practices. The essays in this text explore this new reality and suggest ways in which the new legal order can be made more just and effective.
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal basis. 1203.100 Section 1203.100 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Scope § 1203.100 Legal basis. (a) Executive Order 12958 (hereinafter referred to as “the Order”). The...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal basis. 120.9 Section 120.9 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.9 Legal basis...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 698.2 Section 698.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT MODEL FORMS AND DISCLOSURES § 698.2 Legal effect. These model forms and disclosures prescribed by the FTC do not constitute a trade regulation rule...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Legal effect. 600.2 Section 600.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATIONS § 600.2 Legal effect. (a) The interpretations in the Commentary are not trade regulation rules or...
However, its application in legal research could pose specific challenges to researchers and could impact on crucial aspects of .... electronic media channels. Rather, they emphasise that legal research ..... to the changing information environment and to exercise control over the digital tools and resources. This involves ...
and researchers. CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data.
Renewable energy has a prominent role in promoting energy access and addressing environmental concerns with energy use in Nigeria. However, there are legal barriers that have not allowed renewable energy to be used in the Nigerian electricity sector. The absence of an effective legal framework to encourage and ...
The conditions of Burmese prostitutes in Thailand's border communities are described to show how they are mistreated and denied health information on AIDS prevention. The police had been returning prostitutes to Myanmar, until it was brought to their attention that 25 female prostitutes had been fatally injected with cyanide by Burmese authorities to stop the spread of HIV. Myanmar's military rulers have concentrated AIDS education on the military. They do not want the soldiers, who keep the military regime in power to become infected with AIDS. The reports of Burmese murders of prostitutes have come from all quarters. In the group of 25 prostitutes were two cousins of a Burmese citizen who reported the disappearance of his relatives after they left for a shopping trip in the southern Thai city of Ranong, opposite Kawthaung in Myanmar. Thai police found that the two cousins had been kidnapped and sold into prostitution in a brothel in Ranong, which had been raided by police. In the northern city of Chiang Mai, it is estimated that 10,000 of the prostitutes are Burmese girls and women. UNICEF has reported that as many as 40,000 Burmese girls are sold into prostitution in Bangkok and border towns such as Ranong and Chiang Mai. Anti-Slavery International estimated that more than 1500 of the prostitutes in Ranong are Burmese girls and women who have been forced into this work. Their condition is very similar to slavery. Girls are forced to work long hours and may be fed only a bowl of rice with watery soup. Prostitution flourished because 20,000 Burmese fisherman, who are at sea for prolonged periods, frequent the brothels on their return. There is a growing prevalence of HIV infection in Ranong in part due to the fishermen's widespread heroin use aboard ship. In Ranong, 1 in 5 prostitutes were found to be HIV positive including 1 in 3 of the Burmese women. Those locked in brothels are not included in the figures. Unfortunately the Burmese captives know no or very
Formation and legal changes influenced by the social and political dynamics. Law understood as the rules are rigid and too much emphasis on the legal aspects of the legal system or emphasize aspects of the legitimacy of the rules themselves, without associated with social problems. A Responsive legal approach is an approach the legal establishment…
Full Text Available Drones or unmanned or remote vehicles represent a new generation of devices that were designed to help mankind achieve better results in areas that were proven to hazardous. By developing drones, new areas of economic activities have been unlocked for better exploitation, but at the same time, the lack of a proper legal system to back-up the new technology allowed a new wave of gray-lined uses of drones that must be tackled. As the Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative at the Brookings Institute1 explains in an interview in 2012 that “a revolutionary technology is a game-changing technology on a historic level. It is technology like gunpowder, or the steam engine, or the atomic bomb”. With this in mind, drones mark the revolution to carry out strikes from thousands of kilometers away, while also ensuring a permanent eye in the sky for both military and also law enforcement operations. The aforementioned facts are just small percentages of what a drone is truly capable of and its full potential will only be unlocked once artificial intelligence will become an integral part of robotics.
Full Text Available Psychopathy is characterised by emotional disturbances that affect interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. The objective of this paper is to review the most recent contributions to the field of neuroscience of psychopathy and the implications that this disorder has on the criminal legal field. In regards to this last aspect, we evaluate the issue of psychopaths’ accountability and the incidence of psychopathy in many other penal institutions. In terms of the contributions of neuroscience, we will focus on the orbitofrontal (ofPFC and ventromedial (vmPFC regions of the frontal lobes and on the amygdala. Data spanning from the nineteenth century to the present indicate that damage to the ofPFC and vmPFC is the basis of behaviours that have been referred to as pseudopsychopathic. The earlier during brain development the damage occurs, the more likely these behaviours will resemble those of psychopaths. The damage to the amygdala is rather related to impairments in the ability to distinguish facial expressions of fear and the capacity to feel emotions. Damage to ofPFC, vmPFC, and amygdala are highly relevant to the expression of pseudopsychopathic behaviours.
Burcu Umut Zan
Full Text Available The most important and basic role of the deposition studies, which are the greatest contributions to the knowledge sharing, is to gather the artistic and philosophical works of a country and provide them for the use of future researchers. However, since early deposition studies were limited with printed publications, they do not involve the electronic publication types appearing with the development of information technology. This stems from the fact that the electronic publications require procedures different from those of the printed publications in terms of deposition steps because of their structures. Today, in order to guarantee that all registered cultural products, which are mostly produced and used in the electronic environment could be fully collected, electronic publications should also be covered by and regulated under legal deposit. This study analyzes the deposition of electronic publications, within the framework of their storage and protection, being put in the use of the users as well as the common approaches to deposition practices in the world parallel to the developments in the information technology. The related situation in Turkey was also evaluated.
Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D
Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420
Full Text Available The great multicultural experiment that is Australia has engendered a reconsideration of core values. Even the traditionally conservative legal system has not been immune. While the law remains anchored in its British Christian common-law traditions, the influence of other cultures and beliefs are emerging. Taking the term multiculturalism to encompass all cultures, including indigenous peoples as well as new comers, two instances of this are the partial accommodation of Indigenous customary law and a debate over the accommodation of Islamic law principles. The adoption of “foreign” legal concepts poses a dilemma for a liberal democratic society. On one hand, such a society might be expected to embrace wholesale legal plurality. However, there may be some foreign legal principles that are resisted on the basis that they are unacceptable to a free and equal society. The challenge is how to acknowledge the customary and religious laws of minorities whilst establishing one legal framework that applies to all, equally, and without discrimination and protects vulnerable parties. This article explores the implications for the legal system of a multicultural Australia. Taking the instances of Indigenous and Islamic law, it will be observed that legal plurality exists in Australia but largely in the shadows where the vulnerable of society lack protection. It proposes an institutional response that might help shine a light on these shadows.
prevalent among these women. There is limited information on the pattern of alcohol and tobacco use among Nigerian FSW's. This study aimed to assess the pattern of alcohol and tobacco use among female sex workers in Lagos with a view of generating data for the effective primary prevention of tobacco and alcohol.
Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica
Full Text Available Legal inheritance is one of the most important institutions of inheritance law which regulates the process of legal transition of property of the decedent to one or several heirs. The establish-ment of the legal framework has brought about new reforms to the Inheritance Law. This has enabled the enrichment and functio-ning of the law. A particularly important step was taken towards regulation of legal procedures regarding to how courts, other or-gans and other persons should act regarding inheritance issues. Concretization of the legal authorizations of bodies authorized to enforce the procedure of processing hereditary property has estab-lished the legal basis for realization of the iso jure principle, accor-ding to which, at the moment of death of the person, the heirs gain the right of inheritance and the hereditary property is never left without a titleholder. This is a great advantage that we have noted in undertaking this analysis of the norms in this work, because leaving hereditary property for a longer period of time without a titleholder would render the property vulnerable to des-truction, theft and extermination. The goal of this paper is to avoid focusing only on finding the positive sides of the normative regulation of the legal inheritance process, but also in finding practical deficiencies that are weighing down at the moment on this important process in Kosovo, and in proposing measures for overcoming them. The dark side of the legal inheritance process is linked to the inefficiency of courts and the still fragile legal system in Kosovo. By implementing empirical methods, we have come to the con-clusion that the low number of judges in proportion with the huge number of cases has become a key liability for practical implemen-tation of the principle of initiating the legal procedure ex officio. The failure in enforcing this principle and initiating the procedu-res for processing of hereditary property by courts, even though they
Vinding, Niels Valdemar
This anthology comprises contributions from a conference on legal practice and cultural diversity held in London in July 2007, but the editors take their cue from the speech made in February 2008 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams. The questions central to the book are the same...... that arose after the speech by the Archbishop: whether or to what extent cultural difference should be recognized by legal systems. Legal practice and cultural diversity, edited by Ralph Grillo, Roger Ballard, Alessandro Ferrari, Andre´ J. Hoekema, Marcel Maussen, and Prakash Shah, Farnham, UK, Ashgate, 2009...
Governments are particularly salient stakeholders for business ethics. They act on societal needs and social expectations, and have the political and legal powers to restrict or expand the economic freedoms of business as well as the legitimacy and often urgency to do so. We draw on two examples......: the Business & Human Rights regime from a UN Global Compact perspective; and mandatory CSR reporting. Supplying integrated teaching notes and generalising on the examples, we explain how legal method may help students of business ethics, organisation and management – future managers – in their analysis...... to the business ethics literature by explaining how legal method complements stakeholder theory for organisational practice....
Frederico de Andrade Gabrich
Full Text Available There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strategic planning of business objectives. So it’s the need and the importance of developing a Legal Business Model that can be used in combination with Canvas.
Wall, Terry J.
The theoretical basis of, and practical experience in, legal liability in the clinical practice of radiation oncology is reviewed, with a view to developing suggestions to help practitioners limit their exposure to liability. New information regarding the number, size, and legal theories of litigation against radiation oncologists is presented. The most common legal bases of liability are then explored in greater detail, including 'malpractice', and informed consent, with suggestions of improving the specialty's record of documenting informed consent. Collateral consequences of suffering a malpractice claim (i.e., the National Practitioner Data Bank) will also be briefly discussed
Full Text Available Legal hermeneutics (the interpretation of law] has always taken a highly significant place in general hermeneutics. The interpretation of laws involves an intricate task of determining the real meaning or rationale of legal norms. Considering the complexity of this goal, the most frequent classification of legal hermeneutics is based on the interpretation instruments. In traditional theory, the most widely recognized instruments for the interpretation of legal norms are language, logic, legal system, history and purpose of a legal norm. Under the influence of general analytic philosophy, the particular interest in language as the basic instrument for the interpretation of law may be found in mid-20th century. The interest in the language of law is closely related to the study of legal logic and legal argumentation. In theory, there is no dispute about the logical interpretation in a narrow sense which is based on drawing true conclusions by applying the basic rule of formal reasoning. Yet, it has given a head start to argumentation as 'a problem-based reasoning skill' which provides answers to the questions raised in contentious cases. Argumentation is closely associated with the dialectic method of reasoning (which has been widely recognized since the Ancient Greece], where conclusions are based on probable premises. One of the most significant goals of the argumentation theory is to locate the sources or common grounds for developing arguments; these basic argumentative patterns are generally known as 'topoi' or 'loci, sedes argumentorum'. On the other hand, 'topica' is part of rhetoric art dealing with the theoretical explanation of the basic argumentative patterns (topoi] and how they are structured, including the location of new topoi and arguments. The most significant proponents of the topical reasoning are Chaïm Perelman and Theodor Viehweg. Perelman relates topical reasoning to judicial reasoning and considers that specific legal topoi
Full Text Available The legal norm represents an intellectual creation of the legislator. It is expressed in legal language, according to certain rules of preparation, respecting the grammar rules specific to the language in which it is drawn up, as well as the legislative technique. The final result, thought out and wanted by the author, must be understood in direct relation to his intention. Interpretation of the law concerns the particular significance of the general form and the cognitive value of the information, of grammatical construction that expresses the legal norm.
Full Text Available Following the terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11th, 2001, it was discovered that money laundering was a significant source of finance for terrorists. Although, the amount of money that involve is not as involve as in drug and gun trafficking, terrorist financing had been the most important substance to be monitor. Further, various legal measures have been taken internationally in order to combat terrorist financing. This research analyses the legal measures that have been taken internationally and at EU level to combat terrorist financing. Key words: Money Laundering, Terrorist Financing, International Legal measures, EU.
Altamura, M.; Ferraris, L.; Miozzo, D.; Musso, L.; Siccardi, F.
An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008). Civil Protection (CP) systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1. Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009). One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006). This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008) of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984). The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing meteo-hydrological alerts by CPs. Footnotes: 1 The Italian Civil Protection is working
Full Text Available An exponential improvement of numerical weather prediction (NWP models was observed during the last decade (Lynch, 2008. Civil Protection (CP systems exploited Meteo services in order to redeploy their actions towards the prediction and prevention of events rather than towards an exclusively response-oriented mechanism1.
Nevertheless, experience tells us that NWP models, even if assisted by real time observations, are far from being deterministic. Complications frequently emerge in medium to long range forecasting, which are subject to sudden modifications. On the other hand, short term forecasts, if seen through the lens of criminal trials2, are to the same extent, scarcely reliable (Molini et al., 2009.
One particular episode related with wrong forecasts, in the Italian panorama, has deeply frightened CP operators as the NWP model in force missed a meteorological adversity which, in fact, caused death and dealt severe damage in the province of Vibo Valentia (2006. This event turned into a very discussed trial, lasting over three years, and intended against whom assumed the legal position of guardianship within the CP. A first set of data is now available showing that in concomitance with the trial of Vibo Valentia the number of alerts issued raised almost three folds. We sustain the hypothesis that the beginning of the process of overcriminalization (Husak, 2008 of CPs is currently increasing the number of false alerts with the consequent effect of weakening alert perception and response by the citizenship (Brezntiz, 1984.
The common misunderstanding of such an issue, i.e. the inherent uncertainty in weather predictions, mainly by prosecutors and judges, and generally by whom deals with law and justice, is creating the basis for a defensive behaviour3 within CPs. This paper intends, thus, to analyse the social and legal relevance of uncertainty in the process of issuing
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Winkels, R.
While isomorphism of knowledge representation has been recognized as important, particularly to maintenance in legal knowledge representation, the requirements of the maintenance process in general get less attention. Traceability from knowledge resources used in the organization to the sources of
Otto, Paul N.; Antón, Annie I.
Laws and regulations are playing an increasingly important role in requirements engineering and systems development. Monitoring systems for requirements and policy compliance has been recognized in the requirements engineering community as a key area for research. Similarly, legal compliance is critical in systems development, especially given that non-compliance can result in both financial and criminal penalties. Working with legal texts can be very challenging, however, because they contain numerous ambiguities, cross-references, domain-specific definitions, and acronyms, and are frequently amended via new statutes, regulations, and case law. Requirements engineers and compliance auditors must be able to identify relevant legal texts, extract requirements and other key concepts, and monitor compliance. This chapter surveys research efforts over the past 50 years in handling legal texts for systems development. This survey can aid requirements engineers and auditors to better specify, test, and monitor systems for compliance.
Roč. 8, č. 2 (2014) ISSN 1802-5951 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : brain-computer interface * human rights * right to privacy, Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences http://mujlt.law.muni.cz/index.php
In today's increasingly polarized political climate, science is becoming more politicized, which in turn leads to scientists facing an increased involvement in legal discussion about their work, their correspondence, and their public statements. At times these attacks on scientists and their academic freedom are unwarranted and can leave many confused and wondering how to handle the situation. To help out, AGU and the Climate Science Legal Defense Fund (CSLDF) have partnered to prepare the scientific community for these challenges through a Legal Education Series, a series of webinars along with events at AGU's 2012 Fall Meeting. This series provides scientists with information to help guide and update them on legal issues and situations currently making their way through the courts.
Full Text Available In the Republic of Macedonia, international treaties ratified in accordance with the Constitution are considered part of the internal legal order and cannot be changed by an act of Parliament. This solution confirms the principle that international treaties have more legal authority than all the other legal acts, with the exception of the Constitution. This article aims to give an insight on the constitutional provisions that regulate the position of international treaties in the Macedonian legal order. It identifies its advantages and shortcomings and offers some solutions that might be taken into account by the lawgiver in the future. The article also analyses the profound impact that the European Convention on Human Rights has exerted on the substantial nature of the catalogue of fundamental rights and freedoms prescribed in the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia.
This article deals with various opinions and assertions regarding drug legalization. Societal and clinical implication regarding the effect of decrease or increase in the use of psyhoactive substances, on public health, violence and criminal activities have been pointed out. The relation between legal and illegal drugs has been considered. Special attention has been paid to arguments on legalization and decriminalization of marihuana and possible consequences on the risk group-children and adolescents. Experiences from USA and some European countries have been presented. Having in mind the specific situation in BiH, the author of article gives her own view and suggest the introduction of harm reduction strategy into BiH drug policy, without changing the legal drug status.
Marc Simon Thomas
Full Text Available Since the 1990s, there has been an increasing interest in mediation in the Netherlands, as part of a set of ‘alternative dispute resolution’ methods. Politicians, lawyers and practitioners have embraced mediation as a legitimate method for settling disputes, alongside the adjudication of conflicts in courts of law. However, there is a striking lack of literature aimed at theorizing mediation from a legal perspective. This article argues that the legal anthropology literature on disputes and dispute settlement offers useful insights for understanding mediation from a ‘legal research’ point of view. This is because a lot of current common knowledge on mediation has its roots in a legal anthropological understanding. The argument that is set forth in this article is that the most important lesson that can be learned is that mediation should not be seen in isolation, but as part of a social process.
Prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, México Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in registered prostitutes of Durango City, Mexico
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de infección por Chlamydia trachomatis en prostitutas registradas de la ciudad de Durango, Durango y establecer si existe alguna correlación entre los datos epidemiológicos y la infección. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Fueron estudiadas 247 prostitutas y se obtuvieron muestras endocervicales y datos epidemiológicos. La prueba Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, EUA fue usada para detectar el antígeno de C. trachomatis. RESULTADOS: Fueron positivas para C. trachomatis 41 prostitutas (16.6%, y 37 de ellas habían tenido actividad sexual en diferentes estados de la República mexicana, en comparación con las 206 mujeres negativas, entre las que sólo 109 habían tenido relaciones sexuales fuera de Durango (pOBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among registered prostitutes of Durango City and to establish whether there is a correlation between epidemiological factors and infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two-hundred-and-forty-seven registered prostitutes of Durango city were studied. Endocervical samples and epidemiological data were obtained. C. trachomatis antigen was detected with the Chlamydiazyme test (Abbott Laboratories, USA. RESULTS: Forty-one (16.6% out of 247 prostitutes were positive to C. trachomatis. Thirty-seven out of the 41 positive women had had sexual activity on several States of Mexico (95.1%, as compared to only 109 out of 206 negative women (53.0% (p<.0001. Prostitutes positive to C. trachomatis (39/41, 95.1% were more likely to belong to low socioeconomic level than negatives (171/206, 83% (p=0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 16.6%. C. trachomatis infection was associated with sexual activity in multiple States of Mexico, and had a tendency to be associated with low socioeconomic level.
Weber, Rolf H
Adopting a multi-disciplinary and comparative approach, this book focuses on emerging and innovative attempts to tackle privacy and legal issues in cloud computing, such as personal data privacy, security and intellectual property protection. Leading international academics and practitioners in the fields of law and computer science examine the specific legal implications of cloud computing pertaining to jurisdiction, biomedical practice and information ownership. This collection offers original and critical responses to the rising challenges posed by cloud computing.
Physicians engaged in management of burn patients in India need to keep themselves abreast with the legal requirements. Clinical burn management and liaison with local authorities go almost parallel. Concept of the legal rights of Burn Survivor and the family are emerging now in India. Demarcation between physical impairment status and disability to sustain are discussed. Burn Physicians can help their patients by imparting this information. Pertinent details about Workmen′s compensati...
This article investigates how comics can be used to adequately communicate the correct process of contract cancellation and whether comics can enhance understanding of the legal process. A survey of pre-owned vehicle buyers of various levels of education in Pretoria, South Africa found that when comics are used to communicate contract cancellation, a significant increase in the comprehension of the legal cancellation process occurs. The results may influence how contracting parties may choose...
Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan C
textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use is not as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was be...
John Armour; Douglas Cumming
Must policymakers seeking to replicate the success of Silicon Valley’s venture capital market first replicate other US institutions, such as deep and liquid stock markets? Or can legal reforms alone make a significant difference? In this paper, we compare the economic and legal determinants of venture capital investment, fundraising and exits. We introduce a cross-sectional and time series empirical analysis across 15 countries and 13 years of data spanning an entire business cycle. We show t...
Nanosciences and nanotechnologies come into a pre-existing legal system. Their arrival, and how they are received are worthy of analysis. Such an effort shall at first include simply lexical considerations, in order to penetrate, via their origins, the traces of these specific objects into the territory of law. The goal of this article is to explore the effects of "nanos" in various legal fields, including their relevance to the principle of precaution, patent law, and the applicable laws for chemical substances.
Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas
The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...
Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.
Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section
Frederico de Andrade Gabrich
There is no idea, business or company, private or public control, which does not require an appropriate legal strategy to be implemented as efficiently as possible. Therefore, there is no way actually know the areas of law that are directly related to the business organization, without analysis of the planning logic and implementation of ideas generally used by companies. More than that, the combination of modeling and business planning is essential, with appropriate legal and related strateg...
O'Reilly, G.; Malone, J. F.
The Medical Exposure Directive (MED) 97/43/Euratom defines medico-legal procedures as 'procedures performed for insurance or legal purposes without a medical indication'. The term 'medico-legal exposures' covers a wide range of possible types of exposures, very different in nature, for which the only feature in common is the fact that the main reason for performing them does not relate directly to the health of the individual being exposed to ionising radiation. The key issue in medico-legal exposures is justification. Balancing the advantages and disadvantages of such exposures is complex because not only can these be difficult to quantify and hence compare, but often the advantage may be to society whereas the disadvantage is usually to an individual. This adds an additional layer of ethical complexity to the problem and one, which requires input from a number of sources beyond the established radiation protection community. Because medico-legal exposures are considered to be medical exposures, they are not subject to dose limits. In medico-legal exposures where the benefit is not necessarily to the individual undergoing the exposure, the question must be asked as to whether or not this is an appropriate framework within which to conduct such exposures. This paper looks at the current situation in Europe, highlighting some of the particular problems that have arisen, and tries to identify the areas, which require further clarification and guidance. (authors)
Full Text Available Due to increasing the cases of complaint from therapeutic staff, referred to Legal Medicine decided to mention a few examples of these actions and by reviewing them, we want to do something even nothing to prevention. Three cases were given and discussed in this article. 1. Patient is a 68-year-old woman complaining of weakness of her left side and speech disturbance that started about 2 hours earlier, was admitted to hospital at 8 am. Patient with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke in progress is placed in antiplatelet therapy (Plavix 4 initial dose and one per day and an 80 mg aspirin per day and anti-Coagulation Heparin (initial dose of 6000 units and 1000 units per hour.Patient conflicts with loss of consciousness at 17:45. By doing CT, they have found a large hemorrhage in the right parietal Frontó with severe shift from midline, IVH, SAH. Currently, patient has movement disorders and several cerebral complications. 2. The patient took under angiography because of chest pain. Patient had an unpleasant feeling in organs at the time of angiography and the symptoms have been intensified in the afternoon of that day and conflicted with headache and blurred vision. The next day, he also afflicted with weakness of organs and at 8 am neurology consultation is requested, and according to a neurologist takes MRI. The patient was suffered from speech impairment and right hemiparesis. MRI indicates stroke. Two days later, intravenous heparin begins. The Patient discharged on 31/4/ … . 3. The patient hospitalized because of headache and weakness of right organs and with a presumptive diagnosis of stroke. Headache had progressive trend. There were not seen certain lesions on the initial CT. 5000 units of heparin with 1000 units of infusion in an hour starts with telephone orders at 8 am. The morning 1/8 /..., he afflicted with loss of consciousness, and transferred to the ICU. In morning experiment, patient’s platelet is reported low (47000.The patient
The IAEA Director General appointed an international Panel of Experts to go into the question of Civil Liability and State Responsibility for Nuclear Hazards. The Panel had before it certain basic postulates formulated after a preliminary and tentative consideration of the subject. From the viewpoint of the public, the first postulate is, of course, that the use of nuclear energy be regulated by adequate licensing and control mechanisms so as to prevent any accidents. To the extent, however, that nuclear damage cannot be prevented, there must be liability on the part of the enterprise which caused the damage and, where damage exceeds its liability or its financial resources there should be some assurance of compensation by the State. This should be so not only within the borders of one State, but especially also on an international basis. Security should be required for the possible liability of the enterprises connected with a nuclear incident. Litigation with respect to liability should be concentrated in the most convenient tribunal and be governed by a single clearly defined law. The methods of distribution should meet general standards of equity and be as expeditious as possible. Emergency measures, especially evacuation, first aid and decontamination, should be organized and financed without delay. At the same time, the liability of an enterprise should not exceed its reasonable financial capabilities. This means that a ceiling should be imposed upon the amount of third party liability to which an enterprise could be held. And the liability should generally be such as can be covered by adequate financial security. Uniformity in the treatment of victims of nuclear incidents in all these fields is a desirable goal. Yet, if a rule adopted on an international level or suggested by uniform legislation were to be viable, it should adapt itself to the social, economic and legal order already existing in individual States. This may mean that in certain fields it