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Sample records for legalize same-gender marriage

  1. Same-Gender Marriage: Implications for Social Work Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fasbinder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Notably, in 2013, Maryland, Rhode Island, Delaware, and Minnesota became the 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th states, respectively, to legalize same-gender marriage. Without legal recognition or social support from the larger society, the majority of same-gender partnerships in the U.S. are denied privileges and rights that are considered basic for heterosexual marriages. This manuscript draws from a national cross section of published survey data from 1996 to 2013 reporting Americans’ attitudes regarding same-gender marriage and civil unions. Social work practitioners have broad opportunity to apply their skills to the critical needs facing same-gender partners. After an overview of the legal status of same-gender marriages and their accompanying social and policy issues, recommendations are provided that include identification of specific needs for premarital counseling of same-gender partners and ensuring sensitivity to the myriad challenges they face.

  2. America's progress in achieving the legalization of same-gender adoption: analysis of public opinion, 1994 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Darrel M

    2014-10-01

    The struggle to achieve the legalization of same-gender adoption is ongoing. Notably, not until 2011 was adoption by a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individual legalized in all 50 states and the District of Columbia, and adoption by same-gender couples is still illegal in many states. Anti-adoption forces are ever-present: From 2011 to 2013, at least five states passed laws granting faith-based agencies the right to refuse service to same-gender couples or to give preference to heterosexual couples. The aim of this article is, first, to examine the challenges confronting the legalization of same-gender adoption; second, to report the current legal status of same-gender adoption for each state; third, to report on Americans' attitudes toward the legalization of same-gender adoption from 1994 to 2012, drawing from previously published surveys of a cross section of Americans; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice, including social advocacy and social policy implementation.

  3. Legal Policy of Interfaith Marriage in Indonesia

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    Fathol Hedi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is not just a bond between men and women, but the inner bond between a man and a woman based on the One and Only God. This research was a philosophical normative, thus the approaches used were philosophical, normative, and historical. Besides, a qualitative-descriptive strategy was used in finding a depth description of the law politics of interfaith marriage regulation in Indonesia based on the the 1974 Marriage Law. The results show that the interfaith marriage is not regulated in the 1974 Marriage Law, because: First, the rejection of the majority of Muslims and the faction in Parliament because the interfaith marriage is against the aqidah (matters of faith of Islam; Second, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the marriage culture in Indonesia, because marriage contains legal, sociology and religious aspects; Third, the interfaith marriage is contrary to the theological teachings of religions in Indonesia that do not want interfaith marriages, such as Islam, Christianity, Protestantism, Hinduism and Buddhism. Furthermore, the interfaith marriage is inconsistent with the philosophical purposes of marriage in Indonesia where the purpose of marriage forms a happy and eternal family based on the One Supreme God.

  4. TO THE QUESTION OF THE LEGAL NATURE OF MARRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Bondov S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of various approaches to the main definitions of a family law, such as marriage, family, and marriage legal relationship. In the article we profoundly considered the legal aspects of a procedure of marriage as the act of registration of marriage is the basis of emergence of marriage legal relationship. The conditions and the bases of marriage are characterized. We made a conclusion that marriage is a legal fact establishing, changing or stopping the corr...

  5. Survivorship and Inheritance Rights for Same-Gender Couples: Relevance to Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cordero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Californians voted in November 2008 to ban the right to same-gender marriage in California. This paper summarizes data on changes in societal attitudes relative to homosexuals, same-gender couples, and their civil rights as reflected in Gallup and Princeton Survey Research Associates International poll data over the years through 2011. These findings report deeply entrenched and enduring divisions in American attitudes toward the rights and status of same-gender couples. Although historically a majority of Americans has consistently opposed same-gender marriage, Americans increasingly recognize the need to extend equality to same-gender couples in the form of employment rights, inheritance rights, Social Security, and health insurance benefits. This article explores existing and proposed policies regarding the rights of same-gender couples. In addition, it examines the implications and opportunities for advocacy by social workers who face the challenge of navigating the legal and personal obstacles that arise when their client’s same-gender relationships are not sanctioned by law.

  6. IS THERE AN ALTERNATIVE TO LEGAL MARRIAGE?

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    A. B. Sinelnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to sociological surveys in Russia found that a pairs of cohabitants, consisting of “unregistered marriage”, occupy an intermediate position between legally married and unmarried males and females. The so-called “unregistered marriage” can not be considered equal to legitimate marriage. The average number of children ever born to unmarried couples by the end of the reproductive age of women (40–45 years old is much less than the average number of children among married women of the same age and considerably below the level of simple reproduction of generations. At all ages cohabitants are much more likely to feel lonely than legitimate spouses. The tendency to reduce the number of legitimate married couples and increasing numbers of unmarried couples is not a transition from traditional to modern form of family. It is a destruction of the family as a social institution. 

  7. Legal Policy of Interfaith Marriage in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fathol Hedi; Abdul Ghofur Anshori; Harun Harun

    2017-01-01

    Marriage is not just a bond between men and women, but the inner bond between a man and a woman based on the One and Only God. This research was a philosophical normative, thus the approaches used were philosophical, normative, and historical. Besides, a qualitative-descriptive strategy was used in finding a depth description of the law politics of interfaith marriage regulation in Indonesia based on the the 1974 Marriage Law. The results show that the interfaith marriage is not regulated in ...

  8. A Patchwork of Marriages: The Legal Relevance of Marriage in a Plural Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsje Bonthuys

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many former colonies, South Africa has a plural system of family law which has historically recognized the polygynous marriages practiced by the indigenous African inhabitants of the country. However, recognition of these marriages by way of legal pluralism does not afford them equal status with the monogamous Judaeo-Christian marriage imported by European colonisers, nor does it ensure gender equality within families. Instead, the interaction between the colonial and apartheid socio-economic oppression of black people on the one hand, and legal pluralism on the other hand, produces a highly complex family law system, accurately described as ‘a patchwork of patriarchies.’ This paper argues that a far more radical transformation of family law, and one which is more likely to enhance gender equality, would be to move away from conjugality, or a sexual bond, as the basis of marriage and family law. The aim of this shift would be legal rules which recognize those relationships of kinship which have been central to African family practices and which have assisted many families to weather the multiple forms of colonial and white domination. A move away from conjugality as the primary basis of family law would also acknowledge the ever decreasing incidence of marriage and nuclear families, which characterizes contemporary South African society and would place the focus of legal regulation on the protection of socially valuable relationships, rather than the protection of marriage as an institution. Al igual que otras antiguas colonias, Sudáfrica tiene un sistema de derecho de familia plural, que ha reconocido históricamente los matrimonios en poliginia practicados por personas indígenas africanas. Sin embargo, el reconocimiento de estos matrimonios mediante pluralismo jurídico no les garantiza el mismo estatus que el matrimonio monogámico judeocristiano, ni garantiza la igualdad de género dentro de las familias. Al contrario, la

  9. The death of marriage? The effects of new forms of legal recognition on marriage rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillender, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    Some conservative groups argue that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the value of marriage to opposite-sex couples. This article examines how changes in U.S. legal recognition laws occurring between 1995 and 2010 designed to include same-sex couples have altered marriage rates in the United States. Using a difference-in-differences strategy that compares how marriage rates change after legal recognition in U.S. states that alter legal recognition versus states that do not, I find no evidence that allowing same-sex couples to marry reduces the opposite-sex marriage rate. Although the opposite-sex marriage rate is unaffected by same-sex couples marrying, it decreases when domestic partnerships are available to opposite-sex couples.

  10. Does marriage matter for children? Assessing the causal impact of legal marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Anders; Ginther, Donna K.; Sundström, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines whether parental marriage confers educational advantages to children relative to cohabitation. We exploit a dramatic marriage boom in Sweden in late 1989 created by a reform of the Widow's Pension System that raised the attractiveness of marriage compared to cohabitation to identify the effect of marriage. Sweden's rich administrative data sources enable us to identify the children who were affected by parental marriage due to this marriage boom. Our analysis addresses the...

  11. Does Marriage Matter for Children? Assessing the Impact of Legal Marriage in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Anders; Ginther, Donna K.; Sundström, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines whether parental marriage confers educational advantages to children relative to cohabitation. We exploit a dramatic marriage boom in Sweden in late 1989 created by a reform of the Widow’s Pension System that raised the attractiveness of marriage compared to cohabitation to identify the effect of marriage and the effect of selection bias on marriage estimates. Sweden’s rich administrative data sources enable us to identify the children who were affected by parental marriag...

  12. To Love, Honor, and Obey? Traditional Legal Marriage and Alternative Family Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Lenore J.

    1975-01-01

    Legal obligations of spouses are examined in the first half of this article. The second half of the article examines explicit legal restrictions on alternative family forms--homosexual unions, communes, and egalitarian-partnership marriages. The final section reviews developments in the law which may provide increased legal protection for…

  13. "Never in Our Lifetime": Legal Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in Long-Term Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porche, Michelle V.; Purvin, Diane M.

    2008-01-01

    We present data from 4 lesbian and 5 gay male same-sex couples who have been together 20 years or more. Couples included those legally married and unmarried, with and without children, and were interviewed within the first year legalized same-sex marriage was enacted in Massachusetts. Using life course theory and case study methodology, we…

  14. Social and legal aspects of marriage in women with mental illness in India.

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    Sharma, Indira; Tripathi, C B; Pathak, Abhishek

    2015-07-01

    The institution of marriage in Hindus is regulated by the prevailing social norms and the Hindu Marriage Act (HMA), 1955. Married women with mental illness are heavily discriminated. This paper examines the social and legal aspects of Hindu marriage in women with mental illness. The HMA, 1955 lays down the conditions for a Hindu marriage and also provides matrimonial reliefs: Nullity of marriage, restitution of conjugal rights, judicial separation and divorce. The application of the provisions of HMA in the setting mental illness is difficult and challenging. There is a wide gap between the legislative provisions of HMA, and societal value systems and attitudes towards marriage in Indian society. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legal provisions. The disparities are most glaring in the setting of mental illness in women. This is a reflection of social stigma for mental illness and patriarchal attitude towards women. Concerted efforts are needed to bridge the gap between the legislative provisions of HMA and societal value systems and attitudes toward marriage. Awareness programs regarding the nature and types of mental illness, advances in treatment and information about good outcome of severe mental illness will be helpful. Improvement in moral and religious values will overcome to some extent the negative attitudes and patriarchal mind set toward married women with mental illness.

  15. Investments in Marriage and Cohabitation: The Role of Legal and Interpersonal Commitment

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    Poortman, Anne-Rigt; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Cohabiters have been shown to invest less in their relationship than married couples. This study investigated the role of legal and interpersonal commitment by examining heterogeneity within marital and cohabiting unions. Going beyond the dichotomy of cohabitation versus marriage, different union types were distinguished by their level of legal…

  16. Attitudes Toward Same-Gender Adoption and Parenting: An Analysis of Surveys from 16 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel Montero

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, little progress has been made toward the legalization of same-gender adoption. Of the nearly 200 United Nations members, only 15 countries with populations of 3 million or more have approved LGBT adoption without restrictions. The objectives of this paper are, first, to provide a brief background of the obstacles confronting same-gender adoption including the role of adoption agencies and parenting issues; second, to discuss the current legal status of the 15 countries which have approved same-gender adoption without restrictions; third, to report on recent public opinion regarding the legalization of same-gender adoption and parenting, drawing from previously published surveys conducted in 16 countries; and, fourth, to explore the implications for social work practice including social advocacy and social policy implementation.

  17. Primary and secondary socialization impacts on support for same-sex marriage after legalization in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M; Jaspers, E.; Ultee, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement “gay marriage should be abolished.” This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing

  18. Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage After Legalization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Jaspers, E.; Ultee, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing

  19. Primary and Secondary Socialization Impacts on Support for Same-Sex Marriage after Legalization in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, Marcel; Jaspers, Eva; Ultee, Wout

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing agents influence one's attitude toward…

  20. Primary and secondary socialization impacts on support for same-sex marriage after legalization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, M.; Jaspers, E.; Ultee, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    Two years after the legalization of same-sex marriages in the Netherlands, 65% of the Dutch population largely or completely disagrees with the statement "gay marriage should be abolished." This article shows, by way of multinomial logistic regression analysis of survey data, which socializing

  1. Power and control in the legal system: from marriage/relationship to divorce and custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B; Ancis, Julie R

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which abuse that occurred during marriage/relationship continued within divorce and custody-related legal proceedings. Twenty-seven women participated in semistructured interviews. Interviews were analyzed utilizing a grounded theory approach in order to inductively arrive at a theory explaining how abuse dynamics may continue during legal proceedings. Participants identified child support litigation, custody and visitation battles, intimidation/harassment, deliberately prolonging the case, manipulating finances, and distortions of information as methods by which their exes sought to maintain power and control. Counseling implications are described.

  2. Legal "ban" on transnational cousin-marriages: citizen debate in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, M.; Storms, O.; Bartels, E.

    2014-01-01

    In March 2014, the Dutch parliament, following Denmark, passed the Combatting Forced Marriage Act in which consanguineous marriages are equated with forced marriages. Why are cousin marriages, practiced worldwide and a recognized marriage pattern in the Netherlands, high on the political agenda

  3. Do We Think Children Need a Mom and Dad?: Understanding How Gender Ideology Impact Attitudes Toward Same-Gender Parent Family Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stephanie N; Chonody, Jill M; Kavanagh, Phillip S

    2017-09-06

    Research and opinion polls demonstrate that attitudes toward same-gender parent families have been improving in recent years among Western countries; however, the history of oppression toward, and misconceptions about, same-gender parent families continue to be demonstrated in Australian family rights policies. Common misconceptions include the belief that children need both male and female role models, and this could be influencing peoples' support for same-gender family rights and having a wider impact on legislation change. Yet a dearth of research exists exploring a connection between gender role beliefs and support for same-gender family rights using a broad international sample, including Australia. To investigate this connection, a sample (N = 615) from 18 English-speaking countries responded to a series of questions to determine the importance of gender norm beliefs on same-gender family prejudice. Regression analysis demonstrated that people with traditional beliefs about gender norms were more likely to endorse a negative attitude toward same-gender marriage and same-gender parenting. Findings suggest a link between socially prescribed gender norms and prejudice toward same-gender parent families that may be fueling arguments against same-gender family rights policies. The implications of these findings on same-gender parent families and their rights require future investigation.

  4. Same-sex legal marriage and psychological well-being: findings from the California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Richard G; Leblanc, Allen J; Lee Badgett, M V

    2013-02-01

    We examined whether same-sex marriage was associated with nonspecific psychological distress among self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults, and whether it had the potential to offset mental health disparities between lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals. Population-based data (weighted) were from the 2009 adult (aged 18-70 years) California Health Interview Survey. Within-group analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons included 1166 individuals (weighted proportion = 3.15%); within-group heterosexual analysis included 35 608 individuals (weighted proportion = 96.58%); and pooled analysis of lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons and heterosexuals included 36 774 individuals. Same-sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons were significantly less distressed than lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons not in a legally recognized relationship; married heterosexuals were significantly less distressed than nonmarried heterosexuals. In adjusted pairwise comparisons, married heterosexuals had the lowest psychological distress, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons who were not in legalized relationships had the highest psychological distress (P sex married lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons, lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons in registered domestic partnerships, and heterosexuals. Being in a legally recognized same-sex relationship, marriage in particular, appeared to diminish mental health differentials between heterosexuals and lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. Researchers must continue to examine potential health benefits of same-sex marriage, which is at least in part a public health issue.

  5. Wedding Bell Blues: The Income Tax Consequences of Legalizing Same-Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Alm, James; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Whittington, Leslie A.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, gay and lesbian couples have gone to court to force the government to allow same-sex couples to marry. Largely unnoticed during the debates surrounding same-sex marriages are their economic consequences, including the impact on government tax collections. It is well-known that a couple's joint income tax burden can change with marriage. Many couples, especially two-earner couples with similar incomes, pay a marriage tax because their taxes when married are more than their combined t...

  6. Same-Gendered Leadership Mentoring in Postsecondary Education

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    Edds-Ellis, Stacy; Keaster, Ric

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study provides insight into the perspective of female leaders in higher education who have participated as protégés in same-gendered dyads in a nationally recognized formal mentoring program. Data collected through interviews reveal the memorable messages received and gender-related advice offered by mentors. Examining the types…

  7. Fairy Tales: Attraction and Stereotypes in Same-Gender Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Felmlee, Diane; Orzechowicz, David; Fortes, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    We examine the process of romantic attraction in same-gender relationships using open and closed-ended questionnaire data from a sample of 120 men and women in Northern California. Agreeableness (e.g., kind, supportive) and Extraversion (e.g., fun, sense of humor) are the two most prominent bases of attraction, followed by Physical Attractiveness (e.g., appearance, sexy). The least important attractors represent traits associated with material success (e.g., financially secure, nice house). W...

  8. LGBT Family Lawyers and Same-Sex Marriage Recognition: How Legal Change Shapes Professional Identity and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumle, Amanda K

    2018-01-10

    Lawyers who practice family law for LGBT clients are key players in the tenuous and evolving legal environment surrounding same-sex marriage recognition. Building on prior research on factors shaping the professional identities of lawyers generally, and activist lawyers specifically, I examine how practice within a rapidly changing, patchwork legal environment shapes professional identity for this group of lawyers. I draw on interviews with 21 LGBT family lawyers to analyze how the unique features of LGBT family law shape their professional identities and practice, as well as their predictions about the development of the practice in a post-Obergefell world. Findings reveal that the professional identities and practice of LGBT family lawyers are shaped by uncertainty, characteristics of activist lawyering, community membership, and community service. Individual motivations and institutional forces work to generate a professional identity that is resilient and dynamic, characterized by skepticism and distrust coupled with flexibility and creativity. These features are likely to play a role in the evolution of the LGBT family lawyer professional identity post-marriage equality.

  9. FAMILY IDENTITY PECULIARITIES OF WOMEN WHO HAVE MADE THE DECISION TO TERMINATE PREGNANCY AND ARE IN A STATE OF LEGAL OR CIVIL MARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Vladimirovna Lukyanchenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reflect on the relevance of the family identity research of the women who have made the decision to terminate their pregnancy.  Family identity is defined as a specific form of personal and group identity that includes three aspects of family and self -perception as a family member: structural, emotional-evaluative and cognitional. Evaluation research of the women in a state of legal and civil marriage is given.  General and specific peculiarities of their family identity are emphasized. General peculiarities are interpersonal relationships perception in the family as distanced and family image rigidity. Various active-passive positions inside a married couple, common for women in legal or civil marriages, are attributed to specific peculiarities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-5

  10. Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClennen, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

  11. Woman's Position In Undocumented Marriages

    OpenAIRE

    Arsal, Thriwaty

    2014-01-01

    The term of undocumented marriage is only known in Muslim community in Indonesia. Undocumented marriage is a legal type of marriage based on Islam as long as it is meets the marriage’s legal requirements; however, it is diverge from the state rules because it is not registered in the authorized institution for marriage. A woman who married with this type of marriage, based on law and administration, has no clear identity before the state. It will make her difficult to have her right as a wife...

  12. What's the Use of Marriage?

    OpenAIRE

    Cigno, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    We use elementary game-theoretical concepts to compare domestic equilibria with and without marriage. In particular, we examine the effects of marriage legislation, matrimonial property regime, and divorce court sentencing practice, on the decision to marry, and on the choice of game conditional on marriage. We find that, in the absence of social stigma or legal discrimination against unmarried couples, a couple will marry only if marriage serves as a commitment device which facilitates coope...

  13. A Brief Report on the Ethical and Legal Guides For Technology Use in Marriage and Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Michael; Patton, Rikki; Ray, Amber; Katafiasz, Heather

    2017-10-01

    Marriage and family therapists (MFTs) use ethical codes and state licensure laws/rules as guidelines for best clinical practice. It is important that professional codes reflect the potential exponential use of technology in therapy. However, current standards regarding technology use lack clarity. To explore this gap, a summative content analysis was conducted on state licensure laws/rules and professional ethical codes to find themes and subthemes among the many aspects of therapy in which technology can be utilized. Findings from the content analysis indicated that while there have been efforts by both state and professional organizations to incorporate guidance for technology use in therapy, a clear and comprehensive "roadmap" is still missing. Future scholarship is needed that develops clearer guidelines for therapists. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  14. 25 CFR 700.79 - Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage. 700.79 Section 700.79 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.79 Marriage. Marriage is a legally recorded marriage or a traditional commitment...

  15. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex mar...

  16. The cause of divorce among men and women referred to marriage and legal office in Qazvin, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barikani, Ameneh; Ebrahim, Sarichlow Mohamad; Navid, Mohammadi

    2012-08-27

    Marital separation and divorce can be the most unpleasant event in the adult's life, and families will be hurt by divorce event. The prevalence of divorce has been increased in last decades. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the divorce cause among the divorce seeking men and women in Qazvin, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 572 (400 women and 172 men) subjects who requested for divorce and were referred to divorce and marriage office of Qazvin province during 3 month in 2009. Data were collected by self - administered questionnaire, interviewing subjects and using Likert scale. Data were analyzed by Chi- Square test and Mann-Whitney (SPSS version 16). The participants of the study included 400 women (26.5 ± 7.4 years) and 172 men. In view points of women the primary wrong mate selection was main cause of divorce (59.8%), but the men believed that the families and relatives interference was the main reason for separation (43.7%). Among the respondents, mean score of "dependency to their families" and "unmet emotional needs" were 3.44 ± 1.6 and 3.86 ± 1.4 respectively. In addition mean score of infertility among men and women were 1.37 ± 1.0 and 1.29 ± 0.9 respectively. Wrong mate selection, unmet emotional needs, families' interference, and "dependency to families" are more important factors than traditional factors which are sexual or physical factors.

  17. Prototypes and same-gender bias in perceptions of hiring discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Rickard; Sinclair, Samantha

    2017-06-14

    The present study investigated the relative importance of two explanations behind perceptions of gender discrimination in hiring: prototypes and same-gender bias. According to the prototype explanation, people perceive an event as discrimination to the extent that it fits their preconceptions of typical discrimination. In contrast, the same-gender bias explanation asserts that people more readily detect discrimination toward members of their own gender. In four experiments (n = 797), women and men made considerably stronger discrimination attributions, and were moderately more discouraged from seeking work, when the victim was female rather than male. Further, a series of regressions analyses showed beliefs in discrimination of women to be moderately correlated with discrimination attributions of female victims, but little added explanatory value of participant gender, stigma consciousness, or feminist identification. The results offer strong support for the prototype explanation.

  18. Relationship of psoriasis severity to obesity using same-gender siblings as controls for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M L; Bergstresser, P R; Adams-Huet, B; Cohen, J B

    2009-03-01

    Psoriasis is a multifactorial disease affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Several comorbid conditions, such as smoking, depression and obesity have been found to be associated with psoriasis. This study addressed the association of psoriasis and obesity using same-gender full siblings as controls, correlating between body mass index (BMI) and severity of psoriasis as determined by body surface area (BSA) and the Physician's Global Assessment (PGA). In total, 88 patients undergoing outpatient treatment for psoriasis were surveyed for demographic information, psoriasis history, social history, personal and family medical history, whether they had a same-gender full sibling and if so, the age, weight and height of the sibling. Height, weight, PGA scores and percentage of BSA affected by psoriasis, were recorded for each patient. BMI was calculated for each patient and their same-gender full sibling. A positive association between psoriasis severity and BMI was found. PGA score increased with BMI (Spearman's correlation, r(s) = 0.29, P = 0.007). There was also a positive correlation between BMI and BSA%, r(s) = 0.24, P = 0.02. A significant difference in BMI between patients with psoriasis and the same-gender full sibling control was seen for women (mean +/- SD 30.2 +/- 10.2 vs. 27.6 +/- 7.3 kg/m(2), respectively, P = 0.02), but not for men. In this study, psoriasis severity was found to be related to the level of obesity. Using same-gender siblings as genetic controls for predisposition to both obesity and psoriasis, patients with psoriasis were more likely to have a higher BMI, particularly for women. This study reinforces the need to treat the whole patient and to encourage healthy living, such as maintaining an appropriate weight, proper eating habits and exercise. Limitations of this study include the relatively small number of patients enrolled, potential inaccuracies in sibling BMIs calculated from information provided by patients, and a lack of

  19. Different spouses sex as one of the main demands for valid marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Perkumienė, Dalia

    2005-01-01

    In all times marriage institution was, still is and will be one of the most important social and legal norms. Description of the marriage institution was changed in the course of history, depending on this time culture, relationship of the Church and the State and general outlook of the society. Marriage is very important part of family creation. It is a legal family base and condition for marriage legalization. For marriage legal registration, it must satisfy requirements, which are set ...

  20. Why Marriage?

    OpenAIRE

    Chit Hlaing, F.K.L.; Read, Dwight W

    2016-01-01

    Marriage is not founded straightforwardly upon procreation.  Rather, marriage is universally — not withstanding groups such as the Mosuo of China lacking institutionalized marriage — a contractua l relationship legitimating a woman’s childbearing and giving her offspring social identity.  While a child-bearing woman may simply take on the motherhood role, the same is not true for fatherhood.  Rather, marriage defines a male conceptually as fa...

  1. Problems of Under Age Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmiati Mawardi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The industrial development in Wonoayu district contributes to economic growth in society. On the other hand, there is a shift of norms because of open information access that affects sexual intercourse among teenagers.    This results in an early marriage because the girls have already been pregnant. This research uses a qualitative approach in order to investigate the influential factors, causes, motives and impact of the early marriage, and how society’s view on early  marriage in Wonoayu district. The contributing factors of early marriages are sexual intercourse and pre-marital pregnancy. The motives of early marriage are; religiously legal marriage, reducing economic burden of parent, and preserving social reputation of their parents. Meanwhile the impact of legally formal marriage is to avoid sin and to protect the children’s status legally. Economically, the family in general is not ready to get married, and psychologically they are not mature yet, because they still have strong ego and are not independent.

  2. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  3. Same sex marriage and the perceived assault on opposite sex marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Dinno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. CONCLUSION: A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers-including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages.

  4. Same Sex Marriage and the Perceived Assault on Opposite Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Whitney, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage benefits both individuals and societies, and is a fundamental determinant of health. Until recently same sex couples have been excluded from legally recognized marriage in the United States. Recent debate around legalization of same sex marriage has highlighted for anti-same sex marriage advocates and policy makers a concern that allowing same sex couples to marry will lead to a decrease in opposite sex marriages. Our objective is to model state trends in opposite sex marriage rates by implementation of same sex marriages and other same sex unions. Methods and Findings Marriage data were obtained for all fifty states plus the District of Columbia from 1989 through 2009. As these marriage rates are non-stationary, a generalized error correction model was used to estimate long run and short run effects of same sex marriages and strong and weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. We found that there were no significant long-run or short run effects of same sex marriages or of strong or weak same sex unions on rates of opposite sex marriage. Conclusion A deleterious effect on rates of opposite sex marriage has been argued to be a motivating factor for both the withholding and the elimination of existing rights of same sex couples to marry by policy makers–including presiding justices of current litigation over the rights of same sex couples to legally marry. Such claims do not appear credible in the face of the existing evidence, and we conclude that rates of opposite sex marriages are not affected by legalization of same sex civil unions or same sex marriages. PMID:23776536

  5. Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…

  6. Female same gender stalking: a brief review of the literature and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabellese, Felice; Candelli, Chiara; La Tegola, Donatella; Alfarano, Egle; Catanesi, Roberto

    2013-05-10

    The authors analyze a rare case of female same gender stalking that came to their observation as forensic psychiatry experts. Despite previously only heterosexual experiences, the woman, who was 30 in 2002, had three intimate same gender relationships in succession from 2002 to 2009: she broke off with each woman in order to take up with another. When she separated from the third woman she began violent persecutory behavior against her, in the form of harassment coming under the heading of stalking, and was reported to the authorities. In treatment with SSRI since 2003 for an anxiety disorder with panic episodes, she had been taking the drugs irregularly during the stalking period. At the end of the third relationship, after she had violently attacked her girlfriend she was advised by her family to present to a Hospital center in Northern Italy. There, she was diagnosed with a "Narcissistic Paranoid Personality Disorder", and it was hypothesized that the SSRI she was taking could have induced hypo/manic episodes and disinhibition in the woman, who had previously been heterosexual. At this hospital, mood stabilizers were prescribed. The defending lawyer therefore applied for a forensic psychiatry assessment, claiming that the persecutory behavior against the third girlfriend was induced by taking SSRI. In Italy the penal code specifies the recognition of abolished or diminished liability for crimes if a correlation between the mental disease and the crime can be demonstrated, if the disease was in course at the time of the crime, and if the motives behind the crime and the disease can be shown to be linked. In short, if the crime can be shown to be a symptom of the disease. But the forensic psychiatry assessment demonstrated that despite the presence of some factors of a psychopathological nature, the motives underlying the harassment were attributable to the woman's existential history and personality structure rather than to psychopathological causes. She was

  7. Uncoupling Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    In counseling groups, uncoupling partners learn to say their good-byes and accept the death of the marriage. They complete their unfinished business with each other. An organizational strategy is necessary. Skill in helping partners uncouple is a vital function of a marriage counselor, who must be proficient in group counseling. (Author)

  8. Radically Rethinking Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Barker

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of the Onati Socio-Legal Series offers inter-disciplinary, feminist perspectives that collectively ‘re-think’ the institution of marriage, not only in the field of legal discourse and institutions but also in the humanities and social sciences as well as through activisms. With a focus on jurisdictions in Europe, North America and Africa, the articles included in this issue challenge normative assumptions about marriage, reconsider forms of conjugality, re-write judicial interpretations and problematize legal and activist interventions and reasonings.Este número especial de la Oñati Socio-legal Series ofrece perspectivas interdisciplinarias y feministas que "re-piensan" colectivamente la institución del matrimonio, no sólo en el campo del discurso jurídico y las instituciones, sino también en las humanidades y ciencias sociales, así como en los activismos. Enfocándose en las jurisdicciones de Europa, América del Norte y África, los artículos incluidos en este número cuestionan las asunciones normativas sobre el matrimonio, reconsideran las formas de la conyugalidad, reescriben las interpretaciones judiciales y problematizan las intervenciones y razonamientos legales y activistas.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2890956

  9. The presentation of male same-gender abuse in W.K. Tamsanqa’s Ithemba liyaphilisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B. Mkonto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyse the manner in which W.K. Tamsanqa depicts aggression initiated by males against other males and in so doing, engendering same-gender abuse in “Ithemba liyaphilisa”. Tamsanqa identifies certain amaXhosa cultural practices as being socially oppressive in same-gender relations within families and society. In addition his presentation of the characters’ continuation of traditional gender ideology will be explored to highlight familial conflict. These familial conflicts, seen as horizontal violence, are exacerbated by tribal laws and customs which reinforce vertical violence.

  10. Mixed marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnić-Pejović Marija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the II World War, the population of the Boka Kotorska Bay was a mixture of Orthodox and Catholic confessions: approximately two thirds of the population was Orthodox, while one third belonged to the Catholics. In spite of the religious affiliation, mixed marriages were relatively often between these two groups. Based on a research in archives, this paper deals with such mixed marriages, formed mostly in 18th and 19th century, in the area of Herceg Novi. The second half of 19th century witnessed 639 of marriages, or 12,78 marriages per year, out of which 72 were mixed or 8,87%. In this particular period, 64 Catholic males married Orthodox females, while only 8 Orthodox males married Catholic females. The Church influence on the society was significant, including issues related to marriage, which sometimes created troubles for mixed marriages; however, positive civil and church regulations supported mixed marriages. Marriages between people of a different religious confession thus created wider kinship affiliations, which in turn enhanced religious tolerance, intertwining of different cultures and customs, and acceptance of different political and social views. The tolerance therefore affected political and social turmoil especially in troubled times, which made many issues easier: troubled issues were solved more rationally, and there were not so many persecutions based on someone’s religious affiliation. We need a wider perspective and a broader research on the Boka Kotorska Bay in order to understand how marriages and kinship ties affected a way of life and intertwining of cultural models of the East and West.

  11. Effects of Gender Role and Task Content on Performance in Same-Gender Dyads: Transactive Memory as a Potential Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michinov, Estelle; Michinov, Nicolas; Huguet, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was designed to examine the effects of gender role and task content on performance in learning dyads and to test the potential mediator effect of an intragroup process related to transactive memory. A total of 44 same-gender dyads participated in the study and were asked to collaborate on a stereotypically masculine or feminine…

  12. Marriage Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help with many specific issues, including: Communication problems Sexual difficulties Conflicts about child rearing or blended families Substance abuse Anger Infidelity Marriage counseling might also be helpful in cases ...

  13. Marriage Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to improve a troubled relationship. You can use marriage counseling to help with many specific issues, including: Communication problems Sexual difficulties Conflicts about child rearing or blended families Substance abuse Anger Infidelity ...

  14. Forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

  15. Polygamy and patriarchy: an intimate look at marriage in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines polygamous customary marriage in Ghana, West Africa, in the context of colonial policy and legislation, which established the current plural legal environment in which Ghanaians negotiate their marriages and the dissolution of marriages. The human rights polemic between universalist advocates of ...

  16. Rhetorical Strategies in Legal Argumentation. Some remarks on the recent decisions of the Portuguese Tribunal Constitucional and the Italian Corte Costituzionale on same-sex marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Damele

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Legal argumentation is usually considered the more formal (or, at least, formalistic kind of practical argumentation, thanks to the long tradition of “legal syllogism” as its formal instrument, but also to its legal restraint (the formalistic aspect. Yet, in arguments such as those used, for example, by high courts in their justifications, we may find not only strict formalism and adherence to the letter of the law, but also the attempt to resolve differences of opinion and conflicts of interest, and perhaps also the rhetorical attempt to persuade the legal community, the legislator or even public opinion of the soundness of the court’s decision. But there could be more than that. I think that contemporary theories of legal argumentation have let aside the idea that the analysis of legal argumentations can show the judges' hidden ideological and political positions by resorting to traditional legal arguments. Just as an example, it may be interesting to analyze the justificatory function of argumentations contained in two decisions taken by two constitutional courts, in Italy and in Portugal, on the same question. Why constitutional courts and not, for example, a court of first instance? Constitutional judges, apparently, do not need to persuade anybody: there is no higher judicial authority, and their interpretation of constitutional text is definitive. For this reason, one can assume that strategic argumentation plays little role in the arguments justifying their verdicts. I hope I can show that this assumption may not, fully, reflect the reality.

  17. Child marriage in Bangladesh: trends and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, S M Mostafa; Hassan, Che Hashim; Alam, Gazi Mahabubul; Ying, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the trends and determinants of child marriage among women aged 20-49 in Bangladesh. Data were extracted from the last six nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys conducted during 1993-2011. Simple cross-tabulation and multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were adopted. According to the survey conducted in 2011, more than 75% of marriages can be categorized as child marriages. This is a decline of 10 percentage points in the prevalence of child marriage compared with the survey conducted in 1993-1994. Despite some improvements in education and other socioeconomic indicators, Bangladeshi society still faces the relentless practice of early marriage. The mean age at first marriage has increased by only 1.4 years over the last one and half decades, from 14.3 years in 1993-1994 to 15.7 years in 2011. Although the situation on risk of child marriage has improved over time, the pace is sluggish. Both the year-of-birth and year-of-marriage cohorts of women suggest that the likelihood of marrying as a child has decreased significantly in recent years. The risk of child marriage was significantly higher when husbands had no formal education or little education, and when the wives were unemployed or unskilled workers. Muslim women living in rural areas have a greater risk of child marriage. Women's education level was the single most significant negative determinant of child marriage. Thus, the variables identified as important determinants of child marriage are: education of women and their husbands, and women's occupation, place of residence and religion. Programmes to help and motivate girls to stay in school will not only reduce early marriage but will also support overall societal development. The rigid enforcement of the legal minimum age at first marriage could be critical in decreasing child marriage.

  18. Several Key Features of Marriage in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2014-01-01

    In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special empha...

  19. Marriage equality is a mental health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealy-Bateman, Warren; Pryor, Lisa

    2015-10-01

    We aim to review marriage equality in New Zealand and Australia and critically evaluate the health impact of such a legal change. We undertook a review of the literature using the search terms "marriage equality", "same sex marriage" and "gay marriage" in combination with "health", "wellbeing", "psych*", "mental illness" and "distress". This search included medical literature, legal literature and mass media. This review indicates that Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender and Intersex (LGBTI) people disproportionately face negative health stressors and negative health events compared with the general population and this is related to the stress of being a stigmatised minority group. The evidence strongly supports the proposition that marriage equality is related to improved health outcomes. A diverse range of professional health groups advocate for the legislative progression to marriage equality. The authors found no evidence that marriage equality harms opposite-sex marriage. Marriage equality is still lacking in Australia and as a positive correlate of health should be strongly supported. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  20. Gray and white matter volume abnormalities in monozygotic and same-gender dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilshoff, Hilleke E.; Brans, Rachel G. H.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole brain tissue volume decreases in schizophrenia have been related to both genetic risk factors and disease-related (possibly nongenetic) factors; however, whether genetic and environmental risk factors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia are differentially reflected...... matter volume are related to environmental risk factors. Study of genes involved in the (maintenance) of white matter structures may be particularly fruitful in schizophrenia...... in gray or white matter volume change is not known. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (1.5 T) brain scans of 11 monozygotic and 11 same-gender dizygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia were acquired and compared with 11 monozygotic and 11 same-gender dizygotic healthy control twin pairs. RESULTS...

  1. Different Rights, Different Perspectives: Observations on the Same-Sex Marriage Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, J. Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario and British Columbia courts of appeal have held that the restriction of marriage to heterosexuals is unconstitutional. Opposing views in same-sex marriage litigation arise from different definitions of "marriage." Proposed federal legislation would legalize same-sex marriage but not resolve the larger, underlying issue of how…

  2. Mental Illness and Nullity of Marriage: Indian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi, Siva; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Marriage is a social institution that formalizes and stabilizes the union between a man and wife. At times, either of the parties undergoing the contract of marriage may ask it be declared null and void. Psychiatrists and legal experts may be called in to provide opinion whether such a marriage should be annulled. Some laws in India do state unsoundness of mind as a valid reason for nullity of marriage. However, determining unsoundness of mind can be a difficult issue, especially when made in retrospect. This paper highlights some cases where nullity of marriage was contested in view of unsoundness of mind. Furthermore, some issues encountered by psychiatrists pertaining to nullity of marriage are discussed. Though psychiatrists and legal experts may have different ways of approaching the issue of nullity on the basis of psychiatric disorder, the overall aim of both remains the same of avoiding broken homes, upholding the dignity of the individual and legal framework.

  3. Assessment of non-response bias in a probability household survey of male same-gender sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izazola-Licea, J A; Gortmaker, S L; De Gruttola, V; Tolbert, K; Mann, J

    2000-01-01

    To assess non-participation bias in a survey of male sexual behavior. A household survey was carried out in 1992-1993 using a probability sampling frame in Mexico City. Demographic variables were available for all eligible men. The extent of non-participation bias was estimated using a version of the Heckman method, which utilizes two equations, one to predict participation and the other to predict reports of same-gender sexual behavior. A total of 8,068 of the 13,713 eligible men completed a face-to-face questionnaire (response rate 59%); 173 men (2.1%) reported bisexual behavior in their lifetime, and 37 (0.4%) reported only male partners. Survey participation was predicted using demographic variables: 67% of the observations were correctly predicted by a probit regression model: 82% of participants and 53% of non-participants (pseudo-r2 = 0.13). Same-gender sexual behavior was predicted by variables indicating attachment to gay/bisexual social networks, history of sexually transmitted diseases, positive attitudes towards gay and bisexual males, and lack of support from male relatives. Ninety-seven per cent of the cases was correctly predicted by the probit model (pseudo-r2 = 0.14). The correlation between these two equations was not statistically significant. These results indicate that prevalence estimates of same-gender sexual behavior among Mexico City men were not biased by selective survey participation. Careful selection and training of household interviewers may have assisted in minimizing potential bias.

  4. Ningxia People's Congress adopts marriage law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-15

    A supplement to the national marriage law was adopted by the 3rd session of the 4th People's Congress of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region which ended here today. The supplement includes a number of areas. With regard to marriage age it says no marriage shall be contracted before the man has reached 20 years of age and the woman 18. Both these figures are 2 years earlier than the national age specified by the national law. Legal marriage registration must not be replaced by religious ceremonies. With regard to Moslems, those who want religious wedding ceremonies can do so only after obtaining their marriage certificates. Freedom of marriage of widows is protected against any interference under any pretext. Marriage between Hui people and other nationalities, of their own free will, must not be interfered with. The nationality of any children shall be decided by the parents and children may reexamine the decision themselves when they grow up. The supplement has been adopted in accordance with the national marriage law's article 36 which says "The people's congresses and their standing committees in national autonomous areas may enact certain modifications or supplementary articles in keeping with the principles of this law and in conformity with the actual conditions prevailing among the minority nationalities of the locality in regard to marriage and family relations." The congress, held from June 9-June 14, reviewed the implementation of the Communist Party's policies on nationalities and development of economy, culture, education and public health. full text

  5. Comment on "The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis

    2014-12-01

    In the recent Demography article titled "The Effect of Same-Sex Marriage Laws on Different-Sex Marriage: Evidence From the Netherlands," Trandafir attempted to answer the question, Are rates of opposite sex marriage affected by legal recognition of same-sex marriages? The results of his approach to statistical inference-looking for evidence of a difference in rates of opposite-sex marriage-provide an absence of evidence of such effects. However, the validity of his conclusion of no causal relationship between same-sex marriage laws and rates of opposite-sex marriage is threatened by the fact that Trandafir did not also look for equivalence in rates of opposite-sex marriage in order to provide evidence of an absence of such an effect. Equivalence tests in combination with difference tests are introduced and presented in this article as a more valid inferential approach to the substantive question Trandafir attempted to answer.

  6. Early marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    According to research conducted by Anti-Slavery International, child marriage not only persists in many parts of Africa and Asia, but may be increasing. Although many countries have set an age minimum (generally 15 years or older) for marriage, this applies only to couples who lack parental permission. For example, girls in Sri Lanka, Ecuador, and Uruguay can marry at age 12 years with parental consent and no minimum age is stipulated for couples in Ghana and Bangladesh with permission. In general, about half of African women are married by the age of 18 years. Demand for younger brides (and child prostitutes) is in part attributable to older men's fear of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Free and full consent is often ignored. In Gambia, a survey of 470 young wives revealed that 36% had not been asked for their consent and did not know they were to be married until the ceremony. Husbands are able to exert strict control over the productive and reproductive roles of child brides, and suicides and physical abuse are not infrequent among these young women.

  7. Protection of spouses in informal marriages by human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Rutten

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with one of the aspects of a pluralistic society: the existence of informal marriages. These are marriages concluded in accordance with religious or cultural traditions that do not comply with the requirements of the formal secular legal order. Two aspects of those marriages will be discussed: primarily, whether and to what extent spouses in informal marriages should be regarded and protected by law as spouses, and secondly, whether spouses who are involuntary kept in their informal marriages should be released by and protected by formal law. With regard to both aspects the question will be raised whether human rights could and should serve as a means to offer spouses of informal marriages their desired protection. From recent case law both from the European Court of Human Rights and the national courts, it becomes clear that human rights have only recently and very cautiously started to demand a role in the informal legal orders.

  8. Several Key Features of Marriage in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special emphasis is put on the essential (material conditions of marital union. The paper provides sufficient reasons for which the positive law in Kosovo has provided on the free expression of will of spouses; opposite sexes; the age threshold; entry into matrimony before a competent state authority, and under a procedure provided by law, as substantial conditions for entering a valid matrimony. Sufficient room is allowed also for the treatment of consequences and responsibilities of various entities if marriage is developed without obeying substantial conditions as provided by law. Due to the nature of the paper, formal conditions for entering matrimony are not addressed. The right to enter marriage and establish a family under provided legal conditions is guaranteed to every Kosovo citizen, as a substantial right. The marriage is a basic cell of the family, and as such, it is protected by the state and society. Apart from normative and sociological methods, I have also used the historical method in developing this paper. The purpose was to discover several marriage features, which used to exist, and do not anymore, and also underline some new features, which nowadays form the pillars of the marriage.

  9. “Does Marriage Matter?” Revisited: The stability, fertility and mortality of the Swedish 1989 Marriage Boom cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Jennifer; Perelli-Harris soton ac uk, B. G.; Andersson, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    A common finding across studies of the association between family context and wellbeing is a positive correlation between marriage and a host of outcomes related to union quality and stability, mental and physical health, job prospects and economic wellbeing for spouses and their children. The magnitude of the marriage premium and whether it is purely driven by selection remains elusive. We situate our study in Sweden, a context where the legal and social value of marriage is not greatly diff...

  10. Marriage and the Civilizing of Male Sexual Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosik, Christopher H.; Byrd, A. Dean

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. M. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States." There are many arguable contentions Herek made in his defense of same-sex marriage. We have chosen to focus on only one in this commentary: What is the active ingredient in marriage that serves the socially advantageous goal of civilizing…

  11. Ethical relativism and same-sex marriage | Ushie | Sophia: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is, therefore, the evaluation of same-sex marriage from the prism of ethical relativism aimed at providing grounding for the evaluation of same-sex marriage as right or wrong, good or bad, moral or immoral, which evokes different ethical emotions from the legal or legislative standpoints taken by the ...

  12. Sexuality Within Female Same-Gender Couples: Definitions of Sex, Sexual Frequency Norms, and Factors Associated with Sexual Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shelby B; Ritchie, Lane; Knopp, Kayla; Rhoades, Galena K; Markman, Howard J

    2018-04-01

    Despite a growing number of female same-gender (FSG) relationships, couples-based research and interventions have focused primarily on mixed-gender couples. Consequently, research has applied a heteronormative lens to understanding some relationship factors, including sexuality. The current study sought to provide descriptive data regarding frequency and conceptualizations of sex across partners in FSG relationships, as well as to analyze how relationship factors are associated with sexual satisfaction in this population. Participants (N = 206) were 103 adult FSG couples who had been together for at least 2 months. Individuals provided self-report data on how they conceptualized sex, and actor-partner models were utilized to assess relationship factors associated with sexual satisfaction. Findings indicated that women in FSG relationships hold broad definitions of sex, with the majority of behaviors conceptualized as sex, including acts that involved partnered genital touching. In dyadic actor-partner models, sexual satisfaction was predicted by several factors including sexual frequency, emotional intimacy, and sexual intimacy. Unexpectedly, higher desired sexual frequency was associated with lower sexual satisfaction; however, this finding only emerged after controlling for actual sexual frequency, suggesting that discrepancies between desired and actual sex frequency may be important for FSG couples. Implications for clinical practice with FSG couples are explored, including a strength-based focus on broad conceptualizations of sex within this population and targeting relationship factors associated with sexual satisfaction.

  13. Same-sex marriage and context-specific kinship terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould, Patricia; Whitlow, C Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether married gays and lesbians in Massachusetts are using the kinship terms commonly associated with marriage in referring to and introducing their marriage partners and, if not, whether alternative terms are being used in a variety of social contexts. We demonstrate through survey and interview data that marriage-related terms are used discriminately, are consciously chosen, and are context specific. Choices are dependent on a variety of factors related to personal demographics, speech community associations, intimacy, identity, and safety. A significant difference in the use of terms after legal marriage has occurred suggesting a shift in attitude.

  14. Black LGB Identities and Perceptions of Same-Sex Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee PhD Canditate, Jess

    2018-01-10

    The 2015 SCOTUS ruling legalizing same-sex marriage was hailed as a universal victory for the lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) community, but the pervasive support mobilized to achieve this goal may mask important dissension and inequality within the community. Specifically, how race may shape or perpetuate inequalities in the LGB community through same-sex marriage largely has been absent from the discussion. Focusing on the perceived impact of same-sex marriage in respondents' lives, I investigate the relationship between Black LGBs' perception of same-sex marriage legalization and their intersectional identities and community membership. Drawing from the 2010 Social Justice Sexuality Project survey, I explain the complexity of the attitudes of Black LGBs to the legalization of same-sex marriage and illustrate that (1) Black LGBs exhibit heterogeneous interpretation of the effects of same-sex marriage legalization on their lives based on their racial and sexual identities, and (2) same-sex marriage may provide Black LGBs the rationale to affirm their racial community membership as sexual minorities. This study pushes our understanding of the relationship between intersectional identities and individuals' perceptions of the self, identity-based community memberships, and social institutions.

  15. WOMAN’S POSITION IN UNDOCUMENTED MARRIAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thriwaty Arsal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The term of undocumented marriage is only known in Muslim community in Indonesia. Undocumented marriage is a legal type of marriage based on Islam as long as it is meets the marriage’s legal requirements; however, it is diverge from the state rules because it is not registered in the authorized institution for marriage. A woman who married with this type of marriage, based on law and administration, has no clear identity before the state. It will make her difficult to have her right as a wife. Undocumented marriage will give weak position for children by law. In addition, women’s position in this type of marriage is the disadvantage object. Although undocumented marriage has negative impact especially on women and children; in Warurejo, however, this marriage is widely dispersed among the community. Research is conducted in Warurejo village, East Java using qualitative, quantitative and semantic approaches. Research result shows that the women’s position in this undocumented marriage is having discrimination, subordination, no bargaining power in the family, and susceptible for cervix cancer. They do not have any option for the future because it is determined by family, norm and value system prevailed in the community. Istilah nikah siri hanya dikenal pada masyarakat muslim Indonesia. Nikah siri adalah bentuk pernikahan yang sah secara agama Islam sepanjang memenuhi syarat sahnya pernikahan tapi dianggap menyimpang dari peraturan negara karena tidak terdaftar pada lembaga yang berwenang mengurusi masalah perkawinan. Perempuan yang nikah siri, secara catatan hukum atau administrasi tidak memiliki identitas yang jelas di hadapan negara. Sulit untuk mendapatkan hak-haknya sebagai seorang istri. Pernikahan siri berdampak pula pada kelemahan posisi anak secara hukum. Selain itu, posisi perempuan dalam nikah siri juga lebih banyak menjadi objek yang dirugikan. Walaupun nikah siri mempunyai dampak negatif khususnya terhadap perempuan dan anak

  16. "Two men under one cloak"---the Sages permit it: homosexual marriage in Judaism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Jacob A; Ulmer, Rivka B Kern

    2008-01-01

    This article examines halakhic (Jewish legal) passages that relate to homosexuality and marriage between two males. The article sets forth the respective positions of contemporary Jewish denominations in regard to homosexual marriage. Homosexual marriage is a case of first impression in Judaism and requires new decisions and new marriage contracts. The principal thesis of the article is that contemporary Judaism can accommodate philosophically--but also legally--a halakhic framework of thinking, same-sex marriage between men. Judaism does not have to opt for the perspectives of Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism, which have, to a major extent, freed themselves from the traditions and rituals of Jewish law. After examining marriage contracts in Rabbinic literature, specific examples are presented of how homosexual marriage between two males may be implemented.

  17. The Institution of Marriage in Old Romanian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel ASANDULUI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The institution of marriage is considered one the most important institutions of the family. In this thesis we propose to make a short presentation of this institution, its evolution in Romania, until the advent of the Civil Code and the imposition of civil status records, during the reig n of Alexandru Ioan Cuza. The presentation of Roman legal regulations concerning marriage are intended to make the transition towards the existing institution of marriage in the Geto-Dacian space; there are many similarities between the two forms of regulation of this type of marriage. Until the advent of written standards, the marriage was concluded in accordance with the depositions of Country Rules. The form of concluding a marriage was the religious blessing, without an official written document. The emergence of Christianity has brought profound changes regarding the institution of marriage because the Christian church considered marriage as a Holy Communion where the religious moment coincided with the law. The written standards which will regulate the institution of marriage were inspired from the nomocoanons and collections of Roman-byzantine law, after some modification and adaptation to the internal relations and requirements.

  18. Forgotten marriages? Measuring the reliability of marriage histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators. METHODS Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), I compare marriage histories reported by the same respondents at two different points in time. I investigate whether respondents consistently report their spouses (by name), status of marriage, and dates of marriage. I use multivariate regression models to investigate the characteristics associated with misreporting. Finally, I examine whether misreporting marriages and marriage dates affects marriage indicators. RESULTS Results indicate that 28.3% of men and 17.9% of women omitted at least one marriage in one of the survey waves. Multivariate regression models show that misreporting is not random: marriage, individual, interviewer, and survey characteristics are associated with marriage omission and marriage date inconsistencies. Misreporting also affects marriage indicators. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of its kind to examine the reliability of marriage histories collected in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although marriage histories are frequently used to study marriage dynamics, until now no knowledge has existed on the degree of misreporting. Misreporting in marriage histories is shown to be non-negligent and could potentially affect analyses. PMID:27152090

  19. The Institution Of Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Louise; Hodzic, Lejla; Löchte, Frans; Stjerneby, Luna; Ravn, Katrine; Zampetis, Marios

    2014-01-01

    How do Simone De Beauvoir and Phyllis Schlafly describe marriage, and what role does the woman play in their respective conceptions of the ideal marriage? In this project the point of departure is taken in the opposing opinions of feminist philosopher Simone De Beauvoir and conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly on the subject of marriage and the ethics and morality within. With the help of critical analysis and skepticism, this project delves into opinions and arguments uttered by Schlafly a...

  20. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  1. Whither the Marriage Tax?

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; J. Sebastian Leguizamon

    2015-01-01

    We use household data from the Current Population Survey to calculate how the real value of the so-called "marriage tax" or "marriage subsidy" in the federal individual income tax has changed over the period 1969 to 2009. We examine three issues: the magnitude of the marriage tax/subsidy and its evolution over time, its effects on the distribution of income (including the effects of different demographic characteristics on the magnitudes and trends), and the causal factors in its evolution (e...

  2. PREVENT CHILD MARRIAGE: AN ESSAY WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO KANYASHREE PRAKALPA OF WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    ALI, MD HASAN; Jha, Dr. Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Child marriage is one of serious social crisis in the world today. A marriage is regarded as a child marriage in technical sense when the matrimonial tie occurs between a minor boy and a minor girl or one of them does not reach at the legal age of marriage. Practically it is a form of early and forced alliance that is unfortunately considered to be a traditional norm and practice. Child marriage is a serious human right violation because it has a debilitating impact on the lives specially of ...

  3. [Coresidence with parents and marriage in recent Japan. Comment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshitani, N

    1991-10-01

    The relationship between marriage and parent-child relations was studied. Marriage was understood as formation of a new family and also as an extension and enlargement of a parent generation's family. Kaneko reports that advanced level of education of women, change in norm consciousness, and inequality in sex ratio at marriageable age contribute to the phenomenon called marriage delay/avoidance by influencing a series of events leading up to marriage at some point. He makes a novel attempt to elucidate mechanism and impact of various factors at play through demographic analysis of the 1st marriage process. This attempt is timely because the recent trend in legal sociology is to take more dynamic approach in studying marriage and divorce. For example, they include premarital and exmarital co-habitations in the scope of their study. Suzuki reports that the marriage norm is based upon the notion of marriage for all and traditional gender-associated divisions of roles. He says highly educated women have a different norm and men perceive this as a disadvantage and regression in the marriage norm. The norm has changed: society is severely critical of male extramarital sex and less critical of female premarital sex. Sex norms and marriage norms are relatively independent of each other. Men's attitude toward intergenerational relationships is from the perspective of a child taking care of aged parents, while women's attitude toward the same is from the perspective of an aged parent, especially a widowed parent. Men prefer separate household routines, while women prefer coresidence, both of which reflect the norm consciousness of an aging society. Mr. Nakano concludes in his report that marriage delay and avoidance among unmarried young Japanese women is due to their perception of married life as something of diminishing utility. He analyses this attitude toward marriage from the viewpoint of women's career options. Their opinions of ideals are polarized, either full time

  4. Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

  5. "Halal" Intimacy: Love, Marriage and Polygamy in Contemporary Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Razif, Nurul Huda

    2017-01-01

    This thesis illustrates how love, legality, money, sex(uality) and sin direct Malays’ marital strategies in the face of various social, moral, religious and structural pressures. Passionate love (cinta) is cherished and celebrated by Malays – that is, if it is indulged within marriage. Marriage serves as a license to engage in (otherwise illicit) sexual desires by rendering them “halal” or lawful in the eyes of Islam and Malay adat (traditions). A vigilant State-led Islamic Bureaucracy, which...

  6. Age Differences in LGBT Attitudes Toward Marriage Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Maccio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare attitudes of older versus younger lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals regarding marriage equality. Data were collected via self-report questionnaires from 350 LGBT adults in a mid-size city in the southern United States. Older and younger LGBT cohorts did not differ significantly in voter registration, political party affiliation, awareness of LGBT political issues, or voting on social issues. Older LGBT adults were less likely to find same-sex marriage important. Yet, age cohorts did not differ significantly on legalizing same-sex marriage. Social work implications are discussed regarding this policy area.

  7. Abuse by marriage: the exploitation of mentally ill older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, Carmelle; Brodaty, Henry; Bridger, Marie

    2008-09-01

    (i) To raise awareness about the vulnerability of mentally ill older persons to abuse by others seeking to gain by marriage; (ii) to outline key legal cases from common law countries; and (iii) to provide guidelines for health care professionals who encounter this issue in practice. We present two cases: the first case involved an 87-year-old widower who married his carer--50 years his junior--in a religious ceremony while hypomanic. The second case involved an 82-year-old widow with moderate dementia who married her boarder, the marriage subsequently being found void in the Family Court of Australia on the basis that her consent was not real because she was incapable of understanding the nature and effect of the marriage ceremony. Abuse by marriage may be of a psychological, sexual, social or financial nature.Older people with impaired judgement and inability to appraise others due to mental illness may be persuaded to execute legal documents such as marriage certificates. Health care professionals may have a role in the identification and management of this kind of abuse. There are legal means to address this problem ranging from guardianship and financial management to family law court applications to seek a decree of nullity/invalidity of the marriage.

  8. Semi-legal family life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    . The married couples subjected to this mobile lifestyle are always in a process of becoming illegal, which is the consequence of ‘overstaying’ in Denmark or ‘understaying’ in Sweden. Besides its legal aspects, a semi-legal status also has significant moral implications that not only restructure marriage......In 2002, the Danish government introduced new legislation on family reunification to restrict the transnational arranged marriages that were occurring among some immigrant groups. Since then, thousands of people have emigrated from Denmark to Sweden where, as citizens of the European Union......, they are entitled to family reunification. In this article, I introduce the concept of semi-legality to describe the situation whereby Pakistani transnational couples commute on a regular basis between their legal residences in Sweden and their places of work or networks of friends and family in Denmark...

  9. Same-sex marriage: a new social phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally.

  10. Sex, Courtship, and Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiferth, Berniece

    The author presents an historical perspective on abortion, contraception and marriage as a prelude to an examination of changing attitudes toward sex. The article deals with the negative effects attributed to the increased incidence of early dating and early marriage of teenagers in the United States. The author also assumes positions on such…

  11. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: evidence from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-02-01

    It has long been argued that the legalization of same-sex marriage would have a negative impact on marriage. In this article, I examine how different-sex marriage in the Netherlands was affected by the enactment of two laws: a 1998 law that provided all couples with an institution almost identical to marriage (a "registered partnership") and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988-2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different-sex marriage rate. I next construct a unique individual-level data set covering the period 1995-2005 by combining the Dutch Labor Force Survey and official municipal records. The estimates from a discrete-time hazard model with unobserved heterogeneity for the first-marriage decision confirm the findings in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law.

  12. Legal recognition of same-sex couples and family formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    It has long been debated how legalizing same-sex marriage would impact (different-sex) family formation. In this paper, I use data on OECD member countries for the period 1980–2009 to examine the effects of the legal recognition of same-sex couples (through marriage or an alternative institution......) on different-sex marriage, divorce, and extramarital births. Estimates from difference-in-difference models indicate that the introduction of same-sex marriage or of alternative institutions has no negative effects on family formation. These findings are robust to a multitude of specification checks, including...

  13. Curbing child marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S I

    Demographers are interested in marriage age because women who marry early are exposed to conceptions through the most fecund years of their lives. Women who marry young are exposed comparatively to a longer duration and tend to shorten the intergenerational years, consequently influencing the fertility to be higher. In India, despite the law, child marriages occur in many states, more prevalent among the backward conservative communities. According to India's Child Marriage Restraint Act, a woman must be 18 to marry (a man 21), but in fact in 1981 the marriage age of females was 15. This young marriage age is substantiated by available survey and report data. For example, in a mass marriage solemnized at Wardha village in Vidisha district in 1981, there was not 1 of the 110 couples of the prescribed marriage age. 55 of the brides were below age 10 and 48 were between 10-12 years. Only 8 brides were older than 14 years. A survey conducted by the Population Research Center, Lucknow University, revealed that more than half of the females surveyed were married before age 15. The census data for 1981 provide the following information: 1.19 million or 2.63% of the total 45.18 million boys aged 10-14 years and 2.67 million or 6.59% of the total 40.49 million girls were married. Christians had the highest mean age at marriage followed by Sikhs and Jains, but all religious groups had shown an improvement in their age at marriage. Several factors are responsible for child marriage. Consequently, a multidimensional approach to dealing with the problem is needed. The way to bring about this change is through creating more job and educational opportunities for women.

  14. Performative family: homosexuality, marriage and intergenerational dynamics in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Susanne Yp; Luo, Ming

    2016-06-01

    Using in-depth interview data on nominal marriages - legal marriages between a gay man and a lesbian to give the appearance of heterosexuality - this paper develops the concept of performative family to explain the processes through which parents and their adult children negotiate and resolve disagreements in relation to marriage decisions in post-socialist China. We identify three mechanisms - network pressure, a revised discourse of filial piety and resource leverage - through which parents influence their gay offspring's decision to turn to nominal marriage. We also delineate six strategies, namely minimizing network participation, changing expectations, making partial concessions, drawing the line, delaying decisions and ending the marriage, by which gay people in nominal marriages attempt to meet parental expectations while simultaneously retaining a degree of autonomy. Through these interactions, we argue that Chinese parents and their gay adult children implicitly and explicitly collaborate to perform family, emphasizing the importance of formally meeting society's expectations about marriage rather than substantively yielding to its demands. We also argue that the performative family is a pragmatic response to the tension between the persistent centrality of family and marriage and the rising tide of individualism in post-socialist China. We believe that our findings highlight the specific predicament of homosexual people. They also shed light on the more general dynamics of intergenerational negotiation because there is evidence that the mechanisms used by parents to exert influence may well be similar between gay and non-gay people. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  15. Dementia and legal competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaković, Pavo; Erić, Anamarija Petek; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-06-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity - fully or partially. Given the increasing number of persons with dementia, they are often subjects of legal expertise concerning their legal capacity. On the other part, emphasis on the civil rights of mentally ill also demands their maximal protection. Therefore such distinctive issue is approached with particular attention. The approach in determination of legal competency is more focused on gradation of it's particular aspects instead of existing dual concept: legally capable - legally incapable. The main assumption represents how person with dementia is legally capable and should enjoy all the rights, privileges and obligations as other citizens do. The aspects of legal competency for which person with dementia is going to be deprived, due to protection of one's rights and interests, are determined in legal procedure and then passed over to the guardian decided by court. Partial annulment of legal competency is measure applied when there is even one existing aspect of preserved legal capability (pension disposition, salary or pension disposition, ability of concluding contract, making testament, concluding marriage, divorce, choosing whereabouts, independent living, right to vote, right to decide course of treatment ect.). This measure is most often in favour of the patient and rarely for protection of other persons and their interests. Physicians are expected to precisely describe early dementia symptoms which may influence assessment of specific aspects involved in legal capacity (memory loss, impaired task

  16. A Study on The Marriage Phenomenolgy of Commuter Marriage Spouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B’tari Sekar Nastiti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In general, the marriage is lived by a spouse who lives together and cooperates with each other to shape the family. Recently, many couples do not live together, but in a distant city, and are called a long-distance marriage or a commuter marriage. From many reasons that create the long distance marriage, one of which is the job. The aim of this study is to find out the condition of the marriage life in commuter marriage and the dynamics on perceived marital satisfaction. This research method uses the qualitative method. Subjects in this study are 3 pairs of husband and wife practicing commuter marriage, which has a minimum marriage age of 5 years and has at least one child. The research result has shown that wives tend to experience dissatisfaction in the marriage, while the husbands feel quite happy in the marriage.

  17. Marriage: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisfeld, Glenn E; Weisfeld, Carol C

    2002-12-01

    Marriage is universal, and pair bonding is found in other species too with highly dependent young. So marriage functions as a reproductive social arrangement that traditionally involved the extended family. The sexes are not identical in their biological contributions to children's survival, so they seek somewhat different attributes in a mate. Men seek a young, attractive, sexually faithful bride. Women seek a man who is older, taller, and (as in many other species) socially dominant. Both sexes prefer a kind, healthy, attractive, similar mate who is emotionally attached to them. A spouse who fails to maintain sufficiently high mate value is vulnerable to divorce. Infertility and sexual dissatisfaction predict divorce, as does death of a child, but the more children, the stabler the marriage. Cross-cultural data suggest that cruel or subdominant men (e.g., poor providers) and unfaithful women are prone to divorce. Marriages in which the wife dominates the husband in economic contributions, nonverbal behavior, and decision making tend to be less satisfying. In societies in which wives are economically independent of husbands, divorce rates are high. As women's economic power has risen with industrialization, divorce rates have climbed. Economic and fitness considerations also help explain cultural differences in polygyny, age at marriage, arranged marriage, concern with the bride's sexual chastity, and marriage ceremonies. Other factors also affect marital dynamics, such as state subsidies to families, the sex ratio, and influence of the couple's parents.

  18. Religion and Gay Marriage: The Use of Religion in the Debate Concerning Same-Sex Marriage in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Røkke, Frida

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s the issue of same-sex marriage has been publicly debated in the United States. This debate has lasted for several decades and gone through court cases and ballot measures to find a solution to the question. As several states legalized same-sex marriage the situation became tense and the demand to find a solution grew. In the summer of 2015, the United States Supreme Court handled the question of federal legalization of same-sex marriage and ruled in favor of it. As the propone...

  19. Same-sex marriage in South Africa: The road ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Swanepoel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The status of same-sex partnerships is currently a hotly debated issue in various jurisdictions and also in South Africa. Section 9 of the Bill of Rights in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa2 prohibits unfair discrimination by the State, inter alia, on grounds of gender, sex and sexual orientation. The question that arises is whether the legal definition of marriage, being a relationship between one man and one woman, constitutes discrimination, and if so, whether such discrimination is unfair. The legal position has become acute in South Africa. Legal uncertainty prevails with regard to the legal status of such couples. Various applications have been brought before branches of the High Court and the Constitutional Court for relief relating to particular personal and patrimonial consequences of marriage. In some cases the respective courts had to establish on an ad hoc basis whether a long term relationship indicative of a marriage-like relationship existed in order to bestow the particular relief requested by the applicant couple. The very fact that an ad hoc determination has to be made because, of course, there is no celebration of a valid marriage creates an untenable situation for such couples. The question posed above, forms the focal point of serious, and often insulting, legal debate. This contribution endeavors to give a brief overview of the various viewpoints, and thereafter to add to the debate.

  20. Polyamory, Social Conservatism and the Same-Sex Marriage Debate in the US

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2007-01-01

    The arguments against same-sex marriage used by the Christian right and other social conservatives in the US have shifted in character. Drawing upon the work of Stanley Kurtz, they have increasingly suggested that same-sex marriage will necessarily lead to the legal recognition of polygamous...

  1. The Power and Limits of Marriage: Married Gay Men's Family Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocobock, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    Same-sex marriage has received much scholarly attention in the United States in the past decade. Yet we know little about how same-sex couples experience marriage. In this article, I present findings from in-depth interviews with 32 legally married gay men in Iowa. I focus on their experiences with families of origin and investigate the…

  2. Migration for Labor, Migration for Love: Marriage and Family Formation across Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Addresses how marriage and migration interacted using migration to the United States as an example; the key variables determining this relationship were demographics, legal policies, cultural perceptions, and information and technology. Maintains that the influence of an international marriage market affected the migration decisions of women who…

  3. Adlerian Marriage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jon; Dinkmeyer, Don, Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the assumptions, processes, and techniques used in Alderian marriage therapy. Describes purpose of therapy as assessing current beliefs and behaviors while educating the couple in new procedures that can help the couple establish new goals. (Author/ABL)

  4. Marriage age in islamic and contemporary muslim family laws. A comparative survey

    OpenAIRE

    Büchler, Andrea; Schlatter, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the world, marriage arguably is one of the most important social and legal institutions. The socially and legally recognised bond between a man and a woman lies at the heart of most families. However, there is no globally uniform understanding of marriage. Its meaning is inseparably linked to culture, religion and social class. The purpose of this essay is limited to providing a comparative perspective on the situation in five different Arab and Islamic countries. The main focus is...

  5. A Study on The Marriage Phenomenolgy of Commuter Marriage Spouse

    OpenAIRE

    B’tari Sekar Nastiti; Bagus Wismanto

    2017-01-01

    In general, the marriage is lived by a spouse who lives together and cooperates with each other to shape the family. Recently, many couples do not live together, but in a distant city, and are called a long-distance marriage or a commuter marriage. From many reasons that create the long distance marriage, one of which is the job. The aim of this study is to find out the condition of the marriage life in commuter marriage and the dynamics on perceived marital satisfaction. This research method...

  6. Child Marriages and Psychosocial Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent forms of child abuse worldwide is child marriage. Underage marriages are going on to keep their commonness in countries such as Turkey although frequencies of them are decreasing in the world. Child marriage generally refers to the marriage of a child who is under 18 years of age. Because the majority of these marriages are performed without the conscious consent of the child, they are also defined as “early and forced marriages. Child marriages seperate children from their families and friends, expose them to domestic violence, jeopardize their development and the opportunities in educational, social and occupational areas. Early marriages may lead to psychologi-cal problems as well as depression and suicide. The aim of this article is to evaluate the frequency and causes of early marriage and its psychosocial consequences. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(4.000: 410-420

  7. Typicality of Incest in Common-law Marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yor Alexander Casas Villamizar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the way Law 54 of 1990 defined common-law marriage in Colombia. Legally, common-law marriage is a way to constitute a family through natural ties. This family is expressed in the Superior Statute, which establishes this union as the essential core of the society, acquiring integral quality within the social state of law and forcing the State and the society to protect it as a legal right by means of the Criminal Law. Incest –understood as carnal knowledge or other sexual act with a predecessor, descendant, adoptive parent, or sibling– destabilizes and imperils the family institution. Common-law marriages composed by incestuous relatives are a punishable behavior and not a marital estate.

  8. Psychiatry and same sex marriage: are we involved?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    On 1 December 2005, the Constitutional Court made a judgement legalising same-sex marriages, effectively making. South Africa one of just five countries worldwide that have removed legal barriers to gay and lesbian unions. The ruling includes the right to adopt children for gay and lesbian couples. The only restriction ...

  9. The Nigeria Same Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act , 2013 and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no ground for the arguments in support of legalization of same sex marriage other than that it gives weight to the recognition and protection of human ... the Nigeria Act emphasizes our common humanity as fellow beings with the instinct for not only self- preservation but also for the elongation of the human species.

  10. The Enigmatic Nature of the Israeli Legal System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    South Africa. She argues convincingly that the current unrecognised status of Muslim marriages is not favourable to women because their marriages fall outside the realm of the mainstream legal systems in South Africa (the common and the customary law). She continues to discuss two Bills in various stages of evolution ...

  11. State-level marriage equality and the health of same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Acosta, Katie L; Wright, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    We assessed the association between the health of people in same-sex relationships and the degree and nature of the legal recognition of same-sex relationships offered in the states in which they resided. We conducted secondary data analyses on the 2010 to 2013 Current Population Survey and publicly available data from Freedom to Marry, Inc. We estimated ordered logistic regression models in a 4-level framework to assess the impact of states' legal stances toward same-sex marriage on self-assessed health. Our findings indicated, relative to states with antigay constitutional amendments, that same-sex couples living in states with legally sanctioned marriage reported higher levels of self-assessed health. Our findings suggested that full legal recognition of same-sex relationships through marriage might be an important legal and policy strategy for improving the health of same-sex couples.

  12. Conscientious Objectors and the Marrying Kind : Rights and Rites in Dutch Public Discourse on Marriage Registrars with Conscientious Objections against Conducting Same-Sex Weddings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, M.

    2017-01-01

    The opening up of civil marriage to same-sex couples in the Netherlands in 2001 and the existing legal recognition of conscientious objections among civil servants had created the legal and political possibility of marriage registrars with conscientious objections against conducting same-sex

  13. Same-Sex Marriage and the Assimilationist Dilemma: A Research Agenda on Marriage Equality and the Future of LGBTQ Activism, Politics, Communities, and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Mary

    2018-01-10

    This special issue of the Journal of Homosexuality, examines the impact of the marriage equality movement and the resulting landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision, Obergefell v. Hodges (2015) that legalized same-sex marriage in the U.S., on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) activism, politics, communities, and identities. The articles in this issue examine the complicated ways in which the discourse used in same-sex marriage court cases is related to heteronormative discursive frames; the lived reality of married same-sex couples and the complex ways in which they think about marriage and heteronormativity; the ways that heteronormativity is racialized, which affects how African Americans perceive the impact of same-sex marriage on their lives; how same-sex marriage has influenced public opinion and the likelihood of anti-gay backlash; and the impact of same-sex marriage on family law. In this article, I draw on the empirical research from these articles to develop a theoretical framework that expands a multi-institutional (MIP) approach to understanding social movements and legal change. I build on and develop three conceptual tools: the assimilationist dilemma, discursive integration and cooptation, and truth regime. I conclude by laying out an agenda for future research on the impact of same-sex marriage on LGBTQ movements, politics, identities, and communities.

  14. Marriage law and practice in the Sahel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boye, A K; Hill, K; Isaacs, S; Gordis, D

    1991-01-01

    The legal systems of Sahelian African countries combine customary law, Islamic law, French colonial law, and civil law introduced since independence in 1960. Utilizing a framework developed by the Faculty of Law, University of Dakar, Senegal, and the Development Law and Policy Program, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, the Sahel Institute undertook a comprehensive study of the legal and social status of women in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Since 1960, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal have replaced French family law with national marriage codes. Niger has not yet adopted a family code; the laws on the family inherited from the French remain in force. The postindependence marriage codes have attempted to give young women more say in choosing a husband, to regulate the practice of bride price, and to limit the practice of polygyny. They have done this by integrating customary law and government-passed civil law. Mali, Niger, and Senegal have repealed provisions in their codes prohibiting the distribution of contraception, based on a 1920 French law. Although it has taken no formal legal action, Burkina Faso has adopted family planning policies that effectively nullify the 1920 law.

  15. Marriage and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blow, Laura; Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette

    We examine theoretically and empirically consumption over the early part of the life-cycle. The main focus is on the transition from being single to living with someone else. Our theoretical model allows for publicness in consumption; uncertainty concerning marriage; differences between lifetime...... incomes for prospective partners and a marriage premium. We develop a two period model to bring out the main features of the impact of marriage on consumption and saving. We then develop a multi-period model that can be taken to the data on expenditures by singles and couples aged between 18 and 30. Our...... empirical work is based on individual based quasi-panels from UK expenditure survey data from 1978 to 2005. The model fits the data relatively well. We find that expenditure by couples leads to 20-40 % more consumption than the same expenditure split between two comparable singles....

  16. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  17. Akan Proverbs and Aphorisms about Marriage | Agyekum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the Akan concept of marriage, and analyses aphorisms and proverbs that relate to Akan marriage. The aphorisms are discussed under four categories namely (a) marriage in general, (b) pre-marriage, (c) during marriage, and (d) post marriage. These maxims are analysed to depict how the Akans ...

  18. The family tree is not cut: marriage among slaves in eighteenth-century Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stark

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Examines the frequency of slave marriage in 18th-c. Puerto Rico, through family reconstitution based on parish baptismal, marriage, and death registers. Author first sketches the development of slavery, and the work regimens and conditions of the not yet sugar-dominated slavery in Puerto Rico. Then, he describes the religious context and social implications of marriage among slaves, and discusses, through an example, spousal selection patterns, and further focuses on age and seasonality of the slave marriages. He explains that marriage brought some legal advantages for slaves, such as the prohibited separation, by sale, of married slaves. In addition, he explores how slaves pursued marital strategies in order to manipulate material conditions. He concludes from the results that in the 18th c. marriage among slaves was not uncommon, and appear to have been determined mostly by the slaves own choice, with little direct intervention by masters. Most slaves married other slaves, with the same owner.

  19. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...... premium remains. We extend the model of Burdett and Coles (1997) with a distinction between efficient (cities) and less efficient (non-cities) search markets. One implication of the model is that singles are more likely to move from rural areas to cities while married couples are more likely to make...

  20. Marriage timing over the generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, F.W.A.; Monden, C.; Mandemakers, K.

    2008-01-01

    Strong relationships have been hypothesized between the timing of marriage and the familial environment of the couple. Sociologists have identified various mechanisms via which the age at marriage in the parental generation might be related to the age at marriage of the children. In our paper we

  1. Child marriage prevention in Amhara Region, Ethiopia: association of communication exposure and social influence with parents/guardians' knowledge and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Anastasia J

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing international attention to child marriage and its negative health and social consequences, little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of individuals who are in control of negotiating children's marriages and of the social context in which these individuals function. Using data from a 2007 cross-sectional household survey and multilevel logistic regression models, this paper examined the associations of communication exposure and measures of social influence with knowledge of marriage legislation, perceptions that marriage before age 18 was "too early", and beliefs in daughters' rights to individual marriage choice among parents/guardians in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. The study found that mass media and interpersonal communication exposure were positively associated with all outcomes. The influence of communication exposure on knowledge of the legal minimum age at marriage and the perception that marriage before 18 was "too early" varied significantly across communities. Community pressure to stop child marriages and awareness of marriage law enforcement were positively associated with endorsing daughters' rights to choose their marriage age and partner. Perceived social norms regarding early marriage, normative beliefs and perceived benefits of delayed marriage were at least as important as communication exposure for endorsing daughters' rights to marriage choice. Gender and education differences were detected. The findings imply that child marriage-prevention programs should diversify information channels, reinforce perceived advantages of delayed marriage, and adopt a social influence perspective. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Marriage Advantages in Perinatal Health: Evidence of Marriage Selection or Marriage Protection?

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Marriage is a social tie associated with health advantages for adults and their children, as lower rates of preterm birth and low birth weight are observed among married women. This study tests two competing hypotheses explaining these marriage advantages—marriage protection versus marriage selection—using a sample of recent births to single, cohabiting, and married women from the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006–10. Propensity score matching and fixed effects regression results demonst...

  3. Marriage and Middle Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerckhoff, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    The author discusses the various contradictory views about middle age. Some claim that middle aged persons face a new identity crisis and have a number of adjustment problems in their work and marriage. Others maintain that middle age is a period of maturity and strength. (SE)

  4. Plant-Fungus Marriages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. Plant-Fungus Marriages. Ramesh Maheshwari. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 33-44. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/011/04/0033-0044. Keywords. Fungi ...

  5. Risk, cohabitation and marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao Sahib, P.; Gu, X.

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces imperfect information,learning,and risk aversion in a two sided matching model.The modelprovides a theoreticalframework for the com- monly occurring phenomenon of cohabitation followed by marriage,and is con- sistent with empirical findings on these institutions.The paper has

  6. Portrait of a women’s marriage: navigating between lesbophobia and Islamophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, S.E.

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the legal, political, and cultural barriers faced by a cross-national women’s same-sex couple. The partners are from the Netherlands, where same-sex marriage is legal, and an Asian country in which same-sex relations are gradually being criminalized. Although religion, in

  7. Marriage and Family Therapy and the Law: Discovering Systemic Common Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jason C.

    2017-01-01

    Many important decisions regarding couples and families are made by the legal system. However, this system's adversarial nature often results in relational losses for clients, even when one "wins" a case. Some believe a solution may exist in legally-minded marriage and family therapists, who, as experts in family systems theory, are in a…

  8. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  9. The effect of same-sex marriage laws on different-sex marriage: Evidence from the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trandafir, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    to marriage (a “registered partnership”) and a 2001 law that legalized same-sex marriage for the first time in the world. I first construct a synthetic control for the Netherlands using OECD data for the period 1988–2005 and find that neither law had significant effects on either the overall or different...... in the aggregate analysis. The effects of the two laws are heterogeneous, with presumably more-liberal individuals (as defined by their residence or ethnicity) marrying less after passage of both laws and potentially more-conservative individuals marrying more after passage of each law....

  10. Divorcing Marriage from Sex: Radically Rethinking the Role of Sex in Marriage Law in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Goldfarb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, the U.S. Supreme Court required all states to permit same-sex couples to marry. Many people assume that marriage equality for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people has been achieved simply by eliminating the requirement that two individuals entering a marriage must be of different sexes. However, family law in the United States has traditionally required not only that married people are of different sexes, but also that they perform heterosexual intercourse. This focus on heterosexual performance threatens to undermine the legal marriages of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people. It also threatens the dignity, privacy, and legal validity of some heterosexual couples’ marriages. Contrary to current practice, the law should make no assumptions about the existence or type of sexual behavior between spouses that is necessary to create and sustain a marriage. En 2015, la Corte Suprema de los Estados Unidos obligó a todos los estados a permitir que las parejas del mismo sexo se casaran. Muchas personas asumen que se ha logrado la igualdad de matrimonio para personas gays, lesbianas, bisexuales y transexuales simplemente eliminando el requisito de que dos personas que contraen matrimonio deben ser de diferente sexo. Sin embargo, el derecho de familia en los Estados Unidos tradicionalmente ha requerido no sólo que las personas casadas sean de sexo diferente, sino también que mantengan relaciones sexuales heterosexuales. Este enfoque en el comportamiento heterosexual amenaza con minar los matrimonios legales de personas gays, lesbianas, bisexuales y transexuales. También amenaza la dignidad, privacidad y validez legal de los matrimonios de algunas parejas heterosexuales. Contrariamente a la práctica actual, el derecho no debe hacer suposiciones sobre la existencia o el tipo de comportamiento sexual entre los cónyuges que es necesario para crear y mantener un matrimonio.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https

  11. Marriage Advantages in Perinatal Health: Evidence of Marriage Selection or Marriage Protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jennifer B

    2016-02-01

    Marriage is a social tie associated with health advantages for adults and their children, as lower rates of preterm birth and low birth weight are observed among married women. This study tests two competing hypotheses explaining these marriage advantages-marriage protection versus marriage selection-using a sample of recent births to single, cohabiting, and married women from the National Survey of Family Growth, 2006-10. Propensity score matching and fixed effects regression results demonstrate support for marriage selection, as a rich set of early life selection factors account for all of the cohabiting-married disparity and part of the single-married disparity. Subsequent analyses demonstrate prenatal smoking mediates the adjusted single-married disparity in birth weight, lending some support for the marriage protection perspective. Study findings sharpen our understanding of why and how marriage matters for child well-being, and provide insight into preconception and prenatal factors describing intergenerational transmissions of inequality via birth weight.

  12. Suicide and forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridmore, Saxby; Walter, Garry

    2013-03-01

    The prevailing view that the vast majority of those who complete suicide have an underlying psychiatric disorder has been recently challenged by research on the contribution of "predicaments", in the absence of mental illness, to suicide. In this paper, we sought data to support the notion that forced marriage may lead to suicide without the presence of psychiatric disorder. Historical records, newspapers, and the electronic media were searched for examples. Two examples from ancient times and six from the last hundred years were located and described. These cases suggest that forced marriage may lead to suicide and complements earlier findings that loss of fortune, health, liberty, and reputation may lead to suicide in the absence of mental disorder.

  13. Aboriginal marriage and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, A

    1984-01-01

    Patterns of marriage among the aboriginal population of Australia are investigated. The author attempts to determine "the economic significance of a method of family formation in which child-bearing is an essential component of the process....[and discusses the impact of] change in the micro-economies of Aboriginal households and families." Probabilities of change in marital status are also considered. Data are from the 1981 census. excerpt

  14. [Child marriage in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J

    1984-07-29

    Child marriages have been practiced in India for thousands of years. Even though its popularity has now decreased due to changes in law and society, it is still a major problem, causing a great deal of hardship. Even though laws prohibited child marriage as early as 1860, statistics show that, on the average, Indians marry very young (1972: females at age 17; males at age 22 years of age; 34 females and 13 males under age 15). The following are incentives to marry young and have large families: 1) religion teaches that only those with descendants go to heaven; 2) unmarried women are traditionally scorned; and 3) most importantly, economic reasons encourage people to have large families as soon as possible, e.g., male children are encouraged to marry to obtain the dowry as soon as possible and children are considered a source of income in India. Child marriage in India causes the following problems: 1) a high infant mortality rate, as much as 75% in rural areas; 2) an imbalance in the male to female ratio (1901: 970 females/1000 males; 1971: 930 females/1000 males) because women who marry young tend to lose their health earlier; 3) a population explosion: in 1971, the Indian population was found to be increasing at the rate of 225/1000.

  15. “Because It's an Islamic Marriage” Conditions Upon Marriage and after Divorce in Transnational Dutch-Moroccan and Dutch-Egyptian Marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Sportel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Spouses in transnational Dutch-Moroccan or Dutch-Egyptian marriages potentially get married in a foreign legal system or in two legal systems with significant differences in, for example, marital property law. One of the ways to deal with the legal uncertainties of this situation is to include certain conditions in the marriage contract or a prenuptial agreement. This paper describes the experiences of spouses in Dutch-Moroccan and Dutch-Egyptian marriages with marital agreements at marriage and after divorce. I will go into the legal specifics and complications of marriage contracts and prenuptial agreements in a transnational context and to the meaning of these arrangements for the participants in the research. I will divide the different sorts of agreements at marriage into different categories and analyse why some couples choose to include conditions while others do not. Los cónyuges de matrimonios transnacionales holandeses-marroquíes y holandeses-egipcios potencialmente se casan en un sistema jurídico extranjero o en dos sistemas legales con diferencias significativas con respecto a, por ejemplo, la ley de propiedad conyugal y la regulación del divorcio. Una de las maneras de hacer frente a los riesgos percibidos y las incertidumbres jurídicas de esta situación es incluir las condiciones en el contrato de matrimonio o en un acuerdo prenupcial. Este artículo describe las experiencias de los cónyuges en matrimonios holandeses-marroquíes y holandeses-egipcios con acuerdos sobre el matrimonio y después del divorcio. La autora se refiere a los detalles legales y las complicaciones de los contratos matrimoniales y acuerdos prenupciales en un contexto transnacional y el significado de estas disposiciones para los participantes en la investigación, analizando por qué algunas parejas tienen una visión contractual del matrimonio, mientras que otras no la tienen.

  16. Timing effects on first marriage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    Recent substantial declines in first marriage in Western countries have been accompanied by increases in the average age at first marriage. Since the period proportion ever marrying, PEM, is sensitive to cohort tempo changes, the recent fall in the PEM may simply reflect cohort delays in marriage....... The importance of timing factors is examined in the light of twentieth-century experience of first marriage in England and Wales and the USA. Using a variant of the Timing Index developed in research on fertility, we measure cohort timing effects for marriage and calculate an adjusted PEM. After examining...... twentieth-century trends in nuptiality for men and women, we find substantial tempo effects on the period PEM. Adjusted PEM values show a real decline in marriage for cohorts, but that decline is considerably smaller than the one shown by the unadjusted figures. This is especially true for England and Wales...

  17. Divorce in Ireland: Legal and Social Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binchy, William

    1978-01-01

    Ireland is one of the few countries where divorce is constitutionally prohibited. In this article, the author sets out the present legal position, explains the historical background, examines the relations between church and state on the question of marriage, and discusses the social effects of the prohibition on divorce. (Author)

  18. A theory of child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Wahhaj, Zaki

    2015-01-01

    The practice of early marriage for women is prevalent in developing countries around the world today, and is believed to cause significant disruption in their accumulation of human capital. This paper develops an overlapping generations model of the marriage market to explain how the practice may be sustained in the absence of any intrinsic preference for young brides. We assume there is a desirable female attribute, relevant for the gains from marriage, that is only noisily observed before a...

  19. The Institution of Marriage - 2

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Louise; Vehabovic, Lejla; Zampetis, Marios; Löchte, Frans; Stjerbeby, Luna; Ravn, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    How do Simone De Beauvoir and Phyllis Schlafly describe marriage, and what role does the woman play in their respective conceptions of the ideal marriage? In this project the point of departure is taken in the opposing opinions of feminist philosopher Simone De Beauvoir and conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly on the subject of marriage and the ethics and morality within. With the help of critical analysis and skepticism, this project delves into opinions and arguments uttered by Schlafly a...

  20. 'Legal Family Formats for (Same-Sex) Couples', chapter 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Thevenon, O. & Neyer G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes in a comprehensive but compact manner the legal recognition that same-sex couples have been gaining in Europe. In 40 years a growing number of European countries has started to make marriage and/or other ‘legal family formats' available to same-sex couples. Simultaneously the

  1. Across the high seas: abuse, desertion, and violence in transnational marriages in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Asha

    2013-10-01

    This article examines the issues and concerns faced by Indian women in transnational marriages or what are popularly known as NRI marriages in India. It discusses how the Indian laws, the courts, and women try to deal with the difficulties and problems relating to issues of abuse, abandonment, and violence. It also highlights the inadequacies in laws and policies relating to such marriages in India. This article is complimentary to the article by Ann Stewart that concentrates on the "receiving" end of transnational marriages in the United Kingdom, and focuses on the ways in which the socio-legal context of the receiving State (in this case, the United Kingdom) presents difficulties for South Asian women. This article, conversely, takes a "sending" perspective, that is, the response of the home state, India, to the difficulties faced by Indian women involved in transnational marriages.

  2. Abuse, danger, and security in transnational marriages: polity and community in India and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ann

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this article is to show the way in which concepts of abuse, danger, and security have informed recent U.K. legal and policy developments relating to the protection of women in transnational marriages from violence within families and communities. It also demonstrates the way in which the same concepts inform debates on violence against women in families in India to provide a greater understanding of the interaction between "polity" and "community" in transnational marriages.

  3. Forced marriage, forced sex: the perils of childhood for girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, M; Sen, P; Thomson, M

    1998-11-01

    A recently formed interagency Forum on the Rights of Girls and Women in Marriage is investigating the widespread problem of nonconsensual marriage and forced sex and advocating for legislative and policy initiatives. This article reviews three research projects in this area: research by Anti-Slavery International on child marriage in parts of West Africa, an investigation by Save the Children of children's views of early marriage, and research conducted by CHANGE on women's resistance to domestic violence in Calcutta, India. Girls who marry before 15 years of age are more likely to be illiterate than their older counterparts, more likely to be dowry payment brides, less likely to come into contact with development projects, have higher rates of infant mortality, and are most vulnerable to sexual violence. In many cases, intercourse is initiated before the girl begins to menstruate. Although adult women also face sexual violence within marriage, this problem is all the more traumatic for girls who lack any information about sexuality. Sex with girls below a certain age is usually covered by rape legislation, but, in countries such as India, this is mitigated by the religiously defined personal laws. The absence of adequate legal and policy action frameworks to deal with the rights of girls, coupled with the lack of sanctions against these abuses, comprise state complicity and neglect of duty under international law to this vulnerable group.

  4. Marriage From the Perspective of Economics of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علی تازیکی‌نژاد

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marriage law, as part of general pattern of family, is a policy instrument that defines optimal behavioral standards for matrimonial relationship through ordaining sanctions. Imposing such standards regardless of their consequences may result in anxiety in the family institution and subsequently in the society itself and may raise the motivation of defensive behaviors among people and as a result will increase the cost of legislative and judicial system. Economic approach to the marriage law with analyzing aftermath of laws on couple's behavior is looking for minimizing marriage costs including couple, society and judiciary system costs, and maximizing the cost of its inefficient breach. Incentive role of family law and its supplements, such as labor laws, tax and employment affairs etc., on the rate of marriage and divorce, the amount of dowry and other couple's decisions is a topic that economics of family law is recently very focused on. This article, in the form of “contract” and “market” and by using of concepts including costs, benefits, efficiency, competition and monopolywill present the economic analysis of marriage and other related legal concepts and is to introduce a new approach to Iranian family legislators and judges.

  5. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  6. Marriage Mentorship at a Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxsee, Harry

    2004-01-01

    Marriage mentorship is one of the most effective methods through which a couple can enrich their marriage. A good mentorship relationship is based on feelings of warmth and affinity between mentors and mentees. When a relationship of trust is established, the mentees feel more freedom to express their deeper feelings and to explore new paths of…

  7. The Deinstitutionalization of American Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that marriage has undergone a process of deinstitutionalization - a weakening of the social norms that define partners' behavior - over the past few decades. Examples are presented involving the increasing number and complexity of cohabiting unions and the emergence of same-sex marriage. Two transitions in the meaning of…

  8. For Millennials, Parenthood Trumps Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendy; Taylor, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, marriage and parenthood have been linked milestones on the journey to adulthood. But for the young adults of the Millennial Generation, these social institutions are becoming delinked and differently valued. Today's 18- to 29-year-olds value parenthood far more than marriage, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of…

  9. [Marriage and divorce in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haderka, J

    1986-01-01

    Marriage patterns in Japan are analyzed using data from secondary sources. The author notes that although legislation affecting marriage and the family is derived from European models, traditional Japanese attitudes concerning the subservient role of women have a significant impact. The problems faced by women experiencing divorce are noted. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS)

  10. The Marriage of Convenience and Some Effects on the Regime of Foreigners in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela LUPSAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The migration, the organized crime, terrorism, human trafficking affect the societal security. In this context it is possible through the usage of simulation in some family relationships to create theappearance of some legal relationships, in the purpose of attracting the appliance of some legal depositions. The study aims at analyzing the legal mechanisms through which fictional marriage may be a "springboard" for obtaining the legal right to stay in Romania, not with the purpose to start a family, but to infringe the national security, which would lead to fueling immigration by well-knownprocesses: family reunification, mixed marriages, birth of children, inviting relatives, adoption, etc. The interest of foreigners in Romania and its laws using legal channels to achieve an illegal goal increased considerably after Romania's integration into the EU.

  11. Hinduism, marriage and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Indira; Pandit, Balram; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Reet

    2013-01-01

    For Hindus, marriage is a sacrosanct union. It is also an important social institution. Marriages in India are between two families, rather two individuals, arranged marriages and dowry are customary. The society as well as the Indian legislation attempt to protect marriage. Indian society is predominantly patriarchal. There are stringent gender roles, with women having a passive role and husband an active dominating role. Marriage and motherhood are the primary status roles for women. When afflicted mental illness married women are discriminated against married men. In the setting of mental illness many of the social values take their ugly forms in the form of domestic violence, dowry harassment, abuse of dowry law, dowry death, separation, and divorce. Societal norms are powerful and often override the legislative provisions in real life situations.

  12. Sexual orientation and gender identity in North America: legal trends, legal contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R Douglas; Bonauto, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The article provides a comparative analysis of recent legal developments with regard to LGBT rights in Canada and the United States of America. Both countries have made great progress towards better protection and full recognition of LGBT rights. Despite this progress, Canada appears to be ahead of the United States, as illustrated by two most recent court decisions (e.g. Halpern, legalizing same-sex marriage in Ontario, and Lawrence v. Texas, decriminalizing consensual sodomy in the United States).

  13. Same-Sex Couples' Decisions and Experiences of Marriage in the Context of Minority Stress: Interviews From a Population-Based Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostosky, Sharon S; Riggle, Ellen D B; Rothblum, Esther D; Balsam, Kimberly F

    2016-08-01

    In the emerging context of marriage equality, it is important to explore the reasons for and experience of marriage for long-term same-sex couples, including the role of minority stress. In Wave 3 of the population-based, longitudinal CUPPLES Study we interviewed 21 long-term same-sex couples (14 female, 7 male) who resided in 12 different states and who were legally married. Couple members ranged in age from 37 to 84 and reported being together as a couple from 15 to 41 years. Seven couples lived in states that did not recognize their marriage at the time of the interview. Legal protection and social validation emerged as the two primary domains that captured couples' lived experiences of marriage. Minority stress experiences emerged in the narratives in the context of couples' long-term commitment, the availability of civil marriage, and couples' participation in activist efforts on behalf of marriage equality for themselves and others.

  14. Does cancer affect marriage rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Astri

    2008-09-01

    Finding a life partner is of great importance for persons' life satisfaction, but cancer's potential impact on family life is not well described. Cancer's impact on marriage formation rates was therefore explored. Data on the entire unmarried Norwegian population aged 17-44 in 1974-2001 (N = 2.2 million) come from the Cancer Registry and the Central Population Register. Marriage rates for 12,100 persons diagnosed with cancer were compared to marriage rates for otherwise similar persons using discrete-time hazard regression models. Men with cancer had a marriage probability that was five percent higher (OR 1.05, CI 1.01-1.11) than cancer-free men. No cancer forms reduced men's marriage rates, and significantly elevated rates were seen after skin and testicular cancer (OR 1.16 and 1.11). Cancer did not impact significantly on women's overall marriage rate (OR 0.95, CI 0.90-1.00), but pronounced deficiencies were seen after brain and breast cancer (OR 0.62 and 0.74). Skin cancer elevated women's marriage rate (OR 1.27). Male cancer survivors with children were more likely to marry than their female counterparts. Significant increases in cancer survivors' marriage rates were observed over time. Marrying after cancer is more common today than previously, and only slight overall differences were observed in cancer survivors' marriage rates relative to those of the cancer-free population. However, while brain and breast cancer in women is associated with reduced marriage rates, testicular cancer is associated with increased rates. The differences observed between common cancer forms in young adults deserve further exploration. In general, marriage rates in survivors of most types of cancer are very similar to those in the population as a whole. Women with brain and breast cancer have lower marriage rates than their cancer-free counterparts. While it is necessary to identify exactly why this was observed, the information can alert those with these cancers to the potential

  15. Circular on early marriage, March 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Circular calls on government at all levels in Hunan, China, to summon the departments concerned thoroughly to investigate the problem of early child-bearing so that they can do a good job in managing the problems of unregistered cohabiting and of unmarried mothers. The Circular recommends that: "It is necessary to criticize and educate, and even punish by discipline, those parents who connive with their sons and daughters in practicing unregistered cohabiting." It also states the following: "It is necessary to keep a strict check on registry personnel who do not carry out their duties properly. Those who violate laws and discipline, engage in malpractices for selfish ends, and practice bribery and corruption, resulting in early marriage and child-bearing, must be dealt with strictly. Legal sanctions must be enforced against those who break the law." full text

  16. Can pro-marriage policies work? An analysis of marginal marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimmel, Wolfgang; Halla, Martin; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2014-08-01

    Policies to promote marriage are controversial, and it is unclear whether they are successful. To analyze such policies, one must distinguish between a marriage that is created by a marriage-promoting policy (marginal marriage) and a marriage that would have been formed even in the absence of a state intervention (average marriage). We exploit the suspension of a cash-on-hand marriage subsidy in Austria to examine the differential behavior of marginal and average marriages. The announcement of an impending suspension of this subsidy led to an enormous marriage boom among eligible couples that allows us to locate marginal marriages. Applying a difference-in-differences approach, we show that marginal marriages are surprisingly as stable as average marriages but produce fewer children, children later in marriage, and children who are less healthy at birth.

  17. Forced Marriage and Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Charles M; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan

    2017-08-01

    We study the impact of marriages resulting from bride kidnapping on infant birth weight. Bride kidnapping-a form of forced marriage-implies that women are abducted by men and have little choice other than to marry their kidnappers. Given this lack of choice over the spouse, we expect adverse consequences for women in such marriages. Remarkable survey data from the Central Asian nation of Kyrgyzstan enable exploration of differential birth outcomes for women in kidnap-based and other types of marriage using both OLS and IV estimation. We find that children born to mothers in kidnap-based marriages have lower birth weight compared with children born to other mothers. The largest difference is between kidnap-based and arranged marriages: the magnitude of the birth weight loss is in the range of 2 % to 6 % of average birth weight. Our finding is one of the first statistically sound estimates of the impact of forced marriage and implies not only adverse consequences for the women involved but potentially also for their children.

  18. Relational aggression in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories in ...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  20. Legal Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Janne Rothmar

    2009-01-01

    The article discusses the inadequacy of traditional theory on legal personhood in relation to embryos and foetuses. To challenge the somewhat binary view of legal personhood according to which the ‘born alive' criterion is paramount the article demonstrates that the number of legal categories...... in which embryos and foetuses are placed are much more complex. These categories are identified using Danish legislation as an example and on that basis the article extracts and identifies the different parameters that play a part in the legal categorisation of the human conceptus....

  1. Lifecycle marriage matching: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Aloysius Siow; Eugene Choo

    2007-01-01

    estimated model shows that a concern for accumulating marriage specific capital is quantitatively significant in generating positive assortative matching in spousal ages at marriage, gender differences in spousal ages at marriage, and a preference for early marriage. Gender variations in population supplies due to gender specific mortality rates and entry cohort sizes have offsetting quantitative effects.

  2. 25 CFR 11.601 - Marriage licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage licenses. 11.601 Section 11.601 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.601 Marriage licenses. A marriage license shall be issued by the clerk of the court in the absence of any showing that the proposed marriage would be invalid under any...

  3. 38 CFR 3.205 - Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage. 3.205 Section 3..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.205 Marriage. (a) Proof of marriage. Marriage is established by one of the following types of evidence: (1) Copy or abstract of the...

  4. Marriageable Women: A Focus on Participants in a Community Healthy Marriage Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D.; Trella, Deanna; Lyons, Heidi; Du Toit, Nola Cora

    2010-01-01

    Although disadvantaged women are the targets of marriage programs, little attention has been paid to women's marriage constraints and their views of marriage. Drawing on an exchange framework and using qualitative data collected from single women participating in a marriage initiative, we introduce the concept of marriageable women--the notion…

  5. Economics of entry into marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Bowmaker, Simon W.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis contains three studies on the economics of entry into marriage; a life event that has been shown to have significant implications for the well-being (economic and otherwise) of men, women and their children. The first study examines the effect of family background on the timing of first marriage of 7,853 individuals born in 1970 in Great Britain. Hazard model analysis reveals that high levels of parental resources serve to delay entry into marriage for both males and femal...

  6. Decree on the Procedures for Marriage Between Vietnamese Citizens and Foreign Nationals Conducted by Competent Organs of the SRV, 1 February 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Viet Nam's decree on the procedures for marriage between Vietnamese citizens and foreign nationals conducted by competent organs of the SRV, Council of Ministers, February 1989, contains definitions of foreign nationals and provisions allowing a marriage registration under Vietnam's Law on Marriage and Family when the foreign national meets all conditions for marriage in accordance with the law of the country of which he or she is a citizen or a permanent resident. Marriages for Vietnamese citizens staying abroad will not have to comply with stipulations of Vietnam's law. The application shall be approved by the SRV organ of representation in the country of his or her residence if requested by the subjects concerned and it this is not at variance with the law of the country of residence or with the consular agreements between the SRV and the country of residence. In cases of a Vietnamese citizen now serving in the Armed Forces or in areas having something to do with state secrets, the applicant must also produce a certificate issued by the ministry or the sector that he or she is working for, certifying that there will be no problem with their marriage to a foreigner. At the time of an application for a marriage registration, a foreigner must certify that he or she meets all conditions for marriage, that there is no problem with a marriage to a Vietnamese citizen, that the marriage is legal and conforms to all the procedures of his or her country. Within a period of not more than 3 months from the date of receipt of the application for marriage registration and other legal papers, the authoritative state organ concerned shall go through the entire files and, if it is found that the applicant meets all the conditions for marriage, shall register the marriage on a date set by both the authoritative organ and the subjects concerned. The decision not to allow a marriage may be appealed to the SRV Ministry of Justice.

  7. Who Says I Do: The Changing Context of Marriage and Health and Quality of Life for LGBT Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Jayn; Bryan, Amanda E. B.; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Until recently, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults were excluded from full participation in civil marriage. The purpose of this study is to examine how legal marriage and relationship status are associated with health-promoting and at-risk factors, health, and quality of life of LGBT adults aged 50 and older. Design and Methods: We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS) participants who resided in states with legalized same-sex marriage in 2014 (N = 1,821). Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to examine differences by relationship status (legally married, unmarried partnered, single) in economic and social resources; LGBT contextual and identity factors; health; and quality of life. Results: We found 24% were legally married, and 26% unmarried partnered; one-half were single. Those legally married reported better quality of life and more economic and social resources than unmarried partnered; physical health indicators were similar between legally married and unmarried partnered. Those single reported poorer health and fewer resources than legally married and unmarried partnered. Among women, being legally married was associated with more LGBT microaggressions. Implications: LGBT older adults, and practitioners serving them, should become educated about how legal same-sex marriage interfaces with the context of LGBT older adults’ lives, and policies and protections related to age and sexual and gender identity. Longitudinal research is needed to understand factors contributing to decisions to marry, including short- and long-term economic, social, and health outcomes associated with legal marriage among LGBT older adults. PMID:28087795

  8. Who Says I Do: The Changing Context of Marriage and Health and Quality of Life for LGBT Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsen, Jayn; Bryan, Amanda E B; Kim, Hyun-Jun; Muraco, Anna; Jen, Sarah; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I

    2017-02-01

    Until recently, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) adults were excluded from full participation in civil marriage. The purpose of this study is to examine how legal marriage and relationship status are associated with health-promoting and at-risk factors, health, and quality of life of LGBT adults aged 50 and older. We utilized weighted survey data from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging, and Sexuality/Gender Study (NHAS) participants who resided in states with legalized same-sex marriage in 2014 (N = 1,821). Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to examine differences by relationship status (legally married, unmarried partnered, single) in economic and social resources; LGBT contextual and identity factors; health; and quality of life. We found 24% were legally married, and 26% unmarried partnered; one-half were single. Those legally married reported better quality of life and more economic and social resources than unmarried partnered; physical health indicators were similar between legally married and unmarried partnered. Those single reported poorer health and fewer resources than legally married and unmarried partnered. Among women, being legally married was associated with more LGBT microaggressions. LGBT older adults, and practitioners serving them, should become educated about how legal same-sex marriage interfaces with the context of LGBT older adults' lives, and policies and protections related to age and sexual and gender identity. Longitudinal research is needed to understand factors contributing to decisions to marry, including short- and long-term economic, social, and health outcomes associated with legal marriage among LGBT older adults. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Male marriage squeeze and inter-provincial marriage in central China: evidence from Anhui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lige; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, inter-provincial female migration for marriage has become important in central and eastern rural China. Using survey data from X County in rural Anhui Province, we explore the arrangement of inter-provincial marriages, as well as the characteristics of husbands and wives, marital satisfaction, and marital stability for these marriages. We find that inter-provincial marriage is an important option for local men to respond to the marriage squeeze and the increasing expense of marriage. It helps to relieve the shortage of marriageable women in the local marriage market. Because this kind of marriage is based on economic exchange, but not affection, it is often subject to a higher risk of marriage instability, and can lead to such illegal behaviors as marriage fraud and mercenary marriage. PMID:26594102

  10. The Significance of Living Together and Importance of Marriage in Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Stephen M; Whitton, Sarah W

    2015-01-01

    Because marriage has been denied to same-sex couples, it is likely that the meaning and significance ascribed to non-marital cohabitation may be unique. Further, it is unclear whether same-sex couples view marriage as important to their relationships, and if they do, why. Using qualitative data from 526 individuals in cohabiting same-sex relationships across 47 states, we explored (1) the meaning and significance of cohabitation and (2) the perceived importance of legal marriage to the relationship. Participants viewed cohabitation as significant, most commonly because it indicates long-term commitment, provides emotional support, makes the couple a family, and allows them to share life together. Marriage was perceived as important to a majority (90%), most commonly because it confers financial and legal benefits, relational legitimacy, and demonstrates the same commitment as different-sex couples. Overall, findings highlight the symbolic significance of cohabitation and importance of access to legal marriage to adults in same-sex relationships.

  11. Age at marriage in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadi, A S

    1987-03-01

    This article on age at marriage in the Indian context uses 1981 census data in an attempt to highlight the trend, pattern, and differentials in age at marriage by rural-urban residence, state, religion, and educational levels, while attempting to hypothesize theories concerning those trends. An examination of the proportion of young females ever married indicates that a major change in social attitudes has occurred in India over the past 2 decades. The proportion of rural females 15-19 ever married dropped from 75% in 1961, to 62% in 1971, and 57.6% in 1981. Significant decreases in the proportion ever married also occurred for females aged 20-24. The shift in the age at marriage from earlier to older ages and the increasing difference in the rural-urban proportion of those ever married are additional features of a population in the mid-transition period during which fertility starts to decline following a rapid decline in mortality as observed in the case of India. Christians marry a little later than Sikhs, who marry a little later than Jains, while Buddhists marry a little earlier than Muslims and Hindus. The projected shortage of females of marriageable age should induce parents to delay the marriage of their daughters while continuing to invest in their future prospects through providing a greater amount of education. The combination of increased education, later marriage, and projected changes in fertility and mortality are likely to lead to significant changes in the status of women in India.

  12. The concept of marriage in Roman, Byzantine and Serbian mediaeval law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarkić Srđan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is exposing definitions of marriage that were accepted in Byzantium and mediaeval Serbia, although it was not insisted in them on wedding as a religious rite. Leo VI, at the end of the 9th century, was the first to prescribe Church benediction as an obligatory form of entering into marriage. Novels of latter Emperors placed marriage under the complete jurisdiction of the Church, but they were not incorporated in Serbian translations of Byzantine legal miscellanies (Nomokanon of St. Sava and Syntagma of Matheas Blastares. Therefore in articles 2 and 3 of Dušan's Law Code it was prescribed that no marriage could be contracted without wedding ceremony and Church benediction. .

  13. The Effects of Religion on Enduring Marriages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Mullins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article adds to recent literature in the study of religion and marriage by examining older couples’ use of religion as a cultural repertoire in enduring marriages. The study includes qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with 43 married, Christian couples. Couples reported four predominant social contexts that gave sacred meanings to their marriage: prayer, worship services and sermons, first-rite rituals and communion. These social contexts magnify sacred meanings within religious cultural repertoires by enhancing older couples’ perceptions of their marriages as sacred through formal and public recognition of their marriage longevity, lauding their marriage longevity as a blessing from God to be emulated, promoting religious meanings of familism and giving positive marriage outcomes sacred meanings. Negative effects of religion on marriage outcomes occurred among older couples when lived experiences of religion conflicted with their cultural expectations for enduring marriages.

  14. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Alexia; Oulami, Halima; Zekraoui, Wahiba; Hikmat, Halima; Temmerman, Marleen; Leye, Els

    2013-10-16

    In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO's and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and policy framework should go hand in hand

  15. Determinants of child and forced marriage in Morocco: stakeholder perspectives on health, policies and human rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the social and legal framework surrounding sexual and reproductive health has transformed greatly in the past decade, especially with the introduction of the new Family Law or Moudawana. Yet, despite raising the minimum age of marriage for girls and stipulating equal rights in the family, child and forced marriage is widespread. The objective of this research study was to explore perspectives of a broad range of professionals on factors that contribute to the occurrence of child and forced marriage in Morocco. Methods A qualitative approach was used to generate both primary and secondary data for the analysis. Primary data consist of individual semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 22 professionals from various sectors: health, legal, education, NGO’s and government. Sources of secondary data include academic papers, government and NGO reports, various legal documents and media reports. Data were analyzed using thematic qualitative analysis. Results Four major themes arose from the data, indicating that the following elements contribute to child and forced marriage: (1) the legal and social divergence in conceptualizing forced and child marriage; (2) the impact of legislation; (3) the role of education; and (4) the economic factor. Emphasis was especially placed on the new Family Code or Moudawana as having the greatest influence on advancement of women's rights in the sphere of marriage. However, participants pointed out that embedded patriarchal attitudes and behaviours limit its effectiveness. Conclusion The study provided a comprehensive understanding of the factors that compound the problem of child and forced marriage in Morocco. From the viewpoint of professionals, who are closely involved in tackling the issue, policy measures and the law have the greatest potential to bring child and forced marriage to a halt. However, the implementation of new legal tools is facing barriers and resistance. Additionally, the legal and

  16. A critical engagement? Analysing same-sex marriage discourses in To Have and to Hold: The Making of Same-Sex Marriage in South Africa (2008 – A queer perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Lee McCormick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The legalisation of same-sex marriage in South Africa in November 2006 made the country the exemplar for gay and lesbian rights in Africa. The advocacy of, struggle for, and finally winning the right to marry was a euphoric victory for numerous gay and lesbian people. The various steps that had to be negotiated in order to pass the Civil Union Act are documented in To Have and to Hold: The Making of Same-Sex Marriage in South Africa (2008, hereafter To Have and to Hold. The blurb at the back of To Have and to Hold describes the book as “invaluable for understanding [the same-sex marriage] journey and its legal, social, cultural and religious ramifications”. The editors of the volume, Judge, Manion and de Waal, add that the various stakeholders that supported same-sex marriage “adequately interrogated the role and function of marriage” (Judge et al. 2008: 12. In this article, I put this claim to the test by interrogating the legal, social, cultural and religious reasons put forward in favour of same-sex marriage in To Have and to Hold. From a queer point of view, same-sex marriage is problematic because it ignores the regulatory power of the state, the fact that marriage is a public tradition, the argument that the supposed “respectability” bestowed by marriage is a farce, and the contention that legal benefits should be given to people regardless of their marital status. I use queer linguistic tools to deconstruct the claim by the editors that the text represents a “critical engagement” with same-sex marriage (Judge et al. 2008: 1. I conclude the article by showing how, rather than opening a space for the “recognition of diverse sexualities and relationship forms” (Judge et al. 2008: 12, the Civil Union Act is limited to those people who self-identify as gay or lesbian.

  17. Teaching "United States v. Windsor": The Defense of Marriage Act and Its Constitutional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocchetti, Corey

    2014-01-01

    This article represents background material that can be used e along with the "United States v. Windsor" case to teach Constitutional Law (particularly federalism, due process, and equal protection) and the legal debate surrounding same-sex marriage in America. Professors may assign it as background reading before or after a…

  18. Commitment without Marriage: Union Formation among Long-Term Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Elliott, Sinikka; Umberson, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The majority of Americans will marry in their lifetimes, and for many, marriage symbolizes the transition into long-term commitment. However, many Americans cannot legally marry. This article analyzes in-depth interviews with gays and lesbians in long-term partnerships to examine union formation and commitment-making histories. Using a life course…

  19. Public health implications of same-sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffie, William C

    2011-06-01

    Significantly compromised health care delivery and adverse health outcomes are well documented for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community in the United States compared with the population at large. LGBT individuals subject to societal prejudice in a heterosexist world also suffer from the phenomenon known as "minority stress," with its attendant negative mental and physical health effects. Reports in the medical and social science literature suggest that legal and social recognition of same-sex marriage has had positive effects on the health status of this at-risk community. Improved outcomes are to be expected because of the improved access to health care conferred by marriage benefits under federal or state law and as a result of attenuating the effects of institutionalized stigma on a sexual minority group.

  20. The Civil Marriage and the Constitution: the Constitutional Court decision on same-sex marriage in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Contesse Singh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly discusses the Chilean Constitutional Court’s decision regarding  the definition of marriage in Chile, which reserves the right to marry exclusively to a man and a woman. The article grounds the discussion on a robust conception of the equal dignity of individuals and analyzes the separate opinions of the justices of the Court, emphasizing some technical legal issues such as the prevalence of separate opinions and the references to international human rights law in almost all of them. The article argues that, considering the development of international human rights law and the crafting of claims as fundamental rights claims, it is only a matter of time before the legislature addresses the issue of same-sex marriage, following the Court’s statement that it is the legislature’s duty to do so.

  1. TRANSGENDER COMMUNITY ACTIVITIES AND THEIR MARRIAGE CONCEPT IN YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muta’Ali Rauf

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgender have been considered as someone who always marginalized in their life, so they always get moral discrimination, social and even religion. Development of the transgender community in Yogyakarta is currently getting a response from various groups, namely the general public, religious leaders, sociologists and psychologists. As for job transsexual Kebaya NGOs joined in Yogyakarta, located in very small scope, include: ngamen, nyebong, salon and sewing. It was done since the transvestites are out of work in the formal sector. The concept of marriage in transgender community in Kebaya NGOs does not have clear rules because there is no basis or guidelines. Same-sex marriage in Indonesia is not recognized legally as well as normative, so the concept of transsexual marriage does not exist according to Islamic law. Kebaya NGOs consider that the rules about marriage in Indonesia violate the human rights, because it does not facilitate and accommodate the same-sex marriage. [Waria selama ini dianggap sebagai sosok yang selalu termarginalkan di dalam kehidupannya, sehingga mereka selalu mendapatkan diskriminasi baik moral, sosial, maupun agama. Perkembangan komunitas waria di Yogyakarta saat ini mendapat respon dari berbagai kalangan, yaitu masyarakat umum, tokoh Agama, Sosiolog, dan Psikolog. Adapun pekerjaan Waria Yogyakarta yang tergabung dalam LSM Kebaya, berada dalam skala yang sangat kecil meliputi : Ngamen, Nyebong, salon dan menjahit. Hal itu dikerjakan semenjak waria tidak mendapat pekerjaan dalam sektor formal. Konsep perkawinan dalam komunitas waria di LSM Kebaya belum mempunyai aturan yang jelas karena tidak ada landasan atau pedomannya. Perkawinan sesama jenis di Indonesia tidak mendapatkan pengakuan secara yuridis maupun normatif, sehingga konsep perkawinan waria tidak eksis menurut Hukum Islam. LSM Kebaya menganggap bahwa peraturan tentang perkawinan di Indonesia melanggar hak asasi manusia, karena tidak memfasilitasi perkawinan

  2. The Interaction of Same-Sex Marriage Access With Sexual Minority Identity on Mental Health and Subjective Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alexander K

    2017-01-01

    Previous psychological and public health research has highlighted the impact of legal recognition of same-sex relationships on individual identity and mental health. Using a sample of U.S. sexual minority (N = 313) and heterosexual (N = 214) adults, participants completed a battery of mental health inventories prior to the nationwide legalization of same-sex marriage. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) examining identity revealed sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was banned experienced significantly higher levels of internalized homonegativity than sexual minority participants living in states where same-sex marriage was legal, even after controlling for state-level political climate. Mental health ANCOVAs revealed sexual minority participants residing in states without same-sex marriage experienced greater anxiety and lower subjective wellbeing compared to sexual minority participants residing in states with same-sex marriage and heterosexual participants residing in states with or without same-sex marriage. Implications for public policy and future research directions are discussed.

  3. MENUJU HUKUM PERKAWINAN ISLAM PROGRESIF TOWARDS PROGRESSIVE ISLAMIC MARRIAGE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Isna Wahyudi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ada  beberapa  ketentuan  dalam  Rancangan  Undang-Undang  Hukum  Materiil  Peradilan  Agama bidang  Perkawinan  yang  perlu  dirumuskan  sesuai  dengan  kondisi  saat  ini.  Dengan  cara  tersebut, hukum  perkawinan  Islam  di  Indonesia  akan  progresif  dan  tidak  diskriminatif  terhadap  kaum perempuan. Ketentuan-ketentuan tersebut mencakup rukun perkawinan, usia perkawinan, wali nikah, dan status anak. Makalah ini mencoba untuk melakukan kontekstualisasi ketentuan-ketentuan tersebut sesuai  dengan  kondisi  saat  ini  dengan  menggunakan  pendekatan  hermeneutik.  Sebagai  hasilnya, pencatatan  perkawinan  seharusnya  menjadi  salah  satu  rukun  perkawinan,  usia  perkawinan  harus dirumuskan  dengan  mempertimbangkan  kesehatan  reproduksi  kaum  perempuan,  wali  nikah  bagi calon pengantin perempuan bukan rukun perkawinan, dan anak dari perempuan yang menikah pada saat hamil termasuk sebagai anak sah yang memiliki nasab kepada kedua orang tuanya. There are some provisions on the Bill of Religious Judicature Substantial Law on Marriage that need to  be formulated in  accordance  with the  present time.  In  this  way,  the Islamic  Law  of Marriage in Indonesia  will  be  progressive  and  not  discriminative  against  women.  Those  provisions  include  the pillar of marriage, the age of marriage, the guardian of marriage,  and the status of child.  This article tries  to  contextualize  those  provisions  in  accordance  with  the  present  time  using  hermeneutical approach. As the result, the registration of marriage should be one of the pillars of marriage, the age of  marriage  should  be  formulated  by  considering  women’s  reproduction  health,  the  guardian  of marriage for the bride is not pillar of marriage, and the child of pregnant woman marriage is counted as legal child whose lineage to both parents

  4. Basic Profile of Child Marriage in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Malé, Chata; Wodon, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    This brief has provided a basic profile of child marriage in Egypt. Measures of child marriage are very high. The share of women ages 18-22 who married as children is 16.5 percent and it has declined over time. The share of girls marrying very early, before the age of 15, has also declined. Other measures of child marriage have declined as well over the last 25 years. Child marriage is ass...

  5. 179 SAME-SEX MARRIAGE, CIVIL MARRIAGE AND COHABITATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    sources of law material which include books on marriages, articles in journals as well as articles on the internet. ... sex couples for about three decades, and people aware of the 'gay right movement', but they did not ... One school of thought believed that, gay rights movement is the next to Civil rights struggle7 while the.

  6. Marriage ceremony: The clash between traditional marriage rites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has necessitated the need to ask; at what point can a young man and a woman who has agreed to marry, be socially described as a married couple? In Nigeria, some Pentecostal Christian churches do not allow the bride to immediately go home with the groom and his people after traditional marriage rite has been ...

  7. Legal terminology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to study the concept of paraphrase developed by Simonnæs for describing textual elements directed at non-experts in court decisions and intended to give insight into the legal argumentation of the court. Following a discussion of the concept of paraphrase I will study two...... texts disseminating legal concepts in different situations (Wikipedia article for general public, article from ministry aimed at children and adolescents) and especially investigate, to what extent the paraphrase concept is applicable also for describing dissemination strategies in such situations....... In the conclusion, hypotheses for further investigation of knowledge dissemination in the field of law are formulated....

  8. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    The idealised land|water dichotomy is most obviously challenged by ice when ‘land practice’ takes place on ice or when ‘maritime practice’ is obstructed by ice. Both instances represent disparity between the legal codification of space and its social practice. Logically, then, both instances call...... for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...

  9. Economics, Judaism, and Marriage (in Hebrew)

    OpenAIRE

    Grossbard, Shoshana Amyra

    1986-01-01

    This paper points to parallels between the economic approach to marriage and Jewish Law. The economic approach is applied to the sex ratio question, the price of Torah scholars, the need for marriage brokers, marriage contracts and polygamy, all topics also addressed by Jewish law.

  10. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  11. Early marriage and early motherhood in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Minja Kim; Thapa, Shyam; Mishra, Vinod

    2005-03-01

    This paper examines age patterns of first marriage and motherhood and covariates of early marriage, delayed consummation of marriage and early motherhood in Nepal using data from the 2000 Nepal Adolescent and Young Adult Survey (NAYA). Both unmarried and married male and female youths (age 14-22) were included in the survey. The analysis is based on 2800 urban youths and 5075 rural youths with complete information on the variables examined. Proportional hazard models are used to estimate covariates of early marriage and early motherhood, and logistic regression models are used to estimate covariates of delayed consummation of marriage. The results show that early marriage and early motherhood are quite common among Nepalese women, especially in rural areas. Early marriage is much less common among men. Delayed consummation of marriage is common among very young brides, especially in rural areas. The main covariates associated with early marriage and early motherhood are respondent's education, region of residence and ethnicity. The main covariates of delayed consummation of marriage are age at first marriage, region of residence and ethnicity. The study highlights the need to focus on less educated female youths in the Terai region in order to reduce the reproductive and child health risks associated with early marriage and early childbearing.

  12. Entry into first marriage in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has experienced substantial socioeconomic and institutional changes over the past few decades. The literature has documented a variety of demographic changes during this time, including the delay and decline of marriage and the recent prevalence of cohabitation. However, we have little knowledge about how the Chinese enter into marriage. Objective: This study demonstrates the diversification of first marriage entry over time. Methods: We applied event-history analysis to longitudinal data from the China Family Panel Studies (2010-2012 waves and estimated the competing risks of the identified marriage entry types. The observation covered the period from 1960 to 2012. Results: Our estimations from the competing models demonstrated four notable types of first marriage entry, including a general decline in the traditional 'direct marriage,' a rise and decline in 'conception marriage,' and two recently increasing innovative practices of 'cohabitation marriage' and 'cohabitation and conception marriage.' The 1980s marked a turning point when traditional family practices began to decay and innovative family practices began to emerge and spread. Conclusions: The diversification of marriage entry in China since the 1980s occurred in tandem with the development of China's economic reform and 'opening-up' policies. This simultaneity exemplifies the notion that socioeconomic changes at the macro level interact with family behavior changes at the individual level. Contribution: This study demonstrates an increasingly wide array of marriage entry types over time, reflecting the evolution of marriage behaviors from tradition to modernity in contemporary Chinese society.

  13. 28 CFR 551.111 - Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage. 551.111 Section 551.111... Pretrial Inmates § 551.111 Marriage. A pretrial inmate may request permission to marry in accordance with... marriage request of the pretrial inmate and to request their comments. ...

  14. 38 CFR 3.54 - Marriage dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage dates. 3.54..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.54 Marriage dates. A surviving spouse may qualify for pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation if the marriage to the...

  15. Why Marriage Matters for Child Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribar, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Marriage between two parents, compared with other family living arrangements, appears, on average, to enhance children's wellbeing and development. Some of the positive association between marriage and children's wellbeing comes from positive associations between marriage and other things that also contribute to children's wellbeing. David Ribar…

  16. Interfaith Marriage and Religious Commitment among Catholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Examined assertion that interfaith marriages have secularizing effect on family members. Assessed effects of respondent's and his/her parents' type of religious marriage on 11 measures of religious commitment. Catholics married to non-Catholics scored lower on attending mass and receiving communion than Catholics in homogamous marriages, but most…

  17. 'Solemnis(ing) beginnings': theories of same-sex marriage in the USA and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores arguments for and against same-sex marriage as 'movement advocacy' in the USA as a backdrop to the proposition that, despite the influence of US discourses on South African debates about same-sex marriage, US discussions are less important to understanding South African responses than controversies about marriage itself in the country. The paper works in two sections. First it sketches legal and critical tensions within the USA around the implications of same-sex marriage activism, drawing on work from Franke, Brandzel, Grossman, Puar and others. Second, it notes arguments on queer homonationalisms, made most forcefully by Puar, concerning the effects and interests of 'exporting' US legal ideals to countries elsewhere, especially poorer countries. It then moves to offer suggestions for ways of nuancing this argument through stronger critical attention to context concerning radically shifting notions of marriage within those countries themselves, using South Africa as a case study. This section draws on recent work by Judge, van Zyl, Scott, Mkhize and Adebayo and Nyameza, among others.

  18. DIACHRONIC ANALYSIS OF THREE PALESTINIAN MARRIAGE CONTRACTS: IMPLICATIONS FOR TRANSLATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ahmad Thawabteh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other discourses, legal discourse should be very simple, straightforward and unambiguous, and so should legal translation. However, legal translation implies multifarious challenges. Though, it is still under-research in the Arab World and the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT. The present article attempts to shed some light on the development of the language of legal texts in the OPT as illustrated in the study of three marriage contracts representing three sporadic periods of time— post-First World War, post-Israeli occupation to Palestine and post-foundation of Palestinian National Authority (PNA. The rationale beyond this selection is that the OPT has witnessed a political upheaval since the First World War, started with British Mandate until 1948, Israeli occupation in 1948 and now the rule of PNA. A thorough investigation into the contracts over these periods of time shows a noticeable development of the language of the contracts in terms of terminologies, structure and cultural components. The article reveals a good affinity between the language employed in the structure of the contracts and the social, economic and political situations when the contracts were written. Translation-wise, the article reflects on sample translations of the contracts by Hatim et al. (1995 with a view to examining the intricacies of legal translation. The findings show how important for legal translator to be well-versed in the language of law and the development of legal discourse diachronically. The article finally draws some conclusions which may be useful for legal translator trainers/trainees.

  19. The puzzle of monogamous marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Joseph; Boyd, Robert; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-03-05

    The anthropological record indicates that approximately 85 per cent of human societies have permitted men to have more than one wife (polygynous marriage), and both empirical and evolutionary considerations suggest that large absolute differences in wealth should favour more polygynous marriages. Yet, monogamous marriage has spread across Europe, and more recently across the globe, even as absolute wealth differences have expanded. Here, we develop and explore the hypothesis that the norms and institutions that compose the modern package of monogamous marriage have been favoured by cultural evolution because of their group-beneficial effects-promoting success in inter-group competition. In suppressing intrasexual competition and reducing the size of the pool of unmarried men, normative monogamy reduces crime rates, including rape, murder, assault, robbery and fraud, as well as decreasing personal abuses. By assuaging the competition for younger brides, normative monogamy decreases (i) the spousal age gap, (ii) fertility, and (iii) gender inequality. By shifting male efforts from seeking wives to paternal investment, normative monogamy increases savings, child investment and economic productivity. By increasing the relatedness within households, normative monogamy reduces intra-household conflict, leading to lower rates of child neglect, abuse, accidental death and homicide. These predictions are tested using converging lines of evidence from across the human sciences.

  20. Essays on Marriage and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio Covarrubias, Ariana Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation I present three papers, each as an individual chapter. The first two papers are in the field of development economics, while the third paper is in the field of education economics. The first two chapters document and study the disappearance of arranged marriages in Asia, the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa. For this…

  1. Marriage migration in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leen Sterckx; Jaco Dagevos; Willem Huijnk; Jantine van Lisdonk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Huwelijksmigratie in Nederland When a man or woman living in the Netherlands embarks on a relationship with a partner from another country and the couple decide to build a married life together in the Netherlands, we call this marriage migration. The foreign partner who moves to

  2. The Christian and Juridical Dimension of the Relationship between Marriage and Wedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu N. Chiriluta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study aims at radiographing the marital phenomenon, being at the confluence of two areas with distinct social and moral implications. Prior Work: Marriage is a family law institution, the regulation of which was not indifferent to the Romanian legislator who proposed to adopt and renovate the legal norms in the matter. With most often imperative provisions, the new civil law provides for the background and form conditions of marriage. From a different perspective, the canon law puts the legal provisions on a second place and imparts to this union of two persons a sacredness that goes beyond the legal domain. Approach: After studying the regulation of the family law institutions, we will highlight the non-involvement of the religious factor in the juridical side, and the contradictions between family law and canon law, concerning only the moral dimension of the family, more formally supported by the civil law and the procedure for regulating marriage, the imposed conditions and impediments. Thus in the family law the legislator does not give priority to personal experiences, to the mutual love of spouses as the first condition of their union in marriage. Value: In order to accomplish this we shall also present a personal perspective regarding the two essential conditions for the concluding of the religious wedding, as they are not valid from a juridical point of view.

  3. Psychologists' Advocacy for the Legal Recognition of Same-Sex Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Bruce A.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by G. Herek, "Legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the United States: A social science perspective." Herek provided a useful overview of psychological research relevant to the legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Another avenue of advocacy that the American Psychological Association could undertake…

  4. Age and Consent to Marriage in the Light of International Human Rights Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ماهرو غدیری

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is the starting point of founding a family in most societies, especially in traditional ones. This right has been mentioned in the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which is indicative of the indivisibility and inseparability of all human rights. One of the most important subjects in the formation of a marriage is that of marital age and conesnt to marriage, which is an international concern and international human rights law has addressed it. Early marriage and any marriage performed without valid consent, have a negative impact on the individual, the family, and society. These pose an especially serious threat to the physical and psychological health of girls who are not physically mature enough as it "increases the risk of unintended pregnancy, maternal and newborn mortality and sexually transmitted infections. "This paper analyses the human rights dimensions of child marriage in detail with a look at the Iranian legal system’s approach to the issue.

  5. Social Inclusion and the Value of Marriage Equality in Massachusetts and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Much of the debate about marriage rights for same-sex couples has focused on material and legal benefits. However, some of the primary benefits of marriage equality for same-sex couples and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people might be psychological. The two studies presented draw on qualitative data from 19 same-sex couples in the Netherlands and 556 people married to same-sex partners in Massachusetts (United States). The right to marry and exercising the right to marry were assoc...

  6. Domination of Tradition in Under Age Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Sulaiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research was the phenomenon of early marriage which was domi- nated by cultural traditions. It was a qualitative research that used interview, obser- vation and document reviews to collect the data. The result of the study was expected to provide people enough information and materials on the picture of early marriage. The findings showed some determining factors in the phenomenon: culture, textual understanding of religion, and economic motives. Although the phenomenon of early marriage was like this, people actually perceive that the ideal marriage was a mar- riage which is conducted after reaching the age mature enough to be able to live inde- pendently. The practice of such marriage should get special attention because there are many social problems that are related direcly to the mature age of marriage, such as: mortality, poverty, and the low quality of education. Therefore, the implementa- tion of the marriage must be in accordance with the laws and regulations.

  7. Marriage, Law and Polyamory. Rebutting Mononormativity with Sexual Orientation Discourse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klesse

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the genealogy of sexual orientation discourse in US legal scholarship and explores potential drawbacks of the articulation of a sexual orientation argument in the field of relationship recognition. After a long period of refraining from campaigning for legal recognition of multi-partner relationships, polyamory activists have recently shown a stronger interest in litigation. This paper identifies reasons for this shift in recent successes of the campaign for same-sex marriage rights and critically discusses proposals to frame polyamory as a sexual orientation to achieve multi-partner marriage rights through litigation. I argue that advocating a sexual orientation model of polyamory is likely to reduce the complexity and transformative potential of poly intimacies, limit the scope and reach of potential litigation, obstruct the capacity of poly activism to form alliances and increase the likelihood of poly activism to settle for legal solutions (i.e. marriage that are exclusive and reproductive of a culture of privilege.Este artículo traza la genealogía del discurso sobre orientación sexual en las investigaciones jurídicas de Estados Unidos y explora los posibles inconvenientes de la articulación de un argumento de orientación sexual en el campo del reconocimiento de parentesco. Tras un largo período sin hacer campaña para el reconocimiento legal de las relaciones de múltiples miembros, los activistas del poliamor han mostrado recientemente un mayor interés en litigar. Este artículo identifica las razones de este cambio en los éxitos recientes de la campaña a favor del derecho al matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo y debate de forma crítica las propuestas para enmarcar el poliamor como una orientación sexual, para alcanzar el derecho al matrimonio entre múltiples miembros a través del litigio. Se argumenta que defender un modelo de orientación sexual de poliamor es probable que reduzca la complejidad y el

  8. LEGAL MATRIMONIAL REGIME IN B&H

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krešić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Matrimonial regime between spouses or between extramarital partners, and between parents and children is regulated by the Family Law Act of Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation, hereinafter FLA B&HF (SG FBiH 35/05, 41/05, Family Law Act of the Republic of Srpska, hereinafter FLA RS (SG RS”54/02, 41/08 and the Family Law Act of Brčko District, hereinafter FLA BD (SG RS, 66/07. Legal rules used for the regulation of the matrimonial regime between spouses, as well as between spouses and third parties make matrimonial regime (Ponjavić, 2005, p. 361. Matrimonial regime between spouses in family legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H is regulated in two following ways: as legal matrimonial regime and as contract matrimonial regime. Legal regime is the one which applies on spouses if not arranged otherwise prior to contracting marriage or during marriage. In this paper the author indicates the differences between the legal matrimonial regimes of the two entities as well as those between the entities and Brčko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  9. Legislative provisions related to marriage and divorce of persons with mental health problems: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, Dinesh; Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Gosavi, Chetna; Ng, Roger; Torales, Julio; Ventriglio, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Realization of right to marry by a person is an exercise of personal liberty, even if concepts of marriage and expectations from such commitment vary across cultures and societies. Once married, if an individual develops mental illness the legal system often starts to discriminate against the individual. There is no doubt that every individual's right to marry or remain married is regulated by their country's family codes, civil codes, marriage laws, or divorce laws. Historically mental health condition of a spouse or intending spouse has been of interest to lawmakers in a number of ways from facilitating divorce to helping the individual with mental illness. There is no doubt that there are deeply ingrained stereotypes that persons with mental health problems lack capacity to consent and, therefore, cannot enter into a marital contract of their own free will. These assumptions lead to discrimination both in practice and in law. Furthermore, the probability of mental illness being genetically transmitted and passed on to offspring adds yet another dimension of discrimination. Thus, the system may also raise questions about the ability of persons with mental health problems to care, nurture, and support a family and children. Internationally, rights to marry, the right to remain married, and dissolution of marriage have been enshrined in several human rights instruments. Domestic laws were studied in 193 countries to explore whether laws affected the rights of people with mental illness with respect to marriage; it was found that 37% of countries explicitly prohibit marriage by persons with mental health problems. In 11% (21 countries) the presence of mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for nullity of marriage. Thus, in many countries basic human rights related to marriage are being flouted.

  10. Legalization of consensual unions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, N; Pebley, A R

    1981-01-01

    In Latin America, socially sanctioned conjugal unions take 2 forms: legal marriage and consensual unions. While legal marriage is more prestigious, consensual unions offer practical advantages. An examination of the legalization of consensual unions in rural areas in Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, and Mexico is undertaken using data from the 1969 Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia's (CELADE) comparative survey of fertility. The survey in each country is based on a self weighted sample of 2000-3000 women aged 15-49 living in areas with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. The union histories addressed types of unions, duration, and age and date of onset and of termination. The samples consisted of 881 unions in Colombia, 646 in Costa Rica, 865 in Mexico, and 1009 in Peru. The risk of legalization was measured by life table procedures, using only single decrement values for comparisons among subgroups. Between 32-41% of the unions are consensual in the rural areas of these countries. With the exception of Peru, consensual unions are higher among 2nd and later unions than among 1st unions. As expected from previous studies, they are more prevalent among younger women, those without education and among non-Catholics or non-practicing Catholics. About 30% of the consensual unions become legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and in Peru the rate of conversion is about 50%. Less than 20% in Colombia and Peru remain intact for more than 25 years; about 25% are terminated within the 1st 2 years. The single decrement values suggest that in the absence of separation or death of a partner, almost 50% of the unions would eventually be legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, about 65% in Peru. The probability of conversion is highest among women in their 1st union and in the 1st year. Only 2-8% of the women legalize higher order unions. Of the factors related to the probability of legalization, age is an important differential in Costa Rica, education in Mexico, and

  11. A Child's Right to Be Well Born: Venereal Disease and the Eugenic Marriage Laws, 1913-1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    An extensive literature describes the legal impact of America's eugenics movement, and the laws mandating sterilization, restriction of marriage by race, and ethnic bans on immigration. But little scholarship focuses on the laws adopted in more than 40 states that were commonly referred to as "eugenic marriage laws." Those laws conditioned marriage licenses on medical examinations and were designed to save innocent women from lives of misery, prevent stillbirth or premature death in children, and save future generations from the myriad afflictions that accompanied "venereal infection." Medical journals, legal journals, and every kind of public press outlet explained the "eugenic marriage laws" and the controversies they spawned. They were inextricably bound up in reform movements that attempted to eradicate prostitution, stamp out STIs, and reform America's sexual mores in the first third of the 20th century. This article will explain the pedigree of the eugenic marriage laws, highlight the trajectory of Wisconsin's 1913 eugenic enactment, and explore how the Wisconsin Supreme Court case upholding the law paved the way for the majority of states to regulate marriage on eugenic grounds.

  12. Evaluation of the screening test results before marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Durmaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C viruses and Treponema pallidum are parenterally and sexually transmitted infection agents. Screening test is made before marriage to pre-marital couples legally under the relevant legislation and legal procedures in our country; applicants are evaluated in terms of sexually transmitted diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate pre-marital test results for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and Treponema pallidum.Materials and methods: To make screening test before marriage, randomized 117 patients who were applied to Kızıltepe General Hospital of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, were included in this study between January 2011 and March 2011. Of these patients, 64 were women (average age 24.7±5.7, and 55 were males (mean age 24.7±4.7. HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV I/II tests of the patients were studied by macro-ELISA device (ECIQ Vitros, Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, USA, screening of anti-Treponema pallidum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies were studied by immunochromatographic rapid test (syphilis syphilis 3.0, Standard Diagnostics, inc. Korea.Results: Of the 119 patients, five patients (4.2% were positive for HBsAg (3 male and 2 female. Anti-HCV, anti-HIV I/II and anti-Treponema pallidum antibodies were negative in all patients.Conclusion: HBsAg test result which was obtained in present study has been found consistent with HBsAg positivity rate in our region. As a result of screening test that was done before marriage will continue to believe that the increased importance of the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 292-294.

  13. Teenage Cohabitation, Marriage, and Childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15-19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child's third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as "single mothers" are actually in cohabiting relationships.

  14. Epilepsy: legal discrimination from negative to positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, K S

    1997-01-01

    Indian law equates epilepsy with temporary insanity and also prohibits a legally valid marriage for a person with epilepsy with inherent risk of divorce. This absurd law, unique to India and possibly Brazil, must be excised in toto. Repeated petitions, by the Indian Epilepsy Association, to the Federal Government, have resulted in only vague assurances and alternate methods are under consideration. There are no legal impediments to education or work. Strict regulations against driving have yielded place to lax rules wherein a person can drive a vehicle, even after a recent fit, provided he gets a certificate from any registered medical practitioner. The nascent medical insurance specifically excludes epilepsy from its ambit. The cost of anti-epileptic drugs includes a 40% tax akin to Value Added Tax in the West. We must consider the impact of these legal impediments on the social fabric of the individual in his/her milieu and vis-a-vis priorities in national development.

  15. Mean Field Game for Marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Bauso, Dario

    2014-01-06

    The myth of marriage has been and is still a fascinating historical societal phenomenon. Paradoxically, the empirical divorce rates are at an all-time high. This work describes a unique paradigm for preserving relationships and marital stability from mean-field game theory. We show that optimizing the long-term well-being via effort and society feeling state distribution will help in stabilizing relationships.

  16. Igbo marriage anda family life

    OpenAIRE

    Okorobia-Onwuzurigbo, G. (Gregory)

    1990-01-01

    The Catholic bishops of Onitsha Ecclesiastical Province in their joint Pastoral Letter to mark the first centenary celebrations of the advent of Catholic Church in Eastern Nigeria call for an intense catechesis as a way of deepening the faith of the huge number of Catholics recorded in the first century of the Church1 . Undoubtedly marriage and family life are some of the institutions at the centre of this intense catechesis. Hence this work has been proposed as a surv...

  17. Secular Weddings in Canada: An Examination of a Humanist Response to the Evolution of Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Hawkeye Robertson

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing societal secularization, little research has been undertaken on the needs of non-religious people to engage in marriage ceremony or the means by which such needs are met. Using a jurisdictional scan, focus groups, and an on-line survey, this exploratory survey examines the provision for and use of secular legal marriage in Canada’s regions from a humanist perspective. It is postulated that marriage ceremonies have persisted among the non-religious due to needs to authenticate or recognize transitional changes to the self, but these needs have been met through ad hoc strategies as opposed to a uniform demand for humanist services. Implications for humanist organizations are discussed along with recommendations for further research.

  18. Exploring universal partnerships and putative marriages as tools for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It concludes by pointing out several issues which are in need of clarification and where the common law should be developed to give effect to fundamental constitutional rights. Keywords: Universal partnerships; customary marriage; putative marriage; Muslim marriage; Hindu marriage; bigamy; marriage out of community of ...

  19. 28 CFR 551.16 - Marriage ceremony in the institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage ceremony in the institution. 551... MANAGEMENT MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.16 Marriage ceremony in the institution. (a) The Warden may approve the use of institution facilities for an inmate's marriage ceremony. If a marriage...

  20. Legal Ice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandsbjerg, Jeppe

    for alternative legal thought and practice; in the following I will emphasise the former and reflect upon the relationship between ice, law and politics. Prior to this workshop I had worked more on the relationship between cartography, geography and boundaries than specifically on ice. Listening to all...... the interesting conversations during the workshop, however, made me think that much of the concern with the Polar Regions in general, and the presence of ice in particular, reverberates around the question of how to accommodate various geographical presences and practices within the regulatory framework that we...

  1. Is Tourism Marriage of Young Girls in Egypt a Form of Child Sexual Abuse? A Family Exploitation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hussein Hassan; Alsharqawi, Nagwa Ibrahim; Younis, Mustafa Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Tourism marriage in Egypt is considered a part of the child marriage phenomenon, as parents following false interpretations of Islamic teachings offer up their daughters for short-term sexual relationships in return for money from tourists. This exploratory study used qualitative methods to interview 42 parents who reside in the city of Darasa, Giza, Egypt, whose daughters were persuaded to engage in tourism marriage. Eight social work students utilized an interview guide that contained 10 questions exploring how parents strike deals with tourists and avoid all legal and traditional procedures of marriage in Egypt. The findings of this study were summarized in six distinct themes, which show evidence of family exploitation of young women. This experience likely increases the child's vulnerability to psychological, social, and physical consequences.

  2. Indian religious concepts on sexuality and marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Priyanka Thukral; Pimple, Priya; Palsetia, Delnaz; Dave, Nahid; De Sousa, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Indian religions and cultures are diverse and have always influenced the way people live in this part of the world. Religion has been a very dominant influence in marriage, choice of marital partner and cohabitation. The present paper looks at various religions in India and their influence on sexual attitudes and the institution of marriage. Sikhism, Jainism and the Parsi faith with its influence on sexuality and marriage are reviewed. Christian values and the role they play in shaping sexual...

  3. Heterosexual Attitudes towards Same-Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men b...

  4. Changing attitudes toward marriage and single life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A; Freedman, D

    1982-01-01

    Attitudes about the primacy of marriage as a way of life have changed markedly over the past two decades. The legitimacy of singleness as a life-style is increasingly recognized by young people and their parents; most Americans no longer regard getting married as necessarily better than remaining single and do not disapprove of those who eschew marriage. Although most young people interviewed in the 1980 Study of American Families say that they would be bothered at least a little by failure to marry, relatively few say they would be greatly bothered by that outcome. It is somewhat surprising that the mothers of these young people also report fairly evenhanded attitudes regarding marriage for their children, suggesting that the younger generation will probably not experience much parental pressure to marry. Although the imperative to marry has weakened and the perceived advantages of marriage as compared to single life have declined, marriage continues to be valued by the majority of young Americans as shown in several studies of attitudes toward marriage. More than 90 percent expect to marry and there has been almost no decline in that proportion since 1960. What is more, despite the high levels of divorce, most young people say that they expect their marriages to be lasting. What has changed about marriage plans has been the rising age at which young people, especially young women, expect to marry--an expectation reflected in the increasing age at which Americans are actually marrying. There also seems to be a widespread desire not to let marriage interfere with education and to obtain some work experience before marriage. Marriage continues to be more important to young women than young men, despite recent trends toward more egalitarian sex roles. There is some evidence that experience with divorce increases negative attitudes about marriage and favorable ones about singleness as a way of life.

  5. Committing to marriage? The role of marriage attitudes and gender equality among young cohabiters in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wijk, Sofi Ohlsson; Brandén, Maria; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Marriage is commonly perceived as a more committed form of union than cohabitation. Individualization perspectives suggest that this makes couples refrain from marriage, while gender perspectives propose that gender equality within couples may increase the willingness to commit to a partner through marriage. We address these differing standpoints by studying the role of commitment and gender equality for marriage formation among cohabiting men and women born in Swe...

  6. International Marriage for Homogeneity? - Evidence from Marriage Migration in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-Young

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether cultural, racial, and linguistic similarities increase marriage migration. By using marriage migration data from South Korea, I find that the similarities between an origin country and South Korea pull more marriage migration, but the positive effects of the similarities are mainly driven by female marriage migrants from middle and low income countries. The pulling effects of the similarities can be explained by female deficits in the marital age gr...

  7. Is the union civil? Same-sex marriages, civil unions, domestic partnerships and reciprocal benefits in the USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curry-Sumner, I.; Curry-Sumner, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The legal recognition of same-sex relationships has been a legislative Gordian knot for almost three decades in the United States of America. Few issues have been so polarising as the debate surrounding the opening of marriage to same-sex couples. The aim of this article is to provide a clear

  8. Same-sex marriage and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangas, Georgios; Athanasou, James A

    2016-12-01

    It has been proposed that legislation for same-sex marriage has a positive mental health benefit. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate the empirical and conceptual links between same-sex marriage and mental health. There are substantive methodological issues in the four surveys and comparisons undertaken. Difficulties with the validity of the evidence are discussed. Conceptual difficulties in the arguments relating to victimisation as well as the psychology of marriage are highlighted. It was concluded that it is premature to make claims of causality vis-a-vis same-sex marriage legislation and mental health. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  9. Global and Regional Trends in Child Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Wodon, Quentin; Nguyen, Minh Cong

    2015-01-01

    Nguyen and Wodon suggest that better measurement of child marriage can be obtained by adopting the techniques used for the measurement of poverty. The objective of this article is to use that approach to provide estimates of global and regional trends over time in the extent of child marriage – not only its incidence, but also what we refer to as the child marriage gap and the squared child marriage gap, two measures that take into account how young girls are when they marry.

  10. Health consequences of child marriage in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Nawal M

    2006-11-01

    Despite international agreements and national laws, marriage of girls Child marriage is a human rights violation that prevents girls from obtaining an education, enjoying optimal health, bonding with others their own age, maturing, and ultimately choosing their own life partners. Child marriage is driven by poverty and has many effects on girls' health: increased risk for sexually transmitted diseases, cervical cancer, malaria, death during childbirth, and obstetric fistulas. Girls' offspring are at increased risk for premature birth and death as neonates, infants, or children. To stop child marriage, policies and programs must educate communities, raise awareness, engage local and religious leaders, involve parents, and empower girls through education and employment.

  11. Same-sex marriage, civil marriage and cohabitation: the law, the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, marriage is believed to be the union of two persons. However, very little attention is paid to its validity which attracts rights and responsibilities. This paper examined the law surrounding marriage rights and responsibilities attached if any, depending on whether the marriage is valid or not. The paper employed ...

  12. Love, marriage, then the baby carriage? Marriage timing and childbearing in Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holland, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Some scholars claim that marriage is an outmoded institution, decoupled from the childbearing process in Sweden. However, it is likely that the presence of children is still linked to marriage, since most children born to cohabiting couples experience the marriage of their parents. The

  13. PREVALENCE OF CHILD MARRIAGE AMONG BANGLADESHI WOMEN AND TREND OF CHANGE OVER TIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Golam; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam; Saw, Aik

    2016-08-01

    Many Bangladeshi women marry early, and many marry before the legal age of 18 years. This practice has been associated with a higher risk of health and medical morbidities, and also early pregnancy with higher pre- and postnatal complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, and factors associated with, child marriage among Bangladeshi women using multiple binary logistic regression analysis of data from the BDHS-2011. Further analysis on the trend of age at first marriage was performed with additional data sets from previous surveys. The mean and median of ages at first marriage of Bangladeshi women in 2011 were 15.69±2.97 and 15.00 years, respectively. A remarkably high percentage (78.2%) married before the age of 18; of these, 5.5% married at a very early age (before 13 years of age). Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that uneducated women were more likely to be married early (pChild marriage was especially pronounced among women with uneducated husbands, Muslims, those with poor economic backgrounds and those living in rural areas. Further analysis including data from previous BDHS surveys showed that child marriage among Bangladeshi women had a decreasing trend from 1993-94 to 2011. These results show that child marriage was very common in Bangladesh, and closely associated with low level of education and low economic status. The decreasing trend in child marriage indicates an improvement over the past two decades but more effort is needed to further reduce and eventually eliminate the practice.

  14. 'Appeals to nature' in marriage equality debates: A content analysis of newspaper and social media discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Cliodhna

    2017-09-01

    In May 2015, Ireland held a referendum to legalize same-sex marriage, which passed with 62% of the vote. This study explores the role played by 'appeals to nature' in the referendum debate. Little research has investigated how biological attributions are spontaneously generated in real-world discourse regarding sexual rights. Through content analysis of newspaper and Twitter discussion of the referendum, this study aims to (1) establish the frequency of appeals to nature and their distribution across the various 'sides' of the debate and (2) analyse the forms these natural claims took and the rhetorical functions they fulfilled. Appeals to nature occurred in a minority of media discussion of the referendum (13.6% of newspaper articles and .3% of tweets). They were more prominent in material produced by anti-marriage equality commentators. Biological attributions predominantly occurred in relation to parenthood, traditional marriage, gender, and homosexuality. The article analyses the rhetorical dynamics of these natural claims and considers the implications for marriage equality research and activism. The analysis suggests appeals to nature allow anti-marriage equality discourse adapt to a cultural context that proscribes outright disapproval of same-sex relationships. However, it also queries whether previous research has overemphasized the significance of biological attributions in discourse about groups' rights. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  15. THE PORTRAY OF MARRIAGE BASED ON CULTURE OF TWO NOVELS, ―DIARY OF THE LOST BOY‖ AND ―DAN BIDADARI PUN MENCINTAIMU‖

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Kusuma Adianingrum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wellek (1956: 83 stated that literature is an expression of society. Therefore, literary work is a product which comes from the author‘s interaction which is transferred into the form of book, or it is referred to novel. The author combines his or her real social life and mind to make the society become aware of the phenomena exist nowadays. One of them that will be analyzed in this study is about marriage. Russel (1959: 88 says that in fact, marriage is a legal institution and also in most communities a religious institution, but it is the legal aspect which is essential. However, the world‘s development has influenced some parts about marriage. For example, the legalization of same-sex marriage after Supreme Court of the United States stated that states must allow same-sex marriage. Furthermore, it ignites other countries to do so. The writer is interested in analyzing how the authors of ―Diary of The Lost Boy‖, Harry Kondoleon and ―Dan Bidadari pun Mencintaimu‖, Ali Imron El Shirazy portray marriage based on their own cultures of society in order to know about the differences between each culture, which are American and Islamic culture based on both novels and relate it into the current condition of each. This paper is expected to be a consideration for people in understanding cultural diversity through reading a novel.

  16. The marriage boom and marriage bust in the United States: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, Jona

    2017-03-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s there was an unprecedented marriage boom in the United States. This was followed in the 1970s by a marriage bust. Some argue that both phenomena are cohort effects, while others argue that they are period effects. The study reported here tested the major period and cohort theories of the marriage boom and bust, by estimating an age-period-cohort model of first marriage for the years 1925-79 using census microdata. The results of the analysis indicate that the marriage boom was mostly a period effect, although there were also cohort influences. More specifically, the hypothesis that the marriage boom was mostly a response to rising wages is shown to be consistent with the data. However, much of the marriage bust can be accounted for by unidentified cohort influences, at least until 1980.

  17. Personality Interaction in the Alcoholic Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, George E.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared personality characteristics of couples in alcoholic and nonalcoholic marriages. Couples in which one spouse was alcoholic showed fewer personality interrelationships than nonalcoholic couples, raising questions about the hypothesis that alcoholic marriage partners complement each other. Alcoholic and nonalcoholic males differed…

  18. Differential Antecedents of Infidelity in Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.; Lederer, Doris A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated antecedents of marital infidelity for individuals (N=59) involved with coworkers or others. Data suggested that persons involved with coworkers had more satisfying marriages and scored higher on the Compatibility Index than those involved with others. The number of liaisons was not correlated with age or age at marriage. (JAC)

  19. Marriage, Adult Adjustment, and Early Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Martha J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assessed the impact of parents' marriages on the parenting of firstborn three-month-olds. Concluded that mothers are warmer and more sensitive with infants than fathers are. Fathers hold more positive attitudes toward their infants and their roles as parents when they are in close, confiding marriages. (RH)

  20. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  1. Marriage Encounter Casualties: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, William J.; Walker, Brian J.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between participation in Marriage Encounter and subsequent marital or family distress. An analysis of 13 case reports suggested that Marriage Encounter weekends can cause marital or family deterioration through increased marital conflict, avoidance of constructive problem solving, or marital enmeshment at the expense…

  2. Marriage Rights of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Erin E.

    2009-01-01

    Trying to understand marriage laws for individuals with disabilities can be frustrating. People looking for a clear-cut answer may turn to the Constitution. Different states address marriage laws differently. Most states consider the nature and severity of the individual's disability and the role of his or her guardian in the decision to marry.…

  3. Forced marriage as a crime against humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Czelusniak, Tanja Erika Andersen

    2016-01-01

    Forced marriage is one of the newest crimes against humanity adjudicated at international criminal tribunals. This thesis shall discuss the evolution of this new crime, asking: Has international jurisprudence come to a point of recognition of forced marriage as a separate crime against humanity and if so, is it viable?

  4. Education, Marriage, and First Conception in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brien, Michael J.; Lillard, Lee A.

    1994-01-01

    Among Malaysian females, changes in education and enrollment account for much of the trend toward later marriage. Increase in age at first conception across cohorts and ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese, Indian) is fully accounted for by cohort and ethnic differences in the age at marriage. (Author/SK)

  5. Glass effect in a prescribed marriage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Itoh, Yoshiaki

    1994-04-01

    By computer simulation, the spatial pattern formation in a marriage system is studied. Depending on the interaction range between persons, this system shows a phase transition which resembles the glass transition. It is found that the life style of Australian aborigines can be fitted quite well with such a marriage system. Moreover, we can roughly estimate the population size of tribes of Australian aborigines.

  6. Individualized Marriage and the Integration of Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Sean R.; Yodanis, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In individualized marriages, spouses maintain independence in their relationship. In individualized marriages, do married couples manage their money in pooled accounts or do they keep separate accounts? We answer this question with the 2002 International Social Survey Programme (N = 18,587;31 country contexts) and examine how variation in the…

  7. TAX LEGAL RELATIONSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Narcis Eduard MITU; Alia Gabriela DUŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    The legal relationship is a patrimonial or non-patrimonial social relationship regulated by a rule of law. Any legal relationship is a social relationship, but not any social relationship is a legal relationship. The law maker has the power to select, of the multitude of human relationships, those who gives importance in terms of legal perspective, encoding them through legal regulations.

  8. Criminal and legal responsibilities in Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullucayir, Sibel; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Yavuz, M Sunay; Zeyfeoglu, Yildiray; Ulucay, Tarik

    2009-01-01

    Tourette's Syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychological disorder characterized by the presence of multiple involuntary motor tics accompanied by one or more vocal tics. Articles about TS and criminal responsibility and the restriction of civil rights are limited. A person with TS was evaluated to consider his criminal responsibility after swearing at a referee during a football game. He was also evaluated as to whether or not he was capable of professionally driving a service bus. Additionally, medico-legal situations regarding military service, obtaining a shotgun license and marriages of patients with TS were considered.

  9. Heterosexual attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic toward lesbians than toward gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia.

  10. Indian religious concepts on sexuality and marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Priyanka Thukral; Pimple, Priya; Palsetia, Delnaz; Dave, Nahid; De Sousa, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Indian religions and cultures are diverse and have always influenced the way people live in this part of the world. Religion has been a very dominant influence in marriage, choice of marital partner and cohabitation. The present paper looks at various religions in India and their influence on sexual attitudes and the institution of marriage. Sikhism, Jainism and the Parsi faith with its influence on sexuality and marriage are reviewed. Christian values and the role they play in shaping sexual notions as well Christian marriage traditions are explored. The paper also looks at the influences Islam has had on marriage and sexuality and ends with a feminist perspective on women and sexual attitudes towards women. PMID:23858264

  11. Heterosexual Attitudes towards Same-Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, David A.; Rieger, Gerulf; Roloff, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of heterosexual people toward same-sex marriage relate to the degree to which they are homophobic. However, it has been understudied whether there exists a gender difference in this association. Our results indicated that homophobia was the best predictor of attitudes toward gay male and lesbian marriage, and this was equally true for both heterosexual men and women. However, the attitudinal difference between gay male and lesbian marriage was related to homophobia in men but not in women. That is, for men only, being less homophobic towards lesbians than towards gay men was associated with favoring lesbian over gay men marriage. Considering these results, the role of gender in attitudes toward same-sex marriage seems to be as an important moderator of homophobia. PMID:20390996

  12. Indian religious concepts on sexuality and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Priyanka Thukral; Pimple, Priya; Palsetia, Delnaz; Dave, Nahid; De Sousa, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Indian religions and cultures are diverse and have always influenced the way people live in this part of the world. Religion has been a very dominant influence in marriage, choice of marital partner and cohabitation. The present paper looks at various religions in India and their influence on sexual attitudes and the institution of marriage. Sikhism, Jainism and the Parsi faith with its influence on sexuality and marriage are reviewed. Christian values and the role they play in shaping sexual notions as well Christian marriage traditions are explored. The paper also looks at the influences Islam has had on marriage and sexuality and ends with a feminist perspective on women and sexual attitudes towards women.

  13. Legal capacity of persons with disabilities in Ethiopia: The need to reform existing legal frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marishet, Mohammed Hamza

    The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) prohibited deprivation legal capacity of persons with disability based on assessment of mental capacity. The assertion is that, persons with disabilities shall exercise their legal capacity in all aspects of life without any restrictions that are based on mental incapacity (such as, unsoundness of mind, deficit in mental capacity, dotage, etc. This approach signifies a shift from substituted decision making, where another person act on behalf of persons with mental disabilities, to supported decision making where the person with mental disability is assisted in decision making. The rationale for the move lies on the recognition that the right to legal capacity embodies the inherent meaning of what it meant to be human. Without legal capacity a person cannot exercise all other rights and entitlements. Accordingly, States parties to CRPD are required to reform domestic legislations that are based on substituted decision making model and recognize full legal capacity of persons with disabilities in line with supported decision making model. As a Sate party to CRPD, Ethiopia assumed the same obligation. Nonetheless, in its initial report to the Committee on CRPD, the country denies existence of legislation that restricts legal capacity on the grounds of mental incapacity. This research found out that there are restrictions imposed on legal capacity of persons with disabilities on the basis of mental incapacity/disability. The research analyzed the approach employed to restrict legal capacity under the existing legal frameworks of Ethiopia vis-à-vis supported decision-making regime under CRPD. The research is doctrinal and, as such, limited to content analysis of general and specific legal capacity laws of the country (such as, marriage, divorce, will, work and employment, political participation, access to justice and others). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. "Let's Talk about the Institution": Same-Sex Common-Law Partners Negotiating Marriage Equality and Relationship Legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Katherine A; Frohard-Dourlent, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    The 2005 Canada-wide legalization of same-sex marriage provided same-sex couples with access to an institution they had previous been excluded from. Yet not all couples choose to marry. In this paper, we examine why this is the case, considering the role of personal, political, and historical factors. We draw on 22 interviews with people in common-law same-sex relationships in Toronto to examine how they understand their relationship within the new context of marriage equality. We find that participants feel they are held accountable to marriage as a default relationship legitimacy norm, indicating that this new institutional access is accompanied by a set of social expectations. Despite their awareness of the need to navigate a social context favoring marriage, participants individualize their relationship decisions as personal rather than political. Participants often contradict themselves as they articulate what marriage means to them, suggesting that, in this period of legal and social transition, people are negotiating multiple meanings, societal messages, and traditions when it comes to making sense of their relationship. We discuss the implications of these findings for LGBQ activism and the framing of sexuality-based inequalities in Canadian society. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  15. Human genetic information: the legal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1990-01-01

    This paper provides a brief summary of some of the key legal issues raised by human genetic information and research as viewed from a British common law standpoint. The law is basically reactive rather than prospective and problems posed by futuristic medico-scientific discoveries are likely to be dealt with by reference to established legal principles and analogies made with decided cases. The acquisition and research into human genetic information in the form of DNA profiling may have wide-ranging legal implications. Human genetic information may provide an evidential tool in the legal process when the identity of a specific individual or his family connections and relationships are called into question. It may also pose problems of confidentiality which could conflict with a duty of disclosure. In the future it may be possible to identify a propensity to develop a disease which may be seriously disabling or terminal long before any symptoms are detectable. This sensitive information could be of considerable interest to any prospective employer, insurer, marriage partner or family member and is of serious concern to the individual himself. How far should or could such information lawfully be made available and to whom? Legal debates are also likely to focus on ownership of human genetic information, the patenting of techniques to unravel it, and therapies and medicines developed therefrom. The law will be invoked to safeguard any intellectual property which may exist and to patent any inventive steps in the field.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Positive Legal Responsibility in the Family Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Matveev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author bases on the analysis of doctrinal and normative sources attempt to substantiate the existence of positive legal responsibility. Author defines the specificity of positive familial liability in the mechanism of self- identity of lawful behavior. Considering the nature of family legal liability, author proves independence of family-legal responsibility; it differs from civil, criminal and administrative responsibility. Author gives own definition of family-legal responsibility, gives characteristic features of this type of liability and justifies own view of the concept of responsibility in the modern family. Author substantiates view that family liability is expressed in multiple sanctions fixable current family law. Author notes that measures of family - legal responsibility are: annulment of the marriage, deprivation and restriction of parental rights, abolition of adoption, custody, guardianship, termination of child in a foster family placement, deprivation of the right to communicate with the child, taking away a child, termination or limitation of the obligation to subject the material contents of family relationship to other entities. Justifying own views, author relies on the opinions of scholars, experts, as well as a number of other competent persons.

  17. On Danish Legal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

    2014-01-01

    On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method......On the basis on 1) the Danish legal writer A.S.Ørsted (1778-1860) and 2) an enquete among present day Danish legal scholars, the contribution deals with special traits in Danish legal method...

  18. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The frequency of consanguineous marriages and their effects on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of consanguineous and non consanguineous marriages jobs of parents… etc and their effect on child malformations. Results: Consanguineous marriages of all types were related with increased congenital malformations (with ratio 43/1000 for consanguineous marriages and for non consanguineous marriages 28/1000).

  20. 38 CFR 3.207 - Void or annulled marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Void or annulled marriage... Void or annulled marriage. Proof that a marriage was void or has been annulled should consist of: (a... marriage void, together with such other evidence as may be required for a determination. (b) Annulled. A...

  1. 20 CFR 404.728 - Evidence a marriage has ended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence a marriage has ended. 404.728... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.728 Evidence a marriage has ended. (a) When evidence is needed that a marriage has ended. If you apply for benefits as the insured...

  2. 22 CFR 52.1 - Celebration of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Celebration of marriage. 52.1 Section 52.1 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.1 Celebration of marriage. Foreign Service officers are forbidden to celebrate marriages. [31 FR 13546, Oct. 20, 1966] ...

  3. 28 CFR 551.11 - Authority to approve a marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to approve a marriage. 551.11... MISCELLANEOUS Marriages of Inmates § 551.11 Authority to approve a marriage. (a) The Warden may approve the marriage of a federal inmate confined in a federal institution. This authority may not be delegated below...

  4. 22 CFR 52.3 - Certification as to marriage laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification as to marriage laws. 52.3 Section 52.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE NATIONALITY AND PASSPORTS MARRIAGES § 52.3 Certification as to marriage laws. Although a consular officer may have knowledge respecting the laws of marriage...

  5. Counseling Services for Women in Marriage Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frischa Meivilona Yendi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is a bond between the outer and inner man as a husband who has not aged 25 years and women 21 years old wife is not with the purpose of achieving happiness. Marriage and family counseling is a profession that will be developed in Indonesia. Counseling emphasizes on changes contained in the family system. Stages counseling, theory and dynamics as well as the use of counseling skills in marriage and family counseling has similarities with individual counseling and group counseling.

  6. Male and Female Marriage Returns to Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Gustaf

    , and the extent to which men and women sort positively on several traits in marriage. Counterfactual analysis conducted with the model, suggests that US middle aged men and women are earning in the order of 30 percent of their return to schooling through improved marital outcomes.......A collective marriage matching model is estimated and calibrated to quantify the share of returns to schooling that is realized through marriage. The predictions of the model are matched with US data on the relationship between schooling and wage rates, the division of time within the household...

  7. Reconsidering the Age of Marriage in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rajafi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The Government has made the rule about age of marriage, namely the male must be at least 19 years old and the female must be at least 16 years old. Nevertheless, early marriages or under-age mariages are still common in Indonesia since people reffer to the prophet's Sunnah fi'liyyah who was married to ‘Âisyah. Passion and courage from policy makers to revise the rule of minimum marriage age are required to revise that rule and reviewing the Sunnah is also imperative. It is important because t...

  8. Primary characteristic marriage in the neighbor countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivkov Anđelija

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a number of data referring to the process of marriage and divorce witch show the marital situation region and also compare it with the situations in other regions or abroad. Apart from the average age of first marriage, we have also analyzable the rate of marriages and divorces, we compared our results with the data referring to Serbia, in the Republic of Srpska and some of the former republics of SFRY (Croatia, Slovenia Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and neighbors Bulgaria, Romania Greece.

  9. Adult mortality and children's transition into marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofya Krutikova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Adult mortality due to HIV/AIDS and other diseases is posited to affect children through a number of pathways. On top of health and education outcomes, adult mortality can have significant effects on children by influencing demographic outcomes including the timing of marriage. This paper examines marriage outcomes for a sample of children interviewed in Tanzania in the early 1990s and re-interviewed in 2004. We find that while girls who became paternal orphans married at significantly younger ages, orphanhood had little effect on boys. On the other hand, non-parental deaths in the household affect the timing of marriage for boys.

  10. The Dynamics of Marriage and Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using panel data on two cohorts of Danish men and women. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter marriage. We find...... that the educations of husbands and wives are complements. Education raises the share of the marital surplus for men but not for women. As men and women get older, husbands receive a larger share of the marital surplus. The estimated costs of divorce are high both early and late in marriage....

  11. Risk-avoidance or utmost commitment. : Dutch focus group research on views on cohabitation and marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske Keizer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dutch adults grew up in a highly individualized country, characterized by high divorce rates, which may have influenced their views on cohabitation and marriage. Objective: We examine Dutch adults' perceptions of how similar or different cohabitation and marriage are, whether they believe that cohabitation would be a strategy to avoid the risk of divorce, as well as their views on why people marry in individualized societies. Methods: We analyze seven focus group interviews with 40 Dutch participants, collected in 2012 in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results: Many participants discussed differences and similarities between cohabitation and marriage in a context of high divorce rates, and frequently viewed cohabitation as a risk-reduction strategy. At the same time, marriage was often seen as ―the real deal‖, in terms of legal arrangements, but also as a symbol of utmost commitment. Less educated participants viewed more financial advantages in cohabitation compared to marriage, and felt more strongly about the symbolic value of marriage than their highly educated counterparts. There was strong consensus that there is not, and should not be, a social norm to marry. Conclusions: In a context of high relationship instability, cohabitation has become a risk-reduction strategy. When norms to marry are weak, people may marry in order to emphasize the uniqueness of their relationship. However, the individualistic nature of Dutch society is mirrored in respondents' reluctance to set standards or proscribe norms on why and when to marry and their emphasis that cohabitation can also imply high levels of commitment.

  12. Forced Marriage-Culture or Crime? Part I.

    OpenAIRE

    TAPP, David; JENKINSON, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses .’ \\ud \\ud It is important to begin by acknowledging the above statement, which is part of Article 16(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and also to distinguish between an arranged marriage and a forced marriage. \\ud \\ud An arranged marriage is ‘a marriage planned and agreed by the families or guardians of the couple concerned ’, while a forced marriage is ‘a marriage conducted without th...

  13. Political role models, child marriage, and women's autonomy over marriage in India

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Drawing data from the India Human Development Survey 2011 and the year of the first election with reserved seats for women pradhans, I estimate the effect of the Panchayati Raj institutions on age and autonomy over marriage. Results indicate that women in local government decrease the likelihood of child marriage, and increase the age at first marriage and gauna. The effects seem to be driven by changes in gender and cultural norms, because there is a reduction in the prevalence of arranged m...

  14. Legal Philosophy - Five Questions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential.......This collection gathers together a host of the most eminent contemporary legal philosophers, who writes about their take on legal philosophy, its fundamental questions and potential....

  15. [[Attitudes on marriage among unmarried youths in contemporary Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, E; Watanabe, Y

    1994-10-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to describe [attitudes on] marriage among unmarried youths in contemporary Japan, using the unmarried respondents' part of the Tenth Japanese National Fertility Survey carried out in July 1992." Aspects considered include the desirability of arranged marriage; desired age at marriage; desired characteristics of future spouse; women's attitudes on marriage and employment; and the desirability of residing with parents after marriage. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  16. Marriage and Socioeconomic Change in Contemporary Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, Jenna; Buttenheim, Alison

    2008-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between economic trends and entry into marriage in a rapidly developing setting. We examine Indonesian marriage in the 1990's, a decade of substantial economic growth followed by a sudden financial collapse in 1998. We use discrete-time hazard models to analyze information on 4,078 women and 4,496 men from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. While previous research has shown that marriages may be postponed after economic downturn, we find no evidence of such delays at the national level following the 1998 financial crisis. In contrast, we use regional wage rate data to show that entry into marriage is inversely related to economic growth throughout the decade for all women and for men from lower socioeconomic strata.

  17. Marriage guidance counselling in a group practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, G N; Barr, J

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the work of a marriage guidance cousellor in a group-practice centre. The considerable advantages to patient, doctor, and counsellor of her close association with the primary medical care team are discussed.

  18. National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online National Death Index NCHS National Marriage and Divorce Rate Trends Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... NCHS National Vital Statistics System. Provisional number of divorces and annulments and rate: United States, 2000-2014 ...

  19. On Stable Marriages and Greedy Matchings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manne, Fredrik; Naim, Md; Lerring, Hakon; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2016-12-11

    Research on stable marriage problems has a long and mathematically rigorous history, while that of exploiting greedy matchings in combinatorial scientific computing is a younger and less developed research field. In this paper we consider the relationships between these two areas. In particular we show that several problems related to computing greedy matchings can be formulated as stable marriage problems and as a consequence several recently proposed algorithms for computing greedy matchings are in fact special cases of well known algorithms for the stable marriage problem. However, in terms of implementations and practical scalable solutions on modern hardware, the greedy matching community has made considerable progress. We show that due to the strong relationship between these two fields many of these results are also applicable for solving stable marriage problems.

  20. What's happening to marriage in East Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westley, S B

    1998-07-01

    This article presents an overview of marriage patterns in East Asia. Globally, marriage patterns are changing. In East Asia, cultural patterns are slowing the changes in attitude toward marriage that are occurring in the West. There are implications of changing attitudes for government planners. This issue of Asia-Pacific Population and Policy is based on a series of studies of marriage and family life in Japan, South Korea, and the US. Data were obtained from the 1994 Japan Survey on Work and Family Life; the 1994 South Korea Survey on the Quality of Life; and the 1992-94 US Survey of Families and Households. Findings are reported on marriage age, attitudes toward marriage, attitudes post-marriage, and work patterns during marriage. Both Japan and South Korea have below replacement level fertility and traditional gendered division of labor in the household. In South Korea, women who work 35 or more hours/week spend 31 hours/week on housework, while husbands contribute 14 hours/week. In the US, the equivalent figures were 26 hours for full-time working wives and 9 hours for husbands. In Japan, wives spent 30 hours on housework, while husbands spent 3 hours. Full-time work outside the home involved 57% of married women in Japan, 27% in South Korea, and 66% in the US. Notwithstanding the double burden, women in South Korea and Japan experience pressure from competitive school systems for their children. After-school academic programs are expensive. The trend is for greater reluctance to marry. Replacement level fertility is unlikely unless full equality is achieved in the family.

  1. The Argument for Same-Sex Marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Widiss, Deborah; Tebbe, Nelson; Gilreath, Shannon

    2018-01-01

    159 University of Pennsylvania Law Review PENNumbra 21 (2010) Professors Tebbe and Widiss revisit the arguments they made in "Equal Access and the Right to Marry" and emphasize their belief that distinguishing between different-sex marriage and same-sex marriage is inappropriate. They lament the sustained emphasis on the equal-protection and substantive-due-process challenges in the Perry litigation and suggest that an equal-access approach is more likely to be successful on appeal. Professor...

  2. Boundary crossing in first marriage and remarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kate H.; Tienda, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Owing to secular increases in divorce rates, remarriage has become a prevalent feature of American family life; yet, research about mate selection behavior in higher order marriages remains limited. Using log-linear methods to recent data from the 2008–2014 American Community Survey, we compare racial and ethnic sorting behavior in first and subsequent marriages. The two most frequently crossed boundaries – those involving White-Asian and White-Hispanic couples – are more permeable in remarri...

  3. Marriage after cancer in older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Astri; Aas, Gjøril Bergva

    2009-03-01

    Cancer's impact on family formation in older adulthood is not well described. Marriage rates among older adults were therefore explored. Data on the unmarried Norwegian population aged 45-80 in 1974-2001 (N = 306 000) was retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, and population censuses. Marriage rates for 27,600 persons diagnosed with cancer were compared to those of the general population by means of discrete-time hazard regression models. Men with cancer had a similar marriage rate as cancer-free men, whereas women experienced a 25% marriage deficit after cancer. This deficit was most pronounced after ovarian (OR 0.48) and breast (OR 0.69) cancer. Marriage rates decreased with time from diagnosis. No cancer forms elevated marriage rates. Marriage rates among older male cancer survivors are similar to those of the general population. Ovarian and breast cancer in older women was associated with pronounced marriage deficits. A possible explanation is that these gender-specific cancers relate to aspects of persons' psychological well-being, body image, and sense of femininity. Long-term adverse treatment effects are also common for the cancers in question. To explore explanations further, more details on treatment and illness progression are needed. Increased awareness of how ovarian and breast cancer may affect (prospects of) interpersonal relationships is valuable for cancer survivors and clinicians, and may facilitate communication of relevant, related issues during consultations. Our findings may suggest a need for more extensive psychosocial follow-up after these gender-specific cancer forms in older women, but further research is clearly warranted.

  4. Comments on "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, A

    1994-01-01

    Some critical comments are made on a paper entitled "Consanguineous Marriages in Pakistan." Most studies have considered early age at marriage, rural or extended family setup and low socioeconomic status when investigating the issue. The background demographic variables and behavioral aspects of consanguinity were studied only by a few, therefore a lack of data exists on pertinent social, cultural, and behavioral dynamics. In Pakistan over 60% of marriages are between first or second cousins. The highest rates of such marriages have been reported in rural areas, among individuals with low educational level, and among the poorest. However, cousin unions are also common among landowning families. In addition to socioeconomic reasons, these marriages are socially acceptable because they facilitate prenuptial negotiations and provide more compatibility between the husband and wife as well as the bride and the mother-in-law. The evidence on consanguinity and fertility is conflicting. The effect of inbreeding on fertility has been demonstrated by most studies. The effect of consanguinity on mortality is also wrought with ambiguities because of methodological flaws. Although the present authors used limited bivariate analysis, they could not account for increased fertility and mortality in consanguineous matings by examining socioeconomic differences and background demographic variables. There is a need to indicate clearly to what extent the genetic effect is responsible for the excess fertility and mortality after controlling for maternal, sociodemographic, and behavioral characteristics. The article made a contribution to elucidating the impact of cousin marriages, a well entrenched custom, on fertility, mortality, and the status of women.

  5. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN CHILD MARRIAGE IN BANGLADESH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Kamrul; Haque, Md Rabiul; Hossain, Mohammad Bellal

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the regional variations in the prevalence of child marriage in Bangladesh with a view to providing recommendations for division-specific policy interventions. Data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. Substantial regional variations in child marriage were found in Bangladesh. Rangpur and Khulna had more than four times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (4.57 and 4.11 times, respectively). Barisal and Rajshahi had more than three times higher odds of child marriage than Sylhet (3.70 and 3.48 times, respectively). Chittagong and Dhaka had about two times odds of child marriage than Sylhet (1.98 and 2.67 times, respectively), even after controlling for selected socio-demographic, economic and cultural characteristics. Respondent's education, employment status, husband's education and wealth index were inversely associated with the prevalence of child marriage. The policy implications of these findings are discussed in the context of Bangladesh.

  6. Interactional dynamics of same-sex marriage legislation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhradeep; Abaid, Nicole

    2017-06-01

    Understanding how people form opinions and make decisions is a complex phenomenon that depends on both personal practices and interactions. Recent availability of real-world data has enabled quantitative analysis of opinion formation, which illuminates phenomena that impact physical and social sciences. Public policies exemplify complex opinion formation spanning individual and population scales, and a timely example is the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States. Here, we seek to understand how this issue captures the relationship between state-laws and Senate representatives subject to geographical and ideological factors. Using distance-based correlations, we study how physical proximity and state-government ideology may be used to extract patterns in state-law adoption and senatorial support of same-sex marriage. Results demonstrate that proximal states have similar opinion dynamics in both state-laws and senators' opinions, and states with similar state-government ideology have analogous senators' opinions. Moreover, senators' opinions drive state-laws with a time lag. Thus, change in opinion not only results from negotiations among individuals, but also reflects inherent spatial and political similarities and temporal delays. We build a social impact model of state-law adoption in light of these results, which predicts the evolution of state-laws legalizing same-sex marriage over the last three decades.

  7. Committee Opinion No. 574: Marriage equality for same-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Same-sex couples encounter barriers to health care that include concerns about confidentiality and disclosure, stigma and discriminatory attitudes and treatment, limited access to health care and health insurance, and often a limited understanding of their health risks. Same-sex couples and their families are adversely affected by the lack of legal recognition of their relationships, a problem with major implications for the health of same-sex couples and their families. Tangible harm has come from the lack of financial and health care protections granted to legal spouses, and children are harmed by the lack of protections afforded to families in which partners are married. However, the recent Supreme Court ruling, The United States v Windsor, which afforded equal treatment for legally married same-sex couples will provide many important health and financial benefits. Evidence suggests that marriage confers health benefits to individuals and families, yet a sizable proportion of individuals do not experience these health benefits because of their sexual orientation. Additional data suggest that same-sex couples who live in states with bans on same-sex unions experience adverse health outcomes. Civil marriage is currently available to same-sex couples in only thirteen states and the District of Columbia and honored by one state. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists endorses marriage equality for same-sex couples and equal treatment for these couples and their families and applauds the Supreme Court's decision as an important step in improving access to benefits received by legally married same-sex couples. However, additional efforts are necessary to ensure that same-sex couples in every state can receive these same benefits.

  8. "Bessie done cut her old man": race, common-law marriage, and homicide in New Orleans, 1925-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Jeffrey S

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines domestic homicide in early twentieth-century New Orleans. African-American residents killed their domestic partners at eight times the rate of white New Orleanians, and these homicides were most often committed by women, who killed their partners at fifteen times the rate of white women. Common-law marriages proved to be especially violent among African-American residents. Based on nearly two hundred cases identified in police records and other sources as partner killings between 1925 and 1945, this analysis compares lethal violence in legal marriages and in common-law unions. It also explores the social and institutional forces that buffeted common-law marriages, making this the most violent domestic arrangement and contributing to the remarkably high rate of spousal homicide by African-American women in early twentieth-century New Orleans.

  9. A Plea for the traditional family: Situating marriage within John Paul II's realist, or personalist, perspective of human freedom1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    This article is an attempt to defend the rights of the traditional family: not simply against the redefinition of marriage, but more fundamentally against a re-conceptualization of human freedom and human rights. To this end, it contrasts what Saint John Paul II calls an individualistic understanding of freedom and a personalistic notion of the same in order to argue that human freedom is called by the Creator to be in service of, and not in opposition to, the good of the human family. From this perspective—that of the social doctrine of the Catholic Church—it argues for the harmony between natural marriage and the respect of fundamental human rights, and it presents the social dimension of marriage as fundamental with respect to the legal and social protection of the family. PMID:25473131

  10. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  11. Tomorrow's Family Reforms: Marriage Course, Marriage Test, Incorporated Families, and Sex Selection Mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Arthur B.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses specific new laws and programs to strengthen family life suggested in the (N=34) detailed reforms proposed and endorsed by the 1980 White House Conference on Families. Explores four reform possibilities including high school marriage preparation classes, a mandated marriage readiness test, family incorporation, and support for prenatal…

  12. Gender, marriage and migration : contemporary marriages between mainland China and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Melody Chia-Wen

    2008-01-01

    This thesis investigates the highly complex issue of cross-border marriages between Mainland China and Taiwan in the period from early 1990 to 2004. The objectives of this research is to investigate three aspects of cross-border marriage migration: 1) factors and motivations for cross-border

  13. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  14. Fewer Marriages, More Divergence: Marriage Projections for Millennials to Age 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steven P.; Astone, Nan Marie; Peters, H. Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Declining marriage rates suggest a growing fraction of millennials will remain unmarried through age 40. In this brief, we use data from the American Community Survey to estimate age-specific marriage rates and project the percentage of millennials who will marry by age 40 in different scenarios. We find that the percentage of millennials marrying…

  15. Midpregnancy Marriage and Divorce: Why the Death of Shotgun Marriage Has Been Greatly Exaggerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M; Ananat, Elizabeth O; Gassman-Pines, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that births following the colloquially termed "shotgun marriage"-that is, births to parents who married between conception and the birth-are nearing obsolescence. To investigate trends in shotgun marriage, we matched North Carolina administrative data on nearly 800,000 first births among white and black mothers to marriage and divorce records. We found that among married births, midpregnancy-married births (our preferred term for shotgun-married births) have been relatively stable at about 10 % over the past quarter-century while increasing substantially for vulnerable population subgroups. In 2012, among black and white less-educated and younger women, midpregnancy-married births accounted for approximately 20 % to 25 % of married first births. The increasing representation of midpregnancy-married births among married births raises concerns about well-being among at-risk families because midpregnancy marriages may be quite fragile. Our analysis revealed, however, that midpregnancy marriages were more likely to dissolve only among more advantaged groups. Of those groups considered to be most at risk of divorce-namely, black women with lower levels of education and who were younger-midpregnancy marriages had the same or lower likelihood of divorce as preconception marriages. Our results suggest an overlooked resiliency in a type of marriage that has only increased in salience.

  16. China witnesses a changing concept on marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, W

    1998-08-01

    This article discusses changing marriage, divorce, and remarriage patterns in China. The State Statistical Bureau reports that changing life style patterns will impact on the education of children and difficulties of housing and employment of single women, with or without children. Economic development has resulted in the elimination of poverty among over 20 million persons. Early marriage among males aged 15-21 years and females aged 15-19 years declined during 1990-96. The average age at first marriage increased by 2.0 years for males and 0.7 years for females during 1990-96. Average age at first marriage varies with level of economic development and location. Chinese families for centuries maintained arranged marriages. Marriage patterns have been influenced by customs from outside China. Couples use divorce as a means of settling disputes and focus on the quality of married life. Western culture has contributed to more frequent extramarital love affairs and the disintegration of many families. The basic foundation of marriage has weakened. The divorce rate rose during 1990-96. The highest rate of divorce by age was among persons aged 30-39 years in 1996, and among persons aged 50-59 years in 1990. The highest divorce rates by educational status were among illiterates and semiliterates in 1990, and among high school educated in 1996. Urban population had a higher divorce rate than rural population. Remarriage is gaining in popularity. Remarriages rose from 500,000 to 862,000 during 1985-95. The percentage of remarriages rose, especially among persons aged over 50 years.

  17. Intimate strangers: Eritrean male asylum seekers' perceptions of marriage and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birger, Lior; Peled, Einat

    2017-12-01

    This study examined perceptions of marriage and sexuality among male asylum seekers from Eritrea. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 men living in Israel. Their perceptions of marriage and sexuality were found to be influenced by their life as asylum seekers, and particularly by their encounter with a different culture, by their lack of legal status, and by the marked numerical imbalance between women and men within their community. Changes in their perceptions occurred after their arrival in Israel, and included greater relaxing of social codes and the transition from a relatively 'closed' sexual mindset to a more 'open' one. It is important to understand how lack of status affects male asylum seekers' intimate relationships with women, and to recognise such men as subjects with legitimate sexual and partnering needs, thereby broadening existing discourse in this field, which tends to present male asylum seekers primarily as sources of cheap labour and as sexual Others.

  18. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-04-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965-1985 (N = 102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage.

  19. Boundary crossing in first marriage and remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kate H; Tienda, Marta

    2017-02-01

    Owing to secular increases in divorce rates, remarriage has become a prevalent feature of American family life; yet, research about mate selection behavior in higher order marriages remains limited. Using log-linear methods to recent data from the 2008-2014 American Community Survey, we compare racial and ethnic sorting behavior in first and subsequent marriages. The two most frequently crossed boundaries - those involving White-Asian and White-Hispanic couples - are more permeable in remarriages than in first marriages. Boundaries that are crossed with less frequency - those between minority groups and the White-Black boundary-are less permeable in remarriages than in first marriages. Collectively, these findings suggest that racial and ethnic sorting processes in remarriage may reify existing social distances between pan-ethnic groups. Racial and ethnic variations in how the relative permeability of boundary changes between first and higher-order marriages underscore the importance of considering a broad array of interracial pairings when assessing the ways in which changes in family structure and marital sorting behavior promote integration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reflexive convention: civil partnership, marriage and family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Brian

    2017-09-14

    Drawing on an analysis of qualitative interview data from a study of formalized same-sex relationships (civil partnerships) this paper examines the enduring significance of marriage and family as social institutions. In doing so, it intervenes in current debates in the sociology of family and personal life about how such institutions are undermined by reflexivity or bolstered by convention. Against the backdrop of dominating sociological frames for understanding the links between the changing nature of marriage and family and same-sex relationship recognition, the paper analyses the diverse and overlapping ways (including the simple, relational, strategic, ambivalent and critical ways) in which same-sex partners reflexively constructed and engaged with marriage and family conventions. My analysis suggests that instead of viewing reflexivity and convention as mutually undermining, as some sociologists of family and personal life do, it is insightful to explore how diverse forms of reflexivity and convention interact in everyday life to reconfigure the social institutions of marriage and family, but do not undermine them as such. I argue the case for recognizing the ways in which 'reflexive convention', or reflexive investment in convention, contributes to the continuing significance of marriage and family as social institutions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  1. Drivers of cousin marriage among British Pakistanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Why has the apparently high rate of cousin marriage among Bradford Pakistanis been sustained, 50 years since Pakistani migration to Britain began? A review of the anthropological literature on Pakistani migration and settlement, British Pakistani marriage patterns and the phenomenon of transnational marriage. British Pakistanis are diverse in regional origins and social class characteristics, with many Bradford Pakistanis originating from the Mirpur district and northern Punjab. British Pakistani marriages often involve a partner from Pakistan who joins a spouse in the UK. Transnational marriage of first cousins offers relatives in Pakistan opportunities for a 'better' life in the West and are important for British Pakistanis for economic, social, cultural and emotional reasons. These processes are also differentially influenced by region of origin and class characteristics in Pakistan as well as by education, employment and locality in Britain. The pattern observed in Bradford may not be applicable nationally. Further research examining marital decisions over several generations in families differing by social class, region of origin in Pakistan and locality in Britain is necessary to contextualise the findings from Bradford. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Dementia and Legal Competency

    OpenAIRE

    Filaković, Pavo; Petek Erić, Anamarija; Mihanović, Mate; Glavina, Trpimir; Molnar, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The legal competency or capability to exercise rights is level of judgment and decision-making ability needed to manage one's own affairs and to sign official documents. With some exceptions, the person entitles this right in age of majority. It is acquired without legal procedures, however the annulment of legal capacity requires a juristic process. This resolution may not be final and could be revoked thorough the procedure of reverting legal capacity – fully or partially. Given ...

  3. Socioeconomic, demographic and legal influences on consanguinity and kinship in northern coastal Sweden 1780-1899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerbladh, I; Bittles, A H

    2011-07-01

    Most studies on consanguinity have been conducted on contemporary populations and have focused on the prevalence and types of preferred intra-familial marriage. With its comprehensive birth, marriage and deaths records dating back to the late 17th century, and the legal bar on first cousin marriage removed in the mid-19th century, Sweden offers unique opportunities to examine the factors that determine by whom, where and why consanguineous marriages were contracted. The present study covers the period 1780-1899 and presents a detailed portrait of cousin and sibling exchange marriages in the Skellefteå region of northern coastal Sweden. The combined prevalence of first, second and third cousin marriage increased from 2.3% in 1790-1810 to 8.8% in 1880-1899, and multi-generation consanguinity also increased significantly over the study period. The distribution and prevalence of first cousin marriages was strikingly non-random, with a significantly greater propensity for consanguinity among land-owning families, especially involving first-born sons, within specific pedigrees, and in a number of more remote inland communities. Additional factors associated with a greater likelihood of consanguineous marriage included physical or mental disability among males, and among females the prior birth of an illegitimate child. Besides the inherent interest in the social and demographic structure of this region of northern Sweden during the course of the 19th century, in future studies it will be important to determine the degree to which the observed patterns of consanguineous and sibling exchange marriages in these past generations could have influenced present-day genetic structure. © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  4. Legal and Administrative Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of legal and administrative language, and the necessity for accurate translation of this language in the field of international relations. Topics treated are: characteristic features of legal and administrative terminology; the interpretation of it; and the technique of translating legal and administrative texts. (AMH)

  5. Cohabitation history, marriage, and wealth accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vespa, Jonathan; Painter, Matthew A

    2011-08-01

    This study extends research on the relationship between wealth accumulation and union experiences, such as marriage and cohabitation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the wealth trajectories of married individuals in light of their premarital cohabitation histories. Over time, marriage positively correlates with wealth accumulation. Most married persons with a premarital cohabitation history have wealth trajectories that are indistinguishable from those without cohabitation experience, with one exception: individuals who marry their one and only cohabiting partner experience a wealth premium that is twice as large as that for married individuals who never cohabited prior to marrying. Results remain robust over time despite cohabiters' selection out of marriage, yet vary by race/ethnicity. We conclude that relationship history may shape long-term wealth accumulation, and contrary to existing literature, individuals who marry their only cohabiting partners experience a beneficial marital outcome. It is therefore important to understand the diversity of cohabitation experiences among the married.

  6. Mean-field games for marriage

    KAUST Repository

    Bauso, Dario

    2014-05-07

    This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field) will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple\\'s network on their feeling states and their well-being. © 2014 Bauso et al.

  7. Mean-field games for marriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Bauso

    Full Text Available This article examines mean-field games for marriage. The results support the argument that optimizing the long-term well-being through effort and social feeling state distribution (mean-field will help to stabilize marriage. However, if the cost of effort is very high, the couple fluctuates in a bad feeling state or the marriage breaks down. We then examine the influence of society on a couple using mean-field sentimental games. We show that, in mean-field equilibrium, the optimal effort is always higher than the one-shot optimal effort. We illustrate numerically the influence of the couple's network on their feeling states and their well-being.

  8. Uganda: early marriage as a form of sexual violence

    OpenAIRE

    Noah Gottschalk

    2007-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that early marriage is a form of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) with detrimental physical, social and economic effects. Policymakers need to focus on the complex interactions between education, early marriage and sexual violence.

  9. Own-Choice Marriage and Fertility in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglos-Weber, Nicolette D; Weinreb, Alexander A

    2017-04-01

    Goode's foundational work on the fertility transition identified own-choice marriage as a factor driving fertility decline, part of a widening repertoire of choice pertaining to marriage and childbearing. Yet research supporting this connection in today's transitional societies is scarce and somewhat contradictory, and it is unclear how other marital traditions, such as consanguineous marriage, shape this relationship. This study evaluates Goode's theorized connection using pooled Demographic and Health Survey data from Turkey, comparing children ever born, use of contraception, and parity progression across four types of marriage: own-choice and arranged marriage; and marriage to a cousin versus an unrelated spouse. Results are largely consistent with the idea that a move towards own-choice marriage reflects a widening repertoire of choice that also leads to fertility decline. However, they also show that hybrid models like own-choice marriage to a cousin tempers these effects.

  10. Selection and Specialization in the Evolution of Marriage Earnings Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinhui Juhn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We examine changes in marriage and earnings patterns across four cohorts born between 1936 and 1975 using data from Survey of Income and Program Participation panels linked to administrative data on earnings. We find that, for both men and women, marriage has become increasingly positively associated with education and earnings potential. We compare ordinary least squares and fixed-effect estimates of the earnings differential associated with marriage. We find that the marriage earnings gap fell for women in fixed-effect estimates, implying that the impact of specialization has diminished over time. We also find that increasingly positive selection into marriage overstates the reduction in the marriage earnings gap. Although marriage is no longer associated with lower earnings among women in our most recent cohort, the motherhood gap remains large. Among men, we find that the marriage premium actually increases for more recent birth cohorts in fixed-effects regressions.

  11. Own-Choice Marriage and Fertility in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Goode’s foundational work on the fertility transition identified own-choice marriage as a factor driving fertility decline, part of a widening repertoire of choice pertaining to marriage and childbearing. Yet research supporting this connection in today’s transitional societies is scarce and somewhat contradictory, and it is unclear how other marital traditions, such as consanguineous marriage, shape this relationship. This study evaluates Goode’s theorized connection using pooled Demographic and Health Survey data from Turkey, comparing children ever born, use of contraception, and parity progression across four types of marriage: own-choice and arranged marriage; and marriage to a cousin versus an unrelated spouse. Results are largely consistent with the idea that a move towards own-choice marriage reflects a widening repertoire of choice that also leads to fertility decline. However, they also show that hybrid models like own-choice marriage to a cousin tempers these effects. PMID:28316343

  12. Marriage and family in the light of the Christian doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    Kоrоliov M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Article is devoted consideration of the Christian doctrine about marriage and family. The author analyzes its features in Orthodox and Catholic Churches. Influence of Christian ideas about marriage and family on a life of a modern society is shown.

  13. Prevalence of Child Marriage and its Impact on the Fertility and Fertility Control Behaviors of Young Women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Saggurti, Niranjan; Balaiah, Donta; Silverman, Jay G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Child marriage in India is considered a major barrier to the nation's social and economic development, as well as a major women's health concern. The current study assesses prevalence of child marriage (i.e., marriage prior to the national legal age of 18 years) among young adult women in India, and associations between child marriage and women's fertility and fertility control behaviors. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses of a nationally representative household sample of Indian women ages 16-49 years (N=124,385) collected in 2005-2006 via the National Family Health Survey-3. Participants Analyses were restricted to women age 20-24 years (n=22,807) and the subsample of ever married women aged 20-24 years (n=14,628). Data Analysis Prevalence estimates of child marriage were produced for all women 20-24 years. Using the ever married subsample, simple regression models, models adjusted for demographics, and models adjusted for demographics and duration of marriage were constructed to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between child marriage and both fertility and fertility control outcomes. Fertility and Fertility Control Outcomes No contraception prior to childbirth, childbirth within first year of marriage, high fertility (3 or more births), history of recent rapid repeat childbirth, unwanted pregnancy, and female sterilization. Results Child marriage was reported by 44.5% of Indian women ages 20-24 years; 22.6% reported marriage prior to age 16 years, and 2.6% were married prior to age 13 years. Child marriage was significantly associated with women's increased risk for no contraceptive use prior to first childbirth (AOR=1.37, 95% CI=1.22, 1.54), high fertility (AOR=7.40, 95% CI=6.45, 8.50), history of rapid repeat childbirth (AOR=3.00, 95% CI=2.74, 3.29), multiple unwanted pregnancies (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.90, 2.94), pregnancy termination (AOR=1.22; 95% CI=1.06, 1.41) and female sterilization (AOR=5

  14. Marriage and fertility in the developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westoff, C F

    1978-12-01

    Most developed countries have reached zero population growth or less and, while population projections have often proved badly off-target, it seems that currently low fertility levels are the result of a long-term trend, which was interrupted in the last 100 years only by the still-unexplained postwar baby boom, and which will probably continue. The declining trend has accompanied economic development and modernization, which have transformed the economic value of children, making them a drain on resources rather than a source of income. The concomitant social changes seem largely irreversible: urban economy, the decline in traditional authority, universal, prolonged education, equality of women, low infant mortality, high consumer demands and sophisticated birth control technology are all here to stay. The theory that fertility exhibits a cyclical pattern based on people's perception of their degree of economic and social opportunity ignores the other elements affecting fertility behavior, especially the radical change in the status and expectations of women. Several trends in marriage and reproductive behavior in the U.S., Denmark and Sweden reinforce the presumption that fertility will remain low: declining number of marriages; postponement of marriage; increased tendency for unmarried couples to live together; instability of marriage shown by high divorce rates and declining remarriage rates; and increasing economic activity by women. The traditional institution of marriage is losing its economic, sexual, sociological and parenting rationales. Thus, declining fertility is both cause and consequence of changes in marriage. In Europe, where the decline is more advanced than in the U.S., governments are concerned that population growth will be too low and have instituted social welfare measures to induce and facilitate childbearing and childrearing. As women become more career-oriented, greater incentives will have to be provided. Manipulating immigration quotas

  15. Marriage, gender and obesity in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sven E

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature argues that marriage promotes health and increases longevity. But do these benefits extend to maintaining a healthy body weight, as the economic theory of health investment suggests they should? They do not. Using the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), I find that entry into marriage among both men and women aged 51-70 is associated with weight gain and exit from marriage with weight loss. I evaluate three additional theories with respect to the cross-sectional and longitudinal variation in the data. First, it may be that a broader set of shared risk factors (such as social obligations regarding meals) raises body mass for married couples. However, the shared risk factor model predicts that the intra-couple correlation should increase with respect to marital duration. Instead, it declines. Second, scholars have recently promoted a "crisis" model of marriage in which marital transitions, not marital status, determine differences in body mass. The crisis model is consistent with short-term effects seen for divorce, but not for the persistent weight gains associated with marriage or the persistent weight loss following widowhood. And transition models, in general, cannot explain significant cross-sectional differences across marital states in a population that is no longer experiencing many transitions, nor can it account for the prominent gender differences (in late middle-age, the heaviest group is unmarried women and the lightest are unmarried men). Third, I argue that pressures of the marriage market, in combination with gendered preferences regarding partner BMI, can account for all the longitudinal and cross-sectional patterns found in the data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Weather Shocks, Age of Marriage and the Direction of Marriage Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Corno, Lucia; Hildebrandt, Nicole; Voena, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the impact of variation in local economic conditions on the hazard into child marriage (i.e. prior to age 18) among young women in Africa and India. We show that rainfall shocks, a major source of income variation in these areas, have similar effects on crop yields but opposite effects on the early marriage hazard in the two regions: in Africa, droughts increase the hazard into early marriage, while in India, droughts decrease the hazard. We argue that the differenti...

  17. EL MATRIMONIO RELIGIOSO EN EL RÉGIMEN JURÍDICO CHILENO: EL SISTEMA MATRIMONIAL CONSAGRADO POR EL ARTÍCULO 20 DE LA LEY N° 19.947 RELIGIOUS MARRIAGE IN THE CHILEAN JURIDICAL REGIME: THE MARRIAGE SYSTEM UNDER THE ARTICLE 20 OF THE LAW N° 19.94

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge del Picó Rubio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El Derecho matrimonial chileno ha sido objeto de una reforma de gran magnitud, como consecuencia de la aprobación y entrada en vigor de la nueva Ley de Matrimonio Civil, de 2004. Una de las instituciones más relevantes, introducidas por la reforma, ha sido el reconocimiento legal de efectos civiles al matrimonio celebrado en forma religiosa, sustituyendo el sistema de matrimonio civil obligatorio vigente desde 1884, por el sistema facultativo de tipo anglosajón o protestante. Este trabajo proporciona una visión de conjunto de la institución del matrimonio religioso en Chile, entregando los antecedentes del contexto material de la ley, señalando las características del sistema de reconocimiento civil del matrimonio celebrado en sede eclesiástica, indicando la regulación de sus requisitos y en especial la exigencia de personalidad jurídica de Derecho público requerida a las entidades religiosas, el procedimiento legal para la celebración del matrimonio religioso y una referencia analítica a la producción de efectos civiles.Chilean Marriage Law has suffered a great change, as a result of the approval and application of the 2004, new Civil Marriage Law. One of the most relevant institutions brought in by the reform, has been the recognition of civil effects to the religious marriage, replacing the obligatory civil marriage system, used since 18 84, by the Anglo-Saxon protestant facultative system. This work gives a global vision of religious marriage in Chile, providing the context law backgrounds, pointing out the civil recognition system characteristics for marriages celebrated in ecclesiastics sees, indicating its requisites regulation, specially the religious institutions requirements of being a juridical person of Public Law, the legal procedure to the marriage celebration and civil effects production analysis.

  18. [The reproductive function of urban families depending on the form of marriage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedeva, O V

    2010-01-01

    In the Ryazan oblast there are 26 thousand families in which both spouses are under 30 years of age, and every third young family is childless. The overwhelming majority (84.5%) young married couples with children have one child, 14.4%--two children, 1.0--three children and more. According to the results of the study, a comparative socio-hygienic characteristic is presented of families which contracted a legal marriage and live in a consensual alliance. An analysis was made of the main reasons which forced a significant number of families to limit births.

  19. Covenant Marriage and the Sanctification of Gendered Marital Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Elizabeth H.; Sanchez, Laura A.; Nock, Steven L.; Wright, James D.

    2009-01-01

    This study contributes to research on the deinstitutionalization of marriage and changing gender ideologies by focusing on a unique group of marriage innovators. With quantitative and qualitative data from the Marriage Matters project (1997-2004), this study used a symbolic interactionist perspective to compare covenant- and standard-married…

  20. Reducing early marriage of adolescent Syrian refugees in Lebanon ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although the average age of marriage in the Arab world has risen, rates of early marriage remain high, especially in conflict-affected areas and among displaced populations. Early marriage leads to negative health and social consequences for adolescent girls, including risky early pregnancies, higher rates of school ...

  1. 20 CFR 222.13 - Common-law marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Common-law marriage relationship. 222.13... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.13 Common-law marriage relationship. Under the laws of some States, a common-law marriage is one which is not solemnized in a formal...

  2. Early Marriage: Child Spouses. Innocenti Digest No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maggie

    This digest focuses on early marriage--the marriage of children and young people under the age of 18--from a human rights perspective. Research into early marriage has tended to concentrate on specific aspects of its impact, such as the effects on reproductive health and school drop-out. There has been little examination of the practice as a child…

  3. Treating the Marital Crisis with the Two-Marriage Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, John P.; Briggs, Muriel A.

    1979-01-01

    The technique called "two-marriage therapy" (conjoint cotherapy by married cotherapy teams) has been developed to help couples in marital crises to confront the elusive nature of marriage. This paper attempts to show how the presence of a married cotherapy team adds a significant salutary perspective on the marriage in conflict. (Author)

  4. Unsettled Relations: Schools, Gay Marriage, and Educating for Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Cris

    2013-01-01

    In this article, Cris Mayo examines the relationship among anti-LGBTQ policies, gay marriage, and sexuality education. Her concern is that because gay marriage is insufficiently different from heterosexual marriage, adding it as an issue to curriculum or broader culture debate elides rather than addresses sexual difference. In other words,…

  5. Magic moment? Maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Davis, Christina

    2014-08-01

    To test the existence of the "magic moment" for parental marriage immediately post-birth and to inform policies that preferentially encourage biological over step parent marriage, this study estimates the incidence and stability of maternal marriage for children born out of wedlock. Data came from the National Survey of Family Growth on 5,255 children born non maritally. By age 15, 29 % of children born non maritally experienced a biological-father marriage, and 36 % experienced a stepfather marriage. Stepfather marriages occurred much later in a child's life-one-half occurred after the child turned age 7-and had one-third higher odds of dissolution. Children born to black mothers had qualitatively different maternal marriage experiences than children born to white or Hispanic mothers, with less biological-parent marriage and higher incidences of divorce. Findings support the existence of the magic moment and demonstrate that biological marriages were more enduring than stepfather marriages. Yet relatively few children born out of wedlock experienced stable, biological-parent marriages as envisioned by marriage promotion programs.

  6. Down the Aisle of Criminalization : The Practice of Forced Marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haenen, I.E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Awareness of the practice of forced marriage — which refers to a marriage that at least one of the spouses entered into against their will, as a result of some form of coercion exercised by another person — is growing in Europe. Forced marriage is a daily reality in all European countries and has

  7. Adolescents' Perceptions of Marriage and Premarital Couples Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, Benjamin; Schumm, Walter R.

    2004-01-01

    Adolescents in rural and small city high schools in the western United States (N = 159) reported their perceptions of marriage and marriage education. They considered preparation for marriage important, but expressed lower familiarity with and lower intentions to attend programs than college students assessed previously. Youth valued parents,…

  8. Pathways to Marriage: Learning for Married Life in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Michele; And Others

    In 1993-94, a random sample of 547 individuals authorized to perform marriages in Australia (marriage celebrants) and 560 couples from across Australia who had married in 1993 were surveyed regarding their views of premarriage education (PME) and the factors enhancing/inhibiting participation in PME programs (PMEPs). Of the marriage celebrants,…

  9. Does happiness bind? Marriage chances of the unhappy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractSummary This chapter checks the claim that happiness harms social bonds, marriage in particular. It is shown that happiness rather benefits marriage. Married people appear typically happier than singles, and the difference seems partly due to a positive effect of happines on marriage

  10. Changing the Price of Marriage: Evidence from Blood Test Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Kasey; Guldi, Melanie; Price, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    We use state repeals of blood test requirements (BTRs) for a marriage license that occurred between 1980 and 2008 to examine the impact of changes in the price of marriage on the marriage decision. Using a within-group estimator that holds constant state and year effects and exploits variation in the repeal dates of BTRs across states, we find…

  11. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee, or...

  12. Reassessing Differences in Work and Income in Cohabitation and Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperberg, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Are cohabiters different than married couples who cohabited before marriage? This study used the 2002 wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to determine how work behavior might differ for 4 relationship types: (a) cohabiters with uncertain marriage plans, (b) cohabiters with definite marriage plans, (c) premarital cohabiters who…

  13. 20 CFR 222.12 - Ceremonial marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ceremonial marriage relationship. 222.12... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.12 Ceremonial marriage relationship. A valid ceremonial marriage is one which would be recognized as valid by the courts of the State...

  14. 22 CFR 19.10-3 - Marriage after retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marriage after retirement. 19.10-3 Section 19... PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.10-3 Marriage after retirement. If an... marriage irrevocably elect to receive a reduced annuity and to provide, subject to any obligation to...

  15. One Nation, Divided: Culture, Civic Institutions, and the Marriage Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford; Wolfinger, Nicholas H.; Stokes, Charles E.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1960s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic retreat from marriage, marked by divorce, cohabitation, single parenthood, and lower overall marriage rates. Marriage is now less likely to anchor adults' lives or provide a stable framework for childrearing, especially among poor and working-class Americans. Much research on the retreat…

  16. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph...

  17. 20 CFR 222.14 - Deemed marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed marriage relationship. 222.14 Section... FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Wife, Husband, or Widow(er) § 222.14 Deemed marriage relationship. If a ceremonial or common-law marriage relationship cannot be established under State law, a claimant...

  18. 20 CFR 222.11 - Determination of marriage relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of marriage relationship. 222... marriage relationship. A claimant will be considered to be the husband, wife, or widow(er) of an employee... claimant and employee were validly married, or if a deemed marriage is established. (a) Generally, State...

  19. Developmental Patterns in Marital Satisfaction: Another Look at Covenant Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaris, Alfred; Sanchez, Laura A.; Krivickas, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the trajectory of marital satisfaction in the first 7 years between couples in covenant versus standard marriages. The authors analyzed data on 707 Louisiana marriages from the Marriage Matters Panel Survey of Newlywed Couples, 1998-2004, using multivariate longitudinal growth modeling. When the sample was…

  20. The Evolving Role of Marriage: 1950-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Shelly; Pollak, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1950, marriage behavior in the United States has changed dramatically. Though most men and women still marry at some point in their lives, they now do so later and are more likely to divorce. Cohabitation has become commonplace as either a precursor or an alternative to marriage, and a growing fraction of births take place outside marriage.…

  1. Challenging Forced Marriage: Building the Defence and Support ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Forced marriage violates the principles of personal freedom and individual autonomy. It is viewed as a human rights violation under international human rights law. This project will generate evidence that will help combat forced marriage in India on two key issues: shelters for women resisting forced marriage and a law to ...

  2. Marriage and Family Life in Ireland: A Contemporary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, William M.; Allen, Molly

    This study surveyed family life in different regions of the Republic of Ireland. A sample of Irish couples was chosen by the Catholic Marriage Advisory Council for the purposes of examining marriage and family life, and asked to complete a survey. Individuals (N=216) were asked to classify their marriage style as either traditional or egalitarian…

  3. Marriage patterns and some issues related to adolescent marriage in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Mahmud, M

    1996-09-01

    Data from the 1989 Bangladesh Fertility Survey are used to examine marriage patterns among adolescents, factors associated with adolescent marriage, and socioeconomic characteristics of married adolescents. Findings indicate that 100% of females married before the age of 30 years. The proportion of those never married increased after 1974 and among females aged 10-14 years and 15-19 years. The proportion of those never married increased from 73.4% to 95.8% among women aged 10-14 years and from 11.3% to 48.6% among women aged 15-19 years. In 1989 only 4% were married after age 20. 55% of total marriages occurred among women aged 13-15 years. 80% of total marriages occurred under 16 years of age. The highest mean age of marriage was found among women aged 20-29 years at the time of the survey. 63.9% of women who married before the age of 20 years married after menarche, 18.1% married before menarche, and 18.0% married during menarche. The average age at menarche was 13.4 years. 13.9% of marriages were dissolved among women who married before the age of 20 years, and 46% remarried. 8.5% of marriages were dissolved among ever married women who married after the age of 20 years, and only 24.4% remarried. Teenage marriage was more prevalent in rural areas and in Dhaka division, followed by Rajshahi division. About 70% of married adolescents were illiterate or had no formal education, and almost 86% did not work outside the home. Only 26% of married adolescents had husbands with more than a primary education. Marriages took place earlier among families with some land. 92.6% of married adolescents lived in poorly constructed housing. Logistic findings indicate that female education was closely associated with an increased chance of adolescent marriage. Low age at marriage was also influenced strongly by husband's occupation. Regional differences were significant covariates.

  4. An empirical exploration of female child marriage determinants in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Lauren; Peterman, Amber; Irdiana, Nadira; Triyana, Margaret; Minnick, Emilie

    2018-03-27

    Child marriage, defined as marriage before age 18, is associated with adverse human capital outcomes. The child marriage burden remains high among female adolescents in Indonesia, despite increasing socioeconomic development. Research on child marriage in Southeast Asia is scarce. No nationally representative studies thus far have examined determinants of child marriage in Indonesia through multivariate regression modeling. We used data from the nationally representative 2012 Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey and the Adolescent Reproductive Health Survey to estimate determinants of child marriage and marital preferences. We ran multivariate models to estimate the association between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and the following early marriage outcomes: 1) ever been married or cohabited, 2) married or cohabited before 18 years, 3) married or cohabited before 16 years, 4) self-reported marital-age preferences and 5) attitudes approving female child marriage. Among the child marriage research sample (n = 6578, females aged 20-24 at time of survey), approximately 17% and 6% report being married before 18 and 16 years old respectively. Among the marital preferences research sample (n = 8779, unmarried females 15-24), the average respondent preferred marriage at approximately 26 years and 5% had attitudes approving child marriage. Education, wealth and media exposure have protective effects across marriage outcomes, while rural residence is a risk factor for the same. There are significant variations by region, indicating roles of religious, ethnic and other geographically diverse factors. This research fills a gap in understanding of child marriage determinants in Indonesia. There appears to be little support for child marriage among girls and young women, indicating an entry point for structural interventions that would lead to lasting change. Future research efforts should prioritize rigorous testing of gender

  5. On How to Arrange Infinitely many Marriages!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. On How to Arrange Infinitely many Marriages! B Sury. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 71-73. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0071-0073. Author Affiliations.

  6. Child marriage in Jordan: breaking the cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Swan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In seeking to combat the growing phenomenon of child marriage among Syrian refugees, it is vital to engage the whole range of actors involved, and to recognise that girls and boys have the capacity to address this issue in their own communities.

  7. Satisfaction in Long-Term Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Nina S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the impact of sexual satisfaction and the congruence of mates' perceptions on overall marital satisfaction in 290 people who had been married 18 to 32 years. Results showed respondents were, overall, satisfied with their marriages. The relationsihps were enhanced by empathy and congruence of perceptions. (Author/JAC)

  8. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  9. Marriage, Family Relations, and the Birthrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbik-Vorobei, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Under the conditions of the market, the development of the economy must be of priority to the state, for the state cannot exist and be dynamic without such an economy and, consequently, there can be no question of any transformation of marriage, family relations, and the birthrate. A vital task in the development of the state has to do with…

  10. Assessment Education in Marriage and Family Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Joshua M.

    1997-01-01

    Recent research reports that marriage and family clinicians describe the use of standardized assessment as of little importance. However this contradicts the potential advantages of the use of standardized measures. This contrast may be explained by the hypothesis that students use what they are taught, thus promoting a review of assessment course…

  11. Association between consanguinity and survival of marriages

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mostafa Saadat

    2014-09-08

    Sep 8, 2014 ... Abstract Background and purpose: The present study was performed to investigate the association between consanguineous marriages and divorce risk. Materials and methods: A total of 496 couples at divorce time and 800 couples from general pop- ulation who have no plan for divorce (as control group) ...

  12. Association between consanguinity and survival of marriages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and purpose: The present study was performed to investigate the association between consanguineous marriages and divorce risk. Materials and methods: A total of 496 couples at divorce time and 800 couples from general population who have no plan for divorce (as control group) were included in the study.

  13. The Dynamics of Marriage and Divorce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Gustaf; Svarer, Michael; Weiss, Yoram

    We formulate and estimate a dynamic model of marriage, divorce, and remarriage using 27 years of panel data for the entire Danish cohort born in 1960. The marital surplus is identified from the probability of divorce, and the surplus shares of husbands and wives from their willingness to enter...

  14. Traditional marriage festivals and tourism development | Oluwatoyin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional marriage festival is a tourism potential that is yet to be fully recognized by the people and government. It is to be made known to the outside world to entice tourist influx from within and outside Nigeria and also expose the accruing social and economic benefit associated with it; if given necessary funding and ...

  15. Lessons Learned from Non-Marriage Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the contemporary United States, marriage is closely related to money. Men and (perhaps to a lesser extent) women with more education, higher incomes, larger stocks of wealth, and more stable employment are more likely to marry than are people in more precarious economic positions. But is this relationship truly causal? That is, does economic…

  16. Does Specialization Explain Marriage Penalties and Premiums?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Gough, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Married men’s wage premium is often attributed to within-household specialization: men can devote more effort to wage-earning when their wives assume responsibility for household labor. We provide a comprehensive evaluation of the specialization hypothesis, arguing that, if specialization causes the male marriage premium, married women should experience wage losses. Furthermore, specialization by married parents should augment the motherhood penalty and the fatherhood premium for married as compared to unmarried parents. Using fixed-effects models and data from the NLSY79, we estimate within-gender differences in wages according to marital status and between-gender differences in the associations between marital status and wages. We then test whether specialization on time use, job traits, and tenure accounts for the observed associations. Results for women do not support the specialization hypothesis. Childless men and women both receive a marriage premium. Marriage augments the fatherhood premium but not the motherhood penalty. Changes in own and spousal employment hours, job traits, and tenure appear to benefit both married men and women, although men benefit more. Marriage changes men’s labor market behavior in ways that augment wages, but these changes do not appear to occur at the expense of women’s wages. PMID:24039271

  17. Marriage Migration, Citizenship, and Vulnerability: The International Marriage Broker Regulation Act (IMBRA)

    OpenAIRE

    Pennington, Laura Anne

    2010-01-01

    In 2005, following the deaths of several marriage migrants known as â mail-order bridesâ , the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act was created. Designed to regulate the international matchmaking industry and provide women with the information to make informed, safe decisions about their future partnership in an attempt to decrease instances of violence, this law was the result of an increase in awareness, collaboration between interested parties, and incorporation into a broader bi...

  18. Attitudes on marriage and new relationships: Cross-national evidence on the deinstitutionalization of marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treas, Judith; Lui, Jonathan; Gubernskaya, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Consistent with the deinstitutionalization-of-marriage thesis, studies report a decline in support for marital conventions and increased approval of other relationship types. Generalizations are limited by the lack of cross-national research for a broad domain of attitudes on marriage and alternative arrangements, and by the lack of consensus on what counts as evidence. OBJECTIVE Acknowledging the conceptual distinction between expectations for behavior inside and outside marriage, we address the deinstitutionalization debate by testing whether support for marital conventions has declined for a range of attitudes across countries. METHODS Based on eleven International Social Survey Program items replicated between the late 1980s and the 2000s, OLS regressions evaluate attitude changes in up to 21 countries. RESULTS Consistent with the deinstitutionalization argument, disapproval declined for marital alternatives (cohabitation, unmarried parents, premarital and same-sex sex). For attitudes on the behavior of married people and the nature of marriage the results are mixed: despite a shift away from gender specialization, disapproval of extramarital sex increased over time. On most items, most countries changed as predicted by the deinstitutionalization thesis. CONCLUSIONS Attitude changes on ‘new relationships’ and marital alternatives are compatible with the deinstitutionalization of marriage. Beliefs arguably more central to the marital institution do not conform as neatly to this thesis. Because results are sensitive to the indicators used, the deinstitutionalization of marriage argument merits greater empirical and conceptual attention. PMID:26052248

  19. Marriage change in rural India, 1921-1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, K

    1998-01-01

    "In the early twentieth century, marriage age of both sexes in India was unusually low, even by the standards of other Asian societies of the era. Although early marriage in the form of child marriage occurred throughout the Indian subcontinent, there were regional differences in the extent of the practice. The article examines influences on the marriage market from the early through the late twentieth century and the changes that have occurred within that time frame. Early on, the peasant marriage regime was regulated more by social and demographic factors, while subsequent changes reflected the growing importance of economics and considerable regional diversity." excerpt

  20. Forced Marriage-Culture or Crime? Part II

    OpenAIRE

    TAPP, David; JENKINSON, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This is Part II of the series.\\ud \\ud ‘Marriage shall be entered into only with the free and full consent of the intending spouses .’ \\ud \\ud It is important to begin by acknowledging the above statement, which is part of Article 16(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and also to distinguish between an arranged marriage and a forced marriage. \\ud \\ud An arranged marriage is ‘a marriage planned and agreed by the families or guardians of the couple concerned ’, while a forced marria...

  1. Between Preferences: Marriage and Mobility among Danish Pakistani Youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    and an increasing number of local love marriages have changed the overall picture. This article discusses how the new marriage preferences affect common notions of family relatedness, and suggest that young couples' decision to engage in a love marriage constitutes an act of symbolic mobility. Ultimately Danish...... Pakistanis are split between the marriage preferences set up by their families, the Danish nation-state and themselves. In this respect marriage is not only about entering adulthood and deciding one's future, but also constitutes a process where notions of identity and belonging are negotiated within local...

  2. Legal method in danish law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blume, Peter Erik

    This book describes how legal method is used within the Danish legal system. Its target group is foreign lawyers and law students who have an interest in knowing how Danish law commonly is determined and applied. In the first chapters legal method and legal sources in general are defined...... and furthermore a brief account of Danish legal history is provided. The following chapters concern: • Legal institutions, • Statute and Statutory Law • Legal Decisions • Legal Literature and Legal Knowledge • Other National Legal Sources • External Influences on Danish Law...

  3. Marriage with an Adopted Child from the Iranian Constitutional Law Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ماهرو غدیری

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently Iran passed a law titled “Protection of Children without Guardian or with an Improper Guardian” that provides in part: "... marriage between a guardian and an adopted child is prohibited both during and after custody, unless a competent court, after obtaining the advisory opinion from the (state welfare organization, affirms that it is in the interest of the adopted child." It was claimed that in the absence of a prohibition under Sharia law and silence of the legislation in force, there exist some cases of marriage with an adopted child. Hence, with this regulation a competent court may allow such marriages based on the interest of the adopted child and in this way, at least the child will be protected against possible harms. This claim raises the question that given articles 10, 20 and 21 of the Constitution, to what extent can such a provision protect the sanctity and solidarity of familial relations based on Islamic law and ethics, woman's rights, protecting children without guardians, and equal legal protection for all, including men and women? This paper addresses this question by analyzing the consequences of such a provision, and ultimately suggests that, in order to prevent the immorality of relations within families and the collapse of the family, and to ensure the protection of the child from harms and protect the rights of women, repealing this provision must be placed on the agenda of the Legislature as soon as possible.

  4. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-09-03

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.

  5. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102,839). The res......The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965–1985 (N = 102......,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more than marriage to a convicted spouse. These findings not only underline how important marriage...... is for social integration but also stress the heterogeneous nature of the protective effects of marriage....

  6. An analysis of age at first marriage of China's population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R

    1985-10-01

    This study examines age at first marriage in China, using data from the 1982 10% sample of the population census. Among the married population of July 1, 1982, most men married for the first time at 23; by 24.08 years, half the men were married; the average age at first marriage was 25.49 years. Most women had their first marriage at 20; half were married before the age of 21.9; their average age at first marriage was 22.8 years. Among geographic groupings, the age at marriage is highest for Shanghai populations for both men (27.82 years) and women (25.76 years). The lowest age at marriage is 23.74 years for Heilongjiang Province and 21.44 for women in Qinghai Province. Female age at marriage tends to be higher in the East and South than in the West and North, and higher in coastal than inland areas. The geographic distribution of male age at marriage differs from that of women. Men commonly marry the earliest in the 3 Northeast provinces. Men marry later in Sichuan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Anhui, and shandong than in Beijing and Tianjin. In general, men tend to marry later than women, but the disparity is usually small. Since the revolution, female age at marriage has steadily risen. China's age at marriage is several years lower than that of Japan. Economic development and education levels have a strong impact on female age at marriage. However, female age at marriage has declined in very recent years, suggesting a more complex interaction between age at marriage and socioeconomic factors. Promoting late marriage is essential to controlling population growth.

  7. Minimum Marriage Age Laws and the Prevalence of Child Marriage and Adolescent Birth: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswikwa, Belinda; Richter, Linda; Kaufman, Jay; Nandi, Arijit

    2015-06-01

    The relationship of national laws that prohibit child marriage with the prevalence of child marriage and adolescent birth is not well understood. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys and from the Child Marriage Database created by the MACHEquity program at McGill University were used to examine the relationship between laws that consistently set the age for marriage for girls at 18 or older and the prevalence of child marriage and teenage childbearing in 12 Sub-Saharan African countries. Countries were considered to have consistent laws against child marriage if they required females to be 18 or older to marry, to marry with parental consent and to consent to sex. Associations between consistent laws and the two outcomes were identified using multivariate regression models. Four of the 12 countries had laws that consistently set the minimum age for marriage at 18 or older. After adjustment for covariates, the prevalence of child marriage was 40% lower in countries with consistent laws against child marriage than in countries without consistent laws against the practice (prevalence ratio, 0.6). The prevalence of teenage childbearing was 25% lower in countries with consistent minimum marriage age laws than in countries without consistent laws (0.8). Our results support the hypothesis that consistent minimum marriage age laws protect against the exploitation of girls.

  8. [Changes of marriage age in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D

    1991-04-01

    The changes in age of marriage in ancient China can be classified into 3 periods. Around 680 B.C., the government set the age of marriage at 20 for men and at 15 for women. Even though it was written in the works of the Confucian school that men should marry at 30 and women at 20, it was never really followed. The Wei and Jin dynasties provided the longest periods of war and social instability. Large numbers of population died because of war or famine. Because heavy taxes were collected on each member of family, many families did not report marriage or childbirth. In order to encourage childbirth, the government reduced the age of marriage to 15 for men and 13 for women. Administrative and legislative regulation were introduced to force people to marry early, especially women. Incentives were given to families with more women. These policies was enforced due to the imbalance of the sex ratio and reduction of population size. As female infanticides were prevalent because of differential values placed on male and female children, it was difficult for men to find partners to marry. Shortage of women was also the result of the polygamy of the rich and the aristocracy. The imbalance of the sex ratio forced women to marry early. Nevertheless, women getting married too early were not fertile. Infant or child mortality was high among children of young mothers. From the Song to the Ching dynasties, the age of marriage was set at 16 for men and 14 for women. In the ancient times, the population of China was around 60-70 million before the Ching dynasty. Generally speaking, the population size was small. Early marriage was necessary and feasible. Even though fertility in ancient times was high, mortality has high also. Life expectancy ranged form 22 to 35. People needed to marry early and have children early to replace themselves. On the other hand, large land areas and inefficient production tools required a larger labor force. Large population size also represented

  9. Should Drugs Be Legalized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, William; Scorza, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Presents two opposing viewpoints concerning the legalization of drugs. States that control efforts are not cost effective and suggests that legalization with efforts at education is a better course of action (W. Chambliss). The opposing argument contends that the cost in human suffering negates any savings in dollars gained through legalization…

  10. The legal dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    presentation, I will focus on how the group included legal matters in the new letters, and how the pilot project group involved legal advice in their considerations. I will also discuss how and when to introduce legal advice in the letter editing process, drawing on the experiences of the group members......, interviewing central participants in the pilot project, and by carrying out a small questionnaire based survey and a series of interviews with members of the letters’ target group. One of the most prevalent challenges addressed by the group was how to make sure to address legal matters properly. In my...... language changes aimed at. What to learn from the presentation: •How to design a plain language project •How to include legal advice in a plain language project •How to design a study of plain language changes...

  11. Mediation and Legal Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Zaitseva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative dispute resolution procedures raises a number of new problems and questions for jurisprudence and legal practice. Many of these are closely related to the implementation of mediation procedures. Significant attention has been paid in the legal literature to the need for mediators’ legal education. Nowadays a professional lawyer usually performs the functions of a mediator. Nevertheless, in some countries the competence of mediators can be limited. In fact, such persons may be prohibited from providing any legal assistance to the parties. A direct prohibition of this kind exists in Russian legislation. To what degree is this prohibition realistic and reasonable? Different countries enjoy different approaches to the possibility of providing disputing parties with a mediator’s legal assistance in addressing issues requiring legal advice or in the drafting of legal documents. Different approaches to this issue have appeared for various reasons. The absence of consensus is caused by a contradiction between the principle of mediator neutrality in the conflict resolution process and the goals of dispute settlement in which a legally competent intermediary is involved. To ensure the effectiveness of the mediation process, legislators should seek out more flexible ways of regulating procedure. Mandatory regulation itself contradicts the spirit of ‘semi-formal’ alternative (extrajudicial methods for conflict resolution. As such, the presence of direct prohibitions or severe restrictions may not only become challenging in the performance of law but such peremptory norms can also make mediation unattractive and ineffective for some particular types of dispute, such as labor disputes. The principle of preserving a mediator’s neutrality is possible if exercised within the framework of a balanced approach to reasonable limits and discretionary rules for the provision of certain types of legal assistance to disputing

  12. Catholicism and marriage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, W

    1993-08-01

    This study examines the effects of a Catholic background on age at first marriage, the odds of never marrying, and the odds of ever divorcing. Estimates using Catholic upbringing are compared with estimates using Catholic at the time of the survey. A case is made that if the latter measure of Catholicism is used, serious selection bias problems occur in some cases because this measure excludes defectors and includes converts. Further, it is shown that a Catholic upbringing generally has no effect on men's age at first marriage and has a positive effect on the age when women marry. It is also shown that older Baptist men are substantially more likely than Catholic men to experience a divorce. Older Catholic women are somewhat less likely to experience a divorce than non-Baptist Protestant women. There is no Catholic effect on the odds that younger men and women will divorce.

  13. Marriage and mental health among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E

    2012-03-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this apparent benefit may vary across the life course. Early marriage, which is nonnormative, could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 11,695), I find that married young adults exhibit levels of psychological distress that are similar to those of young adults in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults also report lower frequency of drunkenness than those who are not in a romantic relationship. Married young adults, especially those who first married at ages 22 to 26, report higher life satisfaction than those in other type of romantic relationships,those in no romantic relationship, and those who married prior to age 22. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed.

  14. Digit preferences in marriage formation in Sweden: Millennium marriages and birthday peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Ohlsson-Wijk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Digit preferences are normally seen as potentially harmful biases in respondents' reports. Possibly such preferences might also be the cause of some patterns found in Swedish marriage formation, thus affecting actual demographic behavior. Objective: Digit preferences in marriage formation in Sweden are examined − more specifically, the additional propensity to marry for the first time during the year 2000 or at ages ending with 0 − and their demographic and socioeconomic correlates. Methods: Event-history analyses are applied to Swedish register data covering 3.5 million men and women in 1991−2007. Results: First-marriage risks clearly increase for both men and women at exact ages 30, 40, 50, and 60 and in the year 2000. These patterns exist across demographic and socioeconomic groups and are not due to measurement error or random variation. Conclusions: The timing of marriage is not strictly determined by conventional demographic or socioeconomic factors. Whether the findings are idiosyncratic to contexts like the Swedish, where there are small differences between marriage and cohabitation, remains to be answered.

  15. Online infidelity: The new challenge to marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Angelina; Raguram, Ahalya

    2009-01-01

    Increased usage of the Internet has given rise to a new challenge to marriages: That of online infidelity, which is perceived to be as traumatic as actual infidelity. This article highlights the negative impact of online infidelity on marital relationship and its detrimental effect on the mental health of the offended spouse using a case vignette. The article discusses the importance of marital therapy in dealing with the factors contributing to online infidelity and in rebuilding marital trust. PMID:20048458

  16. KINSHIP, MARRIAGE AND AGE IN ABORIGINAL AUSTRALIA

    OpenAIRE

    Denham, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    McConnell (1930) first described and attempted to explain an “age spiral” in Australian Aboriginal systems of descent, marriage and kinship over eighty years ago. Since then, ethnographic and theoretical research concerning this matter has been sporadic and inconclusive, with societies that display this feature most often being treated as anomalous, transitional, hybrid or aberrant. Atkins (1981) attributed the failure to understand these societies to a lack of realism in the models; specific...

  17. Child Marriage, Education, and Agency in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimpo, Clarence; Wodon, Quentin; Nguyen, Minh Cong

    2015-01-01

    This contribution relies on four different approaches and data sources to assess and discuss the impact of child marriage on secondary school enrollment and completion in Uganda. The four data sources are: (1) qualitative evidence on differences in community and parental preferences for the education of boys and girls and on the higher likelihood of girls to drop out of school in comparison to boys; (2) reasons declared by parents as to why their children have dropped out of school; (3) reaso...

  18. Online infidelity: The new challenge to marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Angelina; Raguram, Ahalya

    2009-01-01

    Increased usage of the Internet has given rise to a new challenge to marriages: That of online infidelity, which is perceived to be as traumatic as actual infidelity. This article highlights the negative impact of online infidelity on marital relationship and its detrimental effect on the mental health of the offended spouse using a case vignette. The article discusses the importance of marital therapy in dealing with the factors contributing to online infidelity and in rebuilding marital trust.

  19. Online infidelity: The new challenge to marriages

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Angelina; Raguram, Ahalya

    2009-01-01

    Increased usage of the Internet has given rise to a new challenge to marriages: That of online infidelity, which is perceived to be as traumatic as actual infidelity. This article highlights the negative impact of online infidelity on marital relationship and its detrimental effect on the mental health of the offended spouse using a case vignette. The article discusses the importance of marital therapy in dealing with the factors contributing to online infidelity and in rebuilding marital trust.

  20. "Marriage" abdominoplasty: a short scar technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestak, Kenneth C; Walgenbach, Klaus J; Azari, Kodi

    2002-05-01

    Short scar abdominoplasty-that is, a marriage of aggressive superwet lipoplasty, rectus abdominis muscle plication, and excision of lower abdominal skin and excess adipose tissue-can be used as an alternative to conventional abdominoplasty in properly selected patients. According to the authors, this technique offers the advantages of less invasive surgery, decreased pain, and faster return to work. (Aesthetic Surg J 2002;22:294-301.).

  1. Alcoholic marriage: later start, sooner end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Heath, Andrew C; Lynskey, Michael T; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-04-01

    Although associations between drinking behavior and marital status are well documented, timing of marital transitions as a function of alcohol use or disorder has received limited empirical attention. We examine the relationship between lifetime history of alcohol dependence (AD) and timing and survival of first marriages in a sample of 3,575 female and 1,845 male adult Australian twins born mostly between 1940 and 1964. Survival analyses were conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results indicate moderate delays in marriage associated with AD for both women and men. Among ever-married respondents, AD was strongly predictive of early separation, with similar effects observed for women and men. Heritable sources of covariation were also documented. For women, genetic influences shared between early-onset AD and marital timing were found. Genetic influences shared between AD and marital survival were observed for women without regard to onset and for men with later-onset AD. Results confirm the importance of AD as a predictor of both timing and survival of first marriages, with genetic influences contributing to observed associations. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  2. 20 CFR 404.727 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 404.727... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.727 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) General. A deemed valid marriage is a ceremonial marriage we consider valid even...

  3. The defense of marriage act (DOMA): its impact on those seeking same sex marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson-Freeman, Pamela A

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of same-sex marriage has been a goal of many in the gay rights movement. With the passage of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), same-sex relationships will not be afforded the same opportunities as heterosexual relationships. This paper will discuss the process leading to the passage of the DOMA, and will argue that the passage of this piece of legislation was a misuse of Article IV, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, "Full Faith and Credit". The Defense of Marriage Act represents an extraordinary act of Congress, as they have rarely passed legislation under this mandate and have never passed legislation that curtails full faith and credit. Strategies that can be utilized to overcome the constraints of the DOMA will also be included.

  4. Variation in the Relationship Between Education and Marriage: Marriage Market Mismatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Brand, Jennie E.; Davis, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    Educational expansion has led to greater diversity in the social backgrounds of college students. We ask how schooling interacts with this diversity to influence marriage formation among men and women. Relying on data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3208), we use a propensity score approach to group men and women into social strata and multilevel event history models to test differences in the effects of college attendance across strata. We find a statistically significant, positive trend in the effects of college attendance across strata, with the largest effects of college on first marriage among the more advantaged and the smallest—indeed, negative—effects among the least advantaged men and women. These findings appear consistent with a mismatch in the marriage market between individuals’ education and their social backgrounds. PMID:22563132

  5. THE FATWA OF THE COUNCIL OF INDONESIAN ULAMA ON INTER-RELIGIOUS MARRIAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cecep Lukman Yasin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Qur’anic text states that it is lawful to marry women from among the People of the Book, while in the prophetic tradition it is reported that the Prophet himself had a non-Muslim wife. However, the campaign to propagate Christianization which had been tirelessly carried out by well-organized missionary organizations was reported to have successfully christianized segments of the Indonesian population especially in the heathen hinterland and among outer island tribes. Given the circumstances, the Muslim leaders and ulama perceived inter-religious marriage as a hidden Christianization. The increasing incidence of inter-religious marriage raised the concern of the Indonesian Council of Ulama. Responding to this problem, in June 1, 1980 the Council issued a fatwa which explicitly prohibits a Muslim to marry a non-Muslim. Even though the position adopted by the fatwa was quite a radical departure from the prevalent opinion in classical fiqh text, this legal opinion is still within the permissible frame of Islamic legal theory of maslahah (beneficial theory. This legal theory is encapsulated in the Syafi’i school’s legal maxim stating that “Dar’u al-mafâsid muqaddam ‘alâ jalb al-masâlih” (Preference is given to the prevention of harm than to attainment of benefit Al-Quran menegaskan kehalalan menikahi wanita Ahl al-Kitab, sementara hadis menyebutkan bahwa Nabi sendiri beristeri seorang non-Muslim. Namun, gerakan kristenisasi yang dijalankan oleh lembaga missionaris terorganisir telah berhasil memurtadkan sejumlah penduduk Muslim Indonesia, terutama di daerah pinggiran dan pedalaman. Karena itu, para ulama dan pemimpin Islam memandang pernikahan beda agama sebagai bagian dari gerakan kristenisasi terselubung. Tingginya kasus pernikahan beda agama memunculkan keprihatinan Majlis Ulama Indonesia (MUI. Menanggapi masalah ini, pada 1 Juni 1980, MUI mengeluarkan fatwa yang secara tegas melarang seorang pria Muslim menikahi wanita non

  6. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  7. Age at marriage, sex-ratios, and ethnic heterogamy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, H; Shavit, Y

    1994-05-01

    "This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy." excerpt

  8. Marriage Dot EU: The Effect of Internet Usage on Marriage Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Vozar

    2011-01-01

    The rapid growth of internet usage over the last two decades has been influencing many aspects of our life and most noticeably the ways in which people communicate with each other. Therefore, it is appropriate to ask whether the growth of internet usage influences individuals’ marital decisions in modern society. In my study, I concentrate on the effect of the growing internet usage on the gender and age-specific marriage hazard rate for the first time marriages in Europe. The panel data anal...

  9. Study of marital communication in marriages with infidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Lanas, R. (Raquel); Beunza-Nuin, M.I. (Mª Isabel); Cano-Prous, A. (Adrián); Tricas-Sauras, S. (Sandra); Manrique-Astiz, E. (Eduardo); Aubá-Guedea, E. (Enrique)

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Infidelity has a significant psychological impact on marriages and families. Marriages with an infidelity experience show a great number of premarital communication problems such as low rates of positive interaction and high rates of invalidation and negative interaction (1). OBJECTIVES To analyse communicative resources of spouses belonging to marriages with at least one unfaithfulness episode. To compare marital communication depending on the sex of the unfaithfu...

  10. Transnational marriages and second-generation women's employment

    OpenAIRE

    Nadim, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This article studies transnational marriages among the second generation and analyses the processes through which transnational marriages shape second-generation women’s attachment to work. Based on in-depth interviews with second-generation women of Pakistani descent in Norway, along with some of their husbands, the article identifies three processes through which transnational marriages can shape women’s attachment to work: 1) conflicting expectations concerning childcare and women’s employ...

  11. The Wellbeing of Army Personnel in Dual Military Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    2015) also discussed a key component to a successful dual-military marriage is navigating some key life events such as whose career takes precedence...key component to a successful dual-military marriage is navigating key life events such as whose career takes precedence, when/if the couple should...1   AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0043 TITLE: The Wellbeing of Army Personnel in Dual-Military Marriages PRINCIPAL

  12. Effect of Marriage and Spousal Criminality on Recidivism

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Signe Hald; Andersen, Lars H?jsgaard; Skov, Peer Ebbesen

    2015-01-01

    The authors analyzed whether the effect of marriage on recidivism varied by spousal criminality. For this purpose, they used propensity score matching and full population data from Statistics Denmark on all unmarried and previously convicted men from birth cohorts 1965?1985 (N?=?102,839). The results showed that marriage reduced recidivism compared to nonmarriage only when the spouse had no criminal record. Similarly, marriage to a nonconvicted spouse reduced recidivism significantly more tha...

  13. Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.

  14. AHP 6: Stag rig Tibetan Village: Hair Changing and Marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    'brug mo skyid འབྲུག་མོ་སྐྱིད།

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Marriage in Stag rig Village, Shar lung Township, Khri ka County, Mtsho lho Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon Province, China is described in the context of the hair dressing ritual, rules of exclusion and inclusion, the process of marriage (spouse selection, free choice marriage, arranged marriage, engagement, drinking contract liquor, bride wealth discussion, choosing a date for the wedding ritual, wedding preparations at the bride and groom's homes, the wedding ritual and banquet, marrying a groom into the bride's home, divorce, and the atmosphere surrounding the bride's arrival.

  15. Evolutionary history of hunter-gatherer marriage practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The universality of marriage in human societies around the world suggests a deep evolutionary history of institutionalized pair-bonding that stems back at least to early modern humans. However, marriage practices vary considerably from culture to culture, ranging from strict prescriptions and arranged marriages in some societies to mostly unregulated courtship in others, presence to absence of brideservice and brideprice, and polyandrous to polygynous unions. The ancestral state of early human marriage is not well known given the lack of conclusive archaeological evidence. METHODOLOGY: Comparative phylogenetic analyses using data from contemporary hunter-gatherers around the world may allow for the reconstruction of ancestral human cultural traits. We attempt to reconstruct ancestral marriage practices using hunter-gatherer phylogenies based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. RESULTS: Arranged marriages are inferred to go back at least to first modern human migrations out of Africa. Reconstructions are equivocal on whether or not earlier human marriages were arranged because several African hunter-gatherers have courtship marriages. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that marriages in early ancestral human societies probably had low levels of polygyny (low reproductive skew and reciprocal exchanges between the families of marital partners (i.e., brideservice or brideprice. DISCUSSION: Phylogenetic results suggest a deep history of regulated exchange of mates and resources among lineages that enhanced the complexity of human meta-group social structure with coalitions and alliances spanning across multiple residential communities.

  16. Early marriage - the silent carnage of our women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Z

    1988-03-01

    In Ethiopia, there traditional early marriage is: 63.6% of women are married before 20 years of age. Some of the multiple and overlapping consequences of early marriage are premature conception, maternal mortality, infant mortality, bereavement, divorce, and abandonment of children. Traditionally women have been regarded as baby-making apparatuses and childbirth regarded as the war women must endeavour to fight through and survive. The causes of early marriage are deeply rooted in socio-cultural values created by wide-spread machoism ruthlessly practiced by men even at immediate risk to women's lives. Among the traditional practices is madego, where a young girl at an age as low as 7 is given away in marriage and fed a rich diet in preparation for the initial premature pregnancy. In May 1980 a ban on the practice of early marriage was announced by the Head of State during a visit to the northern regions, with 18 years set as the minimum age for marriage. Activities needed to promote this announcement include identifying locations and prevalence of early marriage; mounting a campaign of information and education about the dangers of early marriage and intensifying existing programs of mother and child health care and family planning against harmful traditional practices; focusing attention in social and health schools on the problems associated with early marriage; and evaluating strategies 12 months following implementation, taking corrective measures whenever indicated.

  17. Types of marriages, population structure and genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, T M B; Bomfim, T F; Souza, L V; Soares, N; Santos, F L; Acosta, A X; Abe-Sandes, K

    2013-07-01

    A high occurrence rate of consanguineous marriages may favour the onset and increased frequency of autosomal recessive diseases in a population. The population of Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil, has a high frequency of rare genetic diseases such as mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, whose observed frequency in this population is 1:5000, while the incidence of this disease recorded in other regions of the world varies from 1:43,261 in Turkey to 1:1,505,160 in Switzerland. To verify the influence of consanguineous marriage on the increased frequency of observed genetic diseases in this population, the population structure and frequency of different types of marriage during different time periods were evaluated. A total of 9765 marriages were found in an analysis of parish marriage records from the city. Over three periods, 1860-1895, 1950-1961 and 1975-2010, the inbreeding rates were 37.1%, 13.2% and 4.2% respectively. Although there was a high rate of inbreeding, endogamic marriages were the dominant marriage type in all three periods. In the most recent period, there was an increase in the number of exogamous marriages and those among immigrants, but most of these occurred among individuals from cities that neighbour Monte Santo. The low rate of migration and high frequency of endogamic and consanguineous marriages show that growth of this population is predominantly internal and could explain the occurrence, and increase in frequency, of recessive genetic diseases in the city.

  18. Patterns of delayed marriage: how special are the Irish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, J A

    1991-02-01

    "This paper deals with delayed marriage and singlehood among the Irish as a focus for the study of the persistence of ethnic characteristics. Patterns of delayed marriage in Ireland in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries are reviewed, and evidence is also presented that Irish persons in other countries (especially in the United States) continue to show significantly higher rates of singlehood and postponed marriage than persons of other nationality groups. Discussion includes how delayed marriage became common in Ireland during the past 150 years and what may be involved in the apparent persistence of this pattern today in Ireland and among the Irish in other countries." excerpt

  19. Religion, Marriage Markets, and Assortative Mating in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, David

    2016-01-01

    As interfaith marriage has become more common, religion is thought to be less important for sorting partners. However, prior studies on religious assortative mating use samples of prevailing marriages, which miss how local marriage markets shape both partner selection and marriage timing. Drawing on search theory and data from 8,699 young adults (ages 18–31) in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997, the author examined the association between the concentration of co-religionists in local marriage markets and marriage timing and partner selection using event history methods. Religious concentration is associated with higher odds of transitioning to marriage and religious homogamy (conditional on marriage) for women and men at older ages (24–31) but not at younger ages (18–23). The association was also stronger for non-Hispanic Whites compared to other race-ethnic groups. The findings indicate that religion remains relevant in sorting partners for many young adults in today’s marriage market. PMID:27818530

  20. Between Tradition and Modernity: Marriage Dynamics in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoluzhko, Lesia; Agadjanian, Victor

    2015-06-01

    The demographic literature on union formation in post-communist Europe typically documents retreat from marriage and increase in cohabitation. However, sociological and anthropological studies of post-Soviet Central Asia often point to a resurgence of various traditional norms and practices, including those surrounding marriage, that were suppressed under Soviet rule. We engage these two perspectives on union formation by analyzing transition to first marriage in Kyrgyzstan both before and after the collapse of the USSR. We use uniquely detailed marriage histories from a nationally representative survey conducted in the period 2011-2012 to examine the dynamics of traditional marital practices among that country's two main ethnic groups-Kyrgyz and Uzbeks-focusing on trends in arranged marriages and in marriages involving bride kidnapping. The analysis reveals instructive ethnic and period differences but also indicates an overall decline in the risks of both types of traditional marriage practices in the post-Soviet era. In fact, although the decline has characterized all marriage types, it was more substantial for traditional marriages. We interpret these trends as evidence of continuing modernization of nuptiality behavior in the region.

  1. New Evidence Against a Causal Marriage Wage Premium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killewald, Alexandra; Lundberg, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has shown that men's wages rise more rapidly than expected prior to marriage, but interpretations diverge on whether this indicates selection or a causal effect of anticipating marriage. We seek to adjudicate this debate by bringing together literatures on (1) the male marriage wage premium; (2) selection into marriage based on men's economic circumstances; and (3) the transition to adulthood, during which both union formation and unusually rapid improvements in work outcomes often occur. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we evaluate these perspectives. We show that wage declines predate rather than follow divorce, indicating no evidence that staying married benefits men's wages. We find that older grooms experience no unusual wage patterns at marriage, suggesting that the observed marriage premium may simply reflect co-occurrence with the transition to adulthood for younger grooms. We show that men entering shotgun marriages experience similar premarital wage gains as other grooms, casting doubt on the claim that anticipation of marriage drives wage increases. We conclude that the observed wage patterns are most consistent with men marrying when their wages are already rising more rapidly than expected and divorcing when their wages are already falling, with no additional causal effect of marriage on wages.

  2. Whistleblowing: a legal commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornock, Marc

    2011-10-01

    This article examines the legal position of a nurse who believes that a colleague is performing below the level of competence required, witnesses inappropriate action by a colleague, or who believes that the care environment is putting patients at risk.

  3. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick Schauer; Barbara A. Spellman

    2017-01-01

    Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociolog...

  4. Old Assyrian Legal Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Thomas Klitgaard

    This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East.......This work presents a comprehensive analysis of legal practices and dispute processing in Old Assyrian society c. 1950-1800 B.C. in the ancient Near East....

  5. MARRIAGE LEGISLATION FROM TANZIMAT REFORM ERA TO THE REPUBLICAN PERIOD: ÇORUM MARRIAGE REGISTRY SAMPLES (TANZİMAT’TAN CUMHURİYET’E EVLİLİK HUKUKU: ÇORUM EVLENME DEFTERLERİ ÖRNEĞİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÇANLI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet “Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e Evlilik Hukuku: Çorum Evlenme Defterleri Örneği” adlı bu çalışmada, Tanzimat Dönemi’nden başlayıp Cumhuriyet Dönemi’ne kadar yayımlanmış hukukî belgelerde evlilik konusu ele alınmıştır. Evlilik konusunda; kız isteme, kız kaçırma, başlık parası, sözlenme, nişanlanma ve düğün gibi konular incelenmiştir. Konu incelenirken, dönemin hukukî metinlerinden olan düsturlardan, Çorum Evlenme Defterlerinden, Çorum Şer’iye Sicili Defterlerinden ve diğer ikinci el kaynaklardan faydalanılmıştır. Yapılan değişiklikler, tarihî süreç içerisinde karşılaştırmalı olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Cumhuriyet Dönemi’nde 1926 yılında Medeni Kanun kabul edilmiştir. Bu Kanun ile Türkiye’de evlilik konusunda neler değişmiştir? Bu değişiklikler, 1926-1930 yılları arasında tutulmuş olan Çorum’a ait evlenme defterleri incelenerek ve örneklemeler yapılarak ortaya konulmuştur Abstract: “Marriage Legislation from Tanzimat Reform Era to the Republican Period: In this study Çorum Marriage Registries” Marriage has been evaluated by examining the published legal documents dated from the Tanzimat period to the Republican years. The topics; asking for the permission from the brides family, running away with the bride, engagement and wedding ceremonies and dowry payment has been reasearched. The legal documents of that period, Çorum’s Marriage Registrations and second hand sources have been used to gather the information. Changes that have been made in that period have been evaluated by making comparison in the historical period.The Civil Law was accepted in 1926 in the Republican period. What has changed in Marriage with the acceptance of the new Civil Law? These changes have been evaluated by examining the Çorum Marriage Registrations between 1926- 1930.

  6. Age At Marriage, Gauna (Effective Marriage And First Child Birth In Rural Women- Changing Pattern In Various Marriage Cohorts By Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Neeraj K

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility patterns of a community depend upon several factors. Strict enforcement of legislation is amongst its important determinants. The Government proposes to enact a deterrent law, which will replace the loophole â€" ridden Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. In India, there exists a long established custom to enter into effective marriage several years after marriage. This is called ‘gauna’. Studying the various marriage cohorts by decades, the present communication comments on the age at marriage, age at gauna and age at first childbirth amongst 843 rural women in Delhi. The study shows that over the last six decades, there has been a gradual rise of age at marriage from 10.5 years to 16.5 years. However, this slope is less steep with age at gauna and almost non- existent for age at first childbirth. This in turn has narrowed the gap between age at gauna and age at first childbirth. Age at first childbirth has remained more or less constant at 19-20 years. This fining, if corroborated elsewhere also, may be of great significance and raise questions on the validity of the current strategy of increasing marriage age to 18 years in order to reduce fertility.

  7. Semper fi: The Effect of Marriage Enrichment on Military Marriages: A Causal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark F.

    2012-01-01

    A study of healthy marriages was conducted and five keys were found to exist in all of them: spirituality, intimacy, conflict resolution, communication and financial management. The author examined secular and spiritual literature and found these keys were prevalent in both. Military couples experience many stressors that are not found in…

  8. Marriage is not a safe place : Heterosexual marriage and HIV-related vulnerability in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacubowski, Nadja

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the link between heterosexual marriage and women's vulnerability to HIV in Indonesia. In this country, gender relations are currently dominated by traditional beliefs and practices and by religious morality. Data for the current study were collected by means of documentary

  9. "Marriage Is More than Being Together": The Meaning of Marriage for Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalas, Maria J.; Furstenberg, Frank F.; Carr, Patrick J.; Napolitano, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Based on 424 qualitative interviews with a racially, ethnically, and socio-economically diverse population of young people ranging in age from 21 to 38, the authors ponder the paradox of the evolving role for contemporary marriage within the developmental perspective of the transition to adulthood. The authors identify two groups: marriage…

  10. Variation in the Relationship between Education and Marriage: Marriage Market Mismatch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Brand, Jennie E.; Davis, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    Educational expansion has led to greater diversity in the social backgrounds of college students. We ask how schooling interacts with this diversity to influence marriage formation among men and women. Relying on data from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,208), we use a propensity score approach to group men and women into…

  11. Marriage and family patterns in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T

    1997-08-01

    This article presents a statistical profile of marriage patterns and family size in Tibet Autonomous Region in China. Data were obtained from the 1990 China Census. At 30%, Tibet has a higher proportion of unmarried women, aged 15-69 years, than any other nationality or province in China, including Han women and all other ethnic women, at 24.3% and 23.5%, respectively. 53% of women aged 20-24 years, and 7-9% of women aged 30-49 years, were unmarried. High rates of unmarried women are attributed to an imbalanced sex ratio favoring women, the existence of polyandry, and strict rules among the dominant Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. The overall percentage of married women aged 15-69 years was 56.6%. In Lhasa City, 60.4% were married; in other towns, 55.4%; and in counties, 55.4%. In 1990, the mean age at first marriage was 23.1 years. The overall divorce rate of Tibetan women aged 15-69 years was 3.8%; 2.5% in Lhasa city, 2.4% in towns, and 3.9% in counties. Divorce declined with an increase in education. Divorce increased from younger to older ages. Divorce is attributed to maltreatment by drunk husbands, a lack of mutual understanding before marriage, disputes over household duties, and extramarital love affairs. The average family size was 5.20. Family size was lower in Lhasa city (3.67) and towns (3.68). 7.74% of Tibetan families were 1-child families. 20.37% had 8 or more family members. Discrepancies exist in family size between Tibetans and ethnic Han.

  12. Legal nature of affatomia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Salian and Ripuarian Code affatomia represented a bilateral legal transaction that was aimed at changing of the scoped of heirs determined by the customs, at least insofar being applied in the absence of biological descendants only. However, almost all further similarities in the field cease at this point. The form for using affatomia with Ripuarian Franks was much simpler than the one with the Salian Franks. Unlike the Salian Franks, affatomia could by all odds be used by Ripuarian Franks spouses in determining each other for a heir. Legal nature of the Salian Franks affatomia is most similar to the mancipatio familiae type of will in the Roman law (which does not mean it emerged from this law, while its form in the Ripuarian Code is much closer to testamentary adoption. As with Ripuarian Franks, affatomia seems to have definitely produced legal effects only after the death of the disposant, while its legal effects with the Salian Code performed inter vivos. Contemporary authors are trying to designate the legal nature of legal affairs from the early development of human and legal civilization through modern institutes that represent the completion of their evolutionary path. Taking the inheritance contract of the German or Swiss law, or the future assets donation of the French law, for example, and then comparing them to affatomia and thinx is an anachronism. This is evident by the fact that the legal nature of these ancient Germanic institutes can not be viewed unilaterally, but always through a combination of those institutes which we know today as adoption, gift or mixed donation with retention of different modalities for the transferor or the testator (usually usufruct. In this sense, if we are looking for a inheritance agreement in the Middle Ages, the contract in which a person determines other person for his/her universal or singular successor in the modern sense, we will certainly not find one. However, if within this institute we

  13. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy on marriage adaptive and postpartum depression in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Hajiheidari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of this research confirm marriage interpersonal psychotherapy on the depression recovery and the increasing marriage satisfaction of women suffering from postpartum depression.

  14. Awareness of legal and social issues related to reproductive health among adolescent girls in rural Varanasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Sweta; Kumar, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Data on awareness of adolescent's on the legal and social issues/acts related to reproductive health, especially in rural areas, are scarce. The aim of the present cross-sectional study is to assess the awareness level of legal and social issues related to reproductive health and its association with the various individual and family/household level characteristics. 650 adolescent girls in the age group of 15-19 years were interviewed with the help of pretested and semistructured questionnaire and focus group discussions were also conducted for qualitative findings in Chiraigaon block of district Varanasi. It was observed that 42.9% of the respondents were aware of legal age of marriage, 14.9% knew about the right age of childbearing. Dowry prohibition act and domestic violence act were known to 46% and 27% respondents, respectively, and only 2.6% were aware of medical termination of pregnancy act. Logistic regression analysis shows the significant effect of education on awareness of legal age of marriage, right age of childbearing, domestic violence, and dowry prohibition acts, which is also supported by qualitative findings. All the important legal issues/acts should be included in high school curriculum and female teachers should be involved in training program for adolescents. Role of mass media in creating awareness about these issues in their routine programs should be ascertained. Accredited Social Health Activist and Anganwadi workers should be aware of and include these issues/acts in adolescent meetings.

  15. Generation Unbound: Drifting into Sex and Parenthood without Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    2014-01-01

    Over half of all births to young adults in the United States now occur outside of marriage, and many are unplanned. The result is increased poverty and inequality for children. The left argues for more social support for unmarried parents; the right argues for a return to traditional marriage. In "Generation Unbound," Isabel V. Sawhill…

  16. Framing Classroom Discussion of Same-Sex Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Assuming that the issue of same-sex marriage should be discussed in schools, how should the discussion be framed? Michael Hand first distinguishes this question from the related but distinct question of whether discussion on this topic should be steered. He then examines three possible frames for discussion of same-sex marriage: the perfectionist…

  17. Pathways into Marriage: Cohabitation and the Domestic Division of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Janeen; Haynes, Michele; Hewitt, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Does time spent in a cohabiting relationship prior to marriage lead to more egalitarian housework arrangements after marriage? Previous research has shown that housework patterns within cohabiting relationships are more egalitarian than in marital relationships. But do these patterns remain when couples marry? The findings from previous studies…

  18. Marriage Institutions and Sibling Competition: Evidence from South Asia*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from South Asia, this article examines how arranged marriage cultivates rivalry among sisters. During marriage search, parents with multiple daughters reduce the reservation quality for an older daughter’s groom, rushing her marriage to allow sufficient time to marry off her younger sisters. Relative to younger brothers, younger sisters increase a girl’s marriage risk; relative to younger singleton sisters, younger twin sisters have the same effect. These effects intensify in marriage markets with lower sex ratios or greater parental involvement in marriage arrangements. In contrast, older sisters delay a girl’s marriage. Because girls leave school when they marry and face limited earning opportunities when they reach adulthood, the number of sisters has well-being consequences over the life cycle. Younger sisters cause earlier school-leaving, lower literacy, a match to a husband with less education and a less skilled occupation, and (marginally) lower adult economic status. Data from a broader set of countries indicate that these cross-sister pressures on marriage age are common throughout the developing world, although the schooling costs vary by setting. JEL Codes: J1, I25, O15. PMID:23966752

  19. Early marriage in Africa--trends, harmful effects and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith-Ann

    2012-06-01

    This article explores the pattern of early marriage in Africa. It focuses on the sub-Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a framework for analyzing global, regional and local initiatives to curb early marriage and examines the application of these interventions in sub-Saharan countries. Regional patterns are then examined and countries which have made progress in reducing age of marriage are compared to countries in which age of marriage amongst girls has reminded low. The paper concludes on the note that countries with the highest rates of early marriage are also the countries with the highest rates of poverty and highest population growth rates. The paper argues for a sub-regional strategy to address the problem of early marriage in the zone with the highest incidence.

  20. An Appraisal of ideological inspirations of marriage redefinition in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than ever, the 21st century man has found reason(s) to challenge the traditional institution of marriage through the instrumentality of the laws. Hence, natural law understanding of marriage as a union of a man and a woman for the course of their lives and to the exclusion of all others has been represented as ...

  1. Marriage Advice for Parents of Children With Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you together as a couple, and the healthiest marriages prioritize alone time. Intimacy allows you to take care of yourself and ... help avoid resentment, which is toxic to a marriage. Say "thank you." ... is a powerful emotion. When you say thanks, you acknowledge your spouse's ...

  2. The recognition of Customary Marriages Act: many women still left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the position of women in monogamous customary marriages concluded before the commencement of The Recognition of Customary Marriages Act, 120 of 1998. This Act alleviated (on appearances) the subordination and inferior status of women in cutomary law. Sec 6 specifically stipulates that a wife ...

  3. Prevalence of consanguineous marriages and associated factors among Israeli Bedouins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na'amnih, Wasef; Romano-Zelekha, Orly; Kabaha, Ahmed; Rubin, Liza Pollack; Bilenko, Natalya; Jaber, Lutfi; Honovich, Mira; Shohat, Tamy

    2014-10-01

    The Bedouin population in Israel is a semi-nomadic traditional patriarchal society. Consanguineous marriages are very common, contributing to high rates of congenital malformations and genetic diseases, resulting in high infant mortality. Data on consanguineous marriages among Bedouins in Israel are limited. This study examined the current prevalence of consanguineous marriages and their determinants among Israeli Bedouins. One thousand two hundred ninety Bedouin women who delivered in the maternity wards of the only hospital serving the Bedouin population were interviewed between November 2009 and January 2010. The prevalence of consanguineous marriages was 44.8 %. The most common type of spousal relationship was first cousins (65.7 % of all consanguineous marriages). The mean inbreeding coefficient was 0.0238. Factors significantly associated with consanguinity were less years of schooling (OR 0.94, 95 % CI (0.88-0.99), p = 0.02) and younger age at marriage of the wife (OR 0.90, 95 % CI (0.80-0.96), p = 0.0002). In conclusion, the rate of consanguineous marriages among Bedouins is very high, making this population at risk for congenital malformations and genetic diseases. Efforts should be directed at better education and provision of premarital and prenatal counseling on the health consequences of consanguineous marriages and the possibilities to lower those risks.

  4. Values Attributed to Marriage by Persons with Physical Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleszynska, Krystyna

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the attitudes and values of 47 able-bodied, 36 blind, and 44 wheelchair-using individuals toward various aspects of marriage including love, sexual life, parenthood, and infidelity. No significant differences were found in attitudes and views among groups. All valued marriage and family life highly and had similar expectations.…

  5. Ready or Not? Criteria for Marriage Readiness among Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S.; Badger, Sarah; Willoughby, Brian J.; Nelson, Larry J.; Madsen, Stephanie D.; Barry, Carolyn McNamara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined emerging adults' criteria for marriage readiness and explored how these criteria are associated with their current attitudes and behaviors. This article establishes the psychometric value of the Criteria for Marriage Readiness Questionnaire and reports on a study of 788 emerging adults recruited from five college sites across…

  6. The Impact of Adoption on the New Parents' Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Reviews literature on effects of adoption on parents' marriage. Notes that a general decline in marital satisfaction is related to partners' ability to balance marital and parental roles, to expectations about housework and child-care division, and to time demands. Marriage is also affected by infertility and its investigation. Finds that social…

  7. Determinants of age at first marriage in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high unemployment rate and increased cost of living in the city had tended to delay the timing of family formation in Addis Ababa. However, educated women, though delayingtheir marriage for the purposes of pursuing their education goal, had a better chance of getting married. Keywords: Age, first marriage, delayed ...

  8. Can We Promote Child Well-Being by Promoting Marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acs, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort Mother-Child files to explore the idea that child well-being can be improved by encouraging and enhancing parental marriage. I consider how children's living arrangements, the stability of parental marriages, and changes in living arrangements are related to…

  9. Marriage Counseling and the TFA Model: An Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul L.; MohdZain, A. Zaidy

    2000-01-01

    Client demands for immediate relief plus restrictions on the duration of therapy brought about by managed care are pressures that influence the marriage counselor. This article discusses the use of the TFA model as a viable, solution-focused approach to marriage counseling. (Contains 19 references.) (Author)

  10. Polygynous Muslim Marriages in South Africa: Their Potential Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines whether there is any relationship between the institution of polygynous marriages in Islam and the incidence or spread of the disease. It is suggested that, while polygyny may be a contributing factor, it is not the institution of marriage per se that relates to the disease (although the prospect of greater ...

  11. Expressed Attitudes of Adolescents toward Marriage and Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paige D.; Specter, Gerald; Martin, Don; Martin, Maggie

    2003-01-01

    Study examined attitudes of adolescents toward aspects of marriage and family life. The majority expressed negative attitudes toward divorce and viewed marriage as a lifelong commitment. While about one third expressed positive attitudes toward premarital sex, a majority indicated they would engage or had engaged in sex. The adolescents…

  12. The Impact of Illness on Late-Life Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colleen Leahy

    1985-01-01

    Examined 76 late-life marriages in which one spouse was recuperating from a hospital stay. High satisfaction was found in most marriages, with spouses providing much support. Socioeconomic status, gender of caregiver, and level of disability of spouse had minimal impact on marital quality or social support potentials. (NRB)

  13. Uganda: early marriage as a form of sexual violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Gottschalk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is mounting that early marriage is a form of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV with detrimental physical, social and economic effects. Policymakers need to focus on the complex interactions between education, early marriage and sexual violence.

  14. Marriage, Sexuality and Moral Responsibility among the Tongu Mafi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-21

    Mar 21, 2016 ... Godson Ahortor. Lecturer, Department for the Study of Religions,. University of Ghana, Legon. Abstract. Marriage is considered a very important institution in traditional societies in Africa. It has moral and ..... marriage rites can be traced to the attitude of the male spouse at the beginning of his union with the ...

  15. Traditional marriage (igba Nkwu) in Ichida Town, Anambra State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    2012-07-01

    Jul 1, 2012 ... woman. Nwoye (1991:28) in Otite states that “before a marriage can be assumed to have occurred the parent of the spouses will give their consent and the bride price will be paid as well”. Marriage can ..... relationship between music and dance as expressed in the dramatic dance steps of the dancers and ...

  16. Early Marriage in Africa – Trends, Harmful Effects and Interventions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan region as an area with the highest rates of early marriage in the world. The harmful effects of early marriage are explored in terms of impact on the health, education and economic well-being of young girls. The paper outlines a ...

  17. On the timing of marriage, cattle and weather shocks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, H.; van der Klaauw, B.; van Lomwel, A.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the timing of marriage as an alternative institution for insurance against the loss of livestock. An unmarried daughter thus represents access to livestock, and her marriage may be considered an asset that can be cashed in during times of adversity. Because of bride wealth

  18. Gender Revolution Prospects in Nigeria: Implications for Marriage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GR status increases across Nigeria, delayed marriage is likely to soar and sustainable fertility decline achieved. .... TIMING AND FERTILITY. Gender Revolution Interaction with Marriage Timing and Fertility ...... with time a negligible proportion of females began to take advantage of formal education and subsequently ...

  19. On the Timing of Marriage, Cattle and Weather Shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Hans; Klaauw, van der Bas; Lomwel, van Gijsbert

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the timing of marriages of women, whose marriages are associated with bride wealth payments, which are transfers from (the family of) the groom to the bride's family. Unmarried daughters could therefore be considered assets who, at times of need, can be cashed in. We

  20. child bride and child sex: combating child marriages in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    There are preventive pre-marriage measures to protect children threatened with forced marriages. An application may be made for an Emergency Protection Order. (EPO). Where the EPO is granted, but the parents are the threat to the child, the court could be asked for a presumption of non-contract for the duration of EPO to ...

  1. On the timing of marriage, cattle and weather shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, H.; van der Klaauw, B.; van Lomwel, A.G.C.

    1970-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the timing of marriages of women, whose marriages are associated with bride wealth payments, which are transfers from (the family of) the groom to the bride's family. Unmarried daughters could therefore be considered assets who, at times of need, can be cashed in. We

  2. Child marriage and maternal health risks among young mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ers, religious leaders, market women and traditional health workers. They were selected across the selected villages) in the study area. The exercise covered areas like: issues of child marriage, factors influencing child marriage, girl child education, sexual rights and choices in the commu- nity, and common maternal health ...

  3. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  4. Survival Analysis of Timing of First Marriage among Women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early marriage is common among women in developing countries. Age at first marriage (AFM) has health implication on women and their under-five children. In Nigeria, few studies have explored AFM; the current study was designed to fill the gap. Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey, 2008 dataset on married women ...

  5. Why the Marriage Squeeze Cannot Cause Dowry Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    It has been argued that rising dowry payments are caused by population growth.According to that explanation, termed the `marriage squeeze', a population increase leads to an excess supply of brides since men marry younger women.As a result, dowry payments rise in order to clear the marriage

  6. Determinants and effect of girl child marriage: a cross sectional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child marriage is a major problem contributing to maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. It has effect on both social and health of not only the girl child but the children born to these young mothers. Aim: This study aimed at assessing the determinants of early marriage among secondary school girls in ...

  7. A sculptural representation of 'traditional' marriage (Igba Nkwu) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempts to recreate the important values of Ichida traditional marriage rites in visual form. These rites where replicated by using various forms and types of metal scraps. The choice of metal media is based on its rate of permanency. By reflecting on the past, this study brings the traditional marriage of Ichida back ...

  8. 24 on Same-Sex Marriage for the Contemporary Society

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined biblical marriage from the perspective of Genesis 2:18. The text established the divine institution and order for marriage which is simply expressed in a man and woman union. Other implications of this sacred union were glaringly elucidated through the hermeneutical study and literary analysis of some ...

  9. Marriage and Child Wellbeing Revisited: Introducing the Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLanahan, Sara; Sawhill, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Marriage is on the decline. Men and women of the youngest generation are either marrying in their late twenties or not marrying at all. Childbearing has also been postponed, but not as much as marriage. The result is that a growing proportion of children are born to unmarried parents--roughly 40 percent in recent years, and over 50 percent for…

  10. Survival analysis of timing of first marriage among women of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    life. However, the practice of early marriage may not permit such celebration. The imposition of a marriage partner upon a female child means that her childhood is cut short and her fundamental rights are compromised. While much of the impact remains hidden, it is absolutely clear that millions young girls suffer negative ...

  11. UN legal advisers meet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    Legal Advisers from twelve international organizations belonging to the United Nations Organization's family met at the Agency's Headquarters in Vienna on 19 and 20 May to discuss legal problems of common administrative interest. The meeting was held on the initiative of the Agency while the UN Conference on the Law of Treaties was taking place in Vienna during April and May. With Mr. Constantin A. Stavropoulos, Under-Secretary, Legal Counsel of the United Nations, as chairman, this was the second meeting of Legal Advisers since 1954. The following organizations were represented: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Labour Organisation, Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization, International Monetary Fund, International Telecommunication Union, United Nations, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, United Nations Industrial Development Organization, World Health Organization. Topics discussed included the recruitment of legal staff and possible exchange of staff between organizations; competence and procedure of internal appeals committees, experience with cases before the Administrative Tribunals and evaluation of their judgments; experience with Staff Credit Unions; privileges and immunities of international organizations; headquarters and host government agreements; and patent policies of international organizations. Consultations will continue through correspondence and further meetings. (author)

  12. Education, Labor Markets, and the Retreat from Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harknett, Kristen; Kuperberg, Arielle

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study and Current Population Surveys, we find that labor market conditions play a large role in explaining the positive relationship between educational attainment and marriage. Our results suggest that if low-educated parents faced the same (stronger) labor market conditions as their more-educated counterparts, then differences in marriage by education would narrow considerably. Better labor markets are positively related to marriage for fathers at all educational levels. In contrast, better labor markets are positively related to marriage for less-educated mothers but not their more-educated counterparts. We discuss the implications of our findings for theories about women’s earning power and marriage, the current economic recession, and future studies of differences in family structure across education groups. PMID:23152645

  13. Consanguineous marriage and its relevance to obstetric practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline M

    2002-08-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, consanguineous marriage is practiced widely in many parts of the world. More than 2 billion people, of various religious and ethnic backgrounds, live in countries where a large proportion of marriages are contracted between blood relatives. The practice is seen as promoting family stability and having significant social and economic advantages. Consanguineous marriage is important genetically-the children of consanguineous unions are more often homozygous for particular alleles than are the offspring of unrelated parents, and therefore, autosomal recessive disorders, which may be lethal or debilitating, are more common in such children. Health-care providers working with communities where consanguineous marriage is common, in particular obstetricians, family physicians, and pediatricians, need to be aware of the possible impact of such marriages on pregnancy outcomes, so the best possible genetic and antenatal care can be provided, sympathetically and nonjudgmentally, and the best possible results obtained.

  14. Legal briefing: Informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Thaddeus Mason

    2010-01-01

    This issue's "Legal Briefing" column covers legal developments pertaining to informed consent. Not only has this topic been the subject of recent articles in this journal, but it also been the subject of numerous public and professional discussions over the past several months. Legal developments concerning informed consent can be usefully grouped into nine categories: 1. General disclosure standards in the clinical context; 2. Shared decision making; 3. Staturorily mandated abortion disclosures; 4. Staturorily mandated end-of-life counseling; 5. Other staturorily mandated subject-specific disclosures; 6. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling and federal pre-emption of state informed consent law; 7. Relaxed informed consent for HIV testing; 8. General disclosure standards in the research context; 9. Issues on the horizon.

  15. Legal issues related to adolescent pregnancy: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1986-09-01

    Adolescent pregnancies have risen in recent years. Options open to the pregnant adolescent are: terminating the pregnancy; giving birth to the child out of wedlock; keeping the baby; giving the baby up for adoption; and marriage before or after the birth of the baby. Each of these options carries certain legal ramifications, since the adolescent patients have not reached the age of majority. The state or the parents usually assume the role of decision making on behalf of the adolescent or assist in the decision making process. Court rulings since the early seventies have legalized abortion and enlarged the rights of minors seeking termination of their pregnancies. Both parents and minors have rights under the certain state laws; parent have the right to notification, minors have the right to privacy. Keeping the child, out of wedlock, might result in legal battles over custody and/or establishing financial support from the father. Some adolescent mothers give up their children for adoption. There are 2 legal procedures that have to be accomplished before a child can be adopted: termination of the rights of the natural parents and adoption proceedings. If the parents marry after the birth of the child, the child is then considered legitimate and the father does not have to go through the process of adopting the child. Other issues requiring parental or individual consent include consent to treatment, contraception, or sterilization. In the case of forcible rape or incest, the physician is required to report incidents to law enforcement officials.

  16. [Like Moses' staff: pathological inheritance as an argument for medical vigilance of consanguine marriage in Mexico, 1870-1900].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Fabricio González

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the discussions in the field of legal medicine in Mexico about the prudence of regulations concerning intermarriage that were decreed in the civil codes for the Federal District of 1871 and 1884. It shows that the heated debate forced the authors of the regulations to struggle for the need for medical vigilance of marriages between relatives, as a preventive measure sustained in a nihilistic vision of the pathological inheritance. The paper concludes by proposing a philosophical analysis that abandons the old fields of the "external" and the "internal".

  17. Marriage in Islam by Begum Habibullah (1883-1975).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, K A

    1997-01-01

    This article identifies some of India's key legislative acts, reform measures, and Islamic laws on marriage in India and reports a speech in support of the Sarda Act that was passed in 1929. The speech was delivered by Begum Habibullah at the annual meeting of the Oudh Women's Social and Educational Conference. She was married to a landed family, and her husband was educated in England and a member of the civil service. She founded a school for Muslim girls and was elected in 1937 to the provincial legislative assembly. Social reforms were promulgated during 1920-47 among the legislatures of India. Many reforms changed Hindu laws, and some targeted women of all communities. Many reforms addressed child marriage and women's rights with regard to marriage, divorce, and inheritance. The impact of these reforms manifested itself in the stimulation of discussion of gender issues. The Age of Consent Committee in 1928 included mostly Indians and two women. The Committee collected evidence across the country of the prevalence and effects of child marriage. The Committee report concluded that child marriage in India affected about 40% of girls. Child marriage at ages under 15 years was most prevalent in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa states, followed by the Central provinces and Berar and Bombay. Child marriage was more prevalent among Hindus than Muslims. Liberals tended to oppose child marriage, while religious Hindus and Muslims and conservatives tended to oppose restrictions to child marriage. The bill to regulate marriage age was introduced in 1929. The Sarda Act made it illegal to marry under the age of 14 years for girls and 18 years for boys. The Act was supported by women's groups. Begum's views were indicative of views of the time regarding the concern for women. She stressed the Act's complementarity to Islamic law.

  18. Discrimination of legal entities: Phenomenological characteristics and legal protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić Nevena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Their social nature encourages people to associate and jointly achieve the goals that they would not be able to achieve individually. Legal entities are created as one of the legal modalities of that association, as separate entities that have their own legal personality independent of the subjectivity of their members. Legal entities are holders of some human rights, depending on the nature of the right, including the right to non-discrimination. All mechanisms envisaged for legal protection against discrimination in the national legislation are available to legal persons. On the other hand, the situation is quite different in terms of access to international forums competent to deal with cases of discrimination. Legal entities do not have access to some international forums, while they may have access to others under the same conditions prescribed for natural persons. Legal entities may be exposed to various forms of direct and indirect discrimination both in the private and in the public sphere of social relations. Phenomenological characteristics of discrimination against legal persons are not substantially different from discrimination against individuals. There are no significant differences regarding the application of discrimination test in cases of discrimination of legal entities as compared to the use of this test in cases involving discrimination of natural persons or groups of persons. Legal entities may be discriminated against on the basis of characteristics of their legal personality, such as those which are objective elements of the legal entity and part of its legal identity. Discrimination of legal entities may be based on personal characteristics of its members (i.e. people who make a personal essence of a legal entity because their characteristics can be 'transferred' to the legal entity and become part of its identity. Legal entities should also be protected from this special form of transferred (associative discrimination.

  19. Marriage as a training ground: Examining change in self-control and forgiveness over the first four years of marriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, T.M.; Buyukcan-Tetik, A.; Iliás, M.; Finkenauer, C.

    2018-01-01

    Do partners’ levels of self-control and forgiveness change over the course of marriage? Based on the idea that marriage may function as a training ground for these vital relationship abilities, we hypothesized that people increase their levels of self-control and forgiveness over time and that these

  20. Euthanasia: Some Legal Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koza, Pamela

    1976-01-01

    Several sections of the Criminal Code of Canada which are relevant to the issue of euthanasia are discussed. In addition, the value placed on the sanctity of life by the law, the failure to recognize motive in cases of euthanasia, and disparate legal and medical definitions of death are also considered. (Author)

  1. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  2. A Legal Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    The 21st century has brought many technological, social, and economic changes--nearly all of which have affected schools and the students, administrators, and faculty members who are in them. Luckily, as some things change, other things remain the same. Such is true with the fundamental legal principles that guide school administrators' actions…

  3. Legal Liabilities of Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Julie

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" discusses the implications of several court cases for legal issues affecting the role of the school business official. The issues addressed include civil rights, negligence, contracts, criminal liability, tuition and fees, and student records. The chapter opens with a brief overview of…

  4. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  5. Roundtable: Legal Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…

  6. Minimally legally invasive dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, R

    2014-12-01

    One disadvantage of the rapid advances in modern dentistry is that treatment options have never been more varied or confusing. Compounded by a more educated population greatly assisted by online information in an increasingly litigious society, a major concern in recent times is increased litigation against health practitioners. The manner in which courts handle disputes is ambiguous and what is considered fair or just may not be reflected in the judicial process. Although legal decisions in Australia follow a doctrine of precedent, the law is not static and is often reflected by community sentiment. In medical litigation, this has seen the rejection of the Bolam principle with a preference towards greater patient rights. Recent court decisions may change the practice of dentistry and it is important that the clinician is not caught unaware. The aim of this article is to discuss legal issues that are pertinent to the practice of modern dentistry through an analysis of legal cases that have shaped health law. Through these discussions, the importance of continuing professional development, professional association and informed consent will be realized as a means to limit the legal complications of dental practice. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  7. Levirate marriage amongst the Hebrews and widow's inheritance amongst the Yoruba: A comparative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson O. Olanisebe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In ancient Israel, even though widowhood was not something people were praying for, when it came, the people involved were protected by the legal and customary structures already in place. One of those structures in the Old Testament is the institution of the levirate marriage where the right and the possession due to a widow without a son for her late husband could be protected and appropriated. A similar custom was also found amongst the pre-colonial Yoruba people through the widow�s inheritance which guarantees the welfare of the widow after the demise of her husband. However, these structures have been dismantled by Christianity, thereby exposing the majority of present-day widows to untold hardship. This article, therefore, through historical, descriptive and comparative methods, examines the customs of the levirate marriage and widow�s inheritance in the two cultures, ascertains how effective they were in addressing the welfare and protection of the rights and privileges of widows and recommends how the church can better see to the welfare of the widows in the society.

  8. PENGENDALIAN PERKAWINAN DINI (CHILD MARRIAGE MELALUI PENGEMBANGAN MODUL PENDIDIKAN PENYADARAN HUKUM : STUDI KASUS PADA MASYARAKAT SUBKULTUR MADURA DI DAERAH TAPAL KUDA, JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hanafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mencoba untuk mengembangkan modul pendidikan berorientasi pengakuan hukum untuk menghindari praktik pernikahan anak di bawah umur, terutama di Madura Sub-Budaya Masyarakat di daerah tapal kuda. Hasilnya adalah modul pendidikan yang terdiri atas tiga paket. Paket I berisi istilah perkawinan dan anak-anak di bawah usia sahnya dalam perspektif hukum Islam, hukum nasional dan hak asasi manusia internasional. Paket II resiko dan bahaya pernikahan anak di bawah umur, baik fisik, psikologis, medis dan seksual. Paket III berisi rencana kebijakan dan rencana aksi untuk pencegahan praktik pernikahan anak di bawah umur yang dirancang secara sinergis di segala bidang, baik hukum, politik, pendidikan, agama dan sosial-ekonomi. Bahan Modul dikembangkan berdasarkan pendekatan kompetensi. Seperti biasa bahan berbasis kompetensi, maka modul adalah hasil dari perkembangan ini akan terdiri dari: standar kompetensi, kompetensi dasar, indikator, tema, strategi, media, penilaian, dan alokasi waktu ABSTRACT This research tried to develop educational module orientated in law recognition to avoid the practice of child marriage under age, especially in Madura Sub-Culture Community in Horseshoe Area. The result is an educational module which consist three packages. Package I contains the terms marriage and children under the age of legality in the perspective of Islamic jurisprudence, national laws and international human rights. Package II risks and dangers of the marriage of child marriage under age, whether physical, psychological, medical and sexual. Package III contains policy plan and action plan for the prevention of child marriage practices designed underage synergistically in all fields, whether legal, political, educational, religious and socio-economic. The materials module was developed based on the competency approach. As usual competency-based material, then the module is the result of this development will consist of: competency standards

  9. Five Models of Legal Science

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Vaquero, Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper pursues three goals. First, some traditional concepts of ‘legal science’ will be analysed, and a definition of ‘legal science ampio sensu’, ‘legal science stricto sensu’ and ‘legal dogmatics’ will be proposed. Second, a reconstruction of five models of ‘legal science ampio sensu’ will be presented to show the different methodological alternatives available to legal scholars. Third, I claim that it is necessary (for conceptual reasons) to argue for moral reasons when choosing a lega...

  10. The role of legal translation in legal harmonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaij, C.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Papers gepresenteerd op de conferentie, 'The Role of Legal Translation in Legal Harmonization', georganiseerd in Amsterdam op 21 januari 2011, door The Amsterdam Circle for Law & Language (ACLL) en the Centre for the Study of European Contract Law (CSECL).

  11. Effect of shift in marriage age on number of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, P; Srivastava, O P

    1989-06-01

    As a result of sociocultural factors, including increased access on the part of females to education and urbanization, the average age at marriage is steadily increasing among females in India. In fact, the Government of India is attempting to limit the age at marriage to age 18 years and above. Since age at marriage is an important determinant of completed family size, there is a need for models that can take account of this trend toward a reduction in the number of years Indian women spend in a married state. The model presented in this paper derives the distribution of the time interval from marriage to nth conception and is based on the assumptions of constant fertility until menopause and nonuse of contraception. To illustrate the effect of a shift in marriage age, data from the village of Haryana were used. The average rest period associated with each live birth was assumed to be 1.365 years and the length of the fertile period 45 years. In this data set, the average age at marriage was 15.33 years, which produces a completed family size of 11 children according to the model. However, if the marriage age is shifted to 20 years, the model produces an estimate of only 7 births.

  12. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J.; Miller, E.; Jin, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Alonso, J.; Andrade, L. H.; Bromet, E. J.; de Girolamo, G.; Demyttenaere, K.; Fayyad, J.; Fukao, A.; Gălăon, M.; Gureje, O.; He, Y.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Matschinger, H.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Scott, K. M.; Kessler, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Method Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46 128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30 729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Results Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. Conclusion This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. PMID:21534936

  13. Estimating a marriage matching model with spillover effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Eugene; Siow, Aloysius

    2006-08-01

    We use marriage matching functions to study how marital patterns change when population supplies change. Specifically, we use a behavioral marriage matching function with spillover effects to rationalize marriage and cohabitation behavior in contemporary Canada. The model can estimate a couple's systematic gains to marriage and cohabitation relative to remaining single. These gains are invariant to changes in population supplies. Instead, changes in population supplies redistribute these gains between a couple. Although the model is behavioral, it is nonparametric. It can fit any observed cross-sectional marriage matching distribution. We use the estimated model to quantify the impacts of gender differences in mortality rates and the baby boom on observed marital behavior in Canada. The higher mortality rate of men makes men scarcer than women. We show that the scarceness of men modestly reduced the welfare of women and increased the welfare of men in the marriage market. On the other hand, the baby boom increased older men's net gains to entering the marriage market and lowered middle-aged women's net gains.

  14. A multinational study of mental disorders, marriage, and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J; Miller, E; Jin, R; Sampson, N A; Alonso, J; Andrade, L H; Bromet, E J; de Girolamo, G; Demyttenaere, K; Fayyad, J; Fukao, A; Gălăon, M; Gureje, O; He, Y; Hinkov, H R; Hu, C; Kovess-Masfety, V; Matschinger, H; Medina-Mora, M E; Ormel, J; Posada-Villa, J; Sagar, R; Scott, K M; Kessler, R C

    2011-12-01

    Estimate predictive associations of mental disorders with marriage and divorce in a cross-national sample. Population surveys of mental disorders included assessment of age at first marriage in 19 countries (n = 46,128) and age at first divorce in a subset of 12 countries (n = 30,729). Associations between mental disorders and subsequent marriage and divorce were estimated in discrete time survival models. Fourteen of 18 premarital mental disorders are associated with lower likelihood of ever marrying (odds ratios ranging from 0.6 to 0.9), but these associations vary across ages of marriage. Associations between premarital mental disorders and marriage are generally null for early marriage (age 17 or younger), but negative associations come to predominate at later ages. All 18 mental disorders are positively associated with divorce (odds ratios ranging from 1.2 to 1.8). Three disorders, specific phobia, major depression, and alcohol abuse, are associated with the largest population attributable risk proportions for both marriage and divorce. This evidence adds to research demonstrating adverse effects of mental disorders on life course altering events across a diverse range of socioeconomic and cultural settings. These effects should be included in considerations of public health investments in preventing and treating mental disorders. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. INTERETHNIC MARRIAGES IN UDMURT ASSR IN 1930S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Николаевич Уваров

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the statistic analysis of interethnic marriages in the Udmurt ASSR in the 1930s. The author considers the marriages of the largest nations of the republic and the share of the interethnic marriages. There were analyzed marriages among Russians, Udmurts and Tatars living in the cities and rural areas of the Udmurt ASSR. As for Mari and Chuvash, the information is sketchy, so it is hard to make any conclusions on inter-ethnic marriages among them. The situation with interethnic marriages in the 1930s is compared with that in the previous decade. The conclusion is that while in the 1920s the process of assimilation in the republic was not very active, by the end of the 1930s the situation had changed, as evidenced by the frequent interethnic marriages. The variants of combinations of nationalities show that the most active assimilation processes followed the line of the «Udmurt man - Russian woman». The article is written on the basis of previously unpublished materials.

  16. Is marriage loosing its centrality in Italy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the countries of north-western Europe, marriage in Italy has maintained a crucial role in the process of family formation. This raise doubts about the possibility that the theory of "second demographic transition" could adequately account for the behaviour of the European population living south of the Alps. The aim of this paper is twofold: to provide some empirical evidence that cohabitation is now spreading in Italy; and to propose an explanation of the delay of its diffusion until the 1990s. The hypothesis proposed here explains the delay, not so much in terms of limited interest of the Italian youth towards this type of union, but with the convenience of the children in the Mediterranean area to avoid choices which are openly clashing with the values of parents.

  17. Early Marriage: a Policy for Infertility Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karimzadeh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Female fertility begins to decline many years prior to the onset of menopause despite continued regular ovulatory cycles. Age related infertility is due to oocyte abnormalities and decreased ovarian reserve. Treatment of infertility when the cause is limited to decreased ovarian reserve is empirical at present except for oocyte donation. This mini review of the literature covers all available English biomedical journals that have been published from 1995 to 2008. The search based on combination of the words age, fertility, infertility, and oocyte abnormalities. The important findings from this search strategy are summarized and presented in the sub headings including female age and fertility, miscarriage and in vitro fertilization. Regarding infertility prevention, this mini review suggested that early marriage is a primordial, effective, inexpensive and easy way to prevent infertility.

  18. The influence of psychotherapy on marriage typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staniszewski Mirosław

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the influence of psychotherapeutic group work on matrimonial relations. Such questions are put up in the research as if participating of one of the married couples in a group psychotherapy could indirectly influence the other partner, and also if the type of matrimony could change under the influence of psychotherapy, for example from hierarchical to the partner’s. The article generalizes the classification of marriage types and pays special attention on the types that can be subject to the positive changes as a result of psychotherapeutic influence. Actuality and value of this research lay in estimation of the ability of psychotherapy to influence the matrimony on the whole in case when only one of the partners takes part in the therapy.

  19. MARRIAGE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG YOUNG ADULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uecker, Jeremy E.

    2012-01-01

    Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171

  20. Debt, cohabitation, and marriage in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Fenaba R

    2014-10-01

    Despite growing evidence that debt influences pivotal life events in early and young adulthood, the role of debt in the familial lives of young adults has received relatively little attention. Using data from the NLSY 1997 cohort (N = 6,749) and a discrete-time competing risks hazard model framework, I test whether the transition to first union is influenced by a young adult's credit card and education loan debt above and beyond traditional educational and labor market characteristics. I find that credit card debt is positively associated with cohabitation for men and women, and that women with education loan debt are more likely than women without such debt to delay marriage and transition into cohabitation. Single life may be difficult to afford, but marital life is un-affordable as well. Cohabitation presents an alternative to single life, but not necessarily a marital substitute for these young adults.

  1. The demographic cost of early marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The IPPF Biomedical Workshop held in London in November 1977, heard 16 speakers present papers on widely varied aspects of the problem of pregnancy during adolescence. These expert studies found that over the world teenagers face greater risks from pregnancy and the infants greater risks from low birth weight and birth defects. Moslem countries show particularly high rates of teenage marriage, ranging from 31% in Egypt to 73% in Pakistan. Religious beliefs and economic incentives, particularly gifts to the family of the bride, play a part. Demography also increases adolescent marriage. In Iran the sex ratio in 1970 was 100 women to every 109 men, which meant a nationwide shortage of 2 million women. As soon as a girl reaches puberty she is sought as a bride. In the U.S. in 1975 girls aged 15-19 experienced 1 million pregnancies, most of them unintended. This means 1 in 10 adolescents and 1 in 4 sexually active teenagers conceived. 11% of babies born to 15-17 year olds had low birth weight as did 9% of those born to women aged 17-19. These young mothers also had higher rates of toxemia, neonatal deaths, and maternal mortality than women in the optimal childbearing age bracket of 20-30. The social problems encountered, including lack of schooling, few job opportunities, and low income prospects, also hamper both mother and child. The problem in the U.S. seems to be acceptance and concern over the pregnancy rate but a refusal to face the sexual activity which leads to it. Sex education at younger ages is recommended.

  2. BIGAMOUS MARRIAGE AND THE DIVISION OF COMMON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    milkii

    17 CRM Dlamini, Should We Legalise or Abolish Polygamy? Comparative & International .... failure to expressly prohibit bigamy as a “discrimination against women and violation of their right to dignity.”28 ... 24, cited in Amy Fry, Polygamy in America: How the Varying Legal Standards Fail. To Protect Mothers and Children ...

  3. The uneasy marriage between Law and Equality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, Pauline C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be

  4. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even though...

  5. The Timing of Cohabitation and Engagement: Impact on First and Second Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Scott M.; Rhoades, Galena K.; Amato, Paul R.; Markman, Howard J.; Johnson, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a multistate sample of marriages that took place in the 1990s, this study examined associations between premarital cohabitation history and marital quality in first (N = 437) and second marriages (N = 200) and marital instability in first marriages (intact N = 521, divorced N = 124). For first marriages, cohabiting with the spouse without…

  6. Why Wait? The Effect of Marriage and Childbearing on the Wages of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughran, David S.; Zissimopoulos, Julie M.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the earlier and later cohorts of the NLSY to estimate the effect of marriage and childbearing on wages. Our estimates imply that marriage lowers female wages 2-4 percent in the year of marriage. Marriage also lowers the wage growth of men and women by about two and four percentage points, respectively. A first birth lowers female…

  7. SAME-SEX MARRIAGE IN SOUTH AFRICA: THE ROAD AHEAD JA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    6 Sinclair and Heaton Law of Marriage 305. Empirically speaking a great variety of forms of marriage or marriage-like structures can be discerned. The way in which marriage is conceptualised (eg as a monogamous or polygamous union) and how it has been regulated has varied greatly with time and culture (with the ...

  8. 20 CFR 404.725 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 404... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.725 Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. (a) General. A valid ceremonial marriage is one that follows procedures set by law in...

  9. 20 CFR 219.34 - When evidence that a marriage has ended is required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When evidence that a marriage has ended is... a marriage has ended is required. Evidence of how a previous marriage ended may be required to determine whether a later marriage is valid. If a widow or widower remarried after the employee's death and...

  10. 20 CFR 219.31 - Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a valid ceremonial marriage. 219... marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a ceremonial marriage is— (1) A copy of the public record of the marriage, certified by the custodian of the record or by a Board employee; (2) A copy of a...

  11. 20 CFR 219.33 - Evidence of a deemed valid marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. 219.33... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Relationship § 219.33 Evidence of a deemed valid marriage. (a) Preferred evidence. Preferred evidence of a deemed valid marriage is— (1) Evidence of a ceremonial marriage...

  12. Third Wave Feminism's Unhappy Marriage of Poststructuralism and Intersectionality Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Archer Mann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article first traces the history of unhappy marriages of disparate theoretical perspectives in US feminism. In recent decades, US third-wave authors have arranged their own unhappy marriage in that their major publications reflect an attempt to wed poststructuralism with intersectionality theory. Although the standpoint epistemology of intersectionality theory shares some common ground with the epistemology of poststructuralism, their epistemological assumptions conflict on a number of important dimensions. This contested terrain has generated serious debates within the third wave and between second- and thirdwave feminists. The form, content, and political implications of their "unhappy marriage" are the subject of this article.

  13. New Findings on Child Marriage in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Suzanne; Steinhaus, Mara; Fenn, Natacha Stevanovic; Stoebenau, Kirsten; Gregowski, Amy

    Despite increasing global attention and commitments by countries to end the harmful practice of child marriage, each year some 15 million girls marry before the age of 18. The preponderance of the evidence produced historically on child marriage comes from South Asia, where the vast majority of child brides live. Far less attention has been paid to child marriage in sub-Saharan Africa, where prevalence rates remain high. The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) recently conducted research in Kenya, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia to contribute to greater understanding of the drivers of child marriage in each of these contexts. Synthesizing findings from 4 diverse countries provides a useful opportunity to identify similarities and differences, as well as understandings that may be applicable to and helpful for preventing child marriage across these and other settings. Across the 4 countries, ICRW's research echoes the existing literature base in affirming that child marriage is rooted in inequitable gender norms that prioritize women's roles as wives, mothers, and household caretakers, resulting in inadequate investments by families in girls' education. These discriminatory norms interact closely with poverty and a lack of employment opportunities for girls and young women to perpetuate marriage as a seemingly viable alternative for girls. We found in the African study sites that sexual relations, unplanned pregnancy, and school dropout often precede child marriage, which differs from much of the existing evidence on child marriage from South Asia. Further, unlike in South Asia, where family members typically determine the spouse a girl will marry, most girls in the Africa study settings have greater autonomy in partner choice selection. In Senegal, increasing educational attainment and labor migration, particularly by young women, has contributed to reduced rates of child marriage for girls. Our findings suggest that improving gender equitable norms and

  14. Shotgun weddings: trends in the sociopathology of marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, J

    1977-12-01

    The study was concerned with secular trends in forced marriages in N.S.W. The definition of forced marriage was first nuptial birth occurring within six months of the wedding. The typical demographic profile of such marriages portends a "risk" of marital breakdown and child abuse. Formal analysis of the time series showed upward trends in the proportions of brides "at risk" in the 16-17 age groups, and in the proportions of children "at risk" born to brides in the 16 to 22 age range. The findings were discussed critically, and some prophylactic and remedial social measures suggested.

  15. Partner Search and Demographics: The Marriage Squeeze in India

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Sautmann

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. If women marry younger than men, increased population growth causes a surplus of women in the marriage market. This paper introduces search frictions into a matching model with transferable utility and age-dependent match payoffs to study if this so-called marriage squeeze has caused a dowry inflation in India. Using data from Karnataka it is shown that the observed shifts in the age distributions and sex ratio of unmarried men and women during the marriage squeeze lead to higher do...

  16. Understanding the Effects of Marriage and Divorce on Financial Investments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Joensen, Juanna Schröter; Rangvid, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how changes in marital status affect financial investments and how these effects vary with background risk. We use detailed register-based panel data and difference-in-differences estimators to benchmark common unobserved influences on financial investments. Women increase...... is important for financial risk taking and investment responses to marital transitions....... the fraction of wealth invested in stocks after marriage and decrease it after divorce, whereas men show the opposite behavior. Households whose joint labor income risk is reduced more by marriage have a higher increase in their exposure to risky assets in marriage. Thus income risk sharing in the household...

  17. Height, socioeconomic status and marriage in Italy around 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredini, Matteo; Breschi, Marco; Fornasin, Alessio; Seghieri, Chiara

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the role of height in the process of mate selection in two Italian populations at the turn of the twentieth century, Alghero, in the province of Sassari, and Treppo Carnico, in the province of Udine. Based on a linkage between military registers and marriage certificates, this study reveals a negative selection of short men on marriage and a differential effect of tallness by population in the process of mate choice. These findings emerge once SES is taken into account in the risk models of marriage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  19. Calibrating Legal Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Schauer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the notion and essence of legal judgments calibration the possibilities of using it in the lawenforcement activity to explore the expenses and advantages of using it. Methods dialectic approach to the cognition of social phenomena which enables to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the integrity of objective and subjective factors it determined the choice of the following research methods formallegal comparative legal sociological methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy. Results In ordinary life people who assess other peoplersaquos judgments typically take into account the other judgments of those they are assessing in order to calibrate the judgment presently being assessed. The restaurant and hotel rating website TripAdvisor is exemplary because it facilitates calibration by providing access to a raterrsaquos previous ratings. Such information allows a user to see whether a particular rating comes from a rater who is enthusiastic about every place she patronizes or instead from someone who is incessantly hard to please. And even when less systematized as in assessing a letter of recommendation or college transcript calibration by recourse to the decisional history of those whose judgments are being assessed is ubiquitous. Yet despite the ubiquity and utility of such calibration the legal system seems perversely to reject it. Appellate courts do not openly adjust their standard of review based on the previous judgments of the judge whose decision they are reviewing nor do judges in reviewing legislative or administrative decisions magistrates in evaluating search warrant representations or jurors in assessing witness perception. In most legal domains calibration by reference to the prior decisions of the reviewee is invisible either because it does not exist or because reviewing bodies are unwilling to admit using what they in fact know and employ. Scientific novelty for the first

  20. The Legalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badke, Lara K.

    2017-01-01

    A complete discussion of intellectual property (IP), faculty rights, and the public good requires a thorough framing of higher education's legal context, from which the rise of legalistic criteria (or legalization) and current IP regime have grown.